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Most famous Companies from United States of America

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    2

    Southern Poverty Law Center

    The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American nonprofit civil rights organization noted for its legal victories against white supremacist groups; its legal representation for victims of hate groups; its monitoring of alleged hate groups, militias and extremist organizations; and its educational programs that promote tolerance. The SPLC classifies as hate groups organizations that denigrate or assault entire groups of people, typically for attributes that are beyond their control. In 1971, Morris Dees and Joseph J. Levin Jr. founded the SPLC as a civil rights law firm based in Montgomery, Alabama. Civil rights leader Julian Bond soon joined Dees and Levin and served as president of the board between 1971 and 1979. The SPLC's litigating strategy involved filing civil suits for damages on behalf of the victims of hate group harassment, threats, and violence with the goal of financially depleting the responsible groups and individuals. While it originally focused on damages done by the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups, throughout the years the SPLC has become involved in other civil rights causes, among them, cases concerned with institutional racial segregation
    8.20
    5 votes
    3
    Social Democratic Party of America

    Social Democratic Party of America

    The Social Democratic Party of America (SDP) was a short-lived political party in the United States, established in 1898. The group was formed out of elements of the Social Democracy of America (SDA), and was a predecessor to the Socialist Party of America, established in 1901. Following the defeat of the 1894 American Railway Union (ARU) strike, the former populist Eugene V. Debs exhaustively read socialist literature provided to him by Milwaukee publisher Victor L. Berger and other independent Socialists. Debs converted to the Socialist cause, believing in the aftermath of the suppression of the ARU strike by federal troop that trade union action alone was insufficient to bring about the liberation of the working class. In this same summer, smarting from a failed effort at establishing a socialist community near Tennessee City, Tennessee, publisher Julius Wayland established in Kansas City a new socialist weekly newspaper, Appeal to Reason, eventually moving the operation for financial reasons to a small town in southeastern Kansas called Girard. This paper was a major success, quickly gaining a paid subscribership of 80,000 and invigorating the Socialist movement. A new
    5.86
    7 votes
    4

    AFL–CIO

    The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO) is a national trade union center, the largest federation of unions in the United States, made up of fifty-six national and international unions, together representing more than 11 million workers (as of June 2008, the most recent official statistic). It was formed in 1955 when the AFL and the CIO merged after a long estrangement. From 1955 until 2005, the AFL–CIO's member unions represented nearly all unionized workers in the United States. Several large unions split away from AFL–CIO and formed the rival Change to Win Federation in 2005. The largest union currently in the AFL–CIO is the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), with more than a million members. The AFL–CIO is a federation of international labor unions. As a voluntary federation, the AFL–CIO has little authority over the affairs of its member unions except in extremely limited cases (such as the ability to expel a member union for corruption (Art. X, Sec. 17) and enforce resolution of disagreements over jurisdiction or organizing). As of June 2008, the AFL–CIO had 56 member unions. Membership in the
    8.00
    5 votes
    5

    Anti-Masonic Party

    The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was the first "third party" in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry and was founded as a single-issue party aspiring to become a major party. It introduced important innovations to American politics, such as nominating conventions and the adoption of party platforms. The Anti-Masonic Party was formed in upstate New York in 1828. Some people feared the Freemasons, believing they were a powerful secret society that was trying to rule the country in defiance of republican principles. These opponents came together to form a political party after the Morgan affair convinced them the Masons were murdering their opponents. This key episode was the mysterious disappearance, in 1826, of William Morgan (1774-1826?), a Freemason of Batavia, New York, who had become dissatisfied with his lodge and intended to publish a book detailing the secrets of the Freemasons. When his intentions became known to the lodge, an attempt was made to burn down the publishing house. Finally in September 1826 Morgan was arrested on charges of petty larceny. Someone paid his debt and upon his release he was seized by parties and taken
    6.67
    6 votes
    6
    Farmer–Labor Party

    Farmer–Labor Party

    The first modern Farmer–Labor Party in the United States emerged in Minnesota in 1918. Economic dislocation caused by American entry into World War I put agricultural prices and workers' wages into imbalance with rapidly escalating retail prices during the war years, and farmers and workers sought to make common cause in the political sphere to redress their grievances. The other primary contributing stream to the Farmer–Labor movement was the Labor Party movement. An International Association of Machinists strike in Bridgeport developed into a Labor Party in five Connecticut towns in the summer of 1918 and the powerful Chicago Federation of Labor (led by President John Fitzpatrick and Secretary-Treasurer Edward Nockles) adopted the cause of a Labor Party in the fall of that same year. Similar independent Labor Party movements emerged in New York, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Ohio, and North Dakota. These state and local organizations joined together in November 1919 in Chicago to form the Labor Party of the United States. One important gathering that was a precursor to the establishment of a national Farmer–Labor Party was the Cooperative Congress, held in Chicago on February 12,
    7.60
    5 votes
    7

    American Reform Party

    The American Reform Party is a minor political party in the United States that was formed in a factional split from the larger Reform Party of the United States in October 1997. The split occurred when some members of the Reform Party, believing that party founder Ross Perot had rigged the party's 1996 presidential nomination for himself, walked out of the national convention. Then Chairman Roy Downing said the split came about when it was "discovered [the Reform Party] was a top down party instead of a bottoms up organization." Although members of the group attempted to persuade former Colorado Governor Dick Lamm, Perot's chief rival for the nomination, to run for president as an Independent, he declined, pointing out that he had promised before running that he would not challenge the party's decision. Since then, the ARP has yet to organize in more than a few states. In the 2000, 2004, and 2008 elections, the American Reform Party supported Ralph Nader for president. In New York State, the Integrity Party is an American Reform Party affiliate. The group, led by Darren Johnson, used the state's fusion election system in cross-endorsing a Democratic sheriff candidate, Vincent
    9.00
    4 votes
    8

    United Transportation Union

    The United Transportation Union (UTU) is headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio. It is a broad-based, transportation labor union representing about 125,000 active and retired railroad, bus, mass transit, and airline workers in the United States. The UTU is the largest railroad operating union in North America, with more than 600 locals. The UTU represents employees on every Class I railroad, as well as employees on many regional and shortline railroads. It also represents bus and mass transit employees on approximately 45 bus and transit systems and has grown to include airline pilots, flight attendants, dispatchers and other airport personnel. The UTU is very interested in the airline sector and hopes to expand its representation with pilots and flight attendants. The UTU believes it is a viable alternative to other aviation labor unions because the UTU is, and has been, proficient in interpreting and enforcing provisions of the Railroad Labor Act (RLA), under which airlines operate. Membership is drawn primarily from the operating crafts in the railroad industry and includes conductors, brakemen, switchmen, ground service personnel, locomotive engineers, hostlers and workers in
    8.50
    4 votes
    9

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, read I-Triple-E) is a non-profit professional association headquartered in New York City that is dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence. It has more than 400,000 members in more than 160 countries, about 51.4% of whom reside in the United States. The IEEE is incorporated under the Not-for-Profit Corporation Law of the state of New York in the United States. It was formed in 1963 by the merger of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE, founded 1912) and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE, founded 1884). The major interests of the AIEE were wire communications (telegraphy and telephony) and light and power systems. The IRE concerned mostly radio engineering, and was formed from two smaller organizations, the Society of Wireless and Telegraph Engineers and the Wireless Institute. With the rise of electronics in the 1930s, electronics engineers usually became members of the IRE, but the applications of electron tube technology became so extensive that the technical boundaries differentiating the IRE and the AIEE became difficult to distinguish. After World War II, the two organizations
    7.00
    5 votes
    10
    People's Party

    People's Party

    The People's Party, also known as the "Populists", was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement (United States, 19th Century). It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas) and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 the Democrats endorsed their presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan. The terms "populist" and "populism" are commonly used for anti-elitist appeals in opposition to established interests and mainstream parties. A People's Party grew out of agrarian unrest in response to low agricultural prices in the South and the trans-Mississippi West. The Farmers' Alliance, formed in Lampasas, TX in 1876, promoted collective economic action by farmers and achieved widespread popularity in the South and Great Plains. The Farmers' Alliance ultimately did not achieve its wider economic goals of
    7.00
    5 votes
    11
    Jacksonian Democratic Party

    Jacksonian Democratic Party

    Jacksonian democracy is the political movement toward greater democracy for the common man typified by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters. Jackson's policies followed the era of Jeffersonian democracy which dominated the previous political era. The Democratic-Republican Party of the Jeffersonians became factionalized in the 1820s. Jackson's supporters began to form the modern Democratic Party; they fought the rival Adams and Anti-Jacksonian factions, which soon emerged as the Whigs. More broadly, the term refers to the period of the Second Party System (mid-1830s–1854) when the democratic attitude was the spirit of that era. It can be contrasted with the characteristics of Jeffersonian democracy. Jackson's equal political policy became known as "Jacksonian Democracy", subsequent to ending what he termed a "monopoly" of government by elites. Jeffersonians opposed inherited elites but favored educated men while the Jacksonians gave little weight to education. The Whigs were the inheritors of Jeffersonian Democracy in terms of promoting schools and colleges. During the Jacksonian era, the suffrage was extended to (nearly) all white male adult citizens. In contrast
    5.67
    6 votes
    12

    American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

    The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing cruelty towards animals. Based in New York City since its inception in 1866, the organization's mission is "to provide effective means for the prevention of cruelty to animals throughout the United States." Following the creation of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) in the UK in 1824 (given Royal status in 1840), Henry Bergh founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals on April 10, 1866 in New York City. It is the oldest, and first animal welfare organization in the United States. Buffalo's chapter, founded in 1867, is the second oldest. ASPCA was founded to stop the injustices animals face across the United States. On February 8, 1866, Bergh pleaded on behalf of animals at a meeting at Clinton Hall in New York City. Some of the issues that he discussed at this meeting were cockfighting and the horrors of slaughterhouses. After getting many people to sign his "Declaration of the Rights of Animals," Bergh was able to gain an official charter to incorporate ASPCA on April 10, 1866. On April 19, 1866, the
    8.00
    4 votes
    13

    U.S. Marxist–Leninist Organization

    The U.S. Marxist-Leninist Organization or USMLO is an anti-revisionist communist party in the United States. Born out of the MLP-USA's split with the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist–Leninist), USMLO is the current U.S. referent to the CPC(M-L). The group publishes Voice of Revolution. Like the CPC-ML at that time, it was "Hoxhaist" and followed the line of the Albanian Party of Labour.
    7.75
    4 votes
    14
    Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

    Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

    The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) was an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. It was organized by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), to challenge the legitimacy of the white-only US Democratic Party. For generations, African-Americans had endured widespread denial of their voting rights in Mississippi, and participation in the state Democratic Party was limited to whites only. Starting in 1961, SNCC and COFO had waged courageous campaigns against great and often violent opposition to register black voters with little success. In June 1963, African-Americans attempted to cast votes in the Mississippi primary election but were prevented from doing so. Unable to vote in the official election, they organized an alternative "Freedom Ballot" to take place at the same time as the November voting. Seen as a protest action to dramatize denial of their voting rights, close to 80,000 people cast freedom ballots for an integrated slate of candidates. With participation in the regular Mississippi
    6.40
    5 votes
    15

    National Hockey League Players' Association

    The National Hockey League Players' Association or NHLPA is the labor union for the group of professional hockey players who are under Standard Player Contracts to the thirty member clubs in the National Hockey League located in the United States and Canada. The Association represents its membership in all matters dealing with their working conditions and contractual rights as well as serving as their exclusive collective bargaining agent. The first NHLPA was formed in 1957 by hockey players Ted Lindsay of the Detroit Red Wings and Doug Harvey of the Montreal Canadiens after the league had refused to release pension plan financial information. The owners broke the union by trading players involved with the organization or sending them to the minor leagues. After an out-of-court settlement over several players' issues, the players disbanded the organization. Lindsay's struggle and the NHL's union busting efforts are dramatized in the movie, Net Worth. The association formed in June 1967, when representatives of the six NHL teams met and elected Bob Pulford their first president and appointed Alan Eagleson as its executive director. To prevent the new NHLPA from suffering the fate of
    7.50
    4 votes
    17
    Socialist Action

    Socialist Action

    Socialist Action is a Trotskyist political party in the United States. It publishes the monthly Socialist Action newspaper, has a youth affiliate called Youth for Socialist Action (YSA), and is associated with the Fourth International. Socialist Action was founded in 1983 by a group of veteran socialist activists who state that they were expelled from the Socialist Workers Party for defending the ideas of Permanent Revolution, class independence, and continued support for the reunified Fourth International. Socialist Action was the second group, after the Fourth Internationalist Tendency, expelled during the 1983 purge. The first issue of its newspaper contained no listing of an editorial board. The group split in 1985, with those leaving forming Socialist Unity . In 1986 the split merged with Workers Power and the International Socialists to form Solidarity. Those remaining in Socialist Action went on to act as a new Trotskyist party. Socialist Action was soon involved in planning a Central America solidarity conference. Socialist Action has run candidates for elected office on a number of occasions. It views electoral campaigns as a way to promote socialist politics, as well as
    7.25
    4 votes
    18

    Association of American Universities

    The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. It consists of 59 universities in the United States (both public and private) and two universities in Canada. The AAU was founded in 1900 by a group of fourteen Ph.D.-granting universities in the United States to strengthen and standardize American doctoral programs. Today, the primary purpose of the organization is to provide a forum for the development and implementation of institutional and national policies, in order to promote strong programs in academic research and scholarship and undergraduate, graduate, and professional education. The largest attraction of the AAU for many schools, especially nonmembers, is prestige. For example, in 2010 the chancellor of nonmember North Carolina State University described it as "the pre-eminent research-intensive membership group. To be a part of that organization is something N.C. State aspires to." A spokesman for nonmember University of Connecticut called it "perhaps the most elite organization in higher education. You'd probably be hard-pressed to find a major
    8.67
    3 votes
    19

    Screen Actors Guild

    The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) was an American labor union representing over 105,000 film and television principal and background performers worldwide. On March 30, 2012, the union leadership announced that the SAG membership voted to merge with AFTRA. The new union will be called SAG-AFTRA and will have more than 150,000 members. According to SAG's Mission Statement, the Guild seeks to: negotiate and enforce collective bargaining agreements that establish equitable levels of compensation, benefits, and working conditions for its performers; collect compensation for exploitation of recorded performances by its members, and provide protection against unauthorized use of those performances; and preserve and expand work opportunities for its members. The Guild was founded in 1933 in an effort to eliminate exploitation of actors in Hollywood who were being forced into oppressive multi-year contracts with the major movie studios that did not include restrictions on work hours or minimum rest periods, and often had clauses that automatically renewed at the studios' discretion. These contracts were notorious for allowing the studios to dictate the public and private lives of the performers
    8.67
    3 votes
    20

    ASHRAE

    ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers), founded in 1894, is a building technology society with more than 50,000 members worldwide. The Society and its members focus on building systems, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, refrigeration and sustainability within the industry. Through research, standards writing, publishing and continuing education, ASHRAE shapes tomorrow’s built environment today. The ASHRAE Handbook is a four-volume resource for HVAC technology and is available in both print and electronic versions. The volumes are Fundamentals, HVAC Applications, HVAC Systems and Equipment, and Refrigeration. One of the four volumes is updated each year. ASHRAE also publishes a well recognized series of standards and guidelines relating to HVAC systems and issues. These standards are often referenced in building codes, and are considered useful standards for use by consulting engineers, mechanical contractors, architects, and government agencies. These are legally unenforceable, but commonly accepted standards for architects and engineers. Examples of some ASHRAE Standards are: These, and many other ASHRAE Standards, are
    7.00
    4 votes
    21

    New Alliance Party

    The New Alliance Party (NAP) was an American political party formed in New York City in 1979. Its immediate precursor was an umbrella organization known as the Labor Community Alliance for Change, whose member groups included the coalition of Grass Roots Women and the New York City Unemployed and Welfare Council. All of these groups were associated with controversial psychologist and political activist Fred Newman, whose radical health care collective Centers for Change and Marxist International Workers Party were active in grassroots politics in New York City. The NAP's first chairperson was then-South Bronx City Councilman Gilberto Gerena-Valentin, a veteran Puerto Rican political activist. . The party is notable for getting African American psychologist Lenora Fulani on the ballot in all 50 states during her first Presidential campaign in 1988, making her both the first African-American and woman to do so. From 1974 to 1979, Newman had acquired some experience in politics in managing the International Workers Party. The New Alliance Party was founded as an electoral party that was independent of Democrats and Republicans and that could create "new alliances" of groups
    7.00
    4 votes
    22
    Prohibition Party

    Prohibition Party

    The Prohibition Party (PRO) is a political party in the United States best known for its historic opposition to the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages. It is the oldest existing third party in the US. The party was an integral part of the temperance movement. While never one of the leading parties in the United States, it was once an important force in the politics of the United States during the late 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. It has declined dramatically since the repeal of Prohibition in 1933. The party earned only 643 votes in the 2008 presidential election. The Prohibition Party advocates a variety of socially conservative causes, including "stronger and more vigorous enforcement of laws against the sale of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products, against gambling, illegal drugs, pornography, and commercialized vice." The Prohibition Party was founded in 1869. Its first National Committee Chairman was John Russell of Michigan. It succeeded in getting communities and also many counties in the states to outlaw the production and sale of intoxicating beverages. At the same time, its ideology broadened to include aspects of progressivism. The
    6.75
    4 votes
    23
    Constitutional Union Party

    Constitutional Union Party

    The "Constitutional Union Party" (also known as the "Bell-Everett Party" in California) was a political party in the United States created in 1860. It was made up of conservative former Whigs who wanted to avoid disunion over the slavery issue. These former Whigs (some of whom had been under the banner of the Opposition Party in 1854-58) teamed up with former Know-Nothings and a few Southern Democrats who were against disunion to form the Constitutional Union Party. Its name comes from its extremely simple platform, a simple resolution "to recognize no political principle other than the Constitution...the Union...and the Enforcement of the Laws." They hoped that by failing to take a firm stand either for or against slavery or its expansion, the issue could be pushed aside. The Constitutional Union Party united Whigs and Know-Nothings who were unwilling to join Democrats or the Republicans. Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky, Henry Clay's successor in border-state Whiggery, set up a meeting among fifty conservative, pro-compromise congressmen in December 1859, which led to a convention in Baltimore the week of May 9, 1860, one week before the Republican Party convention. The
    5.60
    5 votes
    24

    Weather Underground Organization

    The Weather Underground was an American radical left organization. Originally called Weatherman, the group became known colloquially as the Weathermen although its full name, as given in official communiques, was the Weather Underground Organization or WUO. Weatherman first organized in 1969 as a faction of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) composed for the most part of the national office leadership of SDS and their supporters. Their goal was to create a clandestine revolutionary party for the violent overthrow of the US government. With revolutionary positions characterized by Black liberation rhetoric, the group conducted a campaign of bombings through the mid-1970s, including aiding the jailbreak and escape of Timothy Leary. The "Days of Rage", their first public demonstration on October 8, 1969, was a riot in Chicago timed to coincide with the trial of the Chicago Seven. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization" (WUO). The bombing attacks mostly targeted government buildings, along with several banks. Most were preceded by evacuation warnings, along with communiqués
    5.60
    5 votes
    25

    Greenback Party

    The Greenback Party (also known as the Independent Party, the National Party, and the Greenback-Labor Party) was an American political party with an anti-monopoly ideology that was active between 1874 and 1889. Its name referred to paper money, or "greenbacks," that had been issued by the North during the American Civil War and afterward. The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a bullion coin-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. It also condemned the use of militias and private police against union strikes. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war. This would better foster business and assist farmers by raising prices and making debts easier to pay. It was established as a political party whose members were primarily farmers financially hurt by the Panic of 1873. The origins of the Greenback Party may be traced back to 1841, when antebellum economist Edward Kellogg promoted the idea of a flexible currency. In his 1849 treatise, Labor and Other
    8.00
    3 votes
    26
    Natural Law Party

    Natural Law Party

    The Natural Law Party (NLP) was a United States political party affiliated with the international Natural Law Party. It was founded in 1992 and was dissolved in many areas beginning in 2004. The party proposed that political problems could be solved through alignment with the Unified Field of all the laws of nature through the use of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Leading members of party were associated with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, leader of Transcendental Meditation movement. The U.S. version of the Natural Law Party ran John Hagelin as its presidential candidate in 1992, 1996, and 2000. The party also ran congressional and local candidates. It attempted to merge with the Reform Party in 2000. Several state affiliates have kept their ballot positions and have allied with other small parties. "Natural Law" referred to "the ultimate source of order and harmony displayed throughout creation." Harmony with Natural Law could be accomplished by the practice of Transcendental Meditation and more advanced techniques. Due to scientific studies of these techniques, it considered this to be a science-based approach. The NLP proposed that a government subsidized group of
    8.00
    3 votes
    27
    8.00
    3 votes
    28

    American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

    The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) is a standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols and guidelines which are used in highway design and construction throughout the United States. Despite its name, the association represents not only highways but air, rail, water, and public transportation as well. The voting membership of AASHTO consists of the Department of Transportation of each state in the United States, as well as that of Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia. The United States Department of Transportation, some U.S. cities, counties and toll-road operators, most Canadian provinces as well as the Hong Kong Highways Department, the Turkish Ministry of Public Works and Settlement and the Nigerian Association of Public Highway and Transportation Officials have non-voting associate memberships. The American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) was founded on December 12, 1914. Its name was changed to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials on November 13, 1973. The name change reflects a broadened scope to cover all modes of transportation, although most of its activities
    7.67
    3 votes
    29

    Financial Accounting Standards Board

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is a private, not-for-profit organization whose primary purpose is to develop generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) within the United States in the public's interest. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) designated the FASB as the organization responsible for setting accounting standards for public companies in the U.S. It was created in 1973, replacing the Committee on Accounting Procedure (CAP) and the Accounting Principles Board (APB) of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). The FASB's mission is "to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting for the guidance and education of the public, including issuers, auditors, and users of financial information." To achieve this, FASB has five goals: The FASB is not a governmental body. The SEC has legal authority to establish financial accounting and reporting standards for publicly held companies under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Throughout its history, however, Commission policy has been to rely on the private sector for this function to the extent that the private sector demonstrates ability to fulfill the
    7.67
    3 votes
    30
    Melaleuca

    Melaleuca

    Melaleuca ( /ˌmɛləˈljuːkə/) is a genus of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae known for its natural soothing and cleansing properties. There are well over 200 recognised species, most of which are endemic to Australia. A few species occur in Malesia and 7 species are endemic to New Caledonia . The species are shrubs and trees growing (depending on species) to 2–30 m (6.6–98 ft) tall, often with flaky, exfoliating bark. The leaves are evergreen, alternately arranged, ovate to lanceolate, 1–25 cm (0.39–9.8 in) long and 0.5–7 cm (0.20–2.8 in) broad, with an entire margin, dark green to grey-green in colour. The flowers are produced in dense clusters along the stems, each flower with fine small petals and a tight bundle of stamens; flower colour varies from white to pink, red, pale yellow or greenish. The fruit is a small capsule containing numerous minute seeds. Melaleuca is closely related to the genus Callistemon; the main difference between the two is that the stamens are generally free in Callistemon but grouped into bundles in Melaleuca. Callistemon was recently placed into Melaleuca. In the wild, Melaleuca plants are generally found in open forest, woodland or shrubland,
    6.25
    4 votes
    31

    Workers World Party

    Workers World Party (WWP) is a far-left political party in the United States, founded in 1959 by a group led by Sam Marcy. Marcy and his followers split from the Socialist Workers Party in 1958 over a series of long-standing differences, among them Marcy's group's support for Henry A. Wallace's Progressive Party in 1948, the positive view they held of the Chinese Revolution led by Mao Zedong, and their defense of the 1956 Soviet intervention in Hungary, all of which the SWP opposed. WWP describes itself as a party that has, since its founding, "supported the struggles of all oppressed peoples". It has recognized the right of nations to self-determination, including the nationally oppressed peoples inside the United States. It supports affirmative action as necessary in the fight for equality. As well, it opposes all forms of racism and religious bigotry. Workers World and YAWF were noted for their consistent defense of the Black Panthers and the Weather Underground along with Vietnam Veterans Against the War and the Puerto Rican Independence movement. Workers World Party was also an early advocate of gay rights, and remains active in this area. Since then, the Workers World Party
    6.25
    4 votes
    32

    American Federation of Television and Radio Artists

    The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) was a performers' union that represented a wide variety of talent, including actors in radio and television, radio and television announcers and newspersons, singers and recording artists (both royalty artists and background singers), promo and voice-over announcers and other performers in commercials, stunt persons and specialty acts - as the organisation itself publicly states, "AFTRA's membership includes an array of talent". With the information presently available, the union can lay claim to 65,182 members throughout the United States (with a figure of 131 000 quoted in early 2012). On March 30, 2012, it was announced that the members of AFTRA and of SAG had voted to merge and that the name of the new organization is SAG-AFTRA The two largest locals are in Los Angeles and New York City, with the federation as a whole having 804 employees and total assets worth $30,403,661.00. AFTRA works in the interests of its members, primarily in the areas of contract negotiation and enforcement, advocacy (including lobbying, legislation and public policy issues) and member benefits such as employer-paid health plans. AFTRA is
    5.20
    5 votes
    33

    American Society of Cinematographers

    The American Society of Cinematographers (ASC) is an educational, cultural, and professional organization. Neither a labor union nor a guild, ASC membership is by invitation and is extended only to directors of photography and special effects experts with distinguished credits in the film industry. Members can put the letters A.S.C. after their names. ASC membership has become one of the highest honors that can be bestowed upon a professional cinematographer, a mark of prestige and distinction. The ASC currently has approximately 340 members and continues to grow. Its history goes back to the Cinema Camera Club in New York City founded by Phil Rosen, Frank Kugler, and Lewis W. Physioc and the Static Club in Los Angeles founded by Charles Rosher and Harry H. Harris. Both were created in 1911, and were united into a national organization when Rosher and Rosen moved to Los Angeles in 1911. The ASC was chartered in California in January 1911, and claims to be the "oldest continuously operating motion picture society in the world". The following year, the William S. Hart film Sand! was released on June 27, bearing to Joe August the first cinematographer credit followed by the letters
    5.20
    5 votes
    34
    Dixiecrat

    Dixiecrat

    The States' Rights Democratic Party (usually called the Dixiecrats) was a short-lived segregationist political party in the United States in 1948. It originated as a breakaway faction of the Democratic Party in 1948, determined to protect what they portrayed as the southern way of life beset by an oppressive federal government, and supporters assumed control of the state Democratic parties in part or in full in several Southern states. The States' Rights Democratic Party opposed racial integration and wanted to retain Jim Crow laws and white supremacy in the face of possible federal intervention. Members were called Dixiecrats. (The term Dixiecrat is a portmanteau of Dixie, referring to the Southern United States, and Democrat.) The party did not run local or state candidates, and after the 1948 election its leaders generally returned to the Democratic Party. The Dixiecrats had little short-run impact on politics. However, they did have a long-term impact. The Dixiecrats began the weakening of the "Solid South" (the Democratic Party's total control of presidential elections in the South). By the 1870s the South was heavily Democratic in national and presidential elections, apart
    9.00
    2 votes
    35

    International Workers Party

    The International Workers Party (IWP) is supposedly a secretive Marxist political organization founded by controversial organizer, playwright and psychotherapist Fred Newman. The history of the IWP is itself controversial. The article below reflects both critics and supporters of Fred Newman, Lenora Fulani and the many organizations they have built over the years. The IWP has its roots in Centers for Change, a radical community organizing project led by Newman in New York City in the early 1970s. Newman led the CFC into a brief alliance (1973–74) and even briefer merger (three months in 1974) with Lyndon LaRouche's National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC); the association began shortly after the conclusion of LaRouche's infamous "Operation Mop Up," a series of violent NCLC attacks on leftist groups. Even before bringing CFC members into the NCLC, Newman had written articles supporting LaRouche's theories and techniques, especially LaRouche's use of psychoanalytical concepts in political organizing and recruitment efforts. The reason Fred Newman and his colleagues provided for leaving the NCLC was a disagreement between LaRouche and Newman over what to do with the National
    9.00
    2 votes
    36

    Amalgamated Transit Union

    The Amalgamated Transit Union (ATU) is a labor union in the United States and The Amalgamated Transit Union Canadian Council (ATUCC) in Canada, representing workers in the transit system and other industries. The ATU was founded as the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees in 1892; today, the ATU is the largest labor organization representing transit workers in the United States and Canada, with over 190,000 members in 270 local unions spread across 46 states and nine provinces. The ATU consists of bus, van, subway, and light rail operators, clerks, baggage handlers and maintenance employees in urban transit, over-the-road and school bus industries, as well as emergency medical service personnel, ambulance operators, clerical personnel, and municipal workers. The ATU can be found in most major cities of the United States and Canada. The Union is guided by a triennial convention at which delegates chosen by locals meet to debate and direct the future of the Union. The International officers consist of the International President, the International Executive Vice President, the International Secretary-Treasurer, and 18 International Vice Presidents. The
    7.00
    3 votes
    37
    Republican Party

    Republican Party

    The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP (Grand Old Party), although the rival Democratic Party is older. Eighteen US presidents have been Republicans. The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S. political spectrum. American conservatism of the Republican Party is not wholly based upon rejection of the political ideology of liberalism, as many principles of American conservatism are based upon classical liberalism. Rather the Republican Party's conservatism is largely based upon its support of classical liberal principles against the modern liberalism of the Democratic Party that is considered American liberalism in contemporary American political discourse. In the 112th Congress, elected in 2010, the Republican Party holds a majority of seats in the House of Representatives and a minority of seats in the Senate. The party holds the majority of governorships as well as the majority of state legislatures. Founded in northern states in 1854 by anti-slavery activists, modernizers,
    5.75
    4 votes
    38

    Black Panther Party

    The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American revolutionary leftist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. The Black Panther Party achieved national and international notoriety through its involvement in the Black Power movement and U.S. politics of the 1960s and 1970s. The group's "provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity." Founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale on October 15, 1966, the organization initially set forth a doctrine calling primarily for the protection of African-American neighborhoods from police brutality. The organization's leaders espoused socialist and communist (largely Maoist) doctrines; however, the Party's early black nationalist reputation attracted a diverse membership. The Black Panther Party's objectives and philosophy expanded and evolved rapidly during the party's existence, making ideological consensus within the party difficult to achieve, and causing some prominent members to openly disagree with the views of the leaders. The organization's official
    8.50
    2 votes
    39
    Whig Party

    Whig Party

    The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s, the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism. This name was chosen to echo the American Whigs of 1776, who fought for independence, and because "Whig" was then a widely recognized label of choice for people who identified as opposing tyranny. The Whig Party counted among its members such national political luminaries as Daniel Webster, William Henry Harrison, and their preeminent leader, Henry Clay of Kentucky. In addition to Harrison, the Whig Party also nominated war heroes generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. Abraham Lincoln was the chief Whig leader in frontier Illinois. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates, William Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor, elected president. Both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after
    8.50
    2 votes
    40

    American Academy of Arts and Letters

    The American Academy of Arts and Letters is a 250-member honor society; its goal is to "foster, assist, and sustain excellence" in American literature, music, and art. Located in Washington Heights, a neighborhood in Upper Manhattan in New York, it shares Audubon Terrace, its Beaux Arts campus on Broadway at West 155th Street, with the Hispanic Society of America and Boricua College. The Academy's galleries are open to the public for two exhibitions each year. The Academy was created in 1904 by the membership of the National Institute of Arts and Letters styling itself after the French Academy. The first seven academicians were elected from ballots cast by the entire membership. They were William Dean Howells, Samuel L. Clemens, Edmund Clarence Stedman, and John Hay, representing literature; Augustus Saint-Gaudens and John La Farge, representing art; and Edward MacDowell, representing music. In 1976 the two groups combined under the name American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. In 1992 members adopted the current organizational title. The oldest organization associated with the group was founded in 1865 at Boston. The American Social Science Association produced the
    10.00
    1 votes
    41
    American Federation of Labor

    American Federation of Labor

    The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio in December 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers of the Cigar Makers' International Union was elected president of the Federation at its founding convention and was reelected every year except one until his death in 1924. The AFL was the largest union grouping in the United States for the first half of the 20th century, even after the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) by unions that were expelled by the AFL in 1935 over its opposition to industrial unionism. While the Federation was founded and dominated by craft unions throughout the first fifty years of its existence, many of its craft union affiliates turned to organizing on an industrial union basis to meet the challenge from the CIO in the 1940s. In 1955, the AFL merged with its longtime rival, the Congress of Industrial Organizations, to form the AFL-CIO, a federation which remains in place to this day. Together with its offspring, the AFL has comprised the longest lasting and
    10.00
    1 votes
    42

    American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees

    The American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) is the second- or third-largest labor union in the United States and one of the fastest-growing, representing over 1.4 million employees, primarily in local and state government and in the health care industry. AFSCME is part of the AFL-CIO, one of the two main labor federations in the United States. Employees at the federal government level are primarily represented by other unions, such as the American Federation of Government Employees, with which AFSCME was once affiliated, and the National Treasury Employees Union; but AFSCME does represent some federal employees at the Federal Aviation Administration and the Library of Congress, among others. According to their website, AFSCME organizes for social and economic rights of their protectorates in the workplace and through political action and legislative advocacy. It is divided into more than 3,500 local unions in 46 U.S. states, plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Each local union writes its own constitution, holds membership meetings, and elects its own officers. Councils are also a part of AFSCME's administrative structure, usually grouping
    10.00
    1 votes
    43

    Communications Workers of America

    Communications Workers of America (CWA) is the largest communications and media labor union in the United States representing about 550,000 members in both the private and public sectors. The union has 27 locals in Canada via CWA-SCA Canada (Syndicat des communications d’Amérique) representing about 8,000 members. CWA has several affiliated subsidiary labor unions bringing total membership to over 700,000. CWA is headquartered in Washington, DC, and affiliated with the AFL-CIO, the Canadian Labour Congress, and Union Network International. The current president is Larry Cohen, a member of the AFL-CIO Executive Council. In 1918 telephone operators organized under the Telephone Operators Department of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. While initially successful at organizing, the union was damaged by a 1923 strike and subsequent AT lockout. After AT installed company-controlled Employees' Committees, the Telephone Operators Department eventually disbanded. The CWA's roots lie in the 1938 reorganization of telephone workers into the National Federation of Telephone Workers after the Wagner Act outlawed such employees' committees or company unions. NFTW was a
    10.00
    1 votes
    44

    NASDAQ-100

    The NASDAQ-100 is a stock market index of 100 of the largest non-financial companies listed on the NASDAQ. It is a modified capitalization-weighted index. The companies' weights in the index are based on their market capitalizations, with certain rules capping the influence of the largest components. It does not contain financial companies, and includes companies incorporated outside the United States. Both of those factors differentiate it from the Dow Jones Industrial Average, and the exclusion of financial companies distinguishes it from the S 500 Index. The NASDAQ-100 began on January 31, 1985 by the NASDAQ, trying to promote itself in the shadow of the New York Stock Exchange. It did so by creating two separate indices. This particular index, which consists of Industrial, Technology, Retail, Telecommunication, Biotechnology, Health Care, Transportation, Media and Service companies; and the NASDAQ Financial-100, which consists of banking companies, insurance firms, brokerage houses and mortgage companies. By creating these two indices, the NASDAQ hoped that mutual funds, options and futures would correlate and trade in conjunction with them. The base price of the index was
    10.00
    1 votes
    45
    United Mine Workers

    United Mine Workers

    The United Mine Workers of America (UMW or UMWA) is a North American labor union best known for representing coal miners and coal technicians. Today, the Union also represents health care workers, truck drivers, manufacturing workers and public employees in the United States and Canada. Although its main focus has always been on workers and their rights, the UMW of today also advocates for better roads, schools, and universal health care. The UMW was founded in Columbus, Ohio, on January 22, 1890, with the merger of two old labor groups, the Knights of Labor Trade Assembly No. 135 and the National Progressive Miners Union. Adopting the model of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the union was initially established as a three-pronged labor tool: to develop mine safety; to improve mine workers' independence from the mine owners and the company store; and to provide miners with collective bargaining power. After passage of the National Recovery Act in 1933, organizers spread throughout the United States to organize all coal miners into labor unions. During the 1930s, the UMWA was involved in Washington politics, a controversial involvement which generated such alternative unions
    10.00
    1 votes
    46

    National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws

    The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML  /ˈnɔrməl/) is an American non-profit organization based in Washington, DC whose aim is to move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the legalization of non-medical marijuana in the United States so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults is no longer subject to penalty. According to their website, NORML "supports the removal of all criminal penalties for the private possession and responsible use of marijuana by adults, including the cultivation for personal use, and the casual nonprofit transfers of small amounts," and "supports the development of a legally controlled market for cannabis." NORML and the NORML Foundation support both those fighting prosecution under marijuana laws and those working to legalize marijuana. In the 2006 United States midterm elections, NORML promoted several successful local initiatives that declared marijuana enforcement to be the lowest priority for local law enforcement. NORML claims that this frees up police resources to combat violent and serious crime. NORML plans to support efforts now underway in states such as California, Washington, and Oregon to legalize and tax
    5.50
    4 votes
    47

    AARP

    AARP, formerly the American Association of Retired Persons, is a United States-based non-governmental organization and interest group, founded in 1958 by Ethel Percy Andrus, PhD, a retired educator from California, and based in Washington, D.C. According to its mission statement, it is "a nonprofit, nonpartisan membership organization for people age 50 and over ... dedicated to enhancing quality of life for all as we age," which "provides a wide range of unique benefits, special products, and services for our members." AARP operates as a non-profit advocate for its members and as one of the most powerful lobbying groups in the United States. AARP has two affiliated organizations: AARP Services Inc. which is managed wholly for profit, and the AARP Foundation, a charity that operates on a non-profit basis. AARP Services Inc. offers: Medicare supplemental health insurance, discounts on prescription drugs and consumer goods, entertainment and travel packages, long-term care insurance and automobile, home and life insurance. It provides quality control over the products and services made available by AARP-endorsed providers. According to AARP's 2008 Consolidated financials, it was paid
    6.67
    3 votes
    48

    American Federation of Musicians

    The American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada (AFM/AFofM) is a labor union of professional musicians in the United States and Canada. In deference to the differing laws and cultural attributes of each country, in the US it is referred to as the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) and in Canada as the Canadian Federation of Musicians/Fédéracion canadienne des musicienes (CFM/FCM). The American Federation of Musicians was founded in 1896, at which time it took over from an older and looser organization of local musicians unions, the National League of Musicians. Among the most famous actions by the AFM was a ban on all commercial recording by members in 1942–44, in order to pressure record companies to make a better arrangement for paying royalties to recording artists. This was sometimes called the Petrillo Ban, because James Petrillo was the newly–elected head of the union. Petrillo also organized a second recording ban in 1948 (from January 1 to December 14), in response to the Taft–Hartley Act. AFM requires its member orchestras to exclude all spectators during rehearsals.
    6.67
    3 votes
    49

    Communist Party USA

    The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a Marxist political party in the United States, established in 1919. It has a long, complex history that is closely related to the histories of similar communist parties worldwide and the U.S. labor movement. For the first half of the 20th century, the CPUSA was the largest and most influential communist party in the United States. It played a very prominent role in the U.S. labor movement from the 1920s through the 1940s, having a major hand in founding most of the country's first industrial unions (which would later use the McCarran Internal Security Act to expel their Communist members) while also becoming known for opposing racism and fighting for integration in workplaces and communities during the height of the Jim Crow period of U.S. racial segregation. Historian Ellen Schrecker concludes that decades of recent scholarship offers a "nuanced portrayal of the party as both a Stalinist sect tied to a vicious regime and the most dynamic organization within the American Left during the 1930s and '40s". In regards to the former charge, the CPUSA, claiming proletarian internationalism (while the U.S. Government called it espionage), sponsored an
    6.67
    3 votes
    50
    American Library Association

    American Library Association

    The American Library Association (ALA) is a non-profit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world, with more than 62,000 members. Founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey (Melvil Dui), Fred B. Perkins and Thomas W. Bicknell in 1876 in Philadelphia and chartered in 1879 in Massachusetts, its head office is now in Chicago. During the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, 103 librarians, 90 men and 13 women, responded to a call for a "Convention of Librarians" to be held October 4–6 at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. At the end of the meeting, according to Ed Holley in his essay "ALA at 100," "the register was passed around for all to sign who wished to become charter members," making October 6, 1876 to be ALA's birthday. In attendance were 90 men and 13 women, among them Justin Winsor (Boston Public, Harvard), William Frederick Poole (Chicago Public, Newberry), Charles Ammi Cutter (Boston Athenaeum), Melvil Dewey, and Richard Rogers Bowker. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from
    8.00
    2 votes
    51

    Constitution Party

    The Constitution Party is a paleoconservative political party in the United States. It was founded as the U.S. Taxpayers' Party by Howard Philips in 1991. Phillips was the party's candidate in the 1992, 1996 and 2000 presidential elections. The party's official name was changed to The Constitution Party in 1999; however, some state affiliate parties are known under different names. The party's goal as stated in its own words is "to restore our government to its Constitutional limits and our law to its Biblical foundations." The party puts a large focus on immigration, calling for stricter penalties towards illegal immigrants and a moratorium on legal immigration until all federal subsidies to immigrants are discontinued. The party absorbed the American Independent Party, originally founded for George Wallace's 1968 presidential campaign. The American Independent Party of California has been an affiliate of the Constitution Party since its founding; however, current party leadership is disputed and the issue is in court to resolve this conflict. The Constitution Party has some substantial support from the Christian Right and in 2010 achieved major party status in
    8.00
    2 votes
    52

    ASME

    ASME, founded as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, is a professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing education, training and professional development, codes and standards, research, conferences and publications, government relations, and other forms of outreach." ASME is thus an engineering society, a standards organization, a research and development organization, a lobbying organization, a provider of training and education, and a nonprofit organization. Founded as an engineering society focused on mechanical engineering in North America, ASME is today multidisciplinary and global. The organization's stated vision is to be the premier organization for promoting the art, science and practice of mechanical and multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences to the diverse communities throughout the world. Its stated mission is to promote and enhance the technical competency and professional well-being of its members, and through quality programs and activities in mechanical engineering, better enable its practitioners to contribute to the
    6.33
    3 votes
    53
    Federal Bureau of Investigation

    Federal Bureau of Investigation

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a governmental agency belonging to the United States Department of Justice that serves as both a federal criminal investigative body and an internal intelligence agency (counterintelligence). Also, it is the government agency responsible for investigating crimes on Indian Reservations in the United States under the Major Crimes Act. The branch has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crime. The agency was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation (BOI). Its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1935. The agency headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D.C.. The agency has fifty-six field offices located in major cities throughout the United States, and more than 400 resident agencies in lesser cities and areas across the nation. More than 50 international offices called "legal attachés" exist in U.S. embassies and consulates general worldwide. In the fiscal year 2011, the agency's total budget was approximately $7.9 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of
    6.33
    3 votes
    54

    Council for Secular Humanism

    The Council for Secular Humanism (originally the Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism, or CODESH) is a secular humanist organization headquartered in Amherst, New York. In 1980 CODESH issued A Secular Humanist Declaration, an argument for and statement of belief in Democratic Secular Humanism. The Council for Secular Humanism does not call itself religious and has never claimed tax-exemption as a religious organization; instead it has an educational exemption. The official symbol for the Council for Secular Humanism is a version of the Happy Human. The council acts as an umbrella organization for a number of other groups, such as the Committee for the Scientific Examination of Religion, Secular Organizations for Sobriety, African Americans for Humanism, and provides support for Center for Inquiry - On Campus. It also publishes several magazines and newsletters, including Free Inquiry. The council was founded by Dr. Paul Kurtz, who also founded CSICOP (now known as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) and the Center for Inquiry. The council is a member organisation of the International Humanist and Ethical Union, and endorses both the IHEU minimum statement of Humanism (ref
    7.50
    2 votes
    55

    Human Rights Campaign

    The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is the largest LGBT-rights advocacy group and political lobbying organization in the United States. According to the HRC, it has more than one million members and supporters. HRC is an umbrella group of two separate non-profit organizations and a political action committee: the HRC Foundation, a 501(c)(3) organization that focuses on research, advocacy and education; the Human Rights Campaign, a 501(c)(4) organization that focuses on lobbying Congress and state and local officials for support of pro-LGBT bills, and mobilizing grassroots action amongst its members; and the HRC Political Action Committee, which supports candidates that adhere to its positions on LGBT rights. Local activities are carried out by local steering committees, of which there are over 30 located throughout the United States. The Human Rights Campaign’s leadership includes President Chad Griffin and Managing Director Susanne Salkind. Their work is supported by three boards: the Board of Directors, which is the governing body for the organization; the HRC Foundation Board, which manages the foundation’s finances and establishes official policies governing the foundation; and the
    7.50
    2 votes
    56

    The Hunger Project

    The Hunger Project (THP) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit charitable organization incorporated in the state of California. The Hunger Project describes itself as an organization committed to the sustainable end of world hunger. It has ongoing programs in Africa, Asia and Latin America, where it implements programs aimed at mobilizing rural grassroots communities to achieve sustainable progress in health, education, nutrition and family income. The Hunger Project is a global, non-profit, strategic organization committed to the sustainable end of world hunger. In Africa, Asia and Latin America, The Hunger Project seeks to end hunger and poverty by empowering people to lead lives of self-reliance, meet their own basic needs and build better futures for their children. The Hunger Project carries out its mission through three activities: mobilizing village clusters at the grassroots level to build self-reliance, empowering women as key change agents, and forging effective partnerships with local government. In 2009 The Hunger Project was active in Africa, in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal, and Uganda, in Asia, in Bangladesh and India, and in Latin America, in
    7.50
    2 votes
    57

    Citizens Party

    The Citizens Party was a political party in the United States. It was founded in Washington, D.C. by Barry Commoner, who wanted to gather under one umbrella political organization all the environmentalist and liberal groups which were unsatisfied with President Carter's administration. The Citizens Party registered with the Federal Elections Commission at the end of 1979. Commoner, a professor of environmental science at Washington University in St. Louis, was the head of the Center for the Biology of Natural Systems in St. Louis and editor of Science Illustrated magazine. The Citizens Party platform was pro-environmental in nature. Some have claimed that it was possibly socialist as well, but this claim arose from a misunderstanding of the economic democracy platform of the party, which appears to be a form of corporatism. Commoner clearly stated repeatedly that socialism for parts of the economy other than essential infrastructure was a disastrous idea. His economic democracy idea stated that the business of business is to do business, but that the business of government is to regulate business to prevent abuses. In all, the party was founded around four essential platforms,
    9.00
    1 votes
    58
    Know Nothing

    Know Nothing

    The Know Nothing was a movement by the nativist American political faction of the 1850s, characterized by political xenophobia, anti-Catholic sentiment, and occasional bouts of violence against the groups the nativists targeted. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants, who were often regarded as hostile to republican values and controlled by the Pope in Rome. Mainly active from 1854 to 1856, it strove to curb immigration and naturalization, though its efforts met with little success. Membership was limited to Protestant males of British American lineage. There were few prominent leaders, and the largely middle-class and entirely Protestant membership fragmented over the issue of slavery. Nativists had become active in politics in New York in 1843 as the American Republican Party. It spread to nearby states as the Native American Party (which appealed to native-born white citizens) and won a few thousand votes in 1844. Historian Tyler Anbinder warns, however, that the "Native American" party should not be confused with the Know-Nothings because the two different groups ran separate tickets in the same elections
    9.00
    1 votes
    59
    Symbionese Liberation Army

    Symbionese Liberation Army

    The Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) was an American self-styled left-wing revolutionary group active between 1973 and 1975 that considered itself a vanguard army. The group committed bank robberies, two murders, and other acts of violence. The SLA became internationally notorious for kidnapping media heiress Patty Hearst, abducting the 19-year-old and her 26-year-old boyfriend Steven Weed from their home in Berkeley, California. Interest increased when Hearst, in audiotaped messages delivered to (and broadcast by) regional news media, denounced her parents and announced she had joined the SLA. She was subsequently observed participating in their illegal activities. Hearst later alleged that she had been held in close confinement, sexually assaulted and brainwashed. In his manifesto "Symbionese Liberation Army Declaration of Revolutionary War & the Symbionese Program", Donald DeFreeze wrote, "The name 'symbionese' is taken from the word 'symbiosis' and we define its meaning as a body of dissimilar bodies and organisms living in deep and loving harmony and partnership in the best interest of all within the body." Although the SLA considered themselves leaders of the black
    9.00
    1 votes
    60

    Independent Pilots Association

    The Independent Pilots Association (IPA) is the collective bargaining unit for the more than 2800 airline pilots of United Parcel Service. Since the early days of the association, the IPA leadership has felt it was important for the membership to be represented to the public in a philanthropic endeavor. Therefore, the Independent Pilots Association Foundation, or IPA Foundation, was officially formed in late 1993. The first fiscal year began on July 1, 1994 and since then the Foundation has functioned as a separate entity, entirely self-sufficient, operated solely from the donations received through its members. As a separate entity, the IPA Foundation conforms to existing labor laws as well as sec. 501(c)(3) of the IRS code. The IPA Government Affairs Missions statement is: "To promote global aviation safety and security and encourage continued economic growth for the aviation industry". The IPA is a member of The Coalition of Airline Pilots Associations - CAPA. The IPA has filed suit on December 22, 2011 against the FAA to mandate new rest and duty regulations apply to all cargo airlines as well as passenger airlines. The association honored the picket lines when the Teamsters
    6.00
    3 votes
    61
    Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party

    Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party

    The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is a major political party in the state of Minnesota and the state affiliate of the Democratic Party. It was created on April 15, 1944, with the merger of the Minnesota Democratic Party and the Farmer–Labor Party. Leading the merger effort were Elmer Kelm, the head of the Minnesota Democratic Party and founding chairman of the DFL party; Elmer Benson, effectively the head of the Farmer-Labor Party by virtue of his leadership of its dominant left-wing faction; and rising star Hubert H. Humphrey, who chaired the Fusion Committee that accomplished the union and then went on to chair its first state convention. Members of the party are frequently referred to as "DFLers". Orville Freeman was elected the state's first DFL governor in 1954. Important members of the party have included Minneapolis mayor Hubert H. Humphrey and Minnesota Attorney General Walter Mondale, who each went on to be United States Senators, Vice Presidents of the United States, and unsuccessful Democratic nominees for president, Humphrey in 1968 and Mondale in 1984; Eugene McCarthy, a Senator who ran for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968 as an
    7.00
    2 votes
    62

    American Federation of Government Employees

    The American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) is an American labor union representing over 625,000 employees of the federal government, about 5,000 employees of the District of Columbia, and a few hundred private sector employees, mostly in and around federal facilities. AFGE is the largest union for civilian, non-postal federal employees and the largest union for District of Columbia employees who report directly to the mayor (i.e., outside of D.C. public schools). It is affiliated with the AFL-CIO. AFGE was founded on October 17, 1932, by local unions loyal to the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and left the National Federation of Federal Employees (NFFE) when that union became independent of the AFL (NFFE has in recent years become part of the IAMAW, which is affiliated with the AFL-CIO). AFGE is a Federation of Local unions, with each Local maintaining autonomy through operating under local constitutions that comply with the AFGE National constitution ratified originally during its founding in 1932. Federal employees' right to organize and bargain binding labor contracts was established in law by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, which AFGE helped to draft, and
    8.00
    1 votes
    63
    College Board

    College Board

    The College Board is a membership association in the United States that was formed in 1900 as the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB). It is composed of more than 5,900 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. It sells standardized tests used by academically oriented post-secondary education institutions to measure a student's ability. The College Board is headquartered in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City. Gaston Caperton, former Governor of West Virginia, has been the president of College Board since 1999; he will be replaced in October by David Coleman. In addition to managing tests for which it charges fees, the College Board works with programs that claim to increase achievement by poor and minority middle and high school students. Funded by grants from various foundations, such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the College Board Schools operate autonomously within New York City public school buildings. A similar program named EXCELerator began a pilot program for the 2006–2007 school year at 11 schools in Washington, D.C., Jacksonville/Duval County, FL, and Chicago Public Schools. Both of these school reform programs use
    8.00
    1 votes
    64
    National Institute of Standards and Technology

    National Institute of Standards and Technology

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a measurement standards laboratory, otherwise known as a National Metrological Institute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. The institute's official mission is to: Promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life. NIST had an operating budget for fiscal year 2007 (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007) of about $843.3 million. NIST's 2009 budget was $992 million, but it also received $610 million as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. NIST employs about 2,900 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support and administrative personnel. About 1,800 NIST associates (guest researchers and engineers from American companies and foreign nations) complement the staff. In addition, NIST partners with 1,400 manufacturing specialists and staff at nearly 350 affiliated centers around the country. NIST publishes the Handbook 44 that provides the "Specifications,
    8.00
    1 votes
    65

    Union Party

    The Union Party was a short-lived political party in the United States, formed in 1936 by a coalition of radio priest Father Charles Coughlin, old-age pension advocate Francis Townsend, and Gerald L. K. Smith, who had taken control of Huey Long's Share Our Wealth movement after Long's assassination in 1935. Each of those people hoped to channel their wide followings into support for the Union Party, which proposed a populist alternative to the New Deal reforms of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. Many observers at the time felt that there was a place for a party more radical than Roosevelt and the Democrats but still non-Marxist in the political spectrum of the time. Although many people expected Huey Long, the colorful Democratic senator from Louisiana, to run as a third-party candidate with his "Share Our Wealth" program as his platform, his bid was cut short when he was assassinated in September 1935. It was later revealed by historian and Long biographer T. Harry Williams that the senator had never, in fact, intended to run for the presidency in 1936. Instead, he had been planning with Father Charles Coughlin, a Catholic priest and populist talk radio
    5.33
    3 votes
    66

    American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers

    The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), was founded in 1907 and is based in St. Joseph, Michigan. It is an international engineering society with about 9000 members in over 100 countries. ASABE serves many functions: it provides a forum for communication of research findings through conferences, scientific journals, and a magazine; it develops standards for agricultural engineering and biological engineering practice; it provides opportunities for members to network. ASABE is a regional member of International Commission of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR). Until 2005 the society was known as the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE). After years of debate, members of the organization voted to modify the name to better reflect the evolution of the profession represented by the organization. For many years, the discipline had broadened to include engineering for biological systems, and the name change simply reflected this reality. Most of the university departments of agricultural engineering had already changed their names.
    6.50
    2 votes
    67
    Liberal Republican Party

    Liberal Republican Party

    The Liberal Republican Party of the United States was a political party that was organized in Cincinnati in May 1872, to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters. The party's candidate in that year's presidential election was Horace Greeley, longtime publisher of the New York Tribune. Following his nomination by the Liberal Republicans, Greeley was also nominated by the Democratic Party. Greeley was seen as an oddball reformer with no government experience and a long record of vehement attacks against the very Democrats he now called on for support. He was defeated in a landslide. The Liberal Republican Party vanished immediately after the election. However, historians suggest that, by loosening the allegiance of liberal elements to the Republican Party, the Liberal Republicans made it possible for many of these leaders to move to the Democratic Party. The others returned to the GOP. The party began in Missouri in 1870 under the leadership of Carl Schurz and spread nationwide. It had strong support from powerful Republican newspaper editors such as Murat Halstead of the Cincinnati Commercial, Horace White of the Chicago Tribune,
    6.50
    2 votes
    68

    Major League Baseball Players Association

    The Major League Baseball Players Association (or MLBPA) is the union of professional major-league baseball players. The MLBPA was not the first attempt to unionize baseball players. Earlier attempts had included: The MLBPA was created in 1953. In 1966, the union hired Marvin Miller from the United Steel Workers of America to head the organization, serving as Executive Director until 1983. In 1968, Miller negotiated the first collective bargaining agreement (CBA) with the team owners, which raised the minimum salary from $6,000 to $10,000 per year. The 1970 CBA included arbitration to resolve disputes. In 1972 the major leagues saw their first player strike, in opposition to the owners' refusal to increase player pension funds. In 1974, when owner Charlie Finley failed to make a $50,000 payment into an insurance annuity as called for in Catfish Hunter's contract, the MLBPA took the case to arbitration. The arbitrator ruled that Hunter could be a free agent. During Miller's tenure, base salaries, pension funds, licensing rights and revenues were increased, laying the groundwork that helped create what is widely considered one of the strongest unions in the country. Miller challenged
    6.50
    2 votes
    69

    Nonpartisan League

    The Nonpartisan League (NPL) was a political organization founded in 1915 in the United States by former Socialist Party organizer A. C. Townley. The Nonpartisan League advocated state control of mills, grain elevators, banks and other farm-related industries in order to reduce the power of corporate political interests from Minneapolis, Minnesota. The NPL originated in North Dakota, but eventually spread throughout the American Midwest and Pacific Northwest during the Progressive Era and was briefly organized as a national party. It also spread northward into Canada, running in provincial elections and providing some of the basis for the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan and the Progressive Party of Canada. The NPL goat served as the League's mascot. It was known as "The Goat that Can't be Got." Its origins date from 1915, a time when small farmers in North Dakota felt exploited by out-of-state milling companies, the railroads, and the eastern capital markets. Rumors spread at an American Society of Equity meeting in Bismarck that a state legislator named Treadwell Twichell had told a group of farmers to "go home and slop the hogs." Twichell later said that his
    6.50
    2 votes
    70

    Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International Union

    The Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International Union (PACE) was an international union that represented workers in the United States and Canada. PACE was founded on January 4, 1999 by the merger of the United Paperworkers International Union with the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union. Like all labor unions, PACE fought for rights, wage raises, and improvement of working conditions for workers in such fields as: the paper industry, the oil industry, chemicals, nuclear materials, pharmaceuticals, automobile parts, motorcycles, tissues, toys, cement, corn sugar, etc. On January 11, 2005, the union announced a merger with the United Steel Workers of America. The new union, with 860,000 active members in the United States and Canada, is the largest industrial labor union in North America. The union is known as the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied-Industrial and Service Workers International Union, abbreviated as the "United Steelworkers" or by the acronym USW.
    6.50
    2 votes
    71

    Personal Choice Party

    The Personal Choice Party (PCP) is a United States political party whose presidential candidate for 2004 qualified for the ballot in the state of Utah. The first State Convention of the Personal Choice Party of Utah was held May 22, 2004, at Fairmont Park in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Personal Choice Party dates back to approximately 1997, and was organized by Dr. Ken Larsen, an ex-Mormon from Utah with a Ph.D. in Zoology from Brigham Young University. Prior to forming the Personal Choice Party, Ken Larsen was well known as a political activist and frequent candidate for numerous political offices in Utah under the ballot lines of several minor parties including the Libertarian Party and the Independent American Party. Personal Choice asserts that everyone has free agency and individual rights. Personal Choice expresses the philosophy of "live and let live." Personal Choice demands that, "as long as I am not hurting anyone else, only I have the right to choose how I spend my time, my wealth, my life, my honor." It could be considered a libertarian party. The preamble of the party's constitution - which specifies that it is the personal opinion of the party's founders - states: PCP
    6.50
    2 votes
    72
    Socialist Party of America

    Socialist Party of America

    The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic-socialist political party in the United States, formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party which had split from the main organization in 1899. In the first decades of the 20th century, it drew significant support from many different groups, including trade unionists, progressive social reformers, populist farmers, and immigrant communities. Its presidential candidate, Eugene V. Debs, twice won over 900,000 votes (in 1912 and 1920), while the party also elected two United States Representatives (Victor L. Berger and Meyer London), dozens of state legislators, more than a hundred mayors, and countless lesser officials. The party's staunch opposition to American involvement in World War I, although welcomed by many, also led to prominent defections, official repression and vigilante persecution. The organization was further shattered by a factional war over how it should respond to Russia's Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 and the establishment of the Communist International in 1919. After endorsing Robert LaFollette's
    6.50
    2 votes
    73

    Union Banking Corporation

    The Union Banking Corporation (UBC) was a banking corporation in the US whose assets were seized by the United States government during World War II under the Trading with the Enemy Act and Executive Order No. 9095. According to an Oct. 5, 1942, report from the USA's federal Office of Alien Property Custodian, Union Banking was owned by Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart N.V., a Dutch bank. The memo from August 18, 1941, states "My investigation produced no evidence as to the ownership of this Dutch bank." The Dutch bank was alleged to be affiliated with United Steel Works, a German company. Fritz Thyssen and his brother, Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza, had the Dutch bank and the steel firm as part of their business and financial empire according to the US. government agency. Fritz Thyssen resigned from the Council of State after November 9th 1938 Kristallnacht, was arrested in 1940, and spent the remainder of the war in a sanatorium and in concentration camps. The APC documents say "Whether any or all part of the funds held by Union Banking Corporation, or companies associated with it, belong to Fritz Thyssen could not be established in this investigation." The assets were held by the
    5.00
    3 votes
    74
    Delta Kappa Epsilon

    Delta Kappa Epsilon

    Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or "Deke") is a fraternity founded at Yale College in 1844 by 15 men of the sophomore class part of whom hadn't been invited to join the two existing societies (Alpha Delta Phi and Psi Upsilon) among others who had been invited to join. They therefore formed their own fraternity to establish a fellowship "where the candidate most favored was he who combined in the most equal proportions the gentleman, the scholar, and the jolly good fellow." The fraternity was founded June 22, 1844, in room number 12 Old South Hall, Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut. At this meeting, the Fraternity's secret and open Greek mottos were devised, as were the pin and secret handshake. The open motto is "Kerothen Philoi Aei" ("Friends from the Heart, Forever"). The fifteen founders were: William Woodruff Atwater, Dr. Edward Griffin Bartlett, Frederic Peter Bellinger, Jr., Henry Case, Colonel George Foote Chester, John Butler Conyngham, Thomas Isaac Franklin, William Walter Horton, The Honorable William Boyd Jacobs, Professor Edward VanSchoonhoven Kinsley, Chester Newell Righter, Dr. Elisha Bacon Shapleigh, Thomas DuBois Sherwood, Albert Everett Stetson,
    6.00
    2 votes
    75
    Free Soil Party

    Free Soil Party

    The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. It was a third party and a single-issue party that largely appealed to and drew its greatest strength from New York State. The party leadership consisted of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery. They opposed slavery in the new territories and sometimes worked to remove existing laws that discriminated against freed African Americans in states such as Ohio. The party membership was largely absorbed by the Republican Party in 1854. Free Soil candidates ran on the platform that declared: "...we inscribe on our banner, 'Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor and Free Men,' and under it we will fight on and fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions." The party also called for a homestead act and a tariff for revenue only. The Free Soil Party's main support came from areas of upstate New York,
    7.00
    1 votes
    76

    International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees

    The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees, or I.A.T.S.E., (full name: International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees, Moving Picture Technicians, Artists and Allied Crafts of the United States, Its Territories and Canada) is a labor union representing about 50,000 technicians, artisans and craftspersons in the entertainment industry, including live theatre, motion picture and television production, and trade shows. It was awarded Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre in 1993. Originally chartered by the American Federation of Labor as the National Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes [sic] in 1893, its name has evolved over the course of 118 years of geographic and craft expansion as well as technological advancement. The current title, adopted in 1995, more accurately reflects the full scope of activities in the entertainment industry. For generations, the Union retained the historical spelling of the word "employes," calling itself the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes. In recent years, however, it has chosen to use the more common spelling. I.A.T.S.E. is composed of approximately 418 regional unions called Locals, organized into 14
    7.00
    1 votes
    77

    International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers

    The International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers is an AFL-CIO/CLC trade union representing approx. 646,933 workers as of 2006 in more than 200 industries. The IAM was formed in 1888 by 19 machinists meeting in a locomotive pit in Atlanta, Georgia calling themselves "The Order of United Machinist and Mechanical Engineers." The organization remained secret for several years due to employer hostility toward organized labor. Despite the secrecy, the membership continued to grow thanks to "boomers", men who traveled from place to place looking for work on the railroads. Within a year 40 locals were established. At that point machinists made 20 to 25 cents an hour for a ten hour day. In 1889 the first Machinist Union convention was held with 34 locals represented, in the chambers of the Georgia State Senate. Tom Talbot was elected "Grand Master Machinist" and the IAM monthly journal was started. Also, at the convention the union's name was changed to "National Association of Machinists." The next year, 1890, the first Canadian local, Local Lodge 103, was chartered in Stratford, Ontario as well as locals in Mexico. Since The NAM had spread all over North America the
    7.00
    1 votes
    78

    Socialist Party USA

    The Socialist Party USA (SPUSA) is a multi-tendency democratic-socialist party in the United States. The party states that it is the rightful continuation and successor to the tradition of the Socialist Party of America, which had lasted from 1901 to 1972. The party is officially committed to left-wing democratic socialism. The Socialist Party USA, along with its predecessors, has received varying degrees of support, when its candidates have competed against those from the Republican and Democratic parties. Some attribute this to the party having to compete with the financial dominance of the two major parties, as well as the limitations of the United States' legislatively and judicially entrenched two-party system. The Party supports third-party candidates, particularly socialists, and opposes the candidates of the two major parties. Opposing both capitalism and "authoritarian communism", the Party advocates bringing big business under public ownership and democratic workers' self-management. It does not advocate the unaccountable bureaucratic control of Soviet communism. In 1958, the Independent Socialist League led by Max Shachtman dissolved to join the Socialist Party of
    7.00
    1 votes
    79
    Actors' Equity Association

    Actors' Equity Association

    The Actors' Equity Association (AEA), commonly referred to as Actors' Equity or simply Equity, is an American labor union representing the world of live theatrical performance, as opposed to film and television performance. However, performers appearing on live stage productions without a book or through-storyline (vaudeville, cabarets, circuses) may be represented by the American Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA). As of 2010, Equity represented over 49,000 theatre artists and stage managers. At a meeting held at the Pabst Grand Circle Hotel in New York City, on May 26, 1913, Actors' Equity was founded by 112 professional theater actors, who established the association's constitution and elected Francis Wilson as president. Leading up to the establishment of the association, a handful of influential actors—known as The Players—held secret organizational meetings at Edwin Booth's old mansion on Gramercy Square. The Players included Frank Gillmore, who from 1918 to 1929 was the Executive Secretary of Actors' Equity and its eventual President, a position he held from 1929 to 1937. Actors' Equity joined the American Federation of Labor in 1919, and called a strike seeking recognition of
    5.50
    2 votes
    80

    Communist Labor Party of America

    The Communist Labor Party of America (CLP) was one of the organizational predecessors of the Communist Party USA. The group was established at the end of August 1919 following a three-way split of the Socialist Party of America. Although a legal political party at the time of its formation, the group was forced underground by the Palmer Raids of January 1920 and thereafter was forced to conduct its activities in secret. The CLP merged with a dissident faction of the Communist Party of America in May 1920 to form the United Communist Party of America. The Communist Labor Party (CLP) traces its roots to the organized Left Wing Section of the Socialist Party, which emerged early in 1919. Through organized bloc voting in branches affiliated with the party's Foreign Language Federations, the favored candidates of the Left Wing Section won a majority of the 15 seats on the party's governing National Executive Committee in the election of 1919. Facing domination by an aggressive Communist NEC, the outgoing NEC (dominated by the "Regular" faction of the party and guided by James Oneal and Executive Secretary Adolph Germer) cited voting irregularities by branches of the party's Foreign
    5.50
    2 votes
    81

    Reform Party of the United States of America

    The Reform Party of the United States of America (RPUSA), generally known as the Reform Party USA or the Reform Party, is a political party in the United States, founded in 1995 by Ross Perot. Perot said Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics—as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues—and desired a viable alternative to the Republican and Democratic Parties. The party has nominated different candidates over the years, such as founder Ross Perot, Pat Buchanan, and Ralph Nader. The party's most significant victory came when Jesse Ventura was elected governor of Minnesota in 1998. Since then, the party has been torn by infighting and disagreements, which it seeks to overcome. The Party grew out of Perot's efforts in the 1992 presidential election, where—running as an independent—he became the first non-major party candidate since 1912 to have been considered viable enough to win the presidency. Perot made a splash by bringing a focus to fiscal issues such as the federal deficit and national debt; government reform issues such as term limits, campaign finance reform, and lobbying reform; and issues on trade. A large part of his following was grounded in the
    5.00
    2 votes
    82

    United Food and Commercial Workers

    The United Food and Commercial Workers International Union is a labor union representing approximately 1.3 million workers in the United States and Canada in many industries, including agriculture, health care, meatpacking, poultry and food processing, manufacturing, textile, G4S Security, chemical trades, and retail food. Until July 2005, UFCW was affiliated with the AFL-CIO, where it was the second largest union by membership. Along with two other members of the Change to Win Coalition, the UFCW formally disaffiliated with the AFL-CIO on July 29, 2005. The UFCW was created through the merger of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters union and Retail Clerks International Union following its founding convention in June 1979. William H. Wynn, president of the RCIU and one of the designers of the merger, became president of UFCW at the time of its founding. The merger created the largest union affiliated with the AFL-CIO. The UFCW continued to expand both by organizing and merging with several smaller unions between 1980 and 1998. In 1980, the Barbers, Beauticians and Allied Industries International Association merged with UFCW, followed by the UFCW Local 811|United Retail Workers Union in
    5.00
    2 votes
    83

    American Federation of Teachers

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is an American labor union founded in 1916 that represents teachers, paraprofessionals and school-related personnel; local, state and federal employees; higher education faculty and staff, and nurses and other healthcare professionals. It is affiliated with the AFL-CIO. The AFT is the second-largest education labor union in the United States, representing about 1.5 million members as of July 2010, of whom 250,000 are retired. Unlike the largest U.S. education trade union, the 3.2 million-member National Education Association, the AFT has since its founding been affiliated with a trade union federation (the old American Federation of Labor until 1955 and the AFL-CIO since then). A proposed 1998 merger between the two was rejected by the NEA's annual meeting. In general, AFT locales tend to be in large cities and on the East Coast, while the NEA's membership is more concentrated in rural and suburban areas and in the West. Another significant difference between the two organizations is that the AFT has made a serious effort to organize workers outside the field of K-12 public education. The union currently represents higher education faculty
    6.00
    1 votes
    84
    National Press Club

    National Press Club

    The National Press Club is a professional organization and private social club for journalists. It is located in Washington, D.C. Its membership consists of journalists, former journalists, government information officers, and those considered to be regular news sources. It is well known for its gatherings with invited speakers from public life. Founded in 1908, every U.S. president since Theodore Roosevelt has visited the club, and all since Warren Harding have been members. Most have spoken from the club's podium. Others who have appeared at the club include monarchs, prime ministers and premiers, members of Congress, Cabinet officials, ambassadors, scholars, entertainers, business leaders, and athletes. The Club's emblem is the Owl, in deference to wisdom, awareness and long nights spent on the job. On March 12, 1908, 32 newspapermen met at the Washington Chamber of Commerce to discuss starting a club for journalists. At the meeting they agreed to meet again on March 29 in the F Street parlor of the Willard Hotel to frame a constitution for the National Press Club. The Club founders laid down a credo which promised "to promote social enjoyment among the members, to cultivate
    6.00
    1 votes
    85
    Alpha Sigma Phi

    Alpha Sigma Phi

    Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity (ΑΣΦ, commonly abbreviated to Alpha Sig) is a fraternity with 82 active chapters and 9 colonies. Founded at Yale in 1845, it is the 10th oldest fraternity in the United States. The fraternity practices many traditions. Their Latin motto is, Causa Latet Vis Est Notissima ("The cause is hidden, the results well-known"). The fraternity's official symbol is the phoenix, as the phoenix rises from the ashes of its old body, signifying the re-founding of the fraternity in the early 1900s. Due to active expansion efforts, Alpha Sigma Phi continues to offer services and opportunities to over 2,500 undergraduate students and 40,000 living alumni. Alpha Sigma Phi was founded by men at Yale College in 1845 as a secret sophomore society composed of many of the school's authors, poets, athletes, and scholars. Upon rising through the ranks of the school, members shared membership with Alpha Sigma Phi in Skull and Bones, Scroll and Key, and eventually Wolf's Head. The founders of Alpha Sigma Phi were: Manigault and Rhea met at St. Paul's Preparatory School near Flushing, New York, where both were members of the same literary society and were preparing themselves for
    5.00
    1 votes
    86
    Democratic-Republican Party

    Democratic-Republican Party

    The Democratic-Republican Party, not to be confused with the modern Republican Party (founded in 1854), was an American political party founded around 1791 by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. The party formed, first as a caucus in the House of Representatives and then in every state to contest elections and oppose the programs of Secretary for the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to counteract the Federalists, a nationwide party recently formed by Hamilton. Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1795 as the Republicans opposed the Jay Treaty with Britain, which was then at war with France. Admiring the French revolution, it demanded good relations with France, until Napoleon came to power in 1799. The party denounced many of Hamilton's measures (especially the national bank) as unconstitutional. The party was strongest in the South and weakest in the Northeast; it favored states' rights and the primacy of the yeoman farmers and the planters over bankers, industrialists, merchants, and investors. The Jeffersonians were deeply committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical
    5.00
    1 votes
    87

    Green Party of the United States

    The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is a national US-American political party founded in 1991 as a voluntary association of state green parties. With its founding, the Green Party of the United States became the primary national Green organization in the United States, eclipsing the Greens/Green Party USA, which emphasized non-electoral movement building. The Association of State Green Parties (ASGP), a forerunner organization, first gained widespread public attention during Ralph Nader's United States presidential campaigns in 1996 and 2000. The Green Party in the United States has won elected office at the local level; most winners of public office in the United States who are considered Greens have won nonpartisan elections. The highest-ranking Greens ever elected in the nation were: John Eder, a member of the Maine House of Representatives until his defeat in November 2006; Audie Bock, elected to the California State Assembly in 1999 but switched her registration to Independent seven months later running as an independent in the 2000 election; and Richard Carroll, elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2008 but switched parties to become a Democrat five
    5.00
    1 votes
    88

    Libertarian Party

    The Libertarian Party is the third largest and fastest growing political party in the United States. The political platform of the Libertarian Party reflects the ideas of Libertarianism, favoring minimally regulated, laissez-faire markets, strong civil liberties, drug liberalization, LGBT rights (such as in marriage, child custody, adoption, immigration or military service laws), separation of church and state, minimally regulated migration across borders, and non-interventionism and diplomacy in foreign policy, i.e., avoiding foreign military or economic entanglements with other nations and respect for freedom of trade and travel to all foreign countries. In the 30 states where voters can register by party, there are over 282,000 voters registered with the party. Hundreds of Libertarian candidates have been elected or appointed to public office, and thousands have run for office under the Libertarian banner. The Libertarian Party has many firsts in its credit such as the first party to get an electoral vote for a woman. On May 5, 2012, Gary Johnson received the Libertarian Party's official nomination for President of the United States in the 2012 election. The Libertarian Party
    5.00
    1 votes
    89

    National Republican Party

    The National Republicans were a political party in the United States. During the administration of John Quincy Adams (1825–1829), the president's supporters were referred to as Adams Men or Anti-Jackson. When Andrew Jackson was elected President of the United States in 1828, this group went into opposition. The use of the term "National Republican" dates from 1830. Before the elevation of John Quincy Adams to the presidency in 1825, the Democratic-Republican Party, which had been the only national American political party for over a decade, began to fracture, losing its infrastructure and identity. Its caucuses no longer met to select candidates because now they had separate interests. After the Election of 1824, factions developed in support of Adams and in support of Andrew Jackson. Adams politicians, including most ex-Federalists (such as Daniel Webster and even Adams himself), would gradually evolve into the National Republican party, and those politicians that supported Jackson would later help form the modern Democratic Party. The ad hoc coalition that supported John Quincy Adams fell apart after his defeat for reelection in 1828. The main opposition to Jackson, the new
    5.00
    1 votes
    90

    Service Employees International Union

    Service Employees International Union (SEIU) is a labor union representing about 1.8 million workers in over 100 occupations in the United States (including Puerto Rico), and Canada. SEIU is focused on organizing workers in three sectors: health care (over half of members work in the health care field), including hospital, home care and nursing home workers; public services (local and state government employees); and property services (including janitors, security officers and food service workers). SEIU is the fastest growing labor union in the United States and has over 150 local branches. It is affiliated with the Change to Win Federation and the Canadian Labour Congress. SEIU is based out of Washington, D.C., and has several internal divisions which include: Communications, Government Affairs, New Media, Organizing, Political, Global Strength, Pension/Benefits, Community Strength, Research, and Legal. The union states that its top priorities are to stand up for working families to help bring economic relief to millions across the country, fix the nation's broken health care system, and fight to guarantee workers' rights on the job. SEIU is sometimes referred to as the "purple
    5.00
    1 votes
    91

    International Brotherhood of Teamsters

    The International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) is a labor union in the United States and Canada. Formed in 1903 by the merger of several local and regional locals of teamsters, the union now represents a diverse membership of blue-collar and professional workers in both the public and private sectors. The union had approximately 1.4 million members in 2008. Formerly known as the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America, the IBT is a member of the Change to Win Federation and Canadian Labour Congress. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) had helped form local unions of teamsters since 1887. In November 1898, the AFL organized the Team Drivers' International Union (TDIU). In 1901, a group of Teamsters in Chicago, Illinois, broke from the TDIU and formed the Teamsters National Union. The new union permitted only employees, teamster helpers, and owner-operators owning only a single team to join, unlike the TDIU (which permitted large employers to be members), and was more aggressive than the TDIU in advocating higher wages and shorter hours. Claiming more than 28,000 members in 47 locals, its president, Albert Young, applied for
    4.00
    1 votes
    92
    American Nazi Party

    American Nazi Party

    The American Nazi Party (ANP) was an American political party founded by veteran U.S. Navy Commander George Lincoln Rockwell. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, Rockwell initially called it the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), but later renamed it the American Nazi Party in 1960 to attract maximum media attention. The party was based largely upon the ideals and policies of Adolf Hitler's NSDAP in Germany during the Third Reich but also expressed allegiance to the Constitutional principles of the U.S.'s Founding Fathers. It also added a platform of Holocaust denial. The WUFENS headquarters was first located in a residence on Williamsburg Boulevard in Arlington, but was later moved as the ANP headquarters to a house at 928 North Randolph Street (now a hotel and office building site). Rockwell and some party members also established a "Stormtrooper Barracks" in a farmhouse in the Dominion Hills section of Arlington at what is now the Upton Hill Regional Park, the tallest hill in the county. After Rockwell's death, the headquarters was moved again to one side of a duplex brick and concrete storefront at 2507 North Franklin Road which featured a swastika
    0.00
    0 votes
    93

    League of Women Voters

    The League of Women Voters is an American political organization founded on February 14, 1920, in Chicago, Illinois by Carrie Chapman Catt during the last meeting of the National American Woman Suffrage Association approximately six months before the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution gave women the right to vote. It began as a "mighty political experiment" aimed to help newly enfranchised women exercise their responsibilities as voters. Originally, only women could join the league; but in 1973 the charter was modified to include men. The league is a grassroots organization with chapters in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The league has approximately 150,000 members (as of 2006). The League of Women Voters has as its official position that it is strictly nonpartisan; it neither supports nor opposes candidates for office at any level of government. At the same time, the League is wholeheartedly political and works to influence policy through advocacy. The league takes a stand on many political issues after studying them and coming to a consensus on a position. The league works to increase understanding of
    0.00
    0 votes
    94

    Mattachine Society

    The Mattachine Society, founded in 1950, was one of the earliest homophile organizations in the United States, probably second only to Chicago’s Society for Human Rights (1924). Harry Hay and a group of Los Angeles male friends formed the group to protect and improve the rights of homosexuals. Because of concerns for secrecy and the founders’ leftist ideology, they adopted the cell organization being used by the Communist Party. In the anti-Communist atmosphere of the 1950s, the Society’s growing membership replaced the group's early Communist model with a more traditional ameliorative civil rights leadership style and agenda. Then, as branches formed in other cities, the Society splintered in regional groups by 1961. Harry Hay conceived of the idea of a homosexual activist group in 1948. After signing a petition for Progressive Party presidential candidate Henry A. Wallace, Hay spoke with other gay men at a party about forming a gay support organization for him called "Bachelors for Wallace". Encouraged by the response he received, Hay wrote the organizing principles that night, a document he referred to as "The Call". However, the men who had been interested at the party were
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    95
    Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party

    Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party

    The Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party (FL) was a left-wing American political party in Minnesota between 1918 and 1944. Largely dominating Minnesota politics during the Great Depression, it was one of the most successful statewide third party movements in United States history and the longest-lasting affiliate of the national Farmer-Labor movement. At its height in the 1920s and 1930s, party members included three Minnesota Governors, four United States Senators, eight United States Representatives and a majority in the Minnesota legislature. In 1944, Hubert H. Humphrey and Elmer Benson worked to merge the party with the state's Democratic Party, forming the contemporary Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party. The Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party emerged from the Non-Partisan League in North Dakota and the Union Labor Party in Duluth, Minnesota on a platform of farmer and labor union protection, government ownership of certain industries, and social security laws. One of the primary obstacles of the party, besides constant vilification on the pages of local and state newspapers, was the difficulty of uniting the party's divergent base and maintaing political union between rural farmers and
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    96
    Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization

    Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization

    The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a United States trade union that operated from 1968 until its decertification in 1981 following a strike that was broken by the Reagan Administration. The 1981 strike and defeat of PATCO has been called "one of the most important events in late twentieth century U.S. labor history". PATCO was founded in 1968 with the assistance of attorney and pilot F. Lee Bailey. On July 3, 1968, PATCO flexed its muscles by announcing "Operation Air Safety" in which all members were ordered to adhere strictly to the established (though impractical) separation standards for aircraft. The resultant large delay of air traffic was the first of many official and unofficial "slowdowns" that PATCO would initiate. In 1969, the U.S. Civil Service Commission ruled that PATCO was no longer a professional association but in fact a trade union. On March 25, 1970, the newly designated union orchestrated a controller "sickout" to protest many of the FAA actions that they felt were unfair; over 2,000 controllers around the country did not report to work as scheduled and informed management that they were ill. Controllers called in sick to
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    98

    United Automobile Workers

    The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, better known as the United Auto Workers (UAW), is a labor union which represents workers in the United States and Puerto Rico, and formerly in Canada. Founded as part of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in the 1930s, the UAW grew rapidly from 1936 to the 1950s. Under the leadership of Walter Reuther it played a major role in the liberal wing of the Democratic party, including the civil rights and anti-Communist movements. The UAW was especially known for gaining high wages and pensions for the auto workers, but it was unable to unionize auto plants built by foreign-based car-makers in the South after 1970s, and went into a steady decline in membership. UAW members in the 21st century work in industries as diverse as autos and auto parts, health care, casino gaming and higher education. Headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, the union has about 390,000 active members and more than 600,000 retired members in 750 local unions, which negotiated 2,500 contracts with some 1,700 employers. The UAW was founded in May 1935 in Detroit, Michigan, under the auspices of the American
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    99

    United Farm Workers

    The United Farm Workers of America (UFWA) (Spanish: Unión de Campesinos) is a labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez. This union changed from a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance to that of a union of farmworkers almost overnight, when the NFWA went out on strike in support of the mostly Filipino farmworkers of the AWOC in Delano, California who had previously initiated a grape strike on September 8, 1965. The NFWA and the AWOC, recognizing their common goals and methods, and realizing the strengths of coalition formation, jointly formed the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee on August 22, 1966. This organization eventually became the United Farm Workers and launched a boycott of table grapes and, after five years of struggle, finally won a contract with the major grape growers in California. The union then brought in thousands more lettuce and vegetable workers in the Salinas and Imperial Valleys and orange workers in Florida employed by subsidiaries of
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    100
    Western Federation of Miners

    Western Federation of Miners

    The Western Federation of Miners (WFM) was a radical labor union that gained a reputation for militancy in the mines of the western United States and British Columbia. Its efforts to organize both hard rock miners and smelter workers brought it into sharp conflicts – and often pitched battles – with both employers and governmental authorities. One of the most dramatic of these struggles occurred in the Cripple Creek district in 1903-04, and has been called the Colorado Labor Wars. The WFM also played a key role in the founding of the Industrial Workers of the World in 1905, but left that organization several years later. The WFM changed its name to the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers (more familiarly referred to as Mine Mill) in 1916. After a period of decline it revived in the early days of the New Deal and helped found the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1935. The Mine Mill union was expelled from the CIO in 1950 during the post-war red scare for refusing to shed its communist leadership. After spending years fighting off efforts by the United Steelworkers of America (USWA) to raid its membership, Mine Mill and the USWA merged in 1967. After
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