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The Republican Left of Catalonia (Catalan: Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, ERC; IPA: [əsˈkɛrə rəpubːɫiˈkanə ðə kətəˈɫuɲə]) is a left wing Catalan independentist political party in Spain. It is also the main sponsor of the independence movement from France and Spain in the territories known among Catalan nationalists as Països Catalans. Occitan Republican Left, formed in 2008, acts as the Aranese section.
Its current president is Oriol Junqueras and its secretary-general is Marta Rovira.
Its basic political principles are defined in the Statement of Ideology approved at the 19th National Congress in 1993. This is organised into the three areas that give the organisation its name: Esquerra (commitment to the Left's agenda in the political debate), República (commitment to the Republican form of government vs. Spain's current constitutional monarchy) and Catalunya (Catalan independentism, which, as understood by ERC, comprises the so-called Catalan Countries).
Despite having been one of the main forces behind the movement for amendment, the party eventually opposed the 2006 changes to the Catalan Statute of Autonomy to increase Catalonia's autonomy. It did so on the grounds that it
European Nation State (in Spanish: Estado Nacional Europeo) is a small far-right political party in Catalonia, Spain. The party defines itself as 'National European' and 'Popular Socialist'.
ENE (N) publishes Intemperie.
The party has participated in the 2003 Barcelona municipal elections and the 2004 parliamentary elections. The latter N obtained 410 votes.
In October 2005 police arrested six N militants, including the party general secretary Luis Antonio García Rodríguez. The Fiscalia del Tribunal Superior de Justícia de Catalunya has petitioned that N ought to be banned on the grounds of being a Nazi party.
The Partido Comunista de España (Reconstituido), PCE(r) is a Spanish clandestine communist party that broke out from the Communist Party of Spain (PCE).
It was formed in 1975, by remaining elements of the Organization of Spanish Marxist-Leninists (OMLE) which was dissolved that year. OMLE, which was functioning from exile, had been formed through a split in the Communist Party of Spain in the 1968. In 1976 PCE(r) set up the Antifascist Resistance Groups October First (GRAPO), as its armed resistance front. Despite its present marginal status, the PCE(r)'s fierce Anti-Americanism still strikes a chord among some Spaniards . The general secretary of the PCE(r) is Manuel Pérez Martínez ('Comrade Arenas').
Following the famous revolts in Paris in 1968, certain groups of leftist Spanish exiles were disappointed with the staunchly pro-Soviet and “frozen” stance of the Spanish Communist Party, the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) and its leader Santiago Carrillo. This led in September of the same year to the foundation of the “Organización de Marxistas Leninistas Españoles” (OMLE) (Organization of Spanish Marxist-Leninists) in Brussels.
During the following years, this splinter-group of
Spanish Absolute Honesty Political Group (in Spanish: Grupo Político Honradez Absoluta Española) is a small political party in Spain. In the 2004 parliamentary elections GPHAE was the least voted party, with just 52 votes.
Communist Party of the Menadores (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de los Menadores, 'menadores' is a certain trade of spinners) is a political party in the municipality of Callosa de Segura, province of Alicante, Spain. PCM is listed at the election authorities . The party was registered on June 5, 2001.
PCM contested the 2003 municipal elections in Callosa de Segura. The party got 94 votes (0.94%) and no seat.
Communist Party of the Valencian Country (Revolutionary Marxist) (in Spanish: Partido Comunista del País Valenciano - Marxista Revolucionario), was the regional affiliate of the Communist Party of Spain (Revolutionary Marxist) in the Valencian Community, Spain. This party disappeared when it merged with Spanish Socialist Workers' Party.
The People's Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Popular [aˈljanθa popuˈlar], AP [aˈpe]) was a electoral coalition, and later a political party, in Spain, founded in 1976 by Manuel Fraga along with six other former Francoist ministers. It was the major opposition party in the 1980s, as the leading conservatist right-wing party in Spain. It was refounded as the People's Party in 1989.
The AP was under the leadership of Manuel Fraga who had helped to prepare the way for reform during the Franco era and who had expected to play a key role in post-Franco governments. He underestimated the popular desire for change and distaste for Francoism, and he advocated an extremely gradual transition to democracy. Although Fraga had originally intended to convey a reformist image, his party was perceived by the electorate as both reactionary and authoritarian.
Fraga's own outbursts of temper and the close ties of many of the AP candidates to the previous regime contributed to this perception. When elections were held in June 1977, the AP garnered 8.3% of the vote, a percentage similar to that of the Spanish Communist Party, its most direct counterpart on the left.
In the months following the 1977
National Democracy (Spanish: Democracia Nacional, DN) is a far right political party in Spain, founded in 1995. It is modelled on the Front National (FN) of France, and grew indirectly out of several defunct parties like the CEDADE group and Juntas Españolas. Its leader is Manuel Canduela Serrano, a former member of Accion Radical, a group active in the Valencian Community. He was also a vocalist in the so-called identity rock group Division 250.
In the 2004 general election, the party got 15,180 votes throughout Spain, amounting to 0.06% of the total vote. In the 2008 general election, it got 12,588 votes, amounting to 0.05% of the vote. That dropped to 0.01% of the vote in the 2011 general election, with 1,876 votes.
Partido Comunista Obrero Español (PCOE, Spanish Communist Workers' Party) is a minor communist political party in Spain. It was founded in 1973, when Enrique Líster (a Republican general in the Spanish Civil War) revolted against the Eurocommunist line of Communist Party of Spain (PCE) general secretary Santiago Carrillo. The party published Unidad y Lucha.
A catalyst for the split was the condemnation by the PCE of the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia in 1968. PCOE was legalized in 1977, during the Spanish transition to democracy. Its sister organisation in Catalonia was the Partit Comunista Obrer de Catalunya. PCOE had a youth organization called the Communist Youth Federation of Spain (Federación de Jóvenes Comunistas de España).
In the 1983 regional elections in the Valencian Community PCOE obtained 6,416 votes (0.,34%). It had an electoral pact with Partido Comunista de España Unificado ahead of the regional elections in Madrid of the same year. When PCEU and other groups unified themselves as the Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain, PCOE chose to remain on the outside. Today the party publishes Teoría Socialista and Análisis.
Unified Socialist Party of Andalusia (in Spanish: Partido Socialista Unificado de Andalucía) was a separatist communist party in Andalusia, Spain, emerging towards the end of the 1970s. PSUA later gave birth to the Front for the Liberation of Andalusia (FLA).
Valencian Union (Unió Valenciana/Unión Valenciana, UV in Valencian and Spanish language respectively) was a regionalist political party in the Valencian Community, Spain.
The party had not been represented in the Valencian autonomous parliament since 1999. It scored 0.95% of the total votes in the 2007 elections, well below the 5% threshold for representation. The party had councillors on several local councils, obtaining its best results in the Valencia province.
The party was closely associated with the blaverist part of Valencianist movement by claiming that the Valencian language is different from the Catalan language and opposing the concept of Països Catalans and Catalan nationalism in the Valencian Community. The party also held right-wing stances on issues such as economics. It formed an electoral alliance with the larger right wing Partido Popular (PP) in the General elections of 1982 and 2004, and the Elections for the Autonomous Parlement in 1983.
It was formed on 30 August 1982 with the stated purpose of "defending Valencian identity" and ran for the first time in the Spanish general election, 1982. It particiapted as part of the larger Spain-wide right-wing block
Judges for Democracy (Spanish: Jueces para la Democracia, JpD) is one of the five Spanish, professional associations of judges and magistrates. Since judges and magistrates in Spain are barred from joining class trade unions professional associations, are intended to protect the rights and interests of judges and magistrates. JpD is considered to be the third association by size and ideologically progressive.
The People's Party (Spanish: Partido Popular pronounced: [parˈtiðo popuˈlar] ( listen), PP [peˈpe]) is a conservative political party in Spain.
The People's Party was a re-foundation in 1989 of the People's Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Popular, AP), a party led and founded by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a former Minister of Tourism during Francisco Franco's dictatorship. The new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic and liberal parties (the party call this fusion of views Reformist centre). In 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of "Founding Chairman".
The PP was until November 2011 the largest opposition party in the Congress of Deputies, with 153 out of 350 deputies, and the largest party represented in the Senate, with 101 out of 208 senators. Its youth organization is New Generations of the People’s Party of Spain (NNGG). In the elections of November 2011 the PP won a majority with 186 seats in the Deputies.
The PP is a member of the center-right European People's Party (EPP) and in the European Parliament its 23 MEPs sit in the EPP Group. The PP is also a member of the Centrist Democrat International and the International Democrat
The Radical Republican Party (Spanish: Partido Republicano Radical), sometimes shortened to the Radical Party was a Spanish political party founded in 1908 by Alejandro Lerroux in Santander, Cantabria by a split from the historical Republican Union party led by Nicolás Salmerón.
With uncertain ideological bases, the party's ideology shifted significantly over time from its initial violent anti-clericalism and its participation in the Tragic Week of 1909 to a coalition with the conservative Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right during the Second Spanish Republic in 1931. Its leader, Alejandro Lerroux was a controversial figure known for his corruption and demagogic rhetoric.
The Radicals enjoyed success in Barcelona, rivaling the local Lliga Regionalista and dominated municipal politics in Barcelona; a period during which Lerroux was dogged by accusations of corruption. Lerroux's skills in mobilizing the lower classes, until 1914, earned him the epithet "Emperor of the Paralelo" (after the working-class neighborhood of the city). Traditional republicans were always skeptical of Lerroux's Radicals, likely because of allegations that he was founded by the dynastic Liberal
Agrarian Trade Union Federation (in Spanish: Federación Sindical Agraria) was a national-syndicalist trade union in Spain, founded in 1933 in Castile. The federation was linked to the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista.
In Spain, the National Front (Frente Nacional) was a far right political party. The National Front was founded and directed by Blas Piñar as a successor to the Fuerza Nueva. It was created in 1986 with the economic support of other groups of the European far right such as the French Front National and the Italian Social Movement with the objective of increasing their sphere of influence in the European Parliament. In 1987 the National Front did not obtain the 70,000 votes (0.63%) required for representation. A drawn-out debacle ensued that intensified because of the 59,964 votes it obtained at the following elections. Many of the party members, moved by their contempt for the gerontocracy at the head of the party, joined with the Juntas Españolas, the Unión Patriótica, and the Círculo Español de Amigos de Europa (CEDADE), a neo-Nazi group. In order to slow the decline of its membership, the National Front created the Youth of the National Front (Juventudes del Frente Nacional), a section headed by Luis José Cillero. With Cillero, who many called the "young ancient," the loss of membership to Juntas Españolas slowed.
In 1992, the European allies of Piñar, with Jean-Marie Le Pen at
Workers' Party of Spain-Communist Unity (in Spanish: Partido de los Trabajadores de España-Unidad Comunista) was a communist political party in Spain, founded by Santiago Carrillo and his followers after their expulsion from the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) in October 1985.
Initially, the party was known as Communist Party of Spain (Revolutionary Marxist) (Partido Comunista de España (Marxista-Revolucionario)), a name still registered at the election authorities, and related to the line of Carrillo in the PCE throughout the 1970s, as the party ideology of PCE under his leadership was redefined from Marxism-Leninism to Revolutionary Marxism.
PTE-UC participated in the 1986 general election with the candidature Table for Unity of the Communists (Mesa para la Unidad de los Comunistas), which gathered 229,695 votes (1.1%). In the municipal elections of 1987, PTE-UC got 185,104 votos and had 179 town councellors elected. Carrillo stood as a candidate for the European Parliament election of 1987, and got 222,680 votes (1.1%).
The 1989 general elections were a complete failure, as PTE-UC only got 86,257 votes. Following the result, PTE-UC merged into the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
The Francisco de Vitoria Association ((Spanish) "Asociación Francisco de Vitoria", AFV) is one of the five Spanish, professional associations of judges and magistrates. Since judges and magistrates in Spain are barred from joining class trade unions, professional associations, are intended to protect the rights and interests of judges and magistrates. AFV is the second association by membership and ideologically moderate.
Spanish Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Español), was the first communist party in Spain, formed out of the Federación de Juventudes Socialistas (Federation of Socialist Youth, youth wing of Spanish Socialist Workers' Party). The founders of the party, that had belonged to leftwing within FJS, included Ramón Merino Gracia, Manuel Ugarte, Pedro Illescasm Luis Portela, Tiburicio Pico and Rito Estaban. Partido Comunista Español was formed on April 15, 1920. Its organ was called El Comunista (The Communist).
Soon after its formation, on November 14, 1921, the party merged with Partido Comunista Obrero Español (Spanish Communist Workers' Party) and formed the Communist Party of Spain.
True Falange (Spanish: Falange Auténtica, FA) is a Falangist political party in Spain. FA emerged in 2002 as a split from Falange Española/La Falange. FA claims to represent the heritage of the dissolved Falange Española de las JONS (Auténtica).
The term 'Authentic' refers to the positioning of FA as 'authentic' as opposed to the official Falange under the rule of Francisco Franco. The 2nd National Chief of the Spanish Falange, Manuel Hedilla (1902–1970), had opposed the forced merger of FE-JONS with the traditionalists. Hedilla who had refused to join the council of the new party and had tried to mobilize his supporters was arrested on 25 April 1937, accused of conspiring against Franco, and condemned to death. However, his sentence was commuted to life in prison on the advice of Ramón Serrano Súñer, Franco's brother-in-law.
FA contested the 2003 municipal election in various parts of the country. It won two seats in El Hoyo de Pinares, Ávila, and one in Ardales, Málaga.
The People's Democratic Party (Spanish: Partido Demócrata Popular, PDP) was a christian-democratic Spanish political party.
It was part of the Democratic Centre Union until 1982, when it entered into alliance with the Popular Alliance (AP), which received the second largest number of votes in 1982 and 1986 elections.
In 1989 the party, along with the Popular Alliance and the Liberal Party (PL), merged with others to create the new Popular Party (PP).
The party President was Óscar Alzaga until 1986, then Javier Rupérez led the party into a merger with AP and PL. Jaime Mayor Oreja, now a leading PP politician, was a leading member of PDP.
The Independent Liberal Group (Spanish: Grupo Independiente Liberal, GIL) was a far-right-wing Spanish political party. It was founded in 1991. Its founder was the convicted businessman Jesús Gil y Gil, who was mayor of Marbella in the Costa del Sol. The name in Spanish GIL is a play on words, as it references the surname of the party's founder Jesus Gil. GIL ruled Marbella since 1991 on a platform of fighting petty crime and public works of ornament. At the same time, Marbella was known as a refuge for British, Italian and Russian crime lords. After Gil was removed by Spanish tribunal on charges of political corruption, Julián Muñoz (also known for his romance with singer Isabel Pantoja) ruled the city. He was later ousted by GIL members supporting Marisol Yagüe Reyes with the help of a turncoat PSOE councillor who had been a vocal critic of corruption. In March 2006, Yagüe and most of her team were brought to trial on charges of corruption about urban development and planning permssion. In April 2006, the Spanish government started the procedure to forcibly dissolve council of Marbella, an unprecedented movement in the recent Spanish democracy.
GIL also established a strong
The Republican Left (Spanish: Izquierda Republicana) was a Spanish left-wing republican party founded in 1934.
The party was founded in 1934 following the left's defeat in the 1933 election, by the merger of Manuel Azaña's Republican Action, part of Marcelino Domingo's Radical Socialist Republican Party and Santiago Casares Quiroga's Autonomous Galician Republican Organization (ORGA). Its members included José Giral, Victoria Kent and Manuel Azaña who became the party's leader.
Integrated in the Popular Front ahead of the 1936 election, the party won 87 seats becoming the third largest party while Manuel Azaña obtained the office of President of the Council of Minister. Following the impeachment of Niceto Alcalá Zamora from the presidency in May 1936, Azaña was elected president, an office he held until his resignation in February 1939. He was succeeded as President of the Council first by Santiago Casares Quiroga and then by José Giral. Later, alongside the Republican Union Party, the party was the main component of the Largo Caballero government in September 1936, at the start of the Spanish Civil War. The IR participated in all republican governments till the end of the civil
The Republican Social Movement (Spanish: Movimiento Social Republicano, MSR) is a neo-fascist political party in Spain. It was registered at the Ministry of Interior on November 30, 1999, with offices in Barcelona. The following year it merged with Vértice Social Español to form what it called a Social Patriotic force.
By its members' own admission, as well as by that of the bulk of the far-right public opinion, the MSR is roughly inscribed in what is usually called the Third Position, and adheres to the commonplace strategy, common to other forms of Strasserism and National Bolshevism, of defending socializing (and at times leftist) doctrines abroad, whereas adopting conservative and anti-immigration stances at a domestic level. Its slogan is 'Spain-Republic-Socialism'.
The party campaigns against immigration into Spain, Turkish membership of the European Union and global capitalism. They support a large programme of re-nationalisation of industries such as electricity and transport. In terms of foreign policies the party takes a strongly pro-Palestinian approach to the Middle East question, criticising Israel alleging that the "Zionist army are committing daily crimes against
The Union of the Democratic Centre (Spanish: Unión de Centro Democrático, UCD) was an electoral coalition, and later political party, in Spain, existing from 1977 to 1983. It was initially led by Adolfo Suárez.
The coalition, in fact a federation of parties, was formed on 3 May 1977, during the transition to democracy from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, with the involvement of leaders from a variety of newly formed centrist and rightist factions, under the leadership of Suárez, then Prime Minister. The principal components of the UCD defined themselves as Christian democrats, liberals, social democrats, or “independents,” the latter frequently comprising conservative elements which had been part of the Franco regime. UCD constituted itself as a party on 4 August 1977.
The UCD governed Spain to 1982. In the elections of 15 June 1977, the party took 34.4% of the vote and 166 seats of the 350 in the Congress of Deputies. The party governed as a minority and worked with all major parties in the Congress, including the rightist People’s Alliance and the parties of the left, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and Communists (PCE). Suárez became the first democratically
Communist Unification Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de Unificación) was a political party in Spain. Formed in 1976 through the unification of the two groups Lucha de Clases and Larga Marcha hacia la Revolución Socialista. Later the same year the Communist Organization Workers Information Organización Comunista Información Obrera joined PCU.
PCU promoted abstention in the 1976 Referendum on the Law of Political Reform.
In 1977 merged into the Party of Labour of Spain (PTE).
The Republican Union (Spanish: Unión Republicana) was a Spanish republican party founded in 1934 by Diego Martinez Barrio.
It was formed as a result of a merger of several small republican parties, including notably Diego Martinez Barrio's Radical Democratic Party founded in May 1934 by a split from Alejandro Lerroux's Radical Party in protest at the latter's alliance with the right-wing CEDA.
Integrated in the Popular Front ahead of the 1936 election, the party won 38 seats becoming the fourth largest party. It formed a governing coalition with Manuel Azaña's Republican Left. Though it participated in all republican governments during the Spanish Civil War, it played a minor role starting under Largo Caballero's government.
In exile in Mexico, it was the main support of the Republican government-in-exile until it was dissolved in 1959 to found the Spanish Democratic Republican Action along with the Republican Left.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Spanish: Partido Socialista Obrero Español [parˈtiðo soθjaˈlista oˈβrero espaˈɲol] listen (help·info); PSOE [peˈsoe] listen (help·info) ) is a social-democratic political party in Spain. Its political position is Centre-left. The PSOE is the former ruling party of Spain, until beaten in the elections of November 2011 and the second oldest, exceeded only by the Partido Carlista, founded in 1833.
The PSOE has had strong ties with the General Union of Workers (UGT), a Spanish trade union. For decades, UGT membership was a requirement for PSOE membership. During the 1980s, though, UGT criticised the economic policies of the PSOE, even calling for a general strike on December 14, 1988.
The PSOE recently lost the general elections on 20 November 2011. The PSOE is a full member of the Party of European Socialists and the Socialist International. In the European Parliament, the PSOE's 21 MEPs sit in the Socialists and Democrats European parliamentary group.
The PSOE was founded with the purpose of representing the interests of the working class born from the Industrial Revolution with the declared objective of achieving socialism, and inspired by the
Liberal Citizens Action (in Spanish: Acción Ciudadana Liberal) was a political party in Spain at the time of the transition to democracy. ACL emerged out of the Liberal Federation (Federación Liberal), an alliance of five parties, in 1977. The president of the party was José María Areilza, Minister of Foreign Affairs 1975-1976. Areilza had left Adolfo Suarez's Democratic Center Union (UCD).
In the 1979 elections ACL was part of the Democratic Coalition, together with Manuel Fraga's Popular Alliance (AP). Areilza was elected deputy in Madrid.
Shortly afterwards, ACL merged with the AP.
The Communist Party of Spain (Marxist-Leninist) (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de España (marxista-leninista), PCE (m-l)) was a communist political party in Spain, formed in 1964 through the merger of splinter groups of Communist Party of Spain (PCE). PCE(m-l) followed the line of the Communist Party of China and Maoism until 1976, when it PCE(m-l) took the side of the Party of Labour of Albania against the Chinese, during the events that led to the Sino-Albanian split.
The PCE(m-l) party was formed by communists dissatisfied that the Communist Party of Spain, under the leadership of Santiago Carrillo, had abandoned the armed struggle in 1964. In 1971, at the time when the need was felt to renew the fight against the Francoist rule of Spain, the then Communist Party of Spain (Marxist–Leninist), together with the Spanish National Liberation Front (FELN) and Vanguardia Socialista, took part in the foundation of the Revolutionary and Patriotic Antifascist Front (FRAP).
At meeting in Paris (held in a house owned by American writer Arthur Miller, January 1971) PCE(m-l) launched the Coordinating Committee of FRAP (Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriota - the "Revolutionary
Workers Collectives (in Catalan: Col·lectius de Treballadors, abbreviated CC.TT.) was a Catalan left-nationalist trade union.
CC.TT. functioned as the trade union wing of the Socialist Party of National Liberation (PSAN). CC.TT. was formed in May 1977. Prior to the formation of CC.TT., PSAN had worked within CC.OO.. In 1979 CC.TT. initiated a policy of cooperation with other trade union forces. In Osona the CC.TT. joined the Workers Trade Union of Osona (Sindicat de Treballadors d'Osona). In 1980 CC.TT. became one of the founding organisations of the Workers Trade Union Confederation of Catalonia (Confederació Sindical de Treballadors de Catalunya)
The Communist Party of Spain (8th and 9th Congresses) (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de España (VIII y IX Congresos)) was a pro-Soviet splinter group of Communist Party of Spain (PCE).
PCE (VIII-IX) was one of many groups that broke away from PCE during the period when Santiago Carrillo held the post of PCE general secretary and directed the party towards Eurocommunism; it was founded in 1971. A prominent leader of the new party was Augustín Gómez. It published a magazine called Mundo Obrero (same name as the publication of PCE).
In 1980 PCE (VIII-IX) fused with Workers' Communist Party to form the Unified Communist Party of Spain. PCEU was later instrumental in creating the Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain in 1982.
The People's Party of Spain in the United States (PPE-USA) (Spanish: Partido Popular de España en Estados Unidos) is the organization of the Spanish People's Party (Partido Popular) in the United States of America. It held its First Convention in Newark, New Jersey on April 30, 2006, an event attended by more than 300 party members and sympathizers.
The PPE-USA has members in all 50 states. Its headquarters are located in New Jersey, and it has active territorial delegations in California, Florida, Massachusetts and New York.
Since the First Convention, the president of the People's Party of Spain in the U.S. is Neir Taboada Gamallo, who is also a member of the National Executive Committee of the People's Party of Spain.
The Communist Party of Spain (Spanish: Partido Comunista de España, PCE) is the third largest national political party in Spain. It is the largest member organization of the United Left electoral coalition and has influence in the largest trade union in Spain, Workers' Commissions (CCOO).
The youth organisation of PCE is the Communist Youth Union of Spain. PCE publishes Mundo Obrero (Workers World) monthly.
The PCE was the result of a merger between two organisations: the original Spanish Communist Party (Partido Comunista Español or PCE) and the Spanish Communist Workers' Party (Partido Comunista Obrero Español or PCOE). The former was created in April 1920 from portions of the Socialists' youth organisation (Federación de Juventudes Socialistas or FJS) while the latter had been formed from a union of dissident Socialists (terceristas) and members of the General Union of Workers (Unión General de Trabajadores or UGT) who regarded the original PCE as not properly representative of the working class.
The two parties joined in the new Partido Comunista de España on November 14, 1921. The unified PCE became a member of the Third International and held its first congress in Sevilla in
Communist Party of the Valencians (in Catalan: Partit Comunista dels Valencians) was a political party in Valencian Community, Spain. The party was founded in the early 1980s, by a group of former PCPV militants. The leader of PCV was Víctor Baeta.
Around 1990 the party integrated itself into the Moviment de Defensa de la Terra, an organization tied to the Independentistes dels Països Catalans.
Republican Action (Spanish: Acción Republicana) was a Spanish left-wing republican party between 1930 and 1939.
The AR was founded in 1925 under the name Acción Política ("Political Action") by Manuel Azaña and José Giral. Political Action became a political party in 1930 under the name Republican Action. The party was anticlerical, and supported decentralization, agrarian reform and military reform.
As a member of the republican alliance, the AR was a signatory of the Pact of San Sebastián to overthrow the monarchy of Alfonso XIII and was later involved in the construction and consolidation of the Second Spanish Republic. It was a member of the provisional government which governed Spain after the King fled in April 1931.
The party's left-wing faction, led by Marcelino Domingo split off from the party to form the Radical Socialist Republican Party in 1931.
The party won 30 seats in the 1931 election and soon became, despite its small size, an integral part of governments until 1933 notably under its leader Manuel Azaña. After the defeat of the left in the 1933 election, during which the AR won only 10 seats, it merged with the Autonomous Galician Republican Organization (ORGA) and
The Social democratic party (Partido Social Demócrata, PSD) was created following a split in the Social democratic union party on April 9, 2007 in Spain, in the Valencian Community, its ideology is social democratic.
The aims of the PSD are to obtain votes in all of Spain and to stimulate direct participation in politics. It gained relevancy in the local and regional elections of May 27 in 2007 in the Valencian Community, in the Community of Madrid, in Murcia, Extremadura, Cantabria, Aragón, Andalucía and Castilla La Mancha.
In the 2007 elections it gained councillors in some cities:
In the 2008 Spanish general election it failed to win a seat in either the senate or congress. It received 19,042 votes for the Congress of Deputies, which represented 0.08% of the total. Of those votes, 4,047 came from Andalucía (although the party didn't stand there in the autonomous elections) and 3,309 in the Valencian Community. The party failed to stand in the Basque Country, and in Melilla.
Communist Workers Bloc of Andalusia (in Spanish: Bloque Obrero Comunista de Andalucía) is a political formation in the municipality of Jódar, Jaén province, Spain. BOCA emerged from a split from the Communist Party of the Andalusian People (PCPA).
BOCA was registered as a political party on February 25, 1998. BOCA has participated in the 1999 and 2003 municipal elections in Jodar. In 1999 it got 435 votes (6.46%) and one seat in the municipal council. In 2003 it got 495 votes (7.08%) and one seat. At times BOCA have supported the municipal government of the United Left (IU). On January 2004 a break between BOCA and IU occurred, after which IU had to seek support from the Popular Party (PP).
Cristóbal Jiménez is the spokesperson of BOCA.
New National Left (in Spanish: Nueva Izquierda Nacional) was a far-right political party in Spain.
NIN was one of five groups that were registered as political parties by the Ministry of Interior on October 4, 1976, the first to be registered after the abolition of the one-party system.
NIN never attained any major importance. The group is no longer active today.
The Valencian Nationalist Bloc (Valencian: Bloc Nacionalista Valencià, Bloc or BNV; IPA: [ˈblɔɡ nasionaˈlista valensiˈa]) is a Valencian nationalist party in the Valencian Country, Spain. It is the largest party in the Coalició Compromís.
The Bloc's main aim is, as stated in their guidelines, "to achieve full national sovereignty for the Valencian people, and make it legally declared by a Valencian sovereign Constitution allowing the possibility of association with the countries which share the same language, history and culture". The second part refers to the other Catalan-speaking lands, known as Països Catalans.
The Bloc was formed in 1998 as a result of the federation of several parties in a coalition formed for the 1995 regional elections. That group of parties was headed by Unitat del Poble Valencià (UPV, founded in 1982) which is the main predecessor of the current Bloc, together with other smaller parties, often locally based, such as the Valencian Nationalist Party (1990) or Alcoi Nationalists (1994).
The Bloc has historically defined itself as a left-wing party. This position shifted to a centrist or center-left position in the late nineties, as part of a strategy to
Communist Party of Spain (Marxist-Leninist) (Spanish: Partido Comunista de España (marxista-leninista)) is a communist party in Spain, founded in 2006 by the Statewide Coordination of Communist Organizations (CEOC) as a unification of 4 communist organizations.
PCE (m-l) publishes Octubre every month and is an active member of the International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity & Struggle).
Communist Unification of Spain (in Spanish: Unificación Comunista de España, in Basque: Komunisten Batasuna) is a political party in Spain. The group emerged around the publication Tribuna Obrera in 1968. It was constituted as UCE in 1973. Its ideological line is Marxist-Leninist and Mao Zedong Thought. Some organizations define it as a cult.
During the Spanish transition to democracy UCE was active in a process of unity with the Communist Movement of Spain (MCE). That relation however broke down. At the first congress of UCE in 1979, the party decided to put all efforts into building their own party. In the 1977 elections UCE supported the Democratic Left Front (FDI). From 1979 to 1986 and from 2003 to 2004 they called the vote for the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), from 1989 to 2000 they called the vote for United Left (IU), and then for Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) in 2008. In the Spanish local and regional elections, 2011 they ran for elections in 34 municipalities and 7 Autonomous regions obtaining a total of 8,925 votes.
UCE publishes and sells a variety of newspapers which it uses to fund its political campaigns:
The UCE defines itself as a proletarian
Another Democracy is Possible (Otra Democracia es Posible) was a Spanish activist group (2003~2006), claiming for more democracy (fair electoral systems, participative and direct democracy, popular initiatives, and so on).
It carried out several Trojan activities; for instance taking part of national, regional and local polls as an extraparliamentary Spanish political party. Not to ask for votes rather to promote its activist message by including its shocking logo into the electoral ballots and getting media visibility.
The Catalan Agreement of Progress (Catalan: Entesa Catalana de Progrés, ECP) is a union of center-left and left wing and Catalan political parties in Catalonia. The union consists of three parties: Socialists' Party of Catalonia (Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya), Initiative for Catalonia Greens (Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds) and United and Alternative Left (Esquerra Unida i Alternativa). Until the 2011 election, the Republican Left of Catalonia (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya) was also part of the union.
The union was founded before the Spanish general election, 2000 by four left wing and Catalan political parties in Catalonia. The union is only represented in the Spanish Senate.
Communist Party of Spain (international) (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de España (internacional)), was a political party in Spain. It was formed following the 2nd conference of the Communist Party of Spain (international), which then changed its name to Party of Labour of Spain. The group reconstituted a party with the name PCE(i).
In 1978 PCE(i) was dissolved. Many of its militants joined either PTE or the Communist Organisation of Spain (Red Flag) (OCE-BR).
The General Confederation of Labour (Spanish: Confederación General del Trabajo, CGT) of Spain is an Anarcho-Syndicalist trade union, arisen from the 1979 split of CNT/AIT after the arrival of democracy and the following reorganization and restructuring process of the trade unions.
As the largest anarchist trade union in the world, the CGT has a membership of approximately 60,000 people, while representing around 2 million workers through industrial committees and collective bargaining. It is especially strong today in Catalonia, where historically, anarchism had strong support. For historical reasons, the CGT is also a main player in the Spanish state railways, RENFE. It is also part of the industrial committee of SEAT, the Spanish car manufacturer and the largest company in Catalonia. Nonetheless, the CGT does not hold the majority in any important industrial committee at this moment. The CGT has been known to call for industrial action, without support of any other unions. Sometimes it had refused to accept collective bargaining agreements negotiated by other trade unions, unless these have been appoved by general secret ballots.
In that sense, the CGT has recently rejected a
Convergence and Union (Catalan: Convergència i Unió, CiU; IPA: [kumbərˈʒɛnsiə j uniˈo]) is a centre-right electoral alliance in Catalonia, Spain. CiU is technically a federation of two constituent parties, the larger Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) and its smaller counterpart, the Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC). It is currently led by Artur Mas, who is the current President of the Catalan Government.
CiU is a Catalan nationalist party. It is usually seen as a moderate nationalist party, both in Catalonia and in the rest of Spain. Depending on the observer it is regarded as either conservative or centrist. Still, liberal leanings may be found in the larger CDC, while Union is a Christian democratic party. As for its position in the nationalist debate, it is deliberately ambiguous so as to appeal to the broadest spectrum possible, from voters who seek full independence from Spain to those who are generally satisfied with the present self-government status. In general, the CDC tends to be more supportive of Catalan sovereignty, while the UDC is considered closer to traditional Catalan autonomism and more nuanced nationalism.
In the most recent regional elections, held
Marxist-Leninist Front of the Peoples of Spain (in Spanish: Frente Marxista-Leninista de los Pueblos de España), a political party in Spain. FMLPE is listed at the election authorities .
It is unclear whether the party is still active.
National Alliance July 18 (in Spanish: Alianza Nacional del 18 de Julio) was a far-right nationalist electoral coalition in Spain, formed ahead of the 1977 elections by New Force of Blas Piñar, Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista and Carlist Traditionalist Communion.
The alliance won 67336 votes (0.37%) and no seats.
July 18 refers to the day on which the Nationalist forces under the leadership of Francisco Franco launched a military uprising in 1936.
Regionalist Social Party (Institutional Union) (in Spanish: Partido Social Regionalista (Unión Institucional)), a political party in Spain. PSR was founded in 1976, and was one of the first five political parties registered on October 4, 1976. PSR was of Carlist inspiration. At the time of its foundation the party was based in Catalonia.
The party is reported to remain in existence, but little is known about it. It called for a vote for Partido Popular in the 1996 elections.
Citizens for Blank Votes (Ciudadanos En Blanco) is a Spanish political party.
In Spanish electoral law, a distinction is made between valid votes, blank votes (votos en blanco) and null votes. Blank votes are interpreted as correctly executed votes for "none of the above", and consistently about 2% of votes are blank. Voting "blank" is not the same thing as abstaining, and so it has been argued that blank votes should be recognized as legitimate by apportioning empty seats in representative bodies according to the number of blank votes. Abstainers, the argument continues, exclude themselves from the democratic process and so need not be recognized in this way.
The platform of Ciudadanos En Blanco is that, if elected, their candidates will leave their seats vacant, until such time as the Spanish electoral law is reformed to recognize blank votes in the manner described above. At that point, the party will have no more reason to exist.
The party's slogan is No votes en blanco, vota a Ciudadanos En Blanco (Do not vote "en blanco", vote for Citizens "En Blanco").
The Popular Front (Spanish: Frente Popular) in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election.
The Popular Front included the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Communist Party of Spain (PCE), the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, independent communist) and the republicans: Republican Left (IR), (led by Azaña) and Republican Union Party (UR), led by Diego Martínez Barrio. This pact was supported by Galician (PG) and Catalan nationalists (ERC), socialist union Workers' General Union (UGT), and the anarchist trade union, the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). Many anarchists who would later fight alongside Popular Front forces during the Spanish Civil War did not support them in the election, urging abstention instead.
The Joseph Stalin-controlled Comintern had decided in 1935 that, in response to the growth of Fascism, popular fronts allying Communist parties with other anti-Fascist parties including Socialist and even bourgeois parties were advisable. In Spain, it was a coalition between leftist
The Spanish Trade Union Organisation (Spanish: Organización Sindical Española), commonly known as Vertical Syndicate (Sindicato Vertical), was the only legal trade union organisation in Francoist Spain (1940–1975), and a main component of the Movimiento Nacional Francoist apparatus. Previous unions, like the anarchist CNT and the socialist UGT, were outlawed and driven underground.
The OSE was founded in 1940, as a result of various legislations passed by the new regime. OSE held its first congress February 27, 1961 – March 4, 1961. The organisation itself claimed to have roots in the trade union activity of the National-Syndicalist Workers Central (CONS), founded in 1935. CONS had been, as a result of the process of unification of falangists and traditionalists in 1937, fused with the National-Syndicalist Employers Central (CENS) into the National-Syndical Centrals (Centrales Nacional-Sindicalistas). The idea of organising workers, technicians and employers within one "vertical" structure was also integrated in OSE, and the CNS were incorporated into OSE.
At the very beginning of Franco's regime, wages were directly fixed by the state and only later could workers and employers
Balearic Anticolonialist Group (in Catalan: Grup Anticolonialista Balear) was a political organization in the Balearic Islands founded on January 1978. It was yet one more short-lived minority agent in the agitated political context of the Spanish Transition to democracy.
GAB campaigned for independence of the Balearic Islands from Spain, but, contrary to the typical view of radical nationalist left groups, it did not ask for the hypothetical independent Balearic islands to become a part of an equally hypothetical independent Països Catalans.
GAB was politically tied to the Communist Party of Spain (international) (PCE(i)).
The Gamesys Group was founded in 2001 by Noel Hayden, Robin Tombs, Andrew Dixon and four developers.
Jackpotjoy, their soft-gaming product, was launched in April 2002. Since Jackpotjoy's launch, Gamesys has published over 250 white labeled versions of the site for partners such as Lycos, Tiscali, Ryanair and Orange amongst many others.
The group now includes Gamesys Limited, Mice and Dice Limited, Profitable Play Limited and Leisure Spin Limited.
Gamesys was named as the UK’s number 1 fastest-growing private technology company in the Sunday Times 2006 Tech Track 100. In the 2007 listing, Gamesys was ranked at 28. The Tech Track 100 is compiled by Fast Track and ranks Britain’s fastest growing unquoted technology firms by sales. In October 2007, Jackpotjoy.com won the Egaming Review Bingo Operator of the Year award.
The Group's primary soft-gaming brand is Jackpotjoy.com which offers both free-to-play and pay-to-play versions of their games. The games are browser-based and do not require a download. Jackpotjoy has launched games based around classic UK TV game shows including The Price Is Right, Strike It Lucky and Deal or No Deal. The company has licensed its software to a Spanish
LAB (Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak, "Nationalist Workers' Committees" in Basque language) is a Basque nationalist trade union operating mainly in Spain currently led by Ainhoa Etxaide.
It was created in 1974 by Jon Idigoras among others. They are part of the Basque National Liberation Movement, an aggregation of leftist Basque nationalist forces including the illegal paramilitary organization Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) and the illegal parties Batasuna and Segi. It is supported by around 40.000 affiliates.
The union is legal and it is one of the four major of its kind in the Basque Country. In the last decades it has been working mostly with the other nationalist union, ELA, while both have been opposed often by the Spanish-wide trade unions, UGT and CC.OO., that make up their own bloc.
The Liberal Party (Spanish: Partido Liberal, PL) was a liberal Spanish political party.
It was part of the Democratic Centre Union until 1983, when it aligned itself with the Popular Alliance (AP) and the Democratic Popular Party (PDP). These three parties formed the Popular Coalition for the 1986 elections.
In 1989 the party, along with AP and PDP, merged to form the new Popular Party (PP).
Esperanza Aguirre, now a leading PP figure, was a Liberal member.
The Professional Association of Magistrates (Spanish: Asociación Profesional de la Magistratura) is one of the five Spanish, professional associations of judges and magistrates. Since judges and magistrates in Spain are barred from joining trade unions, professional associations such as APM have adopted the traditional union role of protecting their employment rights and conditions. APM is the biggest professional association of judges and magistrates in Spain and is considered to be ideologically conservative..
The Spanish Communist Workers' Party (Partido Comunista Obrero Español) was a communist party founded on April 13, 1921 by the terceristas, who had been trying to persuade the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) to join the Comintern. When the PSOE Congress voted to join the Vienna International and refused Bolshevism, the terceristas broke away.
A new Communist Party of Spain was founded on November 14, 1921 through an act of merger of Partido Comunista Español and Partido Comunista Obrero Español. The unified PCE soon adhered to the Comintern.
Later, in 1973 a group led by Enrique Líster broke away from PCE and formed a new party with the name Spanish Communist Workers Party.
Workers Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de los Trabajadores) was a political party in Spain. Formed in 1977 by the Left Opposition of PCE.
PCT had a youth wing called Workers' Communist Youth (Juventudes Comunistas de los Trabajadores)
In 1980 PCT unified with Communist Party of Spain (8th and 9th Congresses) to form the Unified Communist Party of Spain (PCEU).
España 2000 is a social patriot political party of Spain. At present they are without parliamentary representation, but they have a growing presence in Valencia and a minor presence currently in Catalonia, Granada, Navarra, Sevilla and Madrid.
The French Front National assisted and supported the party at its national congress.
There are political parties with relatively similar ideology in Spain such as FE-La Falange, Fuerza Nueva, Arbil, Democracia Nacional and the more moderate national Catholic Partido Demócrata Español. España 2000 advocates a mixture of socialism and conservatism centering around the defense of the traditional family, tighter control of Spanish borders to prevent illegal immigration, creation of a public banking system, more social spendings, better salaries and labor conditions for the working class, fight against economic and real state speculation, abolition of the D'Hondt method and stablishment of a more democratic voting system, more investment in the police and military as well as in public educaction and protected housing, priority for native Spaniards to gain access to jobs, and the immediate expulsion of illegal immigrants. They share values set
Communist Party of Spain (international) (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de España (internacional)), was a political party in Spain. It was formed around 1967, following a split from the 'Unidad' group within the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia (PSUC). The Catalan group unified with small splinter fractions of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE), especially from Seville.
At the 2nd congress of PCE(i) in 1975 the party changed its name to Party of Labour of Spain (in Spanish: Partido del Trabajo del España, PTE) and adopted an internal federal structure. A minority broke away, and regrouped themselves with the name PCE(i).
In Catalonia the party worked under the name Partit del Treball de Catalunya and in Andalusia under the name Partido del Trabajo de Andalucía.
The same year PTE joined the Democratic Junta of Spain.
The leader of PTE was Eladio García.
The youth wing of PTE was Young Red Guard of Spain (Joven Guardia Roja). PTE launched its own trade union movement, the Workers Unitary Trade Union Confederation (CSUT), as they were dissatisfied with developments in Workers' Commissions.
The central organ of PCE(i)/PTE was Mundo Obrero Rojo (-1975). In 1975-1977 it published El
Democratic and Social Centre (in Spanish: Centro Democrático y Social) was a Spanish moderate, social democratic and centrist political party, which was founded in 1982. The party's youth organization is the Democratic and Social Centre Youth. Currently its members merged into People's Party.
CDS was founded on July 29, 1982 by Adolfo Suárez, who had been the principal architect of the transition to a democratic system after the death of Francisco Franco and served as head of Government from 1976 to 1981. The followers of CDS claimed that their party was the inheritor of the political legacy of Unión de Centro Democrático (UCD).
After resigning both as prime minister of Spain and president of the UCD in January 1981, Suarez continued to struggle for control of the party machine. When he failed in his bid to regain party leadership in July 1982, he abandoned the party he had created and formed the CDS. The new centrist party fared poorly in the October general elections, gaining only two parliamentary seats.
By 1986 the party's fortunes had improved dramatically under the leadership of the former prime minister. In the June elections, the CDS more than tripled its share of the vote,
The Falange Española Tradicionalista de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS, Spanish for "Traditionalist Spanish Falange and of the Unions of the National-Syndicalist Offensive") was the official political party founded by Francisco Franco April 19, 1937, in the midst of the Spanish Civil War.
The party constituted a merger of the Carlist traditionalists and the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista, which itself resulted from an earlier combination of the Falange and the JONS, the national syndicalist party. The group was formed by Franco in order to ensure his control over the entire movement after a power struggle between Manuel Hedilla and the alliance of Agustín Aznar and Sancho Dávila y Fernández de Celis threatened to interfere with the war effort. After Franco's military victory in 1939, the FET y de las JONS became the sole legal political party of Spain.
In 1949, it was reorganized as the main component of the Movimiento Nacional ("National Movement"), which had for some time been its most-used unofficial name. After the end of Franco's rule, the movement disbanded; a number of small ultra-right groups in modern Spain
Partido de Unión Nacional Saharaui (PUNS, Sahrawi National Union Party) was a short-lived political party set up by Spain to rally support in its rebellious Spanish Sahara colony (now Western Sahara).
The PUNS was created in late 1974 as the Partido Revolucionario Progresivo (Revolutionary Progressive Party), but soon changed its name. It was composed mainly of members of the Djema'a, a tribalist political body set up for similar purposes in the 1950s.
PUNS was the only legal party in Fascist Spain except the ruling Falange, (not counting the recents legalization of nationalist, liberal and Social-Christian transitional associations, yet without representation in the national Movement principios and special constitutional Leyes Fundamentales laws), and was allowed to send delegates to the Cortes (Parliament) in Madrid. It had no decision making powers, and was more an instrument of the military governors in Western Sahara. Its leaders and creators, Khellihenna Ould Errachid and Dueh Sidna Naucha, worked in close collaboration with Spanish authorities.
Its political program was supportive of Spain, and changed according to the rapid evolution of Spanish policy. In first months of
Union, Progress and Democracy (Spanish: Unión Progreso y Democracia, UPD or officially UPyD) is a Spanish political party founded in September 2007.
It is a progressivist and social liberal party. One of its goals is to build a federal system for Spain and the European Union, with clear responsibilities distributed among local governments, autonomous regions, Spain and the Union. The party is against any kind of nationalism, and claims that citizenship must be the main issue and not identities based on religions, languages or place of birth.
UPyD first fought in the 2008 general election, held on 9 March. It received 303,246 votes, or 1.2% of the national total and one seat in the Congress of Deputies. for party co-founder Rosa Díez, thus becoming the newest party with national representation in Spain.
The leading core of this political party comes from the Basque Autonomous Community, with roots in the anti-ETA civic associations, yet it addresses a Spain-wide audience. Philosopher Fernando Savater, was one of the main promoters of the party. Other important promoters included Rosa Díez (formerly a leading figure in the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, PSOE), university professor
The Juntas Españolas was a far-right political party in Spain created in 1983 after a call was issued through the defunct newspaper El Alcázar by the newspaper's director, Antonio Izquierdo. The group also followed the failure and self-dissolution of the Fuerza Nueva of Blas Piñar.
The group intended to renew and modernize the message of the far-right in Spain. The group dissolved and integrated with the Alianza Democrática Nacional, which later became the Democracia Nacional (DN).
Solidaridad Obrera (Spanish, meaning "Workers' Solidarity"; originally, in Catalan, Solidaritat Obrera) was a labor federation in Spain. It was initially formed on August 3, 1907, as a "pure syndicalist" federation, incorporating the structures of the Unió Local de Societats Obreres de Barcelona ("Local Union of Workers' Societies of Barcelona") with the purpose of reorganizing the Catalonian trade unions. These unions were quite weak at the time, due to the failure of a 1902 general strike which had sought the eight-hour day and the recognition of the right to strike.
There were two constituent meetings of what was initially the Federació Local de Societats Obreres de Barcelona ("Local Federation of Workers' Societies of Barcelona", June 1907), which agreed to publish a common manifesto to constitute an organizing committee, which included Antoni Fabra, Josep Prat, and Tomás Herreros.
The federation established a rule that they would only enroll organizations composed exclusively of workers. They quickly acquired an enormous force among the working class, affiliating many Catalonian workers' societies in the congress of September 6–8 , 1908, and reconstituting themselves as
Spanish Agrarian Party (in Spanish: Partido Agrario Español) was a political party in Spain during the Second Republic. Initially the party was known as Agrarian Party (Partido Agrario) but took the name PAE in 1934.
PAE was a republican party, and it cooperated with centrist and rightwing parties. PAE took part in right-wing governments.
PAE had its base amongst small and medium farmers, and the party clearly opposed agrarian reform. The main base of the party was in Castilla y León.
The Youth of PAE published Vibración in Catalonia.
In 1970s the party was refounded. On October 4, 1976 it was one of the five first political parties to register. In the Spanish general election, 1977, it won 833 votes out of 18,324,333.
Euskal Langileen Alkartasuna, ELA (Solidarity of Basque Workers) is the major trade union of the Basque Country, principally active in the Spanish autonomous communities of the Basque Country and Navarre with a low level of organisation in the Northern Basque Country.
Christian Democratic Team of the Spanish State (in Spanish: Equipo Demócrata Cristiano del Estado Español) was a political alliance of the Democratic Union of Catalonia, Democratic Left of Ruiz Giménez and the Democratic Popular Federation of Gil Robles, formed in January 1976. EDCEE contested the 1977 general elections in Spain in alliance with Catalan centrist forces. The alliance got 215841 votes (1.18% of the nationwide vote).
The Citizens – Party of the Citizenry (Spanish: Ciudadanos – Partido de la Ciudadanía, official name used nationwide; Catalan: Ciutadans – Partit de la Ciutadania, used co-officially with former in Catalonia; short acronym C's) is a Spanish political party which describes itself as centre-left and non-nationalist. It is mostly active in Catalonia, where it is the smallest parliamentary party with three MPs in the Catalan Parliament.
Ciutadans was formed in Catalonia in July 2006 in response to the call made in a manifesto by a group of Catalan intellectuals critical of Catalan nationalism (among them Albert Boadella, Félix de Azúa and Arcadi Espada), in which they called for a new political force to "address the real problems faced by the general public". In this manifesto, they also warned that "the rhetoric of hatred promulgated by official Catalan government media against everything 'Spanish' is more alarming than ever" and that "the (Catalan) nation, postulated as an homogenous entity, has taken occupation of the space where an undeniably diverse society lives".
This group of intellectuals, almost entirely based in Barcelona, formed a political platform called Ciutadans de
The Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista, POUM; Catalan: Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic and mainly active around the Spanish Civil War. It was formed by the fusion of the Trotskyist Communist Left of Spain (Izquierda Comunista de España, ICE) and the Workers and Peasants' Bloc (BOC, affiliated with the Right Opposition) against the will of Leon Trotsky, with whom the former broke. The writer George Orwell served with the party and witnessed the Stalinist repression of the movement, which would form his anti-totalitarian ideas in later life.
In 1935, POUM was formed as a communist opposition to Stalinism by the revolutionaries Andreu Nin and Joaquín Maurín. The two were heavily influenced by the thinking of Leon Trotsky, particularly his Permanent Revolution thesis. It resulted from the merging of the Trotskyist Communist Left of Spain and the Workers and Peasants' Bloc against the wishes of Trotsky, with whom the former broke.
The party grew larger than the official Communist Party of Spain (PCE) both nationally and in the communist hotbeds of Catalonia
The Spanish Patriotic Union, UPE (in Spanish: Unión Patriótica Española) was the political party created from above by Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera, conceived as a support to his conservative dictatorship and integrating political catholicism, technocrats, and the business-owning classes.
After the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic, the party changed its name to Unión Monarquista (Monarchist Union). It was merged into the Falange in 1936.
Syndicalist Party (Spanish: Partido Sindicalista; Catalan: Partit Sindicalista) was a left-wing political party in Spain, formed by Ángel Pestaña in 1932. Pestaña, a leading member of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) trade union, formed the party in response to the growing influence of the Iberian Anarchist Federation over the CNT. He and other notable members of the CNT had previously signed a Manifest dels Trenta ("Manifesto of the Thirty"), which had got them expelled.
Never a major group, the Party was isolated due to its moderate syndicalist stance, and depended on several cells in Madrid, Andalusia, Zaragoza, Catalonia, and the Land of Valencia.
The Syndicalist Party published a daily newspaper, El Pueblo. In Barcelona the Catalan Federation of the party published Hora Sindicalista (1936–1937) and then Mañana until January 1939. The youth wing of the party was the Syndicalist Youth (Juventud Sindicalista). In 1936 two party members, Pestaña and Benito Pabón, were elected to the parliament as affiliates of the Popular Front.
The group backed the Republic during the Spanish Civil War. Affected by Pestaña's death in December 1937, it still numbered around 30,000
Tierra Comunera (TC) (in English: Commoners' Land) is a nationalist political party in the Spanish historical region of Castile. It is modelled after the Basque and Catalan nationalist parties but does not advocate full independence for Castile, instead favoring cooperation or unification among what they call the five Castilian regions within Spain (Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha, Madrid, Cantabria and La Rioja). It considers itself a left-of-centre, social democratic and environmentalist party.
The Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT, General Union of Workers) is a major Spanish trade union, historically affiliated with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
The UGT was founded 12 August 1888 by Pablo Iglesias Posse (b.Ferrol 1850- d.Madrid 1925) in Mataró (Barcelona), with Marxist socialism as its ideological basis, despite its statutory apolitical status. Until its nineteenth Congress in 1920, it did not consider class struggle as a basic principle of trade union action. Being a member of the UGT implies an affiliation to the PSOE and vice versa.
During World War I era, the UGT followed a tactical line of close relationship and unity of action with the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT, National Labour Confederation). This era came to a sudden end with the advent of the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, who gave a legal monopoly on labor organizing to his own government-sponsored union. While the CNT opted for a radical confrontation with the regime, and were prohibited on this account, the UGT, although in disagreement with the dictatorship, adopted a collaborative attitude in order to continue to operate legally. The radicalization during the period
Solidaridad Obrera (Labour Solidarity) is a small anarcho-syndicalist labour union federation that appeared in Madrid, Spain in 1990 as a split from the Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT), itself a split from the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), the Spanish member of the International Workers Association (IWA) (In Spanish: Asociación International de losTrabajadores or AIT). Its founders did not accept resolutions made by the CGT congress in 1989. The union regularly publishes Contramarcha and El Solidario
Solidaridad Obrera lies somewhere between what they consider reformism, represented by CGT and intransigent anarchism, represented by CNT-AIT. They participate in works committees when the union sections idecide to do so. They never accept government subsidies. All kind of activity depend on member assemblies, where information is fluently transmitted. They publish regularly papers and bulletins edited by each union section. Publishing traditional, out of print and new books about anarcho-syndicalism and work news is also a particular feature of this union. Their statutes emphasize that members of any political party cannot participate in union elections or being a
Communist Party of National Liberation (in Galician: Partido Comunista de Liberación Nacional) was a separatist political party in Galicia, Spain. PCLN was founded on July 25, 1986 by the 22 March Communist Collective (Colectivo Comunista 22 de marzo). The collective had been launched earlier by 13 Central Committee members of the Galician People's Union (UPG) left UPG in protest of the decision of the Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG, the coalition led by UPG) to participate in the Galician parliament. Front figures of the collective was Mariano Abalo, general secretary of UPG, and Xan Carballo, general secretary of INTG.
The 3rd National Assembly of BNG, held in Carballiño (Ourense) in 1987, expelled PCLN on the grounds that the party had supported Herri Batasuna in elections to the European Parliament.
In 1987 PCLN, Galiza Ceibe-OLN, Nationalist Collective of Trasancos, Nationalist Collective of Vigo, Galician Independentist Groups from Santiago de Compostela, the Iskreiro collective from A Coruña and non-organized individuals launched the Galician Popular Front (FPG). Within FPG, PCLN aimed to keep independence of the member organizations within the front. Galiza Ceive-OLN wanted
CEDADE (from the initials of Círculo Español de Amigos de Europa or 'Spanish Circle of Friends of Europe') was a Spanish neo-Nazi group that concerned itself with co-ordinating international activity and publishing.
The group began life in 1966 ostensibly as a society for the appreciation of Richard Wagner but before long it had taken on a neo-Nazi dimension, influenced by the likes of Otto Skorzeny who was a founder member. Counting Léon Degrelle amongst its leading members, the Circle became a study group and publishing house for materials relating to Nazism and Holocaust denial, with a remit towards closer co-operation across Europe. Initially led by Ángel Ricote, the group looked towards Italian fascism for inspiration, but under Pedro Aparicio it moved towards a Nazi position.
Establishing a branch in Madrid in 1973, the group had 2,500 Spanish members by 1985, with smaller groups also active elsewhere. Amongst those associated with the group was Klaus Georg Barbie, the son of Klaus Barbie, who was revealed by El País to have worked closely with CEDADE whilst living in Barcelona between 1965 and 1978. Internationally CEDADE also maintained close links to the likes of Mark
Communist Movement (in Spanish: Movimento Comunista, in Basque: Mugimendu Komunista, in Catalan: Moviment Comunista, in Galician: Movemento Comunista) was a political party in Spain. It was founded in 1972 by the Basque Communist Movement (Communists) (Movimiento Comunista Vasco (Komunistak)) (which was previously known as ETA Berri, a splinter-group of ETA), Communist Organisation (Aragon), Communist Unification (Valencia), the Marxist-Leninist Formation Group of the Islands (Balearic Islands) and a grouping of independent communists from Asturias. Initially the party was known as Communist Movement of Spain (Movimiento Comunista de España). The general secretary of MCE was Eugenio del Río.
MCE attempted to unify with the Communist Unification of Spain (UCE), but that relation was later broken.
In 1976 MCE was restricted into a federal organization, and the name changed to MC. Regional affiliates included
MC appealed for abstention in the 1976 referendum.
In the 1977 general elections MC launched various electoral lists, like CUP in Madrid and CUPS in Catalonia.
On October 6, 1977 a group of MCPV militants and sympathizers were attacked by fascists while putting up posters in
The European Coalition (Coalición Europea) is an alliance of centre-right, regionalist or moderate nationalist parties in Spain for European elections.
In the last elections of 2004 it was formed by:
The Coalition was first formed for the 1999 European Elections when the coalition got 3% of the votes and two MEPs obtaing the fifth place over Europe of the Peoples, BNG and Euskal Heritarrok. In the 2004 European elections it won 1.27% of the votes and no seats, falling after Europe of the Peoples.
In that election many of the parties had several internal crisis, Canarian Coalition, was sunk in a strong internal crisis, and only obtained 15.72% of votes in the islands, the worst result of its history. Also, neither the PAR nor the PA, were able to surpass 3% of votes in their respective autonomies. Other founders such as Valencian Union were also in a crisis, receiving only 0.48% of votes in the Valencian Community.
Syndicalist Party (in Spanish: Partido Sindicalista) was a Syndicalist (reformed Anarcho-Syndicalist) political party in Spain.
It was formed in 1974, basing itself on the traditions of the Syndicalist Party founded in 1932 by Ángel Pestaña, and later grouping left-wing members of the Falange. The group lasted until 1985. In the 1979 parliamentary elections PS got 9,777 votes (0.05%). The majority of the votes came from Catalonia, where the party got 5,932 votes (0.2%).
National Democratic Party of Spain (in Spanish: Partido Demócrata Nacional de España) is a small far-right nationalist political party in Spain. In the 2004 parliamentary elections PDNE was the second least voted party, with just 232 votes.
The Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (Spanish: Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, CEDA) was a Spanish political party in the Second Spanish Republic. A Catholic conservative force, it was the political heir to Angel Herrera Oria's Acción Popular and defined itself in terms of the 'affirmation and defence of the principles of Christian civilization,' translating this theoretical stand into a practical demand for the revision of the republican constitution. The CEDA saw itself as a defensive organisation, formed to protect religion, family, and property. It has also been described as accidentalist, in that it gave no ideological support to republicanism, but merely accepted it as the constitutional structure of the time—many of its supporters advocated a return to monarchy.
Gil Robles set up CEDA to contest the 1933 election, and tacitly embraced Fascism. Despite dismissing the idea of a party as a 'rigid fiction', the CEDA leaders created a stable party organisation which would lead the Spanish right into the age of mass politics. The CEDA was constructed around organisational units known as Derechas Autónomas, the first of which had been established in
Communist Party of Aragon (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de Aragón or PCA), was a political party in Aragon, Spain. The PCA was an orthodox splintergroup of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE). They broke from the PCE in 1980. In 1984 PCA merged into the Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE), and was hence known as PCA-PC.
PCA-PC no longer exists.
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de los Pueblos de España) is a communist political party in Spain. PCPE was founded out of the unification of several Marxist-Leninist factions. The youth organization is called the Collectives of Communist Youth.
On December 13–15 of 1984 a "Communist Unity Congress" was held in Madrid. Partido Comunista de España Unificado (PCEU, Unified Communist Party of Spain), Movimiento de Recuperación del PCE (MRPCE, Movement for the Recuperation of the PCE), Movimiento para la Recuperación y Unificación del PCE (MRUPCE, Movement for the Recuperation and Unification of the PCE), Candidatura Comunista (CC, Communist Candidature), and some minor groups unified themselves, thus creating Partido Comunista (renamed PCPE in 1986).
All these groups had surged from splits from the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) during the 1970s and 1980s. Quickly after its foundation, PCPE was recognized by some other parties, such as the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and other statebearing Eastern bloc parties. The party was formed by those who were against Santiago Carrillo's Eurocommunist line in the PCE. The Catalan referent of PCPE
The Confederation of the Greens (Spanish: Confederación de los Verdes; frequently simply Los Verdes, The Greens) is a green political party in Spain. Since 2011, 13 out of 16 of their member parties belong to EQUO; for this reason, on 13th May 2012, the European Green Party decided to withdraw the Confederation of the Greens membership.
Historia de Los Verdes de León
Left Opposition of PCE (in Spanish: Oposición de Izquierda del PCE) was initially founded as an internal tendency within the Communist Party of Spain (PCE), but later evolved into an independent formation. It started publishing Voz comunista in 1973.
OPI-PCE promoted abstention in the 1976 referendum. In 1977 OPI-PCE founded the Workers Communist Party (PCT).
The Workers' Revolutionary Organisation (in Spanish: Organización Revolucionaria de los Trabajadores) was a Maoist communist organisation in Spain. ORT was founded in 1969, emerging out of the left-wing Catholic Workers' Trade Union Action (Acción Sindical de Trabajadores).
The youth wing of ORT was the Maoist Youth Union (Unión de Juventudes Maoístas) and the trade union wing was the Unitary Trade Union (Sindicato Unitario). ORT published En Lucha.
In the 1977 elections, ORT launched the Workers' Electoral Grouping (Agrupación Electoral de los Trabajadores). In 1979, ORT merged with the Party of Labour of Spain and formed the Workers' Party (PT).
Radical Socialist Republican Party (PRRS; Spanish: Partido Republicano Radical Socialista), sometimes shortened to Radical Socialist Party (PRS; Partido Radical Socialista), was a Spanish radical political party, created in 1929 after the split of the left-wing in Alejandro Lerroux's Radical Republican Party (PRR, created in 1908, and in decline at the time). Its main leaders were Marcelino Domingo, Álvaro de Albornoz, and Félix Gordón de Ordás.
PRRS was an important force in the elections of 1931, winning 54 seats in the Cortes Generales that proclaimed the Second Spanish Republic on April 14. It suffered a major setback by 1933, when it only gained five seats. In the meantime, it formed part of Prime Minister Manuel Azaña's coalition between Left Republican parties and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE); Álvaro de Albornoz was one of the architects of the secular legislation passed by the Cortes, and also served as Justice Minister.
The party was shaken by several crises during its existence. In 1932, Juan Botella Asensi left the PRRS to found his own group (IRS, Izquierda Radical-Socialista - Radical-Socialist Left); the following year, it was split over the issue of
Workers Party (in Spanish: Partido de los Trabajadores) was a communist political party in Spain. It was founded in 1979 through the merger of the Party of Labour of Spain (PTE) and the Workers Revolutionary Organisation (ORT).
The Catalan branch of PT was known as Partit dels Treballadors de Catalunya (Workers' Party of Catalonia). It published Yesca.
PT was short-lived. In 1980 a severe internal crisis erupted, and the party last contested elections in 1987.
In February 2009 it was refunded and reactivated, becoming an active political organization again.