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Most famous Companies from Italy

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    1

    For Italy in the World with Tremaglia

    The For Italy in the World with Tremaglia (Italian: Per l'Italia nel mondo con Tremaglia) is a political party in Italy, active with voters living abroad, which refers to Mirko Tremaglia, member of National Alliance party and Minister for Italians Abroad in the Berlusconi II cabinet. The party affiliated to the "House of Freedoms", the centre-right coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi. The list ran in the 2006 Italian general election, and won one seat in the Lower House for Giuseppe Angeli, who joined National Alliance's group.
    7.57
    7 votes
    2

    Socialist Party of Italian Workers

    Socialist Party of Italian Workers (Italian: Partito Socialista dei Lavoratori Italiani, PSLI) is the name for a political party that has been used by three distinct organizations of the Left in Italy. First name of the Partito Socialista Italiano (PSI) from 1893 to 1895. Name of the Partito Socialista Unitario (PSU) from 1925 to 1927. This association is the most well known. Name of the Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano (PSDI) from 1947 to 1951.
    7.29
    7 votes
    3

    Independence Republic of Sardinia

    Independence Republic of Sardinia (Indipendèntzia Repùbrica de Sardigna, IRS) is a social-democratic and non-violent separatist political party in Sardinia. The party led by Gavino Sale supports the foundation of a "Republic of Sardinia" and its independence from Italy. The party emerged in 2001–2002 by the merger of Su Cuncordu, a separatist platform animated by three Sardinian intellectuals living in Rome (Franciscu Sedda, Frantziscu Sanna and Franciscu Pala), and a splinter group from Sardinia Nation (SN) led by Gavino Sale. The latter and his followers left SN because of its alliance with the Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az), which did not support overt independentism at the time. As soon as in 2004 (when Sale won 1.9% of the vote in the regional election) IRS absorbed virtually all the voters of Sardinia Nation, thanks to the charismatic leadership of Sale, a more coherent and instransigent secessionist platform and a more centrist political position. In the 2006 general election IRS won 1.1% of the vote in Sardinia, while it chose to boycott the 2008 election in order not to be party in crime with the Italian political system. At the 2009 regional election Gavino Sale won 3.1%
    7.83
    6 votes
    4

    National Democracy

    The National Democracy (Democrazia Nazionale, DN) party was a spin-off of Movimento Sociale Italiano, after the electoral defeat of 1976. It was born to pursue an agreement with the Democrazia Cristiana party, by moving from the neo-fascist ideology of the Movimento Sociale Italiano to a post-fascist moderate ideology. The movement became a fully fledged party in February 1977 and ceased to exist in December 1979 after the very poor result of the 1979 election (0.6%). Main leaders: Alfredo Covelli, Ernesto De Marzio, Raffaele Delfino, Mario Tedeschi, Enzo Giacchero, Giulio Cesare Graziani, Pietro Cerullo.
    7.50
    6 votes
    5

    Italian General Confederation of Labour

    The Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) is a national trade union centre in Italy. It was formed by agreement between socialists, communists, and Christian democrats in the "Pact of Rome" of June 1944. But in 1950, socialists and Christian democrats split forming UIL and CISL, and since then the CGIL has been influenced by the Communist Party (PCI). It has been the most important Italian trade union since its creation. It has a membership of over 5.5 million. The CGIL is currently the biggest trade union in Europe. The CGIL is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation and the European Trade Union Confederation, and is a member of the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD.
    8.40
    5 votes
    6

    Humanist Party

    The Humanist Party (Partito Umanista, PU) is a minor political party in Italy. Its long-time leader was Giorgio Schultze, who is currently spokesman of the Humanist Movement in Europe. Founded in 1985, the party is a member of the Humanist International. It has never been represented in either the Italian Chamber of Deputies or the Italian Senate, the two houses of the Parliament of Italy. The party did not take part to the 2008 general election, but some Humanist activists ran as independents in the lists of The Left – The Rainbow and For the Common Good, both left-wing coalitions. In the 2009 European Parliament election Schultze will stand as a candidate for Italy of Values (IdV). This choice was criticized by those who acknowledged the IdV's law and order policies over immigration.
    7.80
    5 votes
    7
    National Fascist Party

    National Fascist Party

    The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian Fascism). The party ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943. Along with its recognised successor, the Republican Fascist Party, it is the only party whose reformation is banned by the Constitution of Italy: "it shall be forbidden to reorganize, under any form whatever, the dissolved fascist party" ("Transitory and Final Provisions", Disposition XII). The policies of the National Fascist Party evolved over time. Initially the party harboured anti-clerical and republican values, but always maintained a nationalist agenda combined with degrees of statism and fervent anti-communism. The party adopted large elements of its policies from the authoritarian wing of the former Italian Nationalist Association. The party officially abandoned all republican values when trying to earn the support of the monarchy to form a government. Also, upon coming to power, the party eventually abandoned anti-clerical policies for the tactical purpose of gaining the support of Catholic groups,
    6.33
    6 votes
    8

    Italian Republican Party

    The Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano, PRI) is a liberal political party in Italy. The PRI is party with old roots that originally took a left-wing position, claiming descent from the political position of Giuseppe Mazzini. The party was a member of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party until 2010. The Italian Republican Party (PRI) traces its origins from the time of Italian unification and, more specifically, to the democratic-republican wing represented by figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini, Carlo Cattaneo and Carlo Pisacane. They were against the so-called piemontesizzazione of Italy, meaning the conquest by war of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont of the rest of Italy. After the latter was unified under the Savoy kings, following the political lines of moderates such as Camillo Benso di Cavour, the republicans remained aside from the political life of the new country, proclaiming their abstention from elections. They however created several democratic movements. In 1871 Mazzini founded the Patto di fratellanza fra le società operaie ("brotherhood pact of the workers' societies"); however, Mazzini's death the following year and internationalism put
    7.40
    5 votes
    9

    Unified Communist Party of Italy

    Unified Communist Party of Italy (in Italian: Partito Comunista Unificato d'Italia) is a political party in Italy. PCUd'I was founded in May 1977. The general secretary of PCUd'I is Osvaldo Pesce. PCUd'I publishes Linea Proletaria. PCUd'I is a part of the Communist Coordination.
    7.20
    5 votes
    10

    Italian Socialist Party

    The Italian Socialist Party (Italian: Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy founded in Genoa in 1892. Once the dominant leftist party in Italy, it was eclipsed in status by the Italian Communist Party following World War II. It was disbanded in 1994 as a result of the Tangentopoli scandals. The Italian Socialist Party was founded in 1892 by delegates of several workers' associations and parties, notably including the Italian Labour Party and the Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party. It was part of a wave of new socialist parties at the end of the 19th century and had to endure persecution by the Italian government during its early years. At the start of the 20th century, however, the PSI chose not to strongly oppose the governments led by five-time Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti. This conciliation with the existing governments and its improving electoral fortunes helped to establish the PSI as a mainstream Italian political party by the 1910s. Despite the party's improving electoral results, however, the PSI remained divided into two major branches, the Reformists and the Maximalists. The Reformists, led by Filippo
    6.00
    6 votes
    11

    United Democratic Christians

    The United Democratic Christians (Democratici Cristiani Uniti, DCU) is a tiny Christian-democratic Italian political party based in Puglia. The party was founded by Giovanni Mongiello, an ex-Christian Democrat who was Under-Secretary of Agricolture in Prodi II Cabinet, by a split from the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC) in 2004. Mongiello and his followers were basically former members of the United Christian Democrats, who had opposed the merger into UDC of their party. Actually Mongiello was President of the Party of Christian Democracy until 2005 before launching his own party. In the 2006 general election the party was affiliated to The Union, the centre-left coalition led by Romano Prodi.
    7.00
    5 votes
    12

    No Euro Movement

    The No Euro Movement is a small political party that aims to remove the euro as the Italian currency, returning to the Italian lira, and advocates governmental control of the Italian Central Bank. No euro is essentially a party that is against banks, wants to abolish the signeurage crime and to bring back to citizens the property of the money, now belonging to central banks that are private.
    6.80
    5 votes
    13

    Democratic Party of the Left

    The Democratic Party of the Left (Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS) was a post-communist, democratic socialist political party in Italy. It was founded in 1991 as the evolution of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in a democratic-socialist direction. Its first leader was Achille Occhetto, the final secretary of the PCI. The logo of the PDS consisted mainly of an oak tree that retained, in a roundel at the tree's roots, the previous symbol of the PCI: this was done both to indicate the party's roots, but did not prevent hardliners leaving the party and launching the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC). Thus the logo was also adopted in order to prevent the PRC from making usage of the symbol immediately after the split between the two parties. In the 1994 general election Occhetto was the leader of the Alliance of Progressives but he lost to Silvio Berlusconi. In the election's aftermath, Massimo D'Alema was elected new party secretary. In the 1996 general election, after the collapse of Berlusconi's coalition, the PDS was part of the winning coalition, The Olive Tree, led by Romano Prodi. In the Prodi I Cabinet, a leading member of the PDS, Giorgio Napolitano, became Minister
    8.00
    4 votes
    14
    Pensioners' Party

    Pensioners' Party

    The Pensioners' Party (Partito Pensionati, PP) is a centrist Italian political party. It was founded in 1987 in Milan and its current leader is Carlo Fatuzzo. In the 2004 European Parliament election it gained 1.1% of the national vote and elected its leader to the European Parliament, where he sits in the European People's Party–European Democrats group. On 4 February 2006, the party joined The Union, the centre-left coalition led by Romano Prodi, and was decisive for the result of the 2006 general election (the PP scored 0.9% and the centre-left won by a 0.1% margin), but soon after the election the alliance with the centre-left turned to be cold and tense. In the European Parliament, Antonio Tajani (Forza Italia, Vice President of the European People's Party), tried uccessfully to convince Fatuzzo to return back in the centre-right. Finally, on 20 November 2006, Carlo Fatuzzo, in a press conference alongside with Antonio Tajani and Fabrizio Cicchitto (national deputy-coordinator of Forza Italia), announced that its party was re-joining the centre-right House of Freedoms coalition. Ithe 2009 European Parliament election the party will run as part of the Pole of Autonomy, an
    7.50
    4 votes
    15

    Italian People's Party

    The Italian People's Party (Italian: Partito Popolare Italiano, PPI) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy The party emerged as the successor to Christian Democracy (DC) in January 1994. The first secretary of the party was Mino Martinazzoli, replaced by Rocco Buttiglione in June, after that the party was soundly defeated in the 1994 general election by both the centre-right and the centre-left, gaining only the 11.1%, as part of a centrist alliance named Pact for Italy. In 1995, when Buttiglione's proposal to join the centre-right Pole of Freedoms coalition (composed of Forza Italia, the National Alliance and the Christian Democratic Centre) was rejected by the party's National Council, the outgoing secretary, along with Roberto Formigoni and Gianfranco Rotondi, formed the United Christian Democrats, leaving the PPI in the hands of the leftist factions of the late DC. For the 1996 general election the party formed a list (the Populars for Prodi) with Democratic Union, the Italian Republican Party and the South Tyrolean People's Party. The list was part of The Olive Tree coalition and won 6.8% of the vote. The PPI was represented in Romano Prodi's first government by
    6.20
    5 votes
    16

    Democratic Alliance

    The Democratic Alliance (Alleanza Democratica, AD) was an Italian political party founded in 1993, with the intent of becoming the container of an alliance of centre-left forces. However, the project did not succeed, and it presented itself as a minor party, mainly composed of former Republicans and former Communists. Its leader was Willer Bordon. AD was aimed at reforming the centre-left, uniting in a single bloc both the centrists of the Patto Segni and the post-communist Democratic Party of the Left, and transforming it in an "Italian Democratic Party", modelled on the Democratic Party of the United States. The party took very liberal stances on the economy, proposed a shake-up of the Italian political system and was very critical to the perceived statism of the Italian left. After an unremarkable result (1.2%) at the 1994 general election, due to the uneasy alliance with the left-wing Alliance of Progressives instead of with Silvio Berlusconi, who had embraced most of AD 's policies, its members entered the left-wing and later centre-left coalitions, with the notable exceptions of Ferdinando Adornato and Giulio Tremonti, both currently members of Berlusconi's Forza Italia.
    9.00
    3 votes
    17

    Italian Socialists

    The Italian Socialists (Socialisti Italiani, SI) were a minor social-democratic political party in Italy active in Italy from 1994 to 1998. The party was founded on 13 November 1994, immediately after the dissolution of the Italian Socialist Party, which had been plagued by corruption scandals exposed by the Mani pulite investigations. The party was led for its short life by Enrico Boselli. At the regional elections of 1995 the Italian Socialists formed a list with Democratic Alliance and Patto Segni, which was called Pact of Democrats. The results, however, were disappointing. For the general elections of 1996, the Italian Socialists joined the list of Italian Renewal, a newly-formed liberal-centrist party led by Lamberto Dini, within The Olive Tree coalition, acquiring in total 7 deputies (Giuseppe Albertini, Enrico Boselli, Vincenzo Ceremigna, Giovanni Crema, Sergio Fumagalli, Paolo Manca and Roberto Villetti) and 5 senators (Livio Besso Cordero, Ottaviano Del Turco, Giovanni Iuliano, Maria Rosaria Manieri and Cesare Marini). On 10 May 1998, the party merged with the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, a portion of Labour Federation, a portion of the Socialist Party and the
    8.67
    3 votes
    18

    United Consumers

    The United Consumers (Consumatori Uniti) is a political party in Italy led by Bruno De Vita. Since the 2006 general election the party was affiliated to The Union, the centre-left coalition led by Romano Prodi, and in that occasion it took part to a joint list with the Federation of the Greens and the Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) for the Italian Senate. In October 2006 Senator Fernando Rossi, splinter from the Party of Italian Communists, joined the party, but in September 2007 he left it to form his own Citizens' Political Movement. In the same month the party was merged into the Democratic Union of Willer Bordon. After the dissolution of Democratic Union, the United Consumers formed a joint list known as Anticapitalist List with the PdCI, the Communist Refoundation Party and Socialism 2000 for the 2009 European Parliament election.
    7.00
    4 votes
    19

    Proletarian Democracy

    Proletarian Democracy (Democrazia Proletaria, DP) was a political party in Italy. DP was founded in 1975 as a joint electoral front of the Proletarian Unity Party (PdUP), Workers Vanguard (AO) and the Workers Movement for Socialism (MLS). At the local level, smaller groups joined, such as the Marxist-Leninist Communist Organization, Revolutionary Communist Groups - IV International and the League of the Communists. DP took part in the 1976 elections, winning 556,022 votes (1.51%) and 6 seats in the election to the Chamber of Deputies. On April 13, 1978, DP was transformed into a political party. The move to make DP into a real political party was pushed through by the minority wing of PdUP, led by journalist Vittorio Foa and Silvano Miniati; the majority of AO, led by Massimo Gorla and Luigi Vinci; and the League of the Communists, led by Romano Luporini. The main figure of DP was the charismatic Mario Capanna, a former student leader associated with the 1968 new left movement. The strongholds of DP were the industrial cities of Northern Italy, which had strong leftist traditions. DP was opposed to the so-called 'historic compromise' between the Italian Communist Party and the
    6.75
    4 votes
    20

    Citizens' Union for South Tyrol

    The Citizens' Union (German: BürgerUnion, BU; formerly Union for South Tyrol, German: Union für Südtirol, UfS) is a separatist and national-conservative political party active in South Tyrol committed to the German-speaking minority and its right to self-determination. Its current leader is Andreas Pöder. The BU, once a member of the European Free Alliance, was expelled from that organisation in 2008 after it refused to condemn islamophobia and insisted upon the defense of "European Christian values". The UfS was founded on 2 October 1989 by the merger of the nationalist South Tyrolean Homeland Federation of Eva Klotz (2.3% in the 1988 provincial election), the liberal-conservative Freedom Party of South Tyrol led by Gerold Meraner and right-wing splinters from the South Tyrolean People's Party led by Alfons Benedikter. In the 1993 provincial election the party won 4.8% of the vote and gained 2 seats in the Provincial Council, one for Klotz and one for Benedikter. In the 1996 general election the party had its best result ever (7.7% for party list and 19.2% in single-seat constituencies), because the South Tyrolean People's Party had formed an alliance with some Italian parties. In
    10.00
    2 votes
    21

    Lega Nord Toscana

    Lega Nord Toscana (North League Tuscany, LNT) is a regionalist political party in Italy which is the regional section of Lega Nord in Tuscany. The party was founded in 1987 as Movement for Tuscany (Movimento per la Toscana, MpT). In 1988, under the leadership of Tommaso Fragassi, the party changed name into Tuscan Alliance (Alleanza Toscana, AT). AT participated to the 1989 European Parliament election as part of the coalition Lega Lombarda – Alleanza Nord. In 1989–1990 it took part in the process of federating the Northern regionalist parties, ahead of the regional elections. In February 1991 it merged into Lega Nord, taking the current name, and since then it is the regional section of that party in Tuscany. The party was led by federal commissioner Luca Rodolfo Paolini, national secretary of Lega Nord Marche, from 2006 to 2008, when Claudio Morganti was elected national secretary. In the 2008 general election the party elected a deputy, Paolini himself, after almost ten years of no representation in the Italian Parliament. In the 2009 European Parliament election Morganti was elected MEP. 2010 was a much more historic year for the party, that entered for the first time the
    10.00
    2 votes
    22

    Movement for Autonomies

    The Movement for Autonomies (Movimento per le Autonomie, MpA) is a regionalist Christian democratic political party in Italy. It demands economic development and greater autonomy for Sicily, mainly, and for other regions of Southern Italy. The party is led by Raffaele Lombardo, President of Sicily. The party was founded on 30 April 2005 as Movement for Autonomy (Movimento per l'Autonomia) by Sicilian splinters from the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats and other centre-right parties, notably Forza Italia, the Italian Republican Party and the New Italian Socialist Party. By late 2005 the party had joined the centre-right House of Freedoms coalition. For the 2006 general election the party formed a joint-list with Lega Nord, a regionalist movement based in Northern Italy, and the Sardinian Action Party. The electoral alliance was named Pact for the Autonomies and in the election the MpA elected five deputies (two in the lists of Forza Italia) and two senators (one in the lists of Forza Italia). Lombardo claimed to have discarded the possibility of an alliance with the centre-left The Union mainly because of the latter's opposition to the building of the Strait of Messina Bridge
    8.00
    3 votes
    23

    Federation of Liberals

    The Federation of Italian Liberals (Federazione dei Liberali Italiani, FdL) is a tiny liberal party in Italy, founded in 1994 by Raffaello Morelli and Valerio Zanone. It is aligned with the centre-left and The Union and it is an observer member of the Liberal International. FdL first joined the Patto Segni in 1994, then joined the centre-left as part of Democratic Union in 1996. In March 2007 FdL started a dialogue with other groups of former Liberals and Republicans in order to form a federation.
    6.50
    4 votes
    24
    6.50
    4 votes
    25

    Pact for Sicily

    The Pact for Sicily (Patto per la Sicilia, PpS) is a political party in Italy. It emerged in 2006 by the christian-democratic faction led by Nicolò Nicolosi within New Sicily. Nicolosi has been MP for that party between since 2001. Shortly before the 2008 regional election PpS was merged into the Movement for Autonomy.
    9.50
    2 votes
    26
    North-East Project

    North-East Project

    North-East Project (Progetto NordEst, PNE) is a Venetist, fiscal federalist and libertarian Italian political party based in Veneto, demanding larger autonomy, if not complete independence for the region. The party was founded in June 2004 by Giorgio Panto, along with former members of the Liga Veneta–Lega Nord and former members of Liga Fronte Veneto, notably Mariangelo Foggiato and Ettore Beggiato. Panto himself had been a long-time supporter of Lega Nord, but he distanced from it as he perceived it to be too moderate and Lombardy-centred. The PNE won 5.4% of the vote in the 2005 regional election, electing two members to the Regional Council of Veneto, Mariangelo Foggiato and Diego Cancian, while Giorgio Panto, who was candidate for President and ran a campaign based on the slogan "Dignity. Autonomy for Veneto", took 6.0% (16.1% in the stronghold of Treviso). The key-issue for the party within the Regional Council has since been transforming Veneto into an autonomous region as Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Friuli-Venezia Giulia are. In the 2006 general election the party won 2.7% of the vote in Veneto and the 0.7% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia for the Chamber of Deputies, while
    6.25
    4 votes
    27

    Gamesys

    The Gamesys Group was founded in 2001 by Noel Hayden, Robin Tombs, Andrew Dixon and four developers. Jackpotjoy, their soft-gaming product, was launched in April 2002. Since Jackpotjoy's launch, Gamesys has published over 250 white labeled versions of the site for partners such as Lycos, Tiscali, Ryanair and Orange amongst many others. The group now includes Gamesys Limited, Mice and Dice Limited, Profitable Play Limited and Leisure Spin Limited. Gamesys was named as the UK’s number 1 fastest-growing private technology company in the Sunday Times 2006 Tech Track 100. In the 2007 listing, Gamesys was ranked at 28. The Tech Track 100 is compiled by Fast Track and ranks Britain’s fastest growing unquoted technology firms by sales. In October 2007, Jackpotjoy.com won the Egaming Review Bingo Operator of the Year award. The Group's primary soft-gaming brand is Jackpotjoy.com which offers both free-to-play and pay-to-play versions of their games. The games are browser-based and do not require a download. Jackpotjoy has launched games based around classic UK TV game shows including The Price Is Right, Strike It Lucky and Deal or No Deal. The company has licensed its software to a Spanish
    9.00
    2 votes
    28

    General Labour Union

    The General Labour Union (UGL) is a national trade union center in Italy. It is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation. It is very closely associated to the neo-Fascist party Italian Social Movement (Movimento sociale italiano; MSI), which was dissolved into the National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale; AN) in 1995. The UGL was founded as the National Italian Workers' Union (Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Nazionali dei Lavoratori; CISNAL) by Gianni Roberto. The goal of the CISNAL was to fight the Italian General Confederation of Labour, which was at the time controlled by communists as well as the Italian Labour Union and the Italian Confederation of Workers' Trade Unions, which both split from it in 1950. The union always fought to secure the "work peace". The UGL cooperates with employers (especially owners of large estates in Mezzogiorno) to find workers, which were either not organized in any union or only in the UGL.
    9.00
    2 votes
    29

    Middle-of-the-Road Italy

    Middle-of-the-Road Italy (Italia di Mezzo, IdM) was an Italian centrist political grouping founded in 2006 by Marco Follini, Senate member and former leader of the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC, 2002–05), and Riccardo Conti, member of the Chamber of Deputies. Initially founded as a free political association in support of the "no" vote for the 2006 constitutional referendum, it became a party on October 21, 2006, after Follini announced his resignations from the UDC caucus. The primary goal of this political movement was to attract all those voters who were unsatisfied by the Italian political system, based on the often harsh contrapposition between the centre-left Union and the centre-right House of Freedoms, and to change, or, better, to produce the end of bi-polarism. However, he supported Prodi in a confidence vote and then entered the Union. Never having contested an election on its own, the party merged into the Democratic Party on 14 October 2007. Most of its members anyway did not follow Follini in that decision and switched to Italy of the Centre, led by former Minister of the Interior Vincenzo Scotti.
    9.00
    2 votes
    30

    Italian Renewal

    The Italian Renewal (Italian: Rinnovamento Italiano, RI) was a liberal-centrist political party in Italy. It was founded in 1996 by Lamberto Dini (the outgoing Prime Minister of Italy) along with some former Liberals, Socialists, Christian Democrats, Republicans and Social Democrats. The party joined the The Olive Tree centre-left coalition led by Romano Prodi In the 1996 general election RI, that gave hospitality in its lists to the Italian Socialists, Patto Segni and Italian Democratic Movement, won 4.3% of the vote. The party gor 26 seats at the Chamber: The party got 11 seats at the Senate: After the election Lamberto Dini became Minister of Foreign Affairs and Tiziano Treu minister of Labour in the Prodi I Cabinet. In 2001–2002 the party joined Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy (DL). RI members in DL formed a faction within the party, named simply Renewal, consisting of around 10% of the party members. In 2007 several members of this association including Dini broke away from DL to form the Liberal Democrats.
    7.33
    3 votes
    31

    Rainbow Greens

    Rainbow Greens (Verdi Arcobaleno) was a green Italian political party. It was founded in 1989 by splinters of Proletarian Democracy (Mario Capanna, Virginio Bettini, Gianni Tamino, Edo Ronchi and Paolo Gentiloni) and some leading Radicals (Adelaide Aglietta, Adele Faccio, Francesco Rutelli, Franco Corleone and Marco Boato). It took part in the 1989 European Parliament elections, under the denomination 'Rainbow Greens for Europe' (Verdi Arcobaleno per l'Europa). In December 1990 it merged with the Green Lists (Gianni Mattioli, Lino De Benetti, Gianfranco Amendola, Alexander Langer, Enrico Falqui, Sauro Turroni and Alfonso Pecoraro Scanio) into the Federation of the Greens.
    7.33
    3 votes
    32

    Movement for Democracy – The Net

    Movement for Democracy – The Net (Italian: Movimento per la Democrazia – La Rete) was an Italian political party led by Leoluca Orlando. Formed by Orlando on 24 January 1991 whilst mayor of Palermo the group sought to reinvigorate the moral traditions of Italian democracy and also took a strong anti-Mafia stance. Initially attached to Christian Democracy, it quickly broke with this party due to its relations to the Mafia. The party succeeded in gaining elected office in Sicily, including holding on to the mayorship of Palermo in 1993. It participated in the Alliance of Progressives, which included the Democratic Alliance, the Federation of the Greens, the Communist Refoundation Party, the Democratic Party of the Left, the Italian Socialist Party and the Social Christians, that unsuccessfully contested the 1994 general election against the House of Freedoms coalition of Silvio Berlusconi. The party changed its name to The Net for the Democratic Party (La Rete per il Partito Democratico) in 1996 before being absorbed by The Democrats of Romano Prodi in 1999. Well-known former members of La Rete include Claudio Fava.
    7.00
    3 votes
    33

    New Italian Socialist Party

    The New Italian Socialist Party (Italian: Nuovo Partito Socialista Italiano, NPSI) is a small political party in Italy which professes a social-democratic ideology and claims to be the successor to the old Italian Socialist Party, which was disbanded after the judiciary tempest of the early 1990s (see Mani pulite). The party functions as an associate party or internal faction of the main party of the Italian centre-right, The People of Freedom (PdL). Most of the party's members are former followers of Bettino Craxi, whom they often portray as a victim of political persecution, notwithstanding the many convictions he received on corruption charges. That was why the party has been an ally of the centre-right House of Freedoms coalition for most of its history, as the centre-left was dominated by former Communists who were the main opponents of the Socialists, so that most of them had earlier joined Forza Italia. The main leader of the party has been Gianni De Michelis, who however left the party in 2007, being replaced by Stefano Caldoro. In 2007 several members left to join the centre-left Socialist Party, while what remained of the NPSI was merged into the centre-right PdL. Since
    7.00
    3 votes
    34

    Christian Democratic Centre

    The Christian Democratic Centre (Centro Cristiano Democratico, CCD) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy. The party emerged from a split from Italian People's Party (PPI), direct heir of the Christian Democracy (DC), in 1994. Its leader were Pier Ferdinando Casini and Clemente Mastella who advocated an alliance with Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia (FI), while the PPI advocated a centrist alliance with Patto Segni, the Pact for Italy. The CCD represented the right wing of the old DC, while the PPI was largely the heir of the party's left wing, especially after the split of the United Christian Democrats (CDU) in 1995. In the 1994 general election the CCD joined FI into the Pole of Freedoms in Northern Italy and the Pole of Good Government in Southern Italy, forming a joint list with FI for the proportional system and gaining 27 deputies and 12 senators. After the election the CCD joined Berlusconi I Cabinet with Clemente Mastella becoming Minister of Labour and Francesco D'Onofrio Minister of Education. After the sudden fall of Berlusconi in December 1994, when Lega Nord left the government majority, a new general election took place in 1996. The CCD formed a joint
    5.75
    4 votes
    35

    Autonomist Trentino

    Autonomist Trentino (Italian: Trentino Autonomista, TA) is a regionalist Christian-democratic Italian political party based in Trentino. It was founded in 2002 by a split from the Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT) of those members who contested the party new alliance with the centre-left-coalition (in Trentino dominated by Democracy is Freedom – Daisy, DL). It is led by Carlo Andreotti, former PATT leader and former President of Trentino, and it is closely tied with Forza Italia. In the 2003 provincial election, TA won 2.2% of the vote. In that occasion Andreotti was the candidate for President of the centre-right and he was soundly defeated (60.8% to 30.7%) by incumbent Lorenzo Dellai (DL). For the 2008 provincial election the party formed an alliance with the Popular Autonomy Movement, the Popular Autonomists, in support of Sergio Divina (Lega Nord Trentino, supported by The People of Freedom and a collection of regionalist parties). In the 2009 European Parliament election Andreotti was a candidate for the Pole of Autonomy. At this point, however, the party seemed to be almost disbanded.
    10.00
    1 votes
    36

    S.O.S. Italy

    The S.O.S. Italy (Italian: S.O.S. Italia) is a political party in Italy. The party affiliated to the "House of Freedoms", the centre-right coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi.
    10.00
    1 votes
    37

    Italian Democratic Socialists

    The Italian Democratic Socialists (Socialisti Democratici Italiani, SDI) were a small social-democratic political party in Italy. Led by Enrico Boselli, the party was the direct continuation of the Italian Socialists, the legal successor of the historical Italian Socialist Party (PSI). On 5 October 2007 the SDI merged with other descendants of the PSI to form the modern-day Italian Socialist Party. The SDI was founded in 1998 by the merger of the Italian Socialists (Enrico Boselli, Roberto Villetti and Ottaviano Del Turco), the Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Gian Franco Schietroma and Giorgio Carta), a portion of the Labour Federation, a portion of the Socialist Party (Ugo Intini) and the Socialist League (Claudio Martelli and Bobo Craxi). In its first appearance on the national stage, the 1999 European Parliament election, the SDI won 2.2% of the votes and two MEPs. For the 2001 general election the party formed an unusual alliance with the Federation of the Greens (the so-called Sunflower, that was disbanded soon after the election, due to political divergences and ultimately to the disappointing result they had together: 2.2% of the vote, while the combined result of the
    6.67
    3 votes
    38

    Democrats of the Left

    The Democrats of the Left (Italian: Democratici di Sinistra, DS) was a social-democratic Italian political party and part of the Olive Tree electoral coalition, which merged with a number of centrist and leftist groups to form the Democratic Party on 14 October 2007. Its leaders were Piero Fassino, national secretary, and Massimo D'Alema, president. The Democrats of the Left developed from the Democratic Party of the Left (Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS), which in turn was a reshaping of the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) into a democratic socialist party. Under the leadership of Massimo D'Alema, the party merged with other minor like-minded movements (Labour Federation, Social Christians, Republican Left, Unitarian Communists, Reformists for Europe and Democratic Federation), and took the current name, removing the hammer and sickle from its symbol and substituting it with the red carnation of the Party of European Socialists. Massimo D'Alema became prime minister in October 1998 and was replaced as the leader of DS by Walter Veltroni. During the party's first national congress in January 2000, Veltroni received the support of the 79.9% of
    8.00
    2 votes
    39

    European Federalist Movement

    The European Federalist Movement (Movimento Federalista Europeo, MFE) was founded in Milan in 1943 by a group of activists led by Altiero Spinelli. The principles which inspired its foundation are contained in the Ventotene Manifesto, drawn up in 1941 by Spinelli himself, in collaboration with Ernesto Rossi, Eugenio Colorni and Ursula Hirschmann. Federalism represented in the 1940s a revolutionary and entirely innovative political idea. According to the federalists, the new line between progressive and reactionary forces was the one that existed between those for whom the key task is to create a federal European state, and those who consciously or de facto acted to maintain a diversity of sovereign nation-states.
    8.00
    2 votes
    40

    Monarchist Alliance

    Alleanza Monarchica, or Monarchist Alliance is a minor Italian political party dedicated to the restoration of the monarchy in Italy, which was abolished in a 1946 referendum. The party seeks to increase debate amongst the public about the monarchy, and seeks to re-establish a constitutional monarchy through political means.
    8.00
    2 votes
    41

    Monarchist National Party

    The Monarchist National Party (Partito Nazionale Monarchico, PNM) was a political party in Italy founded in 1946, uniting conservatives, liberal conservatives, conservative liberals and nationalists. It was a right-wing competitor to Christian Democracy and was especially strong in Southern Italy. The party's best electoral result was in the 1953 general election, when the party scored 6.9% and came fourth after Christian Democracy, the Italian Communist Party and the Italian Socialist Party. In 1954 the party suffered a major split led by Achille Lauro, mayor of Naples from 1952 to 1957, who formed the People's Monarchist Party (PMP), which was closer to Christian Democracy. In the 1958 general election, the PNM won 2.2% of the vote, while the rival PMP 2.6%. In 1959 the two monarchist parties joined forces in the Italian Democratic Party (PDI).
    8.00
    2 votes
    42

    South Tyrolean People's Party

    The South Tyrolean People's Party (German: Südtiroler Volkspartei, SVP; Italian: Partito Popolare Sudtirolese) is a regionalist catch-all political party in South Tyrol, northern Italy. Founded in 1945, the SVP represents the German-speaking population of the province, as well as Ladin speakers. The SVP is a diverse party including Christian democrats, conservatives, social democrats and liberals. Since the first election of the Provincial Council in 1948, the party has gained the absolute majority in each and every election. Its best result ever was 67.8% in 1948, its worst 48.1% in the 2008 provincial election. The party had long been in alliance with Christian Democracy (and the Italian Socialist Party) until 1994 and later with some of its successor parties, including the Italian People's Party and the Democratic Union of Alto Adige. In 1998 the SVP enlarged the provincial government to the social-democratic Democrats of the Left. Currently, the SVP governs with the support of the Democratic Party, a result of the merger of the Democrats of the Left with other centre-left parties. In the 2003 provincial election the SVP won 55.6% of the vote and 21 provincial deputies out of
    8.00
    2 votes
    43

    European Democracy

    European Democracy (Democrazia Europea, DE) was a minor christian-democratic Italian political party. It was founded in 2000 by Sergio D'Antoni (former leader of the Italian Confederation of Workers' Trade Unions), Giulio Andreotti and Ortensio Zecchino, all three spliters from the Italian People's Party. Many ex-members of Lega Nord, including Vito Gnutti (former Minister of Industry) and Domenico Comino (and floor leader in the Chamber of Deputies). In the 2001 general election the party scored 2.3%, winning only two seats in the Senate. In December 2002 it was merged with the Christian Democratic Centre and the United Christian Democrats into the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats. Sergio D'Antoni became vice-secretary of the new party.
    6.33
    3 votes
    44
    Lega Nord

    Lega Nord

    Lega Nord (North League, LN, often translated as Northern League by English-language media), whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (English: North League for the Independence of Padania), is a federalist and regionalist political party in Italy. It was founded in 1991 as a federation of several regional parties of Northern and Central Italy, most of which had arisen and expanded their share of the electorate over the 1980s. In popular usage the party is generally referred to simply as Lega and is frequently nicknamed il Carroccio in newspapers, after a four-wheeled war altar drawn by oxen, used by the medieval republics of Northern Italy which formed the Lombard League in opposition to the imperialist design of Frederick I Barbarossa. Lega Nord's political program advocates the transformation of Italy into a federal state, fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy, especially for the Northern regions. At times it has advocated secession of the North, which it calls Padania. Prior to the party's adoption of the term, Padania was infrequently used to name the Padan-Venetian Plain and was promoted since 1963 by sport journalist Gianni Brera as a
    6.33
    3 votes
    45

    European Republicans Movement

    The European Republicans Movement (Movimento Repubblicani Europei, MRE) was a tiny social liberal political party in Italy. From 2007 to 2010 the party was an associate party of the Democratic Party, the leading centre-left party of the country. In 2011 the MRE was merged into the Italian Republican Party, the party from which it seceded in 2001. The MRE was a member of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party and its long-standing leader was Luciana Sbarbati. In 2001 the Italian Republican Party (PRI), after five years within The Olive Tree centre-left coalition, decided to join the centre-right House of Freedoms. The MRE was formed by those Republicans who refused such decision and wanted to remain in the centre-left. The MRE took part to the consolidation of The Olive Tree as a joint electoral list both for the 2004 European Parliament election and the 2006 general election, along with the Democrats of the Left and Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy. The list won 220 out of 630 deputies (including two Republicans, Luciana Sbarbati and Adriano Musi) as part of The Union. In 2007 the MRE was a founding member of the Democratic Party (PD), but continued to exist as associate
    7.50
    2 votes
    46

    Movement for the Confederation of the Communists

    Movement for the Confederation of the Communists (in Italian: Movimento per la Confederazione dei Comunisti) is a political movement in Italy. MCC was founded in 1998, after a split from the Confederation of Self-organized Communists (Confederazione Comunisti/e Autorganizzati, CCA). MCC publishes Rosso XXI. MCC joined the Communist Coordination (Coordinamento Comunista) in 2000. In the Italian general election, 2001 MCC contested the elections to the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies in Tuscany, under the candidature Comunismo. In the Chamber of Deputies election Comunismo got 5,244 of the proportional votes (0.2% of the votes in Tuscany). In the Senate election, Comunismo candidate Gentili Valerio got 1,103 votes (0.6%) in Constituency 6 of Tuscany.
    7.50
    2 votes
    47

    National Autonomous School Workers' Trade Union

    The National Autonomous School Workers' Trade Union (SNALS or S.N.A.L.S.; Italian Sindacato Nazionale Autonomo Lavoratori Scuola, French Syndicat Autonome des Travailleurs de l'École, German Autonome Nazionale Gewerkschaft Schulbedienstete) is an Italian autonomous school and university workers' trade union.
    7.50
    2 votes
    48

    Federation of the Greens

    The Federation of the Greens (Italian: Federazione dei Verdi, or just Verdi) is a green political party in Italy, which includes also a large eco-socialist faction. Angelo Bonelli has been the party's leader since 2009. The first official Italian Green symbol and political style was directly inspired by the Northern European environmentalist movements. The Green Lists, led by Gianni Mattioli and Alexander Langer, made their debut at the 1987 general election, when they gained 2.6% of the national vote. At the 1989 European Parliament election there were two competing Green parties: the Green Lists and the Rainbow Greens, formed mainly by Radicals, including Adele Faccio, Adelaide Aglietta, Marco Taradash and Francesco Rutelli. In 1990 the two parties joined forces to form the Federation of Greens. The new party entered in alliance with the Democratic Party of the Left in 1993 (within the Alliance of Progressives) and was a founding component of The Olive Tree coalition in 1995. Following the 1996 general election, the Greens were part of the centre-left governments led by Romano Prodi, Massimo D'Alema and Giuliano Amato. Edo Ronchi was minister for the Environment from 1996 to 2000
    9.00
    1 votes
    49

    Italian Democratic Socialist Party

    The Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI) was an Italian centre-left party. The party was founded in 1952 by the union of two parties: the Italian Socialist Workers' Party and the United Socialist Party (PSU). Both of them broke away from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) respectively in 1947 and 1949, due to the cooperation with the Communist Party by the latter. In 1963-1968 the party joined PSI to form the Unified Socialist Party, but in 1968, after a dismaying result at the elections of that year, it left the new party, returning to the PSDI denomination in 1971. The longstanding leader of PSDI was Giuseppe Saragat, who was President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971. From 1980 onwards it joined DC, PSI, PRI and PLI in the Pentapartito which ruled the country until 1994. The party's role in the coalition was minimal and was over-shadowed by the more powerful Italian Socialist Party. The party was involved in the corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli, and finally joined the Italian Socialists, heir of the Italian Socialist Party, to form the Italian Democratic Socialists in 1998. By then most
    9.00
    1 votes
    50

    Lega Alleanza Lombarda

    Lega Alleanza Lombarda (Lombard Alliance League, LAL) is a left-wing regionalist political party in Italy, based in Lombardy. The party is a long-time alternative to Lega Lombarda–Lega Nord and is led by Elidio De Paoli. The party was founded in 1992 as Lega Alpina Lumbarda (Lombard Alpine League) by De Paoli, who was elected senator both in the 1992 (2.1%) and the 1994 general election (4.3%). In 1996 the party joined forces with Autonomia Alleanza Lombarda, forming Lega Alleanza Lombarda, and obtained 1.9%. After a row between De Paoli, on one side, and Bossi and Brivio, on the other side, the party was disbanded until 2001, when De Paoli re-organized it. In the 2001 general election LAL won 5.4% for the Senate in Lombardy (0.9% nationally), as some disgruntled voters of Lega Nord and many people who thought they were voting for Lega Nord expressed their vote to LAL. De Paoli was elected senator with proportional representation, after he had won 11.5% in the constituency of Albino. There he stole many votes from Roberto Calderoli, deputy for Albino since 1994 and most voted leghista in 1996 (51.9%), who was elected with a mere 44.2%. In the 2006 general election the party was
    9.00
    1 votes
    51

    Liberal Reformers

    Liberal Reformers (Italian: Riformatori Liberali, RL) was a minor libertarian political party in Italy led by Benedetto Della Vedova, a former President of the Italian Radicals. RL was founded in 2005 by a split from Italian Radicals of those radicals that were opposed to the formation of the Rose in the Fist alliance together with the Italian Democratic Socialists, and instead supported an alliance with the House of Freedoms. The party unites former Radicals, as many former members of the Italian Liberal Party and of Forza Italia. After 2006 general election (in which Della Vedova was elected MP on Forza Italia's list), the explicit aim of the grouping is to unite the Italian centre-right into a single party and to strengthen liberal and secular positions in it. Liberal Reformers act both as a faction of Forza Italia both as a unifying agent of centre-right liberals. In October 2006, Liberal Reformers launched a manifesto called "Give a libertarian soul to the centre-right" together with famous journalists (Vittorio Feltri, Arturo Diaconale, Filippo Facci and Giordano Bruno Guerri), academics and politicians from both Forza Italia and National Alliance. On 1 November Della Vedova
    9.00
    1 votes
    52

    Marxist–Leninist Revolutionary Party of Italy

    Marxist-Leninist Revolutionary Party of Italy (in Italian: Partito Rivoluzionario (marxista-leninista) d'Italia) was a political party in Italy, formed following a split from the Federation of Marxist-Leninist Communists of Italy. PR(ml)d'I was founded on August 3, 1968 by Luciano Raimondi and Giuseppe Mai.
    9.00
    1 votes
    53

    Marxist–Leninist Italian Communist Party

    Marxist-Leninist Italian Communist Party (in Italian: Partito Comunista Italiano Marxista-Leninista, PCIM-L) is a small communist party in Italy. The party was founded on December 3, 1999 by the Centre of Marxist Culture and Initiative (Centro di Cultura e Iniziativa Marxista). The party is based in Forio, a commune of 14,536 inhabitants in the province in Naples, situated on the island of Ischia. It is headed by Domenico Savio, an anti-revisionist communist who favors a strict interpretation of the ideology in accordance with the teachings of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin. In October 2004, Savio and his PCIM-L managed to obtain 2,244 votes (6.9%) during the Chamber of Deputies supplementary election in the college of Napoli 1 - Ischia. In the 2006 general election PCIM-L ran a list in the Campania region for the Italian Senate, with Savio as the head of the list. PCIML got 26,029 votes (0.856% of the vote in that region, 0.08% of the national vote).
    6.00
    3 votes
    54

    The Democrats

    The Democrats (Italian: I Democratici) is a former political party in Italy, launched by Romano Prodi in 1998. One of the party's main goals was the establishment of a bipolar political system. The name and symbol of the party is a direct reference to the U.S. Democratic Party. Early groups of Ulivists were formed in 1995–1996, during the campaign for the 1996 general election, by close supporters of Romano Prodi who, as Prodi himself, were not members of any party of The Olive Tree. Ulivists organized "Clubs for Prodi" and the "Citizens for The Olive Tree" association. Although most Ulivists took part to the campaign only as activists and remained grassroots supporters during the Prodi II Cabinet, some were elected with the Italian People's Party–Democratic Union. When Romano Prodi was ousted from his post of Prime Minister of Italy, he launched a new party with grassroots activists, disgruntled Populars, Democratic Union of Antonio Maccanico, the Movement for Democracy – The Net of Leoluca Orlando, Italy of Values of Antonio Di Pietro (who left the party in 2000 and re-established an independent Italy of Values) and the so-called Movement of Mayors of Francesco Rutelli and
    6.00
    3 votes
    55
    The People of Freedom Party

    The People of Freedom Party

    The People of Freedom (Italian: Il Popolo della Libertà, PdL) is a centre-right political party in Italy. With the Democratic Party, it is one of the two major parties of the current Italian party system. The party was launched by Silvio Berlusconi on 18 November 2007 and officially founded in a party congress on 27–29 March 2009, when Forza Italia and National Alliance were merged. Apart from Berlusconi, the PdL is led by a secretary, Angelino Alfano, and three coordinators, Sandro Bondi, Ignazio La Russa and Denis Verdini. Its leading members include Giulio Tremonti, Roberto Formigoni, Franco Frattini, Maurizio Sacconi, Gianni Alemanno, Mariastella Gelmini and Giancarlo Galan. In coalition with Lega Nord, the party formed Italy's government from May 2008 to November 2011. Following the run-up to the 2006 general election there had been talk among the component parties of the House of Freedoms regarding a possible merger into a "united party of moderates and reformers". Forza Italia (FI), National Alliance (AN) and the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC) all seemed interested in the project. Soon after the election, however, UDC leader Pier Ferdinando Casini, who had
    6.00
    3 votes
    56

    Italy of Values

    Italy of Values (Italia dei Valori, IdV) is a centrist, populist and anti-corruption political party in Italy. The party is headed by former Mani pulite prosecutor Antonio Di Pietro, who entered politics in 1996. The party aims to gather and give voice to different sectors of the Italian society. From the beginning of its existence one of its major issue has been the so-called "moral issue". At European level, the IdV party is member of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR) and Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE). In the European Parliament election IdV was the fourth largest party in the country. Two of its leading memebers, Luigi de Magistris and Leoluca Orlando, are mayors of Naples and Palermo respectively. Antonio Di Pietro was Minister of Public Works in the Prodi I Cabinet from May to November 1996, when he resigned because he was under investigation in Brescia. In November 1997 he was elected Senator in a by-election in Mugello, a Democrats of the Left stronghold in Tuscany, by trouncing his major opponent Giuliano Ferrara 67.7% to 16.1%, despite the presence of a Communist candidate on the ballot, Sandro Curzi who received 13.0%. In March
    7.00
    2 votes
    57

    Movement of Unitarian Communists

    The Movement of Unitarian Communists (Movimento dei Comunisti Unitari, CU) was a communist political party in Italy. It was founded in June 1995 as a split of the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) by those Communist MPs who had voted the vote of confidence to the government of Lamberto Dini (supported also by the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), the Italian People's Party and the Northern League) in March 1995. Most members of MCU were from the Proletarian Unity Party (PdUP). This party left Proletarian Democracy in 1984 and merged with the Italian Communist Party, to leave it when it changed name into PDS in 1991. At that time most ex-PdUP members joined PRC. The leading politicians who formed MCU included Sergio Garavini, Lucio Magri, Luciana Castellina, Famiano Crucianelli, Luciano Pettinari, Ersilia Salvato, Rino Serri, Marida Bolognesi and Walter Bielli. In 1996 they presented some candidates in the lists of PDS. In 1998 MCU finally merged with PDS and other small parties to form the Democrats of the Left.
    7.00
    2 votes
    58

    The Italian Socialists

    The Italian Socialists (I Socialisti Italiani) was a minor social-democratic political party in Italy. The party was founded on 7 February 2006 as the result of a split from the New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) by the wing favourable to a political alliance with The Union on the centre-left, and an immediate discontinuance of ties with the centre-right House of Freedoms. The party was originally led by Bobo Craxi, son of the late Bettino Craxi, former leader of the Italian Socialist Party and former Prime Minister of Italy. In the 2006 general election the party was part of The Union coalition, being present only in few constituencies and thus gaining only 0.3% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies and 0.4% for the Senate. The party saw none of its members elected and even Craxi, who had a place on The Olive Tree electoral list, was not elected, leaving the party without representation in Parliament. However, the centre-left coalition won the election and Craxi was appointed Under-Secretary of Foreign Affairs in the Prodi II Cabinet. The first party convention, held on 10-11 March 2007, elected unanimously Saverio Zavettieri as party secretary and deliberated the change in name
    7.00
    2 votes
    59

    Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party

    The Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (Italian: Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese; German: Autonomistische Trentiner Tiroler Partei, PATT) is a regionalist and Christian-democratic Italian political party based in Trentino. The party was founded in 1948 as Trentino Tyrolean People's Party (PPTT). In 1982 a split between the conservative wing, led by Franco Tretter, and the centrist wing of the party, led by longstanding leader Enrico Pruner, occurred. The first group retained the name of the party but then changed it to Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Union (UATT), while second one took the name of Integral Autonomy. In 1988 the two groups were re-united and formed the PATT. In the 1993 provincial election the party had its best result ever (20.2%), thanks to the crisis of Christian Democracy (DC), and its leader Carlo Andreotti was President of the Province of Trento for the successive five years, at the head of a coalition composed of the PATT and the Italian People's Party, one of the successors of DC, and some minor parties. In 1998 the party suffered a reatret to 12.4%, due to the big result of the newly formed Daisy Civic List (22.2%), with which it entered in coalition.
    7.00
    2 votes
    60
    Union of Christian and Centre Democrats

    Union of Christian and Centre Democrats

    The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e di Centro, UDC) is a Christian-democratic political party in Italy. It is formally led by Lorenzo Cesa, although its most popular figure and practical leader is Pier Ferdinando Casini. The party is the driving force behind the Union of the Centre, and since 2008 the party's official name has been neglected in favour of "Union of the Centre" as the two organisations overlap. The UDC is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and of the Centrist Democrat International (CDI), of which Casini is currently president. The party, which was part of the Pole/House of Freedoms from 1994 through 2008, is currently a aligned with the New Pole for Italy, therefore is affiliated neither to the centre-right nor the centre-left at the national level. Despite this, UDC takes part with The People of Freedom, the main party of the Italian centre-right, within several regional, provincial and municipal governments (notably in Lazio, Campania and Calabria), but has also recently formed alliances with the centre-left Democratic Party at the local level. The party was founded in 2002 by the merger of three parties: the
    5.67
    3 votes
    61

    Unione Sindacale Italiana

    Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI; Italian Syndicalist Union or Italian Workers Union) is an anarcho-syndicalist trade union. It is the Italian section of the International Workers Association (IWA; Associazione Internazionale dei Lavoratori in Italian or AIT - ''Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores in the common Spanish reference), and the name of USI is also abbreviated as USI-AIT. The USI was founded in 1912, after a group of workers, previously affiliated with the Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (CGL), met in Modena and declared themselves linked to the legacy of the First International, and later joined the anarcho-syndicalist International Workers Association. The most left-wing camere del lavoro adhered in rapid succession to the USI, and it engaged in all major political battles for labor rights - without ever adopting the militarist attitudes present with other trade unions. Nonetheless, after the outbreak of World War I, USI was shaken by the dispute around the issue of Italy's intervention in the conflict on the Entente Powers' side. The problem was made acute by the presence of eminent pro-intervention, national-syndicalist voices inside the body: Alceste De
    5.67
    3 votes
    62

    Valdostan Union

    The Valdotanian Union (Union Valdôtaine, UV) is a regionalist-centrist Italian political party active in Aosta Valley. Its leaders are Ego Perron, party president, and Augusto Rollandin, President of the Region. UV has been steadily represented in the Italian Parliament since 1976 and, thanks to the disappearance of Christian Democracy, it has become the catch-all party of the Region, similarly to the South Tyrolean People's Party is in South Tyrol. Indeed the party steadily increased its share of vote from the 11.5% of 1973 to the 47.2% of 2003. UV has led the regional government since 1974 (with the exception of only three years). The party was founded on 3 September 1945. Originally a close ally of Christian Democracy, with which it shared government between 1946 and 1954, it soon distanced itself from that party, while approaching and strengthening its ties with the parties of the left-wing. After five years of opposition, in 1959 UV won the regional election in coalition with the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) with 51.6% against the 48.6% of a coalition composed by the Christian Democracy (DC), the Italian Liberal Party (PLI), the Italian
    5.67
    3 votes
    63

    Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity

    The Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity (Partito Socialista Italiano di Unità Proletaria, PSIUP), was a political party in Italy from 1964 to 1972. The PSIUP was formed on 12 January 1964 by a leftist section of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). PSIUP had been the PSI's name in 1943-1947. The new PSIUP was led by Tullio Vecchietti. Other leading members were Lelio Basso, Vittorio Foa, Lucio Libertini, Emilio Lussu, Francesco Cacciatore detto Cecchino and Dario Valori. The new party attracted PSI militants who were dissatisfied with the close cooperation between the PSI and the Christian Democrats. Instead the founders of the PSIUP favoured cooperation with the Italian Communist Party (PCI). On 13 July 1972, following a disappointing electoral result, the PSIUP split. The majority, led by Libertini, Valori and Vecchietti, joined the PCI. The rightist minority, led by Giuseppe Avolio, Nicola Corretto and Vincenzo Gatto, rejoined the PSI. The leftist minority, led by Foa and Silvano Miniati, continues to work under the name PSIUP, and in December 1972 they established the Proletarian Unity Party (PdUP). A Posadist faction within the PSIUP published the Bollettino della
    8.00
    1 votes
    64

    Volpianian Independents

    Volpianian Independents (in Italian: Indipendenti Volpianesi) is a political party in the municipality of Volpiano, Turin province, Italy.
    6.50
    2 votes
    65

    Christian Democracy for Autonomies

    Christian Democracy for the Autonomies (Democrazia Cristiana per le Autonomie, DCA) was a minor Christian-democratic Italian political party. DCA was founded on 25 October 2004 by a split from the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC) led by Gianfranco Rotondi, who wanted closer ties with Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia and who criticized the political line of the then leader of UDC Marco Follini. The party was part of the House of Freedoms coalition since its foundation. The party was part in the 2006 general election on a joint-list with the New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI). The list gained 0.7% of the votes and, despite not having passed the 2% threshold, it still elected four deputies since it was the party which received more votes under the 2% in its coalition. Two of these deputies were members of DCA, while two more candidates were elected on the list of Forza Italia. Gianfranco Rotondi was too elected Senator on the list of Forza Italia, along with his colleague and deputy Mario Cutrufo. DCA was part of The People of Freedom (PdL) list for the 2008 general election. On 3 April 2008, during a meeting in Milan, the party announced an alliance within the new party
    5.00
    3 votes
    66

    DIRFOR

    DIRFOR stands for Sindacato nazionale dei dirigenti e direttivi forestali, an Italian trade union of the Forestry Police.
    5.00
    3 votes
    67

    Radical Party

    The Radical Party (Partito Radicale, PR) was a political party in Italy. For decades it was a bastion of liberalism and radicalism in Italy and proposed itself as the strongest opposition to the Italian political establishment, which was seen as corrupt and conservative. Although the party never reached high shares of vote and it never took part in government, it had close relations with the other parties of the Italian left, from the Republicans and the Socialists to the Communists and Proletarian Democracy, and opened its ranks also to members of other parties, through "double membership". In 1989, the party was transformed into the Transnational Radical Party. The current incarnation of the party is called Italian Radicals, which was founded after a period in the 1990s, when the Radicals presented electoral lists (including the Pannella List and Bonino List) for Italian general elections, without having a structured party and sometimes dividing themselves in competing lists. The Radical Party was founded in 1955 by the progressive left-wing of the Italian Liberal Party as the ideal continuation of the historical Radical Party, active from 1877 to 1925, emphasising liberal and
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    68

    Labour Democratic Party

    The Labour Democratic Party (Partito Democratico del Lavoro, DL) was a social-liberal political party in Italy, founded in 1943 as the heir of defunct Italian Social Democratic Party, formed by those Socialists who wanted to cooperate with the Liberal political guard which governed Italy from the days of Giovanni Giolitti. Leading members of the party were Ivanoe Bonomi, Meuccio Ruini and Enrico Molè. The party inheredited the symbol of its ancestor, a torch with a tricolour flame. The party became one of the six members of the National Liberation Committee which governed Italy during the war against Fascism from 1944 to 1946. After having fought the 1946 general election within the National Democratic Union, composed basically by Benedetto Croce's Italian Liberal Party and by pre-Fascist leading Liberal politicians, such as Vittorio Emanuele Orlando and Francesco Saverio Nitti, some members joined the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, of which Bonomi was honorary chairman from 1947 until his death in 1951, but also the Italian Socialist Party and, as independents, the Italian Communist Party and the Italian Liberal Party.
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    69

    Confederazione dei Comitati di Base

    The Confederazione dei Comitati di Base (Cobas) is a rank and file trade union center in Italy. It was formed in the late 1980s from members who were dissatisfied with the leadership of the three main Italian confederations. Many of its members see it as syndicalist, but it has also courted the Trotskyist group, the League for the Fifth International who it shared a platform with at the anti-G8 protests in Rostock in 2007. Cobas regard themselves as alternative labor unions, that is rank and file unions in contrast to the hierarchical mainstream unions that impose upon the base accommodationist anti-workers comprimeses. Comparable "rank and file" labor unions exist in France: the Fédération Syndicale Unitaire (FSU), and the Solidaires Unitaires Démocratiques (SUD) and their confederation in the Group of 10. The factory councils became more and more popular during the 1970s, and its co-existence with the traditional mainstream workers unions encouraged an increase in unionization. However, in 1978, the major mainstream workers unions were compelled to a push towards recentralizing power before practices and rules by the base could stabilize outside of their control.
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    70

    Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy

    Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy (Italian: Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita, DL) was a centrist Italian political party. The party president and leader was Francesco Rutelli, former Mayor of Rome and former candidate for Prime Minister of Italy during the 2001 general election for The Olive Tree coalition. DL was formed by former leftist Christian Democrats, centrists (former Liberals and former Republicans), as well as more leftist politicians, especially former Socialists and Greens. DL merged with the Democrats of the Left and minor parties to found the Democratic Party on 14 October 2007. The idea of uniting the centrist components of The Olive Tree coalitions, which were divided in many parties, was discussed at least since 1996. In the 1996 general election there were actually two centrist lists within the Italian centre-left: that of the Italian People's Party (PPI), including Democratic Union (UD), the Italian Republican Party (PRI) and the South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP), and that of Italian Renewal (RI), including the Italian Socialists (SI), which merged into the Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) in 1998, and Patto Segni (PS). In 1998 splinters from the
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    1 votes
    71

    Italian Associations in South America

    The Italian Associations in South America (Associazioni Italiane in Sud America, AISA) is an Italian political party representing voters living in South America, for this continent has been object of major Italian immigration. The party won one seat in the Chamber of Deputies and one seat in the Senate in the 2006 general election. The party has been represented in the Senate by Luigi Pallaro and in the Chamber of Deputies by Ricardo Antonio Merlo, who left the party in 2008 in order to form the Associative Movement Italians Abroad. Notably, former senator Pallaro was at the centre of controversy, as he was the only independent elected member of the Senate in which the winning coalition, The Union, had just two more seats than the rival House of Freedoms, and he did not formally declare a preference for one of the two sides, although he generally supported the centre-left government of Romano Prodi. Pallaro was not re-elected in the 2008 general election, thus ending his political career. Merlo was re-elected for the rival list.
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    72

    Italian Communist Party

    The Italian Communist Party (Italian: Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy. The PCI was founded as Communist Party of Italy on 21 January 1921 in Livorno, by seceding from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). Amadeo Bordiga and Antonio Gramsci led the split. Outlawed during the Fascist regime, the party played a major part in the Italian resistance movement. It changed its name in 1943 to PCI and became the strongest political party of the Italian left after World War II, attracting the support of about a third of the voters during the 1970s. At the time it was the biggest communist party in the West (1.8 million members and 34.4% of the vote in 1976). In 1991 the PCI was disbanded and replaced by the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), which was accepted in both the Socialist International and the Party of European Socialists. The more radical members of the party left to form the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC). The PCI participated to its first general election in 1921, obtaining 4.6% of the vote and 15 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. At time, it was an active but small faction within Italian political left, which was strongly led by the
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    73

    Organisation of Communists of Italy (Marxist–Leninists)

    Organisation of Communists of Italy (Marxist-Leninists) (in Italian: Organizzazione dei Comunisti d'Italia (marxisti-leninisti)), initially known as Communist Committee (m-l) of Bologna (Comitato Comunista (m-l) di Bologna), was a communist group in Italy, founded around 1968.
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    74

    Party of Italian Communists

    The Party of Italian Communists (Partito dei Comunisti Italiani, PdCI) is a communist political party in Italy. Its long-time leader is Oliviero Diliberto. The PdCI was founded in 1998 as a split from the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) by Armando Cossutta, the original leader of the PRC. The main reason for the split was the unwillingness of the majority the Communist Refoundation Party to participate in the operation that toppled the Prodi I Cabinet. Fausto Bertinotti had kept the party in alliance with The Olive Tree coalition for two years, but was leaving because of disagreement over social policy. Leaving would have left the government without a majority in the Chamber of Deputies. The issue was hotly debated within the party, and in the end a few votes, coming from the Trotskyist factions, finally decided. Soon after the party joined the D'Alema I Cabinet with Oliviero Diliberto as Minister of Justice. Most PRC MPs followed Cossutta into the new party, but the PRC secured more voters: in the 1999 European Parliament election the PdCI won 2.0% of the vote, while the PRC had the 4.3%. Diliberto, who had been elected party secretary in 2000, led the party to continue its
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    75

    Sardinia Nation

    Sardinia Nation (Sardigna Natzione, SN) is a minor separatist and democratic-socialist political party in Sardinia, Italy. Its leader is Bustianu Cumpostu. The party was founded in 1994 as the development of the Sardinian Independence Party (PSIn) by Angelu Caria, long-time leader of the PSIn. After the sudden death of Carria in 1994, Bustianu Cumpostu was elected new leader of the party, by defeating Gavino Sale. In the 1996 general election SN won 4.3% in single-seat constituencies (11.6% in Tortolì and 9.6% in Iglesias), despite being present only in 10 constituencies out of 14, and 2.3% for proportional representation, as it suffered the competition of the Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) that gained 3.8%. In the 1999 regional election SN had its best result ever, as Bustiano Cumpostu received 5.8% of the vote for President of the Region, despite the competition of the PSd'Az that gained 8.3% with Franco Meloni. However, as Cumpostu did not surpass the 6% threshold and the party list stopped at 1.8%, the party did not get into the Regional Council. Both for the 2001 general election and the 2004 regional election SN formed an alliance with the PSd'Az. This led Gavino Sale, who
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    76

    Fronte Marco Polo

    Fronte Marco Polo (Marco Polo Front, FMP) was a Venetist political party active in Veneto, named after Marco Polo. Fabio Padovan, leader of the European Federalist Free Entrepreneurs (LIFE) and former deputy of Liga Veneta–Lega Nord, and Giorgio Vido, another former deputy of LV–LN, formed FMP in 1999 in view of the 2000 regional election. Padovan gained 1.7% of the vote in the election, while FMP stopped at 1.3%. In 2001 the party was merged into Liga Fronte Veneto.
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    77

    Italian Liberal Party

    The Italian Liberal Party (Italian: Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was a liberal political party in Italy. The origins of liberalism in Italy came from the so-called "Historical Right", a parliamentary group formed by Camillo Benso di Cavour in the Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia following the 1848 revolution. The Liberals were moderately conservative and supported centralised government, restricted suffrage, regressive taxation, and free trade. They dominated Italian politics following unification in 1861 but never formed a party, basing their power on census suffrage and the first-past-the-post electoral system. The Right was opposed by a more progressive faction, the "Historical Left", which overthrew Marco Minghetti's government during the so-called "Parliamentary Revolution" of 1876, which allowed the premiership of Agostino Depretis. However, Depretis immediately began to search the support of the Right MPs, which easily accepted to change their positions, in a situation of large corruption. This phenomenon (on a satirical newspaper, the Premier was depicted as a chameleon), called in Italian as trasformismo (roughly translated in English as "transformism"), cancelled
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    2 votes
    78

    Italians in the World

    Italians in the World (Italiani nel Mondo, InM) is an political party in Italy, founded in September 2006 by Senator Sergio De Gregorio, a former Socialist elected in the lists of Italy of Values. The party had previously existed as a political association since 2000. The party is to merge into The People of Freedom in 2009.
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    79

    Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity

    Since 1961 the Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity (Partito Democratico Italiano di Unità Monarchica, PDIUM) was the continuation of the Italian Democratic Party (Partito Democratico Italiano), a monarchist party founded in 1959 by the union of the People's Monarchist Party and the National Monarchist Party. The new party, like its predecessors, was hampered by a provision in the Italian Constitution of 1946 specifically forbidding any measure that would restore the monarchy. It was never able to repeat the results of its predecessors and saw electoral support for the monarchist cause shrink in the 1963 general election (1.8%) and in those of 1968 (1.3%), due to the successes of the Italian Liberal Party (respectively 7.0 and 5.8%). In 1972 PDIUM merged in the post-fascist Italian Social Movement (MSI) and so ceased to exist. Alfredo Covelli, long-time monarchist leader, was elected president of MSI. In 1976 Covelli led a moderate split of MSI and established National Democracy.
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    80

    Italian Radicals

    Italian Radicals (Italian: Radicali Italiani) is an Italian political party which describes itself as a liberale, liberista e libertario political movement (liberista means economic liberal or, better, libertarian in the American sense; libertario, here, denotes a form of social liberalism concerning moral issues, with some ideological connection with historical left-libertarianism). It was founded on 14 July 2001, with Daniele Capezzone as the original party secretary, replaced in 2006 by Rita Bernardini. The party intends to be the Italian section of the Transnational Radical Party, that is to say the continuation of the Radical Party founded in 1955 by the left-wing of the Italian Liberal Party and re-launched in the 1960s by Marco Pannella. The Radical Party having become a transnational NGO working at the UN level, which by statute does not participate in national political elections, its Italian members organised themselves into the Pannella List (Lista Pannella) between 1992 and 1999 and into the Bonino List (Lista Bonino) until 2001, when they re-established themselves as a party. The Radical Party had historically been considered as the strongest left-libertarian political
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    81

    Communist Refoundation Party

    The Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista, PRC) is a communist Italian political party. Its current secretary is Paolo Ferrero. The party participates both in the Party of the European Left (of which Fausto Bertinotti, a senior PRC member, was the first president) and the European Anticapitalist Left. Its members in the European Parliament sat in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group. In 1991, when the Italian Communist Party (PCI), led by Achille Occhetto, became the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), dissidents led by Armando Cossutta launched the Communist Refoundation Party. In the same year Proletarian Democracy, a far left outfit, merged into the new party, which aimed to unite all Italian communists. The first secretary of the PRC was Sergio Garavini, who resigned in June 1993, being replaced by Fausto Bertinotti, a long-time Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) trade union leader, who had left the PDS only some months before. The leadership of Bertinotti was a turning point for the party, which jumped to 8.6% of vote in the 1996 general election. The party supported the Prodi I Cabinet until 1998, when Bertinotti's
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    82

    Consumers' List

    The Consumers' List (Italian: Lista Consumatori) is a political party in Italy. The party is affiliated to The Union (L'Unione), the centre-left coalition led by Romano Prodi. In the 9-10 April 2006 general elections, the party was a member of the winning coalition L'Unione and won 1 out of 315 senators.
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    83

    Forza Italia

    Forza Italia (Forward Italy, FI) was a liberal-conservative, Christian democratic, and liberal political party in Italy, with a large social democratic minority, that was led by Silvio Berlusconi, four times Prime Minister of Italy. The party was founded in December 1993 and won its first election soon afterwards in March 1994. It was the main member of the Pole of Freedoms and the House of Freedoms coalitions, and is considered (by both insiders and outsiders) to have been very different from the other Italian political parties. In November 2008 the National Council of the party, presided by Alfredo Biondi, officially ruled on the dissolution of Forza Italia into The People of Freedom, Berlusconi's new political vehicle, whose official took place in early 2009. Forza Italia was formed in 1993 by Silvio Berlusconi, a successful businessman and owner of four of the main private television stations in Italy, along with Antonio Martino, Mario Valducci, Antonio Tajani, Marcello Dell'Utri, Cesare Previti and Giuliano Urbani. Italy was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known as Tangentopoli and the subsequent police investigation, called Mani pulite. This led to the disappearance
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    84

    Italian Labour Union

    The Italian Labour Union or UIL, in Italian Unione Italiana del Lavoro, is a national trade union center in Italy. It was founded in 1950 as socialist, socialdemocrat republican ( Italian Republican Party) and laic split from Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL, Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro). It represents almost 2.2 million workers. The UIL is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), and the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC). The birth of UIL was a gradual process made by different steps, it was the result of both: the splits from the "unite CGIL" son of the Pact of Rome and the turbulence within Italian parties in the first postwar years, especially around the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) area. On 3 June 1944, while Italy was still participating in World War II, Giuseppe Di Vittorio on behalf of Italian Communist Party (PCI), Achille Grandi on behalf of Christian Democracy and Emilio Canevari on behalf of PSI signed the "Pact of Rome". As a consequence of this pact was established the "unite CGIL". The CGIL born from the pact had as objective to unify all the Italian workers under one flag independently from their
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    85

    Movement for Peace and Socialism

    Movement for Peace and Socialism (Italian: Movimento per la Pace e il Socialismo, MPS) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in Italy, founded 30 November 1986 by retired NATO general and senator Nino Pasti. Pasti served as MPS president, taking special interest in the struggle against nuclear weapons, until his death in 1992. The party is currently led by Roberto Gabriele, but is said to be largely moribund.
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    86

    United Pensioners

    The United Pensioners of Italy (Italian: Pensionati Uniti) is a political party in Italy. The party affiliated to the "House of Freedoms", the centre-right coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi.
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    87

    Democratic Party

    The Democratic Party (Italian: Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy, that is the country's second-largest. The party is led by Pier Luigi Bersani, who was elected at the 2009 leadership election. The party was founded on 14 October 2007 as a merger of various left-wing and centrist parties which were part of The Union in the 2006 general election. Several parties merged into the Democratic Party, however its bulk was formed by the Democrats of the Left (heirs of the Italian Communist Party) and Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy. Within the party, an important role is played also by Christian leftists, who are direct heirs of the late Christian Democracy party's left. After Silvio Berlusconi's resignation in November 2011, the PD has supported Mario Monti's government since its formation, along with Berlusconi's The People of Freedom, the Union of the Centre and Future and Freedom. In the early 1990s, following Tangentopoli, the end of the so-called First Republic and the transformation of the Italian Communist Party into the Democratic Party of the Left, a process aimed at uniting left-wing and centre-left forcees into a single political entity
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    88

    Fascism and Freedom Movement

    The Fascism and Freedom Movement (Italian: Movimento Fascismo e Libertà) (MFL) is an Italian fascist party. It was formed in 1991 by senator Giorgio Pisanò. It is the only recognised party in Italy with the inscription "Fascismo" on its logo.
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    89

    Greens Greens

    The Federalist Greens of Italy (Verdi Federalisti) is a political party in Italy. The party affiliated to the House of Freedoms, the centre-right coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi.
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    1 votes
    90
    Action Party

    Action Party

    The Action Party (Partito d'Azione, PdA) was an Italian liberal socialist political party. Founded in July 1942 by former militants of Giustizia e Libertà ("Justice and Liberty"), liberal socialists, democrats. Ideologically they were heirs to the "Liberal Socialism" of Carlo Rosselli and to Piero Gobetti's "Liberal Revolution", whose writings rejected Marxist "economic determinism" and aimed at the overcoming of class struggle and for a new shape of Socialism, respect for civil liberty and for radical change in both the social and the economic structure of Italy. From January 1943 it published a clandestine newspaper, L'Italia Libera ("Free Italy"), edited by Leone Ginzburg. Central members of the National Liberation Committee, they participated actively in the Italian resistance movement with units of Giustizia e Libertà commanded by Ferruccio Parri. It maintained a clear antimonarchical position and it was opposed to Togliatti and the Italian Communist Party's Salerno Initiative for postwar governance. The party adopted the symbol of a flaming sword. In the immediate post-war period it joined the government securing the post of Prime Minister for Ferruccio Parri from June to
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    91

    New Sicily

    New Sicily (Nuova Sicilia, NS) is a regionalist social-democratic political party based in Sicily. Its founder and current leader is Bartolo Pellegrino. It is composed mainly by former members of the Italian Socialist Party The party is affiliated to the House of Freedoms, the centre-right coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi. It participated in the national general election, obtaining 33,437 votes, and the Sicilian regional election of 2006, in a joint ticket with the Movement for Autonomy, obtaining 308,219 (12.5% of regional votes) and ten seats in the Sicilian Regional Assembly. Southern Italy autonomist movements
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    92

    Christian Democracy

    Christian Democracy (Italian: Democrazia Cristiana, DC) was a Christian democratic party in Italy. It was founded in 1943 as the ideological successor of the historical Italian People's Party, which had the same symbol, a crossed shield (scudo crociato). The DC, a catch-all party comprising both right-wing and left-wing factions, dominated the politics of Italy for almost 50 years from 1944 until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992–1994. It was succeeded by several parties, including the Italian People's Party, the Christian Democratic Centre, the United Christian Democrats and the current Union of Christian and Centre Democrats. However, most former Christian Democrats are now affiliated to the centre-right The People of Freedom and the centre-left Democratic Party. The party was founded as the revival of the tradition of the Italian People's Party (PPI), a political party created in 1919 by Luigi Sturzo, a Roman Catholic priest. The PPI won over 20% of the votes in the 1919 and 1921 elections, but was declared illegal by the Fascist dictatorship in 1925 despite the presence of some Popolari in Benito Mussolini's first government. As World War II was ending,
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    93

    Christian Extended Pact

    The Christian Extended Pact (Patto Cristiano Esteso, PACE) is a Christian-conservative political party in Italy. The party takes example from the Christian Coalition in the United States and is one of the few examples of Christian right parties in Europe. Although most of its members are evangelicals or pentecostals, the party is not officially associated with any denomination. The party's founder and leader is Gilberto Perri, a pentecostal pastor, who has been one of the founding members of Christian Coalition International with Pat Robertson in 1999. PACE has been affiliated to the House of Freedoms coalition and generally sides with the Italian centre-right. It is stronger in Southern Italy, where pentecostal and evangelical churches are more widespread. In the 2006 general election (Senate) PACE won 0.4% in Sicily, but its best results so far came in 2011 local elections, when the party gained 3.6% (and one councillor) in Reggio Calabria and 2.1% throughout the Province.
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    94

    Republican Left

    The Republican Left (Sinistra Repubblica, SR) was an Italian political party founded on January 30, 1994 after the Italian Republican Party (PRI) split. After 22 January 1994 Giorgio Malfa had newly assumed the secretariat of the PRI, replacing Giorgio Bogi (until that moment secretary), National Council of the party decided to leave Democratic Alliance - in which the PRI was found - and to enter the coalition Pact for Italy. Therefore Giorgio Bogi, Giuseppe Ayala and Libero Gualtieri left PRI as a reaction, giving birth to a small movement the Republican Left, then one component of the Democratic Alliance. On February 13, 1998 the Republican Left merged (together with the Labour Federation, Social Christians, Unitarian Communists, Reformists for Europe and Democratic Federation) into the Democratic Party of the Left, thus founding the Democrats of the Left (DS). Republican Left remained a centre-left faction within DS.
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    95

    Sardinian Action Party

    The Sardinian Action Party (Partito Sardo d'Azione, PSdAz) is a regionalist social-liberal political party in Sardinia, which has recently sided with The People of Freedom, the largest centre-right party in Italy. The party was founded in April 1921 and was re-organized after World War II by Emilio Lussu, secretary for Southern Italy of the Action Party during the war, and other veterans from the "Sassari brigade", a social-democratic group of the Italian resistance movement. Lussu left the party in 1948 to found the short-lived Sardinian Socialist Action Party, which joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1949, as many other PSd'Az members did. The two parties won 10.4 and 6.6% respectively in the first regional election in 1949. After a decline in term of votes in the 1960s and 1970s, the party re-gained strength in the 1980s (13.8% in 1984 and 12.4% in 1989). Following these results, Sardist Mario Melis was President of Sardinia between 1984 and 1989 at the head of a five-party coalition composed also by the Italian Communist Party, the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Democratic Socialist Party and the Italian Republican Party. This was the highest point in party history:
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    96

    The Old Catholic Church in Italy

    The Old Catholic Church in Italy or Chiesa Vetero-Cattolica in Italian, is an Old Catholic Church united with or in communion with the Anglican Communion. Italians from the Old Catholic Church can go to an Anglican Church anywhere else, even an Old catholic church anywhere else that is in the Anglican Communion. Italian Old–Catholic Church
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    97

    National Alliance

    National Alliance (Italian: Alleanza Nazionale, AN) was a conservative political party in Italy. Gianfranco Fini was the leader of the party since its foundation in 1995, however he stepped down in 2008 after being elected to the nominally non-partisan post of President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies and was succeeded by Ignazio La Russa, who managed to merge the party into The People of Freedom (PdL). This finally happened in 2009. National Alliance, launched in 1994, was officially founded in January 1995, when the Italian Social Movement (MSI), the former neo-fascist party, merged with conservative elements of the former Christian Democracy, which had disbanded in 1994 after two years of scandals and various splits due to corruption at its highest levels, exposed by the Mani Pulite investigation, and the Italian Liberal Party, disbanded in the same year. Former MSI members were however still the bulk of the new party and former MSI leader Gianfranco Fini was elected leader of the new party. The logo followed a template very similar to the Democratic Party of the Left, with the previous logo in a small circle, as a means of legally preventing others from using it. The name
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    98

    People's Monarchist Party

    The People's Monarchist Party (Partito Monarchico Popolare) was an Italian conservative party founded in 1954 by a split from the National Monarchist Party. It was led by Achille Lauro, long-time Mayor of Naples. In 1959, after the good result in the 1958 general election (2.6%, while the rival PNM scored only 2.2%), the party re-joined the National Monarchist Party to form the Italian Democratic Party, latterly named Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity.
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    99
    Proletarian Unity Party

    Proletarian Unity Party

    The Proletarian Unity Party (Italian: Partito di Unità Proletaria, PdUP) was a political party in Italy. The PdUP was founded in the November 1972 by minority factions of two parties, the socialist Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity (PSIUP), led by Vittorio Foa, and Silvano Miniati, and the Catholic left Political Movement of Labourers (MPL), led by Giovanni Russo Spena and Domenico Jervolino, who had opposed the merge into the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). Its symbol was the hammer and sickle over the world. In 1974 these members were joined by the group of Il Manifesto and by the Autonomist Student Movemenet led by Mario Capanna, forming the Proletarian Unity Party for Communism (in Italian called Partito di Unità Popolare per il Comunismo). The founding congress was held on January 29, 1976. Main leaders of the various currents were Miniati, Foa, Capanna (far left-oriented), Rossana Rossanda and Lucio Magri - leaning for collaboration with the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and Italian General Confederation of Labour) - and Luigi Pintor. Magri was elected as the group's first national secretary. During the 1976 general elections, PdUP ran together with Proletarian
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    100

    Socialist Revolutionary Anarchist Party

    The Socialist Revolutionary Anarchist Party (Italian: Partito Socialista Anarchico Rivoluzionario) was a short-lived Italian political party. Founded in January 1891 at the Congress of Capolago, at which around 80 delegates from Italian socialist and anarchist groups participated. Notable figures included, Errico Malatesta, Luigi Galleani, Amilcare Cipriani, Andrea Costa and Filippo Turati. Malatesta envisioned the PSAR as the Italian federation of a new, anarchist and socialist, International Workingmen's Association. The PSAR largely fell into the Partito Socialista Rivoluzionario Italiano (PSRI). This organization was a founding member of the Partito Socialista dei Lavoratori Italiani (PSLI) in 1892, which by 1895 had been renamed the Partito Socialista Italiano (PSI) and, amid sectarian struggles, ejected its anarchist wing.
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