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Most famous Companies from Israel

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    Moledet

    Moledet (Hebrew: מולדת‎, Homeland) is a small right-wing political party in Israel. It advocates the notion of encouraging voluntary population transfer (as opposed to forced transfer) of the Arab population of the West Bank. Moledet was founded in 1988 by Rehavam Ze'evi, who headed it until his assassination by members of the PFLP in 2001, after which Rabbi Benny Elon was elected as chairman. In 1999, Moledet allied with Herut – The National Movement and Tkuma to form the National Union (Hebrew: איחוד לאומי‎, Ihud Leumi). While other parties (Kach, Herut) have advocated transfer, Moledet is the party most associated with this notion in Israel, due to its almost lack of any other element in its platform, and due to Ze'evi's success in bringing together opposing elements (in particular, both secular and religious) under the transfer flag. In contrast to Kach and the ideas of Rabbi Meir Kahane, Moledet only advocates voluntary transfer. Throughout its existence, Moledet remained a small party and never exceeded three Members of the Knesset (out of 120). In the 17th Knesset (2006–2009), Moledet had two MKs, Elon and Professor Aryeh Eldad. In its beginnings, Moledet was considered
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    Rafi

    Rafi

    Rafi (Hebrew: רפ"י‎, an acronym for Reshimat Poalei Yisrael (Hebrew: רשימת פועלי ישראל‎), lit. Israeli Workers List) was a left-wing political party in Israel, founded by former Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion in 1965. In 1968 it was one of three parties which merged to form the Israeli Labor Party. Rafi was founded on 14 July 1965 when David Ben-Gurion led a breakaway of eight MKs from Mapai, the ruling party, taking with him Moshe Dayan, Shimon Peres, Chaim Herzog, and Teddy Kollek, amongst others. The split had two main causes; the first was the disagreements within Mapai over the Lavon Affair; Ben-Gurion did not agree to declaring Lavon innocent without judicial investigation committee. The second was the formation of the Labor Alignment by an alliance of Mapai and Ahdut HaAvoda. The new party's establishment, a merger of two of the largest left-wing parties, was intended to delay planned reforms to the electoral system (i.e. to change from proportional representation to a constituency-based system) that were important to Ben-Gurion. The party ran for the 1965 elections on a platform of changing the electoral systems. Although Ben-Gurion hoped to displace the Labour Alignment
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    Ahi

    Ahi (Hebrew: אח"י‎, lit. My Brother, an acronym for Eretz Hevra Yahadut (Hebrew: ארץ חברה יהדות‎), lit. Land, Society, Judaism) was a right-wing nationalist religious Zionist political party in Israel. Founded in 2005, it was part of the National Union alliance between 2006 and 2008. For the 2009 elections it ran a joint list with Likud. The party was established on 21 March 2005 when Effi Eitam and Yitzhak Levi split from the National Religious Party during the 16th Knesset. The split resulted from opposition to Zevulun Orlev's faction in the party, after he had refused to resign from the government following its approval of the disengagement plan. The split occurred when Eitam was suspended as chairman of the party after it failed to approve his suggestion to unite with National Union in order to form a large right wing-nationalist Religious Zionist party. Eitam and Levi originally named their party the Religious Zionism (Hebrew: הציונות הדתית, HaTzionut HaDatit), but due to objections from the NRP that its name was too broad, a discussion at the party registrar resulted in the party being renamed the Connection Faction (Hebrew: סיעת התחברות, Siat Hitkhabrut). The party's final
    8.20
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    Centre Party

    The Centre Party (Hebrew: מפלגת המרכז‎, Mifleget Hamerkaz), originally known as Israel in the Centre, was a short-lived political party in Israel. Formed in 1999 by former Defense Minister Yitzhak Mordechai, the aim was to create a group of moderates to challenge both Binyamin Netanyahu on the right and opposition leader Ehud Barak's Labour Party on the left. The party was established on 23 February 1999, towards the end of the 14th Knesset's term, by Mordechai, David Magen and Dan Meridor from Likud, Hagai Meirom and Nissim Zvili of Labour, and Eliezer Sandberg of Tzomet. However, the most significant ally Mordechai had made was General Amnon Lipkin-Shahak, the just-retired army Chief-of-Staff who had been his most bitter rival for that post in 1994. It borrowed many of its themes from The Third Way, a group that split with the Labour Party in 1994 over the latter's willingness to negotiate the return of the Golan Heights to Syria for a peace treaty. However, by 1999 The Third Way was a partner of the Likud government and had lost much of its public credit due to its small influence on Netanyahu. Mordechai, who was less hawkish than Netanyahu, wanted further progress in the Oslo
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    Jewish–Arab Brotherhood

    Jewish-Arab Brotherhood (Arabic: الأخوة اليهودية العربية‎; Hebrew: אחווה יהודית-ערבית‎, Ahva Yehudit-Aravit) was a short-lived, one-man political party in Israel. The party was formed on 22 October 1968 during the sixth Knesset, when Elias Nakhleh broke away from Progress and Development. For the 1969 elections Nakhleh merged the party into Cooperation and Brotherhood, effectively swapping parties with Jabr Muadi, who had begun the session as a member of Cooperation and Brotherhood, then left to set up the Israeli Druze Faction before joining Progress and Development.
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    Free Centre

    The Free Centre (Hebrew: המרכז החופשי‎, HaMerkaz HaHofshi) was a political party in Israel, and is one of the ancestors of the modern-day Likud. The party was created on 29 March 1967 during the sixth Knesset when Shmuel Tamir led a breakaway of three Herut members (the other two being Eliezer Shostak and Avraham Tiar) after a leadership dispute with Menachem Begin. Before the next election they were joined by Shlomo Cohen-Tzidon who had also left Gahal and failed in an attempt to create a one-man parliamentary group named the Popular Faction. In the 1969 elections the Free Centre only just passed the electoral threshold of 1%, claiming 1.2% of the vote and 2 seats, which were taken by Tamir and Shostak. Before the 1973 elections it joined the Likud alliance formed by Herut, the Liberal Party (which had formerly been allied as Gahal), the National List and the Movement for Greater Israel. The new alliance won 39 seats, with four taken by the Free Centre - Tamir and Shostak were joined by Ehud Olmert and Akiva Nof.. In 1974, internal conflict led to Shostak and Ehud Olmert leaving the Free Centre to establish the Independent Centre, which later merged into the La'am faction. Another
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    Yemenite Association

    The Yemenite Association (Hebrew: התאחדות התימנים‎, Hitahdut HaTeimanim) was a political party in Israel. The party was founded by Yemenite Jews in 1923. It took part in Israel's first elections in 1949, crossing the electoral threshold by just 53 votes, and winning one seat, which was taken by Zecharia Glosca. Despite the influx of Yemenite Jews to the country precipitated by Operation Magic Carpet, a mass airlift of Jews into Israel from Yemen in 1949-50, the party failed to attract new voters and again won only one seat in the 1951 elections, though this time the electoral threshold was beaten by over a thousand votes. The party's seat was taken by Shimon Garidi. On 10 September 1951 the party was merged into the General Zionists. On 26 June 1955 Garidi announced that he had seceded from the General Zionists to reform the party, but the move was not recognised by the house committee. The party fought the 1955 elections independently, but did not win a seat. It also contested elections in 1959 (under the name "Yemenite Faction", winning 1,711 votes), 1973 (3,195 votes) and 1988 (909 votes), but failed to cross the electoral threshold. A later merger of the General Zionists and
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    Herut

    Herut (Hebrew: חרות‎, Freedom) was the major right-wing political party in Israel from the 1940s until its formal merger into Likud in 1988, and an adherent of Revisionist Zionism. Herut was founded by Menachem Begin on 15 June 1948 as a successor to the Revisionist Irgun, a militant paramilitary group in Mandate Palestine. The new party was a challenge to Hatzohar party established by Ze'ev Jabotinsky. Herut also established a newspaper by the same name, with many of its founding journalists defecting from Hatzohar's HaMashkif. Herut's political expectations were high as the first election approached. It took credit for driving the British out and as a young movement, reflecting the esprit of the nation, it thought its image was more attractive than the old establishment. By winning 25 seats, they expected to come in second, and become leader of the opposition, with potential for future gain of government power. This analysis was shared by other parties. Objection to IDF withdrawal and negotiations with Arab states was the party's main platform in Israel's first elections. The party vigorously opposed the ceasefire agreements with the Arab states, both before and after the
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    Alignment

    The Alignment (Hebrew: המערך‎, HaMa'arakh) was an alliance of the major left-wing parties in Israel between the 1960s and 1990s. It was established in 1965 as an alliance of Mapai and Ahdut HaAvoda but was dissolved three years later when the two parties and Rafi formally merged into the Israeli Labor Party. In 1969 a new party known as the Alignment was established through an alliance of the Israeli Labor Party and Mapam, at the time holding 63 Knesset seats, the only party ever to have held an absolute majority of seats in the Knesset. The first incarnation of the Alignment, fully named the HaMa'arakh LeAhdut Poalei Eretz Yisrael (Hebrew: המערך לאחדות פועלי ארץ ישראל‎, lit. Alignment for the Unity of the Workers of the Land of Israel), was an alliance of Mapai and Ahdut HaAvoda formed to contest the 1965 Knesset elections. Its formation was in response to the merger of the two major right-wing parties in Israel, Herut and the Liberal Party to form Gahal, and to try to preserve the left's hegemony in Israeli politics. In the elections, the Alignment won 36.7% of the vote and 45 of the 120 Knesset seats, enough to comfortably beat Gahal, which had only won 26, though not as many as
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    Jewish National Front

    Jewish National Front

    The Jewish National Front (Hebrew: חזית יהודית לאומית‎, Hazit Yehudit Leumit), commonly known in Israel by its Hebrew acronym, Hayil (Hebrew: חי"ל), is a far-right political party in Israel. The party was founded in January 2004 by Baruch Marzel. The party ran in the 2006 elections to the Knesset on a joint list with Professor Paul Eidelberg's Yamin Israel party but received less than the 2% minimum number of votes required to pass the threshold to receive representation. Since Baruch Marzel was a senior activist for Kach, the party is very closely identified with Kahanism, the most right-wing stream of nationalism in Israel, though Marzel was number two on Kleiner's Herut list for the 2003 Knesset elections. In 2008, prior to the elections for the 18th Knesset, the party merged with Eretz Yisrael Shelanu, which, in turn, joined with the larger National Union (Israel) party. Jewish National Front representative Michael Ben-Ari was given the fourth spot on the list, and subsequently won a seat in the 18th Knesset in 2009. This marks the first time the Jewish National Front enjoyed Knesset representation. The party calls for a change in the country's electoral system so that Knesset
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    Agudat Yisrael

    Agudat Yisrael (Hebrew: אגודת ישראל‎, lit. Union of Israel, also transliterated Agudath Israel, or Agudas Yisroel) began as the original political party representing the Haredi population of Israel. It was the umbrella party for almost all Haredi Jews in Israel, and before that in the British Mandate of Palestine. It originated in the original Agudath Israel movement founded in Europe (1912, Kattowitz, then Germany, now Katowice in Poland) in the early part of the twentieth century. Agudat Yisrael was founded in Katowice (Upper Silesia, now in the southwestern part of Poland), in 1912, with purpose of providing an umbrella organization for observant Jews, who opposed the Zionist movement. In Palestine, Agudat Yisrael was established in opposition to the organized Jewish community (Yishuv). One of its most authoritative spokesmen against the formation of a Jewish State, the Dutch poet Jacob Israël de Haan, was assassinated by the Haganah in 1924. In 1933, it entered into an agreement with the Jewish Agency there, according to which Agudat Yisrael would receive 6.5% of the immigration permits. Eventually, at the eve of the Israeli Declaration of Independence (1948), Agudat Yisrael
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    Shas

    Shas (Hebrew: ש״ס‎, an acronym for Shomrei Sfarad, lit. Sfarad's guards (of the Torah)) is an ultra-orthodox religious political party in Israel. Founded in 1984 under the leadership of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, a former Israeli Sephardi chief rabbi, who remains its spiritual leader today, it primarily represents the interests of religiously observant Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews. Originally a small ethnic political group, Shas is currently Israel's fourth largest party in the Knesset, and, according to The Jewish Daily Forward, “the unchallenged kingmaker of Israeli politics”. It has joined several coalition governments with both Labor and Likud since 1984. In Benjamin Netanyahu's present coalition government the party holds four cabinet posts. Shas was founded in 1984 prior to the elections to the eleventh Knesset in the same year, in protest over the small representation of Sephardim in the largely Ashkenazi Agudat Yisrael, through the merger of regional lists established in 1983. It was originally known as The Worldwide Sephardic Association of Torah Guardians (Hebrew: התאחדות הספרדים העולמית שומרי תורה‎, Hitahdut HaSfaradim HaOlamit Shomrei Torah). The party was formed under the
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    Hebrew Communists

    The Hebrew Communists (Hebrew: קומוניסטים עברים‎, Komunistim Ivrim) were a short-lived political party in Mandate Palestine and Israel. The Hebrew Communists were originally founded in 1945 by some former members of the Palestine Communist Party (PCP), which had split in 1943. The party operated until after Israeli independence in 1948, at which point it merged with the National Liberation League and MAKEI to form Maki. The party was resurrected during the first Knesset when several of Maki's leaders, including Knesset member Eliezer Preminger, were purged soon after the elections in 1949. Rather than vacate his seat for another Maki member, Preminger remained in the Knesset and reformed the Hebrew Communists on 8 June 1949. The party ceased to exist for a second time on 15 August 1949 when Preminger joined Mapam.
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    Kach and Kahane Chai

    Kach (Hebrew: כ"ך‎) was a far-right political party in Israel. Founded by Rabbi Meir Kahane in the early 1970s, and following his Jewish nationalist ideology (subsequently dubbed Kahanism), the party entered the Knesset in 1984 after several electoral failures. However, it was barred from participating in the next election in 1988 under the revised Knesset Elections Law banning parties that incited racism. After Kahane's assassination in 1990, the party split, with Kahane Chai (Hebrew: כהנא חי‎, lit. Kahane Lives) breaking away from the main Kach faction. The party was also barred from standing in the 1992 election, and both organisations were banned outright in 1994. Today both groups are considered terrorist organisations by Israel, Canada, the European Union and the United States. Kahane emigrated to Israel from the United States in September 1971, at first declaring that he would only involve himself in Jewish education. However, he soon became involved in controversy, initiating protests advocating the expulsion of Arabs from Israel and the Palestinian territories. In 1972 Jewish Defense League leaflets were distributed around Hebron calling for the mayor to stand trial for
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    Yahad

    Yahad (Hebrew: יחד‎, lit. Together) was a centrist political party in Israel. It is not connected with the modern Meretz-Yahad party. The party was formed by Ezer Weizman prior to the 1984 elections. Weizman had previously been an MK for Likud during the ninth Knesset, but had been ejected from the party after taking dovish positions on disputes concerning the peace process and settlements in the West Bank and for considering forming a new party with Moshe Dayan. The party managed to win three seats in the election, taken by Weizman, Binyamin Ben-Eliezer and Shlomo Amar. They were invited to join Yitzhak Shamir's coalition government, and Weizman became Minister without Portfolio. Shortly after the Knesset came into session the party merged with the Alignment, which subsequently became the Labour Party. Weizman became Minister of Science and Technology in the twelfth Knesset, and later served as President of Israel from 1993 to 2000. Ben Eliezer has since served as Minister of Housing and Construction, Minister of Communications, Minister of Defence and Minister of National Infrastructure (his current position), whilst Amar failed to retain his seat in the 1988 elections.
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    Herut – The National Movement

    Herut – The National Movement

    Herut – The National Movement (Hebrew: חרות – התנועה הלאומית‎, Herut – HaTnu'a HaLeumit), commonly known as just Herut, is a minor right-wing political party in Israel. Though it sees itself as the ideological successor to the historical Herut party (which merged into Likud) it is a new and separate party. The party was formed on 23 February 1999 when Benny Begin, Michael Kleiner and David Re'em broke away from Likud during the fourteenth Knesset. The breakaway was the result of disagreements with Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu over the Wye River Memorandum and the Hebron Agreement, which had ceded land to the Palestinians. Though not an MK at the time, the new party was also backed by former Prime Minister and Herut leader, Yitzhak Shamir. Herut participated in the 1999 elections as part of the National Union, a right-wing alliance of itself, Moledet and Tkuma with Begin at its head. In the simultaneous election for Prime Minister, Begin had originally planned to stand, but dropped out three days before the election to avoid splitting the right-wing vote between himself and Netanyahu (though it didn't help, as Netanyahu lost to Ehud Barak by more than 12%). In the Knesset
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    Arab List for Bedouin and Villagers

    The Arab List for Bedouin and Villagers (Hebrew: רשימה ערבית לבדואים וכפריים‎, Reshima Aravit LeBedouim VeKfariym, Arabic: القائمة العربية للبدو والفلاحين‎) was an Israeli Arab political party in Israel. The party was created in the run-up to the 1973 elections as an Israeli Arab party associated with the governing Alignment. Headed by Hamad Abu Rabia, the new party just crossed the electoral threshold, gaining 1% of the vote, and claiming one seat in the Knesset, taken by Abu Rabia. On 26 February 1974 the party merged into the Alignment together with the other Alignment-linked Israeli Arab party, Progress and Development. On 4 January 1977 Abu Rabia left the Alignment and re-established the Arab List for Bedouins and Villagers. On 8 March it merged with Progress and Development to form the United Arab List. The new party claimed one seat in the 1977 elections, which was taken on a rotation basis by three party members, including Abu Rabia. However, in 1981 Rabia was assassinated by the sons of party rival Jabr Muadi for allegedly refusing to keep to the rotation agreement.
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    Cooperation and Brotherhood

    Cooperation and Brotherhood (Arabic: مشاركة وأخوة‎; Hebrew: שיתוף ואחווה‎, Shituf VeAhva) was a political party in Israel. Cooperation and Brotherhood was an Israeli Arab organisation formed to participate in the 1959 elections. Like other Israeli Arab parties at the time, it was associated with David Ben-Gurion's Mapai party, as Ben-Gurion was keen to include Israeli Arabs in the functioning of the state in order to prove Jews and Arabs could co-exist peacefully and productively. In the elections, the party won 1.1% of the votes and two seats, which were taken by Labib Hussein Abu Rokan and Yussef Diab. Because of its association with Mapai, the party joined the governing coalition. In the 1961 elections the party increased its share of the vote to 1.9%, overtaking Progress and Development to become the most popular Israeli Arab party in the Knesset. Despite its increased vote, the party still won only two seats, though it was again part of all three coalition governments during the fifth Knesset. Both Abu Rochan and Diab were replaced, their places taken by Jabr Muadi (formerly an MK for the Democratic List for Israeli Arabs) and Diyab Obeid. The 1965 elections saw a drop in
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    Development and Peace

    Development and Peace (Hebrew: פיתוח ושלום‎, Pituah VeShalom), originally known as Flatto-Sharon (Hebrew: פלאטו שרון) was a right wing one-man political party in Israel. The party was founded after Shmuel Flatto-Sharon had fled to Israel from France in 1976 after being charged with embezzling $60 million. In order to prevent his extradition, which France had requested, and despite hardly speaking Hebrew, he decided to run in the 1977 Knesset elections, hoping to gain parliamentary immunity. Named after himself, Flatto-Sharon's party ran on right-wing populism (he was a supporter of the Gush Emunim settlement movement) and promises to provide apartments to young voters. The new party won 2% of the vote, enough for two seats. However, as it was a one-man list, only one seat was taken. It has been suggested that the surprising level of support that the party won was a response to France's refusal to extradite Abu Daoud, who was wanted in Israel for the murder of 11 Israeli Olympic athletes in Munich. Once ensconced in the Knesset, Flatto-Sharon joined Menachem Begin's coalition, with one of his first acts being to vote in favour of a law that prohibited the extradition of Israeli
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    Dor

    Dor

    Gil (Hebrew: גיל‎, lit. Age, but also an acronym for Gimla'ey Yisrael LaKnesset (Hebrew: גימלאי ישראל לכנסת), lit. Pensioners of Israel to the Knesset) is a political party in Israel and was part of the governing coalition in the seventeenth Knesset. In the 2009 elections, Gil did not receive sufficient votes for representation in the Knesset. The party has been in existence in some form since the 1990s. It ran in the 1996 elections under the name Pensioners of Israel (Hebrew: גימלאי ישראל‎, Gimla'ey Israel), led by former Labour MK Nava Arad and including modern-day Gil MK Moshe Sharoni on its list. However, the party failed to cross the electoral threshold and did not win a seat. It did not contest the 1999 or January 2003 elections, though an unrelated party, Power for Pensioners did run in the 1999 elections, failing to win a seat. Later in 2003, Power for Pensioners won a surprise victory in the municipal elections in Tel Aviv, defeating the party of mayor Ron Huldai. The party announced that it would compete in the 2006 elections, and although opinion polls suggested that it might break the 2% threshold, it was not considered a serious contender for a significant number of
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    Faction independent of Ahdut HaAvoda

    The Faction independent of Ahdut HaAvoda (Hebrew: סיעה בלתי תלויה באחדות העבודה‎, Sia Bilti Talouya BeAhdut HaAvoda) was a short-lived political party in Israel. The Faction independent of Ahdut HaAvoda was formed on 20 January 1953 (during the second Knesset) as a breakaway from Mapam in the aftermath of the Prague Trials. The show trials in which mostly Jewish leaders of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia were purged, falsely implicated Mapam's envoy in Prague, Mordechai Oren, as part of a Zionist conspiracy. This, and later Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech at the 20th Party Congress in the Soviet Union, led to Mapam moving away from some of their more radical left wing positions, and towards social democracy. Unhappy with the move, several Mapam MKs left the party; Rostam Bastuni, Avraham Berman and Moshe Sneh established the Left Faction and Moshe Aram, Yisrael Bar-Yehuda, Yitzhak Ben-Aharon and Aharon Zisling set up Ahdut HaAvoda - Poale Zion, recreating the old party that had merged into Mapam. However, Hannah Lamdan and David Livschitz did not wish to join the new Ahdut HaAvoda party, so created the Faction independent of Ahdut HaAvoda. The faction ceased to exist on 13
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    Meretz

    Meretz (Hebrew: מרצ‎, lit. Energy), previously known as Yachad, Meretz-Yachad (Hebrew: מרצ-יחד‎) and New Movement-Meretz (Hebrew: התנועה החדשה-מרצ‎‎) is a left-wing, Zionist, social democratic political party in Israel. The party emphasizes peace with the Palestinians, human rights (especially for ethnic and sexual minorities), religious freedom and environmentalism. Meretz was formed in 1992 prior to the elections by an alliance of three left-wing parties; Ratz, Mapam and Shinui, and was initially led by Ratz's chairwoman and long-time Knesset member Shulamit Aloni. The name "Meretz" (מרצ) was chosen as an acronym for Mapam (מפ"ם) and Ratz (רצ). The third party of the alliance wasn't reflected in its name, but was instead mentioned in the party's campaign slogan: "ממשלה עם מרצ, הכוח לעשות את השינוי" (A government with vigor [Meretz], the strength to make the change [Shinui]). Its first electoral test was a success, with the party winning twelve seats, making it the third largest in the Knesset. Meretz became the major coalition partner of Yitzhak Rabin's Labor Party, helping pave the way for the Oslo Accords. The party also picked up several ministerial portfolios; Aloni was made
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    Tzomet

    Tzomet (Hebrew: צומת‎, lit Crossroads) is a small secular, right-wing political party in Israel. The party was the one who first brought the "peace for peace" slogan, which today is used by all Israeli right wing parties and movements. "Peace for peace" means that Israel should not give up territories to get real peace (see land for peace), and if Arabs really want peace they should stop the policy of demanding lands using threats but give up on their demands. The party supports a separation of religion and state. The party was founded by General Rafael Eitan in 1983 after his retirement from the position of chief-of-staff in 1982. He headed it throughout its existence and modeled it in his spirit as a secular, right-wing party with a strong agricultural side. Many of Tzomet's members and MKs were neighbors of Eitan in Tel Adashim (a small agricultural community). Tzomet ran for the 1984 elections in a joint list with the Tehiya party and Eitan was its only member of the Knesset. Tzomet and the Tehiya parted way in 1987 and Tzomet ran independently in the 1988 elections, winning two seats. The party joined Yitzhak Shamir's government in 1990 and Eitan was appointed Minister of
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    Democratic Movement for Change

    The Democratic Movement for Change (Hebrew: תנועה דמוקרטית לשינוי‎, Tnu'a Demokratit LeShinui), commonly known by its Hebrew acronym Dash (Hebrew: ד"ש) was a short-lived and initially highly-successful centrist political party in Israel. Formed in 1976 by numerous well-known non-politicians, following a spectacular breakup, it had ceased to exist within less than two years. Dash was formed on 2 November 1976 by the merger of several liberal movements (including Shinui), together with numerous public figures, including Yigael Yadin, Amnon Rubinstein, Shmuel Tamir, Meir Amit, Meir Zorea and several other business leaders and academics, as well as some Israeli Arabs. The party's formation was the result of a growing dissatisfation with the mainstream parties, particularly the ruling Alignment, which, including its predecessors, had ruled Israel since independence in 1948. Starting with the Yom Kippur War, the Alignment had been hit with numerous scandals during the mid-1970s, including: Initially the party was called Democrats-Shinui (Hebrew: דמוקרטים-שינוי, Democratim-Shinui), but was soon changed to the Democratic Movement for Change and, as with many parties in Israel, became
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    Progress and Development

    Progress and Development (Arabic: تقدم وتطور‎, Hebrew: קידמה ופיתוח‎, Kidma vePituah) was a political party in Israel. Progress and Development was an Israeli Arab organisation formed to fight the 1959 elections. Like other Israeli Arab parties at the time, it was associated with David Ben-Gurion's Mapai party, as Ben-Gurion was keen to include Israeli Arabs in the functioning of the state in order to prove Jews and Arabs could co-exist peacefully and productively. In the elections, the party won 1.3% of the votes and two seats, making it the most popular Israeli Arab party in the Knesset. Its seats were taken by Ahmed A-Dahar and Elias Nakhleh. Because of its association with Mapai, the party joined the governing coalition. In the 1961 elections the party increased its share of the vote to 1.6%, though it was overtaken as the most popular Israeli Arab party by Cooperation and Brotherhood, who won 1.9% of the vote. Despite its increased vote, the party still won only two seats, retained by A-Dahar and Nakhleh, and was again part of all three coalition governments during the fifth Knesset. In the 1965 elections the party increased its share of the vote again, to 1.9%, overtaking
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    United Arab List

    The United Arab List (Hebrew: רשימה ערבית מאוחדת, Reshima Aravit Meuhedet‎) was an Israeli Arab political party in Israel during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It is not connected to the modern day United Arab List. The party was formed on 8 March 1977, during the eighth Knesset by the merger of the Arab List for Bedouins and Villagers and Progress and Development. Both were Israeli Arab parties associated with the Alignment, and had merged into it shortly after the 1973 elections, only to break away again. The new party had three seats in the Knesset, held by Hamad Abu Rabia, Jabr Moade and veteran Israeli Arab politician, Seif-El-Din El-Zubi. In the 1977 elections the party won just one seat. The three former MKs agreed to take it on a rotation basis. El-Zubi held the seat first, staying in the Knesset until 3 April, 1979, and was then replaced by Abu Rabia. However, it was claimed that Abu Rabia was refusing to give up the seat in favour of Moade, an allegation that resulted in Abu Rabia being assassinated on 12 January, 1981 by Moade's sons. Despite his family's role in Abu Rabia's death, Moade took the seat for the remainder of the Knesset session. The party failed to cross
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    National Religious Party

    The National Religious Party (Hebrew: מפלגה דתית לאומית‎, Miflaga Datit Leumit, commonly known in Israel by its Hebrew acronym Mafdal, (Hebrew: מפד"ל)) was a political party in Israel representing the religious Zionist movement. Formed in 1956, at the time of its dissolution in 2008, it was the second oldest surviving party in the country after Agudat Yisrael, and was part of every government coalition until 1992. Traditionally a practical centrist party, in recent years it has drifted to the right, becoming increasingly associated with Israeli settlers, and towards the end of its existence was part of a political alliance with the strongly right-wing National Union. The 2006 elections saw the party slump to just three seats, the worst electoral performance in its history. In November 2008 party members voted to disband the party in order to join the new Jewish Home party created by a merger of the NRP and most of the National Union factions. However, most of the National Union left the merger shortly after its implementation. The Religious Zionist Movement is an Orthodox faction within the Zionist movement which combines a belief in the importance of establishing a Jewish state in
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    Black Panthers

    The Black Panthers (Hebrew: הפנתרים השחורים‎, HaPanterim HaShhorim) were an Israeli protest movement of second-generation Jewish immigrants from Middle Eastern countries. They were one of the first organizations in Israel with the mission of working for social justice for the Mizrahi Jews. Saadia Marciano, one of the movement's founders, chose the name "Black Panthers" in 1971 when Angela Davis, one of the African American Black Panthers, came to visit Israel where she met with Marciano, who then adopted the name. They are also sometimes referred to as the Israeli Black Panthers to distinguish them from the African American group. The movement began early in 1971 in the Musrara neighborhood of Jerusalem, in reaction to perceived discrimination against Mizrahi Jews, which they considered to have existed since the establishment of the state. The Black Panthers felt that this discrimination could be seen in the different attitude of the Ashkenazi Establishment towards the olim from the Soviet Union. The movement's founders protested "ignorance from the establishment for the hard social problems", and wanted to fight for a different future. At the beginning of March 1971, the Israel
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    Gahal

    Gahal (Hebrew: גח"ל‎, an acronym for Gush Herut-Liberalim (Hebrew: גוש חרות-ליברלים), lit. Herut-Liberals Bloc) was the major right-wing political faction in Israel led by Menachem Begin from its founding in 1965 until it merged into Likud in 1973. Gahal was formed by an alliance of Herut and the Liberal Party towards the end of the fifth Knesset in preparation for the 1965 elections. The alliance brought together the only two right-wing parties in the Knesset, each with 17 seats at the time. The Liberal Party had only been formed in 1961 by a merger of the General Zionists and the Progressive Party. However, several former Liberal Party members were unhappy with the alliance, identifying Herut and its leader, Menachem Begin as too right-wing. As a result, seven MKs broke away from the Liberal Party to form the Independent Liberals, which later merged into the left-wing Alignment. Nevertheless, the new party went into the elections with 27 seats, just seven less than Mapai, the party which had dominated Israeli politics since independence, although Mapai also had been reduced in size due to a breakaway of 8 MKs led by David Ben-Gurion to found Rafi. Led by Begin, in its first
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    Histadrut

    HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim B'Eretz Yisrael (Hebrew: ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל‎, lit. "General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel"), known as the Histadrut, is Israel's organization of trade unions. Established in December 1920 during the British Mandate for Palestine, it became one of the most powerful institutions of the State of Israel. The Histadrut was founded in December 1920 in Haifa to look out for the interests of Jewish workers. Until 1920, Ahdut HaAvoda and Hapoel Hatzair had been unable to set up a unified workers organisation. In 1920, Third Aliyah immigrants founded Gdud HaAvoda and demanded a unified organization for all workers, which led to the establishment of the Histadrut. At the end of 1921 David Ben-Gurion was elected as Secretary. Membership grew from 4,400 in 1920 and to 8,394 members in 1922. By 1927, the Histadrut had 25,000 members, accounting for 75% of the Jewish workforce in Mandatory Palestine. The Histadrut became one of the most powerful institutions in the state of Israel, a mainstay of the Labour Zionist movement and, aside from being a trade union, its state-building role made it the owner of a number of businesses and
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    Independent Liberals

    Independent Liberal Party is a now-defunct political party in Israel. It was founded in 1948 as the Progressive Party. Together with the General Zionists it formed the Liberal Party. In 1965, when that party joined with Herut to form Gahal it reformed as the Independent Liberal Party. The leader of the ILP during the 1970s was Moshe Kol, independent liberals were represented in Knesset. Haaretz was often close to the party.
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    38

    Shinui

    Shinui (Hebrew: שינוי‎, lit. Change) is a Zionist, secular and anti-clerical free market liberal party and political movement in Israel. The party twice became the third largest in the Knesset, but both occasions were followed by a split and collapse; in 1977 the party won 15 seats as part of the Democratic Movement for Change, but the alliance split in 1978 and Shinui was reduced to two seats at the next elections. In 2003 the party won 15 seats alone, but lost them all three years later after most of its MKs left to form new parties. The party was a member of Liberal International until 2009. Though it had been the standard-bearer of liberal economic policy and secular values in Israel for 30 years, the formation of Kadima robbed Shinui of its natural constituency, and in January 2006 the party split into small factions, none of which managed to overcome the 2% threshold needed to enter the Knesset. Shinui was established by business people and academics in 1974, following the 1973 Arab-Israeli Yom Kippur War, which shook the Israeli public. Prior to the 1977 elections it formed an alliance with several other small liberal parties. Initially the party was called Democrats-Shinui,
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    Women's International Zionist Organization

    The Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO; Hebrew: ויצו, Vitzo‎), is a volunteer organization dedicated to social welfare in all sectors of Israeli society, the advancement of the status of women, and Jewish education in Israel and the Diaspora. WIZO was founded in England on July 7, 1920 by Rebecca Sieff, Dr. Vera Weizmann (wife of Israel's first president, Dr. Chaim Weizmann), Edith Eder, Romana Goodman and Henrietta Irwell to provide community services for the residents of Mandate Palestine. WIZO branches opened across Europe, such as that run by Julia Batino in Macedonia, but many were closed down in the wake of Nazi occupation and the Holocaust. Branches in Latin America continued to operate during the war. In 1949, after the establishment of the State of Israel, WIZO moved its headquarters to Israel and Sieff became president of the world WIZO organization. In 1966, she was replaced by Rosa Ginossar. Other past presidents include Raya Jaglom and Michal Modai. Among WIZO's early social welfare projects in Mandatory Palestine were the establishment of Tipat Halav well-baby clinics and clothing distribution centers, many still in operation today. WIZO opened the
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    40
    Union of Revisionist Zionists

    Union of Revisionist Zionists

    Hatzohar (Hebrew: הצה"ר‎, an acronym for HaTzionim HaRevizionistim (Hebrew: הציונים הרוויזיוניסטים‎), lit. The Revisionist Zionists), officially Brit HaTzionim HaRevizionistim (Hebrew: ברית הציונים הרוויזיוניסטים‎, lit. Union of Revisionist Zionists) was a Revisionist Zionist organisation and political party in Mandate Palestine and newly-independent Israel. Hatzohar was founded by Ze'ev Jabotinsky in 1925, along with its youth wing, Betar. The name of Revisionist Zionism stems from the demand by some Zionists for a revision of Chaim Weizmann's policy of appeasement towards the British Government in Palestine. Organisation members were, among other things, instrumental in creating Żydowski Związek Wojskowy, one of two Jewish organisations that organised the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The party began publishing Hazit HaAm in 1931, but it was shut down by the British authorities after a few months. They went on to establish HaYarden, and in 1938 the daily HaMashkif. The party had briefly also been associated with Doar HaYom. At the time of Israel's independence in 1948, Hatzohar was the largest right-wing organization in the country, and had three seats in the Provisional State Council
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    Shlomtzion

    Shlomtzion (Hebrew: שלומציון‎, a contraction of Shalom-Zion, or Peace-Zion) was a political party in Israel. Founded by Ariel Sharon in 1977 prior to elections that year, it merged into Likud immediately after the Knesset term began. During the 1940s and 1950s, Sharon was a supporter of Mapai, the dominant left-wing party in Israel, and the predecessor of the modern Labour Party. However, he was instrumental in establishing Likud in July 1973 by uniting most of the right-wing parties in the country; Gahal, the Free Centre, the National List and the Movement for Greater Israel. Sharon was elected to the Knesset in the December 1973 elections on Likud's list, but retired from the Knesset just under a year later. From June 1975 to March 1976, Sharon was a special aide to Alignment Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. However, with the 1977 elections looming, Sharon tried to return to the Likud and replace Menachem Begin at the head of the party. He suggested to Simkha Erlikh, who headed the Liberal Party bloc in the Likud, that he was more fitting than Begin to win an election victory, but he was rejected. Following this he tried to join the Alignment and then the centrist Dash, but was
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    42

    Yamin Yisrael

    Yamin Yisrael (Hebrew: ימין ישראל‎, lit. Right Israel) was a minor right-wing political party in Israel. The party was founded on 24 July 1995 when Shaul Gutman broke away from Moledet. It ran in the 1996 elections, but failed to cross the electoral threshold of 1.5% and did not win a seat. In the 2003 elections the party ran a joint list with Herut – The National Movement. Although together the parties won 36,202 votes (1.1%), they were 8,000 short of the threshold. For the 2006 elections the party ran alongside Baruch Marzel's Jewish National Front, winning 28,824 votes (0.79%), again failing to cross the threshold. The party did not run in the 2009 elections. The party's objectives were to;
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    Cooperation and Development

    Cooperation and Development (Arabic: إشراك وتطوير‎, Hebrew: שיתוף ופיתוח‎, Shituf VePituah) was a short-lived political party in Israel. Cooperation and Development was established on 5 July 1966 during the sixth Knesset, when two of the three Israeli Arab parties, Cooperation and Brotherhood and Progress and Development, merged. Both parties had had two seats, meaning the new union had four, which were taken by Seif-El-Din El-Zubi, Jabr Muadi, Elias Nakhleh and Diyab Obeid. Both parties had been part of Levi Eshkol's coalition government, as they were associated with the Alignment, and the new party assumed their place as a coalition member. However, on 1 January 1967, the party split into the original factions. Later during the Knesset session both parties split again, as Muadi broke away from Cooperation and Brotherhood to form the Druze Party, whilst Nakhleh broke away from Progress and Development to form the Jewish-Arab Brotherhood. However, by the 1969 elections, Muadi had joined Progress and Development, whilst Nakhleh had become a member of Cooperation and Brotherhood, the two effectively swapping parties.
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    Hetz

    Hetz (Hebrew: חץ‎, lit. Arrow, also an acronym for Hilonit Tzionit (Hebrew: חילונית ציונית‎), Secular Zionist) was a secularist political party in Israel. Hetz was formed in the aftermath of the breakup of Shinui towards the end of the 16th Knesset. Avraham Poraz, Shinui's second-in-command after Tommy Lapid was unexpectedly beaten in the race to head the party's list for the 2006 elections by Ron Levintal. In response to the result, Poraz decided to break away from Shinui. He was joined by ten other Shinui MKs (out of a total of 15), including Lapid. They formed the Secular Faction on 26 January 2006, though on 5 February, Hemi Doron and Eliezer Sandberg left the new party to establish National Home. Poraz tried to set up Hetz as a new party in January 2006, however it was too late to register a new party for the election. He tried to form a union with Tafnit, who rejected it. Eventually the party ran with the minor Citizen and State party, which was re-branded as Hetz for the elections. Lapid was presented as the honorary leader. However, a combination of the split with Shinui (who also ran in the elections with Levintal as head), the founding of centrists Kadima and Shinui's
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    Lehem

    Lehem (Hebrew: לחם or לח"ם‎, lit. Bread but also an acronym for Lohamey Hevra Meuhadim (Hebrew: לוחמי חברה מאוחדים), lit. United Society Warriors) is a political party in Israel. Lehem were founded by former Likud member Yisrael Twito after he was forced into poverty and made homeless. The party seeks to expose government corruption and increase the related punishments, and proposes opening investigations into the disappearance of public funds. It also proposes cutting the wages of senior civil servants and MKs and allowing technocrats to manage the state budget. In addition, the party aims to implement stricter legislation on issues concerning debt collection, the banking sector and the immigration authorities. The party fought the 2006 election, but won only 1,381 votes out of 3.2 million (0.04% of the total). As a result, the party was nowhere near passing the 2% threshold required to enter the Knesset. In the 2009 election as well, Lehem failed to pass the threshold, gaining a mere 611 votes (the fewest of any party participating in the election).
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    Tehiya

    Tehiya (Hebrew: תחיה‎, Revival), originally known as Banai (Hebrew: בנא"י, an acronym for Land of Israel Loyalists' Alliance (Hebrew: ברית נאמני ארץ ישראל)), then Tehiya-Bnai (Hebrew: תחייה-בנא"י), was a small right-wing political party in Israel that existed from 1979 until 1992. In the eyes of many, Tehiya was identified with Geula Cohen, who founded the party and headed it throughout its existence. The party was formed in 1979 during the term of the ninth Knesset, when Geula Cohen and Moshe Shamir broke away from Likud in response to the Camp David Treaty between Egypt and Israel, particularly to the surrender of the Sinai peninsula to Egypt, and the eviction of its Israeli residents. Tehiya was strongly affiliated with the extra-parliamentary movement of Gush Emunim, and included prominent members of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza such as Hanan Porat (later to be a member of the Knesset for the National Religious Party and the National Union) and Elyakim Haetzni. Another founder and prominent member was the physicist Yuval Neeman. In its first electoral test, the 1981 elections, Tehiya picked up three seats. Despite their previous difference of opinion, they were
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    Ya'ad – Civil Rights Movement

    Ya'ad – Civil Rights Movement (Hebrew: יעד – תנועה לזכויות האזרח‎, Ya'ad – Tenoa'a LaZkhuyot HaEzrah), commonly known as just Ya'ad, was a short-lived political party in Israel. It is not related to the other party by the name of Ya'ad which existed during the ninth Knesset. The party was formed on 3 June 1975 during the eighth Knesset when the three MKs that made up Ratz (the full name of which was the Civil Rights Movement) joined with independent MK, Aryeh Eliav, to form a new party. Eliav had been elected to the Knesset on the Alignment's list, but had broken away to sit as an independent. However, the party was dissolved on 27 January 1976 as Eliav and Marcia Freedman broke away to form the Social-Democratic Faction, which they soon renamed the Independent Socialist Faction. The two remaining MKs, Shulamit Aloni and Boaz Moav returned to Ratz. The Independent Socialist Faction also failed to make it to the next election, as it merged with Meri, Moked and some members of the Black Panthers to form the Left Camp of Israel. Freedman did not join the new party, but founded the Women's Party, which failed to cross the Electoral threshold. Ratz eventually merged into Meretz.
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    Atid Ehad

    Atid Ehad (Hebrew: עתיד אחד‎, lit. One Future) was a political party in Israel. Atid Ehad was established in order to fight the 2006 elections and was headed by Avraham Negusa. The party primarily represented the interests of Ethiopian Jews living in Israel, though its membership included non-Ethiopians such as Yitzakael Shtetzler and Yossi Abramovich, who were second and third members on its Knesset List in the 2006 campaign. The party supported bringing to Israel the remaining Jews in Ethiopia and strengthening integration efforts for the community. In the 2006 elections the party won 14,005 votes (0.45% of the total), not enough to cross the 2% threshold required to enter the Knesset. The party did not run in the 2009 elections.
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    Meri

    Meri

    HaOlam HaZeh – Koah Hadash (Hebrew: העולם הזה – כוח חדש‎, lit This World – New Force) was a political party in Israel. The party was founded by Uri Avnery, editor and owner of the anti-establishment HaOlam HaZeh news magazine, and was the first major radical party in Israel. It surprisingly passed the electoral threshold in the 1965 election, gaining 1.2% of the vote and one seat, taken by Avnery. The 1969 election saw the party pick up two seats, with fellow HaOlam HaZeh journalist and owner Shalom Cohen taking the second seat. However, disagreements between Avnery and Cohen led to the party breaking up on 4 January 1972. Cohen served the remainer of the Knesset session as an independent MK, whilst on 3 July 1973 Avnery started a new party, Meri, but failed to win a seat in the 1973 elections. He later reappeared in the Knesset as a member of the Left Camp of Israel.
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    National Labor Federation in Eretz-Israel

    The National Labor Federation in Eretz-Israel (NLF) is a national trade union center in Israel. It was founded in 1934 under the basic teachings of Theodor Herzl, Max Nordau, and Zeev Jabotinsky. As opposed to Histadrut, the NLF believes in the separation of employers and trade unions. ICTUR reports that, although the NLF disclaims political affiliations, it has been seen as sympathetic to Likud. They are well known because of their original orange and burgundy colors.
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    51

    Tkuma

    Tkuma (Hebrew: תקומה‎, Resurrection) is a right wing political party in Israel. Tkuma was established in 1998 when Hanan Porat and Zvi Hendel left the National Religious Party. At first the new party was named Emunim (Hebrew: אמונים, Trust), but was later renamed Tkuma. Together with Moledet and Herut – The National Movement they formed the National Union, which won four seats in the 1999 elections. For the 2003 elections Yisrael Beiteinu joined the National Union (though Herut left), with its increased support helping to win 7 seats. The party was included in Ariel Sharon's coalition alongside Likud, Shinui, the National Religious Party and Yisrael BaAliyah. Because of tensions over the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip (Tkuma was ideologically opposed, particularly because Hendel lived in the Gaza settlement of Ganei Tal), National Union ministers Binyamin Elon and Avigdor Lieberman were sacked, the former after attempting to avoid his fate by hiding, and the party left the coalition. However, the National Union was bolstered by the addition of Ahi which had split off from the National Religious Party when they decided remained in the coalition. Before the 2006 elections Yisrael
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    52

    One Nation

    One Nation (Hebrew: עם אחד‎, Am Ehad) was a socialist political party in Israel. The party was established on 25 March 1999 when Amir Peretz, Rafik Haj Yahia, and Adisu Massala broke away from the Israeli Labor Party to form a new faction. In the May 1999 elections the party won 1.9% of the vote, equivalent to two seats, and was the smallest party to cross the electoral threshold of 1.5%. The seats were taken by Peretz and Haim Katz. Prior to the 2003 elections Katz left the party to join Likud. In the elections One Nation won three seats, taken by Peretz, Ilana Cohen and David Tal. On 23 May 2005 the party merged back into the Labor Party, althouth Tal refused to join and established his own faction, Noy, which later merged into Kadima.
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    Meimad

    Meimad (Hebrew: מימד‎, an acronym for Medina Yehudit, Medina Demokratit (Hebrew: מדינה יהודית, מדינה דמוקרטית‎), lit. Jewish State, Democratic State) is a left-wing religious Zionist political party in Israel. Founded in 1999, it is based on the ideology of the Meimad movement founded in 1988 by Rabbi Yehuda Amital. At the national level, it was in alliance with the Labour Party, and until the 2006 elections, received 10th spot on the Labour Knesset list. Meimad ended the pact with the 2009 election and failed to win enough votes to be elected to the Knesset. The Meimad movement was founded in 1988 by Rabbi Yehuda Amital, and included former National Religious Party Knesset member Yehuda Ben-Meir. Eleven years later a political arm was established, and joined the One Israel alliance that won the elections that year. Meimad received one seat, taken by Michael Melchior. It gained a second when Yehuda Gilad replaced Maxim Levy in 2002. Tova Ilan also represented Meimad in the Knesset for a brief spell in 2006 after several other Labour MKs resigned. In November 2008 minister and former Labour Party member Ami Ayalon joined Meimad. In the same month the party ended its alliance with
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    54

    Mizrachi

    Mizrachi (Hebrew: המזרחי‎, HaMizrahi, an acronym for Merkaz Ruhani (Hebrew: מרכז רוחני‎), lit. Religious Centre) was a political party in Israel and is one of the ancestors of the modern-day National Religious Party. The Mizrachi movement was founded in 1902 in Vilnius as a religious Zionist organisation. It also had a trade union, Hapoel HaMizrachi, started in 1921. In the British Mandate of Palestine the movement developed into a political party, HaMizrachi. For the elections for the first Knesset it ran as part of a joint list called the United Religious Front alongside the Hapoel HaMizrachi, Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael. The group won 16 seats, of which the Mizrachi Party took four, making it the third largest party in the Knesset after Mapai and Mapam. It was invited to join the coalition government by David Ben-Gurion. The United Religious Front played a major part in bringing down the first government due to it disagreement with Mapai over issues pertaining to education in the new immigrant camps and the religious education system, as well as its demands that the Supply and Rationing Ministry be closed and a businessman appointed as Minister for Trade and
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    55

    Oz LaAniyim

    Oz LaAniyim (Hebrew: עוז לעניים‎, lit. Strength to the Poor) was a minor social political party in Israel. The party was established in 1999 and ran for the Knesset for the first time in the 2006 elections. However, it failed to cross the electoral threshold. The party did not run in the 2009 elections.
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    56
    Yisrael Beiteinu

    Yisrael Beiteinu

    Yisrael Beiteinu (Hebrew: ישראל ביתנו‎, lit. Israel is Our Home) is a nationalist political party in Israel. The party's base has traditionally been secular, Russian-speaking Israelis. The party describes itself as "a national movement with the clear vision to follow in the brave path of Zev Jabotinsky", the founder of Revisionist Zionism. Although it represents immigrants from the former Soviet Union, it has also expanded its appeal to a more veteran Israeli public. It takes a strong line towards the peace process and the integration of Israeli Arabs, characterized by its 2009 election slogan "No loyalty, no citizenship". Its main platform includes a recognition of the two-state solution, the creation of a Palestinian state that would include an exchange of some largely Arab-inhabited parts of Israel for largely Jewish-inhabited parts of the West Bank. The party maintains an anti-clerical mantle and encourages socio-economic opportunities for new immigrants, in conjunction with efforts to increase Jewish immigration. In the elections the party won 15 seats, its most to date, making it the third largest party in the Knesset. Yisrael Beiteinu was formed by Avigdor Lieberman to
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    1 votes
    57

    Liberal Party

    The Israeli Liberal Party (Hebrew: מפלגה ליברלית ישראלית‎, Miflega Libralit Yisraelit) was a political party in Israel and is one of the ancestors of the modern-day Likud. The Liberal Party was formed on 8 May 1961, towards the end of the fourth Knesset, by a merger of the General Zionists and the Progressive Party, with the new party having 14 Knesset seats. Early elections were called for 1961 after the General Zionists and Herut brought a motion of no-confidence in the government over the Lavon Affair. In the 1961 elections the party won 17 seats, the same number as Herut, making it the joint-second largest after David Ben-Gurion's Mapai. In 1965 the party held discussions with Menachem Begin's Herut party over a possible merger. Seven mostly former Progressive Party MKs led by Pinchas Rosen broke away in protest to form the Independent Liberals on 16 March 1965. On 25 May 1965 the party merged with Herut, to form Gahal, a Hebrew acronym for Herut-Liberals Bloc (Hebrew: גוש חרות-ליברלים, Gush Herut-Libralim), though the two parties continued to function as independent factions within the alliance. The formation of Gahal was a major turning point in Israeli politics, as for the
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    58
    The Greens

    The Greens

    The Greens (Hebrew: הירוקים‎, HaYerukim) is a minor political party in Israel currently headed by Pe'er Visner. Although the party is currently not represented in the Knesset, it does hold seats in 22 municipalities across Israel. The Green Party of Israel was established in December 1997. In the 2006 elections, they won 47,595 votes (1.52%). However, it was not enough to pass the 2% threshold, and they were ultimately the largest party not to make it into the Knesset (Balad, with 72,066 votes, was the smallest to make it). For the previous elections in 2003, the electoral threshold had been 1.5%. However, as a result of substantial gains in the November 2008 municipal elections, the Greens hold a total of 50 seats across 22 municipalities. In Haifa, where former Green candidate (presently of Kadima) Yona Yahav was re-elected to a second mayoral term, the Greens hold four seats, while in Tel Aviv, where Green Party chair Pe'er Visner serves as deputy mayor, the Greens hold three seats. The Green Party campaigned intensively for the 2009 national elections, held on the 10th of February 2009. Polls by a number of national newspapers had predicted that the party could win around 2-3
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    59

    Democratic List for Israeli Arabs

    The Democratic List for Israeli Arabs (Arabic: القائمة الديموقراطية لعرب إسرائيل‎, Hebrew: רשימה דמוקרטית לערביי ישראל‎, Reshima Demokratit LeAravei Yisrael) was a political party in Israel. In the 1951 elections the party gained 2% of the vote and won 3 seats, which were taken by Seif el-Din el-Zoubi, Masaad Kassis and Jabr Muadi. Like other Israeli Arab parties at the time, it was associated with David Ben-Gurion's Mapai, and as a result of the association, the party was included in all the coalition governments of the second Knesset. In the 1955 election, the party lost support and dropped to two seats, with Moade losing out, though the party remained part of the governing coalition. Towards the end of the session, el-Zoubi left the Knesset to become Mayor of Nazareth, Muadi replacing him. The party did not run in the 1959 elections. Muadi joined the Cooperation and Brotherhood party and reappeared in the Knesset after the 1961 election. El-Zoubi returned to the Knesset in the Progress and Development party (which Muadi also later joined) in the 1965 elections.
    7.00
    2 votes
    60
    National Union

    National Union

    The National Union (Hebrew: האיחוד הלאומי‎, HaIhud HaLeumi) is an alliance of nationalist political parties in Israel. In the 2009 elections the National Union consisted of four parties: Moledet, Hatikva, Eretz Yisrael Shelanu, and Tkuma. The National Union was formed in 1999 to contest the elections of that year as an alliance between Moledet, Tkuma and Herut – The National Movement, winning four seats. In 2001 the party's support was almost doubled by the addition of the predominantly Russian-immigrant party, Yisrael Beiteinu. After Ariel Sharon won the 2001 Prime Ministerial elections, National Union was brought into the National Unity Government and party leader Rehavam Zeevi was appointed Minister of Tourism, with Yisrael Beiteinu leader Avigdor Lieberman becoming Minister of National Infrastructure. When Zeevi was assassinated on 17 October 2001, Binyamin Elon of Moledet took his ministerial position, and Lieberman became head of the National Union. Herut ran independently in the 2003 elections and did not pass the barrier. The National Union party won seven seats and was included in Ariel Sharon's coalition alongside Likud, Shinui, the National Religious Party and Yisrael
    7.00
    2 votes
    61

    Sephardim and Oriental Communities

    Sephardim and Oriental Communities (Hebrew: ספרדים ועדות מזרח‎, Sfaradim VeEdot Mizrah) was a political party in Israel and is one of the ancestors of the modern-day Likud party. The Sephardim and Oriental Communities party represented Sephardi Jews and Mizrahi Jews who were already living in Israel at the time of independence, and was part of Minhelet HaAm and the Provisional government in 1948-49. Under the full title of The National Unity List of Sephardim and Oriental Communities, the party gained 3.5% of the vote and four seats in the elections for the first Knesset in 1949. Represented by Moshe Ben-Ami, Eliyahu Eliashar, Avraham Elmalih and Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit, they joined the government as a coalition partner of David Ben-Gurion's Mapai party, with Sheetrit appointed Minister of Police. For the 1951 election, the party changed its name to The list of Sephardim and Oriental Communities, Old Timers and Immigrants. However, they lost around half their share of the vote (1.8%) and half their seats, slumping to just two representatives. Only Eliashar retained his seat, with Binyamin Sasson taking the second. This time they did not join the government. On 10 September 1951 the
    7.00
    2 votes
    62
    Hadash

    Hadash

    Hadash (Hebrew: חד"ש‎, lit. New, an acronym for HaHazit HaDemokratit LeShalom VeLeShivion (Hebrew: החזית הדמוקרטית לשלום ולשוויון‎, lit. The Democratic Front for Peace and Equality); Arabic: الجبهة الديمقراطية للسلام والمساواة‎, al-Jabhah ad-Dimuqrāṭiyyah lis-Salām wa'l-Musāwah) is a Jewish and Arab socialist front of organizations that runs for the Israeli parliament. It currently has four members in the 120-seat Knesset. The party was formed on 15 March 1977 when the Rakah and Non-Partisans parliamentary group changed its name to Hadash in preparation for the 1977 elections. The non-partisans included some members of the Black Panthers (several others joined the Left Camp of Israel) and other left-wing non-communist groups. Within the Hadash movement, Rakah (which was renamed Maki, a Hebrew acronym for Israeli Communist Party, in 1989) has retained its independent status. In its first electoral test, Hadash won five seats, an increase of one on Rakah's previous four. However, in the next elections in 1981 the party was reduced to four seats. It maintained its four seats in the 1984 elections, gaining another MK when Mohammed Wattad defected from Mapam in 1988. The 1988 election
    5.67
    3 votes
    63

    Israeli Druze Faction

    The Israeli Druze Faction (Arabic: الكتلة الدرزية الإسرائيلية‎, al-Ketla al-Druzia al-Isra'iliah, Hebrew: הסיעה הדרוזית הישראלית‎, HaSia'a HaDruzit HaYisraelit, also labelled as the 'Druze Party') was a short-lived, one-man political faction in Israel. The party was established on 11 April 1967 during the sixth Knesset, when Jabr Muadi left Cooperation and Brotherhood. Before the 1969 elections Muadi joined Progress and Development, thus effectively swapping parties with Elias Nakhleh, who had begun the session as a member of Progress and Development, then left to set up the Jewish-Arab Brotherhood before joining Cooperation and Brotherhood.
    8.00
    1 votes
    64

    Moked

    Moked (Hebrew: מוקד‎, lit. Focus) was a left-wing political party in Israel. Moked came into existence during the seventh Knesset, when Maki (which had one seat, held by Shmuel Mikunis) merged with the Blue-Red Movement, which was unrepresented. The new party ran in the 1973 elections, but won only 1.4% of the vote and one seat, which was taken by Meir Pa'il. During the Knesset session the party changed its name to Moked - for Peace and Socialist Change. Prior to the 1977 elections the party split in two. The Maki faction merged into Hadash alongside Rakah, which had split from it in 1965), whilst the non-Communist members joined the Left Camp of Israel. The new party won two seats, with Pa'il taking one in rotation.
    8.00
    1 votes
    65

    Unity Party

    The Unity Party (Hebrew: מפלגת האיחוד‎, Mifleget HaIhud), officially the Unity Party for the Advancement and Education of the Society in Israel (Hebrew: מפלגת האיחוד לקידום ולחינוך החברה בישראל, Mifleget HaIhud LeKidum VeLeHinukh HaHevra BeYisrael) and originally known as Equality in Israel – Panthers (Hebrew: שוויון בישראל - פנתרים, Shivion BeYisrael – Panterim) was a short-lived political party in Israel. The party was formed on 11 November 1980 by Saadia Marciano. He had been elected to the Knesset on the list of the Left Camp of Israel, a union of various left-wing groups, including Meri, Moked, the Independent Socialist Faction and the Israeli Black Panthers, but broke away soon after taking his seat in 1980 (the Left Camp had two seats which were held in rotation by five party members). On 30 December, the faction was named Equality in Israel – Panthers. In May 1981 he was joined by Mordechai Elgrably, who had been elected to the Knesset on Dash's list, and had joined the Democratic Movement after the party split, before leaving to sit as an independent MK. A name change resulted in the party becoming known as the Unity Party. However, the party failed to cross the 1%
    8.00
    1 votes
    66

    General Zionists

    The General Zionists (Hebrew: ציונים כלליים‎, Tzionim Klaliym) were centrists within the Zionist movement and a political party in Israel. Their political arm is an ancestor of the modern-day Likud. General Zionism was initially the term to refer to the beliefs of the majority of members of the Zionist Organization [ZO] who had not joined a specific faction or party and belonged to their countrywide Zionist organizations only. In 1922, various non-aligned groups and individuals established the Organization of General Zionists as a non-ideological party within the Zionist Organization (later the World Zionist Organization) at a time when the Zionist movement was becoming polarized between Labour Zionists and Revisionist Zionism. However, eventually the General Zionists became identified with European liberal and middle class beliefs in private property and capitalism. From 1931 to 1945 the General Zionist movement was divided into two factions due to differences over social issues, economics and labour issues (e.g. the Histadrut). In the years following the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, the General Zionists moved towards the right in opposition to the hegemony of
    5.33
    3 votes
    67

    Da'am Workers Party

    The Organisation for Democratic Action is a political party in Israel, where it is commonly known by the acronym, Da'am (Arabic: دعم, Hebrew: דע"ם). The party has slightly different names in Arabic and Hebrew. As it was founded as a largely Israeli Arab organisation, its name originates from Arabic, and is an Arabic acronym for the translation of the English name (Arabic: يمقراطي عمل منظمة, Demokrat Amal Menzema). In Hebrew, the acronym Da'am is meaningless, and in order to give an understanding of the party's leanings, the full name is extended to Da'am Workers Party (Hebrew: דע"ם - מפלגת פועלים, Da'am - Mifleget Poalim). The party was founded in Haifa in 1995 as a breakaway from Maki, the Communist Party of Israel. Although the party is theoretically non-ethnic, in reality it is largely an Israeli Arab party. Of the first fourteen candidates on its list for the 2006 election there were only three Jews compared to eleven Israeli Arabs. As a result of its background, it is strongly left-wing, supports workers' rights (particularly those of Israeli Arabs), disapproves of discrimination, and has an internationalist worldview. The party supports the right of the Palestinian people to
    6.50
    2 votes
    68

    Fighters' List

    The Fighters' List (Hebrew: רשימת הלוחמים‎, Reshimat HaLohmim) was a political party in Israel. The Fighters' List grew out of Lehi, a militant Revisionist paramilitary organisation that operated in Palestine during the Mandate era, and in Israel until shortly after independence. Lehi was a controversial group, described by the British, the majority of the Yishuv, and the UN as a terrorist organisation. It had been involved in a series of notorious actions, including the assassination of Lord Moyne and the Deir Yassin massacre. The group was disbanded and integrated into the IDF in May 1948. However, they continued to act in Jerusalem until being forcefully broken up after the assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte, a UN mediator, on 17 September, 1948. After the final dissolution of Lehi, left-wing former members founded the Fighters' List to represent their cause in the 1949 elections. The list was headed by Natan Yellin-Mor, the former leader of Lehi, who at the time was in jail serving an eight-year sentence for leadership of Lehi, which had been outlawed and declared a terrorist organization. The party's election platform demanded the continuation of the war against
    6.50
    2 votes
    69

    Telem

    Telem (Hebrew: תל"ם‎, an acronym for Tenoa'a LeHithadshut Mamlakhtit (Hebrew: תנועה להתחדשות ממלכתית), lit. Movement for National Renewal) was a political party in Israel. Telem was formed on 19 May 1981 during the ninth Knesset by Moshe Dayan and two ex-Likud MKs. Dayan had been elected to the Knesset as an MK for the Alignment, which had lost the election for the first time in its history. Menachem Begin formed a coalition including his Likud party, the National Religious Party, Agudat Israel and Dash. However, he also invited Dayan to serve as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Despite being a member of the Alignment, Begin's political rivals, Dayan accepted the post, resulting in his expulsion from his own party. After sitting as an independent MK for some time, Dayan formed Telem in 1981, together with Yigal Hurvitz and Zalman Shoval who had previously broken away from Likud to form Rafi – National List. On 15 June 1981 they were later joined by Shafik Assad, who had left Ahva (Assad had started the Knesset session as a member of Dash, then joined the Democratic Movement before moving to Ahva). The party won two seats in the 1981 elections, taken by Dayan and Mordechai Ben-Porat,
    6.50
    2 votes
    70
    Brit Olam

    Brit Olam

    Brit Olam (Hebrew: ברית עולם‎, lit. World Alliance or Eternal Covenant) is a political party in Israel Brit Olam is joint Jewish-Arab party founded by Ofer Lifschitz in 2005. It stands for the foundation of a Palestinan state, separation of church and state, raising the minimum wage and improving the education system. It also aims to improve relations between Jews and Israeli Arabs and emphasises the need for social justice and cohesion. The party ran for the 2006 elections with Lifschitz heading its list. However, they won only 2,011 votes (0.06%), failing to cross the 2% electoral threshold. For the 2009 elections the party was headed by Kinneret Golan Hoz, but they again failed to pass the threshold.
    6.00
    2 votes
    71

    Koah HaKesef

    Koah HaKesef (Hebrew: כוח הכסף‎, lit. Power of Money), formerly known as The Party for the War against Banks (Hebrew: המפלגה למלחמה בבנקים‎, HaMiflaga LeMilhama BeBankim) or HaLev (Hebrew: הלב) is a minor political party in Israel. Their goal is to reduce damages that the banks are causing to the public by legislation. The party was established as the Settlement Party (Hebrew: מפלגת ההתיישבות‎, Miflaget HaHityasvut) in 1996 following economic crises in many kibbutzim. However, following a deal signed in the same year between the government, the Kibbutz Movement and the banks, the party's activity was ceased. In 2006 the party was re-established again, and decided to run in the elections that year, claiming that the banks were causing poverty, and exploitatiing citizens. However, they won only 2,163 votes (0.07%), well below the electoral threshold of 2%. In the 2009 elections they again failed to pass the threshold.
    6.00
    2 votes
    72

    National List

    State List was a small political party in the early years of the state of Israel. The right wing party merged with Gahal and other similar parties in 1973 to form Likud Party.
    6.00
    2 votes
    73

    Poalei Agudat Yisrael

    Poalei Agudat Yisrael (Hebrew: פועלי אגודת ישראל‎, lit. Agudat Yisrael Workers) was a political party in Poland, and is a minor political party and settlement movement in Israel. It is also known as PAI or PAGI, its Hebrew acronym (Hebrew: פאג"י or פא"י). Poalei Agudas Izrael was founded in Poland as the trade union branch of Agudas Izrael of Poland. As well as their trade union activity they fielded candidates in the Polish elections. With the establishment of the State of Israel, Poalei Agudat Yisrael became an ultra-orthodox workers' political party associated with Agudat Yisrael. They were also part of the Histadrut. In the elections for the first Knesset, the party ran on a joint list with the other religious parties of the time, Agudat Yisrael, Mizrachi and Hapoel HaMizrachi. The group was called the United Religious Front and won 16 seats. They joined David Ben-Gurion's coalition government alongside Mapai, the Progressive Party, the Sephardim and Oriental Communities and the Democratic List of Nazareth. However, the grouping created problems in the governing coalition due to its differing attitude to education in the new immigrant camps and the religious education system.
    6.00
    2 votes
    74

    Natural Law Party

    The Natural Law Party (NLP) was a transnational party based on the teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. It was active in up to 74 countries, and ran candidates in at least ten. Founded in 1992, it was mostly disbanded in 2004 but continues in India and in some U.S. states. The NLP viewed "natural law" as the organizing principle that governs the universe. The Natural Law Party advocated using the Transcendental Meditation technique and the TM-Sidhi program to reduce or eliminate problems in society. Perhaps the most prominent candidate running on the NLP platform was John Hagelin, who campaigned for U.S. president in 1992, 1996, and 2004. The NLP in the United Kingdom received attention due to the support of former members of The Beatles. The only electoral successes were achieved by the Ajeya Bharat Party in India, which elected a legislator to a state assembly, and by the Croatian NLP, which elected a member of a regional assembly in 1993. The Natural Law Party (NLP) was founded in the U.S. in 1992 by a group of educators, business leaders, and lawyers in Fairfield, Iowa, many of whom practiced the Transcendental Meditation technique. While Natural Law Party leaders denied formal
    7.00
    1 votes
    75

    Ratz

    Ratz (Hebrew: רצ‎), officially the Movement for Civil Rights and Peace (Hebrew: התנועה לזכויות האזרח ולשלום, HaTnua'a LeZkhuyot HaEzrah VeLaShalom) was a left-wing political party in Israel from 1973 until its formal merger into Meretz in 1997. The Movement for Civil Rights and Peace was formed in 1973 by Shulamit Aloni, a former MK for the Alignment, 48 hours after she had left the party. As a member of the Israeli peace camp it opposed the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza strip and called for a peace settlement with the Palestine Liberation Organization from its birth. The party advocated secularism, the separation of religion and state, and civil rights, most notably women's rights, a topic that was very close to Aloni. It was also a notable fighter against corruption and for a written constitution, and Aloni was the initiator of the Knesset sub-committee for basic laws (Israel's equivalent of a constitution). For a while it also supported electoral reform. In its first test, the 1973 elections, the party won 2.2% of the vote and three seats in the Knesset, which were taken by Aloni, new American immigrant Marcia Freedman, and Boaz Moav. The party soon gained the popular
    7.00
    1 votes
    76

    Religious Torah Front

    The Religious Torah Front (Hebrew: חזית דתית תורתית‎, Hazit Datit Toratit) was a political alliance in Israel composed of Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael. The Religious Torah Front was formed when the Ultra-orthodox parties Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael decided to fight the 1955 elections on a joint list. In the election the party won 4.7% of the vote and six seats, an improvement on the 3.6% (five seats) won by the parties individually in the 1951 elections, but were not included in David Ben-Gurion's coalition government. During the Knesset session the party changed its name to Agudat Yisrael - Poalei Agudat Yisrael. However, they changed it back to Religious Torah Front before the 1959 elections. In the 1959 ballot, the party again won 4.7% of the vote and six seats but remained outside the government. Due to internal disagreements, the party split into its constituent parts before the 1961 elections, with Agudat Yisrael taking four of the six seats and Poalei Agudat Yisrael the other two. The party was reformed for the 1973 elections, in which it won 3.8% of the vote and five seats. Despite its poor showing, the party was the fourth largest in a Knesset
    7.00
    1 votes
    77

    Hapoel HaMizrachi

    Hapoel HaMizrachi (Hebrew: הפועל המזרחי‎, lit. Mizrachi Workers) was a political party and settlement movement in Israel and is one of the predecessors of the National Religious Party. Hapoel HaMizrachi was formed in Jerusalem in 1922 under the Zionist slogan "Torah va'Avodah" (Torah and Labor), as a religious Zionist organisation that supported the founding of religious kibbutzim and moshavim where work was done according to Halakha. Its name came from the Mizrachi Zionist organisation, and is a Hebrew acronym for Religious Centre (Hebrew: מרכז רוחני, Merkaz Ruhani). For the elections for the first Knesset the party ran as party of a joint list called the United Religious Front alongside Mizrachi, Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael. The group won 16 seats, of which Hapoel HaMizrachi took seven, making it the third largest party in the Knesset after Mapai and Mapam. It was invited to join the coalition government by David Ben-Gurion and Hapoel HaMizrachi MK Haim-Moshe Shapira was made Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Health and Minister of Immigration in the first government. The United Religious Front played a major part in bringing down the first government due to
    5.50
    2 votes
    78

    One Israel

    One Israel (Hebrew: ישראל אחת‎, Yisrael Ahat) was a short-lived, one-man political party in Israel led by Yitzhak Yitzhaky. The formation of One Israel during the ninth Knesset was largely precipitated by Menachem Begin's controversial decision to sign the Camp David Accords and the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty despite opposition within his own party, Likud. Internal disagreements led to seven MKs deserting the party in 1980 (though one later returned). Three set up Rafi – National List, two founded Tehiya and Yosef Tamir defected to Shinui. On 10 October 1980 Yitzhak Yitzhaky also left the party, despite only having joined the Likud during the Knesset session, having been elected on the Shlomtzion list (which had merged into Likud soon after the election). Yitzhaky was initially an independent, but formed One Israel on 11 November. Yitzhaky asked American-Israeli basketball legend Tal Brody to join the party, but was rebuffed. It later disappeared after failing to cross the 1% electoral threshold in the 1981 elections.
    5.50
    2 votes
    79

    Ta'al

    Ta'al (Hebrew: תע"ל‎, an acronym for Tnu'a Aravit LeHithadshut (Hebrew: תנועה ערבית להתחדשות‎), lit. Arab Movement for Renewal, Arabic: الحركة العربية للتغيير‎) is an Israeli Arab political party in Israel led by Ahmad Tibi. Ta'al was founded by Tibi in the mid 1990s. It ran in the 1996 elections under the name Arab Union, but won only 2,087 votes (0.1%). For the 1999 elections it ran as part of the Balad list. Tibi won a seat, and broke away from Balad on 21 December that year. In the 2003 elections the party ran on a joint list with Hadash, with Tibi retaining his seat. On 7 February 2006 Tibi left the alliance with Hadash. For the 2006 elections the party ran on a joint list with the United Arab List, running as Ra'am-Ta'al (Ra'am is the Hebrew acronym for the UAL). On 12 January 2009, the Ra'am-Ta'al list was disqualified from the 2009 elections by the Central Elections Committee. 21 committee members voted in favor of its disqualification, with eight members voting against and two members abstaining. Tibi said the decision was related to Operation Cast Lead, claiming "this is a racist country. We are accustomed to these types of struggles and we will win" and that "this
    5.50
    2 votes
    80

    Ya'ad

    Ya'ad (Hebrew: יעד‎, Destiny) was a short-lived, one-man political party in Israel. It is not related to the other political party of the same name, Ya'ad – Civil Rights Movement. The party was formed on 14 September 1978 during the ninth Knesset by Assaf Yaguri after the spectacular breakup of Dash. However, it disappeared after the 1981 elections when it failed to pass the electoral threshold.
    5.50
    2 votes
    81
    Likud

    Likud

    Likud (Hebrew: הַלִּכּוּד‎ HaLikud, lit. The Consolidation) is the major center-right political party in Israel. It was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had lost power. However, after ruling the country for most of the 1980s, the party lost the Knesset election in 1992. Nevertheless, Likud's candidate Benjamin Netanyahu did win the vote for Prime Minister in 1996 and was given the task to form a government after the 2009 elections. After a convincing win in the 2003 elections, Likud saw a major split in 2005, when Likud leader Ariel Sharon left the party to form the new Kadima party. This resulted in Likud slumping to fourth place in 2006 elections. Following the 2009 elections, the party appears to have mostly recovered from its loss, and now leads the Israeli government under Prime Minister Netanyahu. A member of the party is often called a Likudnik (Hebrew: לִכּוּדְנִיק‎). The Likud was formed by an alliance of several right wing parties prior to the 1973 elections; Herut and the Liberal
    5.00
    2 votes
    82

    Women's Party

    The Women's Party (Hebrew: מפלגת הנשים‎, Mifleget HaNashim) was a minor political party in Israel. The party was established prior to the 1977 elections, with the founders including Israeli-American Marcia Freedman. Freedman had been an MK for Ratz in the eighth Knesset, but had broken away with Aryeh Eliav to form the Independent Socialist Faction. Whilst the ISP chose to merge with several other small left-wing parties (Meri, Moked and some Black Panthers) to form the Left Camp of Israel, Freedman decided to set up a new feminist party to fight the election. However, the new party won only 5,674 votes and failed to cross the electoral threshold of 1%, subsequently disappearing. Freedman turned her attentions to charity, helping to found the women's centre Kol HaIsha (Voice of the Woman) in 1979, and returned to the United States in 1981. In the 1992 Knesset elections the Women's Party won 2,886 votes (0.1%).
    5.00
    2 votes
    83

    Ale Yarok

    Ale Yarok (Hebrew: עלה ירוק‎, lit. Green Leaf) is a small and liberal political party in Israel best known for its ideology of decriminalizing cannabis, human rights and environmental activism. To date it has had no representation in the Knesset. Established in 1999 by Boaz Wachtel, Shlomi Sandak and Rafik Kimchi, the party gained 1% of the vote in the elections that year, and 1.2% in the 2003 elections, but both times failed to pass the 1.5% threshold for representation in the Knesset. After these elections and despite the strong results in the 2003 elections, the chairman of Ale Yarok, Boaz Wachtel announced that he was giving up the leadership of the party, but remained in the position due to party members requests. Before the 2006 elections the party announced that it intended to run for a third time, despite the threshold for representation having been raised to 2%. The party competed for votes with the supporters of the Democratic Choice (which later stepped down from running in the election) and with Meretz-Yachad, which had also promised to act for the decriminalization of soft drugs; another competitor was the Green Party with a strong ecological platform. The party gained
    6.00
    1 votes
    84

    Degel HaTorah

    Degel HaTorah (Hebrew: דגל התורה‎, lit. Banner of the Torah) is an Ashkenazi Haredi political party in Israel. For much of its existence it has been allied to Agudat Yisrael under the name United Torah Judaism. Degel HaTorah represents the "Lithuanian wing" of the non-Hasidic Haredim (known by some as "Mitnagdim") as opposed to the Hasidic-dominated Agudat Yisrael party. Sometimes, the parties compete against each other, at other times they join forces within a political alliance called United Torah Judaism (UTJ) (Yahadut HaTorah in Hebrew). Degel HaTorah's rabbinical arbiter (posek) as of 2006 is centenarian Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv of Jerusalem. The two Chairmen of Degel haTorah's Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah are Rabbi Eliashiv and Rabbi Aharon Leib Shteinman. Degel HaTorah was founded in 1988 as a splinter from Agudat Israel. Its establishment by Rabbi Elazar Shach was due to policy disputes with the Hasidic rabbis within Agudat Yisrael. In the 1988 elections the party won two seats, taken by Moshe Gafni and Avraham Ravitz, and joined Yitzhak Shamir's coalition government.. For the 1992 elections the party allied itself with Agudat Yisrael under the name United Torah
    6.00
    1 votes
    85

    Lev LaOlim

    Lev LaOlim (Hebrew: לב לעולים, Heart to the Immigrants) is a political party in Israel, where it is also known as Lev (Hebrew: לב, Heart). It is not related to the Lev party that existed for a few minutes during the 15th Knesset. The party was established in 1999 by Ovadia Fatkhov, before the elections in the same year. It is aimed at immigrants from Central Asia and is mostly composed of Bukharan Jews (from Uzbekistan) and Caucasian Jews. The party states that its aims are to: In the 1999 elections the party won 6,311 votes (0.18%), far below the electoral threshold of 1.5%. The party did not stand in the 2003 elections, instead urging its supporters to vote for Avigdor Lieberman's Israel Beytenu, a Russian immigrant party that was running on a joint list with the National Union. In the 2006 election the party chose to run again with Fatkhov still heading its list. However, they were less successful than in 1999, gaining only 1,765 votes (0.06%), even further below the electoral threshold, which had been raised to 2%. In the 2009 elections the party participated as an independent party, but again failed to pass the threshold, with just 632 out of nearly 3.4 million votes (less
    6.00
    1 votes
    86
    Maki

    Maki

    Maki (Hebrew: מק"י‎, an acronym for HaMiflega HaKomunistit HaYisraelit (Hebrew: המפלגה הקומוניסטית הישראלית‎, Arabic: الحزب الشيوعي الاسرائيلي‎ Al-Ḥizb ash-Shiū`ī al-'Isrā'īlī, lit. Israeli Communist Party) is a communist political party in Israel and forms part of the political alliance known as Hadash. It was originally known as Rakah (Hebrew: רק"ח‎, an acronym for Reshima Komunistit Hadasha (Hebrew: רשימה קומוניסטית חדשה‎, lit. New Communist List), and is not the same party as the original Maki, from which it broke away in the 1960s. Rakah was formed on 1 September 1965 due to internal disagreements in Maki. Maki, the original Israeli Communist Party, saw a split between a largely Jewish faction led by Moshe Sneh, which recognized Israel's right to exist and was critical of the Soviet Union's increasingly anti-Zionist stance, and a largely Arab faction, which was increasingly anti-Zionist. As a result, the pro-Palestinian faction (including Emile Habibi, Tawfik Toubi and Meir Vilner) left Maki to form a new party, Rakah, which the Soviet Union recognised as the "official" Communist Party. It was reported in the Soviet media that the Mikunis-Sneh group defected to the
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    Israeli Labor Party

    The Israeli Labor Party (Hebrew: מפלגת העבודה הישראלית‎,  Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisraelit (help·info)), commonly known as HaAvoda (Hebrew: העבודה‎), is a social-democratic and labour Zionist political party in Israel. The party is an observer member of both Socialist International and the Party of European Socialists. The Israeli Labor Party was established in 1968 by a merger of Mapai, Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi. Until 1977, all Israeli Prime Ministers were affiliated with the Labor movement. Following a split in the party in 2011, Shelly Yachimovich was elected party leader. The foundations for the formation of the Israeli Labor Party were laid shortly before the 1965 Knesset elections when Mapai, the largest left-wing party in the country formed, an alliance with Ahdut HaAvoda. The alliance was an attempt by Mapai to shore up the party's share of the vote following a break-away of eight MKs (around a fifth of Mapai's Knesset faction) led by David Ben-Gurion to form a new party, Rafi, in protest against Mapai's failure to approve a change to the country's proportional representation voting system. The alliance, called the Labor Alignment won 45 seats in the elections, and was able to
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    Yisrael BaAliyah

    Yisrael BaAliyah (Hebrew: ישראל בעלייה‎, lit. Israel on the Up) was a political party in Israel between its formation in 1996 and its merger into Likud in 2003. It was formed to represent the interests of Russian immigrants by former refusenik Natan Sharansky. Initially a centrist party, it drifted to the right towards the end of its existence. The party was formed in 1996 by Sharansky, whose personal image as a dedicated and long-suffering idealist was intended to be the catalyst for an immigrant revolution in Israeli politics. "Yisrael BaAliyah" was chosen as the name for the party, both denoting its identification with immigration (Aliyah being the Hebrew word for immigration to Israel), as well as the literal meaning of "Israel on the up". With another ex-Soviet dissident Yuli-Yoel Edelstein as a cofounder, they chose a slogan stating that their political party is different: its leaders first go to prison and only then go into politics. In its first electoral test, the May 1996 Knesset elections, the party won 5.7% of the vote and 7 seats, making it the sixth largest party in the Knesset. It joined Binyamin Netanyahu's Likud-led government, and was given two ministerial posts;
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    Gesher

    Gesher (Hebrew: גֶּשֶׁר‎, lit. Bridge), officially Gesher - National Social Movement (Hebrew: גשר - תנועה חברתית לאומית‎, Gesher - Teno'a Hevratit Le'umit) was a political party in Israel between 1996 and 2003. Gesher was set up by David Levy on 11 March 1996 as a breakaway from the Likud party during the thirteenth Knesset, after he lost the Likud leadership elections to Binyamin Netanyahu. Levy refused to accept Netanyahu as the new Likud chairman. The situation in the Likud at the time was stormy. Netanyahu's management tactics were angering many Likud supporters, while his right-wing rhetoric gained the confidence of Sharon, Benny Begin, and the hard-line party members. Levy knew that if he was cowed by his suave nemesis his supporters would either join Netanyahu's camp in order to oppose the new Oslo Accords, or go the opposite direction and back a more socialist candidate. He also knew that Netanyahu would not be willing to give him one of the top four ministries should the Likud return to power after his disastrous term as foreign minister. Levy mistakenly believed he could draw a mass defection from the Likud of parliament members, and such a disaster would lead senior
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    Kadima

    Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה‎, lit. Forward) is a centrist and liberal political party in Israel. It was established on 24 November 2005 by moderates from Likud largely to support the issue of Ariel Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan, and was soon joined by like-minded Labor politicians. With Ehud Olmert as party chairman following Sharon's stroke, it became the largest party in the Knesset after the 2006 elections, winning 29 of the 120 seats, and led a coalition government. Although Kadima also won the most seats in the 2009 elections under Tzipi Livni's leadership, it became an opposition party for the first time after a Likud-led government was formed. On May 8, 2012, the party joined the governing coalition under Benjamin Netanyahu. Prior to Kadima's formation, the political tug-of-war between Ariel Sharon and his right-wing supporters, both within the Likud and outside of it, was an on-going subject of speculation in Israeli politics and in the Israeli media. The expectation that Sharon would quit his own party to form a new party composed of his Likud allies and open the door to politicians from other parties to switch to the new party was dubbed the "big bang" (HaMapatz
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    Democratic Movement

    The Democratic Movement (Hebrew: תנועה דמוקרטית‎, Tnu'a Demokratit) was a short-lived political party in Israel formed in the aftermath of the spectacular breakup of Dash. Founded in 1978, it lasted only until 1981. The party was formed on 14 September 1978 when Dash split into three new parties just sixteen months after having come third in the 1977 elections. Seven MKs, including Dash leader Yigael Yadin, founded the Democratic Movement, seven created Shinui (Change) and one set up Ya'ad. Unlike Shinui, which pulled out, the new party remained part of Menachem Begin's coalition government, with Yadin as deputy Prime Minister and Shmuel Tamir as Minister of Justice. However, like its predecessor, the Democratic Movement also broke up. In 1980 four MKs left the party; Mordechai Elgrably left on 5 February to sit as an independent MK (he later helped form the Unity Party), on 8 July Shafik Asaad and Shlomo Eliyahu left to form Ahva (which also split before the next elections), whilst Akiva Nof left on 17 September, also to join Ahva. The party was officially dissolved on 10 March 1981, with its remaining members, Tamir, Yadin and Binyamin Halevi, sitting out the remainder of the
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    Social Justice

    Social Justice (Hebrew: צדק חברתי‎, Tzedek Hevrati) is a political party in Israel headed by Russian-Israeli businessman, Arcadi Gaydamak. It was launched by in February 2007 as a social movement, but was transformed into a political party in July that year. It did not participate in the 2009 elections for the Knesset. The movement was founded on 21 February 2007. It had been announced in the Israeli media the previous day that he would be founding a political party. Whilst the new organisation was not originally a party, Gaydamak stated that it could turn into one at any time "given the circumstances". At the time he suggested the movement would not seek ultimate power for itself, telling voters "Don't vote for Olmert, don't vote for Peretz [then leader of Labour] - don't even vote for Gaydamak. Vote for Bibi". Nevertheless, a poll from late February gave Gaydamak's party 14 seats, while a late March poll indicated it would receive 9 seats if elections for the Knesset were held (compared to 31 for Likud, 17 for Labour and 11 for Kadima). On 10 July 2007 Gaydamak launched Social Justice as a full political party, stating that the need to oust Ehud Olmert's government justified the
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    Agriculture and Development

    Agriculture and Development (Arabic: زراعة وتطوير‎, Zira'ah wa-tatwir; Hebrew: חקלאות ופיתוח‎, Hakla'ut VePituah) was a political party in Israel. Agriculture and Development was an Israeli Arab organisation formed to fight the 1951 elections. Like other Israeli Arab parties at the time, it was associated with David Ben-Gurion's Mapai party, as Ben-Gurion was keen to include Israeli Arabs in the functioning of the state in order to prove Jews and Arabs could co-exist peacefully and productively. In the elections, the party won only one seat, taken by its leader, Faras Hamdan. Because of its association with Mapai, the party joined the governing coalition in all four governments of the second Knesset. In the 1955 elections the party won one seat, retained by Hamdan, and was again part of the coalition. In the 1959 elections the party again won one seat, and joined the coalition, with Mahmud Al-Nashaf replacing Hamdan as leader. However, the party did not run in the 1961 elections.
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    Mapai

    Mapai (Hebrew: מפא"י‎, an acronym for Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael (Hebrew: מפלגת פועלי ארץ ישראל‎), lit. Workers' Party of the Land of Israel) was a left-wing political party in Israel, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the Israeli Labor Party in 1968. During Mapai's time in office, a welfare state was established, providing minimum income, security, and free (or almost free) access to housing subsidies and health and social services. The party was founded on 5 January 1930 by the merger of the Hapoel Hatzair founded by A. D. Gordon and the original Ahdut HaAvoda (founded in 1919 from the right, more moderate, wing of the Marxist Zionist socialist Poale Zion led by David Ben-Gurion). In the early 1920s the Labor Zionist movement had founded the Histadrut Union, which dominated the Hebrew settlement economy and infrastructure, later making Mapai the dominant political faction in Zionist politics. It was also responsible for the founding of Hashomer and Haganah, the first two armed Jewish groups who secured the people and property of the new and emerging Jewish communities. By the early 1930s, David Ben-Gurion had taken over the party, and had
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    Progress and Work

    Progress and Work (Hebrew: קידמה ועבודה‎, Kidma VeAvoda, Arabic: الزراعة والتطوير‎) was a political party in Israel. The Progress and Work party was an Israeli Arab organisation formed to fight the 1951 elections. Like most other Israeli Arab parties at the time, it was associated with David Ben-Gurion's Mapai party, as Ben Gurion was keen to include Israeli Arabs in the functioning of the state in order to prove Jews and Arabs could co-exist peacefully and productively. In the elections, the party won only one seat, taken by its leader, Salah-Hassan Hanifes. Because of its association with Mapai, the party joined the governing coalition in all four governments of the second Knesset. In the 1955 elections, the party won two seats. Saleh Suleiman took the second seat, and the party was again part of the coalition. In 1959, a falling-out between Hanifes and Mapai led to Hanifes setting up a new party, the Independent Faction for Israeli Arabs, to fight the 1959 elections. Both parties failed to cross the electoral threshold, with Progress and Work receiving 0.5% of the votes, and the Independent Faction 0.4%. In the 1961 elections, the party won 0.4% of the vote. After its second
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    Progressive Party

    The Progressive Party (Hebrew: מפלגה פרוגרסיבית‎, Miflaga Progresivit) was a political party in Israel. The Progressive Party was a liberal party, most of whose founders came from the ranks of the New Aliyah Party and HaOved HaTzioni, which had been active prior to independence. It consisted primarily of immigrants from Central Europe. In the 1949 elections the party gained five seats, with Idov Cohen, Yeshayahu Forder, Avraham Granot, Yizhar Harari and Pinchas Rosen taking their place as Members of the Knesset (MKs). They joined the government as a coalition partner of David Ben-Gurion's Mapai party, and were members of both the first and second governments. In the 1951 elections the party lost a seat and dropped to 4 MKs. They were not included in Ben-Gurion's original coalition, but were brought into the fourth government as a replacement for the religious parties Agudat Israel and Agudat Israel Workers who had resigned over religious education issues. They were also a coalition partner in the fifth government (created when Ben Gurion resigned and was replaced by Moshe Sharett), but were dropped from the sixth government after a motion of no-confidence had been brought against
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    Tafnit

    Tafnit (Hebrew: תפנית‎ Turnaround) was an Israeli political party and a social movement which was established by the Aluf in reserve Uzi Dayan. The party participated in the 2006 elections, although did not gain any seats. Tafnit was established as a social movement. Among the rest, the movement was involved in the design and the wording of the Gabizon-Meydan document and in the establishing of Sderot convention to society. On 25 December 2005 Dayan announced that the movement would run in the election to the Knesset and would place in the top of its platform the struggle against the "public corruption". The party is turning to the voters who identify themselves in the center of the political map. Likewise, the party is make run the "Dayan plan", a plan which offers to complete quickly as possible the building of the West Bank barrier and to implement a unilateral action which in its center an evacuation of isolated settlements in Samaria, and creation of a border on demographic basis; the plan supposed to be kind of a second stage of the disengagement plan, that Dayan is among her creators. The party did not pass the required threshold of popular vote and did not enter the 17th
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    United Religious Front

    The United Religious Front (Hebrew: חזית דתית מאוחדת‎, Hazit Datit Meuhedet) was a political alliance of the four major religious parties in Israel, as well as the Union of Religious Independents, formed to fight the 1949 elections. The United Religious Front was formed as an alliance of all four major religious parties (Mizrachi, Hapoel HaMizrachi, Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael), as well as the Union of Religious Independents, in order to run for the 1949 election, the first after independence. In the elections the list won 16 seats, making it the third largest in the Knesset. The initial allocation of seats between the parties saw Hapoel HaMizrachi take seven seats, Mizrachi take four, Poalei Agudat Yisrael three and Agudat Yisrael two. It joined David Ben-Gurion's Mapai party in forming the coalition of the first government of Israel, alongside the Progressive Party, the Sephardim and Oriental Communities and the Democratic List of Nazareth. However, the grouping created problems in the governing coalition due to its differing attitude to education in the new immigrant camps and the religious education system. They also demanded that Ben-Gurion close the Supply and
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