A wine sub-region is a wine-producing region that falls within the boundaries of another region. For example, the Napa Valley region is within the North Coast AVA region.
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Greve in Chianti (the old name was Greve; in 1972 was renamed Greve in Chianti after the inclusion of that area in the Chianti wine district) is a town and comune (municipality) in the province of Florence, Tuscany, Italy. It is located c. 31 km south of Florence on A1 highway, and 42 km north of Siena.
Sitting in the Val di Greve, it is named for the small, fast-flowing river that runs through it, is the principal town in the Chianti wine district which stretches south of Florence to just north of Siena. Until recently it has been a quiet, almost bucolic town because it was, and still is, well off the main roads.
Even in ancient days Greve was not isolated because it was well-connected by secondary roads to the Via Volterrana and via Francigena. Nowadays, it is connected to the A1 superstrada between Florence and Rome and the main road between Florence and Siena. The old road network ensured easy access to Florence and to other places such as Figline where its tradesmen and farmers found ready markets for their goods and produce. The modern transportation network connects it to the world at large, enabling it to export great quantities of wine and attract many tourists.
The Côte de Nuits is a French wine region located in the northern part of the Côte d'Or, the limestone ridge that is at the heart of the Burgundy wine region. It extends from Dijon to just south of Nuits-Saint-Georges, which gives its name to the district and is the regional center. Though some white and rosé wines are produced in the region, the Côte de Nuits is most famous for reds made from Pinot noir. The Côte de Nuits covers fourteen communes. Six produce grand cru wines, in the central district between Gevrey-Chambertin and Nuits-Saint-Georges, with four lesser villages either side. The Grand Crus of the Cote de Nuits are some of the smallest appellations in France, less than a hectare in the case of La Romanée.
Among the northern villages of the Côte de Nuits there are several distinct terroir. Uniquely in Burgundy, Marsannay-la-Côte produces wine of all three colors - red and rosé from Pinot Noir, white from Chardonnay. The 529 acres (214 ha) of the Marsannay appellation extends into Couchey and Chênove. The village of Fixin has its own appellation, but the area of Brochon Côte de Nuits Villages extends into the commune with 55 acres (22 ha) of premier cru vineyards out of
Wines:2005 Brewer-Clifton "Cargasacchi Vineyard" Santa Rita Hills Pinot Noir
Santa Barbara (/ˈsæntə ˈbɑrbᵊrə/, Spanish: [ˈsanta ˈbaɾβaɾa]) is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, United States. Situated on an east-west trending section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply-rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is often described as Mediterranean, and the city is known as the "American Riviera." As of the census of 2010, the city had a population of 88,410, a loss of 1,190 from the previous census, making it the second largest city in the county after Santa Maria while the contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Montecito, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch, Summerland, and others, has an approximate population of 220,000. The population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895.
In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, education, technology, health care, finance, agriculture, manufacturing, and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for fully 35% of local
Wines:2005 Domaine Gabriel Billard "Milliane" Bourgogne Rouge
The Côte de Beaune area is the southern part of the Côte d'Or, the limestone ridge that is home to the great names of Burgundy wine. The Côte de Beaune starts between Nuits-Saint-Georges and Beaune, and extends southwards for about 25 km to the River Dheune. The trend of producing red wines continues from the Côte de Nuits to the north, down through Beaune, although the wines become lighter and more perfumed. Farther south lie the great names of white Burgundy such as Meursault and Chassagne-Montrachet. The far south of the district sees a return to red wines in Santenay that continues across the Dheune into the Côte Chalonnaise. This mix of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes reflects geology in the southern Côte d'Or that is more variable than in the north.
The Burgundy wine article explains the local classifications in more detail. Above the basic AOC Bourgogne lies Côte de Beaune Villages, a general appellation for wines from one or more of 16 villages in the district excluding Aloxe-Corton, Pommard, Volnay and Beaune. Four vineyards on a hill above Beaune get the confusing designation of Côte de Beaune. The Hautes-Côtes de Beaune are a separate appellation for the hills to the
Wines:2005 Boeger El Dorado County Estate Zinfandel
El Dorado County is a county located in the historic Gold Country in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and foothills of the U.S. state of California. The 2010 population was 181,058. The El Dorado county seat is in Placerville.
The population of El Dorado County has grown as the Greater Sacramento has expanded into the region. In the unique Lake Tahoe area of the county, environmental awareness and environmental protection initiatives have grown along with the population since the 1960 Winter Olympics, hosted at Squaw Valley Ski Resort in neighboring Placer County.
The 2010 United States Census reported that El Dorado County had a population of 181,058. The racial makeup of El Dorado County was 156,793 (86.6%) White, 1,409 (0.8%) African American, 2,070 (1.1%) Native American, 6,297 (3.5%) Asian, 294 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 7,278 (4.0%) from other races, and 6,917 (3.8%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21,875 persons (12.1%). The largest growth in the county has come in El Dorado Hills where the population grew by 24,092 residents to a total of 42,108 since 2000.
As of the census of 2000, there were 156,299 people, 58,939 households, and 43,025 families
Wines:2004 Chatom Sierra Foothills Estate Zinfandel
Calaveras County is a county located in the Gold Country of the U.S. state of California. Calaveras is the Spanish word for skulls; the county was reportedly named for the remains of Native Americans discovered by the Spanish explorer Captain Gabriel Moraga. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 45,578. The county seat is San Andreas. Angels Camp is the only incorporated city.
Calaveras Big Trees State Park, a preserve of Giant Sequoia trees, is located in the county several miles east of the town of Arnold on State Highway 4. The uncommon gold telluride mineral calaverite was discovered in the county in 1861, and is named for it.
Mark Twain set his story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", in the county. Each year, the county hosts a fair and Jumping Frog Jubilee, featuring a frog-jumping contest, to celebrate the association with Twain's story. The California Red-legged Frog, feared extinct in the county by 1969, was rediscovered in 2003.
Calaveras County was one of the original counties of the state of California, created in 1850 at the time of admission to the Union. Parts of the county's territory were reassigned to Amador County in 1854 and to
Sancerre is a French wine Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for wine produced in the environs of Sancerre in the eastern part of the Loire valley, southeast of Orléans. Almost all of the appellation lies on the left bank of the Loire, opposite Pouilly-Fumé. It is well regarded for and primarily associated with Sauvignon blanc. Some Pinot noir is also grown, accounting for around 20% of the region's production, making mostly light red wines for quaffing under the designation of Sancerre Rouge. A rosé style from Pinot noir is also produced in a style similar to Beaujolais.
White Sancerre was one of the original AOCs awarded in 1936, with the same area being designated for red wines on 23 January 1959. The AOC area has expanded fourfold over the years, most recently on 18 March 1998. The town lies on an outcrop of the chalk that runs from the White cliffs of Dover down through the Champagne and Chablis. A series of small valleys cut through the chalk, each with their own soils and microclimate and terroir. In the east are the "flints" that make minerally, long-lived wines. Between the town and Verdigny the soil consists of marl and gravel – "les caillottes" – producing fruity,
The Langhe (Langa from old dialect Mons Langa et Bassa Langa) is a hilly area to the south and east of the river Tanaro in the province of Cuneo in Piedmont, northern Italy.
It is famous for its wines, cheeses, and truffles—particularly the white truffles of Alba. The countryside as it was in the first half of the 20th century features prominently in the writings of Beppe Fenoglio and Cesare Pavese, who was born here, in Santo Stefano Belbo.
DOC and DOCG wines produced in this area include:
Wines:2004 Vezer Family "Petersen Vineyard" Suisun Valley Zinfandel
Solano County is a county located in the U.S. state of California, about halfway between San Francisco and Sacramento. It is officially one of the nine San Francisco Bay Area counties, and one of four North Bay counties. The county's population was reported by the U.S. Census to be 413,344 in 2010. The county seat is Fairfield and the largest city is Vallejo.
Solano County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
At the request of General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, the county derives its name directly from an Indian Chief, Chief Solano of the Suisun people, a Native American tribe of the region and Vallejo's close ally. Chief Solano at one time led the tribes between the Petaluma River and the Sacramento River. The chief was also called Sem-Yeto, which signifies "brave or fierce hand." The Chief was given the Spanish name Francisco Solano during baptism at the Catholic Mission, and is named after the Spanish Franciscan missionary, Father Francisco Solano. "Solano" is a common surname in the north of Spain, specially in Navarra, Zaragoza and La Rioja.
Travis Air Force Base is located just east of Fairfield.
Solano County is the
The Médoc (French pronunciation: [medɔk]; Gascon: Medòc [meˈðok]) is a region of France, well known as a wine growing region, located in the département of Gironde, on the left bank of the Gironde estuary, north of Bordeaux. Its name comes from (Pagus) Medullicus, or "country of the Medulli", the local Celtic tribe. The region owes its economic success mainly to the production of red wine; it is home to around 1,500 vineyards.
The area also has pine forests and long sandy beaches. The Médoc's geography is not ideal for wine growing, with its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean resulting in a comparatively mild climate and high rainfall making rot a constant problem. It is generally believed that the nature of the region's wine derives from the soil; although the terrain is flat, excellent drainage is a necessity and the increased amount of gravel in the soil allows heat to be retained, encouraging ripening, and extensive root systems.
With the exception of Château Haut-Brion from Graves, all of the red wines in the 1855 Classification are from the Médoc. Many of the Médoc wines that are not in this classification are classified using the (defunct as of 2007) Cru Bourgeois system.
Wines:2004 Echelon Hames Valley Cabernet Sauvignon
Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. The northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County. As of 2010, the population was 415,057. The county seat and largest city is Salinas. Monterey County is a member of the regional governmental agency, Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments.
The coastline, including Big Sur, State Route 1, and the 17 Mile Drive on the Monterey Peninsula has made the county world famous. The city of Monterey was the capital of California under Spanish and Mexican rule. The economy is primarily based upon tourism in the coastal regions, and agriculture in the Salinas River valley. Most of the county's people live near the northern coast and Salinas valley, while the southern coast and inland mountain regions are almost devoid of human habitation.
Monterey County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the county were given to San Benito County in 1874.
The county derived its name from Monterey Bay. The bay was named by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 in honor of the Conde de Monterrey
Neive is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 50 km southeast of Turin and about 60 km northeast of Cuneo. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 3,042 and an area of 21.2 km².
Neive borders the following municipalities: Barbaresco, Castagnito, Castagnole delle Lanze, Coazzolo, Magliano Alfieri, Mango, Neviglie, and Treiso.
Médanos appellation is a geographic indication applied to wines produced in Médanos (Buenos Aires, Argentina) whose characteristics are a function and a direct result of the geographic area and the terroir in which the grapes are grown and the wines are produced and aged.
Médanos appellation wines include:
Wine from Médanos won a Silver Medal in the 2009 Decanter World Wine Awards, the world's largets wine contest celebrated in London.
Given its proximity to the Ocean, the Médanos terroir consists of sandy soil over a limestone plate with long sun hours and a resulting high termic amplitude during the day.
Médanos is the only Argentine terroir dedicated to production of premium wines with oceanic influence.
The closeness to the Ocean and the strong winds in the area develop thick skins in the grapes that contribute to complex wines with intense colors.
This terroir has unique conditions for vineyards making its Malbec distinguishable and having weather conditions that produce outstanding wines, such as Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon which are better suited to this environment than to the traditional Argentine wine producing regions.
Wines:2005 Ravenswood "Old Vine" Amador County Zinfandel
Amador County is a county located in the Sierra Nevada of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,091. The county seat is Jackson.
Amador County bills itself as "The Heart of the Mother Lode" and lies within the Gold Country. There is a substantial viticultural industry in the county.
Amador County was created by the California Legislature on May 11, 1854 from parts of Calaveras and El Dorado Counties. It was organized on July 3, 1854. In 1864, part of the county's territory was given to Alpine County.
The county is named for Jose Maria Amador, soldier, rancher and miner, who was born in San Francisco in 1794, the son of Sergeant Pedro Amador (a Spanish soldier who settled in California in 1771) and younger brother to Sinforosa Amador.
In 1848, Jose Maria Amador, with several Native Americans, established a successful gold mining camp near the present town of Amador City. In Spanish, the word amador means "one who loves."
Amador County is located approximately 45 miles (72 km) southeast of Sacramento in a part of California known as the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 604.69
Valley de Uco is a viticultural region southwest of Mendoza, in Argentina. Situated along the Tunuyán River, the Uco Valley is widely considered one of the top wine regions in Mendoza, and all of Argentina. The average temperature is 14ºC and altitudes range from 900 to 1,200 meters (2,950 to 3,930 ft) above sea level.
The combination of high elevation, alluvial soils, irrigation sourced from the Andes Mountains, a long growing season ~ over 250 sunny days a year, little rain and vast temperature differences between day and night are all conducive to growing quality wine grapes. These climate and geography elements come together to provide excellent fruit ripening and concentration, developing colors, aromas, flavors and textures resulting in wines that are deep in color, intense in aromas and rich in flavors. The Uco Valley figures prominently in the Argentina Wine Route for tourist visitors.
The annual average temperature is 14 °C (57 °F). Traditionally, the varietals grown in this area are Sémillon and Malbec; together with Bonarda and Barbera in a smaller amount.
Wines:2005 Cadence "Coda" Red Mountain Cabernet Sauvignon
The Red Mountain AVA is an American Viticultural Area that includes the land surrounding Red Mountain in Benton County, Washington. It is part of the Yakima Valley AVA, which in turn is part of the larger Columbia Valley AVA. Located between Benton City and the City of West Richland, the Red Mountain AVA is the smallest in the state at only 4,040 acres (16 km) in area. The area has 600 acres (2.4 km) under cultivation of primarily red varietals including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sangiovese, Cabernet Franc and Syrah. The reputation of the wines produced in this area has brought Red Mountain AVA worldwide acclaim. The vineyards in this appellation have produced grapes for some of the most sought after wines in Washington State.
The Missoula floods, a series of massive floods that occurred at the end of the last Ice Age, profoundly affected the soils of Red Mountain. The fast travelling flood waters, estimated at 390 meters tall, would sweep around the east and west edges of Red Mountain, creating powerfully back-eddies. As a result of the back-eddies, sediments were deposited in an irregular manner, creating a heterogeneous soil with a series of gravel lenses. In the 10,000 years
Wines:2002 Barclay & Browning Lake County Zinfandel
Lake County is a county located in the state of Florida, United States. As of the 2000 Census, the population was 210,528. The Census Bureau estimated the population in 2008 to be 307,243. Its county seat is Tavares. Lake County is part of the Orlando-Kissimmee, Florida, Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Lake County was created in 1887 from portions of Sumter County and Orange County. It was named for the numerous lakes in the area. There are approximately 1,400 named lakes.
Lake County is also home to Sugarloaf Mountain, the highest point in peninsular Florida, at 312 feet (95 m) above sea level. Britton Hill is higher, but is in the Florida Panhandle.
On New Year's Day of 1888, Flora Call and Elias Disney were married in the Lake County town of Kismet, and they lived for a short time in the adjoining town of Acron, Florida. They were the parents of Walt Disney.
On February 2, 2007, Lake County was devastated by a series of early morning tornadoes, which killed at least 20 people in the area. Gov. Charlie Crist declared a state of emergency.
According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 1,156.40 square miles (2,995.1 km), of which 953.15 square miles (2,468.6 km) (or
Tupungato is a department located in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. The cabecera (departmental capital) 0f Tupungato is located approximately 70 km south of Mendoza city, in the Valle de Uco.
Its name comes from the Tupungato volcano (with 6.570 metres, one of Argentina's highest peaks) with towers over the city from the Andes mountain rig. The volcano's name, in turn, is said to mean "star viewpoint" in the huarpe tongue.
The department is approximately 1.200 metres above mean sea level, and comprises 2.485 km² (1.6% of the provincial total). According to the 2001 census [INDEC], the total population of the department was 28.539 with a density of 11.48 inhabitants per km².
The region is mainly dependent on agricultural production, with vineyards being its most important produce, representing 30% of the planted lands. Other regional products are fruit (mainly peach) and garlic. The wine industry, however, is particularly relevant due to the constant investments and intensive labour occupation. Recent developments in the Argentine economy have further fuelled the Argentine wine industry, attracting foreign investors and tourists to the region in an unprecedented scale.
The Barossa Valley is one of Australia's oldest wine regions. Located in South Australia, the Barossa Valley is about 56km (35 miles) northeast of the city of Adelaide. Unlike most of Australia whose wine industry was heavily influenced by the British, the wine industry of the Barossa Valley was founded by German settlers fleeing persecution from the Prussian province of Silesia (in what is now modern day Poland). The hot continental climate of the region promoted the production of very ripe grapes that was the linchpin of the early Australian fortified wine industry. As the modern Australian wine industry shifted towards red table wines (particularly those made by the prestigious Cabernet Sauvignon) in the mid-20th century, the Barossa Valley fell out of favor due to its reputation for being largely a Shiraz producers whose grapes were destined for blending. During this period the name "Barossa Valley" rarely appeared on wine labels. In the 1980s, the emergence of several boutique family specializing in old vine Shiraz wines began to capture international attention for the distinctive style of Barossa Shiraz, a full bodied red wine with rich chocolate and spice notes. This led to
Wines:2005 Ravenswood "Old Vine" Mendocino County Zinfandel
Mendocino County is a county located on the north coast of the U.S. state of California, north of the greater San Francisco Bay Area and west of the Central Valley. As of the 2010 census, the population was 87,841, up from 86,265 at the 2000 census. The county seat is Ukiah.
The county is noted for its distinctive Pacific Ocean coastline, Redwood forests, wine production, microbrews, and liberal views about the use of cannabis and support for its legalization. It is estimated that roughly two-thirds of the economy is based on the cultivation of marijuana.
The notable historic and recreational attraction of the "Skunk Train" connects Fort Bragg with Willits in Mendocino County via steam-locomotive trains and other vehicles.
Mendocino County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Due to an initially low population, it did not have a separate government until 1859 and was under the administration of Sonoma County prior to that.
The county derives its name from Cape Mendocino, which was probably named in honor of either Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain, 1535–1542 (who sent the Juan Cabrillo Expedition to this coast in 1542), or
Wines:2005 Mitchell Katz "Ruby Hill Vineyard" Livermore Valley Estate Zinfandel
Alameda County is a county in the U.S. state of California. It occupies most of the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 1,510,271, making it the 7th most populous county in the state. The county's major cities include Oakland, which is its seat, Fremont, Berkeley and Hayward.
The county was formed on March 25, 1853 from a large portion of Contra Costa County and a smaller portion of Santa Clara County.
The Spanish word alameda means "a place where poplar trees grow", a name which originally was given to the Arroyo de la Alameda (Poplar Grove Creek). The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early explorers of a road lined with trees, also known as an alameda.
The county seat at the time it was formed was located at Alvarado; it was moved to San Leandro in 1856 where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault. The county seat was then re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, which has been the county seat since 1873.
Much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed
Wines:2004 Carol Shelton "Monga Zin, Lopez Vineyard" Cucamonga Valley Zinfandel
Riverside County is one of 58 counties in the U.S. state of California. The name was taken from the city of Riverside, which is the county seat. Rectangle-shaped, Riverside County covers 7,208 square miles (18,670 km) in Southern California. It is bordered on the west by Orange County; on the east by La Paz County, Arizona; on the southwest, by San Diego County; on the southeast, by Imperial County; and, on the north, by San Bernardino County. Together, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties have been dubbed the Inland Empire.
The population of Riverside County was 2,189,641 in 2010. It is the 4th most populous county in California, and among the fastest-growing areas of the USA in the past half a century (since 1960). There's a high concentration of sprawling house tract communities around Riverside and along the Interstate 10, 15 and 215 freeways.
Geographically, the county is mostly desert in the central and eastern portions of the county, and is a Mediterranean climate in the western portion of the county. Most of Joshua Tree National Park is located in the county. Riverside County lies inland of Los Angeles County and is bordered by Orange County to the west, San Bernardino
Wines:2005 Ridge "Pagani Ranch" Sonoma Valley Zinfandel
Sonoma County, located on the northern coast of the U.S. state of California, is the largest (in area) and northernmost of the nine San Francisco Bay Area counties. Its population at the 2010 census was 483,878. Its largest city and county seat is Santa Rosa.
Sonoma is the southwestern county and largest producer of California's Wine Country region, which also includes Napa, Mendocino, and Lake counties. It has 13 approved American Viticultural Areas and over 250 wineries. In 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production. As early as 1920, Sonoma County was ranked as the eighth most agriculturally productive U.S county and a leading producer of poultry products, hops, grapes, prunes, apples and dairy products, largely due to the extent of available, fertile agricultural land, in addition to the abundance of high quality irrigation water. More than 7.4 million tourists visit each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Sonoma State University and Santa Rosa Junior College.
Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove
Wines:2005 Guglielmo "Private Reserve" Santa Clara Valley Estate Zinfandel
Santa Clara County is a county located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay Area in the U.S. state of California. As of 2010 it had a population of 1,781,642. The county seat is San Jose. The highly urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is also known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the Bay Area region, and one of the most affluent counties in the United States.
Santa Clara County was one of the original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood. The original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Coyote Creek and Calaveras Creek. Part of the county's territory was given to Alameda County in 1853.
The county is named after Mission Santa Clara, which was established in 1777, and named for Saint Clare of Assisi, Italy.
In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries. The result was the U.S. Supreme Court case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, 118 U.S. 394 (1886), in which the Court extended Due Process rights to artificial legal entities.
Once promoted as the "Valley of the Heart's Delight", after two centuries of
Contra Costa County (Spanish for "opposite coast") is a primarily suburban county in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 1,049,025. The county seat is Martinez.
In prehistoric times, particularly the Miocene epoch, portions of the landforms now in the area (then marshy and grassy savanna) were populated by a wide range of now extinct mammals, known in modern times by the fossil remains excavated in the southern part of the county. In the northern part of the county, significant coal and sand deposits were formed in even earlier geologic eras. Other areas of the county have ridges exposing ancient but intact (not fossilized) seashells, embedded in sandstone layers alternating with limestone. Layers of volcanic ash ejected from geologically recent but now extinct volcanos, compacted and now tilted by compressive forces, may be seen at the site of some road excavations. This county is an agglomeration of several distinct geologic terranes, as is most of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, which is one of the most geologically complex regions in the world. The great local mountain Mount Diablo has been formed and
Roero is a geographical area in the north-east corner of the province of Cuneo in Piedmont, north-west Italy. This hilly region is known for its wines and for its fruit production: particularly the peaches of Canale and the local variety of pear known as Madernassa which originated in the late eighteenth century in Guarene. Strawberries are also grown.
The name comes from the Roero family of bankers and traders, who were prominent in the political life of Asti and its environs, and who dominated this area for a number of centuries during the Middle Ages.
The territory lies to the north of Alba. The river Tanaro marks its southern border, dividing it from the Langhe. To the north-east its informal boundary with Monferrato follows approximately the line of the border between the provinces of Cuneo and Asti, although Cisterna d’Asti can be taken to be part of Roero. To the north-west it is confined by the province of Turin. To the west its border is taken to be the SS 61 state road which runs through the communes of Bra, Sanfrè and Sommariva del Bosco.
The communes which fall, partly or entirely within Roero are thus:
The designated zone of production for the DOC wines Roero and Roero
Wines:2005 Pessagno "Spring Grove Vineyards" San Benito County Pinot Noir
San Benito County is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U.S. state of California, south of San Jose. As of 2010 the population was 55,269. The county seat is Hollister, which includes nearly two-thirds of the county's population. El Camino Real passes through the county and includes one mission in San Juan Bautista.
San Benito is included in the U.S. government's 11-county designation of the San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area.
San Benito County was formed from parts of Monterey County in 1874.
The county is named after the San Benito Valley. Father Juan Crespí, in his expedition in 1772, named a small river in honor of San Benedicto (Saint Benedict), the patron saint of the married, and it is from the contraction of this name that the county took its name.
According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 1,390.73 square miles (3,602.0 km), of which 1,389.06 square miles (3,597.6 km) (or 99.88%) is land and 1.68 square miles (4.4 km) (or 0.12%) is water.
Sharing a border with Santa Clara County, San Benito County lies adjacent to the San Francisco Bay Area and is sometimes considered a part of that region. Frequently, the county is
McLaren Vale is a wine region approximately 35 km south of Adelaide in South Australia. It has a population of about 2,000 and is internationally renowned for the wines it produces. The region was named after either David McLaren, the Colonial Manager of the South Australia Company or John McLaren (unrelated) who surveyed the area in 1839. Among the very first settlers to the region in late 1839, were two English farmers from Devon, William Colton and Charles Thomas Hewett. William Colton established the 'Daringa Farm' and Charles Thomas Hewett established 'Oxenberry Farm'. Both men would be very prominent in the very early days of McLaren Vale.
Although initially the region's main economic activity was the growing of cereal crops, John Reynell and Thomas Hardy planted grape vines in 1838 and the present-day Seaview and Hardy wineries were in operation as early as 1850. Grapes were first planted in the region in 1838 and some vines more than 100 years old are still producing. Today there are more than 88 cellar doors in McLaren Vale. The majority are small family-run operations and boutique wineries.
McLaren Vale has a Mediterranean climate with four clear seasons. With a dry warm
Pouilly-Fumé is a dry white wine with Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) Sancerre around Pouilly-sur-Loire, in the Nièvre département. Another white wine is produced in the same area but with a different grape variety: Pouilly-sur-Loire.
The vineyards of Pouilly-Fumé date back to the Roman era (fifth century); a reference to the Latin name Pauliacum super fluvium ligerim, reflecting the Roman road which passed through this territory.
Benedictine monks commenced development of Pouilly-Fumé in the Middle Ages. Sacramental wine is traditionally white, less prone to staining, and the Benedictines developed the vineyards without seeking profitability. The fiefdom and vineyards of Pouilly were transferred to the Benedictines of La Charité-sur-Loire for the sum of "3100 sous and a silver mark" towards the end of the eleventh century. A plot of about 4 hectares overlooking the river Loire has retained the appellation Loge aux Moines (Monks’ Lodge), in memory of that era. The repurchase of Boisgibault lands in 1383 by Jean III de Sancerre demonstrates the proximity that has always existed between this vineyard and that of Sancerre, and their respective white wine production.
Summerland (2011 population 11,280) is a town on the west side of Okanagan Lake in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. The district is between Peachland to the north and Penticton to the south. The largest centre in the region is Kelowna, approximately 50 km to the north (via Highway 97), and Vancouver is approximately 425 km (264 mi) away to the west.
The current Mayor is Janice Perino.
In 2006, the District of Summerland celebrated its centennial as an incorporated municipality in 1906, yet the history of settlement in the Summerland area extends beyond that time. Summerland's first inhabitants were the Okanagan Salish with the Nation's boundaries extending from Kamloops to southern Washington State. The area known as "Nicola Prairie" was notably named after the Grand Chief Nicola.
A published map of the Okanagan Valley in 1827 includes only three sites for the entire Okanagan Valley; Nicola Prairie; Lone Tree (north end of Summerland); and Sandy Cove (across the lake from present day Kelowna). Summerland's proud and diverse past includes hunting and fur trading, ranching, orchards and fruit industries, transportation hubs and more recently, tourism. Immigration to the
Wines:2005 Ravenswood "Dickerson Vineyard" Napa Valley Zinfandel
Napa County is a county located north of San Pablo Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is officially one of the nine San Francisco Bay Area counties, and one of four North Bay counties. The county is coterminous with the Napa, California, Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census the population is 136,484. The county seat is Napa. Napa County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the county's territory were given to Lake County in 1861. The word napa is of Native American origin and has been variously translated as "grizzly bear", "house", "motherland", and "fish". Of the many explanations of the name's origin, the most plausible seems to be that it is derived from the Patwin word napo meaning house, although local residents will often cite an urban legend that gives the translation as "you will always return".
Napa County, once the producer of many different crops, is known today for its wine industry, rising in the 1960s to the first rank of wine regions with France, Italy, Portugal and Spain.
In prehistoric times, the valley was inhabited by the Patwin Native Americans, with possible habitation by Wappo
San Luis Obispo County is a county located along the Pacific Ocean in the Central Coast of the U.S. state of California, between Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area. As of the 2010 census its population was 269,637. The county seat is San Luis Obispo, with about 46,000 residents.
The county's distance from the large metro areas of San Francisco and Los Angeles has helped it to retain its rural character and reminders of old California abound. Commonly referred to as "the Central Coast," the area is more rural and agricultural than many other coastal regions in California. Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa in 1772 and the Mission is today an active part of downtown San Luis Obispo (popularly referred to as SLO or SLO-town). The small size of the county's communities, scattered along the beaches, coastal hills, and mountains of the Santa Lucia range, provides a wide variety of coastal and inland hill ecologies to support many kinds of fishing, agriculture, and tourist activities.
The mainstays of the economy are California Polytechnic State University with its almost 20,000 students, tourism, and agriculture. San Luis Obispo County is the
Wines:2006 Dono dal Cielo Sierra Foothills Zinfandel
Placer County ( /ˈplæsər/, PLASS-er) is a county located in both the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada regions of the U.S. state of California, in what is known as the Gold Country. It stretches from the suburbs of Sacramento to Lake Tahoe and the Nevada border. Because of the expansion of the Greater Sacramento, Placer County is one of the fastest growing counties in California. Between 2000 and 2010, the population grew from 248,399 to 348,432. The county seat is Auburn.
Placer County was home to the Maidu and Miwok Native Americans for hundreds of years. The discovery of gold in 1848 brought tens of thousands of miners from around the world, in addition to many more thousands intending to provide goods and services to the miners. Only three years after the discovery of gold, the fast-growing county was formed from portions of Sutter and Yuba counties on April 25, 1851 with Auburn as the county seat. Placer County took its name from the Spanish word for sand or gravel deposits containing gold. Miners washed away the gravel, leaving the heavier gold, in a process known as "placer mining."
Gold mining was a major industry through the 1880s, but gradually the new residents turned
Lake Country is a District Municipality with a population of approximately 12,000 in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada. The city of Kelowna lies to the south, while the city of Vernon lies to the north. As its name suggests, there are a number of lakes in the vicinity of Lake Country, and outside the municipal boundaries in the hills to the east. Okanagan Lake acts as the western boundary of the municipality, while the entirety of Wood Lake and the southern-most portion of Kalamalka Lake are encompassed by it.
Incorporated in 1995, the previously unincorporated communities of Winfield, Okanagan Centre, Oyama, and Carr's Landing remain as separate wards within Lake Country. In the municipal government, one councillor is drawn from each of these wards, while the mayor, and two further councillors are elected by the people at large.
(from Statistics Canada 2006 Community Profile, except where otherwise indicated)
(Note that population figures for most categories have been rounded to the nearest 5.)
Population: 11,708 (2011 Census Profile)
Population Change (2006-2011): 21.9%
Land Area (square km) : 122.19
Aboriginals & Visible
The Chiles Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA. The Chiles Valley is nestled in the Vaca Mountains on the northeast side of Napa Valley. The appellation has a warmer and more continental climate than other portions of Napa Valley. The cooling fog and winds that moderate temperatures in other parts of Napa Valley have difficulty reaching as far inland as Chiles Valley. The most planted grapes in Chiles Valley are Zinfandel, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc. Chiles Valley was named after Joseph Ballinger Chiles, who received the Rancho Catacula Mexican land grant in the 1841.
Wines:2005 La Rochelle "Anindor Vineyard" Umpqua Valley Pinot Noir
Douglas County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon. In 2010, its population was 107,667. It is named after Stephen A. Douglas, an American politician who supported Oregon statehood. The seat of the county is Roseburg.
The area originally was inhabited by the Umpqua Indians, who belonged to the Chinook tribe. Following the Rogue River Indian War in 1856, most of the remaining natives were moved by the government to the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation. However, seven families of Umpqua hid in the hills, eluding capture for many decades. They are now Federally recognized as the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians. The tribe manages a small reservation in Canyonville, Oregon, and has a Casino/Hotel named Seven Feathers to represent the seven families who refused forced removal to the Grand Ronde Reservation.
Douglas County was created on January 7, 1852, from the portion of Umpqua County which lay east of the Coast Range summit. In 1856 the Camas Valley was annexed to Douglas County from Coos County. In 1862, the rest of Umpqua county was absorbed into Douglas County, some say due to the loss of population following the end of the early gold boom, while others
Napa Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Napa County, California, United States. Napa Valley is considered one of the premier wine regions in the world. Records of commercial wine production in the region date back to the nineteenth century, but premium wine production dates back only to the 1960s.
The combination of Mediterranean climate, geography and geology of the region are conducive to growing quality wine grapes. John Patchett established the Napa Valley's first commercial vineyard in 1858. In 1861 Charles Krug established another of Napa Valley's first commercial wineries in St. Helena. Viticulture in Napa suffered several setbacks in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including an outbreak of the vine disease phylloxera, the institution of Prohibition, and the Great Depression. The wine industry in Napa Valley recovered, and helped by the results of the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, came to be seen as capable of producing the best quality wine - equal to that of Old World wine regions. Napa Valley is now a major enotourism destination.
The valley floor is flanked by the Mayacamas Mountain Range on the western and northern sides the Vaca Mountains on
Oregon (/ˈɔrɨɡən/ ORR-ə-gən) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located on the Pacific coast, with Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada on the southeast and Idaho to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers delineate much of Oregon's northern and eastern boundaries, respectively. The area was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before the arrival of traders, explorers, and settlers who formed an autonomous government in Oregon Country in 1843. The Oregon Territory was created in 1848, and Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859.
Oregon is the 9th most extensive and the 27th most populous of the 50 United States. Salem is the state's capital and third-most-populous city; Portland is the most populous. Portland is the 29th-largest U.S. city, with a population of 583,776 (2010 US Census) and a metro population of 2,241,841 (2009 estimate), the 23rd-largest U.S. metro area. The valley of the Willamette River in western Oregon is the state's most densely populated area and is home to eight of the ten most populous cities.
Oregon contains a diverse landscape including the windswept Pacific coastline, the volcanoes of the
Wines:2005 Martha Clara Vineyards North Fork Pinot Grigio
Long Island is an island in the southeast of the U.S. state of New York, just east of Manhattan. Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island contains four counties, two of which are boroughs of New York City (Queens and Brooklyn), and two of which are mainly suburban (Nassau and Suffolk). The term "Long Island" often refers only to Nassau and Suffolk counties in order to differentiate them from New York City, though all four counties are on the island and part of the New York metropolitan area.
As of the 2010 census, Long Island had a population of 7,568,304, making it the most populated island in any U.S. state or territory. It is also the 17th most populous island in the world, ahead of Ireland, Jamaica and the Japanese island of Hokkaidō. Its population density is 5,402 inhabitants per square mile (2,086 /km). If it were a state, Long Island would rank 13th in population (after Virginia) and first in population density.
Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles (190 km) eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, and has a maximum north-to-south expanse of 23 miles (37 km) between the northern Long
Marin County ( /məˈrɪn/) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the US state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. As of 2010, the population was 252,409. The county seat is San Rafael and the largest employer is the county government. Marin County is well known for its natural beauty, liberal politics, and affluence. In May 2009, the county had the fifth highest income per capita in the United States at $91,483. The county is governed by local cities and the Marin County Board of Supervisors.
San Quentin Prison is located in the county, as is Skywalker Ranch. Autodesk, the publisher of AutoCAD, is also located there, as well as numerous other high-tech companies. The headquarters of film and media company Lucasfilm Ltd., previously based in San Rafael, have moved to the Presidio of San Francisco.
The Marin County Civic Center was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and draws thousands of visitors a year to guided tours of its arch and atrium design. In 1994, a new county jail facility was embedded into the hillside nearby.
America's oldest cross country running event, the Dipsea Race, takes place annually in Marin County, attracting
Wines:2005 Beckmen "Purisma Mountain Vineyard" Santa Ynez Valley Estate Cabernet Sauvignon
Santa Barbara County is a county located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California, on the Pacific coast. As of 2010 the county had a population of 423,895. The county seat is Santa Barbara and the largest city is Santa Maria.
The Santa Barbara County area, including the Northern Channel Islands, was first settled by Native Americans at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence has been found in the form of a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara Coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. For thousands of years, the area was home to the Chumash tribe of Native Americans, complex hunter-gatherers who lived along the coast and in interior valleys leaving rock art in many locations including Painted Cave.
Europeans first contacted the Chumash in AD 1542, when three Spanish ships under the command of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo explored the area. The Santa Barbara Channel received its name from Spanish explorer Sebastian Vizcaino when he sailed over the channel waters in 1602; he entered the channel on December 4, the day of the feast of Santa Barbara. Although Spanish
California's Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of California. It is home to California's most productive agricultural areas. The valley stretches approximately 450 miles (720 km) from northwest to southeast inland and parallel to the Pacific Ocean coast. Its northern half is referred to as the Sacramento Valley, and its southern half as the San Joaquin Valley. The Sacramento valley receives about 20 inches of rain annually, but the San Joaquin is very dry, often semi-arid desert in many places.
The two halves meet at the huge Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, which along with their tributaries drain the majority of the valley. The Delta is a large expanse of interconnected canals, streambeds, sloughs, marshes and peat islands. The Central Valley covers an area of approximately 22,500 square miles (58,000 km), making it slightly smaller than the state of West Virginia and about 13.7% of California's total area.
The Central Valley is 40 to 60 miles (60 to 100 km) wide, the Sierra Nevada to the east and the Coast Ranges and San Francisco Bay to the west, as far south as the Tehachapi Mountains. The
The San Joaquin Valley /ˌsæn hwɑːˈkiːn/ is the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento – San Joaquin River Delta in Stockton. Although most of the valley is rural, it does contain MSAs (urban cities and suburbs) such as Delano, Fresno, Bakersfield, Stockton, Modesto, Visalia, Porterville, Merced, Madera, and Hanford.
The San Joaquin Valley extends from the Sacramento – San Joaquin River Delta in the north to the Tehachapi Mountains in the south, and from the various California coastal ranges (from the Diablo Range in the north to the Temblor Range in the south) in the west to the Sierra Nevada in the east. Unlike the Sacramento Valley, the river system for which the San Joaquin Valley is named does not extend very far along the valley. Most of the valley south of Fresno instead drains into Tulare Lake, which no longer exists continuously due to diversion of its sources. The valley's primary river is the San Joaquin, which drains north through about half of the valley into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The Kings, and Kern rivers are in the southern endorheic basin of the valley, all of which have been largely diverted for agricultural uses and
Oliver is a community at the south end of the Okanagan Valley in the Southern Interior of British Columbia, Canada, with a population of around 4370.
The community of Oliver is made up of land governed by three different bodies: the Town of Oliver, the Regional District of Okanagan-Similkameen and the Osoyoos Indian Band.
Local industries include grape and fruit production, agri-tourism, wine production, ranching, golfing & recreation, retail & service trades.
Oliver is north of Osoyoos and south of Okanagan Falls. Tourism BC labels the community as the Wine Capital of Canada.
Named after John Oliver (1856–1927), Premier of British Columbia. 'Honest John' and his government brought irrigation water and settlement lots to the area with the South Okanagan Lands Project.
The First Nations of the South Okanagan settled near the river, creeks and valley lakes. The first encroachment from the outside world came circa 1811, when fur traders came to the area with the establishment of Fort Okanagan (now in the US) and first penetrated the area for trade.
In the 1880s, free gold-bearing quartz was found at Camp McKinney (east of Oliver) becoming a busy gold mine, attracting miners, con men,
Wines:2005 Chaz Point Columbia Valley Cabernet Sauvignon
The Columbia Valley is the name used for a region in the Rocky Mountain Trench near the headwaters of the Columbia River between the town of Golden and the Canal Flats. The main hub of the valley is the town of Invermere. Other towns include Radium Hot Springs, Windermere and Fairmont Hot Springs. The Panorama Ski Resort is located near the valley.
The Columbia Valley is home to the Columbia Wetlands the wetlands are a vital link on a major bird migration route.
Luján de Cuyo is a department located in the northwest of Mendoza Province in Argentina.
The provincial subdivision has a population of about 104,000 inhabitants in an area of 4,847km², and its capital city is Luján de Cuyo, which is located around 1,107km from Capital Federal.
Wines:2004 Abundance "Old Vine, Mencarini Vineyards" Lodi Zinfandel
San Joaquin County ( /ˈsæn wɑːˈkiːn/) is a county located in Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, just east of the San Francisco Bay Area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306. The county seat is Stockton.
San Joaquin County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
The county takes its name from the San Joaquin River. In the early 19th century Lieutenant Gabriel Moraga, commanding an expedition in the lower great California Central Valley, gave the name of San Joaquin (meaning Joachim) to the San Joaquin River that springs from the southern Sierra Nevada. San Joaquin County is also home to the site of the San Joaquin Valley's first permanent residence.
Between 1843 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, five Mexican land grants were made in what became San Joaquin County: Campo de los Franceses, Pescadero (Grimes), Pescadero (Pico), Sanjon de los Moquelumnes and Thompson.
On August 7, 1998, a tire fire ignited at S.F. Royster's Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, near Linne Rd. The tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was
Wines:2004 Martin Ray Santa Cruz Mountains Cabernet Sauvignon
Santa Cruz County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, on the California Central Coast. The county forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay. (Monterey County forms the southern coast). As of the 2010 U.S. Census, its population was 262,382. The county seat is Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz County is a member of the regional governmental agency Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments and is one of 11 counties in the U.S. Census Bureau's definition of the San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area.
Santa Cruz County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. In the original act, the county was given the name of "Branciforte" after the Spanish pueblo founded there in 1797; a major watercourse in the county, Branciforte Creek, bears this name. Less than two months later on April 5, 1850, the name was changed to "Santa Cruz" ("Holy Cross").
Mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791 and completed in 1794, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1857, but a smaller-scale replica was erected in 1931.
According to the 2011 census, the county has a total area of 445.17 miles. Of California's counties, only San