A wine style is a definition of a variety of wine based on factors such as place of origin (such as a DOC) or grape composition. For varieties of wine based on methods of production (such as sparkling wine, still wine, fortified wine, etc.) use the Wine Type type.
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Caecuban wine (Latin: Caecubum, Greek: Kaikoubos) came from a small territory, ager Caecubus, at Amyclae in coastal Latium. (In the modern day area known as the Pontine Marshes) Varro, around 70 BC, already regarded this district as a place of legendary wealth. Strabo detailed the area's reputation for wine as he described the location "The Caecuban Plain borders on the Gulf of Caietas; and next to the plain comes Fundi, situated on the Appian Way. All these places produce exceedingly good wine; indeed, the Caecuban and the Fundanian and the Setinian belong to the class of wines that are widely famed, as is the case with the Falernian and the Alban and the Statanian.” (Geography V.3.6)
To many in the 1st century BC, Caecuban was the best of all wines, smoother than Falernian wine, fuller than Alban wine, strong and intoxicating. It was a white wine which turned fire-coloured as it aged. Dioscorides describes it as glykys "sweet". Athenaeus describes it as overpowering and strong, maturing only after many years time (Deipnosophistae, I.27a).
As a testament to its popularity, Caecuban wine makes several appearances in the odes of Horace. In Ode 1.20, Horace gives Caecuban a greater
A Liqueur Muscat (also known as Liqueur Tokay) is a fortified wine made in Australia from the Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (known locally as Brown Muscat) or Muscadelle grapes. The wine is sweet, dark, highly alcoholic Australian wine that has some similarities to Madeira and Malaga. The grape is most commonly produced in Victoria in the wine regions of Rutherglen and Glenrowan.
Liqueur Muscat essentially starts out being a late harvest wine with the grapes allowed to stay on the vine till they are in a partially raisined state. The grapes are then pressed and go through partial fermentation where it is halted by the addition grape spirits. The wine is then aged in oak in a system resembling the Sherry solera system. Similar to Madeira, the wines are often exposed to high temperatures.
In the late 1990s, winemakers in Rutherglen established as voluntary classification and regulation system for their Liqueur Muscat wines. At the lowest classification is the wine styled Rutherglen Muscat followed by Classic Muscat and Grand Muscat. At the highest end and meant to indicate a richer and more complex wine is the Rare Muscat.
Vino cotto (literally cooked wine) is a form of wine from Le Marche in Italy. It is typically made by individuals for their own use, rather than commercially. The must, from any of several local varieties, is heated in a copper vessel where it is reduced in volume by up to a half. After fermentation, it is aged in cask for a few years, a little new wine being added each year to make up losses due to evaporation. It is a ruby-coloured wine, somewhat similar to Madeira, being slightly sweet with an alcohol content of about 14%.
Dolcetto di Dogliani, or Dogliani is an Italian red wine produced in the Langhe using only the Dolcetto grape variety. The wine was recognized as DOC in 1974. To qualify for the DOCG status which was awarded on 6 July 2005 the wines must be aged for at least one year.
The vineyards are restricted to the hilly areas within the boundaries of the communes of Bastia Mondovì, Belvedere Langhe, Cigliè, Clavesana, Dogliani, Farigliano, Monchiero and Rocca Cigliè, plus parts of the communes of Cissone and Somano.
Lesbian wine is wine made on the Greek island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea. The island has a long history of winemaking dating back to at least the 7th century BC when it was mentioned in the works of Homer. During this time the area competed with the wines of Chios for the Greek market. An apocryphal account details one of the brothers of the poet Sappho as a merchant trading Lesbian wine with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt. The most noted Lesbian wine was known as Pramnian which draws similarities today to the Hungarian wine Eszencia. The popularity of Lesbian wine continued into Roman times where it was highly valued along with other Aegean wines of Chios, Thasos and Kos.
The warm Mediterranean climate of Lesbos provides a suitable climate for viticulture to flourish. While the exact grapes for the Pramnian are not known, its method of production was recorded. The grapes were allowed to hang on the vine, like that of a late harvest wine, till they were at their ripest points. After harvest, they were piled in large containers to the point that the weight of the clusters crushed the grapes underneath them producing free run juice without the use of a wine press. This juice
Uhudler is a unique wine from Austria, which originates in the Südburgenland region (see Burgenland). In appearance it is often a rosé colour, but is also made as a white wine. It has intense flavours of strawberry and black currants, a characteristic taste often called "foxy" in wine parlance. The grape varieties used are highly resistant to phylloxera and other diseases; as a result they do not often have to be sprayed with pesticides. They also require little fertilization because of their vigorous growth.
The grapes/clusters are usually red, but also (less commonly) white. The varieties used are inter-specific hybrids, which were developed from crossings between the European species Vitis vinifera with the native North American Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia. It is Vitis Labrusca which lends the wine its characteristic "strawberry" flavouring. "Uhudler" can refer to several varieties and today it is disputed which varieties rank in the "Uhudlergruppe" (Uhudler group) and which do not. Some of the varieties used include the grapes Concord, Isabella, Elvira, Clinton, Ripadella and Noah.
Uhudler originates from the time of the large phylloxera infestations around 1860. The
Meritage is a brand for red and white Bordeaux-style wines without infringing on the Bordeaux (France) region's legally protected designation of origin. Winemakers must license the Meritage trademark from its owner, the California-based Meritage Alliance. Member wineries are found principally in the United States, though increasingly elsewhere.
The Meritage Association was formed in 1988 by a small group of Napa Valley, California vintners increasingly frustrated by U.S. BATF regulations stipulating wines contain at least 75% of a specific grape to be labeled as that varietal. As interest grew in creating Bordeaux-style wines, which by their blended nature fail to qualify for varietal status, members sought to create a recognizable name for their high-quality blended wines.
In 1988, the association hosted a contest to conceive a proprietary name for these wines, receiving over 6,000 submissions. "Meritage", —a combination of merit and heritage, was selected and its coiner awarded two bottles of the first ten vintages of every wine licensed to use the brand.
By 1999 The Meritage Association had grown to 22 members. Shifting its focus from trademark policing to education and
Trockenbeerenauslese (literal meaning: "dried berries selection") is a German language wine term for a medium to full body dessert wine.
Trockenbeerenauslese is the highest in sugar content in the Prädikatswein category of the Austrian and German wine classifications. Trockenbeerenauslese wines, often called "TBA" for short, are made from individually selected grapes affected by noble rot, i.e. "botrytized" grapes.
This means that the grapes have been individually picked and are shrivelled with noble rot, often to the point of appearing like a raisin. They are therefore very sweet and have an intensely rich flavor, frequently with a lot of caramel and honey bouquet, rock fruits note such as apricot and distinctive aroma of the noble rot. The finest examples are made from the Riesling grape, as this retains plenty of acidity even at the extreme ripeness. Other grape varieties are also used, such as Scheurebe, Ortega, Welschriesling, Chardonnay, and Gewürztraminer and many are more prone to noble rot than Riesling since they ripen earlier.
These wines are rare and expensive due to the labor-intensive method of production, and the fact that very specific climatic conditions (which do
Château de Fonbel is a Bordeaux wine from Saint-Émilion appellation. It is produced by Alain Vautier from nearby and highly ranked Chateau Ausone with a blend that is primarily Merlot. Cabernet Sauvignon, Petit Verdot and a small amount of Carmenere are also used.
Falernian wine (Latin: Falernum) was produced from Aglianico grapes (and quite possibly Greco as well) on the slopes of Mt. Falernus near the border of Latium and Campania, where it became the most renowned wine produced in ancient Rome. Considered a "first growth" or "cult wine" for its time, it was often mentioned in Roman literature, but has since disappeared. There were three vineyards (or appellations) recognized by Romans: Caucinian Falernian from the vineyards on the highest slopes of Mount Falernus; Faustian Falernian, the most famous, from land on the central slopes corresponding to the current hilly areas of the town of Falciano del Massico and Carinola di Casanova, owned by Faustus, son of the Roman dictator Sulla; and wine from the lower slopes and plain that was simply called Falernian. The area is now occupied by the modern day vineyards of Rocca di Mondragone and Monte Massico.
Falernian was a white wine with a relatively high alcohol content, possibly 30 proof, 15 percent. In describing Faustian Falernian, Pliny the Elder alluded to this as he noted "It is the only wine that takes light when a flame is applied to it" It was produced from late-harvested grapes
Constantia, or vin de Constance, is a South African dessert wine. It is made from Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (Muscat de Frontignan) grapes grown in the district of Constantia, south of Cape Town. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries it was widely exported to Europe. However, production of Constantia ceased in the late nineteenth century following the devastation of South African vineyards by the phylloxera epidemic. Production resumed at Klein Constantia in the 1980 and at Groot Constantia in 2003.
In 1685, the Constantia estate was established in a valley facing False Bay by the Governor of the Cape, Simon van der Stel whose Vin de Constance soon acquired a good reputation. But it was Hendrik Cloete, who bought the homestead in 1778, who really made Constantia famous, with an unfortified wine made from a blend of mostly Muscat de Frontignan (Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains), Pontac, red and white Muscadel and a little Chenin Blanc. It became a favorite of European kings and emperors, such as Frederick the Great and Napoleon who had it ordered from his exile on St Helena.
In 1861, however, the Gladstone government removed empire preferential tariffs, and as a result exports
Alban wine is a notable wine of Ancient Rome that was grown in the Colli Albani (Alban Hills) region, 20 kilometres (12 mi) Southeast of Rome, at the foot of Mt. Albus. The area is now occupied by the modern day papal residence of Castelgandolfo. The land was praised by Columella "For there is no doubt that, of all the vines that the earth sustains, those of the Massic, Surrentine, Alban, and Caecuban lands hold first place in the excellence of their wine" (De Re Rustica, III.8.5).
Dionysius of Halicarnassus noted the quality of the area's wine as he wrote "Lying below the city are plains marvelous to behold and rich in producing wines and fruits of all sorts in no degree inferior to the rest of Italy, and particularly what they call the Alban wine, which is sweet and excellent and, with the exception of the Falernian, certainly superior to all others." (Roman Antiquities Book 1).
In AD 77, Pliny the Elder rated Alban wine third in reputation after Caecuban wine and Falernian wine. (Natural History Book XIV) Pliny described the wines as "extremely sweet and occasionally dry". It was known as one of the preferred wines of the Roman upper class and was commonly made as several
Montrachet is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for white wine from Chardonnay in the Côte de Beaune subregion of Burgundy. It is situated across the border between the two communes of Chassagne-Montrachet and Puligny-Montrachet and produces what many consider to be the greatest dry white wine in the world. It is surrounded by four other Grand Cru vineyards all having "Montrachet" as part of their names. Montrachet itself is generally considered superior to its four Grand Cru neighbours.
Montrachet is located in the south of the Côte de Beaune, which is the southern half of the Côte d'Or, which in turn is the most important of the several wine producing subregions of Burgundy.
The Montrachet vineyard is almost equally divided between Puligny-Montrachet and Chassagne-Montrachet. The wine from the Chassagne side is usually known as Le Montrachet while the wine from the Puligny side is known as Montrachet.
In 2008, 7.99 hectares (19.7 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, and 349 hectoliters of wine was produced, corresponding to just under 47,000 bottles.
Wines from Montrachet are composed almost entirely of Chardonnay, unlike in
Conditum, piperatum, or konditon (κόνδιτον) is a family of spiced wines in ancient Roman and Byzantine cuisine.
The Latin name translates roughly as "spiced". Recipes for conditum viatorium (traveler's spiced wine) and conditum paradoxum (surprise spiced wine) are found in De re coquinaria. His conditum paradoxum includes wine, honey, pepper, mastic, laurel, saffron, date seeds and dates soaked in wine.
Jura wine, is French wine produced in the Jura département. Located between Burgundy and Switzerland, this cool climate wine region produces wines with some similarity to Burgundy and Swiss wine. Jura wines are distinctive and unusual wines, the most famous being vin jaune, which is made by a similar process to Sherry, developing under a flor-like strain of yeast. This is made from the local Savagnin grape variety. Other grape varieties include Poulsard, Trousseau, and Chardonnay. Other wine styles found in Jura includes a vin de paille made from Chardonnay, Poulsard and Savagnin, a sparkling Crémant du Jura made from slightly unripe Chardonnay grapes, and a vin de liqueur known as Macvin du Jura made by adding marc to halt fermentation. The French chemist Louis Pasteur was born and raised in the Jura region and owned a vineyard near Arbois that is still producing wine today under the management of Jura's largest wine firms: Henri-Marie.
The climate of Jura is continental with many similarities to Burgundy but can be more aggressively cold, especially in the winter time. Ripeness levels of the grapes is always a concern for winemakers of the area and Harvest times are often delayed
Chianti (pronounced [ˈkjanti]) is a red Italian wine produced in Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a fiasco ("flask"; pl. fiaschi); however, the fiasco is only used by a few makers of the wine now; most Chianti is now bottled in more standard shaped wine bottles. Baron Bettino Ricasoli (later Prime Minister in the Kingdom of Italy) created the Chianti recipe of 70% Sangiovese, 15% Canaiolo and 15% Malvasia bianca in the middle of the nineteenth century.
The first definition of a wine-area called Chianti was made in 1716. It described the area near the villages of Gaiole, Castellina and Radda; the so-called Lega del Chianti and later Provincia del Chianti (Chianti province). In 1932 the Chianti area was completely re-drawn and divided in seven sub-areas: Classico, Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colline Pisane, Colli Senesi, Montalbano and Rùfina. Most of the villages that in 1932 were suddenly included in the new Chianti Classico area added in Chianti to their name-such as Greve in Chianti which amended its name in 1972. Wines labeled Chianti Classico come from the biggest sub-area of Chianti, that sub-area that includes
Passum was a raisin wine (wine from semi-dried grapes) apparently developed in ancient Carthage and transmitted from there to Italy, where it was popular in the Roman Empire. The earliest surviving instruction constitutes the only known Carthaginian recipe. It is a fragment from the Punic farming manual by Mago (agricultural writer) in its Latin translation by Decimus Junius Silanus (2nd century BC). It survives because it was summarised by Columella (1st century AD):
Later, less detailed, instructions are found in other Latin and Greek sources.
Barbera d'Asti is an Italian red wine made from the Barbera grape variety. It is produced in the hilly areas of the provinces of Asti (67 municipalities) and Alexandria (51 municipalities). Barbera d'Asti was accredited with DOC status in 1970, and DOCG status followed in 2008.
Under the DOCG rules, a minimum of 85% Barbera grapes must be used; the balance may be made up with either Freisa, Grignolino or Dolcetto grapes.
The wine must be made before the date of 1 March immediately following the harvest, and must reach an alcohol content of 11.5 °.
Since 2000, it has been possible to produce Barbera d'Asti Superiore, for which the wine must have an alcoholic strength of at least 12.5% by volume, and be aged for at least one year, 6 months of which stored in oak or chestnut barrels. Many superiore producers refine it in small oak barriques to obtain a rounder taste. The superiore has the following sub-zones indicated on the label: Nizza, Tinella, or Colli Astiani (Asti).
The superiore wine has a strong additional aging potential; it can often be aged from three to eight years.
The Barbera grape is believed to have originated in the hills of Monferrato in central Piedmont, Italy and
Moscato d'Asti is a "Denominazione di origine controllata e garantita" sparkling white wine produced mainly in the province of Asti, north-west Italy, and in smaller nearby regions in the provinces of Alessandria and Cuneo. The wine is sweet and low in alcohol, and often enjoyed with dessert. Thus it is considered a dessert wine. It is from the Moscato Bianco grape.
Moscato d'Asti is the main ingredient of Cocchi Americano.
A related wine, Asti, is produced in the same area from the same grape.
Muscadet is a white French wine. It is made at the western end of the Loire Valley, near the city of Nantes in the Pays de la Loire region neighboring the Brittany Region. More Muscadet is produced than any other Loire wine. It is made from the Melon de Bourgogne grape, often referred to simply as melon. As a rule in France, Appellation d'origine contrôlée wines are named either after their growing region or after their variety (the latter in Alsace only). The name 'Muscadet' is therefore an exception. The name seems to refer to a characteristic of the wine produced by the melon grape variety: vin qui a un goût musqué - 'wine with a musk-like taste'. Though wine expert Tom Stevenson notes that Muscadet wines do not have much, if any, "muskiness" or Muscat-like flavors or aromas. The sole variety used to produce Muscadet, Melon de Bourgogne, was initially planted in the region sometime in or before the 17th century. It became dominant after a hard freeze in 1709 killed most of the region's vines. Dutch traders who were major actors in the local wine trade encouraged the planting of this variety and distilled much of the wine produced into eau de vie for sale in Northern Europe.
Vernaccia is a white Italian wine, made from the Vernaccia grape, produced in and around the Italian hill town of San Gimignano in Tuscany. Since the Renaissance it has been considered one of Italy's finest white wines. It was the first Italian wine to be awarded Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) status in 1966; on July 9th, 1993 it was upgraded to Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG).
The earliest recorded mention of the wine appear in the archives of record of San Gimignano from 1276. Due to the difficulties in cultivating the Vernaccia grape, the wine fell out of favor in the early 20th century as the more prolific Trebbiano and Malvasia grapes were planted. By the 1960s, Vernaccia di San Gimignano experienced a resurgence as its distinctive, crisp qualities established it as a popular alternative to the blander wines produced from Trebbiano and Malvasia blends.
The name "Vernaccia" is applied to several different Italian grapes, such the Sardinian grape used in Vernaccia di Oristano and the Marche grape used in the sparkling red wine Vernaccia di Serrapetrona. Ampelographers have determined that the variety grown in San Gimignano is different and
Vinho Verde is a Portuguese wine that originated in the historic Minho province in the far north of the country. The modern-day 'Vinho Verde' region, originally designated in 1908, includes the old Minho province plus adjacent areas to the south. In 1976, the old province was dissolved.
Vinho Verde is not a grape varietal. The name literally means "green wine," but translates as "young wine", as opposed to mature wine. It may be red, white or rosé, and it is meant to be consumed within a year of bottling.
The region is characterized by its many small growers, which numbered more than 30,000 as of 2005. Many of these growers train their vines high off the ground, up trees, fences, and even telephone poles so that they can cultivate vegetable crops below the vines that their families may use as a food source. Most countries limit the use of the term Vinho Verde to only those wines that come from the Minho region in Portugal. In Europe, this principle is enshrined in the European Union by Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status.
The Vinhos Verdes are light and fresh. At less than one bar of CO2 pressure, they do not quite qualify as semi-sparkling wines but do have a definite
White Zinfandel, often abbreviated as White Zin, is an off-dry to sweet, pink-colored blush wine. White Zinfandel is made from the Zinfandel wine grape, which would otherwise produce a bold and spicy red wine. As such, it is not a grape variety but a method of processing Zinfandel grapes. As of February 2006, White Zinfandel accounted for 10% of all wine sold by volume, making it the third most popular varietal in the United States, outselling Red Zinfandel 6:1 by volume.
Historically an inexpensive jug wine, White Zinfandel is a quaffing wine that is sweet, soft, and often low in alcohol, making it a popular choice with those who would not otherwise drink wine. It occupies a similar market position to that of Mateus Rosé in Europe. The sugar content can make White Zinfandel taste almost like a fruit punch, although some examples have crisp acids and are balanced in their own way. White Zinfandel is typically manufactured for immediate consumption rather than for aging.
Zinfandel was first made into a rosé wine in 1869 by the El Pinal Winery in Lodi, California. The resulting wine was thought of highly enough that California viticultural commissioner Charles Wetmore, the later
Beaujolais (French pronunciation: [bo.ʒɔ.lɛ]) is a French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) wine generally made of the Gamay grape which has a thin skin and is low in tannins. Like most AOC wines they are not labeled varietally. Whites from the region, which make up only 1% of its production, are made mostly with Chardonnay grapes though Aligoté is also permitted until 2024 (on condition the vines were planted before 2004). Beaujolais tends to be a very light-bodied red wine, with relatively high amounts of acidity. In some vintages, Beaujolais produces more wine than the Burgundy wine regions of Chablis, Côte d'Or, Côte Chalonnaise and Mâconnais put together.
The wine takes its name from the historical Beaujolais province and wine producing region. It is located north of Lyon, and covers parts of the north of the Rhône département (Rhône-Alpes) and parts of the south of the Saône-et-Loire département (Burgundy). While administratively considered part of the Burgundy wine region, the climate is closer to the Rhône and the wine is unique enough to be considered separately from Burgundy and Rhône. The region is known internationally for its long tradition of winemaking, uniquely
Nama (Greek: Νάμα) is a sweet red wine that is usually used in Greek Orthodox Churches in Holy Communion. It is similar to Mavrodaphne, with the difference that it is sweeter and it contains less alcohol.
In Greece 'Narma' (Нарма) is a controlled appellation corresponding to the grape variety).
Soave (pronounced So-Ah-Ve) is a dry white Italian wine from the Veneto region in northeast Italy, principally around the city of Verona. Within the Soave region are both a Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) zone and a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) designation known as Soave Superiore with both zones being further sub-divided into a general and classico designation for the wines produced in the heartland of the Soave region around the sloping vineyards of Verona. In the late 20th and early 21st century, the DOC/G and classico boundaries were revised with much criticism from local growers. Some producers, such as Roberto Anselmi, even dropped using any DOC/G designation for their Soave wines in protest of the new laws and are instead producing Indicazione geografica tipica (IGT) wines under the Veneto designation.
Throughout the Soave production zone Garganega is the principal grape variety though Pinot bianco, Trebbiano di Soave (Verdicchio) and Chardonnay are permitted in varying percentages. While most Soave is dry, still wine within the DOC zone a sparkling spumante style is permitted as are late harvest recioto and liquoroso styles. In 1998,
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a red Italian wine made from the Montepulciano wine grape in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy. It should not be confused with Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, a Tuscan wine made from Sangiovese and other grapes.
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo was classified as Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) in 1968; a separate Denominazione di origine controllata e Garantita (DOCG) for wine produced around Teramo, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane, was established in 1995 and promoted in 2003.
In the late 20th and early 21st century, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo earned a reputation as one of the most widely exported DOC wines in Italy. It is typically dry with soft tannins and often consumed young.
In addition to Montepulciano, up to 15% Sangiovese is permitted in the blend. Wines aged by the maker for more than two years may be labeled "Riserva."
The DOC region for Montepulciano d'Abruzzo covers a vast expanse of land in the Abruzzo region between the Apennines foothills down to the a few miles inland from the Adriatic coast. The region is one of Italy's most mountainous with more than 65% of all Abruzzo being considered mountainous terrain with the
Brunello di Montalcino is a red Italian wine produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcino located about 120 km south of Florence in the Tuscany wine region. Brunello, a diminutive of Bruno, a male given name which means brown, is the name that was given locally to what was believed to be an individual grape variety grown in Montalcino. In 1879 the Province of Siena's Amphelographic Commission determined, after a few years of controlled experiments, that Sangiovese and Brunello were the same grape variety, and that the former should be its designated name. In Montalcino the name Brunello evolved into the designation of the wine produced with 100% Sangiovese. In 1980, Brunello di Montalcino was awarded the first Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) designation and today is one of Italy's best-known and most expensive wines.
One of the first records of "Brunello" was a red wine that was made in the Montalcino area in the early 14th century. In 1831, marchese Cosimo Ridolfi (who was later appointed Prime Minister of Tuscany by the Grand Duke Leopold II) praised the merits of the red wines of Montalcino above all others in Tuscany. In 1865, an
Prošek is a sweet dessert wine that is traditionally from the southern area of Dalmatia, Croatia. It is made using dried wine grapes in the passito method. Good quality Prošek is usually much more expensive by volume than other wines due to an average of seven times more grapes being needed to make the same amount of wine. While it can vary in the maximum amount, the alcohol level needed to be certified as a true dessert wine must be at least 15%.
The composition is typically of Bogdanuša, Maraština, and/or Vugava (all native Croatian white grapes) with higher-end versions being a blend of the base white grapes and Plavac Mali (a red Croatian grape).
Prošek is often confused with Italian Prosecco due to the similar-sounding names but they are completely unrelated. Prosecco is a sparkling wine while Prošek is a sweet and they share no common grapes between them.
Lombardia (Lombardy) wine is the Italian wine produced in the Lombardy region of north central Italy. The region is known particularly for its sparkling wines made in the Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese areas. Lombardy also produces still red, white and rosé wines made from a variety of local and international grapes including Nebbiolo wines in the Valtellina region, Trebbiano di Lugana white wines produced with the Chiaretto style rosé along the shores of Lake Garda. The wine region currently has 15 Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC), 3 Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) and 13 Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) designations. The main cities of the region are Milan, Bergamo and Brescia. The region annually produces over 28 million gallons (1.1 million hectolitres) of wine, more than the regions of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Marche, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Umbria.
The winemaking tradition of Lombardy dates back to its settlement by Greeks from Athens along the Po river. Archaeological evidence suggest that these settlers traded wine with the Etruscans in nearby Tuscany. In the late 19th century, the Italian wine writer C.B. Cerletti wrote a book
Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Portuguese pronunciation: [ˌviɲuduˈpoɾtu], Porto, and often simply port) is a Portuguese fortified wine produced exclusively in the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal. It is typically a sweet, red wine, often served as a dessert wine though it also comes in dry, semi-dry, and white varieties. Fortified wines in the style of port are also produced outside Portugal, most notably in Australia, South Africa, Canada, India, Argentina, and the United States. Under European Union Protected Designation of Origin guidelines, only the product from Portugal may be labelled as port or Porto. In the United States, wines labelled "port" may come from anywhere in the world, while the names "Dão", "Oporto", "Porto", and "Vinho do Porto" have been recognized as foreign, non-generic names for wines originating in Portugal.
Port is produced from grapes grown and processed in the demarcated Douro region. The wine produced is then fortified by the addition of a neutral grape spirit known as aguardente in order to stop the fermentation, leaving residual sugar in the wine, and to boost the alcohol content. The fortification spirit is sometimes
Rosso di Montalcino, is the other main DOC from Montalcino. This wine has few restrictions on aging other than it may not be released prior to September 1 of the year following the vintage. It is required to be 100% Brunello grape (a clone of Sangiovese) grown in a strictly delimited zone within the area of Montalcino. It can range from a soft, easy-to-drink-when-young style to a wine capable of long aging when made by a fine wine estate in a great vintage.
Chianti Classico is a type of Italian wine produced in specified parts of Italy's province of Florence or province of Siena, and following the disciplinare (rules of production) defined by the Chianti DOCG appellation / geographical indication.
Until the middle of the 19th century, Chianti was based solely on Sangiovese grapes. During the second half of the 19th century Baron Bettino Ricasoli (who was an important Chianti producer and minister in Tuscany and then Prime Minister in the Kingdom of Italy) imposed his ideas: from that moment on Chianti should be produced with 70% Sangiovese, 15% Canaiolo and 15% Malvasia Bianca.
During the 1970s, producers started to reduce the quantity of white grapes in Chianti and eventually from 1995 it was permitted to produce a Chianti with 100% sangiovese, or at least without white grapes. Since 2006, Chianti Classico has had to be at least 80 percent sangiovese, with the remainder consisting of indigenous grapes like canaiolo and colorino, or international varieties like cabernet sauvignon, syrah or merlot.
Chianti Classico dates its origins back to 1716, when Grand Duke Cosimo III, leader of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, defined Chianti as a
Mavrud (Bulgarian: мавруд, from Greek, mavro, "black") is a red wine grape that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines, indigenous to the region of Kara Thrace in Bulgaria.
The grape has been described as a characterful, low-yielding, small-berried and late-ripening grape capable of producing tannic, spicy wine with a potential for ageing.
Legend contends that during the reign of Khan Krum of Bulgaria, all vineyards were ordered destroyed. Later, a lion escaped from its cage and terrorized the city. However, a fearless young man named Mavrud (now the name of a wine grape) confronted and slew the lion. The king summoned Mavrud's mother to learn the source of such courage. She said she had secretly saved a vine, made wine, and that this was the source of Mavrud's bravery. Khan Krum ordered the vineyards replanted.
Regarded as one of the most highly esteemed local wines, Mavrud vineyards are mainly be found around Asenovgrad and Perushtitsa, as well as more rarely near Pazardzhik, Stara Zagora and Chirpan.
Morellino di Scansano DOCG is an Italian red wine made in the hilly environs of the village of Scansano (GR), in the Maremma, which includes a part of the coast of southern Tuscany which has an ancient but obscure tradition of winemaking. Morellino is the local name for the Sangiovese grape varietal. Many people think that the name Morellino comes from "Morello" (brown), the colour of Maremmano horses. The name may also come from the Morello cherry, an almost inky red cherry with great tartness and acidity. The wine, which was granted DOC status in 1978, and upgraded to DOCG status from the 2007 vintage, is made from at least 85% Sangiovese (which is also the basis of the tuscan wines: Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano). The remaining 0–15% can comprise any non aromatic black grape varieties included in a list made and periodically updated by the Regione Toscana (Tuscany) local authorities.
Morellino di Scansano does not need to age in wood and can be released in March after harvest, meaning that it can be found on the shelf with less than 8 months of life, thus an amazingly fresh and crisp wine.
Morellino di Scansano Riserva can be released on 1
Vins doux naturels are lightly fortified wines typically made from white Muscat grapes or red Grenache grapes in the south of France.
The production of vins doux naturels was perfected by Arnaud de Villeneuve at the University of Montpellier in the 13th century and they are now quite common in the Languedoc-Rousillon of southwest France.
As the name suggests, Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval and Muscat de St-Jean Minervois are all made from the white Muscat grape, whilst Banyuls and Maury are made from red Grenache. Regardless of the grape, fermentation is stopped by the addition of up to 10% of a 190 proof (95%) grape spirit. The Muscats are made in a somewhat oxidised style, the Grenaches less so.
The Chablis (pronounced: [ʃa.bli]) region is the northernmost wine district of the Burgundy region in France. The grapevines around the town of Chablis are almost all Chardonnay, making a dry white wine renowned for the purity of its aroma and taste. The northern location along the 48th parallel north places Chablis at the northern extremes of viable viticulture. The cool climate of this region produces wines with more acidity and flavors less fruity than Chardonnay wines grown in warmer climates, The wines often have a "flinty" note, sometimes described as "goût de pierre à fusil" ("tasting of gunflint"), and sometimes as "steely". In comparison to the white wines from the rest of Burgundy, Chablis has on average much less influence of oak. Most basic Chablis is completely unoaked, and vinified in stainless steel tanks. The amount of barrel maturation, if any, is a stylistic choice which varies widely among Chablis producers. Many Grand Cru and Premier Cru wines receive some maturation in oak barrels, but typically the time in barrel and the proportion of new barrels is much smaller than for white wines of Côte de Beaune.
Chablis lies about 100 miles (160 km) north of Beaune in
Malvasia di Castelnuovo Don Bosco is a sweet, sparkling, red or rosé DOC dessert wine produced in the Italian province of Asti from the Malvasia di Schierano grape variety with the optional addition of up to 15% Freisa.
The wine is cherry red in colour with an aroma typical of the grape and ‘reminiscent of dog roses and scents of red berries.’ The flavour is sweet and aromatic with characteristic tannins. It is made in both lightly (frizzante) and fully sparkling (spumante) versions; the regulations also permit it to be made as a still wine.
The production regulations require that the grapes are grown on the hills within the borders of the following communes of the Province of Asti: Albugnano, Castelnuovo Don Bosco, Passerano Marmorito, Pino d’Asti, Berzano di San Pietro and Moncucco Torinese. The wine itself is preferably made in the same area, however vinification is allowed elsewhere in the Province of Asti and the wine is currently produced also in wineries in Cocconato and Calosso.
Prosecco is an Italian white wine — generally a Dry or Extra Dry sparkling wine — normally made from Glera ("Prosecco") grapes. DOC prosecco is produced in the regions of Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia in Italy, and traditionally mainly in the areas near Conegliano and Valdobbiadene, in the hills north of Treviso.
Prosecco is known as the main ingredient of the Bellini cocktail and has more recently become popular as a less expensive substitute for Champagne.
Up until the 1960s, Prosecco sparkling wine was generally rather sweet and barely distinguishable from the Asti wine produced in Piedmont. Since then, production techniques have improved, leading to the high-quality dry wines produced today. According to a 2008 New York Times report, Prosecco has sharply risen in popularity in markets outside Italy, with global sales growing by double-digit percentages since 1998, aided also by its comparatively low price. It was introduced into the mainstream US market in 2000 by Mionetto, now the largest importer of Prosecco, who also reported an "incredible growth trend" in 2008.
Until the 2008 vintage Prosecco was protected as a DOC within Italy, as Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene,
Tasmanian wine is produced in the Australian state of Tasmania. Located at a more southerly latitude than the rest of Australia's wine regions, Tasmania has a cooler climate and the potential to make distinctly different wines than in the rest of the country. The area grows primarily Pinot noir, Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc, with some smaller plantings of Riesling, Pinot Gris and Cabernet Sauvignon. Global warming has had positive effects on the Tasmanian wine industry, allowing most of the grapes in the past few vintages (as of 2005) to ripen fully and produce more vibrant wine.
Tasmania was one of the earliest regions in Australia to be planted with vines and was even the source of cuttings for the first vineyards in Victoria and South Australia. It was also home to some of the earliest wines to gain attention outside of the county with a fortified dessert wine by Bartholomew Broughton being praised by one English writer as Australia's equivalent to Port.
Being an island, Tasmania has a temperate climate that is marked by the strong winds of the Indian Ocean, Bass Strait and Tasman Sea. These winds necessitate the use of large screens around the perimeter of vineyards in order
Mateus is a brand of medium-sweet frizzante rosé wine produced in Portugal. The brand was created in 1942 and production began at the end of World War II. The wine was especially styled to appeal to the rapidly developing North American and northern European markets. Production grew rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s and by the late 1980s, supplemented by a white version, it accounted for over 40% of Portugal's table wine exports. At that time, worldwide sales were 3.25 million cases per year.
Sogrape, the family company which owns the brand and which is the largest wine producer in Portugal, has more recently diversified into other areas of the Portuguese wine industry, as the popularity of its Mateus brand has declined. In the UK in 2002, the wine was re-packaged and relaunched in a deliberate ploy to capitalise on 1970s nostalgia, although the wine itself had already been made less sweet and slightly more sparkling, in response to modern popular preference for slightly drier wine. The wine continues to be sold, however, in its distinctive narrow-necked, flask-shaped bottle, with unique "baroque historic mansion" label (Mateus Palace in Vila Real, Portugal) and real cork
Persian wine, also called Mey and Badeh (in the Persian language), is a cultural symbol and tradition in Persia, and had a significant presence in Persian mythology, Persian poetry and Persian miniature.
Recent archaeological research has pushed back the date of the known origin of wine making in Persia far beyond that which writers earlier in the 20th century had envisaged. Excavations at the Godin Tepe site in the Zagros mountains (Badler, 1995; McGovern and Michel, 1995; McGovern, 2003), for example, have revealed pottery vessels dating from c. 3100–2900 BC which contained tartaric acid, almost certainly indicating the former presence of wine. Even earlier evidence for the existence of wine has been found at the site of Hajji Firuz Tepe, also in the Zagros mountains. Here, McGovern et al. (1996) used chemical analyses of the residue of a Neolithic jar dating from as early as 5400–5000 BC to indicate high levels of tartaric acid, again suggesting that the fluid contained therein had been made from grapes . To the surprise of many, it is of note that wine's discovery in old Persia predates French wine as the earliest evidence in France only goes back to 500 BC, according to French
Teran (Italian: Terrano del Carso) is a red wine produced on the Kras plateau in the Slovenian Littoral and in a very limited area within the northeastern Italian region of Friuli - Venezia Giulia, as well as in the West Istrian wine region of Croatia. In the latter case, however, it cannot be considered the genuine article. Teran is made from the grapes of the refošk (refosco) vine. It is a rich, slightly sour, full-bodied red wine with a high lactic acid content. It is very palatable, and highly prized by connoisseurs of fine wines. It is also very rich in iron, and in the past it was prescribed as a therapy for anemia.
The wine produced from the refosco grape acquires the distinctive flavour and bouquet of Teran only when it is grown in the specific terra rossa ("Red Earth") soil typical of a very restricted area: within Slovenia, but is also widely grown on similar red soil in Western Istria where it is the principal red wine grape. Terra Rossa is present in part of the municipalities of Sežana and Komen, around the villages of Tomaj and Dutovlje. In Italy, it is present in the area of Monrupino, Sgonico, Duino-Aurisina and in a very limited part of the municipality of Trieste
Tokajské víno wine is produced in Tokaj, a wine region in Slovakia which comprises seven communities and 565 hectares of vineyards.
Vintners in the Slovak wine region of Tokaj may use the Tokaj label (or Tokajský/-á/-é which means “of Tokaj” in Slovak) if they apply the Slovak equivalent of the Hungarian quality control regulations.
Only a small part of the Slovak wine region of Tokaj was once part of the historic Tokaj wine region of the Kingdom of Hungary. Due to the Treaty of Trianon the majority of the region (around 28 communities and some 4,500 hectares of vineyards) remained part of Hungary and a smaller part (3 communities and about 175 hectares of vineyards) became part of Czechoslovakia (today Slovakia). In 1959 four more villages were added by Czechoslovak legislation, although these did not comprise part of the historic region.
The dispute between the countries over the right of Slovakia to use the name Tokaj that started in 1958 for its wines was resolved in 2004 - the two countries came to an agreement in June 2004 under which wine produced on 565 hectares of land in Slovakia will be able to use the Tokajský/-á/-é label ("of Tokaj" in Slovak), providing that the
Egerszóláti Olaszrizling is one of the traditional white wines of the Eger Wine Region. It is made of the wine of the variety called Olaszrizling (outside Hungary more commonly known under its German-language name Welschriesling) and has on origin of the village Egerszólát. It is the best, when it is fermented and aged in barrel. Good or known vineyard locations are: Tóbérc, Tagi and Pipis.
The climate of Egerszólát is similar to that of the other parts of Eger: the annual mean temperature is 10,1 °C. Eger is among the coolest wine region of Hungary. The annual amount of rainfall is 595 mm (average of the last 40 years), while the Sun shines 2100-2200 hours a year.
The soil is brown forest soil with riolit tuff underneath.
Egerszóláti Olaszrizling used to be one of the well-known Eger white wines in the Hungarian market before the communist regime. After 1945 it became a victim of the socialist farming focusing on quantity instead of quality. Attempts to re-discover this wine were made by some Eger wine-makers in the late 1990s. It is planned to award Egerszóláti Olaszrizling the DHC-status (DHC is the Hungarian AOC-system, under construction).
Nowadays Egerszóláti Olaszrizling is
Bokbunja ju (hangul: 복분자주; hanja: 覆盆子酒; also spelled bokbunjaju, bokbunja-ju, or bokbunjajoo, and also called bokbunja wine) is a Korean fruit wine made from wild and/or cultivated Korean black raspberries called bokbunja (hangul: 복분자; hanja: 覆盆子; Rubus coreanus). It is produced in Gochang County, Jeollabuk-do, in Damyang, Jeollanam-do, and in Jeju Island, South Korea. It is made by fermenting berries with water. Some varieties also contain rice and jicho herb.
The wine is deep red in color and moderately sweet. It ranges between 15% and 19% alcohol by volume, depending on the brand. It is believed to be healthful and to promote male sexual stamina. It is often drunk on special occasions.
Since 2008, South Korean scientists have searched for ways to utilize bokbunja seeds, which are a by-product of bokbunja ju production.
Cortese di Gavi, or simply Gavi, is an Italian white wine produced in a restricted area of the Province of Alessandria, Piedmont, close to the Ligurian border. Cortese di Gavi made from vines within the comune of Gavi may be labeled Gavi di Gavi.
The name derives from Gavi, the town at the centre of its production zone, and Cortese, the local variety of grape from which it is exclusively made and whose existence is reported from the 17th century. The current style of production dates to 1876.
The wine was awarded DOC status in 1974 and was made DOCG in 1998.
The DOCG regulations restrict the production of Cortese di Gavi to the area formed by the following towns: Bosio, Capriata d'Orba, Carrosio, Francavilla Bisio, Gavi, Novi Ligure, Parodi Ligure, Pasturana, San Cristoforo, Serravalle Scrivia, Tassarolo.
Grower Champagnes are sparkling wines made in the Champagne region of France that are produced by the same estate that owns the vineyards from which the grapes come. While large Champagne houses, such as Mumm, may use grapes sourced from as many as 80 different vineyards, Grower Champagnes tend to be more terroir focused, being sourced from single or closely located vineyards around a village. Today there are over 19,000 independent growers in the Champagne region, accounting for nearly 88% of all vineyard land in the region. Around 5000 of these growers produce wine from their own grapes. A Grower Champagne can be identified by the initials RM (meaning Récoltant-Manipulant) on the wine label.
Grower Champagnes have been described as "artisanal winemaking" with terroir being at the forefront for each wine, rather than an emphasis on a consistent "house style" that can be made year after year. While large Champagne houses, such as Moët et Chandon may source grapes from the entire Champagne region, the vineyards owned by a Grower Champagne maker are generally clustered around a single village. Some growers will craft their wine to reflect the terroir of that village, especially if
Franciacorta is a sparkling wine from Lombardy with DOCG status produced from grapes grown within the boundaries of the territory of Franciacorta, on the hills of a series of townships to the south of Lake Iseo in the Province of Brescia. It was awarded DOC status in 1967, the designation then also including red and white still wines. Since 1995 the DOCG classification has applied exclusively to the sparkling wines of the area.
The still wines from this area have ancient traditions, referred to by Virgil and Pliny the Elder, and documented in Brescia City council books as "Franzacurta" as far back as in 1277, but were not called Franciacorta until 1957, when Guido Berlucchi released a white wine named Pinot di Franciacorta. An ambitious young winemaker working for Berlucchi, Franco Ziliani, was permitted to pursue an ambition of producing a fine sparkling wine, and in 1961 was allowed to produce for release 3,000 bottles of a sparkling wine, also sold under the name Pinot di Franciacorta. Instant interest allowed the following vintage production to be set at 20,000 bottles, and eventually the annual production was 100,000 bottles. The national prominence that followed was soon
Frascati is an Italian white wine from the region of Frascati, in Lazio, Italy. Frascati is made from Trebbiano, Greco and Malvasia grapes and has Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) status. The Frascati DOC is located in the heart of the Alban Hills, south of Rome, and north of Lake Albano. The DOC allows for a minimum of 70% Malvasia (Bianca di Candia) and/or Trebbiano (Toscano), a 30% maximum of Greco and/or Malvasia (del Lazio) and a maximum of 10% other white grapes.
Lambrusco is the name of both a red wine grape and an Italian wine made principally from the grape. The grapes and the wine originate from four zones in Emilia-Romagna and one in Lombardy, principally around the central provinces of Modena, Parma, Reggio nell'Emilia, and Mantua. The grape has a long winemaking history with archaeological evidence indicating that the Etruscans cultivated the vine. In Roman times, the Lambrusco was highly valued for its productivity and high yields with Cato the Elder stating that produce of two thirds of an acre could make enough wine to fill 300 amphoras.
The most highly rated of its wines are the frothy, frizzante (slightly sparkling) red wines that are designed to be drunk young from one of the five Lambrusco denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) regions: Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro, Lambrusco di Sorbara, Lambrusco Salamino di Santa Croce, Lambrusco Reggiano, and Lambrusco Mantovano. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Lambrusco was the biggest selling import wine in the United States. During that time the wine was also produced in a white and rosé style made by limiting the skin contact with the must.
The most commonly found six
Vin de pays is a French term meaning "country wine". Vins de pays are a step in the French wine classification that is above the table wine (Vin de table) classification, but below the VDQS and Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) classifications. Legislation on the Vin de pays terminology was created in 1973 and passed in 1979, allowing producers to distinguish wines that were made using grape varieties or procedures other than those required by the AOC rules, without having to use the simple and commercially non-viable table wine classification. Unlike table wines, which are only indicated as being from France, Vin de pays carries a geographic designation of origin, the producers have to submit the wine for analysis and tasting, and the wines have to be made from certain varieties or blends. Regulations regarding varieties and labelling practices are typically more lenient than the regulations for AOC wines. In 2009, the Vin de pays classification was replaced by the new PGI - Indication Géographique Protégée, or Protected Geographical Region - designation.
There are three tiers of Vin de Pays: regional, departmental and local.
There are six regional Vins de Pays, which cover
Cviček is a Slovenian wine from the Lower Carniola region of Slovenia, composed of various grapes: Modra Frankinja (Blue Franconian), Žametna Črnina and Kraljevina, and occasionally Laški Rizling (Italian Riesling) is also added. Modra Frankinja gives it its full flavour, Žametovka makes it drinkable and adds to its acidity, while Rdeča Kraljevina as one of white sorts regulates its alcohol level (from 7.5 to maximum 10% alcohol) and provides the wine with an agreeable gentleness.
In the Middle Ages the Lower Carniola was a constituent part of the March of Carniola, and its wine was named Marvin (from German Marwein from Markwein), which was also mentioned by Valvasor, a seventeen-century Slovenian historian. With the abolition of old viticultural system, people started to neglect vineyards, vine decay grew larger and larger and concomitantly, wine quality started to drop gradually. Becoming more and more sour, people referred to it as cviček (an old Slovenian word denoting very sour wine) and somehow the name stuck, allegedly also because of the synonymous German expression zwikt.
It is common for Cviček to have a characteristic acidity; this, however, does not necessarily imply
Angelica wine is an historic sweet fortified wine usually from California made typically from the Mission grape. It is often served as a dessert wine.
Some varieties consist of the unfermented grape juice fortified with brandy or clear spirit immediately after pressing. Others are made like port, where the only partially fermented wine, still retaining a large amount of sugar, is infused with brandy. The relatively high alcohol of the brandy arrests the fermentation, leaving a fortified wine high in alcohol and high in residual sugar (usually about 10 to 15%). It is typically made from 50% Mission wine and 50% Mission brandy.
Angelica dates to the Mission period in California and its name is thought to be taken from the city of Los Angeles. It was produced by the Franciscan missionaries and is one of the first wines made in the state. Several California producers continue to produce Mission-based Angelica.
The wine is sometimes made in a simple style and is inexpensive. Some is made with great care from ancient vines and can be quite expensive. Gypsy Canyon Vineyards uses century old vines and winemaker notes from the 18th and 19th centuries to produce an Angelica which spends two
Lancers is a brand of medium-sweet, lightly sparkling wine produced by the J. M. da Fonseca winery in Portugal. The brand was created in 1944, when Vintage Wines of New York predicted that wine consumption in the United States would increase after World War II. A sparkling Lancers, made by the continuous method, was introduced in the late 1980s.
Retsina (Greek: Ρετσίνα) is a Greek white (or rosé) resinated wine, which has been made for at least 2000 years. Its unique flavor is said to have originated from the practice of sealing wine vessels, particularly amphorae, with Aleppo Pine resin in ancient times. Before the invention of impermeable glass bottles, oxygen caused many wines to spoil within the year. Pine resin helped keep air out, while at the same time infusing the wine with resin aroma. The Romans began to use barrels in the 3rd century AD, removing any oenological necessity for resin, but the flavor itself was so popular that the style is still widespread today.
The earliest recorded mention of using resin with wine amphorae is by the first-century Roman writer Columella, who detailed in his work De Re Rustica (12,20,3 and 12,22,2) the different type of resin that could be used to seal a container or be mixed into the wine. He recommended, however that the very best wines should not be mixed with resin because of the unpleasant flavor introduced thereby. His contemporary, Pliny the Elder, does recommend the use of adding resin to the fermenting wine must in his work Naturalis Historia (14.124) with the resin from
Rose hip wine is one of the most popular home made fruit wine. It can be made from fresh or dried rose hip fruits. The process of production of this wine is unique because of extracting fruit juice. As a basic ingredient for most of types wines production is used must but in this type of wine fruit are fermenting in syrup with yeast and citric acid when fruit extract is extracted. This method of technology is similar in a few types of wines only, like for example: Blackthorn, Hawthorn and Rowan wines. Many experts claim that fruit wines are second category in quality next to grape wines. In case of rose hip wine they tend to outline that quality of old and property made wine can be compared to quality of grape wines. The colour of wine made from fresh fruits tends to be from light yellow to brown. Wine made from dried fruits has red colour. Rose hip wine tends to has similar features like wines from Spain or Portugal. One of the factors which has impact for the taste of wine is removing of seeds from fruits before fermentation. This protects by bitter taste but this technology is time-consuming. The most suitable type of wine to be produced from rose hip fruits is strong and sweet
Wine is sometimes made with animal products. While wine is essentially made from grapes, on occasion animal products are used in small amounts in the production process, and these wines may not be suitable to be part of a vegetarian or vegan diet.
Wineries might use animal-derived products as finings. To remove proteins, yeast, and other organic particles which are in suspension during the making of the wine, a fining agent is added to the top of the vat. As it sinks down, the particles adhere to the agent, and are carried out of suspension. None of the fining agent remains in the finished product sold in the bottle, and not all wines are fined.
Examples of animal products used as finings are gelatin, isinglass, chitosan, casein and egg albumen. Bull's blood is also used in some Mediterranean countries but is not allowed in the U.S. or Europe. Kosher wines use isinglass derived from fish bladders, though not from the sturgeon, since the kosher status of this fish is in debate.
Of these, casein and albumen (deriving from milk protein and egg white respectively) would be acceptable for vegetarians, but not for vegans.
As an alternative to animal products, Bentonite, a clay mineral,
A vin de liqueur is a sweet fortified style of French wine that is fortified with brandy just prior to fermentation. The term vin de liqueur is also used by the European Union to refer to all fortified wines.
These wines are similar to vins doux naturels but are sweeter and have more flavor influence from the added brandy. A vin de liqueur is usually served as an apéritif.
Just prior to the onset of fermentation, the grape must is fortified with brandy until the solution reaches an alcohol level of 16%–22%. The resulting wine is left with a high level of residual sugar because most strains of yeast cannot reproduce at such a high alcohol level.
Vins de liqueur are available in many regional styles and varieties of grape. Grapes from the Champagne region are used for the production of ratafia. The Rhône region makes a wine known as rinquinquin, and the Languedoc region produces a local vin de liqueur that is called cartagène. The Jura wine region produces a vin de liqueur called Macvin du Jura.
Most regions that have characteristic brandies also produce related fortified wines: the Pineau des Charentes is fortified with cognac, and the Floc de Gascogne with armagnac.
Alsace wine or Alsatian wine (in French: Vin d'Alsace) is produced in the Alsace region in France and is primarily white. These wines, which for historical reasons have a strong Germanic influence, are produced under three different Appellations d'Origine Contrôlées (AOCs): Alsace AOC for white, rosé and red wines, Alsace Grand Cru AOC for white wines from certain classified vineyards and Crémant d'Alsace AOC for sparkling wines. Both dry and sweet white wines are produced, and are often made from aromatic grapes varieties. Along with Austria and Germany, it produces some of the most noted dry Rieslings in the world, but on the export market, Alsace is perhaps even more noted for highly aromatic Gewürztraminer wines. Because of its Germanic influence, it is the only region in France to produce mostly varietal wines, typically from similar grapes as used in German wine.
In 2006, vines were grown on 15,298 hectares (37,800 acres) in 119 villages in Alsace, and 111.3 million litres of wine was produced, corresponding to 148.4 million bottles of 750 ml, generating 478.8 million euro in revenue. Of the vineyard surface, 78% was classified for the production of AOC Alsace wines, 4% for
The Colli Orientali del Friuli is a Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) located in the Italian wine region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The region is located in the province of Udine and is sub-divided into three main sections; Ramandolo in the north, Cialla and Corno di Rosazzo. The climate and soil is very similar to the neighboring DOC of Collio Goriziano and the two region share many winemaking similarities as well. The main distinction between the Colli Orientali del Friuli and Collio Goriziano lie in the increased red and dessert wine production of the Colli Orientali del Friuli. The region also includes within its boundaries the three Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Ramandolo and the two passito wine DOCGs of Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit and Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit-Cialla.
Viticulture has existed in the area since the time of the Romans. In 1866, during the Risorgimento, the region was reunited with Italy. In the 1970s, the white wines of the region began to receive international attention due to innovations in winemaking techniques that produced fresher, more vibrant white wines. In the 1980s,
Kijafa is a cherry wine made in Finland and manufactured by YMKT. Even though it is usually made with cherry, it is occasionally made with other fruit. It is imported to many countries in Europe and North America. Kijafa can also be purchased online.
Taurasi and Taurasi riserva are red, still Italian wines based principally on the Aglianico grape variety produced in the Province of Avellino in the Campania region. They were awarded Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) status in 1970 and Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) status in 1993. Produced less than 40 miles (64 km) from the other Aglianico stronghold of Aglianico del Vulture in Basilicata, the volcanic soils of the Taurasi region demonstrate the potential the Aglianico grape has to make wines on par with the Nebbiolo grape of Piedmont and Sangiovese grape of Tuscany. The popularity of the region's wine is a relatively recent phenomenon. Until the early 1990s, there was only one winery (Mastroberardino), producing wine for the export market. By the mid 2000s, there were over 293 producers in the Taurausi zone.
The vineyards may be located within the boundaries of the following communes of the Province of Avellino: Taurasi, Bonito, Castelfranci, Castelvetere sul Calore, Fontanarosa, Lapio, Luogosano, Mirabella Eclano, Montefalcione, Montemarano, Montemiletto, Paternopoli, Pietradefusi, Sant'Angelo all'Esca, San Mango sul Calore, Torre Le Nocelle
Tuscan wine (Italian Toscana) is Italian wine from the Tuscany region. Located in central Italy along the Tyrrhenian coast, Tuscany is home to some of the world's most notable wine regions. Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano are primarily made with Sangiovese grape whereas the Vernaccia grape is the basis of the white Vernaccia di San Gimignano. Tuscany is also known for the dessert wine Vin Santo, made from a variety of the region's grapes. Tuscany has twenty-nine Denominazioni di origine controllata (DOC) and seven Denominazioni di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG). In the 1970s a new class of wines known in the trade as "Super Tuscans" emerged. These wines were made outside DOC/DOCG regulations but were considered of high quality and commanded high prices. Many of these wines became cult wines. In the reformation of the Italian classification system many of the original Super Tuscans now qualify as DOC or DOCG wines but some producers still prefer the declassified rankings or to use the Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) classification of Toscana.
The history of viticulture in Tuscany dates back to its settlements by the Etruscans in the 8th
Vin gris is white wine made from red grapes, in particular pinot noir. Pinot noir is a black grape, but can also be used to make rosé or white wine. When the grapes are brought to the winery and crushed, the juice is run off and removed from contact with the skin, leaving the colour and flavour compounds from the skin behind. The juice is then typically fermented in stainless steel tanks before being bottled shortly after, without any aging in oak barrels.
Producing a small volume of Vin gris (or rosé) can also be used as a technique to improve Pinot noir. Removing some clear juice increases the concentration of colour and flavour compounds from the skins in the remaining juice intended for making red wine; the resulting rosé is known as a saignée (bled).
Another grape used to produce Vin Gris is Gamay, particularly in Lorraine, where the Côtes de Toul zone produces a light and delighting Vin Gris. The vinification is the same as with Pinot Noir (short contact of the white juice with the red skins during the pressing), but the fruity flavour of the Gamay very much changes the taste of the wine.
Champagne is often made using this process, when it is known as blanc de noirs.
Bardolino is an Italian red wine produced along the chain of morainic hills in the province of Verona to the east of Lake Garda. It takes its name from the town Bardolino on the shores of Lake Garda and was awarded Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) status in 1968. The blend of grapes used to produce the wine includes Corvina, Rondinella and Molinara. Up to 15% of the blend may include Rossignola, Barbera, Sangiovese and/or Garganega.
Located on the south eastern shores of Lake Garda, the classico zone surrounds the towns of Bardolino, Affi, Cavaion, Costermano, Garda and Lazise. Beyond the classico zone to the south are flat, fertile plains where Bardoline wine is produced from high grape yields. About 45% of the production comes from the Bardolino Classico region, but unlike its neighboring Veneto DOCs - Soave and Valpolicella - there does not seem to be much terroir driven quality difference between the wine produced in the classico region and that from the greater DOC zone.
The three main grapes used to produce Bardolino are also used to produce Valpolicella but the two wines are quite different. This is partly because Bardolino generally contains less Corvina which
Commandaria (or Commanderia; Greek: Κουμανδαρία) is an amber-coloured sweet dessert wine made in the Commandaria region of Cyprus on the foothills of the Troödos mountains. Commandaria is made from sun-dried grapes of the varieties Xynisteri and Mavro. While often a fortified wine, through its production method it often reaches high alcohol levels, around 15%, already before fortification. It represents an ancient wine style documented in Cyprus back to 800 BC and has the distinction of being the world's oldest named wine still in production, with the name Commandaria dating back to the crusades in the 12th century.
The wine has a rich history, said to date back to the time of the ancient Greeks, where it was a popular drink at festivals. A dried grape wine from Cyprus was first known to be described in 800 BC by the Greek poet Hesiod and was known as the Cypriot Manna.
During the crusades, Commandaria was served at the 12th century wedding of King Richard the Lionheart to Berengaria of Navarre, in the town of Limassol; it was during the wedding that King Richard pronounced Commandaria "the wine of kings and the king of wines". Near the end of the century he sold the island to the
Mulled wine is wine, usually red wine, with spices and served hot or warm. It is a traditional drink during winter, especially around Christmas and Halloween.
Port and claret are popular choices for mulled wine.
A traditional recipe can be found in Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management at paragraph 1961 on page 929 to 930 of the revised edition dated 1869:
Glühwein (roughly, "glow-wine," from the hot irons once used for mulling) is popular in German- and Dutch-speaking countries and in the region of Alsace in France. It is a traditional beverage that is offered during the Christmas holidays. It is usually prepared from red wine, heated and spiced with cinnamon sticks, vanilla pods, cloves, star aniseed, citrus, and sugar.
Glühwein is sometimes drunk mit Schuss (with a shot), which means that rum or some other liquor has been added.
Fruit wines, such as blueberry wine and cherry wine, are occasionally used instead of grape wine in Germany.
Feuerzangenbowle is also quite popular in Germany. It has the same recipe as Glühwein, but for this drink a rum-soaked sugarloaf is set on fire and allowed to drip into wine.
The oldest documented Glühwein tankard is attributed to Count John
Sagrantino di Montefalco are Italian wines made with 100% Sagrantino grapes in the Province of Perugia, although not necessarily in the comune of Montefalco. The wines include Montefalco Sagrantino secco, a dry DOCG red wine and Montefalco Sagrantino passito, a sweet DOCG red wine.
For a long time, the Sagrantino grape variety was only used for Montefalco Sagrantino passito or to fortify mixed wines. In recent years, producers such as Arnaldo Caprai and Colpetrone have started to use it unblended.
Under Italian law, the term "Montefalco Sagrantino Secco" defines a wine obtained exclusively from Sagrantino grapes, produced exclusively in the Province of Perugia, in the Umbria region of central Italy (although not necessarily in the comune of Montefalco). The word "secco" in the name is Italian for "dry". The wine is aged for 30 months, of which at least 12 months must be in oak barrels. The wine is a DOCG, the highest-ranking category of Italian wine denominations. The Montefalco Sagrantino secco has excellent storage characteristics.
Alentejo (Vinho do Alentejo, Alentejo wines) is Portuguese wine region located in the Alentejo region of the country. The entire region is entitled to use the Vinho Regional designation Alentejano VR, while some areas are also classified at the higher Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC) level under the designation Alentejo DOC. VR is similar to the French vin de pays and DOC to the French AOC. Located in the southern half of Portugal, the Alentejo region covers about a third of the country and is sparsely populated. The region is noted for it vast cork production but has in recent years garnered attention for its table wine production.
There are eight subregions of the Alentejo region that are entitled to the Alentejo DOC designation. The names of the subregions may be indicated on the label together with the name Alentejo, for example as Alentejo-Borba. These subregions were initially created as separate Indicação de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR) wine regions, after which some were elevated to DOC status. In 2003, these separate DOCs and IPRs were put together as the Alentejo DOC. Listed from north to south the eight subregions are the following.
The principle grapes of the
Brindisi Rosso is a red DOC (Denominazione di Origine Controllata) wine from the Southern Italian province of Brindisi, in the region of Puglia (Apulia). The official appellation was granted on November 22, 1979 with presidential decree (published in Gazzetta Ufficiale, April 23, 1980), under request from Pasquale Medico and Sons and other producers. In recent years the production of this variety of wine has declined considerably (up to 50%), due to the uprooting of vines as a result of incentives from the EU, which favored other products. The Brindisi region has a very old tradition for wine making, because Brindisi was the Roman gateway to the East and thus provided its own wine to Rome along with salt and olive oil imported from the Mediterranean provinces.
The production zone is limited to the areas of Brindisi and Mesagne, both being communes within the province of Brindisi. Brindisi Rosso is produced in small quantities and exported all over the world. Brindisi Rosso is made mainly from dark Negroamaro grapes (at least 70%) and Malvasia nera di Brindisi; it can also contain smaller quantities of Sussumaniello, Montepulciano and Sangiovese.
Brindisi Rosso wine appears intense
Mavrodafni (also Mavrodaphne, Greek: Μαυροδάφνη) is both a black wine grape indigenous to the Achaea region in Northern Peloponnese, Greece, and the sweet, fortified wine produced from it.
Mavrodafni is initially vinified in large vats exposed to the sun. Once the wine reaches a certain level of maturity, fermentation is stopped by adding distillate prepared from previous vintages. Then the Mavrodafni distillate and the wine, still containing residual sugar, is transferred to the underground cellars to complete its maturation. There it is "educated" by contact with older wine using the solera method of serial transfusions. Once aged, the wine is bottled and sold as a dessert wine under the "Mavrodafni OPAP" designation.
Mavrodafni is a dark, almost opaque wine with a dark purple reflected color and a purple-brown transmitted color. It presents aromas and flavors of caramel, chocolate, coffee, raisins and plums.
The name Mavrodafni was given to the grape variety and the wine by Gustav Clauss, the founder of the oldest and most famous winery of Greece, Achaia Clauss. It was named after his greek fiancée, whose name was Daphne, who died young before their marriage.
Cold Duck is the name of a sparkling wine made in the United States.
The wine was invented by Harold Borgman, the owner of Pontchartrain Wine Cellars in Detroit, in 1937. The recipe was based on a traditional German custom of mixing all the dregs of unfinished wine bottles with champagne. The wine he produced was given the name Kaltes Ende ("cold end" in German), until it was humorously altered to the similar sounding term Kalte Ente meaning "cold duck". The exact recipe now varies, but the original combined one part of Californian red wine with two parts of New York sparkling wine.
A jazz standard named "Cold Duck Time" by Eddie Harris has been performed by many jazz musicians, including Jeff Golub and Al Jarreau. Andrés Wines introduced their version of Cold Duck in Canada in the mid-1960s.They followed that with similar sweet red and white wines called Chanté. In 1971 they created Baby Duck – a soft-drink-sweet blend of red and white Chanté wines.
Hugely successful, Baby Duck was the best-selling domestic wine during the 1970s and it hatched numerous imitators: Canada Duck, Love-A-Duck, Kool Duck, Daddy Duck and Fuddle Duck were joined by Cold Turkey, etc… All of these wines
Ghemme is a red Italian wine with Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status produced in the Colli Novaresi viticultural area in the hills of the Province of Novara in Piedmont. It was awarded DOC status in 1969 and received its DOCG classification in 1997.
The wine is made primarily from the Nebbiolo grape varietal (known locally as Spanna) and like Gattinara, it may be blended with Bonarda di Gattinara and Vespolina.
Egri Bikavér ("Bull's Blood of Eger") is Hungary's most famous red wine. It comes from the Eger wine region of northern Hungary; the Szekszárd region produces a similar wine with similar name (Szekszárdi Bikavér) but with different character.
At the foot of the Bükk mountains lies the town of Eger, one of the most beautiful and most frequently visited in Hungary. Its attractions include not only its history and artistic sights, but its world-famous wines, Egri Bikavér and Egri Leányka. The former, widely known as Bull’s Blood, is a potent, dry red wine that owes its deep ruby color to the grape skins which are fermented together with the grapes. It is a blend of several grape varieties. The main variety is Kékfrankos (Lemberger), which has replaced Kadarka, the grape formerly used. Its fine bouquet is nurtured by maturing with expert care and skill. Cabernet and Kékoporto, and occasionally Merlot, also contribute their share to the unique bouquet of Bull’s Blood.
Egri Bikavér is a blend that has varied over the years, although the blend is anchored by the ancient Kadarka variety. Kadarka is believed to have arrived during the Turkish invasion of the 16th century, either by the
Corsica wine is wine made on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. Located 90 km west of Italy, 170 km southeast of France and 11 km north of the island of Sardinia, the island is a territorial collectivity of France, but many of the region's winemaking traditions and its grape varieties are Italian in origin. The region's viticultural history can be traced to the island's settlement by Phoceans traders in 570 BC in what is now the commune of Aléria. In the 18th century, the island came under the control of France. Following the independence of Algeria from French rule, many Algerian Pieds-Noirs immigrated to Corsica and began planting vineyards. Between 1960 and 1976 the vineyard area in Corsica increased fourfold. In 1968, Patrimonio was established as Corsica's first Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC). Today, Corsica has nine AOC regions including the island-wide designation Vin de Corse AOC. The majority of the wine exported from Corsica falls under the Vin de pays designation Vin de Pays de l'Île de Beauté (Country wine from the Island of Beauty). The three leading grape varieties of the region are Nielluccio, known as the spice wine of France, Sciacarello and
Gattinara is a red Italian wine with Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) status produced from Nebbiolo grapes grown within the boundaries of the commune of Gattinara which is located in the hills in the north of the province of Vercelli, northwest of Novara in the Piedmont region. It was awarded DOC status in 1967 and received its DOCG classification in 1990.
The wine is made primarily from the Nebbiolo grape variety (known locally as Spanna) which must constitute a minimum 90% of the wine and may be blended with up to 10% Bonarda di Gattinara and no more than 4% of Vespolina. The wine is aged in oak barrels for 1 year or two years if it is a riserva, with an additional two years of ageing in the bottle. The Oxford Companion to Wine asserts that wine from Vercelli hills on the west bank of the Sesia river and Novara hills are capable of producing rivals to Barolo and Barbaresco, and has at times in Piedmontese history been more admired than Barolo for its longevity.
Portuguese wine is the result of traditions introduced to the region by ancient civilizations, such as the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, and mostly the Romans. Portugal started to export its wines to Rome during the Roman Empire. Modern exports developed with trade to England after the Methuen Treaty in 1703. From this commerce a wide variety of wines started to be grown in Portugal. And, in 1758, one of the first wine-producing region of the world, the Região Demarcada do Douro was created under the orientation of Marquis of Pombal, in the Douro Valley. Portugal has two wine producing regions protected by UNESCO as World Heritage: the Douro Valley Wine Region (Douro Vinhateiro) and Pico Island Wine Region (Ilha do Pico Vinhateira). Portugal has a large variety of native breeds, producing a very wide variety of different wines with distinctive personality.
Romans did much to expand and promote viticulture in their settlements in the province of Lusitania (mainly modern south Portugal). Wines were produced across the territory for both local consumption as well as export to Rome.
During the Reconquista in the 12th and 13th centuries, with the populating (povoamento) of the
Asti (formerly known as Asti Spumante) is a sparkling white Italian wine that is produced throughout southeastern Piedmont but is particularly focused around the towns of Asti and Alba. Since 1993 the wine has been classified as a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) and as of 2004 was Italy's largest producing appellation. In fact, on an average vintage more than ten times as much Asti is produced in Piedmont than the more well-known Piedmontese red wine Barolo.
Made from the Moscato Bianco grape, it is sweet and low in alcohol, and often served with dessert. Unlike Champagne, Asti is not made sparkling through the use of secondary fermentation in the bottle but rather through a single tank fermentation utilizing the Charmat method. It retains its sweetness through a complex filtration process. Another wine called Moscato d'Asti is made in the same region from the same grape, but is only slightly sparkling (frizzante) and tends to have even lower alcohol.
The Moscato Bianco grape (also known as Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains) has long been found in the Piedmont and, along with Nebbiolo, may be one of the oldest grapes in the region. However, the production of
Barolo is a red Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) wine produced in the northern Italian region of Piedmont. It is made from the Nebbiolo grape and is often described as one of Italy's greatest wines. The zone of production extends into the communes of Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, Serralunga d'Alba and parts of the communes of Cherasco, Diano d'Alba, Grinzane Cavour, La Morra, Monforte d'Alba, Novello, Roddi, Verduno, all in the province of Cuneo, south-west of Alba. Only vineyards planted in primarily calcareous-clay soils in the hills with suitable slopes and orientations are considered suitable for Barolo production. Barolo is often described as having the aromas of tar and roses, and the wines are noted for their ability to age and usually take on a rust red tinge as they mature. When subjected to aging of at least five years before release, the wine can be labeled a Riserva.
In the past Barolos often used to be very rich on tannin. It could take more than 10 years for the wine to soften up and become ready for drinking. Fermenting wine sat on the grape skins for at least three weeks extracting huge amounts of tannins and was then aged in large, wooden
Burgundy wine (French: Bourgogne or vin de Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône River, a tributary of the Rhône. The most famous wines produced here—those commonly referred to as "Burgundies"—are dry red wines made from Pinot Noir grapes and white wines made from Chardonnay grapes. Red and white wines are also made from other grape varieties, such as Gamay and Aligoté, respectively. Small amounts of rosé and sparkling wines are also produced in the region. Chardonnay-dominated Chablis and Gamay-dominated Beaujolais are formally part of the Burgundy wine region, but wines from those subregions are usually referred to by their own names rather than as "Burgundy wines".
Burgundy has a higher number of appellations d'origine contrôlée (AOCs) than any other French region, and is often seen as the most terroir-conscious of the French wine regions. The various Burgundy AOCs are classified from carefully delineated Grand Cru vineyards down to more nonspecific regional appellations. The practice of delineating vineyards by their terroir in Burgundy goes back to medieval times, when various monasteries played a key role
Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world and is the world's second largest wine producer behind France. Italian wine is exported around the world and is also extremely popular in Italy: Italians rank fifth on the world wine consumption list by volume with 42 litres per capita consumption. Grapes are grown in almost every region of the country and there are more than one million vineyards under cultivation.
Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in Italy before the Romans started their own vineyards in the 2nd century BC. Roman grape-growing and winemaking was prolific and well-organized, pioneering large-scale production and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling.
Although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it wasn't until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks, and was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC. It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians (acknowledged masters of wine-making) in the 2nd century BC that Italian wine production began to
Marsala is a wine produced in the region surrounding the Italian city of Marsala in Sicily. Marsala wine first received Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) status in 1969.
While the city's natives sometimes drink "vintage" Marsala, the wine produced for export is universally a fortified wine similar to Port, Madeira and Sherry. Originally, Marsala wine was fortified with alcohol to ensure that it would last long ocean voyages, but now it is made that way because of its popularity in foreign markets.
The most creditable version of the introduction of Marsala fortified wine to a wider range of consumers is attributed to the English trader John Woodhouse. In 1773, Woodhouse landed at the port of Marsala and discovered the local wine produced in the region, which was aged in wooden casks and tasted similar to Spanish and Portuguese fortified wines then popular in England. Fortified Marsala wine was, and is, made using a process called in perpetuum, which is similar to the solera system used to produce Sherry in Jerez, Spain.
Woodhouse recognized that the in perpetuum process raised the alcohol level and alcoholic taste of this wine while also preserving these characteristics
Ramandolo is an Italian sweet white wine from the village of the same name which is situated in the hills near Nimis in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. It is made from a local variety of the Verduzzo grape called Ramandolo and is a DOCG wine.
Sauternes is a French sweet wine from the Sauternais region of the Graves section in Bordeaux. Sauternes is made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. This causes the grapes to become partially raisined, resulting in concentrated and distinctively flavored wines. Due to its climate, Sauternes is one of the few wine regions where infection with noble rot is a frequent occurrence. Even so, production is a hit-or-miss proposition, with widely varying harvests from vintage to vintage. Wines from Sauternes, especially the Premier Cru Supérieur estate Château d'Yquem, can be very expensive, due largely to the very high cost of production. Barsac lies within Sauternes, and is entitled to use either name. Somewhat similar but less expensive and typically less-distinguished wines are produced in the neighboring regions of Monbazillac, Cérons, Loupiac and Cadillac. In the United States, there is a semi-generic label for sweet white dessert wines known as sauterne without the "s" at the end and uncapitalized.
As in most of France, viticulture is believed to have been introduced into Aquitania by the Romans.
Sélection de Grains Nobles (SGN) is French for "selection of noble berries" and refers to wines made from grapes affected by noble rot. SGN wines are sweet dessert wines with rich, concentrated flavours. Alsace wines were the first to be described as Sélection de Grains Nobles, with the legal definition introduced in 1984, but the term is also seen in some other wine regions France, such as Loire.
For Alsace wines, SGN is the highest official category for late harvest wines, while the step below is called Vendange tardive.
In 2001, the minimum must weight requirements for SGN in Alsace were increased to 18.2% for Gewürztraminer and Pinot Gris, and 16.4% for Riesling and Muscat, expressed as potential alcohol. Only these four "noble varieties" may carry the SGN designation, or the Vendange tardive designation.
The required level ripeness of the grapes are as follows, expressed as sugar content of the must and potential alcohol:
These requirements make SGN roughly equivalent to a German Beerenauslese, but the Alsace style tend to favour slightly higher alcohol levels, which means that the residual sugar often is a little lower than in German wines, especially for Riesling and
Vin Santo or Vino Santo (holy wine) is a style of Italian dessert wine. Traditional in Tuscany, these wines are often made from white grape varieties such as Trebbiano and Malvasia, though Sangiovese may be used to produce a rosé style known as Occhio di Pernice or eye of the partridge. The wines may also be described as straw wines since they are often produced by drying the freshly harvested grapes on straw mats in a warm and well ventilated area of the house. However several producers dry the grapes by hanging on racks indoors. Though technically a dessert wine, the wines can vary in sweetness levels from bone dry (like a Fino Sherry) to extremely sweet. While the style is believed to have originated in Tuscany, examples of Vin Santo can be found throughout Italy and is an authorized style of wine for several Denominazione di origine controllata (DOCs) and Indicazione geografica tipica (IGTs).
Although the style of making wine from dried grapes has been around almost as long as wine has been made, there are many theories on how the particular name Vin Santo or "holy wine" came to be associated with this style of wine in Italy. The most likely origin was the wine's historic use
Vino Greco is the name of a wine style which originated, at least 2,150 years ago, as an Italian imitation of the sweet, strong Greek wines that were exported to Italy at the period of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. Its names in other languages were: Latin vinum graecum; English Greek, greke, wine greke; French vin grec. The earliest recipe for vinum Graecum is in Cato the Elder's manual of farming, De Agri Cultura, compiled around 150 BC. Salt is added to the must. Once sealed in amphoras, vinum graecum is matured under the sun for two years before sale. Incidentally, the name did not necessarily cause confusion with real exported Greek wine, which was called vinum transmarinum ("overseas wine") in classical Latin. Methods have changed totally over the long history of vino greco, but the name still survives in a few Italian wines, notably the sweet white Greco di Bianco and Greco di Gerace from southern Calabria (they both can be only produced in Reggio Calabria area).
Vino greco reappears in late medieval and early modern texts from Italy, France, Germany and England. Curiously, the fourteenth century Florentine merchant Francesco Pegolotti records in La Pratica della
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is a red wine with Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montepulciano, Italy. The wine is made primarily from the Sangiovese grape varietal (known locally as Prugnolo gentile) (minimum 70%), blended with Canaiolo Nero (10%–20%) and small amounts of other local varieties such as Mammolo. The wine is aged in oak barrels for 2 years; three years if it is a riserva. The wine should not be confused with Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, a red wine made from the Montepulciano grape in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy.
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is one of the oldest wines of Italy.
In a document dated 789, quoted by Emanuele Repetti in "Dizionario Geografico Fisico Storico della Toscana", the cleric Arnipert offers to the Church of San Silvestro in Lanciniano (Amiata area), a farmland and a vineyard located in the Castello di Policiano; in another document of 17 October 1350, also mentioned by Repetti, you lay down the terms for trade and export of a wine produced in Montepulciano's area.
In 1685 Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is also mentioned by the poet Francesco Redi, who, in addition to