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Best Web Ontologies of All Time

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    1
    City

    City

    A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law. For example, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts an article of incorporation approved by the local state legislature distinguishes a city government from a town. In the United Kingdom and parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, a city is usually a settlement with a royal charter. Historically, in Europe, a city was understood to be an urban settlement with a cathedral. This distinction also applies in England (but not to the entire United Kingdom), where the presence of a cathedral church distinguishes a 'city' from a 'town' (which has a parish church). Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process. A big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban
    7.57
    7 votes
    2

    Uniform Resource Locator

    In computing, a uniform resource locator (URL) (aka universal resource locator) is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet resource. A URL is technically a type of uniform resource identifier (URI) but in many technical documents and verbal discussions URL is often used as a synonym for URI. The Uniform Resource Locator was created in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee and the URI working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an outcome of collaboration started at the IETF Living Documents "Birds of a Feather" session in 1992. The format combines the pre-existing system of domain names (created in 1985) with file path syntax, where forward slashes are used to separate folder and file names. Conventions already existed where server names could be prepended to complete file paths, preceded by a double-slash (//). Every URL consists of some of the following: the scheme name (commonly called protocol), followed by a colon, two slashes, then, depending on scheme, a server name (exp. ftp., www., smtp., etc.) followed by a dot (.) then a domain name (alternatively, IP address), a port number, the path of the resource to be fetched or the program to be
    7.43
    7 votes
    3

    Lyot filter

    A Lyot filter, named for its inventor Bernard Lyot, is a type of optical filter that uses birefringence to produce a narrow passband of transmitted wavelengths. Lyot filters are often used in astronomy, particularly for solar astronomy. A Lyot filter is made from one or more birefringent plates (usually quartz), with (in multi-plate filters) each plate being half the thickness of the previous one. Because the plates are birefringent, the ordinary and extraordinary polarization components of a light beam experience a different refractive index and thus have a different phase velocity. Therefore, the polarization state of light with an arbitrary wavelength will in general be modified after a passage through the filter plate, and this causes a loss of optical power in a subsequent polarizer. For certain wavelengths, however, the optical path length difference is an integer multiple of the wavelength, so that the losses are very small. By rotating the plates, one can shift the wavelengths of the transmission peaks. Each stage of a Lyot filter is 1/2 the size of the preceding stage. The largest stage sets the bandwidth and the smallest stage sets the Free Spectral Range. If you use two
    8.33
    6 votes
    4
    Thermometer

    Thermometer

    A thermometer (from the Greek θερμός, thermos, meaning "hot" and μἐτρον, metron, "measure") is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient using a variety of different principles. A thermometer has two important elements: the temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a mercury thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature, plus some means of converting this physical change into a numerical value (e.g. the scale on a mercury thermometer). There are many types and many uses for thermometers, as detailed below in sections of this article. While an individual thermometer is able to measure degrees of hotness, the readings on two thermometers cannot be compared unless they conform to an agreed scale. There is today an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. Internationally agreed temperature scales are designed to approximate this closely, based on fixed points and interpolating thermometers. The most recent official temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990. It extends from 0.65 K (−272.5 °C; −458.5 °F) to approximately 1,358 K (1,085 °C; 1,985 °F). Various authors have credited the invention of the thermometer to Cornelis
    7.29
    7 votes
    5
    Wavelength

    Wavelength

    In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings, and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda (λ). The concept can also be applied to periodic waves of non-sinusoidal shape. The term wavelength is also sometimes applied to modulated waves, and to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids. The SI unit of wavelength is the meter. Assuming a sinusoidal wave moving at a fixed wave speed, wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency: waves with higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths, and lower frequencies have longer wavelengths. Examples of wave-like phenomena are sound waves, light, and water waves. A sound wave is a variation in air pressure, while in light and other electromagnetic radiation the strength of the electric and the magnetic field vary. Water waves
    7.14
    7 votes
    6
    Sea of Japan

    Sea of Japan

    The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Asian mainland, the Japanese archipelago and Sakhalin. It is bordered by Japan, North Korea, Russia and South Korea. Like the Mediterranean Sea, it has almost no tides due to its nearly complete enclosure from the Pacific Ocean. This isolation also reflects in the fauna species and in the water salinity, which is lower than in the ocean. The sea has no large islands, bays or capes. Its water balance is mostly determined by the inflow and outflow through the straits connecting it to the neighboring seas and Pacific Ocean. Few rivers discharge into the sea and their total contribution to the water exchange is within 1%. The seawater is characterized by the elevated concentration of dissolved oxygen that results in high biological productivity. Therefore, fishing is the dominant economic activity in the region. The intensity of shipments across the sea has been moderate owing to political issues, but it is steadily increasing as a result of the growth of East Asian economies. A controversy exists about the sea name, with South Korea promoting the appellation East Sea. The International Hydrographic
    6.86
    7 votes
    7
    Calendar date

    Calendar date

    A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated. For example, "24 October 2012" is ten days after "14 October 2012" in the Gregorian calendar. The date of a particular event depends on the observed UTC offset. For example the attack on Pearl Harbor that began at 1941-12-07T18:18Z took place on 7 December according to Hawaii Time (UTC-10:30), and on 8 December according to Japan Standard Time (UTC+09). A particular day may be represented by a different date in another calendar as in the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar, which have been used simultaneously in different places. In most calendar systems, the date consists of three parts: the day of month, month, and the year. There may also be additional parts, such as the day of week. Years are usually counted from a particular starting point, usually called the epoch, with era referring to the particular period of time (Note the different use of the terms in geology). The most widely used epoch is a conventional birthdate of Jesus (which was established by Dionysius
    8.80
    5 votes
    8
    Vector field

    Vector field

    In vector calculus, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of Euclidean space. A vector field in the plane, for instance, can be visualized as a collection of arrows with a given magnitude and direction each attached to a point in the plane. Vector fields are often used to model, for example, the speed and direction of a moving fluid throughout space, or the strength and direction of some force, such as the magnetic or gravitational force, as it changes from point to point. The elements of differential and integral calculus extend to vector fields in a natural way. When a vector field represents force, the line integral of a vector field represents the work done by a force moving along a path, and under this interpretation conservation of energy is exhibited as a special case of the fundamental theorem of calculus. Vector fields can usefully be thought of as representing the velocity of a moving flow in space, and this physical intuition leads to notions such as the divergence (which represents the rate of change of volume of a flow) and curl (which represents the rotation of a flow). In coordinates, a vector field on a domain in n-dimensional
    7.33
    6 votes
    9
    GeneID : Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    GeneID : Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    Entrez Gene (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene) is NCBI's database for gene-specific information. It does not include all known or predicted genes; instead Entrez Gene focuses on the genomes that have been completely sequenced, that have an active research community to contribute gene-specific information, or that are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content of Entrez Gene represents the result of curation and automated integration of data from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), from collaborating model organism databases, and from many other databases available from NCBI. Records are assigned unique, stable and tracked integers as identifiers. The content (nomenclature, map location, gene products and their attributes, markers, phenotypes, and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is updated as new information becomes available. Entrez Gene is a step forward from NCBI's LocusLink, with both a major increase in taxonomic scope and improved access through the many tools associated with NCBI Entrez.
    9.25
    4 votes
    10

    Emission

    In physics, emission is the process by which the energy of a photon is released by another entity, for example, by an atom whose electrons make a transition between two electronic energy levels. The emitted energy is in the form of a photon. The emittance of an object quantifies how much light is emitted by it. This may be related to other properties of the object through the Stefan–Boltzmann law. For most substances, the amount of emission varies with the temperature and the spectroscopic composition of the object, leading to the appearance of color temperature and emission lines. Precise measurements at many wavelengths allow the identification of a substance via emission spectroscopy.
    6.83
    6 votes
    11
    Photographer

    Photographer

    A photographer (from Greek φωτός (photos), meaning "light", and γράφω (graphos), meaning "written") is a person who takes photographs. A professional photographer uses photography to earn money; amateur photographers take photographs for pleasure and to record an event, emotion, place, or person. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, including paparazzi and fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making a picture and then offering it for sale or display. Some workers, such as policemen, estate agents, journalists and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are often called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context. Photographers are also categorized based on the subjects they photograph. Some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, and portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary
    7.80
    5 votes
    12
    Observatory

    Observatory

    An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geology, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Historically, observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant (for measuring the distance between stars) or Stonehenge (which has some alignments on astronomical phenomena). Ground-based observatories, located on the surface of Earth, are used to make observations in the radio and visible light portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most optical telescopes are housed within a dome or similar structure, to protect the delicate instruments from the elements. Telescope domes have a slit or other opening in the roof that can be opened during observing, and closed when the telescope is not in use. In most cases, the entire upper portion of the telescope dome can be rotated to allow the instrument to observe different sections of the night sky. Radio telescopes usually do not have domes. For optical telescopes, most ground-based observatories are located far from major centers of population, to avoid the effects of light pollution. The
    9.00
    4 votes
    13
    Province of China

    Province of China

    A province (sheng), formally provincial level division, is the highest-level Chinese administrative division. There are 33 such divisions, classified as 22 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two special administrative regions. Additionally, the PRC claims sovereignty over the territory administered by the Republic of China (ROC), claiming most of it as its Taiwan Province. The ROC also administers some offshore islands which form Fujian Province, ROC. These were part of an originally unified Fujian province, which since the stalemate of the Chinese Civil War in 1949 has been divided between the PRC and ROC. Every province has a Communist Party of China provincial committee, headed by a secretary beside the two special administrative regions. The committee secretary is in charge of the province, rather than the governor of the provincial government. Municipality (直辖市; zhíxiáshì): A higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practice, their political status are higher than common provinces. Province (省; shěng): A standard provincial government is nominally led by a provincial committee,
    9.00
    4 votes
    14
    Labour law

    Labour law

    Labour law (also called labor law or employment law) is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers and employees. In Canada, employment laws related to unionized workplaces are differentiated from those relating to particular individuals. In most countries however, no such distinction is made. However, there are two broad categories of labour law. First, collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union. Second, individual labour law concerns employees' rights at work and through the contract for work. The labour movement has been instrumental in the enacting of laws protecting labour rights in the 19th and 20th centuries. Labour rights have been integral to the social and economic development since the Industrial Revolution. Employment standards are social norms (in some cases also technical standards) for the minimum socially acceptable conditions under which employees or contractors will work. Government agencies (such as the former U.S.
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    UniProt : The Universal Protein Resource

    UniProt : The Universal Protein Resource

    The Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and PIR protein database activities have united to form the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), which provides a central resource on protein sequences and functional annotation with three database components, each addressing a key need in protein bioinformatics. The UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB), comprising the manually annotated UniProtKBSwiss-Prot section and the automatically annotated UniProtKBTrEMBL section, is the preeminent storehouse of protein annotation. The extensive cross-references, functional and feature annotations, and literature-based evidence attribution enable scientists to analyze proteins and query across databases. The UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) speed similarity searches via sequence space compression by merging sequences that are 100% (UniRef100), 90% (UniRef90), or 50% (UniRef50) identical. Finally, the UniProt Archive (UniParc) stores all publicly available protein sequences, containing the history of sequence data with links to the source databases. The UniProt databases continue to grow in size and in availability of information. New download availability includes all major releases of UniProtKB, sequence collections by taxonomic division, and complete proteomes. A bibliography mapping service has been added, and an ID mapping service is available.
    6.33
    6 votes
    16

    Electron temperature

    If the velocities of a group of electrons, e.g., in a plasma, follow a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, then the electron temperature is well-defined as the temperature of that distribution. For other distributions, two-thirds of the average energy is often referred to as the temperature, since for a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with three degrees of freedom, . The SI unit of temperature is the kelvin (K), but using the above relation the electron temperature is often expressed in terms of the energy unit electronvolt (eV). Each kelvin (1 K) corresponds to 8.617343(15)×10 eV; this factor is the ratio of the Boltzmann constant to the elementary charge. The electron temperature of a plasma can be several orders of magnitude higher than the temperature of the neutral species or of the ions. This is a result of two facts. Firstly, many plasma sources heat the electrons more strongly than the ions. Secondly, atoms and ions are much heavier than electrons, and energy transfer in a two-body collision is much more efficient if the masses are similar.
    7.20
    5 votes
    17
    BioCyc : Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    BioCyc : Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    BioCyc is a collection of 371 Pathway/Genome Databases. Each Pathway/Genome Database in the BioCyc collection describes the genome and metabolic pathways of a single organism, with the exception of the MetaCyc database, which is a reference source on metabolic pathways from many organisms. To learn more about BioCyc, read the Introduction to BioCyc or watch our free online instructional videos. The BioCyc databases are divided into three tiers, based on their quality. BioCyc Tier 1: Intensively Curated Databases  EcoCyc Escherichia coli K-12  MetaCyc Metabolic pathways and enzymes from more than 900 organisms The  BioCyc Open Chemical Database is also an intensively curated database. It is an open database of chemical compounds from other BioCyc databases. Because it contains chemical compounds only, it is not a Pathway/Genome Database. BioCyc Tier 2: Computationally-Derived Databases Subject to Moderate Curation 20 databases are available. [list of tier 2 DBs] BioCyc Tier 3: Computationally-Derived Databases Subject to No Curation 349 databases are available and ready for adoption [more] by interested scientists for curation and updating. PGDBs in Tier 3 were produced as a collaboration between the groups of Peter D. Karp at SRI International and Christos Ouzounis at the European Bioinformatics Institute. [list of tier 3 DBs]
    8.25
    4 votes
    18
    Stream bed

    Stream bed

    A stream bed is the channel bottom of a stream, river or creek; the physical confine of the normal water flow. The lateral confines or channel margins, during all but flood stage, are known as the stream banks or river banks. In fact, a flood occurs when a stream overflows its banks and flows onto its flood plain. As a general rule, the bed is that part of the channel, just at the "normal" water line and the banks are that part above the water line. However, because water flow varies, this differentiation is subject to local interpretation. Usually, the bed is kept clear of terrestrial vegetation, whereas the banks are subjected to water flow only during unusual or perhaps infrequent high water stages and therefore, might support vegetation some or much of the time. The descriptive terms "right bank" and "left bank" are relative to an observer looking downstream, in which the right bank is to the observer's right, and vice versa. A famous example of this is the naming of the two sides of the river Seine in Paris. The nature of any stream bed is always a function of the flow dynamics and the local geologic materials, influenced by that flow. With small streams in mesophytic regions,
    8.25
    4 votes
    19
    Interview

    Interview

    An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. "Definition" - The qualitative research interview seeks to describe and the meanings of central themes in the life world of the subjects. The main task in interviewing is to understand the meaning of what the interviewees say.(Kvale,1996) Several publications give prominence to interviews, including:
    6.17
    6 votes
    20
    Azimuth

    Azimuth

    An azimuth (/ˈæzɪməθ/; from Arabic السمت as‑samt, meaning "a way, a part, or quarter") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth. An example of an azimuth is the measurement of the position of a star in the sky. The star is the point of interest, the reference plane is the horizon or the surface of the sea, and the reference vector points to the north. The azimuth is the angle between the north point and the perpendicular projection of the star down onto the horizon. Azimuth is usually measured in degrees (°). The concept is used in many practical applications including navigation, astronomy, engineering, mapping, mining and artillery. In land navigation, azimuth is usually denoted as alpha, , and defined as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line or meridian. Azimuth has also been more generally defined as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from any fixed reference plane or easily established base direction line. Today, the
    7.00
    5 votes
    21
    DrugBank

    DrugBank

    The DrugBank database, available at the University of Alberta, is a bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i.e., chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e., sequence, structure, pathway) information. The database contains nearly 4800 drug entries including: More than 2500 protein (i.e., drug target, non-redundant) sequences are linked to these drug entries. Each DrugCard entry contains 148 data fields with half of the information being devoted to drug/chemical data and the other half devoted to drug target or protein data. It is maintained by David Wishart and Craig Knox. Users may query DrugBank in a number of ways:
    7.00
    5 votes
    22
    Entropy

    Entropy

    In classical statistical mechanics, the entropy function earlier introduced by Clausius is changed to statistical entropy using probability theory. The statistical entropy perspective was introduced in 1870 with the work of the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann. The macroscopic state of the system is defined by a distribution on the microstates that are accessible to a system in the course of its thermal fluctuations. So the entropy is defined over two different levels of description of the given system. The entropy is given by the Gibbs entropy formula, named after J. Willard Gibbs. For a classical system (i.e., a collection of classical particles) with a discrete set of microstates, if is the energy of microstate i, and is its probability that it occurs during the system's fluctuations, then the entropy of the system is The quantity is a physical constant known as Boltzmann's constant, which, like the entropy, has units of heat capacity. The logarithm is dimensionless. This definition remains valid even when the system is far away from equilibrium. Other definitions assume that the system is in thermal equilibrium, either as an isolated system, or as a system in exchange
    7.00
    5 votes
    23
    Frequency

    Frequency

    Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency. The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period (the interval between beats) is half a second. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics, acoustics, and radio, frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by a Greek letter ν (nu). In SI units, the unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz), named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz: 1 Hz means that an event repeats once per second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated RPM. 60 RPM equals one hertz. The period, usually denoted by T, is the length of time taken by one cycle, and is the reciprocal of the frequency f: The SI unit for period is the second. Calculating the frequency of a repeating event
    7.00
    5 votes
    24
    Computer terminal

    Computer terminal

    A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. Early terminals were inexpensive devices but very slow compared to punched cards or paper tape for input, but as the technology improved and video displays were introduced, terminals pushed these older forms of interaction from the industry. A related development was timesharing systems, which evolved in parallel and made up for any inefficiencies of the user's typing ability with the ability to support multiple users on the same machine, each at their own terminal. The function of a terminal is confined to display and input of data; a device with significant local programmable data processing capability may be called a "smart terminal" or fat client. A terminal that depends on the host computer for its processing power is called a dumb terminal or thin client. A personal computer can run terminal emulator software that replicates the function of a terminal, sometimes allowing concurrent use of local programs and access to a distant terminal host system. Early user terminals connected to computers were
    8.00
    4 votes
    25

    Deus Ex

    Deus Ex ( /ˌdeɪ.əs ˈɛks/ DAY-əs EKS) is a cyberpunk-themed action-role playing video game — combining first-person shooter, stealth and role-playing elements — developed by Ion Storm and published by Eidos Interactive in 2000. First published for personal computers running Windows, Deus Ex was later ported to Macintosh systems, as well the PlayStation 2 game console. Set in a dystopian world during the year 2052, the central plot follows rookie United Nations Anti-Terrorist Coalition agent JC Denton, as he sets out to combat terrorist forces, which have become increasingly prevalent in a world slipping ever further into chaos. As the plot unfolds, Denton becomes entangled in a deep and ancient conspiracy, encountering organizations such as Majestic 12, the Illuminati, and the Hong Kong Triads throughout his journey. The game received universal critical and industry acclaim, including being named "Best PC Game of All Time" in PC Gamer's Top 100 PC Games and in a poll carried out by UK gaming magazine PC Zone. It was a frequent candidate for and winner of Game of the Year awards, drawing praise for its pioneering designs in player choice and multiple narrative paths. It has sold more
    8.00
    4 votes
    26
    Electric current

    Electric current

    Electric current is a flow of electric charge through a conductive medium. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in a plasma. The SI unit for measuring the rate of flow of electric charge is the ampere, which is charge flowing through some surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using an ammeter. The conventional symbol for current is , which originates from the French phrase intensité de courant, or in English current intensity. This phrase is frequently used when discussing the value of an electric current, especially in older texts; modern practice often shortens this to simply current but current intensity is still used in many recent textbooks. The symbol was used by André-Marie Ampère, after whom the unit of electric current is named, in formulating the eponymous Ampère's force law which he discovered in 1820. The notation travelled from France to Britain, where it became standard, although at least one journal did not change from using to until 1896. In metallic solids, electric charge flows by means of
    8.00
    4 votes
    27
    Polarimeter

    Polarimeter

    A polarimeter is a scientific instrument used to measure the angle of rotation caused by passing polarized light through an optically active substance. Some chemical substances are optically active, and polarized (unidirectional) light will rotate either to the left (counter-clockwise) or right (clockwise) when passed through these substances. The amount by which the light is rotated is known as the angle of rotation. Polarization by reflection was discovered in 1808 by Étienne-Louis Malus (1775–1812). The polarimeter is made up of two Nicol prisms (the polarizer and analyzer). The polarizer is fixed and the analyzer can be rotated. The prisms may be compared to as slits S1 and S2. The light waves may be considered to correspond to waves in the string. The polarizer S1 allows only those light waves which move in a single plane. This causes the light to become plane polarized. When the analyzer is also placed in a similar position it allows the light waves coming from the polarizer to pass through it. When it is rotated through the right angle no waves can pass through the right angle and the field appears to be dark. If now a glass tube containing an optically active solution is
    8.00
    4 votes
    28
    Electric field

    Electric field

    An electric field is the region of space surrounding electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field depicts the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically charged particle the field is surrounding. The concept of an electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday. The electric field is a vector field with SI units of newtons per coulomb (N C) or, equivalently, volts per metre (V m). The SI base units of the electric field are kg·m·s·A. The strength or magnitude of the field at a given point is defined as the force that would be exerted on a positive test charge of 1 coulomb placed at that point; the direction of the field is given by the direction of that force. Electric fields contain electrical energy with energy density proportional to the square of the field amplitude. The electric field is to charge as gravitational acceleration is to mass and force density is to volume. An electric field that changes with time, such as due to the motion of charged particles in the field, influences the local magnetic field. That is, the electric and magnetic fields are not completely separate phenomena; what one observer
    6.80
    5 votes
    29

    XPath

    XPath (XML Path Language) is a language for selecting nodes from an XML document. In addition, XPath may be used to compute values (strings, numbers, or boolean values) from the content of an XML document. The current version of the language is XPath 2.0, but version 1.0 is still more widely used. The XPath language is based on a tree representation of the XML document, and provides the ability to navigate around the tree, selecting nodes by a variety of criteria. In popular use (though not in the official specification), an XPath expression is often referred to simply as an XPath. Originally motivated by a desire to provide a common syntax and behavior model between XPointer and XSLT, subsets of the XPath query language are used in other W3C specifications such as XML Schema and XForms. The most important kind of expression in XPath is a location path. A location path consists of a sequence of location steps. Each location step has three components: An XPath expression is evaluated with respect to a context node. An Axis Specifier such as 'child' or 'descendant' specifies the direction to navigate from the context node. The node test and the predicate are used to filter the nodes
    6.80
    5 votes
    30
    Album

    Album

    An album is a book used for the collection and preservation of miscellaneous items such as photographs, postage stamps, newspaper clippings, visitors' comments, etc. The word later became widely used to describe a collection of audio recordings of pieces of music on a single gramophone record, cassette, compact disc, or via digital distribution. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums. When long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album; the word was extended to other recording media such as compact disc, MiniDisc, Compact audio cassette, and digital or MP3 albums, as they were introduced. The word derives from a Classical Latin word for a blank (albus=white) tablet, later a list. Audio albums in physical form are often provided with decorative covers (cover art) and liner notes and inserts about the music and recording, giving background information and analysis of the recording, lyrics and librettos, images of the performers, and other images and text. When supplied with
    7.75
    4 votes
    31

    Concept

    A concept is a general idea, or something conceived in the mind. John Locke's description of a general idea corresponds to a description of a concept. According to Locke, a general idea is created by abstracting, drawing away, or removing the uncommon characteristic or characteristics from several particular ideas. The remaining common characteristic is that which is similar to all of the different individuals. For example, the abstract general idea or concept that is designated by the word "red" is that characteristic which is common to apples, cherries, and blood. The abstract general idea or concept that is signified by the word "dog" is the collection of those characteristics which are common to Airedales, Collies, and Chihuahuas. John Stuart Mill argued that general conceptions are formed through abstraction. A general conception is the common element among the many images of members of a class. "...[W]hen we form a set of phenomena into a class, that is, when we compare them with one another to ascertain in what they agree, some general conception is implied in this mental operation" (A System of Logic, Book IV, Ch. II). Mill did not believe that concepts exist in the mind
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    KEGG : Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    KEGG : Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    A grand challenge in the post-genomic era is a complete computer representation of the cell, the organism, and the biosphere, which will enable computational prediction of higher-level complexity of cellular processes and organism behaviors from genomic and molecular information. Towards this end we have been developing a bioinformatics resource named KEGG as part of the research projects of the Kanehisa Laboratories in the Bioinformatics Center of Kyoto University and the Human Genome Center of the University of Tokyo.
    7.75
    4 votes
    33
    Power

    Power

    In physics, power is the rate at which energy is transferred, used, or transformed. The unit of power is the joule per second (J/s), known as the watt (in honor of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the steam engine). For example, the rate at which a light bulb transforms electrical energy into heat and light is measured in watts—the more wattage, the more power, or equivalently the more electrical energy is used per unit time. Energy transfer can be used to do work, so power is also the rate at which this work is performed. The same amount of work is done when carrying a load up a flight of stairs whether the person carrying it walks or runs, but more power is expended during the running because the work is done in a shorter amount of time. The output power of an electric motor is the product of the torque the motor generates and the angular velocity of its output shaft. The power expended to move a vehicle is the product of the traction force of the wheels and the velocity of the vehicle. The integral of power over time defines the work done. Because this integral depends on the trajectory of the point of application of the force and torque, this calculation of work
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    4 votes
    34

    Brief

    A brief (Latin "brevis", short) is a written legal document used in various legal adversarial systems that is presented to a court arguing why the party to the case should prevail. In England and Wales, the phrase refers to the papers given to a barrister when they are instructed. The brief or memorandum establishes the legal argument for the party, explaining why the reviewing court should affirm or reverse the lower court's judgment based on legal precedent and citations to the controlling cases or statutory law. To achieve these ends, the brief must appeal to the accepted forces such as statutory law or precedent, but may also include policy arguments and social statistics when appropriate. For example if the law is vague or broad enough to allow the appellate judge some discretion in his decision making, an exploration of the consequences of the possible decision outside of legal formalism may provide guidance. Such arguments may also support a legal argument when the purpose of the law at issue may be clear, but the particular application of that law in service of that purpose is in dispute. The party filing the appeal — called the petitioner or appellant, who is attempting to
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    35
    Profession

    Profession

    A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain. Classically, there were only three : divinity, medicine, and law—the so-called "learned professions." The main milestones which mark an occupation being identified as a profession are: With the rise of technology and occupational specialization in the 19th century, other bodies began to claim professional status: pharmacy, veterinary medicine, nursing, teaching, librarianship, optometry and social work, all of which could claim, using these milestones, to be professions by 1900. Just as some professions rise in status and power through various stages, so others may decline. This is characterized by the red cloaks of bishops giving way to the black cloaks of lawyers and then to the white cloaks of doctors. More recently formalized disciplines, such as architecture, now have equally long periods of study associated with them. Although professions enjoy high status and public prestige, not all professionals earn high salaries, and even within
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    36
    Waterfall

    Waterfall

    A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young. At these times the channel is often narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, while downstream the erosion occurs more rapidly. As the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the watercourse increase the erosion capacity. This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bed and to recede upstream. Often over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it. The rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one and half meters per year. Often, the rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback will occur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rock shelter under and behind
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    4 votes
    37
    Astronomical object

    Astronomical object

    Astronomical objects or celestial objects are naturally occurring physical entities, associations or structures that current science has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe. The term astronomical object is sometimes used interchangeably with astronomical body. Typically an astronomical (celestial) body refers to a single, cohesive structure that is bound together by gravity (and sometimes by electromagnetism). Examples include the asteroids, moons, planets and the stars. Astronomical objects are gravitationally bound structures that are associated with a position in space, but may consist of multiple independent astronomical bodies or objects. These objects range from single planets to star clusters, nebulae or entire galaxies. A comet may be described as a body, in reference to the frozen nucleus of ice and dust, or as an object, when describing the nucleus with its diffuse coma and tail. The universe can be viewed as having a hierarchical structure. At the largest scales, the fundamental component of assembly is the galaxy, which are assembled out of dwarf galaxies. The galaxies are organized into groups and clusters, often within larger superclusters, that are
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    Map

    Map

    A map is a visual representation of an area – a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes. Many maps are static two-dimensional, geometrically accurate (or approximately accurate) representations of three-dimensional space, while others are dynamic or interactive, even three-dimensional. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or imagined, without regard to context or scale; e.g. brain mapping, DNA mapping, and extraterrestrial mapping. Cartography or map-making is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface (see History of cartography), and one who makes maps is called a cartographer. Road maps are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have
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    39
    Organization

    Organization

    An organization (or organisation – see spelling differences) is a social entity that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the better-known word ergon which means "organ" – a compartment for a particular task. There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and universities. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. In the social sciences, organizations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management, and organizational communication. The broader analysis of organizations is commonly referred to as organizational structure, organizational studies, organizational behavior, or organization analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible: Sociology can be
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    3 votes
    40
    Patent

    Patent

    A patent (/ˈpætənt/ or /ˈpeɪtənt/) is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. The procedure for granting patents, the requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims defining the invention which must meet the relevant patentability requirements such as novelty and non-obviousness. The exclusive right granted to a patentee in most countries is the right to prevent others from making, using, selling, or distributing the patented invention without permission. Under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, patents should be available in WTO member states for any invention, in all fields of technology, and the term of protection available should be a minimum of twenty years. In many countries, certain subject areas are excluded from patents, such as business
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    3 votes
    41
    Legal aid

    Legal aid

    Legal aid is the provision of assistance to people otherwise unable to afford legal representation and access to the court system. Legal aid is regarded as central in providing access to justice by ensuring equality before the law, the right to counsel and the right to a fair trial. A number of delivery models for legal aid have emerged, including duty lawyers, community legal clinics and the payment of lawyers to deal with cases for individuals who are entitled to legal aid. Legal aid has a close relationship with the welfare state and the provision of legal aid by a state is influenced by attitudes towards welfare. Legal aid is a welfare provision by the state to people who could otherwise not afford access to the legal system. Legal aid also helps to ensure that welfare provisions are enforced by providing people entitled to welfare provisions, such as social housing, with access to legal advice and the courts. Historically legal aid has played a strong role in ensuring respect for economic, social and cultural rights which are engaged in relation to social security, housing, social care, health and education service provision, which may be provided publicly or privately, as
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    Place

    The United States Census Bureau defines the term place as a concentration of population. The types of places defined by the Census Bureau are incorporated place, such as a city, town or village, and census designated place (CDP), which resembles a city, town or village but lacks its own government. The concentration of population must have a name, be locally recognized, and not be part of any other place. Places typically have a residential nucleus, a closely spaced street pattern and frequently have commercial or other urban types of land use. Incorporated places are defined by the laws of the states that they are in. The Census Bureau designates criteria for delineating CDPs. A small settlement in the open countryside or the densely settled fringe of a large city may not be a place as defined by the Census Bureau. As of the 1990 Census, only 26% of the people in the United States lived outside of places. An incorporated place, under the Census Bureau's definition, is a type of governmental unit incorporated under state law as a city, town (except the New England states, New York, and Wisconsin), borough (except in Alaska and New York), or village and having legally prescribed
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    Circle of latitude

    Circle of latitude

    A circle of latitude, on the Earth, is an imaginary east-west circle connecting all locations (not taking into account elevation) that share a given latitude. A location's position along a circle of latitude is given by its longitude. Circles of latitude are often called parallels because they are parallel to each other – that is, any two given parallels are everywhere the same distance apart. (Since the Earth isn't spherical the distance from the equator to 10 degrees north is less than the distance from 10 to 20 degrees north. On some map projections, including the Equirectangular projection, they are drawn equidistant.) Circles of latitude become smaller the farther they are from the equator and the closer they are to the poles. A circle of latitude is perpendicular to all meridians, and is hence a special case of a loxodrome. A circle of latitude on Earth is represented by the angle between the Equator and the circle, with the angle's vertex at the Earth's centre. The Equator is at 0°, and the North and South Pole are at 90° north and 90° south respectively. There are 89 integral (whole degree) circles of latitude between the Equator and the Poles in each hemisphere, but these
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    Gawker Media

    Gawker Media is an American online media company and blog network, founded and owned by Nick Denton based in New York City. It is considered to be one of the most visible and successful blog-oriented media companies. As of March 2012, it is the parent company for 8 different weblogs: Gawker.com, Deadspin, Lifehacker, Gizmodo, io9, Kotaku, Jalopnik, and Jezebel. All Gawker articles are licensed on a Creative Commons attribution-NonCommercial license. While Denton does not go into detail over Gawker Media's finances, he has downplayed the profit potential of blogs, declaring that "[b]logs are likely to be better for readers than for capitalists. While I love the medium, I've always been skeptical about the value of blogs as businesses," on his personal site. However, in the February 20, 2006 issue of New York Magazine, Jossip founder David Hauslaib estimated Gawker.com's annual advertising revenue to be at least $1 million two years ago, and possibly over $2 million a year. Combined with low operating costs — mostly web hosting fees and writer salaries — Denton was already believed to be turning a healthy profit in 2006. In 2009, the corporation was estimated to be worth $300
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    4 votes
    45

    Mailing list

    A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. The term is often extended to include the people subscribed to such a list, so the group of subscribers is referred to as "the mailing list", or simply "the list". At least two types of mailing lists can be defined: an announcement list is closer to the original sense, where a "mailing list" of people was used as a recipient for newsletters, periodicals or advertising. Traditionally this was done through the postal system, but with the rise of email, the electronic mailing list became popular. The second type allows members to post their own items which are broadcast to all of the other mailing list members. This second category is usually known as a discussion list. When similar or identical material is sent out to all subscribers on a mailing list, it is often referred to as a mailshot or a blast. A list for such use can also be referred to as a distribution list. In legitimate (non-spam) mailing lists, individuals can subscribe or unsubscribe themselves. Mailing lists are often rented or sold. If rented, the renter agrees to use the mailing list
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    Public company

    This is not the same as a government-owned corporation. A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company or public limited company (in the United Kingdom) is a limited liability company that offers its securities (stock/shares, bonds/loans, etc.) for sale to the general public, typically through a stock exchange, or through market makers operating in over the counter markets. Public companies, including public limited companies, can be either unlisted or listed on a stock exchange depending on their size and local legislation. Government-owned corporations (also known as publicly owned companies) are also sometimes called public companies, but are quite different. Usually, the securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a privately held company are owned by relatively few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not necessarily a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; companies that report under the 1934 Act are generally deemed public companies. The first company to issue shares is
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    Author

    An author is broadly defined as "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created. Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work. In copyright law, there is a necessity for little flexibility as to what constitutes authorship. The United States Copyright Office defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U.S. Code) to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, [or] certain other intellectual works" give rights to this person, the owner of the copyright, exclusive right to do or authorize any production or distribution of their work. Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, and often will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright law has been amended time and time again since the inception of the
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    Telescope

    Telescope

    A telescope is an instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light). The first known practical telescopes were invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, using glass lenses. They found use in terrestrial applications and astronomy. Within a few decades, the reflecting telescope was invented, which used mirrors. In the 20th century many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s. The word telescope now refers to a wide range of instruments detecting different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in some cases other types of detectors. The word "telescope" (from the Greek τῆλε, tele "far" and σκοπεῖν, skopein "to look or see"; τηλεσκόπος, teleskopos "far-seeing") was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei. In the Starry Messenger Galileo had used the term "perspicillum". The earliest recorded working telescopes were the refracting telescopes that appeared in the Netherlands in 1608. Their
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    Velocity

    Velocity

    In kinematics, velocity is the rate of change of the position of an object, equivalent to a specification of its speed and direction of motion. Speed describes only how fast an object is moving, whereas velocity gives both how fast and in what direction the object is moving. If a car is said to travel at 60 km/h, its speed has been specified. However, if the car is said to move at 60 km/h to the north, its velocity has now been specified. To have a constant velocity, an object must have a constant speed in a constant direction. Constant direction constrains the object to motion in a straight path (the object's path does not curve). Thus, a constant velocity means motion in a straight line at a constant speed. If there is a change in speed, direction, or both, then the object is said to have a changing velocity and is accelerating. For example, a car moving at a constant 20 kilometres per hour in a circular path has a constant speed, but does not have a constant velocity because its direction is changing. Hence, it considered to be accelerating. Velocity is a vector physical quantity; both magnitude and direction are required to define it. The scalar absolute value (magnitude) of
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    50
    SKOS

    SKOS

    Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a family of formal languages designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary. SKOS is built upon RDF and RDFS, and its main objective is to enable easy publication of controlled structured vocabularies for the Semantic Web. SKOS is currently developed within the W3C framework. The most direct ancestor to SKOS was the RDF Thesaurus work undertaken in the second phase of the EU DESIRE project . Motivated by the need to improve the user interface and usability of multi-service browsing and searching, a basic RDF vocabulary for Thesauri was produced. As noted later in the SWAD-Europe workplan, the DESIRE work was adopted and further developed in the SOSIG and LIMBER projects. A version of the DESIRE/SOSIG implementation was described in W3C's QL'98 workshop, motivating early work on RDF rule and query languages: A Query and Inference Service for RDF. SKOS built upon the output of the Language Independent Metadata Browsing of European Resources (LIMBER) project funded by the European Community, and part of the Information Society
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    51

    Chapter

    A chapter is one of the main divisions of a piece of writing of relative length, such as a book of prose, poetry, or law. In each case, chapters can be numbered or titled or both. An example of a chapter that has become well known is "Down the Rabbit-Hole", which is the first chapter from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. The "§" symbol is commonly used to represent a chapter. In works of fiction, authors sometimes number their chapters eccentrically, often as a metafictional statement. For example: Many novels of great length have chapters. Non-fiction books, especially those used for reference, almost always have chapters for ease of navigation. In these works, chapters are often subdivided into sections. The chapters of reference works are almost always listed in a table of contents. Novels sometimes use a table of contents, but not always. In ancient civilizations, books were often in the form of papyrus or parchment scrolls, which contained about the same amount of text as a typical chapter in a modern book. This is the reason chapters in recent reproductions and translations of works of these periods are often presented as "Book 1", "Book 2" etc.
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    Source function

    The source function is a characteristic of a stellar atmosphere, and in the case of no scattering of photons, describes the ratio of the emission coefficient to the absorption coefficient. It is a measure of how photons in a light beam are removed and replaced by new photons by the material it passes through. Its units in the cgs-system are erg s cm sr Hz and in SI are W m sr Hz . The source function can be written where is the emission coefficient, is the absorption coefficient (also known as the opacity). Putting this into the equation for radiative transfer we get where s is the distance measured along the path traveled by the beam. The minus sign on the left hand side shows that the intensity decreases as the beam travels, due to the absorption of photons.
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    Data file

    A data file is a computer file which stores data to use by a computer application or system. It generally does not refer to files that contain instructions or code to be executed (typically called program files), or to files which define the operation or structure of an application or system (which include configuration files, directory files, etc.); but specifically to information used as input, or written as output by some other software program. This is especially helpful when debugging a program. Most computer programs work with files. This is because files help in storing information permanently. Database programs create files of information. Compilers read source files and generate executable files. A file itself is a bunch of bytes stored on some storage device like tape, magnetic disk, Optical disk etc. The data files are the files that store data pertaining to a specific application, for later use. The data files can be stored in two ways: A text file (also called ASCII files) stores information in ASCII characters. A text file contains visible characters. We can see the contents of file on the monitor or edit it using any of the text editors. In text files, each line of
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    Goodness of fit

    The goodness of fit of a statistical model describes how well it fits a set of observations. Measures of goodness of fit typically summarize the discrepancy between observed values and the values expected under the model in question. Such measures can be used in statistical hypothesis testing, e.g. to test for normality of residuals, to test whether two samples are drawn from identical distributions (see Kolmogorov–Smirnov test), or whether outcome frequencies follow a specified distribution (see Pearson's chi-squared test). In the analysis of variance, one of the components into which the variance is partitioned may be a lack-of-fit sum of squares. In assessing whether a given distribution is suited to a data-set, the following tests and their underlying measures of fit can be used: In regression analysis, the following topics relate to goodness of fit: One way in which a measure of goodness of fit statistic can be constructed, in the case where the variance of the measurement error is known, is to construct a weighted sum of squared errors: where is the known variance of the observation, O is the observed data and E is the theoretical data. This definition is only useful when
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    55
    STITCH : Chemical-Protein Interactions

    STITCH : Chemical-Protein Interactions

    STITCH is a resource to explore known and predicted interactions of chemicals and proteins. Chemicals are linked to other chemicals and proteins by evidence derived from experiments, databases and the literature. STITCH contains interactions for over 74,000 small molecules and over 2.5 million proteins in 630 organisms.
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    56

    Track

    On an optical disc, a track (CD) or title (DVD) is a subdivision of its content. Specifically, it is a consecutive set of sectors on the disc containing a block of data. One session may contain one or more tracks of the same or different types. There are several kinds of tracks, and there is also a sub-track index for finding points within a track. One song usually comprises one audio track, containing audio in the form of raw PCM samples in 16 bit/44.1 kHz resolution in 2 channels, and a subcode multiplexed with the audio data. In this mode, each sector (called a frame) consists of 2352 bytes of audio data (1176 16-bit samples, or 588 stereo samples, which equals 1/75 second of audio (therefore SMPTE time code equivalent for the audio data consists of hour:minute:sec:frame, where frame ranges from 0 to 74). CIRC error correction is used for the data. Each sector consists of a sequence of frames. These frames, when read from the disc, are made of a 24-bit synchronization pattern with the constant sequence 1000-0000-0001-0000-0000-0010, not present anywhere else on the disc, separated by three merging bits, followed by 33 bytes in EFM encoding, each followed by 3 merge bits. This
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    57
    Tree

    Tree

    A tree is a perennial woody plant. It typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by a single, self-supporting main stem or trunk. This contains woody tissue for strength and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. Below the ground the roots branch and spread out widely. They serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. The branches divide into smaller branches and shoots. These typically bear leaves, which contain chlorophyll. Chlorophyll converts light energy into chemical energy by photosynthesis, providing the food needed by the tree for its growth and development. Flowers and fruit may also be present. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. The tallest known specimen on Earth is 115.6 m (379 ft) and they have a theoretical maximum height of 130m (426 ft). Trees have been in existence on the Earth for 370 million years and are found growing worldwide wherever the climate permits. Trees are not a taxonomic group but are a number of plant species that have independently
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    58
    Academic journal

    Academic journal

    An academic journal is a peer-reviewed periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as forums for the introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research, and the critique of existing research. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; their specific aspects are separately discussed. There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, and unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer
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    Latitude

    Latitude

    In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles. Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Since the actual physical surface of the Earth is too complex for mathematical analysis two levels of abstraction are employed in the definition of these coordinates. In the first step the physical surface is modelled by the geoid, a surface which approximates the mean sea level over the oceans and its continuation under the land masses. The second step is to approximate the geoid by a mathematically simpler reference surface. The simplest choice for the reference surface is a sphere, but the geoid is more accurately modelled by an ellipsoid. The definitions of latitude and longitude on such reference surfaces are detailed in the following sections. Lines of constant latitude and longitude together constitute a graticule on the reference surface.
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    60

    Photometer

    In its widest sense, a photometer is an instrument for measuring light intensity or optical properties of solutions or surfaces. Photometers are used to measure: Before electronic light sensitive elements were developed, photometry was done by estimation by the eye. The relative luminous flux of a source was compared with a standard source. The photometer is placed such that the illuminance from the source being investigated is equal to that of the standard source as equal illuminance can be judged by the eye. The relative luminous fluxes can then be calculated as the illuminance decreases proportionally to the inverse square of distance. A standard example of such a photometer consists of a piece of paper with an oil spot on it that makes the paper there slightly more transparent. When the spot is not visible from either side, the illuminance from the two sides is equal. Most photometers detect the light with photoresistors, photodiodes or photomultipliers. To analyze the light, the photometer may measure the light after it has passed through a filter or through a monochromator for determination at defined wavelengths or for analysis of the spectral distribution of the light. Some
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    61
    Radar

    Radar

    Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. The object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is usually located at the same site as the transmitter. Radar was secretly developed by several nations before and during World War II. The term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging. The term radar has since entered English and other languages as the common noun radar, losing all capitalization. The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems; marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships; aircraft anticollision systems; ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems; meteorological precipitation monitoring; altimetry and flight control systems; guided missile target locating
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    62
    Building

    Building

    In architecture, construction, engineering, real estate development and technology the word building may refer to one of the following: In this article, the first usage is generally intended unless otherwise specified. Buildings come in a wide amount of shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. Buildings serve several needs of society – primarily as shelter from weather and as general living space, to provide privacy, to store belongings and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the outside (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful). Ever since the first cave paintings, buildings have also become objects or canvasess of artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has also become part of the design process of many new buildings. Building is defined in many aspects as: To differentiate buildings in the usage of this article from other buildings and
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    Como

    Como

    Como  listen (help·info) (Lombard: Còmm; Latin: Comum) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy. It is the administrative capital of the Province of Como. Its proximity to Lake Como and to the Alps has made Como a popular tourist destination and the city contains numerous works of art, churches, gardens, museums, theatres, parks and palaces: the Duomo (seat of Diocese of Como), the Basilica of Sant'Abbondio, the Villa Olmo, the public gardens with the Tempio Voltiano, the Teatro Sociale, the Broletto (the city’s medieval town hall) and the 20th century Casa del Fascio. Como was the birthplace of many historically notable figures, including the (somewhat obscure) poet Caecilius who is mentioned by Catullus in the 1st century BCE, the far more substantial literary figures of Pliny the Elder and the Younger, Pope Innocent XI, the scientist Alessandro Volta, and Cosima Liszt, second wife of Richard Wagner and long-term director of the Bayreuth Festival. The hills surrounding the current location of Como have been inhabited, since at least the Bronze Age, by a Celtic tribe known as the Orobii. Remains of settlements are still present on the wood covered hills to the South West of
    7.67
    3 votes
    64
    Hot dog

    Hot dog

    A hot dog is a sausage served in a sliced bun. It is very often garnished with mustard, ketchup, onions, mayonnaise, relish, cheese, chili and/or sauerkraut. Claims about hot dog invention are difficult to assess, as stories assert the creation of the sausage, the placing of the sausage (or another kind of sausage) on bread or a bun as finger food, the popularization of the existing dish, or the application of the name "hot dog" to a sausage and bun combination most commonly used with ketchup or mustard and sometimes relish. The word frankfurter comes from Frankfurt, Germany, where pork sausages served in a bun similar to hot dogs originated. These sausages, Frankfurter Würstchen, were known since the 13th century and given to the people on the event of imperial coronations, starting with the coronation of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor as King. Wiener refers to Vienna, Austria, whose German name is "Wien", home to a sausage made of a mixture of pork and beef (cf. Hamburger, whose name also derives from a German-speaking city). Johann Georg Lahner, a 18th/19th century butcher from the Franconian city of Coburg, is said to have brought the Frankfurter Würstchen to Vienna, where
    7.67
    3 votes
    65
    Interference filter

    Interference filter

    An interference filter or dichroic filter is an optical filter that reflects one or more spectral bands or lines and transmits others, while maintaining a nearly zero coefficient of absorption for all wavelengths of interest. An interference filter may be high-pass, low-pass, bandpass, or band-rejection. An interference filter consists of multiple thin layers of dielectric material having different refractive indices. There also may be metallic layers. In its broadest meaning, interference filters comprise also etalons that could be implemented as tunable interference filters. Interference filters are wavelength-selective by virtue of the interference effects that take place between the incident and reflected waves at the thin-film boundaries. The important characteristic of the filter is the form of the leaving signal. It is considered that the best form is a rectangle. Bandpass filters are normally designed for normal incidence. However, when the angle of incidence of the incoming light is increased from zero, the central wavelength of the filter decreases, resulting in partial tunability. The transmission band widens and the maximum transmission decreases. If λc is the central
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    Castle

    Castle

    A castle (from Latin castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. This is distinct from a palace, which is not fortified; from a fortress, which was not always a residence for nobility; and from a fortified settlement, which was a public defence – though there are many similarities among these types of construction. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls and arrowslits, were commonplace. A European innovation, castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes. These nobles built castles to control the area immediately surrounding them, and were both offensive and defensive structures; they provided a base from which raids could be launched
    10.00
    1 votes
    67
    ChEBI

    ChEBI

    Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, also known as ChEBI, is a database and ontology of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds, that is part of the Open Biomedical Ontologies effort. The term "molecular entity" refers to any "constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer, etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity". The molecular entities in question are either products of nature or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Molecules directly encoded by the genome, such as nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by proteolytic cleavage, are not as a rule included in ChEBI. ChEBI uses nomenclature, symbolism and terminology endorsed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB). All data in the database is non-proprietary or is derived from a non-proprietary source. It is thus freely accessible and available to anyone. In addition, each data item is fully traceable and explicitly referenced to the original
    10.00
    1 votes
    68
    Economy

    Economy

    An economy consists of the economic systems of a country or other area; the labor, capital, and land resources; and the manufacturing, production, trade, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area. A given economy is the result of a process that involves its technological evolution, history and social organization, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology, as main factors. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. A market based economy may be described as a spatially limited social network where goods and services are freely produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between participants (economic agents) by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network. Capital and labor can move freely across places, industries and firms in search of higher profits, dividends, interest, compensations and benefits. Rent on land allocates this generally fixed resource among competing users. Contemporary Capitalism is a market economy in which most of the production capacity is owned and directed by the private sector. Government role is
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    1 votes
    69

    Eurovoc

    Eurovoc is a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union. It exists in 22 official languages of the European Union (Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish), as well as Basque, Catalan, Croatian, Russian and Serbian. Eurovoc is used by the European Parliament, the Office for Official Publications of the European Union, the national and regional parliaments in Europe, some national government departments, and European organisations. It serves as the basis for the domain names used in the European Union's terminology database: Inter-Active Terminology for Europe.
    10.00
    1 votes
    70

    Geocode

    GEOCODE (Geospatial Entity Object Code) is a system that includes a patented geographic information transformation algorithm and a patented geospatial coordinate representation format. The standardized all-natural number representation format specification or geospatial coordinate, provides details of the exact location or geospatial point at, below, or above the surface of the earth at a specified moment of time. Geocode is patented under US Patents 6,681,231, approved July 26, 2003, and 7,107,286, approved May 4, 2006. Geocode is also a registered US Federal trademark, US Registration Number 3182988, approved December 12, 2006. Geocode is also a federally registered and copyrighted computer software program, US Registration Number TX-6-603-127, dated July 26, 1999. A Geocode representation format is a combination of some or all of the following geospatial attributes: Mandatory attributes included in the Geocode representation format are Latitude or Longitude and other measurement representations. All other attributes are voluntary.
    10.00
    1 votes
    71

    Linear mass density

    Linear mass density is a measurement, usually used on physics, of mass per length. Linear Mass Density is sometimes represented by the ᅫᄐ (mu) symbol. Acceptable units include:
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

    • Web Link(s): http://www.worship.co.za/pages/albums.asp
    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church or, colloquially, the Mormon Church) is a Christian primitivist church that considers itself to be a restoration of the church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, and has established congregations (called wards or branches) and built temples worldwide. With over 55,000 missionaries worldwide, the church currently has a membership of over 14.4 million and is ranked by the National Council of Churches as the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States. It is the largest church originating on American soil, and it is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement started by Joseph Smith during the period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening. Adherents, referred to as Latter-day Saints or, more informally, Mormons, view faith in Jesus Christ and his atonement as the central tenet of their religion. LDS theology includes the Christian doctrine of salvation only through Jesus Christ, though LDS doctrines regarding the nature of God and the potential of mankind differ significantly from mainstream Christianity. The church has an open canon
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Continent

    Continent

    A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, with seven regions commonly regarded as continents—they are (from largest in size to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. Sometimes Europe and Asia are recognized as a single continent, Eurasia. Plate tectonics is the geological process and study of the movement, collision and division of continents, earlier known as continental drift. Conventionally, "continents are understood to be large, continuous, discrete masses of land, ideally separated by expanses of water." Many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated by water. The criterion "large" leads to arbitrary classification: Greenland, with a surface area of 2,166,086 square kilometres (836,330 sq mi) is considered the world's largest island, while Australia, at 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is deemed to be a continent. Likewise, the ideal criterion that each be a continuous landmass is often disregarded by the inclusion of the continental shelf and
    6.50
    4 votes
    74
    European Bioinformatics Institute

    European Bioinformatics Institute

    The European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) is a centre for research and services in bioinformatics, and is part of European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). The roots of the EMBL-EBI lie in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library (now known as EMBL-Bank), which was established in 1980 at the EMBL laboratories in Heidelberg, Germany and was the world's first nucleotide sequence database. The original goal was to establish a central computer database of DNA sequences, rather than have scientists submit sequences to journals. What began as a modest task of abstracting information from literature soon became a major database activity with direct electronic submissions of data and the need for highly skilled informatics staff. The task grew in scale with the start of the genome projects, and grew in visibility as the data became relevant to research in the commercial sector. It soon became apparent that the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library needed better financial security to ensure its long-term viability and to cope with the sheer scale of the task. There was also a need for research and development to provide services, to collaborate with global partners to support the
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    4 votes
    75

    Radiance

    Radiance and spectral radiance are measures of the quantity of radiation that passes through or is emitted from a surface and falls within a given solid angle in a specified direction. They are used in radiometry to characterize diffuse emission and reflection of electromagnetic radiation. In astrophysics, radiance is also used to quantify emission of neutrinos and other particles. The SI unit of radiance is watts per steradian per square metre (W·sr·m), while that of spectral radiance is W·sr·m·Hz. Radiance characterizes total emission or reflection. Radiance is useful because it indicates how much of the power emitted by an emitting or reflecting surface will be received by an optical system looking at the surface from some angle of view. In this case, the solid angle of interest is the solid angle subtended by the optical system's entrance pupil. Since the eye is an optical system, radiance and its cousin luminance are good indicators of how bright an object will appear. For this reason, radiance and luminance are both sometimes called "brightness". This usage is now discouraged – see Brightness for a discussion. The nonstandard usage of "brightness" for "radiance" persists in
    6.50
    4 votes
    76

    SPARQL

    SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language, that is, a query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format. It was made a standard by the RDF Data Access Working Group (DAWG) of the World Wide Web Consortium, and considered as one of the key technologies of semantic web. On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation . SPARQL allows for a query to consist of triple patterns, conjunctions, disjunctions, and optional patterns. Implementations for multiple programming languages exist. "SPARQL will make a huge difference" according to Sir Tim Berners-Lee in a May 2006 interview. There exist tools that allow one to connect and semi-automatically construct a SPARQL query for a SPARQL endpoint, for example ViziQuer. In addition, there exist tools that translate SPARQL queries to other query languages, for example to SQL and to XQuery. SPARQL allows users to write unambiguous queries. For example, the following query returns names and emails of every person in the dataset: This query can be distributed to multiple SPARQL endpoints
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    4 votes
    77

    Website

    A website, also written as Web site, web site, or simply site, is a set of related web pages containing content such as text, images, video, audio, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. A webpage is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). A webpage may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Webpages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the webpage content. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the web address. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although hyperlinking between
    6.50
    4 votes
    78
    Version

    Version

    Software versioning is the process of assigning either unique version names or unique version numbers to unique states of computer software. Within a given version number category (major, minor), these numbers are generally assigned in increasing order and correspond to new developments in the software. At a fine-grained level, revision control is often used for keeping track of incrementally different versions of electronic information, whether or not this information is actually computer software. A variety of version numbering schemes have been created to keep track of different versions of a piece of software. The ubiquity of computers has also led to these schemes being used in contexts outside computing. In sequence-based software versioning schemes, each software release is assigned a unique identifier that consists of one or more sequences of numbers or letters. This is the extent of the commonality, however, schemes vary widely in areas such as the quantity of sequences, the attribution of meaning to individual sequences, and the means of incrementing the sequences. In some schemes, sequence-based identifiers are used to convey the significance of changes between releases:
    5.60
    5 votes
    79
    Chem2Bio2RDF : Semantic Web in Systems Chemical Biology

    Chem2Bio2RDF : Semantic Web in Systems Chemical Biology

    Recent advance in high throughput technique has generated biological data in myriad volumes, which simultaneously contributes to a newly emerged discipline -- system biology, which adopts comprehensive approach to study biological systems. Chemogenomics, as an integrated part of system biology, studies the impact of small molecules towards biological systems and carries datum description about interaction among chemical entities and protein molecules. The integration between chemical informatics and bioinformatics within the realm of system biology leads to a new synergetic subject, namely systems chemical biology(ref). However, the current de facto of chemical and biological data distribution impedes the growth of systems chemical biology due to heterogeneous formats used. This project is dedicated to address such challenges using existing semantic web technology, in particular bio2rdf, Linking open drug data. Beyond the generic scopes of these two initiatives, we are also planning to incorporate new semantic clauses to embed the core interests of system chemical biology, for instance chemical structural similarity and biological sequence similarity. Figure 1 shows the overall scope of systems chemical biology.
    8.50
    2 votes
    80
    Performance

    Performance

    A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which a performer or group of performers behave in a particular way for another group of people, the audience. Choral music and ballet are examples. Usually the performers participate in rehearsals beforehand. Afterwards audience members often applaud. The means of expressing appreciation can vary by culture. Chinese performers will clap with audience at the end of a performance; the return applause signals "thank you" to the audience. In Japan, folk performing arts performances commonly attract individuals who take photographs, sometimes getting up to the stage and within inches of performer's faces. Sometimes the dividing line between performer and the audience may become blurred, as in the example of "participatory theatre" where audience members get involved in the production. Theatrical performances can take place daily or at some other regular interval. Performances can take place at designated performance spaces (such as a theatre or concert hall), or in a non-conventional space, such as a subway station, on the street, or in someone's home. Examples of performance genres include: Music performance (a concert
    8.50
    2 votes
    81

    Repository

    Repository commonly refers to a location for storage, often for safety or preservation. Repository may also refer to:
    8.50
    2 votes
    82

    Collection

    A museum is distinguished by a collection of often unique objects that forms the core of its activities for exhibitions, education, research, etc. This differentiates it from an archive or library, where the contents may be more paper-based, replaceable and less exhibition oriented. A museum normally has a collecting policy for new acquisitions, so only objects in certain categories and of a certain quality are accepted into the collection. The process by which an object is formally included in the collection is called accessioning and each object is given a unique accession number. Museum collections, and archives in general, are normally catalogued in a collection catalogue, traditionally in a card index, but nowadays in a computerized database. Transferring collection catalogues onto computer-based media is a major undertaking for most museums. All new acquisitions are normally catalogued on a computer in modern museums, but there is typically a backlog of old catalogue entries to be computerized as time and funding allows. Museum collections are widely varied. There are collections of art, of scientific specimens, of historic objects, of living zoological specimens, of cheese
    7.33
    3 votes
    83
    DBpedia

    DBpedia

    DBpedia is a project aiming to extract structured content from the information created as part of the Wikipedia project. This structured information is then made available on the World Wide Web. DBpedia allows users to query relationships and properties associated with Wikipedia resources, including links to other related datasets. DBpedia has been described by Tim Berners-Lee as one of the more famous parts of the Linked Data project. The project was started by people at the Free University of Berlin and the University of Leipzig, in collaboration with OpenLink Software, and the first publicly available dataset was published in 2007. It is made available under free licences, allowing others to reuse the dataset. Wikipedia articles consist mostly of free text, but also include structured information embedded in the articles, such as "infobox" tables, categorisation information, images, geo-coordinates and links to external Web pages. This structured information is extracted and put in a uniform dataset which can be queried. As of September 2011, the DBpedia dataset describes more than 3.64 million things, out of which 1.83 million are classified in a consistent ontology, including
    7.33
    3 votes
    84

    Person

    A person is a being, such as a human, that has certain capacities or attributes constituting personhood, which in turn is defined differently by different authors in different disciplines, and less formally by different cultures in different times and places. In ancient Rome, the word "persona" (Latin) or "prosopon" (πρόσωπον: Greek) originally referred to the masks worn by actors on stage. The various masks represented the various "personae" in the stage play. The concept of a "person" was further developed during the Trinitarian and Christological debates of the first through sixth centuries. Since then, a number of important changes to the word's meaning and use have taken place, and attempts have been made to redefine the word with varying degrees of adoption and influence. In addition to the question of personhood, of what makes a being count as a person to begin with, there are further questions about personal identity: both about what makes any particular person that particular person instead of another, and about what makes a person at one time the same person as he or she was or will be at another time despite any intervening changes. The common plural of "person",
    7.33
    3 votes
    85

    Topic

    In linguistics, topic has a number of definitions. Among the most common are In an ordinary English sentence, the subject is normally the same as the topic. For example, the topic is emphasized in italics in the following sentences: Although these sentences mean the same thing, they have different topics. The first sentence is about the dog, while the second is about the little girl. In English it is also possible to use other sentence structures to show the topic of the sentence, as in the following: A distinction must be made between the clause-level topic and the discourse-level topic. Suppose we are talking about Mike's house: (6) Mike's house was so comfortable and warm! He really didn't want to leave, but he couldn't afford the rent, you know. And it had such a nice garden in the back! In the example, the discourse-level topic is established in the first sentence: it is Mike's house. In the following sentence, a new "local" topic is established on the sentence level: he (Mike). But the discourse-level topic is still Mike's house, which is why the last comment does not seem out of place. Languages have a number of different strategies for signaling the topic of the sentence.
    7.33
    3 votes
    86
    Density

    Density

    The mass density or density of a material is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho). Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is also defined as its weight per unit volume, although this quantity is more properly called specific weight. Different materials usually have different densities, so density is an important concept regarding buoyancy, purity and packaging. Osmium and iridium are the densest known elements at standard conditions for temperature and pressure but not the densest materials. Less dense fluids float on more dense fluids if they do not mix. This concept can be extended, with some care, to less dense solids floating on more dense fluids. If the average density (including any air below the waterline) of an object is less than water it will float in water and if it is more than water's it will sink in water. In some cases density is expressed as the dimensionless quantities specific gravity or relative density, in which case it is expressed in
    6.25
    4 votes
    87
    Plot

    Plot

    A plot is a graphical technique for representing a data set, usually as a graph showing the relationship between two or more variables. The plot can be drawn by hand or by a mechanical or electronic plotter. Graphs are a visual representation of the relationship between variables, very useful for humans who can quickly derive an understanding which would not come from lists of values. Graphs can also be used to read off the value of an unknown variable plotted as a function of a known one. Graphs of functions are used in mathematics, sciences, engineering, technology, finance, and other areas. Plots play an important role in statistics and data analysis. The procedures here can broadly be split into two parts: quantitative and graphical. Quantitative techniques are the set of statistical procedures that yield numeric or tabular output. Examples of quantitative techniques include: These and similar techniques are all valuable and are mainstream in terms of classical analysis. There are also many statistical tools generally referred to as graphical techniques. These include: Graphical procedures such as plots are a short path to gaining insight into a data set in terms of testing
    6.25
    4 votes
    88

    Science and technology

    Science and technology is a term of art used to encompass the relationship between science and technology. It frequently appears within titles of academic disciplines (science and technology studies) and government offices.
    6.25
    4 votes
    89

    SportsML-G2

    SportsML-G2 is an XML news exchange standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council. It optimizes the sharing of sports statistics and information such as schedules, results, standings, team statistics and individual statistics. SportsML-G2 can contain enough data and metadata to properly organize and describe almost any sporting event statistic. Special add-on modules are available for certain sports that are known for especially complex or rich statistics, such as baseball and American football. SportsML-G2 and its older sibling SportsML were originally intended for business-to-business data sharing between news agencies, newspapers, sports statistics databases other news-related parties. However, both standards have found a wider audience among sports teams, fantasy sports leagues, historians and other sports data users. As part of the IPTC G2-standards family, SportsML-G2 is build around standardized building blocks of XML and metadata. These building blocks are reused in other IPTC G2 standards, such as NewsML-G2, so that system programmers can reuse code to handle different IPTC G2 standards. Versions 2.0 of SportsML-G2 was released in October 2008.
    6.25
    4 votes
    90
    Temperature

    Temperature

    Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot. When a heat transfer path between them is open, heat spontaneously flows from bodies of a higher temperature to bodies of lower temperature. The flow rate increases with the temperature difference, while no heat will be exchanged between bodies of the same temperature, which are then said to be in "thermal equilibrium". In thermodynamics, in a system of which the entropy is considered as an independent externally controlled variable, absolute, or thermodynamic, temperature is defined as the derivative of the internal energy with respect to the entropy. In an ideal gas, the constituent molecules do not show internal excitations. They move according to Newton's first law of motion, freely and independently of one another, except during collisions that last for negligibly short times. The temperature of an ideal gas is proportional to the mean translational kinetic energy of its molecules. Quantitatively, temperature is measured with thermometers, which may be
    6.25
    4 votes
    91
    Aircraft

    Aircraft

    An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, propulsion, usage, and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries, however the first manned ascent - and safe descent - in modern times took place by hot-air balloon in the 18th century. Each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. Consequently the history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way that ships float on the water. They are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a relatively low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, which is less dense than the surrounding air. When
    7.00
    3 votes
    92

    Background count

    Background count, in radioactivity measurements, is the base level radiation count which is subtracted from the measurement being taken. Various sources may contribute to the background count: cosmic rays, natural radioactivity in the environment, etc.
    7.00
    3 votes
    93

    Description of a Project

    Description of a Project (DOAP) is an RDF schema and XML vocabulary to describe software projects, and in particular open-source. It was created and initially developed by Edd Dumbill to convey semantic information associated with open-source software projects. It is currently used in the Mozilla Foundation's project page and in several other software repositories. There are currently generators, validators, viewers, and converters to enable more projects to be able to be included in the semantic web. Freshmeat’s 43 000 projects are now available published with DOAP. Major properties include: doap:homepage, doap:developer, doap:programming-language, doap:os Here's an example in RDF/XML: Other properties include: Implements specification, anonymous root, platform, browse, mailing list, category, description, helper, tester, short description, audience, screenshots, translator, module, documenter, wiki, repository, name, repository location, language, service endpoint, created, download mirror, vendor, old homepage, revision, download page, license, bug database, maintainer, blog, file-release, and release DOAP can be generated using doapamatic.
    7.00
    3 votes
    94

    Emissivity

    The emissivity of a material (usually written ε or e) is the relative ability of its surface to emit energy by radiation. It is the ratio of energy radiated by a particular material to energy radiated by a black body at the same temperature. A true black body would have an ε = 1 while any real object would have ε
    7.00
    3 votes
    95
    Flux

    Flux

    In the various subfields of physics, there exist two common usages of the term flux, both with rigorous mathematical frameworks. A simple and ubiquitous concept throughout physics and applied mathematics is the flow of a physical property in space, frequently also with time variation. It is the basis of the field concept in physics and maths, with two principle applications: in transport phenomena and surface integrals. The terms "flux", "current", "flux density", "current density", can sometimes be used interchangeably and ambiguously, though the terms used below match those of the contexts in the literature. The word flux comes from Latin: fluxus means "flow", and fluere is "to flow". As fluxion, this term was introduced into differential calculus by Isaac Newton. In transport phenomena (heat transfer, mass transfer and fluid dynamics), flux is defined as the rate of flow of a property per unit area, which has the dimensions [quantity]·[time]·[area]. For example, the magnitude of a river's current, i.e. the amount of water that flows through a cross-section of the river each second, or the amount of sunlight that lands on a patch of ground each second is also a kind of flux. In
    7.00
    3 votes
    96
    Magnetic field

    Magnetic field

    A magnetic field may be represented by a mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field. The magnetic field is most commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges. There are two separate but closely related fields to which the name "magnetic field" can refer, denoted by the symbols B and H. Magnetic fields are produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property, their spin. In special relativity, electric and magnetic fields are two interrelated aspects of a single object, called the electromagnetic tensor; the split of this tensor into electric and magnetic fields depends on the relative velocity of the observer and charge. In quantum physics, the electromagnetic field is quantized and electromagnetic interactions result from the exchange of photons. Magnetic fields have had many uses in ancient and modern society. The Earth produces its own magnetic field, which is important in
    7.00
    3 votes
    97

    Spinto Soprano

    A spinto soprano (also lirico-spinto or "pushed lyric") is a category of operatic soprano voice that has the limpidity and easy high notes of a lyric soprano, yet can be "pushed" on to achieve dramatic climaxes without strain. This type of voice may possess a somewhat darker timbre, too, than the average lyric soprano. It generally uses squillo to "slice" through the sound of a full orchestra, rather than singing over the orchestra like a true dramatic soprano. Spinto sopranos are also expected to handle dynamic changes in the music that they are performing with skill and poise. They command a vocal range extending from approximately middle C (C4) to "high D" (D6). The spinto repertoire includes many roles written by Verdi, by the various verismo composers, and by Puccini. Some of these roles are extremely popular with opera audiences. Certain Wagnerian heroines such as Elsa, Elisabeth and Sieglinde are also sung by spinto sopranos. The fact that spinto sopranos are uncommon means that parts that are ideal for their voices are often performed by singers from other classifications, and more than a few lyric sopranos have damaged their voices singing heavier spinto roles. The spinto
    7.00
    3 votes
    98

    Jian Yong

    Jian Yong, style name Xianhe (憲和), was an advisor to the warlord Liu Bei during the late Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history. Jian Yong served under Liu Bei since the very beginnings of him raising his own army, acting as an envoy and advisor. After Liu Bei entered Sichuan, Jian Yong was appointed as General of Shining Virtue (昭德將軍). Jian Yong was also noted to be a carefree character without much regard for mannerisms. Jian Yong was born in Zhuo Commandery, You Province (present-day Zhuozhou, Hebei) with the surname Geng (耿). Since in his native You Province, the surname Geng was pronounced the same as "Jian" (簡), he hence changed his surname. He had known Liu Bei since his youth and followed Liu in his volunteer army to put down the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184. When Liu Bei went to Jing Province, Jian Yong, along with Sun Qian and Mi Zhu, often acted as Liu's emissaries. In 211, when Liu Bei entered Yi Province (covering the Sichuan Basin) under the pretext of helping its lord Liu Zhang defend the land, Jian Yong was an emissary to meet Liu Zhang. There, he was much favored by Liu Zhang for his wits. Later, when Liu Bei turned against Liu Zhang and surrounded
    5.20
    5 votes
    99
    Attractor

    Attractor

    An attractor is a set towards which a variable, moving according to the dictates of a dynamical system, evolves over time. That is, points that get close enough to the attractor remain close even if slightly disturbed. The evolving variable may be represented algebraically as an n-dimensional vector. The attractor is a region in n-dimensional space. In physical systems, the n dimensions may be, for example, two or three positional coordinates for each of one or more physical entities; in economic systems, they may be separate variables such as the inflation rate and the unemployment rate. If the evolving variable is two- or three-dimensional, the attractor of the dynamic process can be represented geometrically in two or three dimensions, (as for example in the three-dimensional case depicted to the right). An attractor can be a point, a finite set of points, a curve, a manifold, or even a complicated set with a fractal structure known as a strange attractor. If the variable is a scalar, the attractor is a subset of the real number line. Describing the attractors of chaotic dynamical systems has been one of the achievements of chaos theory. A trajectory of the dynamical system in
    8.00
    2 votes
    100
    Bill Gates

    Bill Gates

    William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate and philanthropist. Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world’s largest personal-computer software company, which he co-founded with Paul Allen. He is consistently ranked among the world's wealthiest people and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009, excluding 2008, when he was ranked third; in 2011 he was the wealthiest American and the second wealthiest person. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock. He has also authored or co-authored several books. Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Gates has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts. In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates
    8.00
    2 votes
    101
    Computer

    Computer

    A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945 in the United Kingdom and United States. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). In this era mechanical analog computers were used for military applications. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile
    8.00
    2 votes
    102
    Electron density

    Electron density

    Electron density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at a specific location. In molecules, regions of electron density are usually found around the atom, and its bonds. In de-localized or conjugated systems, such as phenol, benzene and compounds such as hemoglobin and chlorophyll, the electron density covers an entire region, i.e., in benzene they are found above and below the planar ring. This is sometimes shown diagrammatically as a series of alternating single and double bonds. In the case of phenol and benzene, a circle inside a hexagon shows the de-localized nature of the compound. This is shown below: In compounds with multiple ring systems which are interconnected, this is no longer accurate, so alternating single and double bonds are used. In compounds such as chlorophyll and phenol, some diagrams show a dotted or dashed line to represent the de-localization of areas where the electron density is higher next to the single bonds. Conjugated systems can sometimes represent regions where electromagnetic radiation is absorbed at different wavelengths resulting in compounds appearing coloured. In polymers, these areas are known as chromophores. In
    8.00
    2 votes
    103
    Elephant

    Elephant

    Elephants are large land mammals in two extant genera of the family Elephantidae: Elephas and Loxodonta, with the third genus Mammuthus extinct. Three species of elephant are recognized: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant and the Indian or Asian elephant] although some group the two African species into one and some researchers also postulate the existence of a fourth species in West Africa. All other species and genera of Elephantidae are extinct. Most have been extinct since the last ice age, although dwarf forms of mammoths might have survived as late as 2,000 BCE. Elephants and other Elephantidae were once classified with other thick-skinned animals in a now invalid order, Pachydermata. Elephants are the largest living land animals on Earth today. The elephant's gestation period is 22 months, the longest of any land animal. At birth, an elephant calf typically weighs 105 kilograms (230 lb). They typically live for 50 to 70 years, but the oldest recorded elephant lived for 82 years. The largest elephant ever recorded was shot in Angola in 1955. This male weighed about 10,900 kg (24,000 lb), with a shoulder height of 3.96 metres (13.0 ft), 1 metre (3.3 ft) taller than the average male African elephant. The smallest elephants, about the size of a calf or a large pig, were a prehistoric species that lived on the island of Crete during the Pleistocene epoch. Elephants are a symbol of wisdom in Asian cultures and are famed for their memory and intelligence, where their intelligence level is thought to be equal to that of dolphins and primates. Aristotle once said the elephant was "the beast which passeth all others in wit and mind." The word "elephant" has its origins in the Greek ἐλέφας, meaning "ivory" or "elephant". Healthy adult elephants have no natural predators, although lions may take calves or weak individuals. They are, however, threatened by human intrusion and poaching.
    8.00
    2 votes
    104

    Potential difference

    In the physics of electrical circuits, the term potential difference or p.d. is sometimes used as an old-fashioned synonym for the modern quantity known as "the voltage (difference) between two positions in an electrical circuit". Following the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson in 1897, and later discoveries about electron behaviour and the role of electrons in the conduction of electricity in metals, it is now known that a "voltage difference" (as measured with a voltmeter) is not the same scientific quantity as the pre-atomic-era physical quantity "electric potential difference" (discussed, for example, by Maxwell in the 1891 edition of textbook. A treatise on electricity and magnetism (Vol. 1). Oxford: Clarendon. first printed 1891, reprinted 1998. ISBN 0-19-850373-3.  In the context of electrical circuits, use of the term "potential difference" as a synonym for voltage (difference) is dropping out of use. This may be partly because science has no name (other than voltage) for the potential concerned, partly because of the possibility of confusion between the terms "potential difference" and "electric potential difference", which nowadays refer to different physical
    8.00
    2 votes
    105

    SIDER : Side Effect Resource

    SIDER contains information on marketed medicines and their recorded adverse drug reactions. The information is extracted from public documents and package inserts. The available information include side effect frequency, drug and side effect classifications as well as links to further information, for example drug–target relations.
    8.00
    2 votes
    106

    Faith Popcorn

    Faith Popcorn, (born as Faith Plotkin), is a futurist, author and founder and CEO of marketing consulting firm BrainReserve. Prior to founding her consultancy, Popcorn was an advertising agency creative director. She is a graduate of New York University and New York’s High School of Performing Arts. Her best selling book is The Popcorn Report. Popcorn has coined various terms and phrases in her publications. For example "Brailling the culture" is her term for analyzing a range of cultural developments. Popcorn has identified a number of trends that she argued determine consumer behavior. She also developed a marketing model she calls "InCulture Marketing" which she says turns the culture itself into a medium for brand communications. A Los Angeles Times entertainment section article, following Popcorn's predictions over a period of five years, credited her with identifying trends such as "food coaches" and "transcouture." In The Popcorn Report, she predicts that we will "Own your Own Android: You won't see humans driving buses, at supermarket check outs, or serving up fast (slow) food. They'll be replaced by colonies of androids who can walk your dog or fight your war." She is also
    9.00
    1 votes
    107
    GoodRelations

    GoodRelations

    GoodRelations is a standardized vocabulary for product, price, and company data that can (1) be embedded into existing static and dynamic Web pages and that (2) can be processed by other computers. This increases the visibility of your products and services in the latest generation of search engines, recommender systems, and other novel applications.
    9.00
    1 votes
    108
    Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud

    Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud

    Live Virtuoso instance hosting Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud We have reached a beachead re. the Virtuoso instance hosting the Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud; meaning, we are not going to be performing any major updates and deletions short-term, bar incorporation of fresh data sets from the Freebase and Bio2RDF projects (both communities a prepping new RDF data sets). At the current time we have loaded 100% of all the very large data sets from the LOD Cloud. As result, we can start the process of exposing Linked Data virtues in a manner that's palatable to users, developers, and database professionals across the Web 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 spectrums. What does this mean? You can use the "Search & Find" or"URI Lookup" or SPARQL endpoint associated with the LOD cloud hosting instance to perform the following tasks: Find entities associated with full text search patterns -- Google Style, but with Entity & Text proximity Rank instead of Page Rank, since we are dealing with Entities rather than documents about entities Find and Lookup entities by Identifier (URI) -- which is helpful when locating URIs to use for identify entities in your own linked data spaces on the Web View entity descriptions via a variety of representation formats (HTML, RDFa, RDF/XML, N3, Turtle etc.) Determine uses of entity identifiers across the LOD cloud -- which helps you select preferred URIs based on usage statistics.
    9.00
    1 votes
    109
    Politics

    Politics

    Politics (from Greek politikos "of, for, or relating to citizens") as a term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religious segments of society. It consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy. Modern political discourse focuses on democracy and the relationship between people and politics. It is thought of as the way we "choose government officials and make decisions about public policy". The word politics comes from the Greek word Πολιτικά (politika), modeled on Aristotle's "affairs of the city", the name of his book on governing and governments, which was rendered in English mid-15 century as Latinized "Polettiques". Thus it became "politics" in Middle English c. 1520s (see the Concise Oxford Dictionary). The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, which is the latinisation of the Greek πολιτικός (politikos), meaning amongst
    9.00
    1 votes
    110
    President of the United States

    President of the United States

    The President of the United States of America (acronym: POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. Article II of the U.S. Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president and charges him with the execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory, and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. Since the founding of the United States, the power of the president and the federal government have grown substantially and each modern president, despite possessing no formal legislative powers beyond signing or vetoing congressionally passed bills, is largely responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of his party and the foreign and domestic policy of the United States. The president is frequently described
    9.00
    1 votes
    111

    RIA Novosti

    Russian International News Agency (RIA Novosti) (in Russian: Российское агентство международных новостей «РИА Новости») is one of the largest Russian news agencies. It is state-owned with its HQ in Moscow and about 80 bureaus abroad. The agency publishes news and analysis of social-political, economic, scientific and financial subjects on the Internet and via e-mail in the main European languages, as well as in Persian, Japanese, Chinese and Arabic. It has a correspondent network in the Russian Federation, CIS and over 40 non-CIS countries. Its clients include the presidential administration, Russian government, Federation Council, State Duma, leading ministries and government departments, administrations of Russian regions, representatives of Russian and foreign business communities, diplomatic missions, and public organizations. The current editor-in-chief of the agency is Svetlana Mironyuk. RIA Novosti’s history dates back to June 24, 1941, when by a resolution of the USSR Council of People’s Commissars and the Communist Party Central Committee, “On the Establishment and Tasks of the Soviet Information Bureau”, the Soviet Information Bureau (Sovinformburo) was set up under the
    9.00
    1 votes
    112

    Absorption

    In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom. Thus, the electromagnetic energy is transformed to other forms of energy for example, to heat. The absorption of light during wave propagation is often called attenuation. Usually, the absorption of waves does not depend on their intensity (linear absorption), although in certain conditions (usually, in optics), the medium changes its transparency dependently on the intensity of waves going through, and the saturable absorption (or nonlinear absorption) occurs. There are a number of ways to quantify how quickly and effectively radiation is absorbed in a certain medium, for example: All these quantities measure, at least to some extent, how well a medium absorbs radiation. However, practitioners of different fields and techniques tend to conventionally use different quantities drawn from the list above. It is, however, easy to convert from one measure to another, see Mathematical descriptions of opacity. The absorbance of an object quantifies how much of the incident light is absorbed by it (instead of being reflected or
    6.67
    3 votes
    113
    Academic conference

    Academic conference

    An academic conference or symposium is a conference for researchers (not always academics) to present and discuss their work. Together with academic or scientific journals, conferences provide an important channel for exchange of information between researchers. Conferences are usually composed of various presentations. They tend to be short and concise, with a time span of about 10 to 30 minutes; presentations are usually followed by a discussion. The work may be bundled in written form as academic papers and published as the conference proceedings. Usually a conference will include keynote speakers (often, scholars of some standing, but sometimes individuals from outside academia). The keynote lecture is often longer, lasting sometimes up to an hour and a half, particularly if there are several keynote speakers on a panel. In addition to presentations, conferences also feature panel discussions, round tables on various issues and workshops. Prospective presenters are usually asked to submit a short abstract of their presentation, which will be reviewed before the presentation is accepted for the meeting. Some disciplines require presenters to submit a paper of about 6–15 pages,
    6.67
    3 votes
    114
    Anarchism

    Anarchism

    Anarchism is generally defined as a political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful, or, alternatively, as opposing authority or hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism, known as "anarchists," advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical or voluntary associations. There are many types and traditions of anarchism, not all of which are mutually exclusive. Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications. Anarchism is often considered a radical left-wing ideology, and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflect anti-statist interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, or participatory economics. However, anarchism has always included an individualist strain, egoist strain, and free market strain. Some individualist anarchists are also socialists or communists while some anarcho-communists are also individualists. Anarchism as a mass social movement has
    6.67
    3 votes
    115
    Fabry–Pérot interferometer

    Fabry–Pérot interferometer

    In optics, a Fabry–Pérot interferometer or etalon is typically made of a transparent plate with two reflecting surfaces, or two parallel highly reflecting mirrors. (Technically the former is an etalon and the latter is an interferometer, but the terminology is often used inconsistently.) Its transmission spectrum as a function of wavelength exhibits peaks of large transmission corresponding to resonances of the etalon. It is named after Charles Fabry and Alfred Perot. "Etalon" is from the French étalon, meaning "measuring gauge" or "standard". The resonance effect of the Fabry–Pérot interferometer is identical to that used in a dichroic filter. That is, dichroic filters are very thin sequential arrays of Fabry–Pérot interferometers, and are therefore characterised and designed using the same mathematics. Etalons are widely used in telecommunications, lasers and spectroscopy to control and measure the wavelengths of light. Recent advances in fabrication technique allow the creation of very precise tunable Fabry–Pérot interferometers. The heart of the Fabry–Pérot interferometer is a pair of partially reflective glass optical flats spaced millimeters to centimeters apart, with the
    6.67
    3 votes
    116
    Helicopter

    Helicopter

    A helicopter (informally called "chopper" or "helo") is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft would usually not be able to take off or land. The capability to efficiently hover for extended periods of time allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft and other forms of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft cannot perform. The word helicopter is adapted from the French hélicoptère, coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amecourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix/helik- (ἕλιξ) = "twisted, curved" and pteron (πτερόν) = "wing". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936. Some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main
    6.67
    3 votes
    117

    VCard

    vCard is a file format standard for electronic business cards. vCards are often attached to e-mail messages, but can be exchanged in other ways, such as on the World Wide Web or instant messaging. They can contain name and address information, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, URLs, logos, photographs, and audio clips. Versitcard was originally proposed in 1995 by the Versit Consortium, which consisted of Apple, AT&T Technologies (later Lucent), IBM and Siemens. In December 1996, ownership of the format was handed over to the Internet Mail Consortium, a trade association for companies with an interest in Internet e-mail. Version 2.1 of the vCard standard is widely supported by e-mail clients. Version 3.0 of the vCard format is an IETF standards-track proposal contained in RFC 2425 and RFC 2426. Version 4.0 is defined in RFC 6350, with a new XML syntax, xCard, defined in RFC 6351. The commonly-used filename extension for vCards is vcf. In RFC 4770, vCard Extensions for Instant Messaging, a new type of entry to hold an IMPP URI is defined, which is "IMPP". This is now part of the base vCard 4.0 spec. The standard Internet media type for a vCard (often referred to as its mime type)
    6.67
    3 votes
    118

    DBpedia Ontology

    DBpedia now features a shallow, cross-domain ontology, which has been manually created based on the most commonly used infoboxes within Wikipedia. The ontology currently covers over 170 classes which form a subsumption hierarchy and have 940 properties. The ontology is instanciated by a new infobox data extraction method which is based on hand-generated mappings of Wikipedia infoboxes to the DBpedia ontology. The mappings define fine-granular rules on how to parse infobox values. The mappings also adjust weaknesses in the Wikipedia infobox system, like having different infoboxes for the same class (currently 350 Wikipedia templates are mapped to 170 ontology classes), using different property names for the same property (currently 2350 template properties are mapped to 940 ontology properties), and not having clearly defined datatypes for properties. Therefore, the instance data within the infobox ontology is much cleaner and better structured than the infobox data within the DBpedia infobox dataset which is generated using the old infobox extraction code. The DBpedia Ontology currently contains about 882.000 instances.
    5.75
    4 votes
    119
    Atmosphere

    Atmosphere

    An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, created in the 17th century from Greek ἀτμός [atmos] "vapor" and σφαῖρα [sphaira] "sphere") is a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass, and that is held in place by the gravity of the body. An atmosphere may be retained for a longer duration, if the gravity is high and the atmosphere's temperature is low. Some planets consist mainly of various gases, but only their outer layer is their atmosphere. The term stellar atmosphere describes the outer region of a star, and typically includes the portion starting from the opaque photosphere outwards. Relatively low-temperature stars may form compound molecules in their outer atmosphere. Earth's atmosphere, which contains oxygen used by most organisms for respiration and carbon dioxide used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis, also protects living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation. Its current composition is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms. Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area that is always applied perpendicularly to a surface by the surrounding
    7.50
    2 votes
    120
    Coherence

    Coherence

    In physics, coherence is an ideal property of waves that enables stationary (i.e. temporally and spatially constant) interference. It contains several distinct concepts, which are limit cases that never occur in reality but allow an understanding of the physics of waves, and has become a very important concept in quantum physics. More generally, coherence describes all properties of the correlation between physical quantities of a single wave, or between several waves or wave packets. Interference is nothing more than the addition, in the mathematical sense, of wave functions. In quantum mechanics, a single wave can interfere with itself, but this is due to its quantum behavior and is still an addition of two waves (see Young's slits experiment). This implies that constructive or destructive interferences are limit cases, and that waves can always interfere, even if the result of the addition is complicated or not remarkable. When interfering, two waves can add together to create a wave of greater amplitude than either one (constructive interference) or subtract from each other to create a wave of lesser amplitude than either one (destructive interference), depending on their
    7.50
    2 votes
    121

    Doppler radar

    A Doppler radar is a specialized radar that makes use of the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance. It does this by beaming a microwave signal towards a desired target and listening for its reflection, then analyzing how the frequency of the returned signal has been altered by the object's motion. This variation gives direct and highly accurate measurements of the radial component of a target's velocity relative to the radar. Doppler radars are used in aviation, sounding satellites, meteorology, police speed guns, radiology, and bistatic radar (surface to air missile). Partly because of its common use by television meteorologists in on-air weather reporting, the specific term "Doppler Radar" has erroneously become popularly synonymous with the type of radar used in meteorology. Most modern weather radars use the pulse-doppler technique to examine the motion of precipitation, but it is only a part of the processing of their data. So, while these radars use a highly specialized form of doppler radar, the term is much broader in its meaning and its applications. The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), named after Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who
    7.50
    2 votes
    122
    Electromagnetic field

    Electromagnetic field

    An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by moving electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitation, the weak interaction, and the strong interaction). The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force law. From a classical perspective, the electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagated in a wavelike manner; whereas from the perspective of quantum field theory, the field is seen as quantized, being composed of individual particles. The electromagnetic field may be viewed in two distinct ways: a continuous structure or a discrete
    7.50
    2 votes
    123

    Employment

    Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. An employee contributes labor and expertise to an endeavor of an employer and is usually hired to perform specific duties which are packaged into a job. In most modern economies, the term "employee" refers to a specific defined relationship between an individual and a corporation, which differs from those of customer or client. Other types of employment are arrangements such as indenturing which is now highly unusual in developed nations but still happens elsewhere An employer's level of power over its workers is dependent upon numerous factors, the most influential being the nature of the contractual relationship between the two. This relationship is affected by three significant factors: interests, control and motivation. It is generally considered the employers' responsibility to manage and balance these factors in a way that enables a harmonious and productive working relationship. Employer and managerial control within an organization rests at many levels and has important implications for staff and productivity alike, with control forming the fundamental link between desired
    7.50
    2 votes
    124

    FOAF

    FOAF (an acronym of Friend of a friend) is a machine-readable ontology describing persons, their activities and their relations to other people and objects. Anyone can use FOAF to describe him or herself. FOAF allows groups of people to describe social networks without the need for a centralised database. FOAF is a descriptive vocabulary expressed using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Computers may use these FOAF profiles to find, for example, all people living in Europe, or to list all people both you and a friend of yours know. This is accomplished by defining relationships between people. Each profile has a unique identifier (such as the person's e-mail addresses, a Jabber ID, or a URI of the homepage or weblog of the person), which is used when defining these relationships. The FOAF project, which defines and extends the vocabulary of a FOAF profile, was started in 2000 by Libby Miller and Dan Brickley. It can be considered the first Social Semantic Web application, in that it combines RDF technology with 'Social Web' concerns. Tim Berners-Lee, in a 2007 essay, redefined the Semantic web concept into the Giant Global Graph, where
    7.50
    2 votes
    125
    Lake

    Lake

    A lake is a body of relatively still water of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land apart from a river, stream, or other form of moving water that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes are inland and not part of the ocean and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are larger and deeper than ponds. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. However most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic or recreational purposes. The word lake comes from Middle English lake ("lake, pond, waterway"), from Old English lacu ("pond,
    7.50
    2 votes
    126
    LIDAR

    LIDAR

    LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging, also LADAR) is an optical remote sensing technology that can measure the distance to, or other properties of a target by illuminating the target with light, often using pulses from a laser. LIDAR technology has application in geomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, remote sensing and atmospheric physics, as well as in airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), laser altimetry and LIDAR contour mapping. The acronym LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging) is often used in military contexts. The term "laser radar" is sometimes used, even though LIDAR does not employ microwaves or radio waves and therefore is not radar in the strict sense of the word. LIDAR uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light to image objects and can be used with a wide range of targets, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and even single molecules. A narrow laser beam can be used to map physical features with very high resolution. LIDAR has been used extensively for atmospheric research and meteorology. Downward-looking LIDAR instruments fitted to aircraft and satellites are used for surveying
    7.50
    2 votes
    127
    Linked Life Data

    Linked Life Data

    LinkedLifeData is a platform for semantic data integration trough RDF warehousing and efficient reasoning that helps to resolve conflicts in the data. One of the major problems that biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries face today is how to combine data from multiple sources and make their research more productive. Data integration takes much time and often leads to errors and redundancies that require more time and resources to resolve. The typical problems in working with biomedical data sources are that information is: * Supported by different organizations * Highly distributed and redundant * Encoded in different syntax and structural formats with special semantics for each data source * Locked in vast data silos accessible with limited query functionality LinkedLifeData is a data warehouse that syndicates tons of heterogeneous biomedical knowledge in a common data model. The platform uses an extension of the RDF model that is able to track the provenance of each individual fact in the repository and thus update the information.
    7.50
    2 votes
    128

    MusicBrainz Metadata Vocabulary

    The MusicBrainz Metadata Vocabulary described using W3C RDF Schema and the Web Ontology Language. The vocabulary provides terms for describing music, i.e. artists, albums, and tracks.
    7.50
    2 votes
    129

    Periodical publication

    Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a published work that appears in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most familiar examples are the newspaper, often published daily, or weekly; or the magazine, typically published weekly, monthly or as a quarterly. Other examples would be a newsletter, a literary journal or learned journal, or a yearbook. These examples are typically published and referenced by volume and issue. "Volume" typically refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated, and "Issue" refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year. For example, the April 2011 publication of a monthly magazine first published in 2002 would be listed as, "Volume 9, Issue 4." (Roman numerals are sometimes used in reference to the Volume number.) Periodicals can be classified into two types: popular and scholarly. The popular periodicals are magazine and newspapers, like Ebony and Esquire. The scholarly periodicals are found in libraries and databases. Examples are The Journal of Psychology and the Journal of Social Work. Trade/Professional journals are also examples of periodicals. They
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    RDF

    RDF

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax formats. The RDF data model is similar to classic conceptual modeling approaches such as entity-relationship or class diagrams, as it is based upon the idea of making statements about resources (in particular Web resources) in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions. These expressions are known as triples in RDF terminology. The subject denotes the resource, and the predicate denotes traits or aspects of the resource and expresses a relationship between the subject and the object. For example, one way to represent the notion "The sky has the color blue" in RDF is as the triple: a subject denoting "the sky", a predicate denoting "has the color", and an object denoting "blue". Therefore RDF swaps object for subject that would be used in the classical notation of an Entity–attribute–value model within Object oriented design; object (sky), attribute (color) and value
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    University

    University

    A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. The word "university" is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars." The original Latin word "universitas" refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc." At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialised "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members. The original Latin word referred to degree-granting institutions of learning in Western Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, and from where the institution spread around the world. For non-related educational institutions of antiquity which did not stand in the tradition of the
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Bio2RDF : Linked Data for the Life Sciences

    Bio2RDF : Linked Data for the Life Sciences

    The Bio2RDF project is a tool to convert bioinformatics data and knowledge bases to RDF format. It is a kind of generalized rdfizer for bioinformatics applications, and it is a place for the semantic web life science community to develop and grow.
    4.80
    5 votes
    133
    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, also known as Fourier transform mass spectrometry, is a type of mass analyzer (or mass spectrometer) for determining the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of ions based on the cyclotron frequency of the ions in a fixed magnetic field. The ions are trapped in a Penning trap (a magnetic field with electric trapping plates) where they are excited to a larger cyclotron radius by an oscillating electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field. The excitation also results in the ions moving in phase (in a packet). The signal is detected as an image current on a pair of plates which the packet of ions passes close to as they cyclotron. The resulting signal is called a free induction decay (FID), transient or interferogram that consists of a superposition of sine waves. The useful signal is extracted from this data by performing a Fourier transform to give a mass spectrum. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry is a very high resolution technique in that masses can be determined with very high accuracy. Many applications of FTICR-MS use this mass accuracy to help determine the composition of molecules
    5.50
    4 votes
    134
    HIV

    HIV

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4 T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4 T cells through three main mechanisms: First, direct viral killing of infected cells; second, increased rates of apoptosis in infected cells; and third, killing of infected CD4 T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4 T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family of Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many morphologies and biological properties in common. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Lentiviruses are transmitted
    5.50
    4 votes
    135
    BioCarta : Charting pathways of life

    BioCarta : Charting pathways of life

    Observe how genes interact in dynamic graphical models. Our online maps depict molecular relationships from areas of active research. In an "open source" approach, this community-fed forum constantly integrates emerging proteomic information from the scientific community. It also catalogs and summarizes important resources providing information for over 120,000 genes from multiple species. Find both classical pathways as well as current suggestions for new pathways.
    6.33
    3 votes
    136

    Citation Typing Ontology

    CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for describing the nature of reference citations in scientific research articles and other scholarly works, both to other such publications and also to Web information resources, and for publishing these descriptions on the Semantic Web. Citation are described in terms of the factual and rhetorical relationships between citing publication and cited publication, the in-text and global citation frequencies of each cited work, and the nature of the cited work itself, including its publication and peer review status. It claims to be useful for the annotation of bibliographic reference lists and for the visualization of citation networks. CiTO is written in the Web Ontology Language OWL, uses the namespace http://purl.org/net/cito/, and is available from http://purl.org/net/cito/.
    6.33
    3 votes
    137

    Electric potential

    In classical electromagnetism, the electric potential (a scalar quantity denoted by φ, φE or V and also called the electric field potential or the electrostatic potential) at a point is equal to the electric potential energy (measured in joules) of a charged particle at that location divided by the charge (measured in coulombs) of the particle. The electric potential is independent of the test particle's charge - it is determined by the electric field alone. The electric potential can be calculated at a point in either a static (time-invariant) electric field or in a dynamic (varying with time) electric field at a specific time, and has the units of joules per coulomb, or volts. There is also a generalized electric scalar potential that is used in electrodynamics when time-varying electromagnetic fields are present. This generalized electric potential cannot be simply interpreted as the ratio of potential energy to charge, however. Objects may possess a property known as an electric charge. An electric field exerts a force on charged objects, accelerating them in the direction of the force, in either the same or the opposite direction of the electric field. If the charged object
    6.33
    3 votes
    138
    Geo

    Geo

    Geo is a microformat used for marking up WGS84 geographical coordinates (latitude;longitude) in (X)HTML. Although termed a "draft" specification, this is a formality, and the format is stable and in widespread use; not least as a sub-set of the published hCalendar and hCard microformat specifications, neither of which is still a draft. Use of Geo allows parsing tools (for example other websites, or Firefox's Operator extension) to extract the locations, and display them using some other website or mapping tool, or to load them into a GPS device, index or aggregate them, or convert them into an alternative format. There are two ways to convert ordinary (X)HTML into a geo microformat: Adding three classes. For example the marked-up text:
    6.33
    3 votes
    139
    SPARQL BioPortal

    SPARQL BioPortal

    BioPortal SPARQL is a service to query BioMedical ontologies using the SPARQL standard. Ontologies have been transformed into RDF triples from their original formats (OWL, OBO and UMLS/RRF, ...) and asserted into a triple store. This service provides programatic access to that triple store.
    6.33
    3 votes
    140

    Altitude

    Altitude or height is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, and more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context. Although the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location, in geography the term elevation is often preferred for this usage. Vertical distance measurements in the "down" direction are commonly referred to as depth. In aviation, the term altitude can have several meanings, and is always qualified by either explicitly adding a modifier (e.g. "true altitude"), or implicitly through the context of the communication. Parties exchanging altitude information must be clear which definition is being used. Aviation altitude is measured using either Mean Sea Level (MSL) or local ground level (Above Ground Level, or AGL) as the reference datum. Pressure altitude divided by 100 feet (30m) as the flight level, and is used above the transition altitude (18,000 feet (5,500 m) in the US, but may be as low as 3,000 feet
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Film

    Film

    A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating – or indoctrinating – citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue into the language of the viewer. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a
    8.00
    1 votes
    142
    Manual

    Manual

    A manual is a musical keyboard designed to be played with the hands, on an instrument such as a pipe organ, harpsichord, clavichord, electronic organ, or synthesizer. The term "manual" is used with regard to any hand keyboard on these instruments to distinguish it from the pedalboard, which is a keyboard that the organist plays with his or her feet. It is proper to use "manual" rather than "keyboard," then, when referring to the hand keyboards on any instrument that has a pedalboard. Organs and synthesizers can, and usually do, have more than one manual; most home instruments have two manuals, while most larger organs have two or three. Elaborate pipe and theater organs can have four or more manuals. The manuals are set into the organ console (or "keydesk"). The layout of a manual is roughly the same as a piano keyboard, with long, usually ivory or light-colored keys for the natural notes of the Western musical scale, and shorter, usually ebony or dark-colored keys for the five sharps and flats. A typical, full-size organ manual consists of five octaves, or 61 keys. (Piano keyboards, by contrast, normally have 88 keys.) Some smaller electronic organs may have manuals of four
    8.00
    1 votes
    143
    SIOC

    SIOC

    Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities Project (SIOC - pronounced "shock") is a Semantic Web technology. SIOC provides methods for interconnecting discussion methods such as blogs, forums and mailing lists to each other. It consists of the SIOC ontology, an open-standard machine readable format for expressing the information contained both explicitly and implicitly in Internet discussion methods, of SIOC metadata producers for a number of popular blogging platforms and content management systems, and of storage and browsing/searching systems for leveraging this SIOC data. The SIOC vocabulary is based on RDF and is defined using RDFS. SIOC documents may use other existing ontologies to enrich the information described. Additional information about the creator of the post can be described using FOAF Vocabulary and the foaf:maker property. Rich content of the post (e.g., an HTML representation) can be described using the AtomOWL or RSS 1.0 Content module. The SIOC project was started in 2004 by John Breslin and Uldis Bojars at DERI, NUI Galway. In 2007, SIOC became a W3C Member Submission. Here are some of the concrete implementations and applications that produce and/or use SIOC
    8.00
    1 votes
    144

    Spectroheliograph

    The spectroheliograph is an instrument used in astronomy which captures a photographic image of the Sun at a single wavelength of light, a monochromatic image. The wavelength is usually chosen to coincide with an spectral wavelength of one of the chemical elements present in the Sun. It was developed independently by George Ellery Hale and Henri-Alexandre Deslandres in 1890 and further refined in 1932 by Robert R. McMath to take motion pictures. The instrument comprises a prism or diffraction grating and a narrow slit that passes a single wavelength (a monochromator). The light is focused onto a photographic medium and the slit is moved across the disk of the Sun to form a complete image. It is now possible to make a filter that transmits a narrow band of wavelengths which produces a similar image, but spectroheliographs remain in use.
    8.00
    1 votes
    145

    Suggested Upper Merged Ontology

    The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology or SUMO is an upper ontology intended as a foundation ontology for a variety of computer information processing systems. It was originally developed by the Teknowledge Corporation and now is maintained by Articulate Software. It is one candidate for the "standard upper ontology" that IEEE working group 1600.1 is working on. It can be downloaded and used freely. SUMO originally concerned itself with meta-level concepts (general entities that do not belong to a specific problem domain), and thereby would lead naturally to a categorization scheme for encyclopedias. It has now been considerably expanded to include a mid-level ontology and dozens of domain ontologies. SUMO was first released in December 2000. It defines a hierarchy of SUMO classes and related rules and relationships. These are formulated in a version of the language SUO-KIF which has a LISP-like syntax. A mapping from WordNet synsets to SUMO has also been defined. SUMO is organized for interoperability of automated reasoning engines. To maximize compatibility, schema designers can try to assure that their naming conventions use the same meanings as SUMO for identical words (for
    8.00
    1 votes
    146
    BioPAX : Biological Pathways Exchange

    BioPAX : Biological Pathways Exchange

    BioPAX is a collaborative effort to create a data exchange format for biological pathway data. Get involved...

    BioPAX Level 3 covers metabolic pathways, molecular interactions, signaling pathways (including molecular states and generics), gene regulation and genetic interactions. BioPAX Level 3 is currently under development and review by pathway databases and is scheduled for release by mid-2008.
    7.00
    2 votes
    147

    Cybernetics

    Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems, their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Cybernetics is relevant to the study of mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems. Cybernetics is only applicable when the system being analysed is involved in a closed signal loop; that is, where action by the system causes some change in its environment and that change is fed to the system via information (feedback) that enables the system to change its behavior. This "circular causal" relationship is necessary and sufficient for a cybernetic perspective. System Dynamics, a related field, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s. Concepts studied by cyberneticists (or, as some prefer, cyberneticians) include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, and connectivity. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual organism or
    7.00
    2 votes
    148
    Frankenweenie (1984)

    Frankenweenie (1984)

    Frankenweenie is a 1984 short film directed by Tim Burton, produced with Buena Vista Distribution and co-written by Burton with Leonard Ripps. It is both a parody and homage to the 1931 film Frankenstein based on Mary Shelley's novel of the same name. This film is also the last Disney film to ever use the Buena Vista logo. Burton also directed a feature-length 2012 remake. Victor Frankenstein (played by Barret Oliver) is a young boy who creates movies starring his dog, Sparky (a Bull Terrier, whose name is a joke on the use of electricity in the film). After Sparky is hit by a car, Victor learns at school about electrical impulses in muscles, and gets the idea to bring his pet back to life. He creates elaborate machines which bring down a bolt of lightning that revives the dog. While Victor is pleased, his neighbors are terrified by the animal, and when the Frankensteins decide to introduce the revitalized Sparky to them, they become angry and terrified. Sparky runs away, with Victor in pursuit, and they find themselves at a local miniature golf course, and hide in its flagship windmill. The Frankensteins' neighbors, now an angry mob, arrive on the scene, and while using a
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    Image

    Image

    An image (from Latin: imago) is an artifact that depicts or records visual perception, for example a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject–usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it. Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph, screen display, and as well as a three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram. They may be captured by optical devices–such as cameras, mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water surfaces. The word image is also used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, or an abstract painting. In this wider sense, images can also be rendered manually, such as by drawing, painting, carving, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods, especially in a pseudo-photograph. A volatile image is one that exists only for a short period of time. This may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a projection of a camera obscura, or a scene displayed on a cathode ray tube. A fixed image, also called a hard copy, is one that has
    7.00
    2 votes
    150

    Labour

    A worker is someone who performs work. A worker may also be called a "laborer", and is usually a term which contrasts with a professional. It was traditionally considered unskilled manual labor (as opposed to skilled labor). In the division of labor, laborers have all blasting, hand tools, power tool, air tools, and small heavy equipment, and act as assistants to other trades , e.g. operators or cement masons. The first century BC engineer Vitruvius writes in detail about laborer practices at that time. In his experience a good crew of laborers is just as valuable as any other aspect of construction. Other than the addition of pneumatics, laborer practices have changed little. With the advent of advanced technology and its introduction into the construction field, the laborers have been quick to include much of this technology as being laborers work. Laborers are typically required to provide their own basic hand tools. The following tools are considered a minimum: hammer, pliers (side-cutters), utility knife, tape measure, vise-grips, cresent wrench, screwdriver, margin trowel, carpenter's pencil or soapstone, tool belt and pouches. In addition: a five gallon bucket with
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    Peter Tosh

    Peter Tosh

    Peter Tosh (born Winston Hubert McIntosh, 19 October 1944 – 11 September 1987), was a Jamaican reggae musician who was a core member of the band The Wailers (1963–1974), and who afterwards had a successful solo career as well as being a promoter of Rastafari. Peter Tosh was born in Grange Hill, Jamaica, and was raised by his aunt. He began to sing and learn guitar at an early age, inspired by American radio stations. After a notable career with The Wailers and as a solo musician, he was murdered at his home during a robbery. At the age of fifteen, McIntosh's aunt died and he moved to Trench Town in Kingston, Jamaica. He first picked up a guitar by watching a man in the country play a song that captivated him. He watched the man play the same song for half a day, memorizing everything his fingers were doing. He then picked up the guitar and played the song back to the man. The man then asked McIntosh who had taught him to play; McIntosh told him that he had. During the early 1960s Tosh met Robert Nesta Marley (Bob Marley) and Neville O'Reilly Livingston (Bunny Wailer) and went to vocal teacher, Joe Higgs, who gave out free vocal lessons to young people, in hopes to form a new band.
    7.00
    2 votes
    152

    Director

    A member of an institution or business who may or may not have an executive function. The director is usually chosen or appointed to control or govern the affairs of an institution or business.
    6.00
    3 votes
    153
    Electromagnetic radiation

    Electromagnetic radiation

    Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles, which exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space. EMR has both electric and magnetic field components, which stand in a fixed ratio of intensity to each other, and which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation. In a vacuum, electromagnetic radiation propagates at a characteristic speed, the speed of light. Electromagnetic radiation is a particular form of the more general electromagnetic field (EM field), which is produced by moving charges. Electromagnetic radiation is associated with EM fields that are far enough away from the moving charges that produced them, that absorption of the EM radiation no longer affects the behavior of these moving charges. These two types or behaviors of EM field are sometimes referred to as the near and far field. In this language, EMR is merely another name for the far-field. Charges and currents directly produce the near-field. However, charges and currents produce EMR only indirectly—rather, in EMR, both the magnetic and electric fields are produced by
    6.00
    3 votes
    154
    Elevenses

    Elevenses

    In the United Kingdom and Ireland, elevenses is a snack that is similar to afternoon tea, but eaten in the morning. It is generally less savoury than brunch, and might consist of some cake or biscuits with a cup of coffee or tea. The name refers to the time of day that it is taken: around 11 am. In Australia and New Zealand, elevenses is called morning tea or smoko (often little lunch, recess or playlunch in primary school). Choice of foods consumed at morning tea vary from cakes, pastries or lamingtons, or biscuits, to just coffee. In the Royal Australian Navy elevenses is commonly called mornos. In the United States, elevenses refers to the antiquated custom of the late-morning whiskey break. In Sweden elevenses is a tradition mostly associated with elderly people, the Swedish word is "elva-kaffe" meaning "eleven-coffee". It is often served with some kind of cookie but the main focus is on the coffee. In many Spanish-speaking cultures the term las onces (the elevens in Spanish) is used to describe a similar meal. Among Chileans, the tradition was known as under the same name, although in modern times, it has shifted in most respects to later in the afternoon, more closely
    6.00
    3 votes
    155

    Music video

    A music video or song video is a short film integrating a song and imagery, produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. Although the origins of music videos date back much further, they came into prominence in the 1980s, when MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these works were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional (promo) film", "promotional clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles of film making techniques, including animation, live action filming, documentaries, and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film. Some music videos blend different styles, such as animation and live action. Many music videos do not interpret images from the song's lyrics, making it less literal than expected. Other music videos may be without a set concept, being merely a filmed version of the song's live performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks and Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost
    6.00
    3 votes
    156
    Phased array

    Phased array

    In antenna theory, a phased array is an array of antennas in which the relative phases of the respective signals feeding the antennas are varied in such a way that the effective radiation pattern of the array is reinforced in a desired direction and suppressed in undesired directions. An antenna array is a group of multiple active antennas coupled to a common source or load to produce a directive radiation pattern. Usually, the spatial relationship of the individual antennas also contributes to the directivity of the antenna array. Use of the term "active antennas" is intended to describe elements whose energy output is modified due to the presence of a source of energy in the element (other than the mere signal energy which passes through the circuit) or an element in which the energy output from a source of energy is controlled by the signal input. One common application of this is with a standard multiband television antenna, which has multiple elements coupled together. Phased array transmission was originally developed in 1905 by Nobel Laureate Karl Ferdinand Braun who demonstrated enhanced transmission of radio waves in one direction. During World War II, Nobel Laureate Luis
    6.00
    3 votes
    157
    Systems Biology Ontology

    Systems Biology Ontology

    The Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) is a set of controlled, relational vocabularies of terms commonly used in Systems Biology, and in particular in computational modeling. SBO is part of the BioModels.net effort. The rise of Systems Biology, seeking to comprehend biological processes as a whole, highlighted the need to not only develop corresponding quantitative models, but also to create standards allowing their exchange and integration. This concern drove the community to design common data format such as SBML and CellML. SBML is now largely accepted and used in the field. However, as important as the definition of a common syntax is, it is also necessary to make clear the semantics of models. SBO is an attempt to provide the means of annotating models with terms that indicate the intended semantics of an important subset of models in common use in computational systems biology. The development of SBO was first discussed at the 9th SBML Forum Meeting in Heidelberg Oct. 14–15, 2004. During the forum, Pedro Mendes mentioned that modellers possessed a lot of knowledge that was necessary to understand the model, and more importantly to simulate it, but this knowledge was not encoded
    6.00
    3 votes
    158
    Vector

    Vector

    In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has a magnitude (or length) and direction and can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra. A Euclidean vector is frequently represented by a line segment with a definite direction, or graphically as an arrow, connecting an initial point A with a terminal point B, and denoted by Vectors play an important role in physics: velocity and acceleration of a moving object and forces acting on it are all described by vectors. Many other physical quantities can be usefully thought of as vectors. Although most of them do not represent distances (except, for example, position or displacement), their magnitude and direction can be still represented by the length and direction of an arrow. The mathematical representation of a physical vector depends on the coordinate system used to describe it. Other vector-like objects that describe physical quantities and transform in a similar way under changes of the coordinate system include pseudovectors and tensors. It is important to distinguish Euclidean vectors from the more
    6.00
    3 votes
    159

    Wavenumber

    In the physical sciences, the wavenumber is a property of a wave, its spatial frequency, that is equal to the reciprocal of the wavelength. It is also the magnitude of the wave vector. Its usual symbols are , , σ or k, the first three used for one definition, the last for another. The wavenumber has dimensions of reciprocal length, so its SI unit is m and cgs unit cm (in this context formerly called the kayser, after Heinrich Kayser). It can be defined as either For electromagnetic radiation in vacuum, wavenumber is proportional to frequency and to photon energy. Because of this, wavenumbers are used as a unit of energy in spectroscopy. In the SI units, wavenumber is expressed in units of reciprocal meters (m), but in spectroscopy it is usual to give wavenumbers in reciprocal centimeters (cm). The angular wavenumber is expressed in radians per meter (rad·m). In general, the angular wavenumber k, the magnitude of the wave vector, is given by where ν is the frequency of the wave, λ is the wavelength, ω = 2πν is the angular frequency of the wave, and vp is the phase velocity of the wave. For the special case of an electromagnetic wave in vacuum, where vp = c, k is given by where E is
    6.00
    3 votes
    160

    Advertising agency

    An advertising agency or advert agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients. Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations, non-profit organizations and government agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce television commercials and radio commercials as part of an advertising campaign. The first acknowledged advertising agency was William Taylor in 1786. Another early agency, started by James 'Jem' White in Fleet Street, London, in 1800, eventually evolved into White Bull Holmes, a recruitment advertising agency, that went out of business in the late 1980s. In 1812 George Reynell, an officer at the London Gazette, set up another of the early advertising agencies, also in London. This remained a family business until 1993, as 'Reynell & Son,' and is now part of the TMP Worldwide agency (UK and Ireland) under the brand TMP
    5.67
    3 votes
    161
    Law enforcement

    Law enforcement

    Law enforcement broadly refers to any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to promote adherence to the law by discovering and punishing persons who violate the rules and norms governing that society. Although the term may encompass entities such as courts and prisons, it is most frequently applied to those who directly engage in patrols or surveillance to dissuade and discover criminal activity, and those who investigate crimes and apprehend offenders. Furthermore, although law enforcement may be most concerned with the prevention and punishment of crimes, organizations exist to discourage a wide variety of non-criminal violations of rules and norms, effected through the imposition of less severe consequences. Most law enforcement is conducted by some type of law enforcement agency, with the most typical agency fulfilling this role being the police. Societal investment in law enforcement through such organizations can be massive, both in terms of the resources invested in the activity, and in the number of people professionally engaged to perform those functions. Law enforcement agencies tend to be limited to operating within a specified jurisdiction.
    5.67
    3 votes
    162
    Magnetometer

    Magnetometer

    A magnetometer is a measuring instrument used to measure the strength or direction of magnetic fields. Some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Australia classify the more sensitive magnetometers as military technology, and control their distribution. The SI unit of measure for magnetic field strength is the tesla. As this is a very large unit for most practical uses, scientists commonly use the nanotesla (nT) as their working unit of measure. Engineers often measure magnetic fields in Gauss (1 Gauss = 100,000 nT, 1 Gauss = 100,000 gamma). The Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere) varies both temporally (there is a daily variation of around 30 nT at mid latitudes and hundreds of nT at the poles) and spatially (from around 20,000 nT near the equator to 80,000 nT near the poles) for various reasons, such as the inhomogeneity of rocks and the interaction between charged particles from the Sun and the magnetosphere. Geomagnetic storms can cause much larger variations, but, on average, the Earth's magnetic field is relatively weak. A simple magnet from a hardware store produces a field hundreds of times stronger. Magnetometers are distinct from metal detectors, which detect
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    3 votes
    163
    Shortstop

    Shortstop

    Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball fielding position between second and third base. Shortstop is often regarded as the most dynamic defensive position in baseball, because there are more right-handed hitters in baseball than left-handed hitters, and most hitters have a tendency to pull the ball slightly, so more balls go to the shortstop than any other position. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the shortstop is assigned the number 6. Doc Adams of the Knickerbockers created the concept of the shortstop position, according to Thorn and Baseball Hall of Fame researcher Freddy Berowski. In the first five years the Knickerbockers played, the team fielded anywhere from eight to eleven players. The only infielders were the players covering each of the bases; if there were more than eight players, extra outfielders were sometimes used. The outfielders had difficulty throwing baseballs into the infield, because of the balls' light weight. Adams' shortstop position, which he started playing at some time from 1849 to 1850, was used to field throws from the outfielders and throw to the three infielders. With the advent of higher-quality baseballs, Adams moved to
    5.67
    3 votes
    164

    Abstract process

    The term abstract process refers to abstractions as being distinguishable as processes—i.e., as concepts which carry a meaning of functionality and operation with regard to other concepts. Within the study of abstractions, the term is used to refer to processes as distinct from "concepts" or other objects which carry no intrinsic functional meaning.
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    2 votes
    165
    Astronomical interferometer

    Astronomical interferometer

    An astronomical interferometer is an array of telescopes or mirror segments acting together to probe structures with higher resolution by means of interferometry. The benefit of the interferometer is that the angular resolution of the instrument is nearly that of a telescope with the same aperture as a single large instrument encompassing all of the individual photon-collecting sub-components. The drawback is that it does not collect as many photons as a large instrument of that size. Thus it is mainly useful for fine resolution of the more luminous astronomical objects, such as close binary stars. Astronomical interferometers are widely used for optical astronomy, infrared astronomy, submillimetre astronomy and radio astronomy. Aperture synthesis can be used to perform high-resolution imaging using astronomical interferometers. Very Long Baseline Interferometry uses a technique related to the closure phase to combine telescopes separated by thousands of kilometers to form a radio interferometer with the resolution which would be given by a single dish which was thousands of kilometers in diameter. At optical wavelengths, aperture synthesis allows the atmospheric seeing resolution
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    166
    Musician

    Musician

    A musician usually plays a musical instrument, especially (although not necessarily) as a profession. Musicians can be classified by their roles in performing music and writing music. A person who makes music a profession, anyone (professional or not) who's skilled in making music or performing music creatively, or one who composes, conducts, or performs music (especially instrumental music) is a musician. Musicians can be of any music style not limited to classical, orchestral or choral, and musicians can have skills in many different styles outside of their professional experience. Examples of musicians' skills are the orchestration of music, improvisation, conducting, singing, composing, arranging, and/or being an instrumentalist. For further information, see Medieval Music During this time period, instrumental musicians mostly improvised and with soft ensembles with soft (bas) or loud (haut) instruments, categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor). Most musicians during this time period catered to the influences of the Roman Catholic Church, providing arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. For further information, see Renaissance
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    167
    Statute

    Statute

    A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city, or county. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. The word is often used to distinguish law made by legislative bodies from case law, decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies. Statutes are sometimes referred to as legislation or "black letter law." As a source of law, statutes are considered primary authority (as opposed to secondary authority). Ideally all statutes must be in harmony with the fundamental law of the land (constitutional). This word is used in contradistinction to the common law. Statutes acquire their force from the time of their passage, however unless otherwise provided. Statutes are of several kinds; namely, Public or private. Declaratory or remedial. Temporary or perpetual. A temporary statute is one which is limited in its duration at the time of its enactment. It continues in force until the time of its limitation has expired, unless sooner repealed. A perpetual statute is one for the continuance of which there is no limited time, although it may not be expressly declared to be so. If, however, a statute which
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    2 votes
    168

    Bolzano Transit Camp

    The Bolzano transit camp (German: Polizei- und Durchgangslager Bozen) was a Nazi concentration camp active in Bolzano between 1944 and the end of the Second World War. It was one of the largest Nazi Lager on Italian soil, along with those of Fossoli, Borgo San Dalmazzo and Trieste. After the Allies signed the Armistice with Italy on September 8, 1943, Bolzano became the headquarters of the Prealpine Operations Zone and came under the control of the Nazi army. When the internment camp in Fossoli became vulnerable to Allied attack, it was dismantled, and a transit camp for prisoners headed for Mauthausen, Flossenbürg, Dachau, Ravensbrück and Auschwitz was set up in Bolzano. Operative as of the summer of 1944 and located in buildings previously occupied by the Italian Army, the transit camp hosted about 11,000 prisoners from middle and northern Italy in its ten months of activity. Although the camp's population consisted mostly of political opponents, Jewish and gypsy deportees also passed through its barracks. A portion of the prisoners—approximately 3,500 people of all ages—was transferred to one of the Lagers, while the rest were assigned to work in loco as free labour, either in
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    3 votes
    169
    Detector

    Detector

    A detector is a device that recovers information of interest contained in a modulated wave. The term dates from the early days of radio when all transmissions were in Morse code, and it was only necessary to detect the presence (or absence) of a radio wave using a device such as a coherer without necessarily making it audible. A more up-to-date term is demodulator, but "detector" has a history of many decades of use, even if it is a misnomer. One major technique is known as envelope detection. The simplest form of envelope detector is the diode detector that consists of a diode connected between the input and output of the circuit, with a resistor and capacitor in parallel from the output of the circuit to the ground. If the resistor and capacitor are correctly chosen, the output of this circuit will approximate a voltage-shifted version of the original signal. An early form of envelope detector was the cat's whisker, which was used in the crystal set radio receiver. A product detector is a type of demodulator used for AM and SSB signals. Rather than converting the envelope of the signal into the decoded waveform like an envelope detector, the product detector takes the product of
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    3 votes
    170
    Project

    Project

    A project in business and science is typically defined as a collaborative enterprise, frequently involving research or design, that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim. Projects can be further defined as temporary rather than permanent social systems that are constituted by teams within or across organizations to accomplish particular tasks under time constraints. The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from the Latin verb proicere, "to throw something forward" which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in time (paralleling the Greek πρό) and iacere, "to throw". The word "project" thus actually originally meant "something that comes before anything else happens". When the English language initially adopted the word, it referred to a plan of something, not to the act of actually carrying this plan out. Something performed in accordance with a project became known as an "object". At school, educational institute and independent work than is involved in a normal essay assignment. It requires students to undertake their own fact-finding and analysis, either from library/internet research or from
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    3 votes
    171

    Recreation area

    A recreation area is a type of protected area designated in some jurisdictions. In the United States, National Recreation Areas are administered by several different agencies. They typically do not meet the strict guidelines to become national parks. In U.S. state park systems, recreation areas may also fail to meet some criteria to be designated state parks, such as having a large number of non-contiguous properties. Size is not necessarily a defining criteria. For instance, in Michigan, the largest state recreation area, Waterloo Recreation Area is 20,500-acre (83 km) while the smallest state park is the 31-acre (0.13 km) Tri-Centennial State Park and Harbor.
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    3 votes
    172

    Research Paper

    A Research Paper is a type of academic writing that needs more theoretical, significant and methodical levels of questioning. Although a research paper is a kind of term paper, some term papers don’t require academic research. Accordingly, not all research papers can be considered as term papers. Gathering, interpreting, documenting details, developing and organizing ideas and conclusions and communicating them clearly — all these experiences will prove to be an essential and rewarding part of your education. But you must also have a positive outlook and ability to accomplish it—writing a research paper or a term paper is more than just having knowledge—these are the secrets to having an exceptional research paper. The steps in writing a research paper are choosing a topic, finding information, defining thesis, making a tentative outline, organising notes, writing the first draft, revising the outline and draft and typing/encoding the final paper. When selecting a topic for research paper, have something that interests and challenges you, as your treatment toward the topic may well influence the amount of endeavor and enthusiasm you put into it. Keep away from subjects that are too
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    3 votes
    173

    Single

    In baseball, a single is the most common type of base hit, accomplished through the act of a batter safely reaching first base by hitting a fair ball (thus becoming a runner) and getting to first base before a fielder puts him out. As an exception, a batter-runner reaching first base safely is not credited with a single when an infielder attempts to put out another runner on the first play; this is one type of a fielder's choice. Also, a batter-runner reaching first base on a play due to a fielder's error trying to put him out at first base or another runner out (as a fielder's choice) is not credited with a single. On a single hit to the outfield, any runners on second base or third base normally score, and sometimes the runner from first base is able to advance to third base. Depending on the location of the hit, a quick recovery by the outfielder can prevent such an advance or create a play on the advancing runner. Hitters who focus on hitting singles rather than doubles or home runs are often called "contact hitters". Contact hitters who rely on positioning their hits well and having fast running speed to achieve singles are often called "slap hitters". Ty Cobb, Pete Rose, Tony
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    3 votes
    174

    COSMO

    A Foundation ontology in OWL. Intended to include representations of all of the meanings of words in the Longman defining vocabulary that are used in definitions, plus some other common words to support an NL interface.
    7.00
    1 votes
    175

    Functional analysis

    Functional analysis in behavioral psychology is the application of the laws of operant conditioning to establish the relationships between stimuli and responses. To establish the function of a behavior, one typically examines the "four-term contingency": first by identifying the Motivating Operations (EO or AO), then identifying the antecedent or trigger of the behavior, identifying the behavior itself as it has been operationalized, and identifying the consequence of the behavior which continues to maintain it. Functional analysis in behavior analysis employs principles derived from the natural science of behavior analysis to determine the "reason", purpose or motivation for a behavior. A functional analysis of behavior requires that data be collected on changes in the dependent variable (behavior) that occur as a result of the direct manipulation of independent variables (antecedents and consequences); therefore, functional analysis of behavior should not be confused with functional assessment procedures such as ABC assessments because they do not involve the direct manipulation of independent variables and the use of experimental designs. Functional analysis and consequence
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    1 votes
    176
    Gospel music

    Gospel music

    Gospel music is music that is written to express either personal, spiritual or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. Like other forms of Christian music, the creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, and as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music in general is characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a Christian nature. Subgenres include contemporary gospel, urban contemporary gospel (sometimes referred to as "black gospel"), Southern gospel, and modern gospel music (now more commonly known as praise and worship music or contemporary Christian music). Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and, increasingly, electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, which are generally of a statelier measure, the gospel song is expected to have a refrain and
    7.00
    1 votes
    177
    H-alpha

    H-alpha

    H-alpha (Hα) is a specific red visible spectral line created by hydrogen with a wavelength of 656.28 nm, which occurs when a hydrogen electron falls from its third to second lowest energy level. It is difficult for humans to see H-alpha at night, but due to the abundance of hydrogen in space, H-alpha is often the brightest wavelength of visible light in stellar astronomy. According to the Bohr model of the atom, electrons exist in quantized energy levels surrounding the atom's nucleus. These energy levels are described by the principal quantum number n = 1, 2, 3, ... . Electrons may only exist in these states, and may only transit between these states. The set of transitions from n ≥ 3 to n = 2 is called the Balmer series and its members are named sequentially by Greek letters: For the Lyman series the naming convention is: H-alpha has a wavelength of 656.281 nm, is visible in the red part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and is the easiest way for astronomers to trace the ionized hydrogen content of gas clouds. Since it takes nearly as much energy to excite the hydrogen atom's electron from n = 1 to n = 3 as it does to ionize the hydrogen atom, the probability of the electron
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
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    179
    Spectrometer

    Spectrometer

    A spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. The variable measured is most often the light's intensity but could also, for instance, be the polarization state. The independent variable is usually the wavelength of the light or a unit directly proportional to the photon energy, such as wavenumber or electron volts, which has a reciprocal relationship to wavelength. A spectrometer is used in spectroscopy for producing spectral lines and measuring their wavelengths and intensities. Spectrometer is a term that is applied to instruments that operate over a very wide range of wavelengths, from gamma rays and X-rays into the far infrared. If the instrument is designed to measure the spectrum in absolute units rather than relative units, then it is typically called a spectrophotometer. The majority of spectrophotometers are used in spectral regions near the visible spectrum. In general, any particular instrument will operate over a small portion of this total range because of the different
    7.00
    1 votes
    180
    APML

    APML

    APML (Attention Profiling Mark-up Language) is an XML-based format for expressing a person's interests and dislikes. APML allows people to share their own personal attention profile in much the same way that OPML allows the exchange of reading lists between news readers. The idea behind APML is to compress all forms of attention data into a portable file format containing a description of the user's rated interests. The APML Workgroup is tasked with maintaining and refining the APML specification. The APML Workgroup is made up of industry experts and leaders and was founded by Chris Saad and Ashley Angell. The workgroup allows public recommendations and input, and actively evangelises the public’s "Attention Rights". The workgroup also adheres to the principles of Media 2.0 Best Practices. Services that have adopted APML Example taken from the APML wikisite.
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    2 votes
    181

    Cross-correlation

    In signal processing, cross-correlation is a measure of similarity of two waveforms as a function of a time-lag applied to one of them. This is also known as a sliding dot product or sliding inner-product. It is commonly used for searching a long-signal for a shorter, known feature. It also has applications in pattern recognition, single particle analysis, electron tomographic averaging, cryptanalysis, and neurophysiology. For continuous functions, f and g, the cross-correlation is defined as: where f * denotes the complex conjugate of f. Similarly, for discrete functions, the cross-correlation is defined as: The cross-correlation is similar in nature to the convolution of two functions. In an autocorrelation, which is the cross-correlation of a signal with itself, there will always be a peak at a lag of zero unless the signal is a trivial zero signal. In probability theory and statistics, correlation is always used to include a standardising factor in such a way that correlations have values between −1 and +1, and the term cross-correlation is used for referring to the correlation corr(X, Y) between two random variables X and Y, while the "correlation" of a random vector X is
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    2 votes
    182

    Deposition

    Deposition is a process in which gas transforms into solid (also known as desublimation). The reverse of deposition is sublimation. One example of deposition is the process by which, in sub-freezing air, water vapor changes directly to ice without first becoming a liquid. This is how snow forms in clouds, as well as frost and hoar frost on the ground. Another example is when frost forms on a leaf. For deposition to occur, thermal energy must be removed from a gas. When the leaf becomes cold enough, water vapor in the air surrounding the leaf loses enough thermal energy to change into a solid. Deposition in water vapor occurs due to the pureness of the water vapor. The vapor has no foreign particles, and is therefore able to lose large amounts of energy before forming around something. When the leaf is introduced, the supercooled water vapor immediately begins to condensate, but by this point is already past the freezing point. This causes the water vapor to change directly into a solid. Another example of physical deposition is the artificial process of physical vapor deposition, used to deposit thin films of various materials onto various surfaces. Deposition releases energy and
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    2 votes
    183
    Electric charge

    Electric charge

    Electric charge is a physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter. There exist two types of electric charges, called positive and negative. Positively-charged substances are repelled from other positively-charged substances, but attracted to negatively-charged substances; negatively-charged substances are repelled from negative and attracted to positive. The SI unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C), although in electrical engineering it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah), and in chemistry it is common to use the elementary charge (e) as a unit. The symbol Q is often used to denote a charge. The study of how charged substances interact is classical electrodynamics, which is accurate insofar as quantum effects can be ignored. The electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields. The interaction between a moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces (See also:
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    2 votes
    184
    GeoNames

    GeoNames

    GeoNames is a geographical database available and accessible through various Web services, under a Creative Commons attribution license. The GeoNames database contains over 10,000,000 geographical names corresponding to over 7,500,000 unique features. All features are categorized into one out of nine feature classes and further subcategorized into one out of 645 feature codes. Beyond names of places in various languages, data stored include latitude, longitude, elevation, population, administrative subdivision and postal codes. All coordinates use the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84). Those data are accessible free of charge through a number of Web services and a daily database export. The Web services include direct and reverse geocoding, finding places through postal codes, finding places next to a given place, and finding Wikipedia articles about neighbouring places. The core of GeoNames database is provided by official public sources, the quality of which may vary. Through a wiki interface, users are invited to manually edit and improve the database by adding or correcting names, move existing features, add new features, etc. Each GeoNames feature is represented as a Web
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    2 votes
    185
    Heliograph

    Heliograph

    A heliograph (Greek: Ἥλιος helios, meaning "sun", and γραφειν graphein, meaning "write") is a wireless solar telegraph that signals by flashes of sunlight (generally using Morse code) reflected by a mirror. The flashes are produced by momentarily pivoting the mirror, or by interrupting the beam with a shutter. The heliograph was a simple but effective instrument for instantaneous optical communication over long distances during the late 19th and early 20th century. Its main uses were military, survey and forest protection work. Heliographs were standard issue in the British and Australian armies until the 1960s, and were used by the Pakistani army as late as 1975. There were many heliograph types. Most heliographs were variants of the British army Mance Mark V version (Fig.1). It used a mirror with a small unsilvered spot in the centre. The sender aligned the heliograph to the target by looking at the reflected target in the mirror and moving his head until the target was hidden by the unsilvered spot. Keeping his head still, he then adjusted the aiming rod so its cross wires bisected the target. He then turned up the sighting vane, which covered the cross wires with a diagram of a
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    2 votes
    186

    Infielder

    An infielder is a baseball player stationed at one of four defensive "infield" positions on the baseball field. In a game of baseball, two teams of nine players take turns playing offensive and defensive roles. Although there are many rules to baseball, in general the team playing offense tries to score runs by batting balls into the field that enable runners to make a complete circuit of the four bases. The team playing in the field tries to prevent runs by catching the ball before it hits the ground, by tagging runners with the ball while they are not touching a base, or by throwing the ball to first base before the batter who hit the ball can run from home plate to first base. There are nine defensive positions on a baseball field. The part of the baseball field closest to the batter (shown in the diagram as light brown) is known as the "infield" (as opposed to the "outfield", the part of the field furthest from the batter, shown in the diagram as green.) The infield is composed of four positions: first base (1B), second base (2B), third base (3B) and shortstop (SS). Generally, the first three have responsibility for plays at their respective bases, although the shortstop often
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    2 votes
    187

    Web Ontology Language

    The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies. The languages are characterised by formal semantics and RDF/XML-based serializations for the Semantic Web. OWL is endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and has attracted academic, medical and commercial interest. In October 2007, a new W3C working group was started to extend OWL with several new features as proposed in the OWL 1.1 member submission. W3C announced the new version of OWL on 27 October 2009. This new version, called OWL 2, soon found its way into semantic editors such as Protégé and semantic reasoners such as Pellet, RacerPro, FaCT++ and HermiT. The OWL family contains many species, serializations, syntaxes and specifications with similar names. OWL and OWL2 are used to refer to the 2004 and 2009 specifications, respectively. Full species names will be used, including specification version (for example, OWL2 EL). When referring more generally, OWL Family will be used. There is a long history of ontological development in philosophy and computer science. Since the 1990s, a number of research efforts have explored how the idea of knowledge representation
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    2 votes
    188
    Strange attractor

    Strange attractor

    An attractor is informally described as strange if it has non-integer dimension or if the dynamics on it are chaotic. The term was coined by David Ruelle and Floris Takens to describe the attractor that resulted from a series of bifurcations of a system describing fluid flow. Strange attractors are often differentiable in a few directions, but some are like a Cantor dust, and therefore not differentiable. Examples of strange attractors include the Hénon attractor, Rössler attractor, Lorenz attractor, Tamari attractor.
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    3 votes
    189
    Affymetrix : Alliance for Cellular Signaling

    Affymetrix : Alliance for Cellular Signaling

    Affymetrix' GeneChip® technology was invented in the late 1980's by a team of scientists led by Stephen P.A. Fodor, Ph.D. The theory behind their work was revolutionary - a notion that semiconductor manufacturing techniques could be united with advances in combinatorial chemistry to build vast amounts of biological data on a small glass chip. This technology became the basis of a new company, Affymetrix, formed as a division of Affymax, N.V. in 1991. Affymetrix began operating independently in 1992.
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    2 votes
    190
    Charge-coupled device

    Charge-coupled device

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins. The CCD is a major technology for digital imaging. In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped MOSFET capacitors. These capacitors are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface; the CCD is then used to read out these charges. Although CCDs are not the only technology to allow for light detection, CCD image sensors are widely used in professional, medical, and scientific applications where high-quality image data is required. In applications where a somewhat lower quality can be tolerated, such as webcams, cheaper active pixel sensors are generally used. The charge-coupled device was invented in 1969 at AT&T Bell Labs by Willard
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    2 votes
    191

    Lorenz attractor

    The Lorenz system is a system of ordinary differential equations (the Lorenz equations) first studied by Edward Lorenz. It is notable for having chaotic solutions for certain parameter values and initial conditions. In particular, the Lorenz attractor is a set of chaotic solutions of the Lorenz system which, when plotted, resemble a butterfly or figure eight. In 1963, Edward Lorenz developed a simplified mathematical model for atmospheric convection. The model is a system of three ordinary differential equations now known as the Lorenz equations: Here , , and make up the system state, is time, and , , are the system parameters. The Lorenz equations also arise in simplified models for lasers, dynamos, thermosyphons, brushless DC motors, electric circuits, and chemical reactions. From a technical standpoint, the Lorenz system is nonlinear, three-dimensional and deterministic. The Lorenz equations have been the subject of at least one book length study. One normally assumes that the parameters , , and are positive. Lorenz used the values , and . The system exhibits chaotic behavior for these values. If then there is only one equilibrium point, which is at the origin. This point
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    2 votes
    192
    Newspaper

    Newspaper

    A newspaper is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features, editorials, and advertising. It usually is printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. By 2007, there were 6,580 daily newspapers in the world selling 395 million copies a day. The worldwide recession of 2008, combined with the rapid growth of web-based alternatives, caused a serious decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers closed or sharply retrenched operations. General-interest newspapers typically publish stories on local and national political events and personalities, crime, business, entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and columns that express the personal opinions of writers. The newspaper is typically funded by paid subscriptions and advertising. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers, including editorial opinions, criticism, persuasion and op-eds; obituaries; entertainment features such as crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes; weather news and forecasts; advice, food and other columns; reviews of radio,
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    2 votes
    193

    Number density

    In physics, astronomy, and chemistry, number density (symbol: n) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, galaxies, etc.) in the three-dimensional physical space. Area number density (number of entities per unit surface area) and linear number density (number of entities per unit length) are defined analogously. The term number concentration (symbol: C) is sometimes used in chemistry for the same quantity, particularly when comparing with other concentrations. Number density is the number of specified objects per volume: where Here it is assumed that N is large enough that rounding of the count to the nearest integer does not introduce much of an error, however V is chosen to be small enough that the resulting n does not depend much on the size or shape of the volume V. In SI system of units, number density is measured in m, although cm is often used. However, these units are not quite practical when dealing with atoms or molecules of gases, liquids or solids at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, because the resulting numbers are extremely large (on the order of 10). Using the number density
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    2 votes
    194

    Resource Description Framework

    A general framework for describing a Web site's metadata. RDF is based on XML and provides interoperability between applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the Web. Resource Description Framework data consists of resources (nodes), and property/value pairs describing the resource. A node is any object which can be pointed to by a URI, properties are attributes of the node, and values can be either atomic values for the attribute, or other nodes. For example, information about a particular web page (a node), might include the property "Author". The value for the Author property could be either a string giving the name of the author, or a link to a resource describing the author. Resource Description Framework only specifies a mechanism for encoding and transferring meta-data. It does not specify what that meta-data should, or can be.NetLingo.com and Free On-line Dictionary of Computing
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    2 votes
    195
    Synthetic aperture radar

    Synthetic aperture radar

    Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar whose defining characteristic is its use of relative motion, between an antenna and its target region, to provide distinctive long-term coherent-signal variations, that are exploited to obtain finer spatial resolution than is possible with conventional beam-scanning means. It originated as an advanced form of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR). SAR is usually implemented by mounting, on a moving platform such as an aircraft or spacecraft, a single beam-forming antenna from which a target scene is repeatedly illuminated with pulses of radio waves at wavelengths anywhere from a meter down to millimeters. The many echo waveforms received successively at the different antenna positions are coherently detected and stored and then post-processed together to resolve elements in an image of the target region. Current (2010) airborne systems provide resolutions to about 10 cm, ultra-wideband systems provide resolutions of a few millimeters, and experimental terahertz SAR has provided sub-millimeter resolution in the laboratory. SAR images have wide applications in remote sensing and mapping of the surfaces of both the Earth and other
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    3 votes
    196
    Corn dog

    Corn dog

    A corn dog is a hot dog sausage coated in a thick layer of cornmeal batter and deep fried in oil, although some are baked. Almost all corn dogs are served on a wooden stick, though some early versions had no stick. There is some debate as to the exact origins of the corn dog; they appeared in some ways in the US by the 1920s, and were popularized nationally in the 1940s. A US patent filed in 1927, granted in 1929, for a Combined Dipping, Cooking, and Article Holding Apparatus, describes corn dogs, among other fried food impaled on a stick; it reads in part: In 300 Years of Kitchen Collectibles, author Linda Campbell Franklin states that a "Krusty Korn Dog baker" machine appeared in the 1929 Albert Pick-L. Barth wholesale catalog of hotel and restaurant supplies. The 'korn dogs' were baked in a corn batter and resembled ears of corn when cooked. A number of current corn dog vendors lay claim that credit for the invention and/or popularization of the corn dog. Carl and Neil Fletcher lay such a claim, having introduced their "Corny Dogs" at the Texas State Fair sometime between 1938 and 1942. The Pronto Pup vendors at the Minnesota State Fair claim to have invented the corn dog in
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    Current density

    In physics, current density in general is a measure of the density of flow of a conserved charge, in other words flux of the charge (sometimes used synonymously). As such the term "current density" can also be applied to other conserved quantities, like mass, energy, chemical concentration, etc. In the context of electromagnetism, and related fields in solid state physics, condensed matter physics etc., the charge is electric charge, in which case the associated current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section. It is defined as a vector whose magnitude is the electric current per cross-sectional area. In SI units, the electric current density is measured in amperes per square metre. Electric current density J is simply the electric current I (SI unit: A) per unit area A (SI unit: m). Its magnitude is given by the limit: For current density as a vector J, the surface integral over a surface S, followed by an integral over the time duration t1 to t2, gives the total amount of charge flowing through the surface in that time (t2 − t1): The area required to calculate the flux is real or imaginary, flat or curved, either as a cross-sectional area or a surface. For
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    E-mail

    E-mail

    Electronic mail, also known as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. Historically, the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission. As a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. An Internet email message consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header, and the message body. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an originator's email
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    Energy flux

    Energy flux is the rate of transfer of energy through a surface. The quantity is defined in two different ways, depending on the context:
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    Human interest story

    In Journalism, human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest or sympathy in the reader or viewer. Human interest stories may be the story behind the story about an event, organization or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during war-time, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, or profile of someone known for a career achievement. Human interest stories are sometimes criticized as "soft" news, or manipulative, sensationalistic programming. Major human interest stories are presented with a view to entertain the readers or viewers while informing them. Terry Morris, an early proponent of the genre said she took “considerable license with the facts that are given to me.” Although this could be considered a strategy, it has been referenced as a successful method of persuasion.
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    201

    Irradiance

    Irradiance is the power of electromagnetic radiation per unit area (radiative flux) incident on a surface. Radiant emittance or radiant exitance is the power per unit area radiated by a surface. The SI units for all of these quantities are watts per square meter (W/m), while the cgs units are ergs per square centimeter per second (erg·cm·s, often used in astronomy). These quantities are sometimes called intensity, but this usage leads to confusion with radiant intensity, which has different units. All of these quantities characterize the total amount of radiation present, at all frequencies. It is also common to consider each frequency in the spectrum separately. When this is done for radiation incident on a surface, it is called spectral irradiance, and has SI units W/m, or commonly W·m·nm. If a point source radiates light uniformly in all directions through a non-absorptive medium, then the irradiance decreases in proportion to the square of the distance from the object. The irradiance of a monochromatic light wave in matter is given in terms of its electric field by where E is the complex amplitude of the wave's electric field, n is the refractive index of the medium, is the
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    Newsletter

    A newsletter is a regularly distributed publication generally about one main topic that is of interest to its subscribers. Newspapers and leaflets are types of newsletters. Additionally, newsletters delivered electronically via email (e-Newsletters) have gained rapid acceptance for the same reasons email in general has gained popularity over printed correspondence. Newsletters are given out at schools, to inform parents about things that happen in that school. Many newsletters are published by clubs, churches, societies, associations, and businesses, especially companies, to provide information of interest to their members, customers or employees. Some newsletters are created as money-making ventures and sold directly to subscribers. Sending newsletters to customers and prospects is a common marketing strategy, which can have benefits and drawbacks. General attributes of newsletters include news and upcoming events of the related organization, as well as contact information for general inquiries. Newsletters can be divided into two distinct types: printed on paper and in digital formats, which are usually distributed via the Internet. The digital formats vary from the simplest
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    UniProt Consortium

    UniProt Consortium

    The mission of UniProt is to provide the scientific community with a comprehensive, high-quality and freely accessible resource of protein sequence and functional information.
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    204

    User

    Users in a computing context refers to one who uses a computer system. Users may need to identify themselves for the purposes of accounting, security, logging and resource management. In order to identify oneself, a user has an account (a user account) and a username (also called a screen name, handle, nickname, or nick on some systems), and in most cases also a password (see below). Users employ the user interface to access systems, and the process of identification is often referred to as authentication. Users are also widely characterized as the class of people that uses a system without complete technical expertise required to fully understand the system. In most hacker-related contexts, they are also called real users. See also End-user (computer science). A computer user is similar to the user in telecommunications, but with slight semantic differences. The difference is comparable to the difference between end-user and consumers in economics. For instance, one can be a user of (and have an account on) a computer system, a computer network or have an e-mail account. A user account allows one to authenticate to system services. It also generally provides one with the
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    Surface

    Surface

    In mathematics, specifically in topology, a surface is a two-dimensional topological manifold. The most familiar examples are those that arise as the boundaries of solid objects in ordinary three-dimensional Euclidean space R — for example, the surface of a ball. On the other hand, there are surfaces, such as the Klein bottle, that cannot be embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space without introducing singularities or self-intersections. To say that a surface is "two-dimensional" means that, about each point, there is a coordinate patch on which a two-dimensional coordinate system is defined. For example, the surface of the Earth is (ideally) a two-dimensional sphere, and latitude and longitude provide two-dimensional coordinates on it (except at the poles and along the 180th meridian). The concept of surface finds application in physics, engineering, computer graphics, and many other disciplines, primarily in representing the surfaces of physical objects. For example, in analyzing the aerodynamic properties of an airplane, the central consideration is the flow of air along its surface. A (topological) surface is a nonempty second countable Hausdorff topological space in which
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    Bill

    A bill is a proposed law under consideration by a legislature. A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature and, in most cases, approved by the executive. Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called an act or a statute. The term bill is primarily used in the United States and the Commonwealth. In the United Kingdom, the subparts of a bill are known as clauses while the subparts of an act are known as sections. A bill is introduced by a member of the legislature (in the house of commons). This takes a variety of forms. In the British/Westminster system, where the executive is drawn from the legislature and usually holds a majority in the lower house, most bills are introduced by the executive. In principle, the legislature meets to consider the demands of the executive, as set out in the Queen's Speech or Speech from the Throne. While mechanisms exist to allow other members of the legislature to introduce bills, these are subject to strict timetables and usually fail unless a consensus is reached. In the US system, where the executive is formally separated from the legislature, all bills must originate from the legislature. Bills can be introduced using
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    Bowl

    Bowl

    A bowl is a common open-top container used in many cultures to serve food, and is also used for drinking and storing other items. They are typically small and shallow, although some, such as punch bowls and salad bowls, are larger and often intended to serve many people. Bowls have existed for thousands of years. Very early bowls have been found in China, Ancient Greece, Crete and in certain Native American cultures. Modern bowls can be made of ceramic, metal, wood, plastic, and other materials. Their appearance can range from very simple designs of a single color to sophisticated artwork. In examining bowls found during an archaeological dig in North America, the anthropologist Vincas Steponaitis defines a bowl by its dimensions, writing that a bowl's diameter rarely falls under half its height and that historic bowls can be classified by their edge, or lip, and shape. The British/American standard soup bowl has a mouth, the opening not including the extent of its lip, with a diameter of 18.5 centimetres, and should be able to adequately accommodate at least 24 ounces of liquid. In classical Greece, small bowls, including phiales and pateras, and bowl-shaped cups called kylices
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    Joule

    The joule ( /ˈdʒuːl/ or sometimes /ˈdʒaʊl/); symbol J) is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy expended (or work done) in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or N·m), or in passing an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818–1889). In terms firstly of base SI units and then in terms of other SI units: where N is the newton, m is the metre, kg is the kilogram, s is the second, Pa is the pascal, and W is the watt. One joule can also be defined as: This SI unit is named after James Prescott Joule. As with every International System of Units (SI) unit whose name is derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case (J). When an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lower case letter (joule), except where any word would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title. Note that "degree Celsius" conforms to this rule because the "d" is lowercase. —Based on
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    Health

    Health

    Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being. In humans, it is the general condition of a person's mind, body and spirit, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain (as in "good health" or "healthy"). The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Although this definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete", it remains the most enduring . Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences. The term "healthy" is also widely used in the context of
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    Health care

    Health care

    Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers. It refers to the work done in providing primary care, secondary care and tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care varies across countries, groups and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. Countries and jurisdictions have different policies and plans in relation to the personal and population-based health care goals within their societies. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of target populations. Their exact configuration varies from country to country. In some countries and jurisdictions, health care planning is distributed among market participants, whereas in others planning is made more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies. In all cases, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), a well-functioning health care system requires a
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    Sam Walton

    Sam Walton

    Samuel Moore "Sam" Walton (March 29, 1918 – April 5, 1992) was an American businessman and entrepreneur born in Kingfisher, Oklahoma best known for founding the retailers Walmart and Sam's Club. Sam Walton was born to Thomas Gibson Walton and Nancy Lee in Kingfisher, Oklahoma. There, he lived with his parents on their farm until 1923. Sam's father decided farming did not generate enough income on which to raise a family, so he decided to go back to a previous profession of a mortgage man. He and his family (now with another son, James, born in 1921) moved from Oklahoma to Chesterfield, Missouri. There they moved from one small town to another for several years. While attending eighth grade in Shelbina, Sam became the youngest Eagle Scout in the state's history. In adult life, Walton became a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America. Eventually the family landed in Columbia, Missouri. Growing up during the Great Depression, Walton had numerous chores to help make financial ends meet for his family as was common at the time. He milked the family cow, bottled the surplus, and drove it to customers. Afterwards, he would deliver Columbia Daily
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    Chronicling America

    Chronicling America is a website created by the newspaper digitization program, the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP). The Chronicling America website contains digitized newspaper pages and information about historic newspapers to place the primary sources in context and support future research. The National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP) is a partnership between the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the Library of Congress (LC), which will be maintained at the Library of Congress.
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    License

    The verb license or grant license means to give permission. The noun license (American English) or licence (British English, Indian English, Canadian English, Australian English, New Zealand English South African English) refers to that permission as well as to the document recording that permission. A license may be granted by a party ("licensor") to another party ("licensee") as an element of an agreement between those parties. A shorthand definition of a license is "an authorization (by the licensor) to use the licensed material (by the licensee)." In particular a license may be issued by authorities, to allow an activity that would otherwise be forbidden. It may require paying a fee and/or proving a capability. The requirement may also serve to keep the authorities informed on a type of activity, and to give them the opportunity to set conditions and limitations. A licensor may grant a license under intellectual property laws to authorise a use (such as copying software or using a (patented) invention) to a licensee, sparing the licensee from a claim of infringement brought by the licensor. A license under intellectual property commonly has several component parts beyond the
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    214

    Dublin Core

    The Dublin Core metadata terms are a set of vocabulary terms which can be used to describe resources for the purposes of discovery. The terms can be used to describe a full range of web resources: video, images, web pages etc. and physical resources such as books and objects like artworks . The full set of Dublin Core metadata terms can be found on the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) website . The original set of 15 classic metadata terms, known as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set are endorsed in the following standards documents: Dublin Core Metadata can be used for multiple purposes, from simple resource description, to combining metadata vocabularies of different metadata standards, to providing interoperability for metadata vocabularies in the Linked data cloud and Semantic web implementations. "Dublin" refers to Dublin, Ohio, where the work originated during the 1995 invitational OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop, hosted in by Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), a library consortium based there, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). "Core" refers to the metadata terms as "broad and generic being usable for describing a wide range of
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    Gravitational potential

    Gravitational potential

    In classical mechanics, the gravitational potential at a location is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass that is done by the force of gravity to move an object to a fixed reference location. It is analogous to the electric potential with mass playing the role of charge. By convention, the reference location is usually taken at infinity, so the gravitational potential is zero infinitely far away from any mass and negative at any finite distance. In mathematics the gravitational potential is also known as the Newtonian potential and is fundamental in the study of potential theory. The gravitational potential (V) is the potential energy (U) per unit mass: where m is the mass of the object. Potential energy is equal (in magnitude, but negative) to the work done by the gravitational field moving a body to its given position in space from infinity. If the body has a mass of 1 unit, then the potential energy to be assigned to that body is equal to the gravitational potential. So the potential can be interpreted as the negative of the work done by the gravitational field moving a unit mass in from infinity. In some situations, the equations can be simplified by assuming a
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    Kurtosis

    Kurtosis

    In probability theory and statistics, kurtosis (from the Greek word κυρτός, kyrtos or kurtos, meaning bulging) is any measure of the "peakedness" of the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable. In a similar way to the concept of skewness, kurtosis is a descriptor of the shape of a probability distribution and, just as for skewness, there are different ways of quantifying it for a theoretical distribution and corresponding ways of estimating it from a sample from a population. One common measure of kurtosis, originating with Karl Pearson, is based on a scaled version of the fourth moment of the data or population, but it has been argued that this measure really measures heavy tails, and not peakedness. For this measure, higher kurtosis means more of the variance is the result of infrequent extreme deviations, as opposed to frequent modestly sized deviations. It is common practice to use an adjusted version of Pearson's kurtosis, the excess kurtosis, to provide a comparison of the shape of a given distribution to that of the normal distribution. Distributions with negative or positive excess kurtosis are called platykurtic distributions or leptokurtic distributions
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    Monarch

    Monarch

    A monarch is the person at the head of a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and rules for life or until abdication. Monarchs may be autocrats (absolute monarchy) or ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only reserve power, with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy). Most states have at most one monarch at any given time, although a regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, not present, or otherwise incapable of ruling. Two monarchs have ruled simultaneously in some countries, as in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta or the joint sovereignty of spouses or relatives (e.g., William and Mary of Kingdom of England and Scotland, Peter and Ivan of Russia, Charles and Joanna of Castile, etc.). Monarchs have various titles — king or queen, prince or princess (e.g., Sovereign Prince of Monaco), Malik or Malikah (e.g., Maliks of Middle eastern Mamlakahs), emperor or empress (e.g., Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), Shah of Iran, archduke, duke or grand duke (e.g., Grand Duke of Luxembourg). Prince is
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    219

    Rate Your Music

    Rate Your Music (or RYM) is an online collaborative metadata database of musical and non-musical releases and films which can be cataloged, rated and reviewed by users. Rate Your Music was founded on December 24, 2000 by Atlanta resident Hossein Sharifi. Unlike Discogs, focusing on electronic music, Rate Your Music was in its beginning more rock oriented, before gradually integrating every other genre. The main idea of the website is to allow the users to add albums, EPs, singles, videos, bootlegs to the database and to rate them. The rating system uses a scale of minimum a half-star (or 0.5 points) to maximum five stars (or 5 points). In this manner, Rate Your Music bears resemblance to a Wiki, as all of the databases content is generated jointly by the registered user community (artists, releases, biographies,…); however, the majority of new, edited content must be approved by a moderator to prevent virtual vandalism. RYM 1.0, the first version of the website, allowed the users to rate and catalog releases, as well as to write reviews, create lists and add artists and releases to the database. Over time, other features were progressively added, like cover art, a community board
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    University of Florida

    University of Florida

    The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida, UF or U of F) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a 2,000-acre (8.1 km) campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906. The University of Florida is ranked 17th overall among all public national universities in the current 2013 U.S. News & World Report rankings, and consistently ranks within the top 100 universities worldwide. The University of Florida is considered a "Public Ivy," a designation reserved for the top public universities in the United States. The University of Florida is an elected member of the Association of American Universities (AAU), an organization composed of sixty-one American and Canadian research universities. It is one of three "research flagship universities" within the State University System of Florida, as designated by the Florida Legislature. The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. It is the second largest Florida university by student population, and is the seventh largest
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    Asteroid

    Asteroid

    Asteroids (from Greek ἀστεροειδής - asteroeidēs, "star-like", from ἀστήρ "star" and εἶδος "like, in form") are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones. These terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that did not show the disk of a planet and was not observed to have the characteristics of an active comet, but as small objects in the outer Solar System were discovered, their volatile-based surfaces were found to more closely resemble comets, and so were often distinguished from traditional asteroids. Thus the term asteroid has come increasingly to refer specifically to the small bodies of the inner Solar System out to the orbit of Jupiter, which are usually rocky or metallic. They are grouped with the outer bodies—centaurs, Neptune trojans, and trans-Neptunian objects—as minor planets, which is the term preferred in astronomical circles. This article will restrict the use of the term 'asteroid' to the minor planets of the inner Solar System. There are millions of asteroids, many thought to be the shattered remnants of planetesimals, bodies within the young
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    Comet

    A comet is an icy small Solar System body (SSSB) that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmosphere) and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei range from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometers across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles. Comets have been observed since ancient times and have traditionally been considered bad omens. Comets have a wide range of orbital periods, ranging from a few years to hundreds of thousands of years. Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper belt, or its associated scattered disc, which lie beyond the orbit of Neptune. Longer-period comets are thought to originate in the Oort cloud, a hypothesized spherical cloud of icy bodies in the outer Solar System. Long-period comets plunge towards the Sun from the Oort cloud because of gravitational perturbations caused by either the massive outer planets of the Solar System (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), or passing stars. Rare hyperbolic comets pass once through the inner Solar System before being
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    Country

    Country

    A country is a region legally identified as a distinct entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated peoples with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction. Sometimes the word country is used to refer both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it refers only to states. For example, the CIA World Factbook uses the word in its "Country name" field to refer to "a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states". The word country has developed from the Late Latin contra meaning "against", used in the sense of "that which lies against, or opposite to, the
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    Covariance

    In probability theory and statistics, covariance is a measure of how much two random variables change together. If the greater values of one variable mainly correspond with the greater values of the other variable, and the same holds for the smaller values, i.e., the variables tend to show similar behavior, the covariance is a positive number. In the opposite case, when the greater values of one variable mainly correspond to the smaller values of the other, i.e., the variables tend to show opposite behavior, the covariance is negative. The sign of the covariance therefore shows the tendency in the linear relationship between the variables. The magnitude of the covariance is not that easy to interpret. The normalized version of the covariance, the correlation coefficient, however, shows by its magnitude the strength of the linear relation. A distinction must be made between (1) the covariance of two random variables, which is a population parameter that can be seen as a property of the joint probability distribution, and (2) the sample covariance, which serves as an estimated value of the parameter. The covariance between two jointly distributed real-valued random variables x and y
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    DailyMed

    DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information providers and the public with a standard, comprehensive, up-to-date, look-up and download resource of medication content and labeling as found in medication package inserts. The National Library of Medicine (NLM) provides this as a public service and does not accept advertisements.
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    Dimensionless quantity

    In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity or quantity of dimension one is a quantity without an associated physical dimension. It is thus a "pure" number, and as such always has a dimension of 1. Dimensionless quantities are widely used in mathematics, physics, engineering, economics, and in everyday life (such as in counting). Numerous well-known quantities, such as π, e, and φ, are dimensionless. By contrast, non-dimensionless quantities are measured in units of length, area, time, etc. Dimensionless quantities are often defined as products or ratios of quantities that are not dimensionless, but whose dimensions cancel out when their powers are multiplied. This is the case, for instance, with the engineering strain, a measure of deformation. It is defined as change in length over initial length but, since these quantities both have dimensions L (length), the result is a dimensionless quantity. Another consequence of the Buckingham π theorem of dimensional analysis is that the functional dependence between a certain number (say, n) of variables can be reduced by the number (say, k) of independent dimensions occurring in those variables to give a set of p = n − k
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    E-mail address

    An email address identifies an email box to which email messages are delivered. This article covers modern internet email, but many earlier email systems used different address formats. The local part of an address (before the @ sign) is case-sensitive (with the exception of postmaster@example.com). The domain part (after the @ sign) is not case-sensitive. Most organizations treat uppercase and lowercase letters in the local part as equivalent. The risk of delivery failures due to case differences can be minimized by using only lower case characters when creating new addresses. The transmission of email over the Internet normally uses the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), defined in Internet standards RFC 5321 and RFC 5322, and extensions like RFC 6531. Mailboxes themselves are most often accessed using the Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). The general format of an email address is jsmith@example.org. It consists of two parts: the part before the @ sign is the local-part of the address, often the username of the recipient (jsmith), and the part after the @ sign is a domain name to which the email message will be sent (example.org). It is
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    Enstrophy

    In fluid dynamics, the enstrophy can be described as the integral of the square of the vorticity given a velocity field as, Here, since the curl gives a scalar field in 2-dimensions (vortex) corresponding to the vector-valued velocity solving in the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, we can integrate its square over a surface S to retrieve a continuous linear operator on the space of possible velocity fields, known as a current. This equation is however somewhat misleading. Here we have chosen a simplified version of the enstrophy derived from the incompressibility condition, which is equivalent to vanishing divergence of the velocity field, More generally, when not restricted to the incompressible condition, or to two spatial dimensions, the enstrophy may be computed by: where is the Frobenius norm of the gradient of the velocity field . The enstrophy can be interpreted as another type of potential density (ie. see probability density); or, more concretely, the quantity directly related to the kinetic energy in the flow model that corresponds to dissipation effects in the fluid. It is particularly useful in the study of turbulent flows, and is often identified in the study
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    Hearing

    Hearing

    In law, a hearing is a proceeding before a court or other decision-making body or officer, such as a government agency. A hearing is generally distinguished from a trial in that it is usually shorter and often less formal. In the course of litigation, hearings are conducted as oral arguments in support of motions, whether to resolve the case without further trial on a motion to dismiss or for summary judgment, or to decide discrete issues of law, such as the admissibility of evidence, that will determine how the trial proceeds. Limited evidence and testimony may also be presented in hearings to supplement the legal arguments. In the United States, one aspect of the "due process revolution" is that many administrative decisions that were once made much less formally must now be preceded by a hearing. An important step in this development was the Supreme Court decision in Goldberg v. Kelly, 397 U.S. 254 (1970). There the Court held that an agency could not terminate a recipient's welfare benefits without a pre-termination hearing. The decision also illustrated that what constitutes a "hearing" can depend on the context. In Goldberg, the goal of a speedy decision was held to "justify
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    LinkedCT : Clinical Trials

    LinkedCT : Clinical Trials

    LinkedCT is a Linked Data source of clinical trials available at ClinicalTrials.gov, a registry of federally and privately supported clinical trials conducted in the United States and around the world. ClinicalTrials.gov give you information about a trial's purpose, who may participate, locations, and phone numbers for more details. This information should be used in conjunction with advice from health care professionals. The LinkedCT data space is published according to the principles of publishing Linked Data. Each entity in LinkedCT is identified by a unique HTTP dereferenceable Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). When the URI is looked up, related RDF statements about the entity is returned in HTML or RDF/XML based on the user’s agent. Moreover, a SPARQL endpoint is provided as the standard access method for RDF data.
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    Manuscript

    Manuscript

    A manuscript or handwrit is written information that has been manually created by one or more people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way. The term may also be used for information that is hand-recorded in other ways than writing, for example inscriptions that are chiselled upon a hard material or scratched (the original meaning of graffiti) as with a knife point in plaster or with a stylus on a waxed tablet (the way Romans made notes), or are in cuneiform writing, impressed with a pointed stylus in a flat tablet of unbaked clay. The word manuscript derives from the Medieval Latin manuscriptum, a word first recorded in 1594 as a Latinisation of earlier Germanic words used in the Middle Ages: compare Middle High German hantschrift (c. 1450), Old Norse handrit (bef. 1300), Old English handgewrit (bef. 1150), all meaning "manuscript", literally, "handwritten". In publishing and academic contexts, a manuscript is the text submitted to the publisher or printer in preparation for publication, usually as a typescript prepared on a typewriter, or today, a printout from a PC printer, prepared in manuscript format. Manuscripts are not
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    Michelson interferometer

    Michelson interferometer

    The Michelson interferometer is the most common configuration for optical interferometry and was invented by Albert Abraham Michelson. An interference pattern is produced by splitting a beam of light into two paths, bouncing the beams back and recombining them. The different paths may be of different lengths or be composed of different materials to create interference fringes on a back detector. Michelson, along with Edward Morley, used this interferometer in the famous Michelson-Morley experiment (1887) in a failed attempt to demonstrate the effect of the hypothetical "aether wind" on the speed of light. Their experiment left theories of light based on the existence of a luminiferous aether without experimental support, and served ultimately as an inspiration for special relativity. A Michelson interferometer consists of two highly polished mirrors M1 & M2. In Fig 2, a source S emits light that hits a beam splitter (in this case, a half-silvered mirror), surface M, at point C. M is partially reflective, so one beam is transmitted through to point B while the other is reflected in the direction of A. Both beams recombine at point C' to produce an interference pattern (assuming
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    Noise

    In science, and especially in physics and telecommunication, noise is fluctuations in and the addition of external factors to the stream of target information (signal) being received at a detector. In communications, it may be deliberate as for instance jamming of a radio or TV signal, but in most cases it is assumed to be merely undesired interference with intended operations. Natural and deliberate noise sources can provide both or either of random interference or patterned interference. Only the latter can be cancelled effectively in analog systems; however, digital systems are usually constructed in such a way that their quantized signals can be reconstructed perfectly, as long as the noise level remains below a defined maximum, which varies from application to application. More specifically, in physics, the term noise has the following meanings: Noise and what can be done about it has long been studied. Claude Shannon established information theory and in so doing clarified the essential nature of noise and the limits it places on the operation of electronic equipment. In some cases a little noise may be considered advantageous, allowing a dithered representation of signals
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    OpenCalais

    The OpenCalais ontology is used to mark up textual documents with information about named entities. It supports a rich set of semantic metadata, including entities, events and facts.
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    Optical instrument

    Optical instrument

    An optical instrument either processes light waves to enhance an image for viewing, or analyzes light waves (or photons) to determine one of a number of characteristic properties. The first optical instruments were telescopes used for magnification of distant images, and microscopes used for magnifying very tiny images. Since the days of Galileo and Van Leeuwenhoek, these instruments have been greatly improved and extended into other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The binocular device is a generally compact instrument for both eyes designed for mobile use. A camera could be considered a type of optical instrument, with the pinhole camera and camera obscura being very simple examples of such devices. Another class of optical instrument is used to analyze the properties of light or optical materials. They include: DNA sequencers can be considered optical instruments as they analyse the color and intensity of the light emitted by a fluorochrome attached to a specific nucleotide of a DNA strand. Surface plasmon resonance-based instruments use refractometry to measure and analyze biomolecular interactions.
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    Planet

    Planet

    A planet (from Ancient Greek αστήρ πλανήτης (astēr planētēs), meaning "wandering star") is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals. The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science, mythology, and religion. The planets were originally seen by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System. This definition has been both praised and criticized, and remains disputed by some scientists since it excludes many objects of planetary mass based on where or what they orbit. While eight of the planetary bodies discovered before 1950 remain "planets" under modern definition, some celestial bodies, such as Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta (each an object in the Solar asteroid belt) and Pluto (the first-discovered trans-Neptunian object), that were once considered
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    Polarization

    Polarization

    Polarization (also polarisation) is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, and gravitational waves exhibit polarization; sound waves in a gas or liquid do not have polarization because the medium vibrates only along the direction in which the waves are travelling. By convention, the polarization of light is described by specifying the orientation of the wave's electric field at a point in space over one period of the oscillation. When light travels in free space, in most cases it propagates as a transverse wave—the polarization is perpendicular to the wave's direction of travel. In this case, the electric field may be oriented in a single direction (linear polarization), or it may rotate as the wave travels (circular or elliptical polarization). In the latter case, the field may rotate in either direction. The direction in which the field rotates is the wave's chirality or handedness. The polarization of an electromagnetic (EM) wave can be more complicated in certain cases. For instance, in a waveguide such as an optical fiber or for radially polarized beams in free space, the fields can have longitudinal as well
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    239

    Politician

    A politician, political leader, or political figure (from Greek "polis") is someone who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making. This includes people who hold decision-making positions in government, and people who seek those positions, whether by means of election, inheritance, coup d'état, appointment, electoral fraud, conquest, divine right, or other means. Politics is not limited to governance through public office. Political offices may also be held in corporations, and other entities that are governed by self-defined political processes. Public choice theory involves the use of modern economic tools to study problems that are traditionally in the province of political science. (A more general term is "political economy", an earlier name for "economics" that evokes its practical and theoretical origins but should not be mistaken for the Marxian use of the same term.) In particular, it studies the behavior of voters, politicians, and government officials as (mostly) self-interested agents and their interactions in the social system either as such or under alternative constitutional rules. These can be represented a number of ways, including standard
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    Potential temperature

    The potential temperature of a parcel of fluid at pressure is the temperature that the parcel would acquire if adiabatically brought to a standard reference pressure , usually 1000 millibars. The potential temperature is denoted and, for air, is often given by where is the current absolute temperature (in K) of the parcel, is the gas constant of air, and is the specific heat capacity at a constant pressure. This equation is often known as Poisson's equation. The concept of potential temperature applies to any stratified fluid. It is most frequently used in the atmospheric sciences and oceanography. The reason that it is used in both fluids is that changes in pressure result in warmer fluid residing under colder fluid- examples being the fact that air temperature drops as one climbs a mountain and water temperature can increase with depth in very deep ocean trenches and within the ocean mixed layer. When potential temperature is used instead, these apparently unstable conditions vanish. Potential temperature is a more dynamically important quantity than the actual temperature. This is because it is not affected by the physical lifting or sinking associated with flow over
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    Pressure

    Pressure

    Pressure (the symbol: p) is the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed. In other words, pressure is force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure. While pressure may be measured in any unit of force divided by any unit of area, the SI unit of pressure (the newton per square metre) is called the pascal (Pa) after the seventeenth-century philosopher and scientist Blaise Pascal. A pressure of 1 Pa is small; it approximately equals the pressure exerted by a dollar bill resting flat on a table. Everyday pressures are often stated in kilopascals (1 kPa = 1000 Pa). Pressure is the effect of a force applied to a surface. Pressure is the amount of force acting per unit area. The symbol of pressure is p. Mathematically: where: For liquid, the formula can be: where: Pressure is a scalar quantity. It relates the vector surface element (a vector normal to the surface) with the normal force acting on it. The pressure is the scalar proportionality constant that relates the two normal vectors: The minus(-) sign comes from
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    PubChem : The PubChem Project

    PubChem : The PubChem Project

    PubChem provides information on the biological activities of small molecules. It is a component of NIH's Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiative. If you would like to learn more about how to use the PubChem resources, please go to our help page.
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    RDF Schema

    RDF Schema (variously abbreviated as RDFS, RDF(S), RDF-S, or RDF/S) is a set of classes with certain properties using the RDF extensible knowledge representation language, providing basic elements for the description of ontologies, otherwise called RDF vocabularies, intended to structure RDF resources. These resources can be saved in a triplestore to reach them with the query language SPARQL. The first version was published by the World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in April 1998, and the final W3C recommendation was released in February 2004. Many RDFS components are included in the more expressive language Web Ontology Language (OWL). RDFS constructs are the RDFS classes, associated properties and utility properties built on the limited vocabulary of RDF. A typical example of an rdfs:Class is foaf:Person in the Friend of a Friend (FOAF) vocabulary. An instance of foaf:Person is a resource that is linked to the class foaf:Person using the rdf:type property, such as in the following formal expression of the natural language sentence : 'John is a Person'. ex:John rdf:type foaf:Person The definition of rdfs:Class is recursive: rdfs:Class is the rdfs:Class of any rdfs:Class. The other
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    School district

    School district

    A school district is a form of special-purpose district which serves to operate local public primary and secondary schools. In the United States, public schools are run by school districts, which are independent special-purpose governments, or dependent school systems, which are under the control of state and local government. A school district is a legally separate body corporate and politic. School districts are local governments with powers similar to that of a town or a county including taxation and eminent domain, except in Virginia, whose school divisions have no taxing authority and must depend on another local government (county, city, or town) for funding. Its governing body, which is typically elected by direct popular vote but may be appointed by other governmental officials, is called a school board, board of trustees, board of education, school committee, or the like. This body appoints a superintendent, usually an experienced public school administrator, to function as the district's chief executive for carrying out day-to-day decisions and policy implementations. The school board may also exercise a quasi-judicial function in serious employee or student discipline
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    Stokes parameters

    Stokes parameters

    The Stokes parameters are a set of values that describe the polarization state of electromagnetic radiation. They were defined by George Gabriel Stokes in 1852, as a mathematically convenient alternative to the more common description of incoherent or partially polarized radiation in terms of its total intensity (I), (fractional) degree of polarization (p), and the shape parameters of the polarization ellipse. The relationship of the Stokes parameters to intensity and polarization ellipse parameters is shown in the equations below and the figure at right. Here , and are the spherical coordinates of the three-dimensional vector of cartesian coordinates . is the total intensity of the beam, and is the degree of polarization. The factor of two before represents the fact that any polarization ellipse is indistinguishable from one rotated by 180°, while the factor of two before indicates that an ellipse is indistinguishable from one with the semi-axis lengths swapped accompanied by a 90° rotation. The four Stokes parameters are sometimes denoted I, Q, U and V, respectively. If given the Stokes parameters one can solve for the spherical coordinates with the following equations: The
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    UMBEL

    UMBEL

    UMBEL (Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer) is a lightweight ontology structure for relating Web content and data to a standard set of subject concepts. Its purpose is to provide a fixed set of reference points in a global knowledge space. These subject concepts have defined relationships between them and can act as binding or attachment points for any Web content or data.
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    Void

    voiD (from "Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets") is an RDF based schema to describe linked datasets. With voiD the discovery and usage of linked datasets can be performed both effectively and efficiently. A dataset is a collection of data, published and maintained by a single provider, available as RDF, and accessible, for example, through dereferenceable HTTP URIs or a SPARQL endpoint.
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    Weight

    Weight

    In science and engineering, the weight of an object is the force on the object due to gravity. Its magnitude (a scalar quantity), often denoted by an italic letter W, is the product of the mass m of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration g; thus: W = mg. When considered a vector, weight is often denoted by a bold letter W. The unit of measurement for weight is that of force, which in the International System of Units (SI) is the newton. For example, an object with a mass of one kilogram has a weight of about 9.8 newtons on the surface of the Earth, about one-sixth as much on the Moon, and very nearly zero when in deep space far away from all bodies imparting gravitational influence. In the 20th century, the Newtonian concepts of gravitation were challenged by relativity. Einstein's principle of equivalence put all observers, accelerating in space far from gravitating bodies, or held in place against gravitation near such a body, on the same footing. This led to an ambiguity as to what exactly is meant by the "force of gravity" and (in consequence) by weight. The ambiguities introduced by relativity led, starting in the 1960s, to considerable debate in
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    Wolf number

    Wolf number

    The Wolf number (also known as the International sunspot number, relative sunspot number, or Zürich number) is a quantity that measures the number of sunspots and groups of sunspots present on the surface of the sun. The idea of computing sunspot numbers was originated by Rudolf Wolf in 1848 in Zurich, Switzerland and, thus, the procedure he initiated bears his name (or place). The combination of sunspots and their grouping is used because it compensates for variations in observing small sunspots. This number has been collected and tabulated by researchers for over 150 years. They have found that sunspot activity is cyclical and reaches its maximum around every 9.5 to 11 years (note: Using data from SIDC for the last 300 years and running a FFT function on the data gives an average maximum at 10.4883 years/cycle). This cycle was first noted by Heinrich Schwabe in 1843. The relative sunspot number is computed using the formula (collected as a daily index of sunspot activity): where
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    YAGO

    YAGO (Yet Another General Ontology (?)) is a huge semantic knowledge base. Currently, YAGO knows over 1.7 million entities (like persons, organizations, cities, etc.). It knows about 14 million facts about these entities. A Web-Interface allows users to pose questions to YAGO in the form of queries on the YAGO homepage. YAGO is being developed at the Max Planck Institute for Computer Science. YAGO is automatically extracted from Wikipedia and uses Wordnet to structure information.
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