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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Video Game Genre of All Time

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Best Video Game Genre of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on Rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Video Game Genre of All Time top list are added by the Rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Video Game Genre of All Time has gotten 1.263 views and has gathered 571 votes from 571 voters. Only owner can add items. Just members can vote.

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    1
    Future

    Future

    • Computer games: F-Zero GX
    The future is the indefinite time period after the present. Its arrival is considered inevitable due to the existence of time and the laws of physics. Due to the nature of reality and the unavoidability of the future, everything that currently exists and will exist can be categorized as either permanent, meaning that it will exist for the whole of the future or temporary, meaning that it won't and thus will come to an end. The future and the concept of eternity have been major subjects of philosophy, religion, and science and defining them non-controversially has consistently eluded the greatest of minds. It is the opposite of the past. In the Occidental view, which uses a linear conception of time, the future is the portion of the projected time line that is anticipated to occur. In special relativity, the future is considered to be absolute future or the future light cone. In physics, time is considered to be the fourth dimension of the universe. In the philosophy of time, presentism is the belief that only the present exists and the future and the past are unreal. Religions consider the future when they address issues such as karma, life after death, and eschatologies that study
    8.14
    7 votes
    2
    Golf

    Golf

    • Computer games: NBC Sports Real Golf
    Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players (or golfers) use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes. Golf is defined, in the rules of golf, as "playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules." It is one of the few ball games that does not require a standardized playing area. Instead, the game is played on a "course", generally consisting of an arranged progression of either 9 or 18 "holes". Each hole on the course must contain a "tee box" and a "putting green" with the actual hole, and there are various other standardized forms of terrain in between such as the fairway, rough, and hazards, but each hole on a course and indeed among virtually all courses is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf competition is generally played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known simply as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes during a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most commonly-seen format at virtually all levels of play,
    7.13
    8 votes
    3

    Life simulation

    • Computer games: The Sims
    Life simulation games (or artificial life games) is a sub-genre of simulation video games in which the player lives or controls one or more virtual lifeforms. A life simulation game can revolve around "individuals and relationships, or it could be a simulation of an ecosystem". Life simulation games are about "maintaining and growing a manageable population of organisms", where players are given the power to control the lives of autonomous creatures or people. Artificial life games are related to computer science research in artificial life. But "because they're intended for entertainment rather than research, commercial A-life games implement only a subset of what A-life research investigates." This broad genre includes god games which focus on managing tribal worshipers, as well as artificial pets that focus on one or several animals. It also includes genetic artificial life games, where players manages populations of creatures over several generations. Artificial life games and life simulations find their origins in artificial life research, including Conway's Game of Life from 1970. But one of the first commercially viable artificial life games was Little Computer People in
    7.29
    7 votes
    4
    Browser game

    Browser game

    • Computer games: OGame
    A browser game is a computer game that is played over the Internet using a web browser. Browser games can be created and run using standard web technologies or browser plug-ins. Browser games include all video game genres and can be single-player or multiplayer. Browser games are also portable and can be played on multiple different devices or web browsers. Browser games come in many genres and themes that appeal to both core players and casual players. Browser games are often free-to-play and do not require any client software to be installed apart from a web browser. Multiplayer browser games have an additional focus on social interaction, often on a massive scale. Due to the accessibility of browser games, they are often played in more frequent, shorter sessions compared to traditional computer games. Since browser games run isolated from hardware in a web browser, they can run on many different operating systems without having to be ported to each platform. Browser games can take advantage of different technologies in order to function. Standard web technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript can be used to make browser games, but these have had limited success because of
    7.14
    7 votes
    5

    Artillery

    • Computer games: GunBound
    Artillery is the generic name for either early two- or three-player (usually turn-based) video games involving tanks fighting each other in combat or similar derivative games. Artillery games are among the earliest computer games developed; the theme of such games is an extension of the original uses of computer themselves, which were once used to calculate the trajectories of rockets and other related military-based calculations. Artillery games have been described as a type of "shooting game", though they are more often classified as a type of strategy game. Early precursors to the modern artillery-type games were text-only games that simulated artillery entirely with input data values. A BASIC game known simply as Artillery was written by Mike Forman and was published in Creative Computing magazine in 1976. This seminal home computer version of the game was revised in 1977 by M. E. Lyon and Brian West and was known as War 3; War 3 was revised further in 1979 and published as Artillery-3. These early versions of turn-based tank combat games interpreted human-entered data such as the distance between the tanks, the velocity or "power" of the shot fired and the angle of the tanks'
    7.67
    6 votes
    6

    Escape the room

    • Computer games: MOTAS
    Escape the room is a subgenre of point-and-click adventure game which requires a player to escape from imprisonment by exploiting their surroundings. They are usually created as a browser game for the Adobe Flash platform. Popular examples include "Crimson Room," "Viridian Room," "MOTAS,", "Droom" and Big Escape 1,2,3,4 on TVOKids. The object of the game is to find a way to escape from a mysterious room. The room usually consists of a locked door, several objects to manipulate as well as hidden clues or secret compartments. The player must use the objects to interact with other items in the room to reveal a way to escape. Most escape-the-room games play from a first-person perspective, where the player must click on objects to interact with them. Many games of the genre start with a small cut scene (which usually consists only of text) to establish how the player got there. The usual story is the player waking up and finding themselves in a mysterious room from which they must escape by using items found in the room. During gameplay the player must click on objects to either interact with them or add them to their inventory. As the player passes the mouse over the game screen,
    8.80
    5 votes
    7

    Run and gun

    • Computer games: Super Ghouls 'n Ghosts
    A run and gun (also known as run 'n gun or for some variants, overhead shooter) is a sub-genre of video games that incorporates elements from shoot 'em up games and platform games. These games, which are a type of multi-directional shooter, have been very popular throughout the last twenty-five years with titles such as Contra, Commando, Gunstar Heroes, Metal Slug and Ikari Warriors. The games are particularly remembered for trademark two-player simultaneous gameplay. There are two basic types of run and gun games: side-view and overhead/isometric view. Side-view games emphasize jumping and sometimes ducking as the primary means for evasion, while overhead or isometric games focus on strafing and the use of natural barriers as defenses. The phrase run and gun style is also informally applied to first person shooters in which the player can move at full speed without sacrificing accuracy (notably, Halo). Run and guns are essentially a special case of multi-directional scrollers; in order to qualify, the player must be able to move and fire the protagonist in any direction, although not necessarily simultaneously. Games in this genre are characterized by protagonists that are
    8.80
    5 votes
    8
    Visual novel

    Visual novel

    • Computer games: Meakashi-hen
    A visual novel (ビジュアルノベル, bijuaru noberu) is a work of interactive fiction, featuring mostly static graphics, most often using anime-style art or occasionally live-action stills (and sometimes video footage). As the name might suggest, they resemble mixed-media novels or tableau vivant stage plays. They are analogous to a digitized version of a Choose Your Own Adventure novel. In Japanese terminology, a distinction is often made between visual novels proper (abbreviated NVL), which consist predominantly of narration and have very few interactive elements, and adventure games (abbreviated AVG or ADV), which may incorporate problem-solving and other types of gameplay. This distinction is normally lost outside Japan, where both NVLs and ADVs are commonly referred to as "visual novels" by international fans. Visual novels and ADVs are especially prevalent in Japan, where they made up nearly 70% of the PC game titles released in 2006. Visual novels are rarely produced for video game consoles, but the more popular games have occasionally been ported to systems such as the Saturn, Dreamcast, PlayStation, or Xbox 360. The more famous visual novels are also often adapted into the light
    8.80
    5 votes
    9
    Top-down and bottom-up design

    Top-down and bottom-up design

    • Computer games: Astro Warrior
    Top-down and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, mostly involving software, but also other humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics). In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching. In many cases top-down is used as a synonym of analysis or decomposition, and bottom-up of synthesis. Top down approach starts with the big picture. It breaks down from there into smaller segments. A top-down approach (also known as stepwise design) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. A top-down model is often specified with the assistance of "black boxes", these make it easier to manipulate. However, black boxes may fail to elucidate elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically validate the model. A bottom-up approach is the piecing together of systems to give rise to grander
    8.40
    5 votes
    10

    Casual game

    • Computer games: Fish Tycoon
    A casual game is a video game targeted at or used by a mass audience of casual gamers. Casual games can have any type of gameplay, and fit in any genre. They are typically distinguished by their simple rules and lack of commitment required in contrast to more complex hardcore games. They require no long-term time commitment or special skills to play, and there are comparatively low production and distribution costs for the producer. Casual games are typically played on a personal computer online in web browsers, although they now are starting to become popular on game consoles and mobile phones as well. Casual gamers are typically older than traditional computer gamers, and more often female, with over 74% of casual gamers being female. Most casual games have similar basic features: The word "casual" indicates that the games are produced for the casual consumer, who comes across the game and can get into gameplay almost immediately. Every month, an estimated 200 million consumers play casual games online, many of whom do not normally regard themselves as gamers, or fans of video games. Casual games are usually free on-line or free to download and try (but may provide a revenue by
    7.00
    6 votes
    11
    Sports game

    Sports game

    • Computer games: ESPN MLS ExtraTime 2002
    A sports game is a video game that simulates the practice of traditional sports. Most sports have been recreated with a game, including team sports, athletics and extreme sports. Some games emphasize actually playing the sport (such as the Madden NFL series), whilst others emphasize strategy and organization (such as Championship Manager). Some, such as Arch Rivals or Punch-Out!!, satirize the sport for comic effect. This genre has been popular throughout the history of video games and is competitive, just like real-world sports. A number of game series features the names and characteristics of real teams and players, and are updated annually to reflect real-world changes. Sports games involve physical and tactical challenges, and test the player's precision and accuracy. Most sports games attempt to model the athletic characteristics required by that sport, including speed, strength, acceleration, accuracy, and so on. As with their respective sports, these games take place in a stadium or arena with clear boundaries. Sports games often provide play-by-play and color commentary through the use of recorded audio. Sports games sometimes make use of different modes for different parts
    7.00
    6 votes
    12
    Breakout clone

    Breakout clone

    • Computer games: Alleyway
    A Breakout clone (also known as a Breakout-style game) is a sub-class of the "bat-and-ball" genre introduced with the Magnavox Odyssey's Tennis and Atari's Pong. The genre gets its name by the games being based around the dynamics of a player-controlled block, called a "bat" or a paddle, which hits a ball towards another player's bat or game specific object. Breakout-style games are characterized by the addition of a wall of blocks or similar objects, that the player chips away at with the ball as part of the main gameplay. Since the release of the original Breakout arcade game in 1976, there have been notable clones and updates for various platforms. The profusion and notability of such games has been sufficient enough for them to also be referred to by some as a genre in their own right. However, since this is a fairly narrow definition of a genre, it is often not considered as such. Breakout clones' status as a genre is slightly more established in Japan than in North America. Block kuzushi (ブロック崩し burokkukuzushi, literally block destruction) is the name given in Japan to these games. A number of block kuzushi games were released in Japan under the title Block Kuzushi, including
    8.00
    5 votes
    13

    Level editor

    • Computer games: Ryzom Ring
    A level editor (also known as a map, campaign or scenario editor) is a software tool used to design levels, maps, campaigns, etc. and virtual worlds for a video game. An individual involved with the creation of game levels is a level designer or mapper. In some cases the creator of a video game releases an official level editor for the game, but other times the community of fans step in to fill the void. The level editor can be integrated into the game; for example, a track editor for a racing game. Other times (and most often), the editor is a separate application, as are most fan-released level editors. One of the first 3D games which became popular partially due to level editors and fan-made content was Doom. The creation of various third-party editors led to the birth of an online community trading fan-made maps. A level editor is often limited to creating levels for only a certain game engine. Developing a level editor takes a lot of time and it is more efficient to release multiple games using the same engine instead of developing a new engine and level editor for each game. Level editors offer some limited scope of content creation, but in the case of gaming industry
    6.67
    6 votes
    14

    Sandbox

    • Computer games: Mercenaries 2: World in Flames
    A sandbox game (or a video game with an optional sandbox mode) is a video game with an open-ended and non-linear style of gameplay, or a reduced emphasis on structure. The sandbox analogy is used to describe this style of gaming because, as with a physical sandbox, the user is entertained by their ability to play creatively, boundless of artificial structural constraints. While these games may or may not have a story or over-arching mission structure, they are considered sandbox games for their ability to allow players to think outside of these goals. Role-playing game, including MMORPG, and various other types of games can be sandbox games as well. The best selling PC game of all time, The Sims, is a sandbox-style creation (though its predecessor, SimCity, has been described as merely open-ended). Space trading and combat simulator, such as Elite and Freelancer, are examples of sandbox games. More "traditional" goal-oriented video games sometimes offer a sandbox mode, usually an option that allows the player more freedom by lifting some of the normal rules of gameplay. For example, the player may no longer have to worry about restricting resource requirements (such as having
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    Extreme sport

    Extreme sport

    • Computer games: Freekstyle
    An extreme sport (also called freesport, action sport, and adventure sport) is a popular term for certain activities perceived as having a high level of inherent danger. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion, and highly specialized gear. The definition of an extreme sport is not exact and the origin of the term is unclear, but it gained popularity in the 1990s when it was picked up by marketing companies to promote the X Games. While use of the term "extreme sport" has spread far and wide to describe a multitude of different activities, exactly which sports are considered 'extreme' is debatable. There are however several characteristics common to most extreme sports. While not the exclusive domain of youth, extreme sports tend to have a younger-than-average target demographic. Extreme sports are rarely sanctioned by schools. Extreme sports tend to be more solitary than traditional sports . (Rafting and paintballing are notable exception, as they are done in teams.) In addition, beginning extreme athletes tend to work on their craft without the guidance of a coach (though some may hire a coach later). Activities categorized by media as
    7.40
    5 votes
    16

    Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction

    • Computer games: Fallout
    Apocalyptic fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction that is concerned with the end of civilization due to an existential catastrophe such as nuclear warfare, pandemic, extraterrestrial attack, impact event, cybernetic revolt, technological singularity, dysgenics, supernatural phenomena, divine judgement, climate change, resource depletion, or some other general disaster. Post-apocalyptic fiction is set in a world or civilization after such a disaster. The time frame may be immediately after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, or considerably later, often including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten (or mythologized). Post-apocalyptic stories often take place in an agrarian, non-technological future world, or a world where only scattered elements of technology remain. There is a considerable degree of blurring between this form of science fiction and that which deals with dystopias. The genres gained in popularity after World War II, when the possibility of global annihilation by nuclear weapons entered the public consciousness. However, recognizable apocalyptic novels have existed at least since the
    8.50
    4 votes
    17

    Light gun shooter

    • Computer games: Super Scope 6
    Light gun shooter, also called light gun game or simply gun game, is a shooter video game genre in which the primary design element is aiming and shooting with a gun-shaped controller. Light gun shooters revolve around the protagonist shooting targets, either antagonists or inanimate objects. Light gun shooters generally feature action or horror themes and some may employ a humorous, parodic treatment of these conventions. These games typically feature "on-rails" movement, which gives the player control only over aiming; the protagonist's other movements are determined by the game. Games featuring this device are sometimes termed "rail shooters", though this term is also applied to games of other genres in which "on-rails" movement is a feature. Some, particularly later, games give the player greater control over movement and in still others the protagonist does not move at all. Light gun shooters employ "light gun" controllers, so named because they function through the use of light sensors. Mechanical games using light guns had existed since the 1930s, though they operated differently to those used in video games. Throughout the 1970s mechanical games were replaced by electronic
    7.20
    5 votes
    18

    Alternate reality game

    • Computer games: Majestic
    An alternate reality game (ARG) is an interactive narrative that uses the real world as a platform and uses transmedia storytelling to deliver a story that may be altered by participants' ideas or actions. The form is defined by intense player involvement with a story that takes place in real-time and evolves according to participants' responses. Subsequently, it is shaped by characters that are actively controlled by the game's designers, as opposed to being controlled by artificial intelligence as in a computer or console video game. Players interact directly with characters in the game, solve plot-based challenges and puzzles, and collaborate as a community to analyze the story and coordinate real-life and online activities. ARGs generally use multimedia, such as telephones, email and mail but rely on the Internet as the central binding medium. ARGs are growing in popularity, with new games appearing regularly and an increasing amount of experimentation with new models and subgenres. They tend to be free to play, with costs absorbed either through supporting products (e.g. collectible puzzle cards fund Perplex City) or through promotional relationships with existing products
    9.67
    3 votes
    19

    Dota

    • Computer games: Dota 2
    Multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA), also known as action real-time strategy (ARTS), is a sub-genre of the real-time strategy (RTS) genre, in which often two teams of players compete with each other in discrete games, with each player controlling a single character through an RTS-style interface. It differs from traditional RTS games in that there is no unit construction and players control just one character. In this sense, it is a fusion of action games and real-time strategy games. The genre emphasizes cooperative team-play; players select and control one "hero", a powerful unit with various abilities and advantages to form a team's overall strategy. The objective is to destroy the opponents' main structure with the assistance of periodically spawned computer-controlled units that march towards the enemy's main structure via paths referred to as "lanes". The genre traces its roots to Aeon of Strife (AoS), a custom map for StarCraft. Defense of the Ancients (DotA), a map based on Aeon of Strife for Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and The Frozen Throne, was one of the first major MOBA titles. The custom map Aeon of Strife for the real-time strategy game StarCraft is one of the
    9.67
    3 votes
    20

    Episodic games

    • Computer games: Shootout! The Game
    An episodic video game is a video game of a shorter length that is commercially released as an installment to a continuous and larger series. Episodic games differ from conventional video games in that they often contain less content but are developed on a more frequent basis. Such a series may or may not have continuity, but will always share settings, characters, and/or themes. Episodic production in this manner has become increasingly popular among video game developers since the advent of low-cost digital distribution systems, which can immensely reduce their distribution overhead and make episodes financially viable. Alternatively, it can be used to describe the narrative of the game. Examples of episodic video games include Alan Wake, Grand Theft Auto: Episodes from Liberty City, and Star Trek Online. To consumers, episodic games are very similar in nature to expansion packs. An expansion is an add-on to an original, non-episodic product however; something of a lower order. In an episodic series there is no dominant '"first" game': each installment, although perhaps of the same length and price point as an expansion, is a main event that drives the core experience
    8.25
    4 votes
    21

    Train simulator

    • Computer games: Trainz Railroad Simulator 2006
    A train simulator is a computer based simulation of rail transport operations. Like flight simulators, train simulators have been produced for railway training purposes. Driver simulators include those produced by Signaller training simulators have been developed by The Railway Engineering Company (TRE) in the UK, and OpenTrack Railway Technology in Switzerland. There are two broad categories of train simulation video games: Driving simulations and railroad-themed strategy simulation games. Train driving simulation games usually allow a user to have a "driver's view" from the locomotive's cab and operate realistic cab controls such as throttle, brake valve, sand, horn and whistle, lights etc. One of the first commercially available train simulators was Southern Belle, released in 1985. The game simulated a journey of the Southern Belle steam passenger train from London Victoria to Brighton, while at the same time the player must comply with speed limits, not to go too fast on curves and keep to the schedule. It was followed with Evening Star in 1987. Other train driving simulation software includes: The PC game 3D Ultra Lionel Traintown, amongst some others, give a different
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    Paper doll

    Paper doll

    • Computer games: Sitekick
    Paper dolls are figures cut out of paper or thin card, with separate clothes, also made of paper, that are usually held onto the dolls by folding tabs. They may be a figure of a person, animal or inanimate object. Paper dolls have been inexpensive children's toys for almost two hundred years. Today, many artists are turning paper dolls into an art form. Paper dolls have been used for advertising, appeared in magazines and newspapers, and covered a variety of subjects and time periods. They have become highly sought-after collectibles, especially as vintage paper dolls become rarer due to the limited lifespan of paper objects. Paper dolls are still being created today. Some flat plastic figures are similar to paper dolls, like Colorforms figures and Flatsy dolls. Paper dolls have regained popularity with young children featuring popular characters and celebrities. Online and virtual paper dolls like KiSS, Stardoll and Doll makers also have a popular following, with users able to drag and drop images of clothes onto images of dolls or actual people. Paper dolls have been around as long as there has been paper. Faces or other objects were applied to the paper and they were used during
    6.17
    6 votes
    23

    Sim racing

    • Computer games: RACE - The Official WTCC Game
    Sim (simulated) racing is the collective term for computer software (i.e. a vehicle simulation game) that attempts to accurately simulate auto racing (a racing video game), complete with real-world variables such as fuel usage, damage, tire wear and grip, and suspension settings. To be competitive in sim racing, a driver must understand all aspects of car handling that make real-world racing so difficult, such as threshold braking, how to maintain control of a car as the tires lose traction, and how properly to enter and exit a turn without sacrificing speed. It is this level of difficulty that distinguishes sim racing from "arcade" driving games where real-world variables are taken out of the equation and the principal objective is to create a sense of speed as opposed to a sense of realism. In general, sim racing applications, such as Grand Prix Legends, iRacing, Virtual Grand Prix 3,Game Stock Car, GT Legends, rFactor, F1 Challenge '99-'02, GTR2, Live for Speed,GTR-2,Race 07,netKar Pro, TORCS, and X Motor Racing, are less popular than arcade-style games, mainly because much more skill and practice is required to master them. However, sims such as NASCAR Racing 2003 Season, and
    7.00
    5 votes
    24

    Space combat

    • Computer games: Space Invaders
    Space combat is a game type that involves playing in a space environment. This environment can include an action based game such as any of the Rogue Squadron games, or a strategy game such as Microsoft's Abandonware Allegiance. Typically these games include a type of ship, mounted with guns and/or missiles and other accessories. Action based games of this type will usually be based on the players' ability to "blow things up" with or without a reason. Many older arcade games such as Galaga and Space Invaders pioneered space-games. As the 3D-era started to unfold, space-games slowly started to evolve into space-combat games. One of the popular space-combat games was Elite. Although most space-sims focussed on mere combat, interest slowly started to shift towards mercenary-style gameplay. Elite was an example of this shift of interest. A recent example is Freelancer. Strategy based games of this type will usually depend on the player's ability to reason and make judgements with foresight. A well known example of this is Blizzard Entertainment's StarCraft series. A division of strategy based games is single player and multiplayer versions, Allegiance is a multiplayer game that
    7.00
    5 votes
    25
    Demolition derby

    Demolition derby

    • Computer games: Auxiliary Power's Demolition Derby and Figure 8 Race
    Demolition derby is a motorsport usually presented at county fairs and festivals. While rules vary from event to event, the typical demolition derby event consists of five or more drivers competing by deliberately ramming their vehicles into one another. The last driver whose vehicle is still operational is awarded the victory. Demolition derbies originated in the United States and quickly spread to other western nations. In Europe, this type of event is called banger racing, although in a demolition derby, racers do not race against each other, instead aiming specifically to destroy the other cars. Demolition derbies can be very dangerous. Although serious injuries are rare, they do happen. Drivers are typically required to sign a waiver to release the promoter of an event from liability. To make the event safer, all glass is removed from the vehicle, and deliberately ramming the driver's-side door area is forbidden. The driver's door is often required to be painted white with black numbers or blaze orange, or with contrasting colors, for visibility. Most demolition derbies are held on dirt tracks, or in open fields, that are usually soaked with water. This causes the competition
    8.00
    4 votes
    26
    Open source

    Open source

    • Computer games: Blobby Volley
    In production and development, open source is a philosophy, or pragmatic methodology that promotes free redistribution and access to an end product's design and implementation details. Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code. Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. The open-source software movement was born to describe the environment that the new copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues created. The open-source model includes the concept of concurrent yet different agendas and differing approaches in production, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial software companies. A main principle and practice of open-source software development is peer production by bartering and collaboration, with the end-product, source-material, "blueprints", and documentation available at no cost to the public. This model is also
    8.00
    4 votes
    27
    Team handball

    Team handball

    • Computer games: IHF Handball Challenge 12
    Handball (also known as team handball, Olympic handball, European handball or Borden ball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team with the most goals scored wins. Modern handball is usually played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball (which were more common in the past) and beach handball (also called sandball). The game is quite fast and includes body contact as the defenders try to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. Contact is only allowed when the defensive player is completely in front of the offensive player; i.e., between the offensive player and the goal. Any contact from the side or especially from behind is considered dangerous and is usually met with penalties. When a defender successfully stops an attacking player (who loses the ball over a line), the play is stopped and restarted by the attacking team from the spot of the infraction or on the nine-meter line. Unlike in basketball, where players are allowed to commit only 5 fouls
    8.00
    4 votes
    28

    Casino game

    • Computer games: High Stakes Gambling
    Games available in most casinos are commonly called casino games. In a casino game, the players gamble casino chips on various possible random outcomes or combinations of outcomes. Casino games are available in online casinos, where permitted by law. Casino games can also be played outside of casinos for entertainment purposes, some on machines that simulate gambling. There are three general categories of casino games: table games, electronic gaming machines, and random number ticket games such as Keno and simulated racing. Gaming machines, such as slot machines and pachinko, are usually played by one player at a time and do not require the involvement of casino employees to play. Random number games are based upon the selection of random numbers, either from a computerized random number generator or from other gaming equipment. Random number games may be played at a table, such as roulette, or through the purchase of paper tickets or cards, such as keno or bingo. Casino games generally provide a predictable long-term advantage to the casino, or "house", while offering the player the possibility of a large short-term payout. Some casino games have a skill element, where the player
    6.80
    5 votes
    29
    Hentai

    Hentai

    • Computer games: Resort Boin
    Hentai (変態 or へんたい)  listen (help·info) is a Japanese word that, in the West, is used when referring to sexually explicit or pornographic comics and animation, particularly those of Japanese origin such as anime, manga, and eroge. The word hentai is a kanji compound of 変 (hen; "change", "weird", or "strange") and 態 (tai; "attitude" or "appearance"). The term is used as a shortened form of the phrase 変態性欲 (hentai seiyoku) meaning "sexual perversion". In Japanese slang, hentai is used as an insult meaning roughly "pervert" or "weirdo". The English use of hentai is more similar to the way the Japanese use the slang term エッチ (H or ecchi), which refers to any sexually explicit content or behaviour. The Japanese seldom use the term hentai to refer to pornography in Japan. Instead, terms such as 18-kin (18禁, "18-prohibited"), meaning "prohibited to those not yet 18 years old", and seijin manga (成人漫画, "adult manga") are used. Less official terms also in use include ero anime (エロアニメ), ero manga (エロ漫画), and the English acronym AV (for "adult video"). The earliest association between anime and adult animation occurred prior to the 1972 release of Fritz the Cat when American distributors
    6.80
    5 votes
    30
    Party

    Party

    • Computer games: Online Bomberman
    A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, conversation, or recreation. A party will typically feature food and beverages, and often music and dancing as well. Some parties are held in honor of a specific person, day, or event (e.g., a birthday party, a Super Bowl party, or a St. Patrick’s Day party). Parties of this kind are often called celebrations. A party is not necessarily a private occasion. Public parties are sometimes held in restaurants, pubs, or bars, and people attending such parties may be charged an admission fee by the host. A birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person who is being honored. The tradition started in the mid-nineteenth century, but didn't become popular until the mid-twentieth century. Birthday parties are a feature of many cultures. The guests may be asked to bring a gift for the honored person. In Western cultures, birthday parties are often accompanied by colorful decorations, such as balloons and streamers. In these cultures, a birthday cake is usually served with lit candles that are to be blown out after a "birthday wish" has been made. The person being
    6.80
    5 votes
    31

    Shoot 'em up

    • Computer games: Silhouette Mirage
    Shoot 'em up (also known as shmup or STG) is a subgenre of shooter video games. In a shoot 'em up, the player controls a lone character, often in a spacecraft or aircraft, shooting large numbers of enemies while dodging their attacks. The genre in turn encompasses various types or subgenres and critics differ on exactly what design elements constitute a shoot 'em up. Some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement; others allow a broader definition including characters on foot and a variety of perspectives. Shoot 'em ups call for fast reactions and for the player to memorise levels and enemy attack patterns. Newer "bullet hell" games feature overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles. The genre's origins can be traced back to Spacewar!, one of the very earliest computer games, developed in 1961 and eventually released in arcades in the early 1970s. However, Space Invaders, released in Japanese arcades in 1978, is generally credited with inventing and popularising the genre proper. Shoot 'em ups were popular throughout the 1980s and early 1990s as they evolved. From the mid-1990s and the burgeoning use of 3D graphics in video games,
    7.75
    4 votes
    32
    Horse racing

    Horse racing

    • Computer games: Melbourne Cup Challenge / Frankie Dettori Racing
    Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC. In the Roman Empire, chariot and mounted horse racing were major industries. Thoroughbred racing was, and is, popular with the aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings." The style of racing, the distances and the type of events vary significantly by the country in which the race is occurring, and many countries offer different types of horse races. There are three major types of racing: flat racing, steeplechasing (racing over jumps), and harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. A major part of horse racing's economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a world-wide market worth around US$115 billion. Various types of racing have given rise to horse breeds that excel in the specific disciplines of each sport. Breeds that may be used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian, Paint, and
    9.00
    3 votes
    33
    Puzzle

    Puzzle

    • Computer games: Mystery Case Files: 13th Skull
    A puzzle is a problem or enigma that tests the ingenuity of the solver. In a basic puzzle, one is intended to put together pieces in a logical way in order to come up with the desired solution. Puzzles are often contrived as a form of entertainment, but they can also stem from serious mathematical or logistical problems — in such cases, their successful resolution can be a significant contribution to mathematical research. Solutions to puzzles may require recognizing patterns and creating a particular order. People with a high inductive reasoning aptitude may be better at solving these puzzles than others. Puzzles based on the process of inquiry and discovery to complete may be solved faster by those with good deduction skills. The first jigsaw puzzle was created around 1760, when John Spilsbury, a British engraver and mapmaker, mounted a map on a sheet of wood that he then sawed around each individual country. Spilsbury used the product to aid in teaching geography. After catching on with the wider public, this remained the primary use of jigsaw puzzles until about 1820. By the early 20th century, magazines and newspapers found that they could increase their daily subscriptions by
    9.00
    3 votes
    34

    Space trading and combat simulation games

    • Computer games: Yaris
    Space trading and combat simulators, also known as space trading and combat games or space trading simulators (sometimes with the term "exploration" thrown in between), are a genre of video game which is characterized by trading, combat and exploration while piloting a spaceship in a simulated space environment. The modern space trading and combat simulation genre emerged at the point when home computers became sufficiently powerful to draw basic wireframe graphics in real-time. The game Elite is widely considered to be the breakthrough game of the genre, although it did have some precursors. Popular examples of the genre include Elite, Wing Commander: Privateer, Freelancer and Xᅡᄈ: Reunion. Some tabletop and board games, such as Traveller or Merchant of Venus, also feature themes of space combat and trade. Traveller was an influence on the development of Elite. TradeWars 2002 was an early BBS door game that featured trading and combat set in outer space. A List of space flight simulator games can be found on wikipedia detailing most of the space simulation games that have been created over the years. The space trading and combat simulation genre is a sub-genre of space
    9.00
    3 votes
    35

    Government simulation

    • Computer games: Balance of Power
    A government simulation or political simulation is a game that attempts to simulate the government and politics of all or part of a nation. These games may include geopolitical situations (involving the formation and execution of foreign policy), the creation of domestic political policies, or the simulation of political campaigns. They differ from the genre of classical wargames due to their discouragement or abstraction of military or action elements. Games based on geopolitics and elections existed long before the emergence of personal computers and their ability to quickly process large amounts of statistical data. One of the earliest such games was The Game of Politics, created by Oswald Lord in 1935 which remained in print until 1960. In 1954, the board game Diplomacy was created, which differs from other wargames in that it features a "negotiation" phase during which players reach agreements with other players, and then execute military moves simultaneously. National politics has remained a vital area of board gaming, with products such as the 1986 board game Die Macher featuring elections in Germany, and Wreck the Nation which satirizes the politics of the United States
    6.60
    5 votes
    36
    Aerobatics

    Aerobatics

    • Computer games: Flight Unlimited
    Aerobatics is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight. Aerobatics are performed in airplanes and gliders for training, recreation, entertainment and sport. Some helicopters, such as the MBB Bo 105, are capable of limited aerobatic maneuvers. The term is sometimes referred to as acrobatics, especially when translated. Most aerobatic maneuvers involve rotation of the aircraft about its longitudinal (roll) axis or lateral (pitch) axis. Other maneuvers, such as a spin, displace the aircraft about its vertical (yaw) axis. Maneuvers are often combined to form a complete aerobatic sequence for entertainment or competition. Aerobatic flying requires a broader set of piloting skills and exposes the aircraft to greater structural stress than for normal flight. In some countries, the pilot must wear a parachute when performing aerobatics. While many pilots fly aerobatics for recreation, some choose to fly in aerobatic competitions, a judged sport. In the early days of flying, some pilots used their aircraft as part of a flying circus to entertain. Maneuvers were flown for artistic reasons or to draw gasps from onlookers. In due course
    7.50
    4 votes
    37
    Surfing

    Surfing

    • Computer games: SpongeBob's Surf & Skate Roadtrip
    Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a "surfer," rides on the forward face of a wave, which is most often carrying the surfer towards shore. Waves suitable for surfing are found primarily in the ocean, but can be found in some lakes, in rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. Surfing can also be done in manmade sources such as wave pools and boat wakes. There are many variations of surfing, and the definition for what constitutes a suitable wave and craft are purely subjective. In other words, the term "surfing" refers to the act of riding a wave and not the form (with or without a board) in which the wave is ridden. For instance, the native peoples of the Pacific surfed waves on alaia, paipo, and other such crafts on their belly, knees, and feet. Not to mention, Bodysurfing, the act of surfing a wave without a board, is considered by some to be the purest form of surfing. That much said, the more modern day definition of surfing tends to refer to when a surfer rides a wave standing up on a surfboard, which is referred to as stand-up surfing. Although, another prominent form of surfing in the ocean today includes bodyboarding, which
    7.50
    4 votes
    38
    8.67
    3 votes
    39
    Isometric projection

    Isometric projection

    • Computer games: Killzone: Liberation
    Isometric projection is a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering drawings. It is an axonometric projection in which the three coordinate axes appear equally foreshortened and the angles between any two of them are 120 degrees. The term "isometric" comes from the Greek for "equal measure", reflecting that the scale along each axis of the projection is the same (unlike some other forms of graphical projection). An isometric view of an object can be obtained by choosing the viewing direction in a way that the angles between the projection of the x, y, and z axes are all the same, or 120°. For example when taking a cube, this is done by first looking straight towards one face. Next the cube is rotated ±45° about the vertical axis, followed by a rotation of approximately ±35.264° (precisely arcsin(tan 30°) or arctan(sin 45°) ) about the horizontal axis. Note that with the cube (see image) the perimeter of the 2D drawing is a perfect regular hexagon: all the black lines are of equal length and all the cube's faces are the same area. There is isometric paper that can be placed under your normal piece of drawing paper as an
    8.67
    3 votes
    40
    Shoji

    Shoji

    • Computer games: Eisei Meijin VI
    In traditional Japanese architecture, a shōji (障子) is a door, window or room divider consisting of translucent paper over a frame of wood which holds together a lattice of wood or bamboo. While washi is the traditional paper, shōji may be made of paper made by modern manufacturing processes; plastic is also in use. Shōji doors are often designed to slide open, and thus conserve space that would be required by a swinging door. They are used in traditional houses as well as Western-style housing, especially in the washitsu (Japanese-style room). In modern construction, the shōji does not form the exterior surface of the building; it sits inside a sliding glass door or window. Formerly the word shōji could apply to both fusuma and shōji although with a formal distinction of "karagami shōji" 唐紙障子(fusuma) and "akari shōji" 明り障子(shōji).
    8.67
    3 votes
    41
    Military strategy

    Military strategy

    • Computer games: Operation Desert Storm
    Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals. Derived from the Greek strategos, strategy when it appeared in use during the 18th century, was seen in its narrow sense as the "art of the general", 'the art of arrangement' of troops. Military strategy deals with the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition of forces, and the deception of the enemy. The father of modern strategic study, Carl von Clausewitz, defined military strategy as "the employment of battles to gain the end of war." B. H. Liddell Hart's definition put less emphasis on battles, defining strategy as "the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy". Hence, both gave the pre-eminence to political aims over military goals. Military strategy is the planning and execution of the contest between groups of armed adversaries. Strategy, which is a subdiscipline of warfare and of foreign policy, is a principal tool to secure national interests. It is larger in perspective than military tactics, which involves the disposition and maneuver of units on a particular sea or battlefield, but less broad than
    10.00
    2 votes
    42

    Bishōjo game

    • Computer games: Tea Society of a Witch
    A bishōjo game (美少女ゲーム, bishōjo gēmu, literally "pretty girl game"), or gal game (ギャルゲーム, gyaru gēmu, often shortened to "galge"), is "a type of Japanese video game centered on interactions with attractive anime-style girls". These games are a sub-genre of dating sims targeted towards a heterosexual male audience. Bishōjo games are a uniquely Japanese phenomenon: they have virtually no equivalent in the Western video game industries, but are similar to Choose Your Own Adventure books. They form a sizeable fraction of the Japanese market: the most popular have sold over a million copies, and they make up the majority of offline PC games in Japan. Nevertheless, because of real or perceived cultural differences, only a few titles of this sort have been translated or commercialized outside of East Asia. Notable subgenres of bishōjo games are ren'ai games (often called "dating sims" in English, although they can also be visual novels) and eroges (often called "hentai games" in English). Bishōjo games began to appear in Japan in the beginning days of personal computers. The first bishōjo game commercialized in Japan appeared in 1982 as Night Life by Koei. The first bishōjo games were not
    7.25
    4 votes
    43

    Christian video games

    • Computer games: The Bible Game
    A Christian video game is any video game related to Bible teachings. Christian video games were first marketed successfully by BibleBytes in the early 1980s on several different microcomputer platforms and in the late 1980s for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) by Wisdom Tree. Now they are made by many different developers. Most of these new developers meet yearly at the "Christian Games Developers Conference" and build support through the Christian Game Developers Foundation. Christian video games are any game with Christian themes. Although this is sometimes called a game genre, Christian games can follow the gameplay of many different genres. This ranges from Guitar Praise, a Christian-themed rhythm game, to the shooter game Catechumen. Some Christian-games with an evangelical purpose can be thought of as serious games, but most Christian games are simply entertainment for players who are already Christians. One of the first Christian Video Games was the “Bible Computer Games” series written and published by BibleBytes for the TRS-80 Color Computer in 1982. The “Bible Computer Games” were then released on the Timex Sinclair and Texas Instruments TI-99/4A computer platforms
    7.25
    4 votes
    44
    7.25
    4 votes
    45

    First-person Adventure

    • Computer games: RHEM
    First-person adventures are one of the oldest computer and video game genres. First-person adventures tend to focus on puzzle, exploration and character-interaction with no shooting or action elements, though some also feature elements from other genres, including action games and role-playing games. The definition covers games with varying technology levels from text adventure to the modern 3D first-person adventure game such as Myst and The Last Express. Most modern first-person adventure games use a point and click interface enabling the player to interact with objects or characters in the game-world. The term first-person adventure is also used, somewhat controversially, as a term for games that are a combination of first person shooter and action-adventures, such as Azrael's Tear, The Elder Scrolls 3: Morrowind, Geist, and Metroid Prime. The term 'first-person' is used because players are asked to believe that they themselves are the principal protagonist in the game. This means that players always sees from the point of view of that protagonist. The term derives from the fields of grammar and linguistics, where the 'first person' describes pronouns which speakers use to
    6.20
    5 votes
    46
    8.33
    3 votes
    47
    Professional wrestling

    Professional wrestling

    • Computer games: TNA iMPACT!
    Professional wrestling (often shortened pro wrestling, or simply wrestling) is a mode of spectacle, combining athletics and theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies, which mimic a title match combat sport. The unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws, and acrobatic maneuvers; much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees. The matches have predetermined outcomes in order to heighten entertainment value, and all combative maneuvers are worked in order to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept highly secretive but are now a widely accepted open secret. By and large, the true nature of the performance is not discussed by the performing company in order to sustain and promote the willing suspension of disbelief for the audience by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude. Originating as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional
    8.33
    3 votes
    48

    Technology demo

    • Computer games: Half-Life 2: Lost Coast
    A technology demonstration is a prototype, rough example or an otherwise incomplete version of a product, put together with the primary purpose of showcasing the idea, performance, method or the features of the product. They can be used as demonstrations to the investors, partners, journalists or even to potential customers in order to convince them of the viability of the chosen approach. Computer technology demonstrations should not be confused with demoscene-based demos, which, although often demonstrating new software techniques, are regarded as a stand-alone form of computer art. Technology demonstrations are often used in the computer industry, emerging as an important tool in response to short development cycles, in both software and hardware development. Computer technology demos should not be confused with demoscene-based demos, which, although often demonstrating new software techniques, are regarded as a stand-alone form of computer art. Demo Slam, a website from Google Inc., as launched with the slogan "Bring your creativity. Bring your tech. Just bring it in general, fool! Demo Slam is here!", is a large collection of technology demonstrations uploaded by users, and
    8.33
    3 votes
    49

    Thriller

    • Computer games: Alan Wake
    Thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television programming that uses suspense, tension and excitement as the main elements. Thrillers heavily stimulate the viewer's moods giving them a high level of anticipation, ultra-heightened expectation, uncertainty, surprise, anxiety and/or terror. Thriller films tend to be adrenaline-rushing, gritty, rousing and fast-paced. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists and cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. The aim for thrillers is to keep the audience alert and on the edge of their seats. The protagonist in these films is set against a problem – an escape, a mission, or a mystery. No matter what sub-genre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces. The tension with the main problem is built on throughout the film and leads to a highly stressful climax. The cover-up of important information from the viewer, and fight and chase scenes are common methods in all of the thriller subgenres, although each subgenre has its own unique characteristics and methods. Common subgenres
    8.33
    3 votes
    50

    Serious game

    • Computer games: Re-Mission
    A serious game is a game designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. The "serious" adjective is generally prepended to refer to products used by industries like defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, religion, and politics. Serious games are designed for the purpose of solving a problem. Although serious games can be entertaining, their main purpose is to investigate, or advertise. Sometimes a game will deliberately sacrifice fun and entertainment in order to achieve a desired progress by the player. Whereas video game genres are classified by gameplay, serious games are not a game genre but a category of games with different purposes. This category includes educational games and advergames, political games, or evangelical games. The category of serious games for training is also known as "game-learning". Serious Games are computer and video games that are intended to not only entertain users, but have additional purposes such as education and training. They can be similar to educational games, but are primarily focused on an audience outside of primary or secondary education. Serious Games can be
    9.50
    2 votes
    51

    Submarine simulator

    • Computer games: Codename: ICEMAN
    A submarine simulator, or subsim for short, is usually a computer game in which the player commands a submarine. The usual form of the game is to go on a series of missions, each of which features a number of encounters where the goal is to sink surface ships and to survive counterattacks by destroyers. Submarine simulators are notable for the highly-variable pace of the game; it may take hours of simulated time to get into position to attack a well-defended convoy, and sub simulators typically include an option for players to adjust the ratio of real time to simulated time up and down as desired. Most subsims use World War II as the setting; its submarine warfare was lengthy and intense, the historical material is extensive, and the limited capabilities of the period's submarines place a high premium on game playing skill. Games usually feature either US submarines in the Pacific, or U-Boats in the Atlantic. Another popular category is modern attack submarines, especially those of the Los Angeles class also known as "688s" after the ship number of the first of the class. Game displays generally include an overhead map or "radar" view, showing the submarine and any ships whose
    9.50
    2 votes
    52

    Grand strategy game

    • Computer games: Axis & Allies
    A grand strategy wargame is a wargame that places focus on grand strategy: military strategy at the level of movement and use of an entire nation state or empire's resources. Grand strategy wargames typically focus on a war or series of wars, often over a long period of time. Individual units, even armies, may not be represented; instead, attention is given to theaters of operation. All of the resources of the nations involved may be mobilized as part of a long-term struggle. The simulation typically involves political and economic as well as military conflict. At the most extreme end of this is the branch of strategy games in which the player assumes the role of the government of an entire nation-state and in which not conducting war is a possibility, such as in Victoria: An Empire Under the Sun. Examples of grand strategy games where military tactics are highly abstracted or eliminated entirely include the board games Risk and Diplomacy. Another example which is slightly more realistic is Axis & Allies, although in it military factors are still highly abstracted. Games such as Rise and Decline of the Third Reich, Empires in Arms, and Empires of the Middle Ages are true wargames,
    7.00
    4 votes
    53

    Traditional game

    • Computer games: Momotarou Dentetsu 12
    In computer and video games, a traditional game is a computer program adaptation of a non-computer game (such as a board game or card game). Board games and card games have been around for many years such as Go which is thought to have been around in ancient China more than 2,500 years ago, and although it is not known exactly when the game was invented. Backgammon is also thought to be one of the oldest two-player board game in the world. They are often ported to computer programs because of the ease of access and little need for set up time. They can be play on the internet or LAN between players helping them to become popular to play online. Traditional games can also be used as a way of gambling online, games like poker have gained significant popularity on the internet being playable on a number of websites. Most card and board games that have achieved wide spread popularity have been turned into a computer game including Monopoly, Yahtzee, Hearts, and Solitaire. Traditional games, especially card games, have become a mainstay of computer systems because they are relatively simple and run on most computers. Chess, Backgammon, Go, Solitaire and many other games have also been
    7.00
    4 votes
    54
    Business magnate

    Business magnate

    • Computer games: Space Station Tycoon
    A business magnate is an entrepreneur who has achieved wealth and prominence from a particular industry (or industries). Other, similar terms are czar, mogul, tycoon, baron, or oligarch. The word magnate itself derives from the Latin word magnates (plural of magnas), meaning "great person" or "great nobleman." The word tycoon is derived from the Japanese word taikun (大君), which means "great lord," and it was used as a title for the shogun. The word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay and John Hay. The term spread to the business community, where it has been used ever since. The word mogul refers to the Mughal Empire (mughal being Persian or Arabic for "Mongol") of the Indian subcontinent that existed between 1526 and 1857: the early Mughal emperors claimed a heritage dating back to Mongol ruler Genghis Khan. The modern meaning of the word is supposedly derived from the storied riches of the Mughal emperors, who for example produced the Taj Mahal. As the term industrialist (from Latin industria, "diligence, industriousness") was
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    Gambling

    Gambling

    • Computer games: Golden Nugget 64
    Gambling is the wagering of money or something of material value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods. Typically, the outcome of the wager is evident within a short period. The term gaming in this context typically refers to instances in which the activity has been specifically permitted by law. The two words are not mutually exclusive; i.e., a “gaming” company offers (legal) “gambling” activities to the public and may be regulated by one of many gaming control boards, for example, the Nevada Gaming Control Board. However, this distinction is not universally observed in the English-speaking world. For instance, in the UK, the regulator of gambling activities is called the Gambling Commission (not the Gaming Commission). Also, the word gaming is frequently used to describe activities that do not involve wagering, especially online. Gambling is also a major international commercial activity, with the legal gambling market totaling an estimated $335 billion in 2009. In other forms, gambling can be conducted with materials which have a value, but aren't real money; for example,
    8.00
    3 votes
    56

    Olympic video games

    • Computer games: Winter Olympics: Lillehammer 94
    "Olympic" video games is a name given to sport video games including more than one event and/or several sports. They are one of the older video game genres, having first appeared with the 1983 arcade classic Track & Field. Since then, numerous titles have been released, usually in the immediate run up to the Olympic Games each game is intended to cover. Official IOC licenses became a norm since the first official game, Olympic Gold, was released in time for the 1992 Summer Olympics. Companies like Epyx, Accolade, U.S. Gold and Konami developed many of the early games. The genre is often overlooked by the gaming industry and considered little more than a novelty or memorabilia attached to the event, with some considering it as purely an exercise in licensing and merchandise. Gameplay is the common target for detractors, since it usually consists of the 'button mashing' formula used in Track & Field or 'joystick waggling' as used in Daley Thompson's Decathlon. However, since they are released at regular intervals, they can be used as a way to compare how graphics in computer games have changed over time: from the CGA graphics of the first Epyx titles to the ever-evolving 3D graphics
    8.00
    3 votes
    57

    Space flight simulator game

    • Computer games: SunDog: Frozen Legacy
    A space flight simulator game is a genre of flight simulator video games that lets players experience space flight. Highly realistic examples lacking any sort of combat include Orbiter and Microsoft Space Simulator. Space flight simulator games are distinct from space-based shoot 'em up games that use side-scrolling or top-down perspectives. Space flight simulators, at one time popular, have for most of the new millennium been considered a "dead" genre. Space combat simulators feature a futuristic simulation of space flight involving combat, as opposed to the modern-day and highly realistic simulation of space flight in other space flight simulators. Such games generally place the player into the controls of a small starfighter or smaller starship in a military force of similar and larger spaceships. The prominent Wing Commander, Tachyon: The Fringe, X-Wing and Freespace series all use this approach. Exceptions include the first Independence War and the Star Trek: Bridge Commander series, which model craft at a larger scale and/or in a more strategic fashion. Space combat simulators tend to be mission-based, as opposed to the more open-ended nature of space trading and combat
    8.00
    3 votes
    58

    Tactical role-playing game

    • Computer games: Langrisser I
    A tactical role-playing game (abbreviated as TRPG; sometimes referred to as strategy role-playing game, or SRPG) is a type of video game which incorporates elements of traditional role-playing video games and strategy games. In Japan these games are known as "Simulation RPGs" (シミュレーションRPG),. This sub-genre of role-playing game principally refers to games which incorporate elements from strategy games as an alternative to traditional role-playing game (RPG) systems. Like standard RPGs, the player controls a finite party and battles a similar number of enemies. And like other RPGs, death is usually temporary. But this genre incorporates strategic gameplay such as tactical movement on an isometric grid. Unlike other video game genres, tactical RPGs tend not to feature multiplayer play. A distinct difference between tactical RPGs and traditional RPGs is the lack of exploration. For instance, Final Fantasy Tactics does away with the typical third-person exploration to towns and dungeons that are typical in a Final Fantasy game. Instead of exploration, there is an emphasis on battle strategy. Players are able to build and train characters to use in battle, utilizing different classes,
    8.00
    3 votes
    59
    8.00
    3 votes
    60
    Football

    Football

    • Computer games: European Club Soccer
    Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. At the turn of the 21st century, the game was played by over 250 million players in over 200 countries, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field of grass or green artificial turf, with a goal in the middle of each of the short ends. The object of the game is to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal. In general play, the goalkeepers are the only players allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms (unless the ball is carried out of play, where the field players are required to restart by a throw-in of the game ball), while the field players typically use their feet to kick the ball, occasionally using other parts of their legs, their torso or head. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout, depending on the format of the competition. The Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and have
    6.75
    4 votes
    61
    Graphical adventure games

    Graphical adventure games

    • Computer games: Sam & Max Hit the Road
    A graphic adventure game is a form of adventure game. They are distinct from text adventures. Whereas a player must actively observe using commands such as "look" in a text-based adventure, graphic adventures revolutionized gameplay by making use of visual human perception. Eventually, the text parser interface associated with older adventure games was phased out in favor of a point-and-click interface, i.e., a game where the player interacts with the game environment and objects using an on-screen cursor. In many of these games, the mouse pointer is context sensitive in that it applies different actions to different objects. Graphic adventure games were introduced by a company called On-Line Systems, which later changed its name to Sierra On-Line. After the rudimentary Mystery House (1980), and the first color adventure game Wizard and the Princess (1980), they established themselves with the full adventure King's Quest (1984), appearing on various systems, and went on to further success with a variety of strong titles. A number of games were released on 8-bit home computer formats in the 1980s that advanced on the text adventure style originated with games like Colossal Cave
    6.75
    4 votes
    62

    Rail shooter

    • Computer games: Star Wars Trilogy Arcade
    Rail Shooter is a genre of shoot 'em up video games, deriving from the 'on-rails' movement featured in such games. In Shoot 'em up that the term is applicable to, control over movement is generally possible to the extent of allowing the player to dodge incoming attacks. The player is however propelled constantly forward and must follow the linear (¬タリrail¬タル) levels. In this sense the term is similar to ¬タリscrolling¬タル as used in scrolling shooter. As such, the term ¬タリrail shooter¬タル is sometimes extended to a sub-genre definition, as ¬タリrail shooters¬タル do not strictly meet the viewpoint criteria to be considered scrolling shooter. Light gun games are occasionally broadly viewed as part of this sub-genre; however, 'light gun game' or 'light gun shooter' remains the prevalent definition. In shoot 'em up, the term 'on-rails' generally describes movement where the player views the protagonist from behind. The protagonist is propelled constantly forward: the games often feature spacecraft, or otherwise flying characters. The player has no control over the direction the protagonist takes; the levels of the game are extremely linear. However, the player may move along the virtual
    6.75
    4 votes
    63

    Shooter game

    • Computer games: Andro Dunos
    Shooter games (also known as 'shoot em up' games) are a sub-genre of action game, which often test the player's speed and reaction time. It includes many subgenres that have the commonality of focusing "on the actions of the avatar using some sort of weapon. Usually this weapon is a gun, or some other long-range weapon". A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition. Most commonly, the purpose of a shooter game is to shoot opponents and proceed through missions without the player character dying. There are many criteria to determine the type of shooter; listed below are some of the major divisions. Using the following, it is possible to categorize almost all shooters developed. The player usually views the events from behind the eyes of the character (a first-person shooter) or from a camera that follows the character, usually a few feet behind (a third-person shooter). It is also possible for a game to have a fixed camera, especially shooting gallery games and some 2D overhead shooters such as Robotron 2084. Games that attempt to emulate lifelike ballistics and character damage include tactical shooters. But many shooter games involve varying levels of realism, with
    6.75
    4 votes
    64

    Vehicular combat game

    • Computer games: Cadillacs and Dinosaurs: The Second Cataclysm
    Vehicular combat (also known as car combat) games are typically video or computer games where the primary focus of play concerns automobiles or other vehicles, normally armed with guns or other weaponry, attempting to destroy vehicles controlled by the CPU or by opposing players. The genre normally features a variety of different vehicles available for play, each with its own strengths, weaknesses, and special attack abilities. Players may also unlock hidden vehicles by completing certain in-game tasks. Traditionally, vehicular combat games focus on fast-paced action inside the vehicle, rarely, if ever, concerning themselves with role-playing or other elements. Games may include racing themes, but they are generally secondary to the action. Vehicular combat games normally follow a simple play pattern; the player must defeat increasing numbers of increasingly skilled enemies, often in increasingly complex battlefields, before facing off against a final, super-powerful, boss character. Vehicular combat games differ from traditional racing games both in the combat aspect and in the general lack of any set path for players to follow, instead allowing them to explore each level at their
    6.75
    4 votes
    65
    Action film

    Action film

    • Computer games: Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie
    Action film is a film genre where one or more heroes is thrust into a series of challenges that require physical feats, extended fights and frenetic chases. They tend to feature a resourceful character struggling against incredible odds, which may involve life-threatening situations, an evil villain, and/or being pursued, with victory achieved at the end after difficult physical efforts and violence. Story and character development are generally secondary to explosions, fist fights, gunplay and car chases. While action films have traditionally been a reliable source of revenue for movie studios, relatively few action films garner critical praise, mainly because of their two-dimensional heroes or villains. Nevertheless, Hollywood has been making more action films than ever, in part because advancements in CGI have made it cheaper and easier to create action sequences and other visual effects that required professional stunt crews and dangerous staging in the past. However, audience reactions to action films containing significant amounts of CGI have been mixed, and films where computer animation is not believable are often met with criticism. While action has long been an element of
    9.00
    2 votes
    66

    First-person narrative

    • Computer games: Metroid Prime 2: Echoes
    First-person narrative is a mode where a story is narrated by one character at a time, speaking for and about themselves. First-person narrative may be singular, plural or multiple as well as being an authoritative, reliable or deceptive "voice" and represents point of view in the writing. The narrators explicitly refer to themselves using words and phrases involving "I" (referred to as the first-person singular) and/or "we" (the first-person plural). This allows the reader or audience to see the point of view (including opinions, thoughts, and feelings) only of the narrator, and no other characters. In some stories, first-person narrators may refer to information they have heard from the other characters, in order to try to deliver a larger point of view. Other stories may switch from one narrator to another, allowing the reader or audience to experience the thoughts and feelings of more than one character. First-person narratives can appear in several forms: interior monologue, as in Fyodor Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground; dramatic monologue, as in Albert Camus' The Fall; or explicitly, as in Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Since the narrator is within the story,
    9.00
    2 votes
    67

    Massively multiplayer online real-time strategy

    • Computer games: StarPeace
    Massively multiplayer online real-time strategy (MMORTS) is a genre of online video games, combining real-time strategy (RTS) with a large number of simultaneous players over the Internet. Players often assume the role of a general, king or other type of figurehead, leading an army into battle, while maintaining the resources needed for such warfare. The titles are often based in a sci-fi or fantasy universe and distinguished from single or small-scale multiplayer RTSes by the number of players and common use of a persistent world, generally hosted by the game's publisher, which continues to evolve even when the player is not currently playing. Unlike MMORPGs, the MMORTS genre is still in its infancy with only a few active games, none of which have come from a large publisher. Vibes, a French developer, created the first MMORTS, Mankind, in 1998. Mankind defined what the MMORTS persistent nature means. Even when players are not online, their mines extract ores, factories create equipment, ships continue commerce, and combat units continue to do battle. There currently exists a large problem in dealing with offline players. While MMORPGs typically have a user's character disappear
    9.00
    2 votes
    68
    MMORPG

    MMORPG

    • Computer games: World of Warcraft
    Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) is a genre of role-playing video games in which a very large number of players interact with one another within a virtual game world. As in all RPGs, players assume the role of a character (often in a fantasy world) and take control over many of that character's actions. MMORPGs are distinguished from single-player or small multi-player RPGs by the number of players, and by the game's persistent world (usually hosted by the game's publisher), which continues to exist and evolve while the player is offline and away from the game. MMORPGs are played throughout the world. Worldwide revenues for MMORPGs exceeded half a billion dollars in 2005, and Western revenues exceeded US$1 billion in 2006. In 2008, Western consumer spending on subscription MMOGs grew to $1.4 billion. World of Warcraft, a popular MMORPG, has more than 10 million subscribers as of February 2012. Star Wars: The Old Republic, released in 2011, became the world's 'Fastest-Growing MMO Ever' after gaining 1 million subscribers within the first three days of its launch. Although modern MMORPGs sometimes differ dramatically from their antecedents, many of them share
    9.00
    2 votes
    69

    Clone

    • Computer games: Gnop!
    A video game clone is either a video game (or series) which is very similar to or heavily inspired by a previous popular game or series. It also applies to a third-party remake of a video game console. The term is sometimes derogatory, implying a lack of originality, however clones can be anything from a pure "ripoff", to a legitimate derivative or improvement on the original or even a homage. Cloning a game in digital marketplaces is common, because it is hard to prevent and easy to compete with existing games. Developers can copyright the graphics, title, story, and characters, but they cannot easily protect software design and game mechanics. A patent for the mechanics is possible, but acquiring one is expensive and time-consuming. Some video game genres are founded by such archetypal games that all subsequent similar games are thought of as derivatives. In the early video game industry, making a clone of a game was not illegal, provided that no outright copyright violation or trademark infringement occurred. As the gaming market grew large developers gained the ability to sue the developers of clones which were too similar to originals. Look and feel lawsuits, such as the one
    7.67
    3 votes
    70
    Gothic fiction

    Gothic fiction

    • Computer games: Animamundi: Dark Alchemist
    Gothic fiction, sometimes referred to as Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. Gothicism's origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled "A Gothic Story". The effect of Gothic fiction feeds on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole's novel. Melodrama and parody (including self-parody) were other long-standing features of the Gothic initiated by Walpole. Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto (1764) is often regarded as the first true Gothic romance. Walpole was obsessed with medieval Gothic architecture, and built his own house, Strawberry Hill, in that form, sparking a fashion for Gothic revival. His declared aim was to combine elements of the medieval romance, which he deemed too fanciful, and the modern novel, which he considered to be too confined to strict realism. The basic plot created many other Gothic staples, including a threatening mystery and an ancestral curse, as well as countless trappings such as hidden passages and oft-fainting heroines. The first edition was
    7.67
    3 votes
    71
    Massively multiplayer online first-person shooter

    Massively multiplayer online first-person shooter

    • Computer games: Neocron
    Massively multiplayer online first-person shooter (MMOFPS) is a sub-category of the massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) video game genre, which combines first-person shooter-style gameplay with the game design elements that typify the MMOG genre; namely, a persistent world populated by a large number of concurrent players, and in-depth player character progression mechanics. Whereas most MMOGs typically feature relatively slow-paced, "turn-based" combat, an MMOFPS requires a high degree of hand-eye coordination and twitch-based skills. MMOFPS development is dilatory due to the many variables involved with the genre. Compromising balance between financial support, bandwidth and the demanding framerates needed by the genre cap off developmental progress, particularly with independent developers. PlanetSide is a purely PvP MMOFPS published by Sony Online Entertainment and released on May 20, 2003. It offers a constantly-moving player-driven world which offers up to 300 v 300 v 300 on any given area. In addition to being an infantry FPS, there is vehicular and aerial combat tied into the gameplay. World War II Online is a massively multi-player simulation or virtual battlefield
    7.67
    3 votes
    72
    Rhythm game

    Rhythm game

    • Computer games: Hannah Montana: The Movie
    Rhythm game or rhythm action is a genre of music-themed action video game that challenges a player's sense of rhythm. Games in the genre typically focus on dance or the simulated performance of musical instruments, and require players to press buttons in a sequence dictated on the screen. Doing so causes the game's protagonist or avatar to dance or to play their instrument correctly, which increases the player's score. Many rhythm games include multiplayer modes in which players compete for the highest score or cooperate as a simulated musical ensemble. While conventional control pads may be used as input devices, rhythm games often feature novel game controllers that emulate musical instruments. Certain dance-based games require the player to physically dance on a mat, with pressure-sensitive pads acting as the input device. The 1996 title PaRappa the Rapper has been deemed the first influential rhythm game, whose basic template formed the core of subsequent games in the genre. In 1997, Konami's Beatmania sparked an emergent market for rhythm games in Japan. The company's music division, Bemani, released a series of music-based games over the next several years. The most
    7.67
    3 votes
    73
    Snowboarding

    Snowboarding

    • Computer games: Trick'N Snowboarder
    Snowboarding is a winter sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow while standing on a board attached to a rider's feet, using a special boot set onto a mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the United States in the 1960s to 1970s and became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998. Snowboarding has been around since the 1920s, when boys and men would tie plywood or wooden planks from barrels to their feet using clotheslines and horse reins in order to steer themselves down hills. Modern snowboarding began in 1965 when Sherman Poppen, an engineer in Muskegon, Michigan, invented a toy for his daughter by fastening two skis together and attaching a rope to one end so she would have some control as she stood on the board and glided downhill. Dubbed the "snurfer" (combining snow and surfer), the toy proved so popular among his daughter's friends that Poppen licensed the idea to a manufacturer that sold about a million snurfers over the next decade. And, in 1966 alone over half a million snurfers were sold. In the early 1970s, Poppen organized snurfing competitions at a Michigan ski
    7.67
    3 votes
    74

    Space combat simulator

    • Computer games: Space Combat
    "Space combat" redirects here. For hypothetical combat in space, see Space battle. Space combat simulators, or space combat games, are a genre of space flight simulator games which feature spaceship combat. They often feature an arcade-like simulation of space flight, as opposed to the realistic simulation of space flight in space flight simulators. Space combat simulators which feature trading in addition to combat, such as Elite or Freelancer, are called space trading and combat simulators. Such games generally place the player into the controls of small, one-person dogfighting craft and bombers in a military force of similar and larger spaceships. The prominent Wing Commander, X-Wing and Freespace series all use this approach. Exceptions include the first Independence War and the Star Trek: Bridge Commander series, which models the larger craft of Star Trek in a more tactical fashion. Space simulation video games, at one time popular, have for much of the 2000s been referred to as a "dead" genre. Space trading and combat simulators, also known as space trading and combat games or space trading simulators, are a genre of video games characterized by trading, combat and
    7.67
    3 votes
    75

    Strategy video game

    • Computer games: Covert Action
    Strategy video games is a video game genre that emphasizes skillful thinking and planning to achieve victory. They emphasize strategic, tactical, and sometimes logistical challenges. Many games also offer economic challenges and exploration. These games sometimes incorporate physical challenges, but such challenges can annoy strategically minded players. They are generally categorized into four sub-types, depending on whether the game is turn-based or real-time, and whether the game focuses on strategy or tactics. Strategy video games are a genre of video game that emphasize skillful thinking and planning to achieve victory. Specifically, a player must plan a series of actions against one or more opponents, and the reduction of enemy forces is usually a goal. Victory is achieved through superior planning, and the element of chance takes a smaller role. In most strategy video games, the player is given a godlike view of the game world, and indirectly controls game units under their command. Thus, most strategy games involve elements of warfare to varying degrees, and feature a combination of tactical and strategic considerations. In addition to combat, these games often challenge
    7.67
    3 votes
    76

    Survival horror game

    • Computer games: Call of Cthulhu: Destiny's End
    Survival horror is a subgenre of action-adventure video games inspired by horror fiction. Although combat can be a part of the gameplay, the player is made to feel less powerful than in typical action games, because of limited ammunition, health, speed, or other limitations. The player is also challenged to find items that unlock the path to new areas, and solve puzzles at certain locations. Games make use of strong horror themes, and the player is often challenged to navigate dark maze-like environments, and react to unexpected attacks from enemies. The term "survival horror" was first used for the original Japanese release of Resident Evil in 1996, which was influenced by earlier games with a horror theme such as 1989's Sweet Home. The name has been used since then for games with similar gameplay, and has been retroactively applied to games as old as Haunted House from 1982. Starting with the release of Resident Evil 4 in 2005, the genre began to incorporate more features from action games, which has led game journalists to question whether long-standing survival horror franchises have abandoned the genre. Still, the survival horror genre has persisted in one form or another,
    7.67
    3 votes
    77
    Vehicle simulation game

    Vehicle simulation game

    • Computer games: Abrams Battle Tank
    Vehicle simulation games are a genre of video games which attempt to provide the player with a realistic interpretation of operating various kinds of vehicles. This includes automobiles, aircraft, watercraft, spacecraft, military vehicles, and a variety of other vehicles. The main challenge is to master driving and steering the vehicle from the perspective of the pilot or driver, with most games adding another challenge such as racing or fighting rival vehicles. Games are often divided based on realism, with some games including more realistic physics and challenges such as fuel management. Vehicle simulation games allow players to drive or fly a vehicle. This vehicle can resemble a real one, or a vehicle from the game designer's imagination. This includes vehicles in the air, on the ground, over water, or even in space. Different vehicle simulations can involve a variety of goals, including racing, combat, or simply the experience of driving a vehicle. These games normally allow the player to experience action from the visual perspective of the pilot or driver. Although "racing games are often sold in the sports category," Rollings and Adams argue that "from a design standpoint,
    7.67
    3 votes
    78

    Capture the flag

    • Computer games: Return Fire
    Capture the flag is a traditional outdoor sport where two teams each have a flag (or other marker) and the objective is to capture the other team's flag, located at the team's "base," and bring it safely back to their own base. Enemy players can be "tagged" by players in their home territory; these players are then, depending on the agreed rules, out of the game, members of the opposite team, sent back to their own territory, or "in jail". (One variation of the game includes a "jail" area in addition to the flag on each team's territory.) Capture the Flag requires a playing field of some sort. Whether indoor or outdoor, the field is divided into two clearly designated halves, known as territories. Players form two teams, one for each territory. Each side has a "flag" which is most often a piece of fabric, but can be any object small enough to be easily carried by a person (night time games might use flashlights, glowsticks or lanterns as the flags). It is also suggested that teams wear dark colors at night time to increase the difficulty of the opponents to see them. The object of the game is for players to make their way into the opposing team's territory, grab the flag and return
    6.50
    4 votes
    79
    Aerial warfare

    Aerial warfare

    • Computer games: SkyGunner
    Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests. Strategic air power is the bombing of enemy resources (by bombers); tactical air power is the battle for control of the air space (by fighters); close air support is the direct support of ground units; naval aviation refers especially to the use of aircraft carriers. The earliest documented aerial warfare took place in ancient China, when a manned kite was set off to spy for military intelligence and communication. Ancient Chinese soldiers also mounted massive aerial fire arrow attacks from war kites, where they would send a volley of flaming arrows from the war kite onto the ground target, carrying out the world's first-ever air attacks. In or around the 2nd or 3rd century, a prototype hot air balloon, the Kongming lantern was invented in China serving as military communication. Some minor warfare use was made of balloons in the infancy of aeronautics. The first instance was by the French Aerostatic Corps at the Battle of Fleurus in 1794, who used a tethered balloon, L'entreprenant, to gain a vantage point. Balloons had
    10.00
    1 votes
    80
    Baseball

    Baseball

    • Computer games: Ultimate Baseball Online
    Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a 90-foot diamond. Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to stop them from scoring runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the batting team can stop at any of the bases and later advance via a teammate's hit or other means. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the fielding team records three outs. One turn at bat for each team constitutes an inning and nine innings make up a professional game. The team with the most runs at the end of the game wins. Evolving from older bat-and-ball games, an early form of baseball was being played in England by the mid-eighteenth century. This game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late nineteenth century, baseball was widely recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is now popular in North America, parts of Central and South America and the Caribbean, and parts of East Asia.
    10.00
    1 votes
    81
    Card game

    Card game

    • Computer games: Hoyle's Official Book of Games: Volume 1
    A card game is any game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played, be they traditional or game-specific. Countless card games exist, including families of related games (such as poker). A small number of card games played with traditional decks have formally standardized rules, but most are folk games whose rules vary by region, culture, and person. Many games that are not generally placed in the family of card games do in fact use cards for some aspect of their gameplay. Similarly, some games that are placed in the card game genre involve a board. The distinction is that the gameplay of a card game primarily depends on the use of the cards by players (the board is simply a guide for scorekeeping or for card placement), while board games (the principal non-card game genre to use cards) generally focus on the players' positions on the board, and use the cards for some secondary purpose. A card game is played with a deck or pack of playing cards which are identical in size and shape. Each card has two sides, the face and the back. Normally the backs of the cards are indistinguishable. The faces of the cards may all be unique, or there can be duplicates.
    10.00
    1 votes
    82

    City-building game

    • Computer games: SimCity 3000
    City-building games are a genre of strategy video game where players act as the overall planner and leader of a city, looking down on it from above, and being responsible for its growth and management. Players choose building placement and city management features such as salaries and work priorities, and the city develops accordingly. City-building games such as SimCity or Cities XL are considered a type of construction and management simulation. The city-building game genre was established in 1989 with SimCity, which emphasized continuous building rather than a set victory condition. Players followed personal preferences in design and growth. Indicators of success were maintaining positive budget balance and citizen satisfaction. Subsequent SimCity titles such as SimCity 4 soon followed when high sales of the game demonstrated its popularity. The first sim game, Utopia (1982) developed for the Mattel Intellivision console system, covered many of these same elements, but was limited by the primitive screen resolutions of its era. Unlike the thousands of individual spaces possible a few years later in SimCity, each island in Utopia held only a dozen or so "buildable" spaces for
    10.00
    1 votes
    83
    Cricket

    Cricket

    • Computer games: Ashes Cricket 2009
    Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on a field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the runs scored by the batting team. A run is scored by the striking batsman hitting the ball with his bat, running to the opposite end of the pitch and touching the crease there without being dismissed. The teams switch between batting and fielding at the end of an innings. In professional cricket the length of a game ranges from 20 overs of six bowling deliveries per side to Test cricket played over five days. The Laws of Cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches and One Day Internationals. Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century. By the end of the 18th century, it had developed into the national sport of England. The expansion of the British Empire led to cricket being played overseas and by the mid-19th century the first international matches were being
    10.00
    1 votes
    84
    Full motion video

    Full motion video

    • Computer games: Voyeur
    A full motion video (FMV) is a video game narration technique that relies upon pre-recorded video files (rather than sprites, vectors, or 3D models) to display action in the game. While many games feature FMVs as a way to present information during cutscenes, games that are primarily presented through FMVs are referred to as full-motion video games or interactive movies. In the early 1990s when PCs and consoles moved to creating games on a CD, they became technically capable of utilizing more than a few minutes' worth of movies in a game. This gave rise to a slew of FMV-based computer games such as Night Trap (1992), The 7th Guest (1992), Voyeur (1993), Phantasmagoria (1995), and Daryl F. Gates' Police Quest: SWAT (1995). These FMV games frequently used Argentine and Brazilians B-movie and TV actors and promised to create the experience of playing an interactive movie. However, production values were quite low with amateurish sets, lighting, costumes, and special effects. In addition, the video quality in these early games was low, and the gameplay frequently did not live up to the hype becoming well-known failures in video gaming. At this time, consoles like 3DO, CD-i, and Sega CD
    10.00
    1 votes
    85

    Minigame compilation

    • Computer games: Lazy Jones
    A minigame compilation is a video game consisting of a number of minigames put together into a single video game.
    10.00
    1 votes
    86
    10.00
    1 votes
    87
    Strategic management

    Strategic management

    • Computer games: Beach Life
    Strategic management analyzes the major initiatives taken by a company's top management on behalf of owners, involving resources and performance in external environments. It entails specifying the organization's mission, vision and objectives, developing policies and plans, often in terms of projects and programs, which are designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the policies and plans, projects and programs. A balanced scorecard is often used to evaluate the overall performance of the business and its progress towards objectives. Recent studies and leading management theorists have advocated that strategy needs to start with stakeholders expectations and use a modified balanced scorecard which includes all stakeholders. Strategic management is a level of managerial activity below setting goals and above tactics. Strategic management provides overall direction to the enterprise and is closely related to the field of Organization Studies. In the field of business administration it is useful to talk about "strategic consistency" between the organization and its environment or "strategic consistency." According to Arieu (2007), "there is
    10.00
    1 votes
    88
    Tile-based game

    Tile-based game

    • Computer games: Atomix
    A tile-based game is a game that uses tiles as one of the fundamental elements of play. Traditional tile-based games use small tiles as playing pieces for gambling or entertainment games. Some board games use tiles to create their board, giving multiple possibilities for board layout, or allowing changes in the board geometry during play. Each tile has a back (undifferentiated) side and a face side. Domino tiles are usually rectangular, twice as long as they are wide and at least twice as wide as they are thick, though games exist with square tiles, triangular tiles and even hexagonal tiles.
    10.00
    1 votes
    89
    Board game

    Board game

    • Computer games: Laser Chess
    A board game is a game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Games can be based on pure strategy, chance (e.g. rolling dice) or a mixture of the two, and usually have a goal which a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, and most current board games are still based on defeating opposing players in terms of counters, winning position or accrual of points (often expressed as in-game currency). There are many different types and styles of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, as with checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, as with Cluedo. Rules can range from the very simple, as in tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, as in Dungeons & Dragons (although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, helping to visualize the game scenario). The amount of time required to learn to play or master a game varies greatly from game to game. Learning time does not necessarily correlate with the number or complexity of rules; some games,
    7.33
    3 votes
    90

    Dungeon crawl

    • Computer games: Izuna: Legend of the Unemployed Ninja
    A dungeon crawl is a type of scenario in fantasy role-playing games in which heroes navigate a labyrinthine environment, battling various monsters, and looting any treasure they may find. Because of its simplicity, a dungeon crawl can be easier for a gamemaster to run than more complex adventures, and the "hack and slash" style of play is appreciated by players who focus on action and combat. The term can be used in a pejorative sense, since dungeon crawls often lack meaningful plot or logical consistency. For example, the parody game Munchkin is about "the essence of the dungeon experience… Kill the monsters, steal the treasure, stab your buddy." The first computer-based dungeon crawl was pedit5, developed in 1974 by Rusty Rutherford on the PLATO interactive education system based in Urbana, Illinois. Although this game was quickly deleted from the system, several more like it appeared, including dnd and Moria. Some distinguish "dungeon crawlers" from rogue-likes and RPGs with stories and character-interaction, while others use the term to describe any game which features ample amounts of dungeon exploration (including Zork, Zelda and tabletop RPGs). More recently the term has
    7.33
    3 votes
    91

    Evolution games

    • Computer games: Seventh Cross Evolution
    Evolution games are life simulation computer and video games in which the player takes control of the evolution of species, often having the objective of developing (simulated) sentience.
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    7.33
    3 votes
    93

    Interactive movie

    • Computer games: Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective
    An interactive movie is a video game that features highly cinematic presentation and heavy use of scripting, often through the use of full-motion video of either animated or live-action footage. This genre came about with the invention of laserdiscs and laserdisc players, the first nonlinear or random access video play devices. The fact that a laserdisc player could jump to and play any chapter instantaneously (rather than proceed in a linear path from start to finish like videotape) meant that games with branching plotlines could be constructed from out-of-order video chapters in much the same way as Choose Your Own Adventure books could be constructed from out-of-order pages, or the way an interactive film is constructed by choosing from a web of linked narratives. Thus, interactive movies were animated or filmed with real actors like movies (or in some later cases, rendered with 3D models), and followed a main storyline. Alternative scenes were filmed to be triggered after wrong (or alternate allowable) actions of the player (such as 'Game Over' scenes). An early attempt to combine random access video with computer games was "Rollercoaster," written in BASIC for the Apple II by
    7.33
    3 votes
    94
    Maze

    Maze

    • Computer games: Pac-Man Vs.
    A maze is a tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage through which the solver must find a route. In everyday speech, both maze and labyrinth denote a complex and confusing series of pathways, but technically the maze is distinguished from the labyrinth, as the labyrinth has a single through-route with twists and turns but without branches, and is not designed to be as difficult to navigate. The pathways and walls in a maze or labyrinth are fixed (pre-determined) – puzzles where the walls and paths can change during the game are categorised as tour puzzles. The Cretan labyrinth is the oldest known maze. Mazes have been built with walls and rooms, with hedges, turf, corn stalks, hay bales, books, paving stones of contrasting colors or designs, bricks and turf, or in fields of crops such as corn or, indeed, maize. Maize mazes can be very large; they are usually only kept for one growing season, so they can be different every year, and are promoted as seasonal tourist attractions. Indoors, Mirror Mazes are another form of maze, where many of the apparent pathways are imaginary routes seen through multiple reflections in mirrors. Another type of maze consists of a set of
    7.33
    3 votes
    95

    Side-scrolling

    • Computer games: Jurassic Park III: The DNA Factor
    A side-scrolling game or side-scroller is a video game in which the gameplay action is viewed from a side-view camera angle, and the onscreen characters generally move from the left side of the screen to the right. These games make use of scrolling computer display technology. The move from single-screen or flip-screen graphics to scrolling graphics, during the golden age of video arcade games and during third-generation consoles, would prove to be a pivotal leap in game design, comparable to the move to 3D graphics during the fifth generation. The most popular use of the side-scrolling format is in the platform game genre. Platform games are action games that feature jumping, climbing, and running characters who must be guided through many diverse levels. Games such as Super Mario Bros. are among the most famous side-scrollers of this type. The side-scrolling format is also popular among beat 'em ups, such as the popular Double Dragon and Battletoads series. Side-scrolling is even used in certain role-playing video games such as the 2D Castlevania: Symphony of the Night or the Korean MMORPG MapleStory. Often in beat 'em ups the screen will scroll to a certain point then stop and
    7.33
    3 votes
    96

    Turn-based strategy

    • Computer games: Civilization
    A turn-based strategy (TBS) game is a strategy game (usually some type of wargame, especially a strategic-level wargame) where players take turns when playing. This is distinguished from real time strategy where all players play simultaneously. Turn-based tactical gameplay is characterized by the expectation of players to complete their tasks using just the combat forces provided to them, and usually by the provision of a realistic (or at least believable) representation of military tactics and operations. Tactical role-playing games are a part of this genre. Examples include The Battle for Wesnoth, Poxnora, Silent Storm, Steel Panthers: World at War!, King's Bounty, Great Big War Game, Nintendo Wars, UniWar, uTanks, and Sid Meier's Civilization series. After a period of converting board and historic TBS games to computer games, companies began basing computer turn-based strategy games on completely original properties or concepts. The presence of a computer to calculate and arbitrate allows game complexity which is not feasible in a traditional board game. Some well known turn-based strategy games are Sid Meier's Civilization series, Heroes of Might and Magic series, Panzer
    7.33
    3 votes
    97
    Detective

    Detective

    • Computer games: L.A. Noire
    A detective or investigator is an investigator, either a member of a police agency or a private person. The latter may be known as private investigators or "private eyes". Informally, and primarily in fiction, a detective is any licensed or unlicensed person who solves crimes, including historical crimes, or looks into records. In some police departments, a detective position is not appointed, it is a position achieved by passing a written test after a person completes the requirements for being a police officer. Prospective British police detectives must have completed at least two years as a uniformed officer before applying to join the Criminal Investigation Department. UK Police must also pass the National Investigators' Examination in order to progress on to subsequent stages of the Initial Crime Investigators Development Programme in order to qualify as a Detective. In many other police systems, detectives are college graduates who join directly from civilian life without first serving as uniformed officers. Some people argue that detectives do a completely different job and therefore require completely different training, qualifications, qualities and abilities than
    8.50
    2 votes
    98
    Formula One

    Formula One

    • Computer games: Formula One
    Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The "formula", designated in the name, refers to a set of rules with which all participants' cars must comply. The F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix (from French, originally meaning grand prizes), held on purpose-built circuits and public roads. The results of each race are combined with a points system to determine two annual World Championships, one for the drivers and one for the constructors. The racing drivers, constructor teams, track officials, organizers, and circuits are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA. Formula One cars are among the fastest circuit-racing cars in the world, owing to very high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to 320 km/h (200 mph) with engines limited in performance to a maximum of 18,000 revolutions per minute (RPM). The cars are capable
    8.50
    2 votes
    99
    8.50
    2 votes
    100
    Mystery

    Mystery

    • Computer games: The ClueFinders Search and Solve Adventures
    Mystery fiction is a loosely-defined term. 1.It is often used as a synonym for detective fiction or crime fiction— in other words a novel or short story in which a detective (either professional or amateur) investigates and solves a crime mystery. Sometimes mystery books are nonfiction. The term "mystery fiction" may sometimes be limited to the subset of detective stories in which the emphasis is on the puzzle/suspense element and its logical solution (cf. whodunit), as a contrast to hardboiled detective stories, which focus on action and gritty realism. 2.Although normally associated with the crime genre, the term "mystery fiction" may in certain situations refer to a completely different genre, where the focus is on supernatural or thriller mystery (the solution doesn't have to be logical, and even no crime is involved). This usage was common in the pulp magazines of the 1930s and 1940s, where titles such as Dime Mystery, Thrilling Mystery and Spicy Mystery offered what at the time were described as "weird menace" stories – supernatural horror in the vein of Grand Guignol. This contrasted with parallel titles of the same names which contained conventional hardboiled crime
    8.50
    2 votes
    101

    Third-person Shooter

    • Computer games: Extermination
    Third-person shooter (TPS) is a genre of 3D action games in which the player character is visible on-screen, and the gameplay consists primarily of shooting. A third person shooter is a game structured around shooting, and in which the player can see the avatar on-screen in a third-person view. Third-person shooters are a type of 3D shooter game, which is a subgenre of action game that emphasizes the challenge of aiming and shooting. These games are distinguished from other shooter games because the graphical perspective is rendered from a fixed distance behind the player's avatar, and slightly above them. They tend to be more realistic than 2D shooters, not just graphically but in terms of gameplay. For example, games often limit the amount of ammunition that the avatar can carry, and damage is usually assessed based on what part of the body is hit by a gunshot. The 3D nature of these games also allows enemies to hide around corners or behind doors in a way that is not possible in a 2D game. These games are closely related to first-person shooters, which also tie the perspective of the player to an avatar, but the two genres are distinct. While the first-person perspective allows
    8.50
    2 votes
    102
    Mathematics

    Mathematics

    • Computer games: Compu-Math series
    Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and others; it has no generally accepted definition. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. When those mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. Rigorous arguments first
    5.40
    5 votes
    103
    Problem solving

    Problem solving

    • Computer games: Rocket Power: Beach Bandits
    Problem solving consists in using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to specific problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. The term problem solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and often with different terminologies. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. In psychology, problem solving refers to a state of desire for reaching a definite goal from a present condition that either is not directly moving toward the goal, is far from it, or needs more complex logic for finding a missing description of conditions or steps toward the goal. In psychology, problem solving is the concluding part of a larger process that also includes problem finding and problem shaping. Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as a higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills.
    6.25
    4 votes
    104
    Tactical shooter

    Tactical shooter

    • Computer games: Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon
    A tactical shooter is a subgenre of shooter game that includes both first-person shooters and third-person shooters. These games typically simulate realistic combat, thus making tactics and caution more important than quick reflexes in other action games. Tactical shooters involving military combat are sometimes known as "soldier sims". According to IGN, tactical shooters "are about caution, care, cooperation, coordination, planning, and pacing. In those games, making decisive pushes, quick moves for cover, strategic retreats, and last ditch grabs at the gold are not only important to success, but balanced in such a way that they become enjoyable activities in play." Tactical shooters are designed for realism. It is not unusual for players to be killed with a single bullet, and thus players must be more cautious than in other shooter games. The emphasis is on realistic modeling of weapons, and power-ups are often more limited than in other action games. This restrains the individual heroism seen in other shooter games, and thus tactics become more important. Overall, the style of play is typically slower than other action games. Jumping techniques are sometimes de-emphasized in
    6.25
    4 votes
    105
    Action game

    Action game

    • Computer games: Frontlines: Fuel of War
    The action game is a video game genre that emphasizes physical challenges, including hand–eye coordination and reaction-time. The genre includes diverse subgenres such as fighting games, shooter games, and platform games, which are widely considered the most important action games, though some real-time strategy games are also considered to be action games. In an action game, the player typically controls the avatar of a protagonist. The avatar must navigate a level, collecting objects, avoiding obstacles, and battling enemies with various attacks. At the end of a level or group of levels, the player must often defeat a large boss enemy that is larger and more challenging than other enemies. Enemy attacks and obstacles deplete the avatar's health and lives, and the game is over when the player runs out of lives. Alternatively, the player wins the game by finishing a sequence of levels. But many action games are unbeatable and have an indefinite number of levels, and the player's only goal is to maximize their score by collecting objects and defeating enemies. The action genre includes any game where the majority of challenges are physical tests of skill. Action games can sometimes
    7.00
    3 votes
    106
    Basketball

    Basketball

    • Computer games: NBA Ballers: Phenom
    Basketball is a team sport, the objective being to shoot a ball through a basket horizontally positioned to score points while following a set of rules. Usually, two teams of five players play on a marked rectangular court with a basket at each width end. Basketball is one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports. A regulation basketball hoop consists of a rim 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high mounted to a backboard. A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket during regular play. A field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching or closer to the basket than the three-point line, and three points (known commonly as a 3 pointer or three) if the player is behind the three-point line. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) may be issued when the game ends with a draw. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or throwing (passing) it to a team mate. It is a violation to move without dribbling the ball (travelling), to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands then resume dribbling (double dribble). Various
    7.00
    3 votes
    107
    Children's film

    Children's film

    • Computer games: Rodney's Wonder Window
    A children's film is a film aimed for children as its audience. As opposed to a family film, no special effort is made to make the film attractive for other audiences. The film may or may not be about children. In Unshrinking the Kids: Children's Cinema and the Family Film which is a chapter in In Front of the Children ed. Cary Bazalgette and David Buckingham BFI (1995), Cary Bazalgette and Terry Staples argue that "Children's films can be defined as offering mainly or entirely a child's point of view" p.96. Children's film can encourage younger members of the community to "imitate the role models of the glamor industry" ("Negative Influences of Media", Manali Oak, February 2010.) Oak argues that "media often hypes the scintillating things about the celebrities". This may then cause children that have been exposed to this media to "see only the negatives around them". Psychological effects are often seen in terms of "people's outlook". Oak concludes: "While a certain amount of exposure to the ever-evolving media is essential for introducing ourselves to the world outside, an excessive one is detrimental to the overall well-being of society".
    7.00
    3 votes
    108

    Computer role-playing game

    • Computer games: Mount&Blade
    A computer role-playing game (CRPG) is a broad video game genre originally developed for personal computers and other home computers. While technically not a separate genre, and sharing the same defining characteristics as console RPGs (also confusingly referred to as CRPGs) there are nonetheless general tendencies that make them distinct from RPGs on other platforms. (See Cultural differences in role-playing video games.) The earliest CRPGs were inspired by early role-playing games, particularly Dungeons & Dragons, and attempted to provide a similar play experience. Despite a spectrum of features and game styles, there are some elements common to the CRPG genre. Perhaps the most salient is that of the avatar, with its quantized characteristics that typically evolve over the course of the game, and take the place of the gamer's own skill in determining game outcomes. Another common element in CRPGs is a well-developed fictional setting. Gameplay elements strongly associated with CRPGs, such as statistical character development, have been widely adapted to other video game genres. For example, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, an action game, uses resource statistics (abbreviated as
    7.00
    3 votes
    109

    Scavenger hunt

    • Computer games: Sitekick
    A scavenger hunt is a game in which the organizers prepare a list defining specific items, using which the participants — individuals or teams — seek to gather all items on the list — usually without purchasing them — or perform tasks or take photographs of the items, as specified. The goal is usually to be the first to complete the list, although in a variation on the game players can also be challenged to complete the tasks on the list in the most creative manner. According to game scholar Markus Montola, scavenger hunts evolved from ancient folk games. Gossip columnist Elsa Maxwell popularized scavenger hunts in the United States with a series of exclusive New York parties starting in the early 1930s. The scavenger-hunt craze among New York's elite was satirized in the 1936 film "My Man Godfrey." Notable scavenger hunts include the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, the annual Tricadecathlonomania, a 24-hour worldwide event that began in Northfield, MN, and the Monroe NY annual scavenger hunt. Scavenger hunts can easily be played either outdoors (around town, parks, back yards, etc.) or indoors (malls, houses, shops, etc.) . Internet scavenger hunts invite participants to
    7.00
    3 votes
    110

    Action-adventure game

    • Computer games: D/Generation
    An action-adventure game (also known as 'arcade adventure game') is a video game that combines elements of the adventure game genre with various action game elements. It is perhaps the broadest and most diverse genre in gaming, and can include many games which might better be categorized under narrow genres. The first known game in this genre is the Atari 2600 game Adventure (1979). With the decline of the adventure game genre from mainstream popularity, the use of the term (and the hybrid term "action-adventure") has been more liberal. It is not uncommon for gamers to apply the term "adventure" or "action adventure" to describe the genre of fiction to which a game belongs, and not the gameplay itself. There is a distinction between thematic genres and gameplay genres, as in this case they have very different meanings and etymology. "Adventure" is a reference to Colossal Cave Adventure and has no thematic or narrative meaning nor any connection to adventure movies. Similarly, while action games usually do have violent themes similar to action movies, this is not a requirement. Action-adventure is a hybrid genre, and thus the definition is very inclusive, leading it to be perhaps
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    Advergaming

    Advergaming

    • Computer games: Sneak King
    Advergaming (a portmanteau of "advertising" and "gaming") is the practice of using video games to advertise a product, organization or viewpoint. The term "advergames" was coined in January 2000 by Anthony Giallourakis, and later mentioned by Wired's "Jargon Watch" column in 2001. It has been applied to various free online games commissioned by major companies. With the growth of the internet, advergames have proliferated, often becoming the most visited aspect of brand websites and becoming an integrated part of brand media planning in an increasingly fractured media environment. Advergames theoretically promote repeated traffic to websites and reinforce brands. Users choosing to register to be eligible for prizes can help marketers collect customer data. Gamers may also invite their friends to participate, which could assist promotion by word of mouth, or "viral marketing." Games for advertising are sometimes classified as a type of serious game, as these games have a strong educational or training purpose other than pure entertainment. While other categories have been proposed, Advergaming normally falls into one of three categories which are derived from a historical
    8.00
    2 votes
    112

    Art game

    • Computer games: Tranquility
    An art game or arthouse game is a video game that is designed to emphasize art or whose structure is intended to produce some kind of reaction in its audience. Art games typically go out of their way to have a unique, unconventional look, often standing out for aesthetic beauty or complexity in design. This concept extends to the realm of modified ("modded") gaming when modifications have been made to existing non-art-games to produce graphic results intended to be viewed as an artistic display, as opposed to modifications intended to change game play scenarios or for storytelling. Modified games created for artistic purposes are sometimes referred to as "video game art." Art games are often considered a means of demonstrating video games as works of art. As video games became increasingly common as a form of media throughout the 2000s, video games that deemphasized the game portion of the medium (such as serious games, non-games and art games) saw a rise in production. The contemporaneity of improvements in graphic capabilities with the increases in art game releases has led to some confusion regarding the difference between games with artistic imagery and art games. This
    8.00
    2 votes
    113
    Artificial life

    Artificial life

    • Computer games: Creatures 2
    Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study and an associated art form which examine systems related to life, its processes, and its evolution through simulations using computer models, robotics, and biochemistry. The discipline was named by Christopher Langton, an American computer scientist, in 1986. There are three main kinds of alife, named for their approaches: soft, from software; hard, from hardware; and wet, from biochemistry. Artificial life imitates traditional biology by trying to recreate some aspects of biological phenomena. The term "artificial intelligence" is often used to specifically refer to soft alife. Artificial life studies the logic of living systems in artificial environments. The goal is to study the phenomena of living systems in order to come to an understanding of the complex information processing that defines such systems. Also sometimes included in the umbrella term Artificial Life are agent based systems which are used to study the emergent properties of societies of agents. While life is, by definition, alive, artificial life is generally referred to as being confined to a digital environment and existence. The modeling
    8.00
    2 votes
    114

    Edutainment

    • Computer games: Calamity Adventure 2: People and Traditions
    Educational entertainment is any entertainment content that is designed to educate as well as to amuse. Content with a high degree of both educational and entertainment value is known as edutainment. There also exists content that is primarily educational but has incidental entertainment value. Finally, there is content that is mostly entertaining but can be seen to have some educational value. It can be argued that educational enterainment has existed for millennia in the form of parables and fables that promoted social change. Modern forms include television productions, film, museum exhibits, and computer software which use entertainment to attract and maintain an audience, while incorporating deliberate educational content or messages. Since the 1970s, various groups in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Latin America have used edutainment to address such health and social issues as substance abuse, immunization, teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and cancer. Initiatives in major universities, such as Johns Hopkins University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, NGOs such as PCI-Media Impact, and government agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have
    8.00
    2 votes
    115

    Eroge

    • Computer games: Variable Geo
    An eroge (エロゲー or エロゲ, erogē, pronounced [eɽoɡe]; a portmanteau of erotic game: (エロチックゲーム, erochikku gēmu)) or Ero-ga is a Japanese video or computer game that features erotic content, usually in the form of anime-style artwork. Eroge originated from galge, but unlike galge, they feature nudity or sexual content. Japanese eroge, also known as H-games or hentai games, have their origins in the early 1980s, when Japanese companies introduced their own brands of microcomputer to compete with those of the United States. Competing systems included the Sharp X1, Fujitsu FM-7, MSX, and NEC PC-8801. NEC was behind its competitors in terms of hardware (with only 16 colors and no sound support) and needed a way to regain control of the market. Thus came the erotic game. The first commercial erotic computer game, Night Life, was released by Koei in 1982. It was an early graphic adventure, with sexually explicit images. That same year, Koei released another erotic title, Danchi Tsuma no Yuwaku (Seduction of the Condominium Wife), which was an early role-playing adventure game with colour graphics, owing to the eight-color palette of the NEC PC-8001 computer. It became a hit, helping Koei
    8.00
    2 votes
    116
    Racing game

    Racing game

    • Computer games: F-Zero GX
    A racing video game is a genre of video games, either in the first-person or third-person perspective, in which the player partakes in a racing competition with any type of land, air, or sea vehicles. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to entirely fantastical settings. In general, they can be distributed along a spectrum anywhere between hardcore simulations, and simpler arcade racing games. Racing games may also fall under the category of sports games. In 1973, Atari's Space Race was a space-themed arcade game where players controlled spaceships that race against opposing ships, while avoiding comets and meteors. It was a competitive two-player game controlled using a two-way joystick, and was presented in black and white graphics. The same year, Taito released a similar space-themed racing game Astro Race, which used an early four-way joystick. The following year, Taito released Speed Race, an early driving racing game designed by Tomohiro Nishikado (of Space Invaders fame). The game's most important innovation was its introduction of scrolling graphics, specifically overhead vertical scrolling, with the course width becoming wider or narrower as the
    8.00
    2 votes
    117
    Wargaming

    Wargaming

    • Computer games: Computer Bismarck
    A wargame (also war game) is a strategy game that deals with military operations of various types, real or fictional. Wargaming is the hobby dedicated to the play of such games, which can also be called conflict simulations, or consims for short. When used professionally by the military to study warfare, "war game" may refer to a simple theoretical study or a full-scale military exercise. Hobby wargamers have traditionally used "wargame", while the military has generally used "war game"; however, this is not a hard and fast rule. Although there may be disagreements as to whether a particular game qualifies as a wargame or not, a general consensus exists that all such games must explore and illuminate or simulate some feature or aspect of human behaviour directly bearing on the conduct of war, even if the game subject itself does not concern organized violent conflict or warfare. The business wargames exists too, but in general they are only role playing games based on market situations. Wargames are generally categorized as historical, hypothetical, fantasy, or science fiction. Historical games by far form the largest group. These games are based upon real events and attempt to
    8.00
    2 votes
    118

    Beat 'em up

    • Computer games: Power Stone Collection
    Beat 'em up (also known as brawler) is a video game genre featuring melee combat between the protagonist and an improbably large number of underpowered enemies. These games typically take place in urban settings and feature crime-fighting and revenge-based plots, though some games may employ historical or fantasy themes. Traditional beat 'em ups take place in scrolling, two-dimensional (2D) levels, though some later games feature more open three-dimensional (3D) environments with yet larger numbers of enemies. These games are noted for their simple gameplay, a source of both critical acclaim and derision. Two-player cooperative gameplay and multiple player characters are also hallmarks of the genre. The first influential beat 'em up was 1984's Kung-Fu Master, with 1986's Renegade introducing the urban settings and underworld revenge themes employed extensively by later games. The genre then saw a period of high popularity between the release of Double Dragon in 1987, which defined the two-player cooperative mode central to classic beat 'em ups, and 1991's Street Fighter II, which drew gamers towards one-on-one fighting games. Games such as Streets of Rage 2, Final Fight and Golden
    9.00
    1 votes
    119

    Dating sim

    • Computer games: Feel the Magic: XY/XX
    Dating sims (or dating simulations) are a video game subgenre of simulation games, usually Japanese, with romantic elements. They are also sometimes put under the category of neoromance. The most common objective of dating sims is to date, usually choosing from among several characters, and to achieve a romantic relationship. The term 'dating sim' is also often used in English as a generic term for romance-driven games (ren'ai games), a subject matter which is stereotypically associated with the visual novel genre. This can lead to confusion, as visual novels are considered a subgenre of adventure games and are not technically included in the dating sim genre. While the two genres often share a common visual presentation, dating sims are sometimes considered to be more statistically based than the "choose your own adventure" style of visual novels. The technical definition of a dating simulation game, known as a romantic simulation game (恋愛シミュレーションゲーム, ren'ai shimyurēshon gēmu) in Japan, can involve several technical elements such as a time limit, several statistics such as looks and charm which can be boosted through exercise, or an "attraction meter" which can increase or
    9.00
    1 votes
    120
    9.00
    1 votes
    121
    Parody

    Parody

    • Computer games: Progress Quest
    A parody ( /ˈpærədi/; also called pastiche, spoof, send-up or lampoon), in current use, is an imitative work created to mock, comment on or trivialise an original work, its subject, author, style, or some other target, by means of humorous, satiric or ironic imitation. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody … is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice." Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music (although "parody" in music has an earlier, somewhat different meaning than for other art forms), animation, gaming and film. The writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche ("a composition in another artist's manner, without satirical intent") and burlesque (which "fools around with the material of high literature and adapts it to low ends"). In his 1960 anthology of parody from the 14th through 20th centuries, critic Dwight Macdonald offered the general definition
    9.00
    1 votes
    122

    Psychological horror

    • Computer games: Manhunt 2
    Psychological horror is a subgenre of horror fiction that relies on characters' fears and emotional instability to build tension. It typically plays on archetypal shadow characteristics embodied by the threat. Psychological horror aims to create discomfort by exposing common or universal psychological vulnerabilities and fears, such as the shadowy parts of the human psyche which most people repress or deny, whereas splatter fiction focuses on bizarre, alien evil to which the average viewer cannot easily relate. Psychological horror films differ from the traditional horror film, where the source of the fear is typically something material – such as creatures, monsters or aliens – as well as the splatter film, which derives its effects from gore and graphic violence, in that tension is built through atmosphere, eerie sounds and exploitation of the viewer's and the character's psychological fears. The Black Cat and Cat People have been cited as early psychological horror films. Roman Polanski directed two films which are considered quintessential psychological horror: Repulsion (1965) and Rosemary's Baby. Stanley Kubrick's 1980 film The Shining is another particularly well-known
    9.00
    1 votes
    123
    Science Fiction

    Science Fiction

    • Computer games: Phantasy Star Online Episode I & II
    Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible (or at least non-supernatural) content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, parallel universes, aliens, and paranormal abilities. Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas". Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures. It is similar to, but differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the story, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically established or scientifically postulated laws of nature (though some elements in a story might still be pure imaginative speculation). The settings for science fiction are often contrary to known reality, but most science fiction relies on a considerable degree of suspension of disbelief, which is facilitated in the reader's mind by potential scientific explanations or solutions to various fictional elements. Science fiction elements include: Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of subgenres and themes. Author and editor Damon Knight
    9.00
    1 votes
    124
    MMMG

    MMMG

    • Computer games: Pirates of the Caribbean Multiplayer Mobile
    A Massively Multiplayer Mobile Game (MMMG) is a mobile game in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. MMMGs are distinguished from single-player games by the game's persistent world, usually hosted by the game's publisher, which continues to exist and evolve while the player is away from the game.
    5.75
    4 votes
    125

    PBBG

    • Computer games: Urbaniacs
    A persistent browser-based game (PBBG) is a computer game that is both browser-based (accessed and played over the Internet only through a web browser) and persistent (able to progress with successive playing sessions). PBBGs can provide the depth of experience and sustainability seen in some application-based games, but because they don't require any special software to play, they are more accessible and portable than such games. Persistent browser-based games usually rely on some kind of server-side code, such as Perl, PHP, Ruby, Python, or Java; though some will use technologies like Flash, ActiveX, and Java applets to store data on the client's computer. Games relying on client-side technology are rarer due to the security aspects that must be dealt with when reading and writing from a user's local file system - the web browser doesn't want web pages to be able to destroy the user's computer, and the game designer doesn't want the game files stored in an easily-accessed place where the user can edit them. For the more common games of this kind, the server-side code will store persistent information about players and possibly the game world in some kind of database, be it a flat
    5.75
    4 votes
    126
    Anime

    Anime

    • Computer games: AnimeBand
    Anime (アニメ, [a.ni.me] ( listen); /ˈænɨmeɪ/ or /ˈɑːnɨmeɪ/) are Japanese cartoons and computer animation. The word is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The intended meaning of the term sometimes varies depending on the context. While the earliest known Japanese animation dates to 1917, and many original Japanese animations were produced in the ensuing decades, the characteristic anime style developed in the 1960s—notably with the work of Osamu Tezuka—and became known outside Japan in the 1980s. Anime, like manga, has a large audience in Japan and recognition throughout the world. Distributors can release anime via television broadcasts, directly to video, or theatrically, as well as online. Both hand-drawn and computer-animated anime exist. It is used in television series, films, video, video games, commercials, and internet-based releases, and represents most, if not all, genres of fiction. As the market for anime increased in Japan, it also gained popularity in East and Southeast Asia. Anime is currently popular in many different regions around the world. Anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation
    6.67
    3 votes
    127

    Roguelike

    • Computer games: Tales of Middle Earth
    The roguelike is a sub-genre of role-playing video games, characterized by level randomization, permanent death, and turn-based movement. Most roguelikes feature ASCII graphics, with newer ones increasingly offering tile-based graphics. Games are typically dungeon crawls, with many monsters, items, and environmental features. Computer roguelikes usually employ the majority of the keyboard to facilitate interaction with items and the environment. The name of the genre comes from the 1980 game Rogue. The roguelike genre takes its name from Rogue, a role-playing video game based on the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing games, including concepts such as stats and experience points. Some features of Rogue existed in earlier games, notably: Adventure (1975), Dungeon (1975), DND/Telengard (1976), Beneath Apple Manor (1978), and several written for the PLATO system, such as the multi-user games dnd (1975) and Moria (1975). DND, dnd, Beneath Apple Manor, and Moria all used limited graphics. Moria offered a primitive first-person, three-dimensional view, while DND and dnd presented a top-down map view similar to Rogue. Dungeon had not only a top-down map view, but line of sight code and a
    6.67
    3 votes
    128
    Chess

    Chess

    • Computer games: Virtual Kasparov
    Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments. Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, with the object of the game being to 'checkmate' the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by the voluntary resignation of one's opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may also result in a draw in several ways, where neither player wins. The course of the game is divided into three phases: opening, middlegame and endgame. The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Viswanathan Anand. In addition to the World Championship, there are the Women's World
    7.50
    2 votes
    129
    Education

    Education

    • Computer games: Big Brain Academy
    Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people sustain from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin ēducātiō (“A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō (“I educate, I train”) which is related to the homonym ēdūcō (“I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect”) from ē- (“from, out of”) and dūcō (“I lead, I conduct”). A right to education has been created and recognized by some jurisdictions: Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. At the global level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13. Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system. Schools systems were also based on people's religion giving them
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    Horror

    Horror

    • Computer games: Eerievale
    Horror fiction also Horror fantasy is a genre of literature, which is intended to, or has the capacity to frighten its readers, scare or startle viewers/readers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. It creates an eerie and frightening atmosphere. Horror can be either supernatural or non-supernatural. The genre has ancient origins which were reformulated in the eighteenth century as Gothic horror, with publication of the Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. Supernatural horror has its roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife, evil, the demonic and the principle of evil embodied in the Devil. These were manifested in stories of witches, vampires, werewolves, ghosts, and demonic pacts such as that of Faust. Eighteenth century Gothic horror drew on these sources in such works as Vathek (1786) by William Beckford, The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) and The Italian (1796) by Ann Radcliffe and The Monk (1797) by Matthew Lewis. A lot of horror fiction of this era was written by women and marketed at a female audience, a typical scenario being a resourceful female protagonist menaced in a gloomy castle. The Gothic tradition continued in the 19th
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Non-Game

    Non-Game

    • Computer games: Taboo: The Sixth Sense
    Non-games define a class of software that lies on the border between video games, toys and applications. The original term non-game game was coined by Nintendo president Satoru Iwata. The main difference between non-games and traditional video games is the apparent lack of goals, objectives and challenges. This allows the player a greater degree of self-expression through freeform play, since he can set up his own goals to achieve. Non-games are particularly successful on the Nintendo DS and Wii platforms, where a broad range of Japanese titles appeal to a growing number of casual gamers. Non-games have existed since the early days of video games, although there hasn't been a specific term for them. Among the earliest examples are Jaron Lanier's Alien Garden (Epyx, 1982), I, Robot (Atari 1983), which featured a special "ungame mode" called "Doodle City", and Jeff Minter's Psychedelia (Llamasoft, 1984), which is an interactive light synthesizer. The simulation game SimCity was called a software toy by its creator Will Wright, since there is no ultimate objective in the main game (scenarios with objectives existed in some incarnations of the game, such as Sim City 2000, but these
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Scrolling shooter

    Scrolling shooter

    • Computer games: Gradius Neo
    Scrolling shooters are a type of video game, a subgenre of shoot 'em up. Such games feature backgrounds that appear to 'scroll' as the protagonist moves through them. Scrolling shooters feature 'top-down' or 'side-on' perspectives. A scrolling shooter is, as the name suggests, a shoot 'em up that takes place against a scrolling background. There are several subclasses of this genre. For example: Horizontal and vertical scrollers are the most common. Almost all horizontal scrollers view the player's avatar from the side, and present the level in cross-section, such that the player appears to be flying 'through' something, such as a landscape or a mothership. An early horizontal scroller was Defender, released in 1980, although it shares few features with other horizontal scrollers. Typically, the scrolling in these games is continuous, such that the player is led through a level by the game. There is also sometimes a degree of vertical freedom, in which the player can move up or down on a playing area which is taller than the screen itself. (Thunder Force IV and Dragon Breed are two games which take this to extremes). As well as battling enemies, some of the challenge in
    7.50
    2 votes
    134
    Space flight simulator

    Space flight simulator

    • Computer games: Space Combat
    A space flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of space flight in a spacecraft as closely and realistically as possible. The different types of flight simulator range from video game up to full-size cockpit replicas mounted on hydraulic rams, controlled by state of the art computer technology or elaborate watertank for simulation of weightlessness. Space flight simulators are used almost solely by the aerospace industry and the military for cosmonaut/astronaut training, disaster simulation and spacecraft development. Because of their complication and appeal that is limited to arguably narrower group of space enthusiasts, space flight simulators have been less prevalent than the flight simulator and have had only limited presence in the home user market. Nevertheless, over the last 20 years or so there have been a number of products (both commercial and freeware) that have been met with varying degree of interest in the gaming community. There is a considerable interdependence between space flight and flight simulators kinds of simulators, as some flight simulators feature spacecraft as an extension (e.g. X-Plane) and on the other hand
    7.50
    2 votes
    135

    Stealth-based game

    • Computer games: Castle Wolfenstein
    A stealth game, or simply stealth, is a video game genre that rewards the player for using stealth to overcome antagonists. Games in the genre typically allow the player to remain undetected by hiding, using disguises, and/or avoiding noise. Some games allow the player to choose between a stealthy approach or directly attacking antagonists, perhaps rewarding the player for greater levels of stealth. The genre has employed espionage, counter-terrorism and rogue themes, with protagonists that have been identified as special forces operatives, spies, thieves, assassins and ninjas. Some games have combined stealth game elements with those of other genres, such as first-person shooters and even platform games. Some of the early games emphasizing stealth include Castle Wolfenstein (1981), Metal Gear (1987), and Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (1990). According to the New York Times, "once upon a time, stealth in games was rare. This began to change in 1998", while Maximum PC has said "Some would argue that the stealth-action genre was born in 1998" with the mainstream success of Metal Gear Solid as well as Tenchu: Stealth Assassins and Thief: The Dark Project. Tenchu was the first 3D game in
    7.50
    2 votes
    136
    Track and field athletics

    Track and field athletics

    • Computer games: Konami Sports in Seoul
    Track and field is a sport comprising various competitive athletic contests based on running, jumping, and throwing. The name of the sport derives from the competition venue: a stadium with an oval running track around a grass field. The throwing and jumping events generally take place in the central enclosed area. Track and field falls under the umbrella sport of athletics—(which includes road running, cross-country running, and race walking). The two most prestigious international track and field competitions are held under the banner of athletics: the athletics competition at the Olympic Games and the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for track and field. Track and field events are generally individual sports with athletes challenging each other to decide a single victor. The racing events are won by the athlete with the fastest time, while the jumping and throwing events are won by the athlete who has achieved the greatest distance or height in the contest. The running events are categorised as sprints, middle and long-distance events, relays, and hurdling. Regular jumping events
    7.50
    2 votes
    137
    Yaoi

    Yaoi

    • Computer games: Zettai Fukujuu Meirei
    Yaoi also known as Boys' Love, is a Japanese popular term for female-oriented fictional media that focus on homoerotic or homoromantic male sexual relationships, usually created by female authors. As these depict males, there is an androphilic male audience as well; however, manga aimed at a gay male audience (bara) is considered a separate genre. The main characters in yaoi usually conform to the formula of the seme (top or attacker) who pursues the uke (bottom or receiver). The material that would be classified into this genre primarily involves gay relationships between the handsome or cute (male) characters, usually erotic. Although the genre is called Boys' Love (commonly abbreviated as "BL"), the males featured are pubescent or older. Works featuring prepubescent boys are labeled shotacon, and seen as a distinct genre. Yaoi (as it continues to be known among English-speaking fans) has spread beyond Japan: both translated and original yaoi is now available in many countries and languages. Yaoi began in the dōjinshi (fan fiction) markets of Japan in the late 1970s/early 1980s as an outgrowth of shōnen-ai, also known as "Juné" or "tanbi" (which contain platonic relationships
    5.50
    4 votes
    138
    Exergaming

    Exergaming

    • Computer games: Dance Dance Revolution
    Exergaming or exer-gaming (a portmanteau of "exercise" and "gaming") is a term used for video games that are also a form of exercise. Exergaming relies on technology that tracks body movement or reaction. The genre has been credited with upending the stereotype of gaming as a sedentary activity, and promoting an active lifestyle. However, research indicates that exergames do not actually promote a more active lifestyle. Exergames are seen as evolving from technology changes aimed at making video games more fun. The genre's roots can be found in games released in the late eighties, including the Power Pad (or Family Trainer), released for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in 1986, and the Foot Craz, released for the Atari 2600 in 1987, although both had limited success. Konami's Dance Dance Revolution was cited as one of the first major successes of exergaming; when it was ported from the arcade to PlayStation, it sold over three million copies. In the 2000s, a number of devices and games have used the exergame style to much success: the EyeToy camera has sold over ten million units, while Nintendo's Wii Fit has sold in excess of 21 million copies. By June 2009, health games
    6.33
    3 votes
    139

    Manic shooter

    • Computer games: Mars Matrix: Hyper Solid Shooting
    Bullet hell (Japanese : danmaku ¥ᄐᄒ¥ᄍユ, lit. "bullet curtain", n. barrage), is a sub-genre of shoot 'em up video game in which the entire screen is often almost completely filled with enemy bullets. The genre is also occasionally known as curtain fire after a broken translation on the initial loading screens of the Touhou series of games, all of which begin with "This game is curtain fire shooting game." [sic] However; 'curtain fire' could be considered a reasonable explanation of what occurs in the games. Games that have this genre are sometimes known as manic shooters. This style of game originated in the mid-1990, and can be seen as an evolution of scrolling shooter.Most of the well-known commercial games of this type are developed by the Japanese video game company Cave. The genre is also very popular in dᅤヘjin soft, particularly via the Touhou series. *
    6.33
    3 votes
    140
    Skateboarding

    Skateboarding

    • Computer games: Go! Go! Hypergrind
    Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard. Skateboarding can also be considered a recreational activity, an art form, a job, or a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2002 report found that there were 18.5 million skateboarders in the world. 85% of skateboarders polled who had used a board in the last year were under the age of 18, and 74% were male. Skateboarding is relatively modern. Since the 1970s, skateparks have been constructed specifically for use by skateboarders, bikers and inline skaters. Skateboarding was probably born sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s when surfers in California wanted something to surf when the waves were flat. No one knows who made the first board; it seems that several people came up with similar ideas at around the same time. These first skateboarders started with wooden boxes or boards with roller skate wheels attached to the bottom. The boxes turned into planks, and eventually companies were producing decks of pressed layers of wood — similar to the skateboard decks of today. During this time, skateboarding
    6.33
    3 votes
    141

    Superhero movie

    • Computer games: Batman Vengeance
    A superhero film, superhero movie, or superhero motion picture is an action, fantasy and science fiction film, that is focused on the actions of one or more superheroes; individuals who usually possess superhuman abilities relative to a normal person and are dedicated to protecting the public. These films are almost always action-oriented, and the first film of a particular character often includes a focus on the origin of the special powers including the first fight against the character's most famous supervillain archenemy. Most superhero movies are based on comic books, where the fantasy genre is most dominant in the medium's mainstream image. By contrast, several films such as the RoboCop series, Darkman, The Meteor Man, Up, Up, and Away, Unbreakable, The Incredibles, Sky High, Sharkboy and Lavagirl, Hancock and Megamind are original, while The Green Hornet is based primarily on the original radio series and its 1960s television adaptation, and Underdog is based on an animated television series. The movie Super Mario Bros. is loosely based on a non-superhero video game. Almost immediately after superheroes rose to prominence in comic books, they were adapted into Saturday movie
    6.33
    3 votes
    142

    Top-down shooter

    • Computer games: Assault Heroes
    A top-down shooter (sometimes shortened to TDS, and also known as a top-view shooter) is a genre of computer and video games in which the player is displayed from above, or a top-down perspective. This genre is not common in mainstream gaming, instead, games of this type are usually created by hobbyists or non-profit teams. Thus, many top-down shooters exist but few are of professional quality. That is not to say no commercial top-down shooters exist; the ''Grand Theft Auto'' series started as a top-down shooter before moving to a fully 3D game engine. (The same term is also used to refer to another genre, that of vertically scrolling shoot-em-up.) A top-down shooter's focus is much the same as a third-person shooter (TPS) or first-person shooter (FPS): the player moves about a level, and using a given or collected arsenal of weapons, kills all of the enemies. However, a top-down shooter takes place on only two planes of movement, therefore, action is limited to one floor, with a few exceptions. Commercial top-down shooters often do not use the mouse, instead, a joystick or control pad is used to move the player. The player is usually unable to strafe, and projectiles are fired
    6.33
    3 votes
    143

    Combat flight simulator

    • Computer games: G-LOC: Air Battle
    Combat flight simulators are video games (similar to flight simulator or amateur flight simulation software) used to simulate military aircraft and their operations. These video games are distinct from dedicated flight simulators used for military flight training which consist of realistic physical recreations of the actual aircraft cockpit. Prior to the rise of video games, Sega produced arcade games that resemble video games, but were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen. One such electro-mechanical game by Sega was Jet Rocket, a flight simulator featuring cockpit controls that could move the player aircraft around a landscape displayed on a screen and shoot missiles onto targets that explode when hit. In 1975, Taito released an arcade video game simulator, Interceptor, an early first-person combat flight simulator that involved piloting a jet fighter, using an eight-way joystick to aim with a crosshair and shoot at enemy aircraft that move in formations of two and scale in size depending on their distance to the player. The earliest version of Microsoft Flight
    8.00
    1 votes
    144
    Cyberpunk

    Cyberpunk

    • Computer games: Psychic Force 2012
    Cyberpunk is a postmodern science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life." The name was originally coined by Bruce Bethke as the title of his short story "Cyberpunk," published in 1983. It features advanced science, such as information technology and cybernetics, coupled with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order. Cyberpunk plots often center on a conflict among hackers, artificial intelligences, and megacorporations, and tend to be set in a near-future Earth, rather than the far-future settings or galactic vistas found in novels such as Isaac Asimov's Foundation or Frank Herbert's Dune. The settings are usually post-industrial dystopias but tend to be marked by extraordinary cultural ferment and the use of technology in ways never anticipated by its creators ("the street finds its own uses for things"). Much of the genre's atmosphere echoes film noir, and written works in the genre often use techniques from detective fiction. "Classic cyberpunk characters were marginalized, alienated loners who lived on the edge of society in generally dystopic futures where daily life was impacted by rapid technological change, an ubiquitous datasphere
    8.00
    1 votes
    145

    Economic simulation

    • Computer games: Capitalism II
    Business simulation games, also known as economic simulation games or tycoon games, are games that focus on the management of economic processes, usually in the form of a business. "Pure" business simulations have been described as construction and management simulations without a construction element, and can thus be called management simulations. Indeed, micromanagement is often emphasized in these kinds of games. They are essentially numeric, but try to hold the player's attention by using creative graphics. The interest in these games lies in accurate simulation of real-world events using algorithms, as well as the close tying of players' actions to expected or plausible consequences and outcomes. An important facet of economic simulations is the emergence of artificial systems, gameplay and structures. There are many games in this genre which have been designed around numerous different enterprises. Theme Park World can be called a business simulation because the goal of the game is to attract customers and make profits, but the game also involves a building aspect that makes it a construction and management simulation. This genre also includes many of the "Tycoon" games such
    8.00
    1 votes
    146

    Free-to-play

    • Computer games: Dungeon Party
    Free-to-play (F2P) refers to any video game or social or mobile application that has the option of allowing its players/users to play/download without paying. The model was first popularly used in early massively multiplayer online games (MMO) targeted towards casual gamers, before finding wider adoption among games released by major video game publishers to combat video game piracy and high system requirements. Since games using the concept are available at no cost to players, they use other means to gather revenue, such as charging money for certain in-game items (like powerful bonuses which are usually available for real money only) or integrating advertisements into the game. Free-to-play can be compared to pay-to-play, in which payment is required before using a service. Pay-to-play games usually offer equal gaming experience for all players while free-to-play games give advantage to premium players. Free-to-play games are similar to freemium, a more general term and a business model in which a product is offered free of charge while a fee is charged for users to access premium features and virtual goods. There is no strict distinction between certain shareware versions of
    8.00
    1 votes
    147

    Interactive fiction

    • Computer games: Border Zone
    Interactive fiction, often abbreviated IF, is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives and as video games. In common usage, the term refers to text adventures, a type of adventure game where the entire interface can be "text-only". Graphical text adventure games, where the text is accompanied by graphics (still images, animations or video) still fall under the text adventure category if the main way to interact with the game is text. It can also be used to distinguish the more modern style of such works, focusing on narrative and not necessarily falling into the adventure game genre at all, from the more traditional focus on puzzles. More expansive definitions of interactive fiction may refer to all adventure games, including wholly graphical adventures such as Myst. As a commercial product, interactive fiction reached its peak in popularity from 1979–1986, as a dominant software product marketed for home computers. Because their text-only nature sidestepped the problem of writing for the widely divergent graphics architectures of the day,
    8.00
    1 votes
    148
    Multiplayer game

    Multiplayer game

    • Computer games: Huxley
    A multiplayer video game is one which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time. Unlike most other games, computer and video games are often single-player activities that put the player against preprogrammed challenges and/or AI-controlled opponents, which often lack the flexibility and ingenuity of regular human thinking. Multiplayer components allow players to enjoy interaction with other individuals, be it in the form of partnership, competition or rivalry, and provide them with a form of social communication that is almost always missing in single-player oriented games. In a variety of different multiplayer game types, players may individually compete against two or more human contestants, work cooperatively with a human partner(s) in order to achieve a common goal, supervise activities of other players, or engage in a game type that incorporates any possible combination of the above. Examples of better-known multiplayer gametypes include deathmatch and team deathmatch, MMORPG-associated forms of PvP and Team PvE, capture the flag, domination (competition over control of resources), co-op, and various objective-based modes, often expressed in
    8.00
    1 votes
    149

    Real-time strategy

    • Computer games: Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2
    Real-time strategy (RTS) is a sub-genre of strategy video game which does not progress incrementally in turns. Brett Sperry is credited with coining the term to market Dune II. In a RTS, as in other wargames, the participants position and maneuver units and structures under their control to secure areas of the map and/or destroy their opponents' assets. In a typical RTS, it is possible to create additional units and structures during the course of a game. This is generally limited by a requirement to expend accumulated resources. These resources are in turn garnered by controlling special points on the map and/or possessing certain types of units and structures devoted to this purpose. More specifically, the typical game of the RTS genre features resource gathering, base building, in-game technological development and indirect control of units. The tasks a player must perform to succeed at a RTS can be very demanding, and complex user interfaces have evolved to cope with the challenge. Some features have been borrowed from desktop environments, most prominently the technique of "clicking and dragging" to select all units under a given area. Though some game genres share conceptual
    8.00
    1 votes
    150
    Adventure

    Adventure

    • Computer games: The Last Express
    An adventure game is a video game in which the player assumes the role of protagonist in an interactive story driven by exploration and puzzle-solving instead of physical challenge. The genre's focus on story allows it to draw heavily from other narrative-based media such as literature and film, encompassing a wide variety of literary genres. Nearly all adventure games are designed for a single player, since this emphasis on story and character makes multi-player design difficult. In the Western world, the genre's popularity peaked during the late 1980s to mid 1990s when many considered it to be among the most technically advanced genres, but it is now sometimes considered to be a niche genre. In East Asia on the other hand, adventure games continue to be popular in the form of visual novels, which make up nearly 70% of PC games released in Japan. The term "Adventure game" originates from the 1970s computer game Adventure, which pioneered a style of gameplay that was widely imitated and became a genre in its own right. The video game genre is therefore defined by its gameplay, unlike the literary genre, which is defined by the subject it addresses, the activity of
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    Digital pet

    Digital pet

    • Computer games: Seaman
    A digital pet (also known as a virtual pet or artificial pet) is a type of artificial human companion. They are usually kept for companionship or enjoyment. People may keep a digital pet in lieu of a real pet. Digital pets are distinct in that they have no concrete physical form other than the hardware they run on. Interaction with virtual pets may or may not be goal oriented. If it is, then the user must keep it alive as long as possible and often help it to grow into higher forms. Keeping the pet alive and growing often requires 'feeding', grooming and playing with the pet. If the interaction is not goal oriented, the user can explore the character of the pet and enjoy the feeling of building a relationship with it. Often these games use realistic visual effects or interaction to make the pet appear alive and give a sense of reality to users. Often times, Digital pets are aimed at girls. Digital pets can be "simulations of real animals, as in the Petz series" or "fantasy ones like the Tamagotchi". Unlike biological simulations, the pet does not usually reproduce. They generally do not die. Virtual pet sites are usually free to play and accessible to all who sign up. They can be
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    Educational game

    Educational game

    • Computer games: Mario's Early Years: Fun with Numbers
    Games fulfill a number of educational purposes. Some games may be explicitly designed with educational purposes, while others may have incidental or secondary educational value. All types of games may be used in an educational environment. Educational games are games that are designed to teach people about certain subjects, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand an historical event or culture, or assist them in learning a skill as they play. Game types include board, card, and video games. A board game is a game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Games can be based on pure strategies, chance (e.g. rolling dice) or a mixture of the two, and usually have a goal which a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, and most current board games are still based on defeating opposing players in terms of counters, winning position or accrual of points (often expressed as in-game currency). There are many different types and styles of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, as with checkers, to having a
    7.00
    2 votes
    153

    MUSH

    • Computer games: Castle Marrach
    In multiplayer online games, a MUSH (a backronymed pun on MUD most often expanded as Multi-User Shared Hallucination, though Multi-User Shared Hack, Habitat, and Holodeck are also observed) is a text-based online social medium to which multiple users are connected at the same time. MUSHes are often used for online social intercourse and role-playing games, although the first forms of MUSH do not appear to be coded specifically to implement gaming activity. MUSH software was originally derived from MUDs; today's two major MUSH variants are descended from TinyMUD, which was fundamentally a social game. MUSH has forked over the years and there are now different varieties with different features, although most have strong similarities and one who is fluent in coding one variety can switch to coding for the other with only a little effort. The source code for most widely used MUSH servers is open source and available from its current maintainers. A primary feature of MUSH codebases that tends to distinguish it from other multi-user environments is the ability, by default, of any player to extend the world by creating new rooms or objects and specifying their behavior in the MUSH's
    7.00
    2 votes
    154
    Romance novel

    Romance novel

    • Computer games: Ever17
    The romance novel is a literary genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries. Novels in this genre place their primary focus on the relationship and romantic love between two people, and must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending." Through the late 20th and early 21st centuries, these novels are commercially in two main varieties: category romances, which are shorter books with a one-month shelf-life, and single-title romances, which are generally longer with a longer shelf-life. Separate from their type, a romance novel can exist within one of many subgenres, including contemporary, historical, science fiction and paranormal. One of the earliest romance novels was Samuel Richardson's popular 1740 novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, which was revolutionary on two counts: it focused almost entirely on courtship and did so entirely from the perspective of a female protagonist. In the next century, Jane Austen expanded the genre, and her Pride and Prejudice is often considered the epitome of the genre. Austen inspired Georgette Heyer, who introduced historical romances in 1921. A decade later, British company Mills and Boon began releasing the
    7.00
    2 votes
    155
    Skeet shooting

    Skeet shooting

    • Computer games: Skeet Shoot
    Skeet shooting is a recreational and competitive activity where participants, using shotguns, attempt to break clay disks automatically flung into the air from two fixed stations at high speed from a variety of angles. Skeet is one of the three major types of competitive shotgun target shooting sports (the others are trap shooting and sporting clays). There are several types of skeet, including one with Olympic status (often called Olympic skeet or international skeet) and many with only national recognition. For the American version of the game, the clay discs are 4+⁄16 inches (109.54 mm) in diameter, 1+⁄8 inches (28.58 mm) thick, and fly a distance of 62 yards The international version of skeet uses a target that is slightly larger in diameter [(110±1) mm vs. 109.54 mm], thinner in cross section [(25.5±.5) mm vs. 28.58 mm], and has a thicker dome center, making it harder to break. International targets are also thrown a longer distance from similar heights (over 70 yards), resulting in a faster target speed. The firearm of choice for this task is usually a high-quality, double-barreled over and under shotgun with 26- to 30-inch barrels and very open chokes. Often, shooters will
    7.00
    2 votes
    156

    Social simulation game

    • Computer games: Animal Crossing: Wild World
    Social simulation games are a subgenre of life simulation game that explore social interactions between multiple artificial lives. The most famous example from this genre is The Sims series of games. When The Sims was released in 2000, it had been called "almost the only game of its kind". But there are several important precursors to The Sims and the social simulation genre. Firstly, the game's creator Will Wright acknowledges the influence of Little Computer People, a Commodore 64 game from 1985. The games are similar, although The Sims is described as a richer gameplay experience. Secondly, Will Wright acknowledged the influence of dollhouses on The Sims, a comparison that has since been repeated. This has informed the gameplay of this emerging genre. Animal Crossing was released in 2001 for the Nintendo 64 in Japan. While released towards the end of the life cycle of the Nintendo 64, it developed a following that led to it being ported to the Nintendo Gamecube and released throughout the world. As the game's popularity has surged, this series has also been described as social simulation games. Harvest Moon, a series that began in 1996 and is often compared to Animal Crossing,
    7.00
    2 votes
    157

    Sport management

    • Computer games: Championship Manager 01/02
    Sport management is a field of education concerning the business aspect of sport. Some examples of sport managers include the front office system in professional sports, college sports managers, recreational sport managers, sports marketing, event management, facility management, sports economics, sport finance, and sports information. Many colleges and universities offer bachelors and masters degrees in sport management. This certain profession is slowly increasing in popularity, yet is predicted to not be able to fill positions due to the explosion in demand. Entry level persons with a degree in sports management can expect an hourly wage due to the high demand with fewer jobs.
    7.00
    2 votes
    158
    Fantasy

    Fantasy

    • Computer games: Dragon's Gate
    Fantasy is a genre of fiction that commonly uses magic and other supernatural phenomena as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. Many works within the genre take place in imaginary worlds where magic is common. Fantasy is generally distinguished from the genre of science fiction by the expectation that it steers clear of scientific themes, though there is a great deal of overlap between the two, both of which are subgenres of speculative fiction. In popular culture, the genre of fantasy is dominated by its medievalist form, especially since the worldwide success of The Lord of the Rings and related books by J. R. R. Tolkien. Fantasy has also included wizards, sorcerers, witchcraft, etc., in events which avoid horror. In its broadest sense, however, fantasy comprises works by many writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians, from ancient myths and legends to many recent works embraced by a wide audience today. Fantasy is a vibrant area of academic study in a number of disciplines (English, cultural studies, comparative literature, history, medieval studies). Work in this area ranges widely, from the structuralist theory of Tzvetan Todorov, which emphasizes the fantastic as a
    6.00
    3 votes
    159
    Western

    Western

    • Computer games: Wild Arms 3
    The Western is a genre of various arts, such as film, television, radio, literature, painting and others. Westerns are devoted to telling stories set primarily in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West, hence the name. Some Westerns are set as early as the Battle of the Alamo in 1836. There are also a number of films about Western-type characters in contemporary settings, such as Junior Bonner set in the 1970s and The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada in the 21st century. Westerns often portray how desolate and hard life was for frontier families. These families are faced with change that would severely alter their way of life. This may be depicted by showing conflict between natives and settlers or U.S. Cavalry or between cattle ranchers and farmers ("sodbusters"), or by showing ranchers being threatened by the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Despite being tightly associated with a specific time and place in American history, these themes have allowed Westerns to be produced and enjoyed across the world. The Western genre sometimes portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the subordination of nature in the name of civilization or the confiscation of
    6.00
    3 votes
    160
    Painting

    Painting

    • Computer games: Bob Ross: The Joy of Painting
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects. Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological
    5.67
    3 votes
    161

    Adult computer and video games

    • Computer games: The Guy Game
    The inclusion of sex and nudity in video games has been a controversial topic since the early days of the industry. While many video games have used scantily clad images or characters to sell or enhance games (see sex in advertising), this article deals with games that use sex acts or nudity as a character motivation, in-game reward, or simply as a gameplay element. These games originate worldwide, on most platforms and in most genres. While releases in Europe and North America have been sporadic, Japan has seen the emergence of a distinct genre—the eroge (or erotic game). One of the earliest video games (if not the first) to feature sexual themes was the 1981 text-based Softporn Adventure, published by On-Line Systems for the Apple II. Despite heavy piracy the game still sold 25,000 copies, roughly equivalent to 25% of the number of Apple II's sold at the time. In a 1981 article in Time Magazine, On-Line reported that they were making a version of the game for straight women, though this never materialized. In 1982, Japan's Koei, founded by husband-and-wife team Yoichi and Keiko Erikawa (and later known for strategy video games), released the first erotic computer game with
    6.50
    2 votes
    162
    Light gun

    Light gun

    • Computer games: Resident Evil Survivor 2 - Code: Veronica
    A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games. Modern screen-based light guns work by building a sensor into the gun itself, and the on-screen target(s) emit light rather than the gun. The first device of this type, the light pen, was used on the MIT Whirlwind computer. The light gun and its ancestor, the light pen, are now rarely used as pointing devices due largely to the popularity of the mouse and changes in monitor display technology—conventional light guns only work with CRT monitors. The first light guns appeared in the 1930s, following the development of light-sensing vacuum tubes. It was not long before the technology began appearing in arcade shooting games, beginning with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite in 1936. These early light gun games, like modern laser tag, used small targets (usually moving) onto which a light-sensing tube was mounted; the player used a gun (usually a rifle) that emitted a beam of light when the trigger was pulled. If the beam struck the target, a "hit" was scored. These games evolved throughout subsequent decades, culminating in Sega's Periscope, the company's first successful game released in 1966, which
    6.50
    2 votes
    163
    6.50
    2 votes
    164
    Pachinko

    Pachinko

    • Computer games: Pachinko Sexy Reaction
    Pachinko (パチンコ) is a mechanical game originating in Japan and is used as both a form of recreational arcade game and much more frequently as a gambling device, filling a Japanese gambling niche comparable to that of the slot machine in Western gaming. A pachinko machine resembles a vertical pinball machine, but has no flippers and uses a large number of small balls. The player fires balls into the machine, which then cascade down through a dense forest of pins. If the balls go into certain locations, they may be captured and sequences of events may be triggered that result in more balls being released. The object of the game is to capture as many balls as possible. These balls can then be exchanged for prizes. Pachinko machines were originally strictly mechanical, but modern ones have incorporated extensive electronics, becoming similar to video slot machines. Pachinko parlors are widespread in Japan, and they usually also feature a number of slot machines (called pachislo or pachislots); hence, these venues operate and look similar to casinos. Modern pachinko machines are highly customizable, keeping enthusiasts continuously entertained. Directly gambling on pachinko is illegal in
    6.50
    2 votes
    165
    Web application

    Web application

    • Computer games: Lords: Rising Sun
    A web application is an application that is accessed by users over a network such as the Internet or an intranet. The term may also mean a computer software application that is coded in a browser-supported programming language (such as JavaScript, combined with a browser-rendered markup language like HTML) and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable. Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of web browsers, and the convenience of using a web browser as a client, sometimes called a thin client. The ability to update and maintain web applications without distributing and installing software on potentially thousands of client computers is a key reason for their popularity, as is the inherent support for cross-platform compatibility. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, online auctions, wikis and many other functions. In earlier computing models, e.g. in client-server, the load for the application was shared between code on the server and code installed on each client locally. In other words, an application had its own client program which served as its user interface and had to be separately installed on each user's
    6.50
    2 votes
    166
    Word game

    Word game

    • Computer games: Literati
    Word games and puzzles are spoken or board games often designed to test ability with language or to explore its properties. Word games are generally engaged as a source of entertainment, but have been found to serve an educational purpose as well. For instance, young children can find enjoyment playing modestly competitive games such as Hangman, while naturally developing important language skills like spelling. Solving crossword puzzles, which requires familiarity with a larger vocabulary, is a pastime that mature adults have long credited with keeping their minds sharp. There are popular televised word games with valuable monetary prizes for the winning contestants. Many word games enjoy international popularity across a multitude of languages, whilst some are unique to English-speakers. A word game or word puzzle can be of several different types: The goal is to form words out of given letters. Games focusing on the semantics of words. These are games based on words and letters.
    6.50
    2 votes
    167
    Collectible card game

    Collectible card game

    • Computer games: Sangokushi Taisen DS
    A collectible card game (CCG), also called a trading card game (TCG) or customizable card game, is a game played using specially designed sets of playing cards. While trading cards have been around for longer, CCGs combine the appeal of collecting with strategic gameplay. The modern concept of CCGs was first presented in Magic: The Gathering, designed by Richard Garfield and published by Wizards of the Coast in 1993. An earlier game that might be described as a collectible card game was The Base Ball Card Game produced by The Allegheny Card Co. and registered on April 5, 1904. Each CCG system has a fundamental set of rules that describes the players' objectives, the categories of cards used in the game, and the basic rules by which the cards interact. Each card will have additional text explaining that specific card's effect on the game. They also generally represent some specific element derived from the game's genre, setting, or source material. The cards are illustrated and named for these source elements, and the card's game function may relate to the subject. For example, Magic: The Gathering is based on the fantasy genre, so many of the cards represent creatures and magical
    4.75
    4 votes
    168
    Boxing

    Boxing

    • Computer games: Boxing
    Boxing (pugilism, prize fighting, the sweet science or in Greek pygmachia) is a martial art and combat sport in which two people engage in a contest of strength, reflexes, and endurance by throwing punches at an opponent with gloved hands. Amateur boxing is an Olympic and Commonwealth sport and is a common fixture in most of the major international games - it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds. The result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, resigns by throwing in a towel, or is pronounced the winner or loser based on the judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. The birth hour of boxing as a sport may be its acceptance by the ancient Greeks as an Olympic game as early as 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights, largely in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century, again initially in Great Britain and later in the United States. In 2004, ESPN ranked boxing as the most difficult sport in the world. First depicted in Sumerian relief (in Iraq) carvings from
    5.33
    3 votes
    169

    Expansion pack

    • Computer games: Age of Empires II: The Conquerors
    An expansion pack, expansion set, or supplement is an addition to an existing role-playing game, tabletop game or video game. These add-ons usually add new game areas, weapons, objects, and/or an extended storyline to a complete and already released game. While board game expansions are typically designed by the original creator, video game developers sometimes contract out development of the expansion pack to a third-party company, (see Hellfire for Diablo), it may choose to develop the expansion itself or it may do both (Ensemble Studios developed the real-time strategy game Age of Empires III and the first expansion called the WarChiefs itself, but contracted Big Huge Games for the second expansion pack, the Asian Dynasties). Board games and tabletop RPGs may have been marketing expansions since the 1970s, and video games have been releasing expansion packs since the 1980s, early examples being the Dragon Slayer games Xanadu Scenario II and Sorcerian. The price of an expansion pack is usually much less than that of the original game. As expansion packs consist solely of additional content, most expansion packs require the original game in order to play. Games with many
    5.33
    3 votes
    170

    Quiz

    • Computer games: Professor Pac-Man
    A quiz is a form of game or mind sport in which the players (as individuals or in teams) attempt to answer questions correctly. In some countries, a quiz is also a brief assessment used in education and similar fields to measure growth in knowledge, abilities, and/or skills. Quizzes are usually scored in points and many quizzes are designed to determine a winner from a group of participants - usually the participant with the highest score. The first appearance of the word is from 1784 and means an odd person. This sense survives today in the word "quizzical". It was also used in the term quizzing glass, a common accoutrement of British Regency dandies. It later acquired a meaning of to make fun of, or to mock. How it acquired its current meaning of a test is unknown, but that sense did not appear until 1867 and then it was in the United States. The OED2 has a citation from 1847 where the word appears: "She com back and quiesed us", which could be a clue to its origin. Quiz as a test could be a corruption of the Latin Qui es, meaning "Who are you?" The American Heritage Dictionary says it may be from the English dialect verb quiset, meaning to question. In any case it is probably
    5.33
    3 votes
    171
    Trivia

    Trivia

    • Computer games: A Question of Sport
    The trivia (singular trivium) are the three lower Artes Liberales, i.e. grammar, logic and rhetoric. These were the topics of basic education, foundational to the quadrivia of higher education, and hence the material of basic education and an important building block for all undergraduates. The word trivia was also used to describe a place where three roads met in Ancient Rome. The term had become, during the 20th Century, as forgotten as the system of education it pertained to when it was ironically (or strategically?) appropriated to mean something very new. In the 1960s, nostalgic college students and others began to informally trade questions and answers about the popular culture of their youth. The first known documented labeling of this casual parlor game as "Trivia" was in a Columbia Daily Spectator column published on February 5, 1965. The authors, Ed Goodgold and Dan Carlinsky, then started the first organized trivia contests, described below. Since the 1960s, the plural trivia in particular has widened to include knowledge that is nice to have but not essential, specifically detailed knowledge on topics of popular culture. The expression has also come to suggest
    5.33
    3 votes
    172

    Action role-playing game

    • Computer games: Warriors Orochi
    Action role-playing games (abbreviated action RPG, action/RPG, or ARPG) form a loosely defined sub-genre of role-playing video games that incorporate elements of action or action-adventure games, emphasizing real-time action where the player has direct control over characters, instead of turn-based or menu-based combat. These games often use combat systems similar to hack and slash or shooter games. Early dungeon-crawl video games used turn-based movement: if the party didn't move, neither did the enemies. Dungeons of Daggorath, released for the TRS-80 Color Computer in 1982, combined a typical first-person dungeon crawl with real-time elements, requiring timed keyboard commands and where enemies move independently of the player. The game lacked numerical statistics such as hit points or vitality, but instead used an arcade-like fatigue system where the heart pulsates to indicate the player's health, a concept inspired by the 1978 arcade game Space Invaders where a heartbeat-like sound gradually increases pace as enemies advance towards the player. The following year, ASCII released the Sharp X1 computer game Bokosuka Wars, considered an early example of an action RPG, though it is
    7.00
    1 votes
    173

    Fighting game

    • Computer games: Variable Geo
    Fighting game is a video game genre where the player controls an on-screen character and engages in close combat with an opponent. These characters tend to be of equal power and fight matches consisting of several rounds, which take place in an arena. Players must master techniques such as blocking, counter-attacking, and chaining together sequences of attacks known as "combos". Since the early 1990s, most fighting games allow the player to execute special attacks by performing specific button combinations. The genre is related to but distinct from beat 'em ups, which involve large numbers of antagonists. The first game to feature fist fighting was Heavyweight Champ in 1976, but it was Karate Champ and The Way of the Exploding Fist which popularized one-on-one martial arts games in 1984 and 1985 respectively. Also in 1985, Yie Ar Kung-Fu featured antagonists with differing fighting styles, while 1987's Street Fighter introduced hidden special attacks. In 1991, Capcom's highly successful Street Fighter II refined and popularized many of the conventions of the genre. The fighting game subsequently became the preeminent genre for competitive video gaming in the early to mid-1990s,
    7.00
    1 votes
    174

    Multicart

    • Computer games: Konami Collector's Series: Arcade Advanced
    In video game parlance, a multicart is a cartridge that contains more than one game. Typically, the separate games are available individually for purchase (such as Sega Smash Pack) or were previously available individually (such as Final Fantasy: Dawn of Souls). For this reason, collections, anthologies, and compilations are considered multicarts. The desirability of the multicart to consumers is that it provides better value, greater convenience, and (in the case of portable games), more portability than the separate games would provide. The advantage to developers is that it allows two or more smaller games to be sold together for the price of one larger game, and allows an avenue to repackage and sell older games one more time, often with little or no changes. Multicarts are distinct from minigame series such as Mario Party, Game & Watch Gallery, or WarioWare. These games contain several, distinct games, but they are minigames specifically created for the overall game experience. In contrast to this, the NES multicart Super Mario Bros./Duck Hunt contains two full-version games, each of which were available for purchase individually. Although most commonly associated with NES and
    7.00
    1 votes
    175

    Music video game

    • Computer games: Guitar Hero II
    A music video game, also commonly known as a music game, is a video game where the gameplay is meaningfully and often almost entirely oriented around the player's interactions with a musical score or individual songs. Music video games may take a variety of forms and are often grouped with puzzle games due to their common use of "rhythmically generated puzzles". Strong support for the convergence of live music and video games is evident with the success of the Video Games Live concert series. Emergent games for live concert performance, "game-scores," augment traditional western music notation with the dramatic elements of animation, interactivity, graphic elements and aleatoric principles (Anigraphical Music). The concept of incorporating Game Theory and music is not new and can be traced back to Musikalisches Würfelspiel. Music video games are distinct from purely audio games (e.g. the 1997 Sega Saturn release Real Sound: Kaze no Regret) in that they feature a visual feedback, to lead the player through the game's soundtrack, although eidetic music games can fall under both categories. As the genre has gained popularity and expanded, music video games have demonstrated the
    7.00
    1 votes
    176
    Party game

    Party game

    • Computer games: Crash Bash
    Party games are games that some people play as forms of entertainment at social gatherings. Party games usually involve more than one player. There are a large number and styles of party games available and the one selected will depend on the atmosphere that is sought to be generated. The party game may merely be intended as an ice breaker, or the sole purpose for the party. The characteristics of party games tend to include: Not all of the above are suitable for children's parties. Traditional children's party games (some of which are also popular with teenagers and adults) include: The party game has become a genre of video games — arguably dating back to 1983, with Starpath's Party Mix. Currently, the most well known examples are Nintendo's Mario Party and Wii series. These games are usually best played in multiplayer mode. The games are commonly designed as a collection of simple minigames, designed to be intuitive and easy to control. Some of the games (most notably the Mario Party series) are played out on boardgame boards. The success of the Nintendo Wii in recent years has led to an increasing number of party video games. Other examples of party video games include: Large
    7.00
    1 votes
    177
    Play-by-post gaming

    Play-by-post gaming

    • Computer games: The Allerian Empire
    A play-by-post game (PbP game, also called a sim or simming) is an online text-based role-playing game in which players (also called writers or simmers) interact with each other and a predefined environment via text. It is a subset of the online role-playing community which caters to both gamers and creative writers. PbP games may be based on other role-playing games, non-game fiction including books, television and movies, or original settings. This activity is closely related to both interactive fiction and collaborative writing. PbP has its origins on the large computer networks and bulletin board systems of major universities in the United States in the 1980s, and drew heavily upon the traditions of fanzines and off-line role-playing games. The introduction of IRC enabled users to engage in real-time chat-based role-playing and resulted in the establishment of open communities. Development of forum hosting software and browser-based chat services such as AOL and Yahoo Chat increased the availability of these mediums to the public and improved accessibility to the general public. The popularity of PbP games peaked in the early 2000s with online chat services and free remotely
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
    Poker

    Poker

    • Computer games: NBC Sports Heads-Up Poker
    Poker is a family of card games involving betting and individualistic play whereby the winner is determined by the ranks and combinations of their cards, some of which remain hidden until the end of the game. Poker games vary in the number of cards dealt, the number of shared or "community" cards and the number of cards that remain hidden. The betting procedures vary among different poker games in such ways as betting limits and splitting the pot between a high hand and a low hand. In most modern poker games, the first round of betting begins with one of the players making some form of forced bet (the ante). In standard poker, each player is betting that the hand he has will be the highest ranked. The action then proceeds clockwise around the table and each player in turn must either match the maximum previous bet or fold, losing the amount bet so far and all further interest in the hand. A player who matches a bet may also "raise," or increase the bet. The betting round ends when all players have either matched the last bet or folded. If all but one player fold on any round, then the remaining player collects the pot and may choose to show or conceal their hand. If more than one
    7.00
    1 votes
    179

    Compilation

    • Computer games: Namco Classics Collection Volume 1
    A compilation is a release consisting of more than one computer, arcade, or video game. Compilation can be done as a way to sell older titles or when two or more weaker titles are sold together to make it more attractive. Video game compilations
    6.00
    2 votes
    180

    Demoscene

    • Computer games: DC Tonic
    The demoscene is a computer art subculture that specializes in producing demos, which are audio-visual presentations that run in real-time on a computer. The main goal of a demo is to show off programming, artistic, and musical skills. The demoscene first appeared during the 8-bit era on computers such as the Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, Atari 800 and Amstrad CPC, and came to prominence during the rise of the 16/32-bit home computers (Mainly the Amiga or Atari ST). In the early years, demos had a strong connection with software cracking. When a cracked program was started, the cracker or his team would take credit with a graphical introduction called a "crack intro" (shortened cracktro). Within a year or two, the making of intros and standalone demos evolved into a new subculture independent of the software (piracy) scene. Prior to the popularity of IBM PC compatibles, most home computers of a given line had relatively little variance in their basic hardware, which made their capabilities practically identical. Therefore, the variations among demos created for one computer line were attributed to programming alone, rather than one computer having better hardware. This created a
    6.00
    2 votes
    181
    6.00
    2 votes
    182
    Flight simulator

    Flight simulator

    • Computer games: Combat Flight Simulator 2
    A flight simulator is a device that artificially re-creates aircraft flight and various aspects of the flight environment. This includes the equations that govern how aircraft fly, how they react to applications of their controls and other aircraft systems, and how they react to external environmental factors such as air density, turbulence, cloud, precipitation, etc. Flight simulation is used for a variety of reasons, including flight training (mainly of pilots), the design and development of the aircraft itself, and research into aircraft characteristics and control handling qualities. Depending on their purpose, flight simulations employ various types of hardware, modeling detail and realism. They can range from PC laptop-based models of aircraft systems to simple replica cockpits for familiarisation purposes to more complex cockpit simulations with some working controls and systems to highly detailed cockpit replications with all controls and aircraft systems and wide-field outside-world visual systems, all mounted on six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) motion platforms which move in response to pilot control movements and external aerodynamic factors. The first known flight
    6.00
    2 votes
    183

    Top-down

    • Computer games: Terminator 2: Judgment Day
    Top-down perspective, also sometimes referred to as bird's-eye view, overhead view or helicopter view, is a camera angle used in video games that shows the player and the area around them from above. It was often used in 2D role playing video games, wargames and construction and management simulation games such as SimCity and Railroad Tycoon. It is also used in some action games such as the early Grand Theft Auto games. Today top-down projections are typically used to suggest retro computer games in graphic design. Many top-down video games also utilize oblique projection to create a sense of added depth.
    6.00
    2 votes
    184
    Wargame

    Wargame

    • Computer games: Harpoon
    Wargames are a subgenre of strategy video games that emphasize strategic or tactical warfare on a map, as well as historical (or near-historical) accuracy. The genre of wargame video games is derived from earlier forms of wargames. The games thematically represent the wargame hobby, although they tend to be less realistic in order to increase accessibility for more casual players. The amount of realism varies between games as game designers balance an accurate simulation with playability. The computer gaming industry generally evolved with minimal reference to board games, so the term "wargame" is not traditionally used in the context of computer games. However, the wargaming community saw the possibilities of computer gaming early and made attempts to break into the market, notably Avalon Hill's Microcomputer Games line, which lasted from 1980 to 1987 and covered a variety of topics, including simple adaptations of some of their wargames. Strategic Simulations, Inc. (SSI) and Strategic Studies Group (SSG) were computer game companies that continued the genre by specializing in games that borrowed from board and miniature wargames. The companies enjoyed a certain popularity
    6.00
    2 votes
    185

    Anime game

    • Computer games: Hikaru no Go 3
    Anime games are computer or video games that are based on anime or manga, or use an art style commonly stereotyped as "anime" in their presentation (technically, anime is not an art style, though many follow a certain trend), or upon which anime or manga have been made. Generally, anime games fall into the categories of normal games based around an anime, visual novel, dojin game, or miscellaneous H game. The phrase bishᅤヘjo game is often used to refer to any game with anime-style graphics, although it technically refers only to the large majority with attractive female anime characters. Up to the fourth generation of videogames, anime games used bitmaps and sprites to depict the characters shown, as seen in games like Langrisser I, Shin Megami Tensei, Street Fighter II, and many others. In the fifth generation (Saturn, PlayStation, Nintendo 64), some developers started using simple (by today's standards) 3D models. Examples include Final Fantasy VII and Mystical Ninja Starring Goemon. Thanks to the adoption of the CD-ROM, full motion video became an option. Lunar: Silver Star Story Complete and its sequel Lunar 2: Eternal Blue Complete for example had anime cutscenes animated
    5.50
    2 votes
    186
    Pinball

    Pinball

    • Computer games: Metroid Prime Pinball
    Pinball is a type of arcade game, usually coin-operated, in which points are scored by a player manipulating one or more steel balls on a play field inside a glass-covered cabinet called a pinball machine. The primary objective of the game is to score as many points as possible. Points are earned when the ball strikes different targets on the play field. A drain is situated at the bottom of the play field protected by player-controlled plastic bats, called flippers. A game ends after all the balls fall into the drain. Secondary objectives are to maximize the time spent playing (by earning "extra balls" and keeping the ball in play as long as possible) and to earn free games (known as "replays"). The origins of pinball are intertwined with the history of many other games. Games played outdoors by rolling balls or stones on a grass course, such as bocce or bowls, eventually evolved into various local ground billiards games played by hitting the balls with sticks and propelling them at targets, often around obstacles. Croquet, golf and paille-maille eventually derived from ground billiards variants. The evolving and specializing outdoor games finally led to indoor versions that could
    5.50
    2 votes
    187

    Social network game

    • Computer games: Final Fantasy Brigade
    A social network game is a type of online game that is played through social networks, and typically features multiplayer and asynchronous gameplay mechanics. Social network games are most often implemented as browser games, but can also be implemented on other platforms such as mobile devices. They are amongst the most popular games played in the world, with several products with tens of millions of players. (Lil) Green Patch, Happy Farm, Farm Town, YoVille and Mob Wars were some of the first successful games of this genre. FrontierVille, CityVille, Gardens of Time and The Sims Social are more recent examples of very popular social network games. While they share many aspects of traditional video games, social network games often employ additional ones that make them distinct. Traditionally they are oriented to be casual games. Companies that make social network games include market leader Zynga, 5 Minutes, Playfish, Playdom, Kabam, Crowdstar, RockYou, Booyah, Row Sham Bow, Inc etc. Dutch historian Johan Huizinga defines play as: Note the mention of social groupings in Huizinga’s definition of play, indicating the importance of social factors in an environment of play. Social
    5.50
    2 votes
    188

    Transport puzzle

    • Computer games: Atomix
    Transport puzzles are logistical puzzles, which often represent real-life transport problems. In transport puzzles you move persons and/or objects through a given landscape. As in rearrangement puzzles, no piece is ever lost or added to the board. In contrast to rearrangement puzzles, however, transport puzzles have all persons and objects follow certain routes given on the board; they cannot be lifted off the board and placed on faraway positions that have no visible connection to the from-position. Hence transport puzzles often mean that the player has to move (physical) objects in a very restricted space. The player may or may not be part of the game (either directly, or as a player character on the board). The famous British puzzler Henry Dudeney added several puzzles to this category.
    5.50
    2 votes
    189

    Construction and management simulation games

    • Computer games: SimCity 3000
    Construction and management simulation (CMS) is a type of simulation game in which players build, expand or manage fictional communities or projects with limited resources. Strategy video games sometimes incorporate CMS aspects into their game economy, as players must manage resources while expanding their project. But pure CMS games differ from strategy games in that "the player's goal is not to defeat an enemy, but to build something within the context of an ongoing process." Games in this category are sometimes also called "management games". SimCity represents an early example of success in the genre. Other games in the genre range from city-building games like Caesar, pure business simulation games like Hollywood Mogul, and or true CMSs like Theme Park. Sometimes strategy video games such as Age of Empires combine aspects of CMSs with wargames. CMSs are often called "simulation games" for short. Although games can simulate many activities from vehicles to sports, players usually deduce the kind of simulation from the title of the game. Economics play a primary role in construction and management simulations, because they allow players to build things while operating within
    6.00
    1 votes
    190

    First-person Shooter

    • Computer games: Frontlines: Fuel of War
    First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered on gun and projectile weapon-based combat through a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist. The first-person shooter shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn fall under the heading action game. From the genre's inception, advanced 3D or pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral. The first-person shooter has since been traced as far back as Maze War, development of which began in 1973, and 1974's Spasim. The genre coalesced with 1992's Wolfenstein 3D, which has been credited with creating the genre proper and the basic archetype upon which subsequent titles were based. One such title, and the progenitor of the genre's wider mainstream acceptance and popularity was Doom, released the following year and perhaps the most influential first-person shooter. 1998's Half-Life - along with its 2004 sequel Half-Life 2 - enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements. GoldenEye 007 (1997) was a first landmark first-person shooter for home consoles, with the Halo series heightening the console's
    6.00
    1 votes
    191
    Grand strategy

    Grand strategy

    • Computer games: Generation of Chaos
    Grand strategy comprises the "purposeful employment of all instruments of power available to a security community". Military historian B. H. Liddell Hart says about grand strategy: [T]he role of grand strategy – higher strategy – is to co-ordinate and direct all the resources of a nation, or band of nations, towards the attainment of the political object of the war – the goal defined by fundamental policy. Grand strategy should both calculate and develop the economic resources and man-power of nations in order to sustain the fighting services. Also the moral resources – for to foster the people's willing spirit is often as important as to possess the more concrete forms of power. Grand strategy, too, should regulate the distribution of power between the several services, and between the services and industry. Moreover, fighting power is but one of the instruments of grand strategy – which should take account of and apply the power of financial pressure, and, not least of ethical pressure, to weaken the opponent's will. ... Furthermore, while the horizons of strategy is bounded by the war, grand strategy looks beyond the war to the subsequent peace. It should not only combine the
    6.00
    1 votes
    192

    Software toy

    • Computer games: Monty Python's Complete Waste of Time
    A software toy is a program that fits all criteria for a computer game, except for a defined "end goal". However, for all practical purposes, a software toy does meet all the criteria for a game implicit goals and emergent gameplay allow for goals that are just as valid to the player as those that a storyline, for example, may define. The term may be used to describe simulation and other games of this form. The term dates from the late 1980s, and may have been coined by Maxis in order to help market the original SimCity, which did not fit the usual model of gameplay where the game ends when the game software sees that the player has either met, or failed to meet, certain objectives (see game over). Flight simulator games fall into this category also; players often make up tasks, such as to fly from one airport to another, or to fly under a bridge, but these are not designed into the program. Another game that falls under this category are train simulator. Other games, such as Microsoft's Age of Empires and Sid Meier's Civilization, can be played as toys by starting a game without any adversaries. Software toys are perhaps the riskiest genre of computer game to develop; for
    6.00
    1 votes
    193
    Tactical wargame

    Tactical wargame

    • Computer games: Computer Ambush
    Tactical wargames are a type of wargame that models military conflict at a tactical level, i.e. units range from individual vehicles and squads to platoons or companies. These units are rated based on types and ranges of individual weaponry. The first tactical wargames were played as miniatures, extended to board games, and they are now also enjoyed as video games. The games are designed so that a knowledge of military tactics will facilitate good gameplay. Tactical wargames offer more of a challenge to the designer, as fewer variables or characteristics inherent in the units being simulated are directly quantifiable. Modern commercial board wargaming avoided tactical subjects for many years, but since initial attempts at the subject appeared, it has remained a favourite topic among wargamers. Perhaps the most successful board wargaming system ever designed, Advanced Squad Leader, is set at the tactical level. Tactical wargame rules have appeared for every period of human history and even into the future. The first true "miniatures" games may have developed in antiquity, though Kriegsspiel, a command study invented in 18th century Prussia, is generally accepted as the first true
    6.00
    1 votes
    194

    Light Cycle

    • Computer games: GLtron
    Light cycles are fictional vehicles designed by Syd Mead for the simulated world of the Tron universe. These futuristic two-wheeled vehicles resemble motorcycles and create walls of colored light. The vehicles were primarily used in a competition between humanoid computer programs, similar to an old computer game sometimes known as "Surround" or "Dominos". Players are in constant motion on a playfield, creating a wall of light behind them as they move. If players hit a wall, they are out of the game; the last player in the game wins. Since the original display in Tron, there have been numerous adaptations, as well as references in popular culture. After the 1982 arcade game adaptation of the film, Tron, many versions of the game have been created for personal computers, among them Armagetron, GLTron, and BeamWars. The video games Tron 2.0 and Kingdom Hearts II also feature Light Cycle games, albeit with their own twists. There is an iPhone port known as LightBike. As well as those, there have been various "amateur" versions that have been created by non-professional programmers. A light cycle toy, in red and yellow versions, was produced by TOMY as part of the merchandising for the
    4.33
    3 votes
    195

    God game

    • Computer games: The Sims
    A god game is an artificial life game that casts the player in the position of controlling the game on a large scale, as an entity with divine/supernatural powers, as a great leader, or with no specified character (as in Spore), and places them in charge of a game setting containing autonomous characters to guard and influence. This is not to be confused with god mode, a state found in many video games (usually afforded the player through use of a cheat or granted as an unlockable in-game reward) wherein the player-character is granted invincibility, invulnerability, or both. God games are a subgenre of artificial life game, where players use supernatural powers to indirectly influence a population of simulated worshipers. The genre is separate from strategy video games, because players are unable to tell specific units what to do, although god games may still involve competition between rival players. The genre is also separate from construction and management simulations, because gameplay revolves around growing and utilizing their supernatural powers to indirectly influence their worshipers. God games allow players to take on the role of a god with limited powers, similar to the
    5.00
    2 votes
    196
    Steampunk

    Steampunk

    • Computer games: Wild Arms 3
    Steampunk is a sub-genre of science fiction characterized by a setting in which steam power predominates as the energy source for high, industrial technologies, especially inspired by industrialized Western civilization during the 19th century. Typically, therefore, works of steampunk are set in an alternate history of the 19th century's British Victorian era or American "Wild West"; in a post-apocalyptic future during which steam power has regained mainstream usage; or in a fantasy world that similarly employs steam power. Steampunk perhaps most recognizably features anachronistic technologies or retro-futuristic inventions as people in the 19th century might have envisioned them, and is likewise rooted in this era's perspective on fashion, culture, architectural style, and art. Such technology may include fictional machines like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne, or the contemporary authors Philip Pullman, Scott Westerfeld, and China Mieville. Other examples of steampunk contain alternate history-style presentations of such technology as lighter-than-air airships, analog computers, or such digital mechanical computers as Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace's
    5.00
    2 votes
    197
    Massively multiplayer online game

    Massively multiplayer online game

    • Computer games: Yohoho! Puzzle Pirates
    A massively multiplayer online game (also called MMO and MMOG) is a multiplayer video game which is capable of supporting hundreds or thousands of players simultaneously. By necessity, they are played on the Internet, and feature at least one persistent world. They are, however, not necessarily games played on personal computers. Most of the newer game consoles, including the PSP, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Nintendo DS, PS Vita and Wii can access the Internet and may therefore run MMO games. Additionally, mobile devices and smartphones based on such operating systems as Android, iOS and Windows Phone are seeing an increase in the number of MMO games available. MMOGs can enable players to cooperate and compete with each other on a large scale, and sometimes to interact meaningfully with people around the world. They include a variety of gameplay types, representing many video game genres. The most popular type of MMOG, and the sub-genre that pioneered the category, is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), which descended from university mainframe computer MUD and adventure games such as Rogue and Dungeon on the PDP-10. These games predate the commercial gaming
    4.00
    3 votes
    198

    Dojin

    • Computer games: Meakashi-hen
    Dōjin (同人, dōjin), often romanized as doujin, is a general Japanese term for a group of people or friends who share an interest, activity, hobbies, or achievement. The word is sometimes translated into English as clique, coterie, society, or circle (e.g., a "sewing circle"). In Japan the term is used to refer to amateur self-published works, including but not limited to manga, novels, fan guides, art collections, music and video games. Some professional artists participate as a way to publish material outside the regular publishing industry. Annual research by the research agency Media Create indicated that of the $1.65 billion of the Otaku industry in 2007, doujin sales made up 48% ($792 million). Literary circles first appeared in the Meiji period when groups of like-minded waka writers, poets and novelists met and published literary magazines (many of which are still publishing today). Many modern writers in Japan came from these literary circles. One famous example is Ozaki Koyo, who led the Kenyusha society of literary writers that first published collected works in magazine form in 1885. After World War II manga dōjin started to appear in Japan. Manga artists like Shotaro
    4.50
    2 votes
    199

    Low fantasy

    • Computer games: Age of Conan: Hyborian Adventures
    Low fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy fiction involving "nonrational happenings that are without causality or rationality because they occur in the rational world where such things are not supposed to occur." Low fantasy stories are set in the real world. Low fantasy is contrasted with high fantasy, which takes place in a completely fictional fantasy world setting (partly or entirely, as high fantasy may start from or connect to the real world in places). Low fantasy places relatively less emphasis on typical elements associated with fantasy, setting a narrative in real-world environments with elements of the fantastical. Sometimes just enough fantastical elements to make ambiguous the boundary between what is real and what is purely psychological or supernatural. The word "low" refers to the level of prominence of traditional fantasy elements within the work, and is not any sort of remark on the work's quality. Low fantasy is characterised by being set in the real ("Primary") world, or a rational and familiar fictional world, with the inclusion of magical elements. In contrast, high fantasy is set in an alternative, entirely fictional ("Secondary") world with its own, albeit
    4.50
    2 votes
    200
    Fishing

    Fishing

    • Computer games: Fishing Derby
    Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. The term fishing may be applied to catching other aquatic animals such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales, where the term whaling is more appropriate. According to FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is also a recreational pastime. Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000 year old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology
    5.00
    1 votes
    201

    MUD

    • Computer games: Materia Magica
    A MUD ( /ˈmʌd/; originally Multi-User Dungeon, with later variants Multi-User Dimension and Multi-User Domain), is a multiplayer real-time virtual world, usually text-based. MUDs combine elements of role-playing games, hack and slash, player versus player, interactive fiction, and online chat. Players can read or view descriptions of rooms, objects, other players, non-player characters, and actions performed in the virtual world. Players typically interact with each other and the world by typing commands that resemble a natural language. Traditional MUDs implement a role-playing video game set in a fantasy world populated by fictional races and monsters, with players choosing classes in order to gain specific skills or powers. The object of this sort of game is to slay monsters, explore a fantasy world, complete quests, go on adventures, create a story by roleplaying, and advance the created character. Many MUDs were fashioned around the dice-rolling rules of the Dungeons & Dragons series of games. Such fantasy settings for MUDs are common, while many others have science fiction settings or are based on popular books, movies, animations, periods of history, and so on. Not all MUDs
    5.00
    1 votes
    202
    Rallying

    Rallying

    • Computer games: Xpand Rally
    Rallying, also known as rally racing, is a form of auto racing that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. This motorsport is distinguished by running not on a circuit, but instead in a point-to-point format in which participants and their co-drivers drive between set control points (special stages), leaving at regular intervals from one or more start points. Rallies may be won by pure speed within the stages or alternatively by driving to a predetermined ideal journey time within the stages. The term "rally", as a branch of motorsport, probably dates from the first Monte Carlo Rally of January 1911. Until the late 1920s, few if any other events used the term. Rallying itself can be traced back to the 1894 Paris–Rouen Horseless Carriage Competition (Concours des Voitures sans Chevaux), sponsored by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal, which attracted considerable public interest and entries from leading manufacturers. Prizes were awarded to the vehicles by a jury based on the reports of the observers who rode in each car; the official winner was Albert Lemaître driving a 3 hp Peugeot, although the Comte de Dion had
    5.00
    1 votes
    203

    Role-playing video game

    • Computer games: Drakengard
    Role-playing video games (commonly referred to as role-playing games or RPGs, as well as computer RPGs or CRPGs) are a video game genre where the player controls the actions of a protagonist as this character lives immersed in a fictional world. Many role playing games have origins in pen-and-paper role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons, using much of the same terminology, settings and game mechanics. The player in RPGs controls one character, or several adventuring party members, fulfilling one or many quests. The major similarities with pen-and-paper games involve developed story-telling and narrative elements, player character development, complexity, as well as replayability and immersion. Electronic medium removes the necessity for a gamemaster and increases combat resolution speed. RPGs have evolved from simple text-based console-window games into visually rich 3D experiences. Role-playing video games use much of the same terminology, settings and game mechanics as early pen-and-paper role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons. Generally, the player controls a central game character, or multiple game characters, usually called a party, and achieves victory by
    5.00
    1 votes
    204

    Tower defense

    • Computer games: PixelJunk Monsters
    Tower defense is a subgenre of real-time strategy video games. The goal of tower defense games is to try to stop enemies from crossing a map by building towers which shoot at them as they pass. Enemies and towers usually have varied abilities, costs, and ability costs. When an enemy is defeated, the player earns money or points, which are used to buy or upgrade towers, or upgrade the number of money or points that are earned, or even upgrade the rate at which they upgrade. The choice and positioning of the personal towers is the essential strategy of the game. Many games, such as Flash Element Tower Defense, feature enemies that run through a "maze", which allows the player to strategically place towers for optimal effectiveness. However, some versions of the genre force the user to create the maze out of their own towers, such as Desktop Tower Defense. Some versions are a hybrid of these two types, with preset paths that can be modified to some extent by tower placement, or towers that can be modified by path placement. A prototypical tower defense game was the Atari Games release Rampart in 1990. By 2000, maps for StarCraft, Age of Empires II, and Warcraft III were following
    5.00
    1 votes
    205
    Billiards

    Billiards

    • Computer games: Jazzy Billiards
    Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick which is used to strike billiard balls, moving them around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by rubber cushions. Historically, the umbrella term was billiards. While that familiar name is still employed by some as a generic label for all such games, the word's usage has splintered into more exclusive competing meanings in various parts of the world. For example, in British and Australian English, "billiards" usually refers exclusively to the game of English billiards, while in American and Canadian English it is sometimes used to refer to a particular game or class of games, or to all cue games in general, depending upon dialect and context. There are three major subdivisions of games within cue sports: More obscurely, there are games that make use of obstacles and targets, and table-top games played with disks instead of balls. Billiards has a long and rich history stretching from its inception in the 15th century, to the wrapping of the body of Mary, Queen of Scots, in her billiard table cover in 1586, through its many mentions in
    4.00
    1 votes
    206

    Grand Theft Auto clone

    • Computer games: Saints Row
    Grand Theft Auto clone is a genre of sandbox action adventure video games characterized by their likeness to the Grand Theft Auto series. These types of open world games are games which players may find and use a variety of vehicles and weapons while roaming freely in an open world setting. The objective of such games is to complete a sequence of core missions involving driving and shooting, but often side-missions and minigames are added to improve replay value. The storylines of games in this genre typically have strong themes of crime and violence. The genre has its origins in open-world action adventure games popularized in Europe (and particularly the United Kingdom) throughout the 1980s and '90s. The release of Grand Theft Auto (1997) marked a major commercial success for open-ended game design in North America, and featured a more marketable crime theme. But it was the popularity of Grand Theft Auto III in 2001 that led to the widespread propagation of a more specific set of gameplay conventions consistent with a genre. The genre now includes many games from different developers all over the world where the player can control wide ranges of vehicles and weapons. The genre
    4.00
    1 votes
    207

    Platform game

    • Computer games: Prince of Persia
    A platform game (or platformer) is a video game characterized by requiring the player to jump to and from suspended platforms or over obstacles (jumping puzzles). It must be possible to control these jumps and to fall from platforms or miss jumps. The most common unifying element to games in this video game genre is a jump button; other jump mechanics include swinging from extendable arms, as in Ristar or Bionic Commando, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines, as in Alpha Waves. These mechanics, even in the context of other genres, are commonly called platforming, a verbification of platform. Games where jumping is automated completely, such as The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, fall outside of the genre. Platform games originated in the early 1980s, and 3D successors were popularized in the mid-1990s. The term itself describes games where jumping on platforms is an integral part of the gameplay, and came into use some time after the genre had been established, but no later than 1983. However, it is not a pure genre and is very frequently coupled with elements of other genres, such as the shooter elements in Contra, the adventure elements of Flashback or the RPG elements
    4.00
    1 votes
    208
    Retro

    Retro

    • Computer games: Astro Warrior
    Retro is a culturally outdated or aged style, trend, mode, or fashion, from the overall postmodern past, that has since that time become functionally or superficially the norm once again. The use of "retro" style iconography and imagery interjected into post-modern art, advertising, mass media, etc. It generally implies a vintage of at least 15 or 20 years. For example clothing from the 1980s or 1990s could be retro. The word "retro" derives from the Latin prefix retro, meaning "backwards, or in past times" – particularly as seen in the words retrograde, implying a movement toward the past instead of a progress toward the future, and retrospective, referring to a nostalgic (or critical) eye toward the past. In the postwar period, it increased in usage with the appearance of the word retrorocket (short for "retrograde rocket", a rocket generating thrust in a direction opposite to that of a spacecraft's orbital motion) used by the American space program in the 1960s. In France, the word rétro, an abbreviation for rétrospectif gained cultural currency with reevaluations of Charles de Gaulle and France’s role in World War II. The French mode rétro of the 1970s reappraised in film and
    4.00
    1 votes
    209
    Tennis

    Tennis

    • Computer games: Pocket Tennis Color
    Tennis is a sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a good return. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including people in wheelchairs. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as "lawn tennis". It had close connections both to various field ("lawn") games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older raquet sport of real tennis. During most of the 19th-century in fact, the term "tennis" referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis: for example, in Disraeli's novel Sybil (1845), Lord Eugene De Vere announces that he will "go down to Hampton Court and play tennis. As it is the Derby [classic horse race], nobody will be there". The rules of tennis have not changed much since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on
    4.00
    1 votes
    210

    Third-person narrative

    • Computer games: Marc Ecko's Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure
    The third-person narrative is a narrative mode applying the third person. The participants in the narrative are understood to be distinct from the person telling the story and the person to whom, or by whom, it is read. Third-person narrative is one of three possible modes of narration. The others are first-person narrative, in which the narrative voice is the protagonist of the narrative, referred to in the first person, as I or we, and (rarely) second-person narrative, in which the protagonist is remembered and said as second person, as "you". Third person can be omniscient or limited. It depends on how many thoughts you know from each character. Third person subjective is where the narrator describes events in third person grammar but as if seen through the eyes of only certain character. If seen only through the eyes of the protagonist, it is known as third-person limited. The narrative will include the thoughts and feelings of only the protagonist, while other characters are presented externally. Since the reader learns the events of the narrative entirely through the perceptions of the protagonist, anything that the protagonist cannot perceive must be excluded from the
    4.00
    1 votes
    211

    4X

    • Computer games: Star Wars: Rebellion
    4X games are a genre of strategy video game in which players control an empire and "explore, expand, exploit, and exterminate". The term was first coined by Alan Emrich in his September 1993 preview of Master of Orion for Computer Gaming World. Since then, others have adopted the term to describe games of similar scope and design. 4X games are noted for their deep, complex gameplay. Emphasis is placed upon economic and technological development, as well as a range of non-military routes to supremacy. Games can take a long time to complete since the amount of micromanagement needed to sustain an empire scales as the empire grows. 4X games are sometimes criticized for becoming tedious for these reasons, and several games have attempted to address these concerns by limiting micromanagement with varying degrees of success. The earliest 4X games borrowed ideas from board games and 1970s text-based computer games. The first 4X games were turn-based, but real-time 4X games are not uncommon. Many 4X games were published in the mid-1990s, but were later outsold by other types of strategy games. Sid Meier's Civilization is an important example from this formative era, and popularized the
    0.00
    0 votes
    212
    American football

    American football

    • Computer games: 10-Yard Fight
    American football, known in the United States simply as football, is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone by running with it or throwing it to a teammate. Points can be scored by carrying the ball over the opponent's goal line, catching a pass thrown over that goal line, kicking the ball through the opponent's goal posts or tackling an opposing ball carrier in his own end zone. In the United States, the major forms are high school football, college football and professional football. Each of these are played under slightly different rules. High school football is governed by the National Federation of State High School Associations and college football by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The highest level league for professional football is the National Football League. American football is closely related to Canadian football but with some differences in rules and the field. Both sports can be traced to early versions of association football and rugby football. The history of football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football. Both games
    0.00
    0 votes
    213
    0.00
    0 votes
    214
    Bowling

    Bowling

    • Computer games: Nester's Funky Bowling
    Bowling refers to a series of sports or leisure activities in which a player rolls or throws a bowling ball. In indoor bowls, the target is usually to knock over pins. In outdoor variations, the aim is usually to get the ball as close to a target ball as possible. The indoor version of bowling is often played on a flat wooden or other synthetic surface, while outdoor bowling the surface may be grass, gravel or a synthetic surface. The most common types of indoor bowling include ten-pin, nine-pin, candlepin, duckpin and five-pin bowling, while in outdoor bowling, bowls, pétanque and boules are popular. There are many forms of bowling, with one of the most recent being ten-pin bowling, also known as the norm. The earliest most primitive forms of bowling can be dated back to Ancient Egypt and the Roman Empire. Indeed, about 2,000 years ago a similar game evolved between Roman legionaries: it entailed tossing stone objects as close as possible to other stone objects (this game became popular with Roman soldiers, and eventually evolved into Italian Bocce, or outdoor bowling). The first standardized rules for pin were established in New York City, on September 9, 1895. Today, bowling is
    0.00
    0 votes
    215
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    216
    Combat

    Combat

    • Computer games: Naruto: Rise of a Ninja
    Combat, or fighting, is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, or establish dominance over the opposition, or to kill the opposition, or drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed. The term combat (French for fight) typically refers to armed conflict between military forces in warfare, whereas the more general term "fighting" can refer to any violent conflict between individuals or nations. Combat violence can be unilateral, whereas fighting implies at least a defensive reaction. However, the terms are often used synonymously along with the term "Battle Ready". A large-scale fight is known as a battle. Combat may take place under a specific set of rules or be unregulated. Examples of rules include the Geneva Conventions (covering the treatment of soldiers in war), medieval Chivalry, the Marquess of Queensberry rules (covering boxing) and several forms of combat sports. Combat in war fare involves two or more opposing military organizations, usually fighting for nations at war (although guerrilla warfare and suppression of insurgencies can fall outside this definition). Warfare falls under the laws of war, which govern its purposes and
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    217

    Console role-playing game

    • Computer games: Final Fantasy IV
    A console role-playing game is a video game genre that has its origin rooted in video game consoles and includes game mechanics and, frequently, settings derived from those of traditional role-playing games. The term also applies to role-playing video games on handheld video game systems, such as the Nintendo DS and PSP. For historical, cultural, and hardware-related reasons, console role-playing games have evolved a very different set of features that mark them distinct from other electronic RPGs. Because the vast majority of CRPGs originate in Eastern Asia, particularly Japan, CRPGs are often referred to as Japanese role-playing games or JRPGs (although there are non-Japanese console role-playing games in existence). A role-playing game on a computer may be marked as a "console-style RPG" by the gaming community if its gameplay and design philosophy is similar to that of most console role-playing games. Examples of such games that actively pursued an Eastern style of RPGs include Anachronox and Septerra Core. The categorization between console and computer role-playing games is sometimes ambiguous for cross-platform games such as the Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic series,
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    218

    Hack and slash

    • Computer games: Phantasy Star Online Episode I & II
    Hack and slash or hack and slay, abbreviated H&S or HnS, refers to a type of gameplay that emphasizes combat. "Hack and slash" was originally used to describe a play style in tabletop role-playing games, carrying over from there to MUDs, MMORPGs, and video games in general. In console- and arcade-style video games, the usage specifically implies a focus on combat with hand-to-hand weapons. In other contexts it is more general, and an archer or unarmed martial artist may participate as fully in a hack and slash game, or be as hack-and-slash oriented as an individual, as an armed melee fighter. Both variations of the term are often written in hyphenated form and with the conjunction contracted, e.g. hack-and-slash, hack 'n' slay. Hack and slash has its roots in "pen and paper" RPGs such as Dungeons & Dragons, denoting campaigns of violence with no other plot elements or significant goal. The term itself dates at least as far back as 1980, as shown in a Dragon magazine article by Jean Wells and Kim Mohan which includes the following statement: "There is great potential for more than hacking and slashing in D&D or AD&D; there is the possibility of intrigue, mystery and romance
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    219
    Ice Hockey

    Ice Hockey

    • Computer games: NHL Eastside Hockey Manager 2007
    Ice hockey is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. In countries where the sport is very popular it is known simply as "hockey"; however, the name ice hockey is used in countries where the word hockey is generally reserved for another form of the sport, such as field hockey or street hockey. The game is played between two teams with six players on the ice. A team usually consists of four lines of three forwards, three pairs of defencemen, and two goalies. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Each team has a goaltender who tries to stop the puck from going into the goal or "net." A fast-paced physical sport, hockey is most popular in areas of North America (particularly in Canada and Northern/Northeastern USA) and Europe that are sufficiently cold for natural reliable seasonal ice cover. With the advent of indoor artificial ice rinks hockey has become a year-round pastime in some areas. In North America, the National Hockey League (NHL) is the highest level for men, and the most popular. The Canadian Women's
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    220

    Minigame

    • Computer games: Space Dude
    A minigame (also spelled mini-game or mini game and sometimes called a subgame) is a short video game often contained within another video game. A minigame is always smaller or more simplistic than the game in which it is contained. Minigames are sometimes also offered separately for free to promote the main game. For instance, the Pokémon Stadium minigames involve merely pressing a few buttons at specific intervals, with little complexity. Minigames occur variously as gameplay features, or as time fillers while levels are loading, or as Easter eggs. In the latter case, they are often called "secret games". In the former case, the successful completion of such minigames may or may not be required to finish the encompassing game. They are often included as extra content to use once the main storyline is completed. The Legend of Zelda games have many minigames in each game, often having prizes such as Pieces of Heart (increasing Link's health), Rupees (the games' currency), and upgrades (quiver, wallet, etc.) The Final Fantasy series is notable for featuring minigames in every entry of the series, ever since the first Final Fantasy (1987), in which a sliding puzzle in the form of an
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    221
    Online text-based role-playing game

    Online text-based role-playing game

    • Computer games: Prophecy of Victo
    An online text-based role playing game is a role-playing game played online using a solely text-based interface. Online text-based role playing games date to 1978, with the creation of MUD1, which began the MUD heritage that culminates in today's MMORPGs. Some online-text based role playing games are video games, but some are organized and played entirely by humans through text-based communication. Over the years, games have used TELNET, internet forums, IRC, email and social networking websites as their media. There are varied genres of online text-based roleplaying, including fantasy, drama, horror, anime, science fiction, and media-based fan role-play. Role-playing games based on popular media (for example, the Harry Potter series) are common, and the players involved tend to overlap with the relevant fandoms. Precursor to the now more popular MMORPGs of today are the branch of text-based games known as MUD, MOO, MUCK, MUSH et al., a broad family of server software tracing their origins back to MUD1 and being used to implement a variety of games and other services. Many of these platforms implement Turing-complete programming languages and can be used for any purpose, but
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    222

    Otome game

    • Computer games: Harukanaru Toki no Naka de 3
    An otome game (乙女ゲーム, otome gēmu, lit. "maiden game") is a video game that is targeted towards a female market, where one of the main goals, besides the plot goal, is to develop a romantic relationship between the female player character and one of several male characters. This genre is most established in Japan, and is generally made up of visual novels and simulation games (particularly dating sims). As of 2012, the most representative otome game title available in English is Hakuoki: Demon of the Fleeting Blossom (Hakuouki: Shinsengumi Kitan) for the PSP. This genre is also referred to as G×B games by western fans (girl player pursuing boy characters). The first otome game is generally acknowledged to be Angelique, released in 1994 by Koei in Japan for the Super Famicom, and created by an all-female team. The game was originally targeted to pre-teen and younger teenage girls, but became unexpectedly popular with older teenagers and women in their 20s. Angelique is credited with "set[ing] up the specifics and conventions of women’s games: a focus on romance, easy controls and utilizing other multimedia." In 2002, Konami released its very successful Tokimeki Memorial Girl's Side,
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    223

    Point-and-click

    • Computer games: Diaspora
    Point and click are the actions of a computer user moving a pointer to a certain location on a screen (pointing) and then pressing a button on a mouse, usually the left button (click), or other pointing device. An example of point and click is in hypermedia, where users click on hyperlinks to navigate from document to document. Point and click can be used with any number of input devices varying from mouses, touch pads, keyboards, joysticks, scroll buttons, and roller balls. User interfaces, for example graphical user interfaces, are sometimes described as "point-and-click interfaces", often to suggest that they are very easy to use, requiring that the user simply point to indicate their wishes. These interfaces are sometimes referred to condescendingly (e.g., by Unix users) as "click-and-drool interfaces". The use of this phrase to describe software implies that the interface can be controlled solely through the mouse, with little or no input from the keyboard, as with many graphical user interfaces. In some systems, such as Internet Explorer, moving the pointer over a link (or other GUI control) and waiting for a split-second can cause a tooltip to be displayed. A single click or
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    224

    Programming game

    • Computer games: Robot Battle
    A programming game is a computer game where the player has no direct influence on the course of the game. Instead, a computer program or script is written in some domain-specific programming language in order to control the actions of the characters (usually robots, tanks or bacteria, which seek to destroy each other). Most programming games can be considered environments of digital organisms, related to artificial life simulations. A few programming games of note include AI Wars, Core War, and RoboWar. There are different tournaments and leagues for the programming games where the characters can compete with each other. Usually a script is optimized for a special strategy. Programming games may be derived from almost any other type of game. For example, the World Computer Chess Championship consists of matches between programs written for the abstract strategy game of chess. Also, some non-computer games borrow elements of programming games; in the board game RoboRally, players arrange cards to "program" their pieces with a sequence of moves, causing moves to be made without the knowledge of one's opponents' preceding moves.
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    225

    Psychological thriller

    • Computer games: Alan Wake
    Psychological thriller is a specific sub-genre of the broad ranged thriller with heavy focus on the unstable emotional states of characters, in combination with mystery and thriller. However, it often incorporates elements from the mystery and drama genre, along with the typical traits of the thriller genre. In addition to drama and mystery, many psychological thrillers contain elements of, and often overlap with, the horror genre, particularly psychological horror. Many psychological thrillers have emerged over the past years, all in various media (film, literature, radio, etc.). Despite these very different forms of representation, general trends have appeared throughout the narratives. Some of these consistent themes include: These major subgenres help develop the plot of a psychological thriller film, shaping the characters' personalities. e.g. usually character will find the true identity/the devil side of himself/herself in psychological thriller, in which it is one of the archetypes—the loss of innocence.
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    226

    Puzzle game

    • Computer games: Three Cards to Midnight
    Puzzle video games are a genre of video games that emphasize puzzle solving. The types of puzzles to be solved can test many problem solving skills including logic, strategy, pattern recognition, sequence solving, and word completion. Puzzle games focus on logical and conceptual challenges, although occasionally the games add time-pressure or other action-elements. Although many action games and adventure games involve puzzles such as obtaining inaccessible objects, a true puzzle game focuses on puzzle solving as the primary gameplay activity. Games usually involve shapes, colors, or symbols, and the player must directly or indirectly manipulate them into a specific pattern. Rather than presenting a random collection of puzzles to solve, puzzle games typically offer a series of related puzzles that are a variation on a single theme. This theme could involve pattern recognition, logic, or understanding a process. These games usually have a simple set of rules, where players manipulate game pieces on a grid, network or other interaction space. Players must unravel clues in order to achieve some of victory condition, which will then allow them to advance to the next level. Completing
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    227

    Real-time tactics

    • Computer games: Full Spectrum Warrior: Ten Hammers
    Real-time tactics or RTT is a subgenre of tactical wargames played in real-time simulating the considerations and circumstances of operational warfare and military tactics. It is differentiated from real-time strategy gameplay by the lack of resource micromanagement and base or unit building, as well as the greater importance of individual units and a focus on complex battlefield tactics. Typical real-time strategy titles encourage the player to focus on logistics and production as much as or more than combat, whereas real-time tactics games commonly do not feature resource-gathering, production, base-building or economic management, instead focusing on tactical and operational aspects of warfare such as unit formations or the exploitation of terrain for tactical advantage. Real-time tactical gameplay is also characterized by the expectation of players to complete their tasks using only the combat forces provided to them, and usually by the provision of a realistic (or at least believable) representation of military tactics and operations. This contrasts with other current strategy game genres. For instance, in large-scale turn-based strategy games battles are generally abstracted
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    228
    Simulation video game

    Simulation video game

    • Computer games: Battlezone
    A simulation video game describes a diverse super-category of video games, generally designed to closely simulate aspects of a real or fictional reality. Construction and management simulation (CMS) is a type of simulation game in which players build, expand or manage fictional communities or projects with limited resources. Strategy games sometimes incorporate CMS aspects into their game economy, as players must manage resources while expanding their project. But pure CMS games differ from strategy games in that "the player's goal is not to defeat an enemy, but to build something within the context of an ongoing process." Games in this category are sometimes also called "management games". Life simulation games (or artificial life games) is a sub-genre of simulation video games in which the player lives or controls one or more artificial lifeforms. A life simulation game can revolve around "individuals and relationships, or it could be a simulation of an ecosystem". A sports game is a video game that simulates the playing of traditional sports. Most sports have been recreated with a game, including team sports, athletics and extreme sports. Some games emphasize actually playing
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    229

    Turn-based tactics

    • Computer games: Advance Wars 2: Black Hole Rising
    Turn-based tactics (TBT), or tactical turn-based (TTB), is a computer and video game genre of strategy video games that through stop-action simulates the considerations and circumstances of operational warfare and military tactics in generally small-scale confrontations as opposed to more strategic considerations of turn-based strategy (TBS) games. Turn-based tactical gameplay is characterized by the expectation of players to complete their tasks using only the combat forces provided to them, and usually by the provision of a realistic (or at least believable) representation of military tactics and operations. The gameplay of turn-based tactics games is the stop-action counterpart to that found in the real-time tactics genre, and as such contrasts with other current wargame genres. For instance, in large-scale turn-based strategy games battles are generally abstracted and the gameplay close to that of related board games, and real-time strategy games de-emphasize realism and focus on the collection and conversion of resources into production capacities which manufacture combat units thereafter used in generally highly stylised confrontations. In contrast, turn-based tactics games'
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    230

    Virtual world

    • Computer games: Rise: The Vieneo Province
    A virtual world is an online community that takes the form of a computer-based simulated environment through which users can interact with one another and use and create objects. The term has become largely synonymous with interactive 3D virtual environments, where the users take the form of avatars visible to others. These avatars usually appear as textual, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional representations, although other forms are possible (auditory and touch sensations for example). In general, virtual worlds allow for multiple users. The computer accesses a computer-simulated world and presents perceptual stimuli to the user, who in turn can manipulate elements of the modeled world and thus experience a degree of telepresence. Such modeled worlds and their rules may draw from the reality or fantasy worlds. Example rules are gravity, topography, locomotion, real-time actions, and communication. Communication between users can range from text, graphical icons, visual gesture, sound, and rarely, forms using touch, voice command, and balance senses. Massively multiplayer online games depict a wide range of worlds, including those based on fantasy, science fiction, the real
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    231
    Winter sport

    Winter sport

    • Computer games: Torino 2006
    A winter sport is a sport which is played on snow or ice. Most such sports are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditionally such sports were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and ice allow more flexibility. Common individual sports include cross-country skiing, Alpine skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating, luge, skeleton, bobsleigh and snowmobiling. Common team sports include ice hockey, curling and bandy. Winter sports often have their own multi-sport tournaments, such as the Winter Olympic Games. The term 'Winter sports' refers to sport that take place on snow and ice. Keen competition has grown up around them, and the Winter Olympics are held every four years. There are two main types of skiing: A new type of skiing, freestyle, is about performance rather than speed. In sled racing, riders hurtle down a special runs. Skating includes figure, ice hockey, and racing. Note: an asterisk indicates that a particular sport is included in the Winter Olympic Games, as of the 2010 Vancouver Olympics. Sports that use sleds going down ice tracks or pulled by something: Some 'sports' are competed (or simply enjoyed) on a
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    232
    Wrestling

    Wrestling

    • Computer games: Mat Mania
    Wrestling is a form of combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two (occasionally more) competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems. The term wrestling is attested in late Old English, as wræstlunge (glossing palestram). Wrestling is one of the oldest forms of combat with references to it as early as the Iliad, in which Homer recounts the Trojan War in the 13th or 12th century BC. The origins of wrestling can be traced back 15,000 years through cave drawings in France. Babylonian and Egyptian relief's show wrestlers using most of the holds known to the present-day sport. In ancient Greece, wrestling occupied a prominent place in legend and literature; wrestling competition, brutal in many aspects, was the number one sport of the Olympic Games. The ancient Romans borrowed
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