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Best Vein of All Time

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    1
    Inferior sagittal sinus

    Inferior sagittal sinus

    The inferior sagittal sinus (also known as inferior longitudinal sinus), within the human head, is an area beneath the brain which allows blood to drain outwards posteriorly from the center of the head. It drains (from the center of the brain) to the straight sinus (at the back of the head), which connects to the transverse sinuses. See diagram (at right): labeled in the brain as "SIN. SAGITTALIS INF." (for Latin: sinus sagittalis inferior). The inferior sagittal sinus courses along the inferior border of the falx cerebri, superior to the corpus callosum. It receives blood from the deep and medial aspects of the cerebral hemispheres and drains into the straight sinus.
    8.60
    5 votes
    2
    Posterior tibial vein

    Posterior tibial vein

    In anatomy, the posterior tibial vein of the lower limb carries blood from the posterior compartment and plantar surface of the foot to the popliteal vein which it forms when it joins with the anterior tibial vein. Like most deep veins, the posterior tibial vein is accompanied by an artery of the same name, the posterior tibial artery, along its course.
    8.00
    5 votes
    3
    Supreme intercostal vein

    Supreme intercostal vein

    The supreme intercostal vein (highest intercostal vein) is a paired vein that drains the first intercostal space on its corresponding side. It usually drains into the brachiocephalic vein. It can also drain into the superior intercostal vein, or the vertebral vein of its corresponding side. This vein does not have valves, this is an important point when it comes to spread of cancerous secondaries.
    8.00
    5 votes
    4
    Hepatic vein

    Hepatic vein

    In human anatomy, the hepatic veins are the blood vessels that drain de-oxygenated blood from the liver and blood cleaned by the liver (from the stomach, pancreas, small intestine and colon) into the inferior vena cava. They arise from the substance of the liver, more specifically the central vein of the liver lobule. None of the hepatic veins has valves. They can be differentiated into two groups, the upper group and lower group. Occlusion of the hepatic veins is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome.
    7.60
    5 votes
    5
    Left marginal vein

    Left marginal vein

    The great cardiac vein receives tributaries from the left atrium and from both ventricles: one, the left marginal vein, is of considerable size, and ascends along the left margin of the heart. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.50
    4 votes
    6
    Pancreaticoduodenal veins

    Pancreaticoduodenal veins

    The pancreaticoduodenal veins accompany their corresponding arteries: the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery ; the lower of the two frequently joins the right gastroepiploic vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.00
    6 votes
    7
    Brachial veins

    Brachial veins

    In human anatomy, the brachial veins are venae comitantes of the brachial artery in the arm proper. Because they are deep to muscle, they are considered deep veins. Their course is that of the brachial artery (in reverse): they begin where radial veins and ulnar veins join (corresponding to the bifurcation of the brachial artery). They end at the inferior border of the teres major muscle. At this point, the brachial veins join the basilic vein to form the axillary vein. The brachial veins also have small tributaries that drain the muscles of the upper arm, such as biceps brachii muscle and triceps brachii muscle.
    5.14
    7 votes
    8
    Cavernous sinus

    Cavernous sinus

    The cavernous sinus (or lateral sellar compartment), within the human head, is a large collection of thin-walled veins creating a cavity bordered by the temporal bone of the skull and the sphenoid bone, lateral to the sella turcica. The sinus may be joined by several anastomoses across the midline. The cavernous sinus receives blood via the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins through the superior orbital fissure and from superficial cortical veins, and is connected to the basilar plexus of veins posteriorly. The internal carotid artery (carotid siphon), and cranial nerves III, IV, V (branches V1 and V2) and VI all pass through this blood filled space. Infection from the face may reach the cavernous sinus through its many anastomotic connections, with severe consequences. The cavernous sinus drains by two channels, the superior and inferior petrosal sinuses, ultimately into the internal jugular vein via the sigmoid sinus. Each cavernous sinus (one for each hemisphere of the brain) contains the following: Unlike the nerves listed above, the abducens nerve (CN VI) does not run within the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus; rather, it runs through the middle of the sinus alongside
    7.00
    5 votes
    9
    Posterior facial vein

    Posterior facial vein

    The retromandibular vein (temporomaxillary vein, posterior facial vein), formed by the union of the superficial temporal and maxillary veins, descends in the substance of the parotid gland, superficial to the external carotid artery but beneath the facial nerve, between the ramus of the mandible and the sternocleidomastoideus muscle. It divides into two branches: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    5 votes
    10
    Veins of the medulla spinalis

    Veins of the medulla spinalis

    The veins of the medulla spinalis (spinal veins, veins of the spinal cord) are situated in the pia mater and form a minute, tortuous, venous plexus. They emerge chiefly from the median fissures of the medulla spinalis and are largest in the lumbar region. In this plexus there are: They end in the intervertebral veins. Near the base of the skull they unite, and form two or three small trunks, which communicate with the vertebral veins, and then end in the inferior cerebellar veins, or in the inferior petrosal sinuses. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.25
    4 votes
    11
    Basal vein

    Basal vein

    The basal vein is formed at the anterior perforated substance by the union of The basal vein passes backward around the cerebral peduncle, and ends in the internal cerebral vein (vein of Galen); it receives tributaries from the interpeduncular fossa, the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle, the hippocampal gyrus, and the mid-brain. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.83
    6 votes
    12
    Superior petrosal sinus

    Superior petrosal sinus

    The superior petrosal sinus is a venous structure located beneath the brain. It receives blood from the cavernous sinus and passes backward and laterally to drain into the transverse sinus. The sinus runs in the attached margin of the tentorium cerebelli, in a groove in the petrous part of the temporal bone formed by the sinus itself - the superior petrosal sulcus. The sinus receives some cerebellar and inferior cerebral veins, and veins from the tympanic cavity.
    6.80
    5 votes
    13
    External iliac vein

    External iliac vein

    The external iliac veins are large veins that connect the femoral veins to the common iliac veins. Their origin is at the inferior margin of the inguinal ligaments and they terminate when they join the internal iliac veins (to form the common iliac veins). Both external iliac veins are accompanied along their course by external iliac arteries. The inferior epigastric veins drain into the external iliac veins.
    8.00
    4 votes
    14
    Inferior thyroid veins

    Inferior thyroid veins

    The inferior thyroid veins two, frequently three or four, in number, arise in the venous plexus on the thyroid gland, communicating with the middle and superior thyroid veins. They form a plexus in front of the trachea, behind the Sternothyreoidei. From this plexus, a left vein descends and joins the left brachiocephalic vein, and a right vein passes obliquely downward and to the right across the brachiocephalic artery to open into the right brachiocephalic vein, just at its junction with the superior vena cava; sometimes the right and left veins open by a common trunk in the latter situation. These veins receive esophageal tracheal, and inferior laryngeal veins, and are provided with valves at their terminations in the brachiocephalic veins. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    4 votes
    15
    Superior vena cava

    Superior vena cava

    The superior vena cava (also known as the cava or cva) is a large diameter, yet short, vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium. It is located in the anterior right superior mediastinum. It is formed by the left and right brachiocephalic veins (also referred to as the innominate veins), which also receive blood from the upper limbs, eyes and neck, behind the lower border of the first right costal cartilage. The azygos vein joins it just before it enters the right atrium, at the upper right front portion of the heart. It is also known as the cranial vena cava in animals. No valve divides the superior vena cava from the right atrium. As a result, the (right) atrial and (right) ventricular contractions are conducted up into the internal jugular vein and, through the sternocleidomastoid muscle, can be seen as the jugular venous pressure. In tricuspid valve regurgitation, these pulsations are very strong.
    6.60
    5 votes
    16
    Pharyngeal veins

    Pharyngeal veins

    The pharyngeal veins begin in the pharyngeal plexus on the outer surface of the pharynx, and, after receiving some posterior meningeal veins and the vein of the pterygoid canal, end in the internal jugular. They occasionally open into the facial, lingual, or superior thyroid vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
    7.75
    4 votes
    17

    Thoracoepigastric vein

    A vein, named the thoracoepigastric, runs along the lateral aspect of the trunk between the superficial epigastric vein below and the lateral thoracic vein above and establishes an important communication between the femoral vein and axillary vein. This is an especially important vein when the inferior vena cava (IVC) becomes obstructed, by providing a means of collateral venous return. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    3 votes
    18
    Superior rectal vein

    Superior rectal vein

    The inferior mesenteric vein begins in the rectum as the superior rectal vein (superior hemorrhoidal vein), which has its origin in the hemorrhoidal plexus, and through this plexus communicates with the middle and inferior hemorrhoidal veins. The superior hemorrhoidal vein leaves the lesser pelvis and crosses the left common iliac vessels with the superior hemorrhoidal artery, and is continued upward as the inferior mesenteric vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    4 votes
    19

    Plantar digital veins

    The plantar digital veins arise from plexuses on the plantar surfaces of the digits, and, after sending intercapitular veins to join the dorsal digital veins, unite to form four metatarsal veins. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.25
    4 votes
    20
    Short gastric veins

    Short gastric veins

    The short gastric veins, four or five in number, drain the fundus and left part of the greater curvature of the stomach, and pass between the two layers of the gastrolienal ligament to end in the lienal vein or in one of its large tributaries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.25
    4 votes
    21
    Occipital sinus

    Occipital sinus

    The occipital sinus is the smallest of the cranial sinuses. It is situated in the attached margin of the falx cerebelli, and is generally single, but occasionally there are two. It commences around the margin of the foramen magnum by several small venous channels, one of which joins the terminal part of the transverse sinus; it communicates with the posterior internal vertebral venous plexuses and ends in the confluence of the sinuses. Occipital sinuses were discovered by Guichard Joseph Duverney. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.67
    3 votes
    22
    Inferior cerebral veins

    Inferior cerebral veins

    The inferior cerebral veins, of small size, drain the under surfaces of the hemispheres. Those on the orbital surface of the frontal lobe join the superior cerebral veins, and through these open into the superior sagittal sinus. Those of the temporal lobe anastomose with the middle cerebral and basal veins, and join the cavernous, sphenoparietal, and superior petrosal sinuses. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    4 votes
    23
    Median cubital vein

    Median cubital vein

    In human anatomy, the median cubital vein (or median basilic vein) is a superficial vein of the upper limb. It connects the basilic and cephalic vein and is often used for venipuncture (taking blood). It lies in the cubital fossa superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis. There exists a fair amount of variation of the median cubital vein. More commonly the vein forms an H-pattern with the cephalic and basilic veins making up the sides. Other forms include an M-pattern, where the vein branches to the cephalic and basilic veins.
    7.00
    4 votes
    24
    Profunda femoris vein

    Profunda femoris vein

    Profunda femoris vein (or deep femoral vein) is a large deep vein in the thigh. It receives blood from the inner thigh and proceeds superiorly and medially running alongside the profunda femoris artery to join with the femoral vein approximately at the level of the inferior-most portion of the ischial tuberosity.
    7.00
    4 votes
    25
    Common iliac vein

    Common iliac vein

    In human anatomy, the common iliac veins are formed by the external iliac veins and internal iliac veins. The left and right common iliac veins come together in the abdomen at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, forming the inferior vena cava. They drain blood from the pelvis and lower limbs. Both common iliac veins are accompanied along their course by common iliac arteries.
    10.00
    2 votes
    26
    Hemorrhoidal plexus

    Hemorrhoidal plexus

    The hemorrhoidal plexus (or rectal venous plexus) surrounds the rectum, and communicates in front with the vesical venous plexus in the male, and the uterovaginal plexus in the female. A free communication between the portal and systemic venous systems is established through the hemorrhoidal plexus. It consists of two parts, an internal in the submucosa, and an external outside the muscular coat. The internal plexus presents a series of dilated pouches which are arranged in a circle around the tube, immediately above the anal orifice, and are connected by transverse branches. This internal plexus is also known in some medical communities as the Irving plexus. The veins of the hemorrhoidal plexus are contained in very loose connective tissue, so that they get less support from surrounding structures than most other veins, and are less capable of resisting increased blood-pressure. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.33
    3 votes
    27
    Anterior tibial vein

    Anterior tibial vein

    In human anatomy, the anterior tibial vein of the lower limb carries blood from the anterior compartment of the leg to the popliteal vein which is formed when it joins with the posterior tibial vein. Like most deep veins, the anterior tibial vein is accompanied by an artery of the same name, the anterior tibial artery, along its course.
    6.75
    4 votes
    28
    Accessory cephalic vein

    Accessory cephalic vein

    The accessory cephalic vein is a variable vein that passes along the radial border of the forearm to join the cephalic vein near the elbow. In some cases the accessory cephalic springs from the cephalic above the wrist and joins it again higher up. A large oblique branch frequently connects the basilic and cephalic veins on the back of the forearm. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    3 votes
    29
    Popliteal vein

    Popliteal vein

    The popliteal vein is located behind the knee. Its course runs alongside the popliteal artery, but carries the blood from the knee joint and muscles in the thigh and calf back to the heart. Its origin is defined by the junction of the posterior tibial vein and anterior tibial vein. It drains the peroneal vein before reaching the knee joint and turns into the femoral vein when leaving the adductor canal (also known as Hunter's canal). The popliteal artery extends from the femoral artery behind the popliteal fossa which is the space behind the knee.
    8.00
    3 votes
    30
    Testicular vein

    Testicular vein

    The testicular vein (or spermatic vein), the male gonadal vein, carries deoxygenated blood from its corresponding testis to the inferior vena cava or one of its tributaries. It is the male equivalent of the ovarian vein, and is the venous counterpart of the testicular artery. It is a paired vein, with one supplying each testis: The veins emerge from the back of the testis, and receive tributaries from the epididymis; they unite and form a convoluted plexus, called the pampiniform plexus, which constitutes the greater mass of the spermatic cord; the vessels composing this plexus are very numerous, and ascend along the cord, in front of the ductus deferens. Below the subcutaneous inguinal ring, they unite to form three or four veins, which pass along the inguinal canal, and, entering the abdomen through the abdominal inguinal ring, coalesce to form two veins, which ascend on the Psoas major, behind the peritoneum, lying one on either side of the internal spermatic artery. These unite to form a single vein, which opens, on the right side, into the inferior vena cava (at an acute angle), on the left side into the left renal vein (at a right angle). The spermatic veins are provided with
    8.00
    3 votes
    31
    Vein of Galen

    Vein of Galen

    The great cerebral vein is one of the large blood vessels in the skull draining the cerebrum (brain). It is also known as the "vein of Galen" (VG), named for its discoverer, the Greek physician Galen. However, it is not the only vein with this eponym. The great cerebral vein of Galen is considered a deep/internal cerebral vein. The internal cerebral veins are formed by the union of the thalamostriate vein and the choroid vein at the interventricular foramen. The deep/internal group of cerebral veins can be seen on the superior surfaces of the caudate nuclei and thalami just under the corpus callosum. The veins at the anterior poles of the thalami merge posterior to the pineal gland to form the Great Cerebral Vein of Galen. Most of the blood in the deep cerebral veins collects into the great cerebral vein. This comes from the inferior side of the posterior end of the corpus callosum and empties into the straight sinus located in the midline of the tentorium. Unlike the arteries, the cerebral veins have anastomoses. With extensive anastomoses, a slow occlusion of a venous channel rarely produces more than transitory effects. There are both superficial/external and deep/internal
    8.00
    3 votes
    32

    Common digital veins

    On the dorsum of the foot the dorsal digital veins receive, in the clefts between the toes, the intercapitular veins from the plantar cutaneous venous arch and join to form short common digital veins which unite across the distal ends of the metatarsal bones in a dorsal venous arch. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.50
    2 votes
    33
    Splenic vein

    Splenic vein

    In anatomy, the splenic vein (in the past called the lienal vein) is the blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen. It joins with the superior mesenteric vein, to form the hepatic portal vein and follows a course superior to the pancreas, alongside of the similarly named artery, the splenic artery. Unlike the splenic artery, the splenic vein is intraperitoneal as it courses along the superior border of the body of the pancreas, whereas the splenic artery is retroperitoneal. It collects branches from the stomach and pancreas and most notably from the large intestine, which is drained by the superior mesenteric vein and joins with splenic vein shortly before it forms the portal vein.
    6.50
    4 votes
    34
    Anterior cardiac veins

    Anterior cardiac veins

    The anterior cardiac veins (or anterior veins of right ventricle), comprising three or four small vessels which collect blood from the front of the right ventricle and open into the right atrium; the right marginal vein frequently opens into the right atrium, and is therefore sometimes regarded as belonging to this group. Unlike most cardiac veins, it does not end in the coronary sinus. Instead, these veins drain directly into the anterior wall of the right atrium.
    7.67
    3 votes
    35
    Great cardiac vein

    Great cardiac vein

    The Great Cardiac Vein (left coronary vein) begins at the apex of the heart and ascends along the anterior longitudinal sulcus to the base of the ventricles. It then curves to the left in the coronary sulcus, and reaching the back of the heart, opens into the left extremity of the coronary sinus. It receives tributaries from the left atrium and from both ventricles: one, the left marginal vein, is of considerable size, and ascends along the left margin of the heart. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.67
    3 votes
    36
    Inferior ophthalmic vein

    Inferior ophthalmic vein

    The inferior ophthalmic vein begins in a venous net-work at the forepart of the floor and medial wall of the orbit; it receives some vorticose veins and other veins from the Rectus inferior, Obliquus inferior, lacrimal sac and eyelids, runs backward in the lower part of the orbit and divides into two branches. One of these passes through the inferior orbital fissure and joins the pterygoid venous plexus, while the other enters the cranium through the superior orbital fissure and ends in the cavernous sinus, either by a separate opening, or more frequently in common with the superior ophthalmic vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.67
    3 votes
    37
    Nasofrontal vein

    Nasofrontal vein

    The nasofrontal vein is a vein in the eye which drains to the superior ophthalmic vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
    7.67
    3 votes
    38

    Petrosquamous sinus

    The petrosquamous sinus, when present, runs backward along the junction of the squama and petrous portion of the temporal, and opens into the transverse sinus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    2 votes
    39
    Basilar plexus

    Basilar plexus

    The basilar plexus (transverse or basilar sinus) consists of several interlacing venous channels between the layers of the dura mater over the basilar part of the occipital bone (the clivus), and serves to connect the two inferior petrosal sinuses. It communicates with the anterior vertebral venous plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.25
    4 votes
    40
    Basilic vein

    Basilic vein

    In human anatomy, the basilic vein is a large superficial vein of the upper limb that helps drain parts of hand and forearm. It originates on the medial (ulnar) side of the dorsal venous network of the hand, and it travels up the base of the forearm and arm. Most of its course is superficial; it generally travels in the subcutaneous fat and other fasciae that lie superficial to the muscles of the upper extremity. Because of this, it is usually visible through the skin. Near the region anterior to the cubital fossa, in the bend of the elbow joint, the basilic vein usually connects with the other large superficial vein of the upper extremity, the cephalic vein, via the median cubital vein. The layout of superficial veins in the forearm is highly variable from person to person, and there are generally a variety of other unnamed superficial veins that the basilic vein communicates with. About halfway up the arm proper (the part between the shoulder and elbow), the basilic vein typically goes deep, travelling under the muscles. There, around the lower border of the teres major muscle, the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral veins feed into it, just before it joins the brachial
    6.25
    4 votes
    41

    Dorsal veins of the penis

    In human anatomy, dorsal veins of the penis can refer to the superficial dorsal vein of the penis or the deep dorsal vein of the penis. The superficial dorsal vein of the penis drains the prepuce and skin of the penis, and, running backward in the subcutaneous tissue, inclines to the right or left, and opens into the corresponding superficial external pudendal vein, a tributary of the great saphenous vein. In contrast to the deep dorsal vein, it lies outside Buck's fascia. It is possible for the vein to rupture, which presents in a manner similar to penile fracture. The deep dorsal vein of the penis lies beneath the deep fascia of the penis; it receives the blood from the glans penis and corpora cavernosa penis and courses backward in the middle line between the dorsal arteries; near the root of the penis it passes between the two parts of the suspensory ligament and then through an aperture between the arcuate pubic ligament and the transverse ligament of the pelvis, and divides into two branches, which enter the pudendal plexus. The deep vein also communicates below the pubic symphysis with the internal pudendal vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public
    6.25
    4 votes
    42
    Suprarenal veins

    Suprarenal veins

    The Suprarenal veins are two in number: They receive blood from the adrenal glands and will sometimes form anastomoses with the inferior phrenic veins. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.25
    4 votes
    43
    Anterior jugular vein

    Anterior jugular vein

    The anterior jugular vein begins near the hyoid bone by the confluence of several superficial veins from the submaxillary region. It descends between the median line and the anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, and, at the lower part of the neck, passes beneath that muscle to open into the termination of the external jugular, or, in some instances, into the subclavian vein. It varies considerably in size, bearing usually an inverse proportion to the external jugular; most frequently there are two anterior jugulars, a right and left; but sometimes only one. Its tributaries are some laryngeal veins, and occasionally a small thyroid vein. Just above the sternum the two anterior jugular veins communicate by a transverse trunk, the venous jugular arch, which receive tributaries from the inferior thyroid veins; each also communicates with the internal jugular. There are no valves in this vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
    7.33
    3 votes
    44
    Diploic veins

    Diploic veins

    The diploic veins are found in the skull, and drain the diploic space. This is found in the bones of the vault of the skull, and is the marrow-containing area of cancellous bone between the inner and outer layers of compact bone. The diploic veins drain this area into the dural venous sinuses. They are usually four in number: one frontal, two temporal, and one occipital.
    7.33
    3 votes
    45
    Median antebrachial vein

    Median antebrachial vein

    The median antebrachial vein drains the venous plexus on the volar surface of the hand. It ascends on the ulnar side of the front of the forearm and ends in the basilic vein or in the vena mediana cubiti; in a small proportion of cases it divides into two branches, one of which joins the basilic, the other the cephalic, below the elbow. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.33
    3 votes
    46
    Brachiocephalic vein

    Brachiocephalic vein

    The left and right brachiocephalic veins (or innominate veins) in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. This is at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. These great vessels merge to form the superior vena cava. The brachiocephalic veins are the major veins returning blood to the superior vena cava.
    8.50
    2 votes
    47
    Pterygoid plexus

    Pterygoid plexus

    The pterygoid plexus is a venous plexus of considerable size, and is situated between the temporalis muscle and lateral pterygoid muscle, and partly between the two pterygoid muscles. It receives tributaries corresponding with the branches of the maxillary artery. Thus it receives the following veins: This plexus communicates freely with the anterior facial vein; it also communicates with the cavernous sinus, by branches through the foramen Vesalii, foramen ovale, and foramen lacerum. Due to its communication with the cavernous sinus, infection of the superficial face may spread to the cavernous sinus, causing cavernous sinus thrombosis. Complications may include edema of the eyelids, conjunctivae of the eyes, and subsequent paralysis of cranial nerves which course through the cavernous sinus. The pterygoid plexus of veins becomes the maxillary vein. The maxillary vein and the superficial temporal vein later join to become the retromandibular vein. The posterior branch of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein then form the external jugular vein, which empties into the subclavian vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of
    8.50
    2 votes
    48
    Ductus venosus

    Ductus venosus

    In the fetus, the ductus venosus shunts approximately half of the blood flow of the umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava. Thus, it allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver. In conjunction with the other fetal shunts, the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus, it plays a critical role in preferentially shunting oxygenated blood to the fetal brain. It is a part of fetal circulation. The ductus venosus is open at the time of the birth and is the reason why umbilical vein catheterization works. Ductus venosus naturally closes during the first week of life in most full-term neonates; however, it may take much longer to close in pre-term neonates. Functional closure occurs within minutes of birth. Structural closure in term babies occurs within 3 to 7 days. After it closes, the remnant is known as ligamentum venosum. If the ductus venosus fails to occlude after birth, the individual is said to have an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PSS). This condition is hereditary in some dog breeds (e.g. Irish Wolfhound). The ductus venosus shows a delayed closure in preterm infants, with no significant correlation to the closure of the ductus arteriosus or the
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    Inferior epigastric vein

    Inferior epigastric vein

    In human anatomy, inferior epigastric vein refers to the vein that drains into the external iliac vein and arises from the superior epigastric vein. Along its course, it is accompanied by a similarly named artery, the inferior epigastric artery.
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    Lumbar veins

    Lumbar veins

    The lumbar veins are veins running along the inside of the posterior abdominal wall. They are the lumbar equivalent of the posterior intercostal veins.
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    Right marginal vein

    The right marginal vein ascends along the right margin of the heart and joins the small cardiac vein (sometimes known as the right coronary vein) in the coronary sulcus, or opens directly into the right atrium. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Small saphenous vein

    Small saphenous vein

    The small saphenous vein (also short saphenous vein), is a relatively large vein of the superficial posterior leg. Its origin is where the dorsal vein from the fifth digit (smallest toe) merges with the dorsal venous arch of the foot, which attaches to the great saphenous vein. It is a considered a superficial vein and is subcutaneous (just under the skin). From its origin, it courses around the lateral aspect of the foot (inferior and posterior to the lateral malleolus) and runs along the posterior aspect of the leg (with the sural nerve), passes between the heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, and drains into the popliteal vein, approximately at or above the level of the knee joint.
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    Internal iliac vein

    Internal iliac vein

    The internal iliac vein (hypogastric vein) begins near the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen, passes upward behind and slightly medial to the Internal iliac artery and, at the brim of the pelvis, joins with the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein. With the exception of the fetal umbilical vein which passes upward and backward from the umbilicus to the liver, and the iliolumbar vein which usually joins the common iliac vein, the tributaries of the Internal Iliac vein correspond with the branches of the Internal iliac artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Vorticose veins

    Vorticose veins

    The vorticose veins, referred to clinically as the vortex veins, drain the ocular choroid. The number of vortex veins is known to vary from 4 to 8 with about 65% of the normal population having 4 or 5. In most cases, there is at least one vortex vein in each quadrant. Typically, the entrances to the vortex veins in the outer layer of the choroid (lamina vasculosa) can be observed funduscopically and provide an important clinical landmarks identifying the ocular equator. However, the veins run posteriorly in the sclera exiting the eye well posterior to the equator. Some vortex veins drain into the superior orbital veins and thence to the cavernous sinus. Some vortex veins drain into the inferior orbital vein which drains into the pterygoid plexus. There is usually collateral circulation between the superior and inferior orbital veins. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Common facial vein

    Common facial vein

    The anterior facial vein usually unites with the posterior facial vein to form the common facial vein, which crosses the external carotid artery and enters the internal jugular vein at a variable point below the hyoid bone. From near its termination a communicating branch often runs down the anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus to join the lower part of the anterior jugular vein. The common facial vein is not present in all individuals. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pancreatic veins

    The pancreatic veins consist of several small vessels which drain the body and tail of the pancreas, and open into the trunk of the great pancreatic vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Paraumbilical veins

    In the course of the round ligament of liver and of the median umbilical ligament, small veins (paraumbilical) are found which establish an anastomosis between the veins of the anterior abdominal wall and the hepatic portal, hypogastric, and iliac veins. The best marked of these small veins is one which commences at the umbilicus and runs backward and upward in, or on the surface of, the round ligament (ligamentum teres) between the layers of the falciform ligament to end in the left portal vein. In patients with portal hypertension, the paraumbilical veins may become enlarged in order to reduce hepatic portal vein pressure by shunting blood to the inferior epigastric vein. Dilation of this particular portacaval anastomosis results in what is referred to as caput medusae.
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    Venae cavae

    Venae cavae

    The superior and inferior vena cava are collectively called the venae cavae. They are the veins that return deoxygenated blood from the body, into the heart. They both empty into the right atrium. The inferior vena cava (or caudal vena cava in animals) travels up alongside the abdominal aorta with blood from the lower part of the body (see # 11 in the diagram). It is the largest vein in the body. The superior vena cava (or cranial vena cava in animals) is above the heart, and forms from a convergence of the left and right brachiocephalic veins that contain blood from the head and the arms (see # 3 in the diagram).
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    Intervertebral veins

    Intervertebral veins

    The intervertebral veins accompany the spinal nerves through the intervertebral foramina; they receive the veins from the medulla spinalis, drain the internal and external vertebral plexuses. Their drainage depends upon the part of the body: Their orifices are provided with valves. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior auricular vein

    Posterior auricular vein

    The posterior auricular vein begins upon the side of the head, in a plexus which communicates with the tributaries of the occipital vein and superficial temporal veins. It descends behind the auricula, and joins the posterior division of the posterior facial vein to form the external jugular. It receive the stylomastoid vein, and some tributaries from the cranial surface of the auricula.
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    Posterior external jugular vein

    Posterior external jugular vein

    The posterior external jugular vein begins in the occipital region and returns the blood from the skin and superficial muscles in the upper and back part of the neck, lying between the Splenius and Trapezius. It runs down the back part of the neck, and opens into the external jugular vein just below the middle of its course. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Cephalic vein

    Cephalic vein

    In human anatomy, the cephalic vein (or antecubital vein) is a superficial vein of the upper limb. It communicates with the basilic vein via the median cubital vein at the elbow and is located in the superficial fascia along the anterolateral surface of the biceps brachii muscle. Superiorly the cephalic vein passes between the deltoid and pectoralis major muscles (deltopectoral groove) and through the deltopectoral triangle, where it empties into the axillary vein. The cephalic vein is often visible through the skin, and its location in the deltopectoral groove is fairly consistent, making this site a good candidate for venous access. Permanent pacemaker leads are often placed in the cephalic vein in the deltopectoral groove. The vein may be used for intravenous access, and is sometimes referred to as the 'House-man's Friend' because a large bore cannula may be easily placed. Ordinarily the term cephalic refers to anatomy of the head. When Persian physician Ibn Sīnā's Canon was translated into medieval Latin, cephalic was mistakenly chosen to render the Arabic term al-kífal, meaning "outer".
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    Inferior phrenic vein

    Inferior phrenic vein

    The Inferior Phrenic Veins drain the diaphragm and follow the course of the inferior phrenic arteries; This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal vertebral venous plexuses

    Internal vertebral venous plexuses

    The internal vertebral venous plexuses (intraspinal veins) lie within the vertebral canal in the epidural space, and receive tributaries from the bones and from the medulla spinalis. They form a closer network than the external plexuses, and, running mainly in a vertical direction, form four longitudinal veins, two in front and two behind; they therefore may be divided into anterior and posterior groups. The anterior and posterior plexuses communicate freely with one another by a series of venous rings (retia venosa vertebrarum), one opposite each vertebra. Around the foramen magnum they form an intricate network which opens into the vertebral veins and is connected above with the occipital sinus, the basilar plexus, the condyloid emissary vein, and the rete canalis hypoglossi. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Middle cardiac vein

    Middle cardiac vein

    The middle cardiac vein commences at the apex of the heart; ascends in the posterior longitudinal sulcus, and ends in the coronary sinus near its right extremity. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ascending lumbar vein

    Ascending lumbar vein

    The ascending lumbar vein is a vein that runs up through the lumbar region on the side of the vertebral column. The ascending lumbar vein is a paired structure (i.e. one each for the right and left sides of the body). It starts at the lateral sacral veins, and it runs superiorly, intersecting with the lumbar veins as it crosses them. When the ascending lumbar vein crosses the subcostal vein, it becomes one of the following:
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    Hepatic portal vein

    Hepatic portal vein

    The hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that conducts blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. This blood is rich in nutrients that were extracted from food, and the liver processes these nutrients; it also filters toxins that may have been ingested with the food. The liver receives about 75% of its blood through the hepatic portal vein, with the remainder coming from the hepatic artery proper. The blood leaves the liver to the heart in the hepatic veins. The hepatic portal vein is not a true vein, because it conducts blood to capillary beds in the liver and not directly to the heart. It is a major component of the hepatic portal system, one of only two portal venous systems in the body. The other is the hypophyseal portal system. The hepatic portal vein is usually formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and also receives blood from the inferior mesenteric, gastric, and cystic veins. Conditions involving the hepatic portal vein cause considerable illness and death. An important example of such a condition is elevated blood pressure in the hepatic portal vein. This condition, called portal hypertension, is a major complication of
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    Internal jugular vein

    Internal jugular vein

    The two internal jugular veins collect the blood from the brain, the superficial parts of the face, and the neck. An internal jugular vein is a type of jugular vein. On both sides and at the base of the brain, the inferior petrosal sinus and the sigmoid sinus join to form the internal jugular vein. The internal jugular vein begins in the posterior compartment of the jugular foramen, at the base of the skull. It is somewhat dilated at its origin, and this dilatation is called the superior bulb. It also has a common trunk into which drains the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein, the facial vein, and the lingual vein. It runs down the side of the neck in a vertical direction, being at one end lateral to the internal carotid artery, and then lateral to the common carotid, and at the root of the neck, it unites with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein (innominate vein); a little above its termination is a second dilatation, the inferior bulb. Above, it lies upon the rectus capitis lateralis, behind the internal carotid artery and the nerves passing through the jugular foramen; lower down, the vein and artery lie upon the same plane, the glossopharyngeal and
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    Oblique vein of the left atrium

    Oblique vein of the left atrium

    The Oblique Vein of the Left Atrium (oblique vein of Marshall) is a small vessel which descends obliquely on the back of the left atrium and ends in the coronary sinus near its left extremity; it is continuous above with the ligament of the left vena cava (lig. venæ cavæ sinistræ vestigial fold of Marshall), and the two structures form the remnant of the left Cuvierian duct. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Umbilical vein

    Umbilical vein

    The umbilical vein is a vein present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. The blood pressure inside the umbilical vein is approximately 17.6 mmHg. Within a week of birth, the infant's umbilical vein is completely obliterated and is replaced by a fibrous cord called the round ligament of the liver (also called ligamentum teres hepatis). It extends from the umbilicus to the transverse fissure, where it joins with the falciform ligament of the liver to separate the left and right lobes of the liver. Closure of the umbilical vein usually occurs after the umbilical arteries have closed. This prolongs the communication between the placenta and fetal heart, allowing for a sort of autotransfusion of remaining blood from the placenta to the fetus. Under extreme pressure, the round ligament may reopen to allow the passage of blood. Such recanalization may be evident in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients with cirrhosis experience rapid growth of scar tissue in and around the liver, often functionally obstructing nearby vessels. Vessel occlusion increases vascular resistance and therefore leads to hypertension. In
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    Inferior petrosal sinus

    Inferior petrosal sinus

    The inferior petrosal sinuses, within the human head, are beneath the brain and allow blood to drain from the center of the head. They drain on either side inferiorly from the cavernous sinus (beneath the brain) and join with the sigmoid sinus to form the internal jugular vein, which continues inferiorly to drain blood from the base of the skull. See diagram (at right): labeled under the brain as "S. PETROS. INF." (for Latin: sinus petrosus inferior). The inferior petrosal sinus is situated in the inferior petrosal sulcus, formed by the junction of the petrous part of the temporal bone with the basilar part of the occipital bone. It begins in the postero-inferior part of the cavernous sinus and, passing through the anterior part of the jugular foramen, ends in the superior bulb of the internal jugular vein. The inferior petrosal sinus receives the internal auditory veins and also veins from the medulla oblongata, pons, and under surface of the cerebellum.
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    Coronary sinus

    Coronary sinus

    The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium). It delivers deoxygenated blood to the right atrium, as do the superior and inferior vena cava. It is present in all mammals, including humans. The coronary sinus opens into the right atrium, at the coronary sinus orifice, between the inferior vena cava and the right atrioventricular orifice. It returns the blood from the substance of the heart, and is protected by a semicircular fold of the lining membrane of the auricle, the valve of coronary sinus (or valve of Thebesius). The sinus, before entering the auricle, is considerably dilated - nearly to the size of the end of the little finger. Its wall is partly muscular, and at its junction with the great cardiac vein is somewhat constricted and furnished with a valve consisting of two unequal segments.(Gray 462) It runs transversely in the groove between the left atrium and left ventricle on the posterior surface of the heart. The coronary sinus orifice (opening, also known as the ostium of the coronary sinus) is on the posterior, inferior surface of the heart, medial to the inferior vena cava
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    Pulmonary vein

    Pulmonary vein

    The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. In humans there are four pulmonary veins, two from each lung. They carry oxygenated blood, which is unusual since almost all other veins carry deoxygenated blood. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. In humans there are normally four pulmonary veins, two from each lung. As part of the pulmonary circulation they carry oxygenated blood back to the heart, as oppose to the veins of the systemic circulation which is carrying deoxygenated blood types. Occasionally the three veins on the right side remain separate, and not infrequently the two left pulmonary veins end by a common opening into the left atrium. Therefore, the number of pulmonary veins opening into the left atrium can vary between three and five in the healthy population. The right pulmonary veins pass behind the right atrium and superior vena cava; the left in front of the descending thoracic aorta. At the root of the lung, the superior pulmonary vein lies in front of and a little below the pulmonary artery; the inferior is situated at the lowest part
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    Superior gluteal veins

    Superior gluteal veins

    The Superior Gluteal Veins (gluteal veins) are venæ comitantes of the superior gluteal artery; they receive tributaries from the buttock corresponding with the branches of the artery, and enter the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, above the Piriformis, and frequently unite before ending in the hypogastric vein (internal iliac vein). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Basivertebral veins

    Basivertebral veins

    The basivertebral veins emerge from the foramina on the posterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies. They are contained in large, tortuous channels in the substance of the bones, similar in every respect to those found in the diploë of the cranial bones. They communicate through small openings on the front and sides of the bodies of the vertebræ with the anterior external vertebral plexuses, and converge behind to the principal canal, which is sometimes double toward its posterior part, and open by valved orifices into the transverse branches which unite the anterior internal vertebral plexuses. They become greatly enlarged in advanced age. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal auditory veins

    The veins of the vestibule and semicircular canals accompany the arteries, and, receiving those of the cochlea at the base of the modiolus, unite to form the internal auditory veins (or veins of labyrinth) which end in the posterior part of the superior petrosal sinus or in the transverse sinus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Left gastroepiploic vein

    The left gastroepiploic vein (left gastro-omental vein) receives branches from the antero-superior and postero-inferior surfaces of the stomach and from the greater omentum; it runs from right to left along the greater curvature of the stomach and ends in the commencement of the splenic vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Supraorbital vein

    Supraorbital vein

    The supraorbital vein begins on the forehead where it communicates with the frontal branch of the superficial temporal vein. It runs downward superficial to the Frontalis muscle, and joins the frontal vein at the medial angle of the orbit to form the angular vein. Previous to its junction with the frontal vein, it sends through the supraorbital notch into the orbit a branch which communicates with the ophthalmic vein; as this vessel passes through the notch, it receives the frontal diploic vein through a foramen at the bottom of the notch. The areas drained by this vessel are the forehead, eyebrow and upper eyelid. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Angular vein

    Angular vein

    The angular vein formed by the junction of the frontal vein and supraorbital vein, runs obliquely downward, on the side of the root of the nose, to the level of the lower margin of the orbit, where it becomes the anterior facial vein. It receives the external nasal veins of the ala nasi, and communicates with the superior ophthalmic vein through the nasofrontal vein, thus establishing an important anastomosis between the anterior facial vein and the cavernous sinus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal maxillary vein

    Internal maxillary vein

    The maxillary veins (internal maxillary vein in older sources) consist of a short trunk which accompanies the first part of the internal maxillary artery. It is formed by a confluence of the veins of the pterygoid plexus, and passes backward between the sphenomandibular ligament and the neck of the mandible, and unites with the superficial temporal vein to form the retromandibular vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior vein of the left ventricle

    Posterior vein of the left ventricle

    The Posterior Vein of the Left Ventricle runs on the diaphragmatic surface of the left ventricle to the coronary sinus, but may end in the great cardiac vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior thyroid vein

    Superior thyroid vein

    The superior thyroid vein begins in the substance and on the surface of the thyroid gland, by tributaries corresponding with the branches of the superior thyroid artery, and ends in the upper part of the internal jugular vein. It receives the superior laryngeal and cricothyroid veins. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Cerebral veins

    Cerebral veins

    The cerebral veins are divisible into external and internal (internal cerebral veins) groups according to the outer surfaces or the inner parts of the hemispheres they drain into. The external veins are the superior cerebral veins, inferior cerebral veins, and middle cerebral vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Hemiazygos vein

    Hemiazygos vein

    The hemiazygos vein (vena azygos minor inferior) is a vein running superiorly in the lower thoracic region, just to the left side of the vertebral column. The hemiazygos vein and the accessory hemiazygos vein, when taken together, essentially serve as the left-sided equivalent of the azygos vein. That is, the azygos vein serves to drain most of the posterior intercostal veins on the right side of the body, and the hemiazygos vein and the accessory hemiazygos vein drain most of the posterior intercostal veins on the left side of the body. Specifically, the hemiazygos vein mirrors the bottom part of the azygos vein. The structure of the hemiazygos vein is often variable. It usually begins in the left ascending lumbar vein or renal vein, and passes upward through the left crus of the diaphragm to enter the thorax. It continues ascending on the left side of the vertebral column, and around the level of the ninth thoracic vertebra, it passes rightward across the column, behind the aorta, esophagus, and thoracic duct, to end in the azygos vein. The hemiazygos may or may not be continuous superiorly with the accessory hemiazygos vein. It receives the 9th, 10th, and 11th posterior
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    Straight sinus

    Straight sinus

    The straight sinus (also known as tentorial sinus), within the human head, is an unpaired area beneath the brain which allows blood to drain from the inferior center of the head outwards posteriorly. It drains blood from the superior cerebellar veins and inferior sagittal sinus (at the center of the brain) to the confluence of sinuses (at the back of the head by the internal occipital protuberance). See diagram (at right): labeled in the brain as "SIN. RECTUS" (for Latin: sinus rectus). The straight sinus (tentorial sinus) is situated where the falx cerebri meets the midline of tentorium cerebelli. It forms from the confluence of the inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein (great vein of Galen). In cross-section it is triangular, contains a few transverse bands across its interior, and increases in size as it proceeds backward.
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    Deep facial vein

    The anterior facial vein receives a branch of considerable size, the deep facial vein, from the pterygoid venous plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
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    Deep cervical vein

    Deep cervical vein

    The deep cervical vein (posterior vertebral or posterior deep cervical vein) accompanies its artery between the Semispinales capitis and colli. It begins in the suboccipital region by communicating branches from the occipital vein and by small veins from the deep muscles at the back of the neck. It receives tributaries from the plexuses around the spinous processes of the cervical vertebræ, and terminates in the lower part of the vertebral vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior gluteal veins

    The Inferior Gluteal Veins (sciatic veins), or venæ comitantes of the inferior gluteal artery, begin on the upper part of the back of the thigh, where they anastomose with the medial femoral circumflex and first perforating veins. They enter the pelvis through the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen and join to form a single stem which opens into the lower part of the hypogastric vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Intercavernous sinuses

    Intercavernous sinuses

    The intercavernous sinuses are two in number, an anterior and a posterior, and connect the two cavernous sinuses across the middle line. The anterior passes in front of the hypophysis cerebri, the posterior behind it, and they form with the cavernous sinuses a venous circle (circular sinus) around the hypophysis. The anterior one is usually the larger of the two, and one or other is occasionally absent. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal cerebral veins

    Internal cerebral veins

    The internal cerebral veins (veins of Galen; deep cerebral veins) drain the deep parts of the hemisphere and are two in number; each is formed near the interventricular foramen by the union of the terminal and choroid veins. They run backward parallel with one another, between the layers of the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle, and beneath the splenium of the corpus callosum, where they unite to form a short trunk, the great cerebral vein; just before their union each receives the corresponding basal vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Jugular vein

    Jugular vein

    The jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. The jugular venous pressure (JV) is an indirectly observed pressure over the venous system. It can be useful in the differentiation of different forms of heart and lung disease. billion upward deflections and Thousand downward deflections have been described. The upward deflections correspond with (1) atrial contraction, (2) ventricular contraction (and resulting bulging of perspicuous into the right atrium during isovolumic systole), and (3) atrial venous filling. The downward deflections correspond with (1) the atrium relaxing (and the perspicuous valve moving downward) and (2) the filling of ventricle after the tricuspid opens.
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    Obturator veins

    Obturator veins

    The obturator vein begins in the upper portion of the adductor region of the thigh and enters the pelvis through the upper part of the obturator foramen, in the obturator canal. It runs backward and upward on the lateral wall of the pelvis below the obturator artery, and then passes between the ureter and the hypogastric artery, to end in the hypogastric vein. It has an anterior and posterior branch (similar to obturator artery). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Renal vein

    Renal vein

    The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. They connect the kidney to the inferior vena cava. They carry the blood purified by the kidney. It is usually singular to each kidney, except in the condition "multiple renal veins". It also divides into 2 divisions upon entering the kidney: Often, each renal vein will have a branch that receives blood from the ureter. Because the inferior vena cava is on the right half of the body, the left renal vein is generally the longer of the two. Because the inferior vena cava is not laterally symmetrical, the left renal vein often receives the following veins: This is in contrast to the right side of the body, where these veins drain directly into the IVC. Diseases associated with the renal vein include renal vein thrombosis (RVT) and nutcracker syndrome (renal vein entrapment syndrome).
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    Small cardiac vein

    Small cardiac vein

    The small cardiac vein runs in the coronary sulcus between the right atrium and ventricle, and opens into the right extremity of the coronary sinus. It receives blood from the back of the right atrium and ventricle. It may drain to the coronary sinus, right atrium, middle cardiac vein, or be absent. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior cerebral veins

    Superior cerebral veins

    The superior cerebral veins, numbering eight to twelve, drain the superior, lateral, and medial surfaces of the hemispheres. They are predominantly found in the sulci between the gyri, but can also be found running across the gyri. Individually they drain into the superior sagittal sinus. The anterior veins run at near right angles to the sinus while the posterior and larger veins are directed at oblique angles, opening into the sinus in a direction opposed to the current (anterior to posterior) of the blood contained within it. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior mesenteric vein

    Superior mesenteric vein

    In anatomy, the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine (jejunum and ileum). At its termination behind the neck of the pancreas, the SMV combines with the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein. The SMV lies to the right of the similarly named artery, the superior mesenteric artery, which originates from the abdominal aorta. Tributaries of the superior mesenteric vein drain the small intestine, large intestine, stomach, pancreas and appendix and include: Thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein is quite rare, but a significant cause of mesenteric ischemia and can be fatal. It is estimated that 10-15% of mesenteric ischemia is due to mesenteric thrombosis.
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    Superior phrenic vein

    The superior phrenic vein, i.e., the vein accompanying the pericardiacophrenic artery, usually opens into the internal mammary vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior sagittal sinus

    Superior sagittal sinus

    The superior sagittal sinus (also known as the superior longitudinal sinus), within the human head, is an unpaired area along the attached margin of falx cerebri. It allows blood to drain from the lateral aspects of anterior cerebral hemispheres to the confluence of sinuses. Cerebrospinal fluid drains through arachnoid granulations into the superior sagittal sinus and is returned to venous circulation. See diagram (at right): labeled above the brain as "SIN. SAGITALLIS SUP." (for Latin: sinus sagittalis superior). Commencing at the foramen cecum, through which it receives a vein from the nasal cavity, it runs from anterior to posterior, grooving the inner surface of the frontal, the adjacent margins of the two parietal lobes, and the superior division of the cruciate eminence of the occipital lobe. Near the internal occipital protuberance, it drains into the confluence of sinuses and deviates to either side (usually the right). At this point it is continued as the corresponding transverse sinus. It is triangular in section, narrow in front, and gradually increases in size as it passes backward. Its inner surface presents the openings of the superior cerebral veins, which run, for
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    Transverse sinuses

    Transverse sinuses

    The transverse sinuses (left and right lateral sinuses), within the human head, are two areas beneath the brain which allow blood to drain from the back of the head. They run laterally in a groove along the interior surface of the occipital bone. They drain from the confluence of sinuses (by the internal occipital protuberance) to the sigmoid sinuses, which ultimately connect to the internal jugular vein. See diagram (at right): labeled under the brain as "SIN. TRANS." (for Latin: sinus transversus). The transverse sinuses are of large size and begin at the internal occipital protuberance; one, generally the right, being the direct continuation of the superior sagittal sinus, the other of the straight sinus. Each transverse sinus passes lateralward and forward, describing a slight curve with its convexity upward, to the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and lies, in this part of its course, in the attached margin of the tentorium cerebelli; it then leaves the tentorium and curves downward and medialward (an area sometimes referred to as the sigmoid sinus) to reach the jugular foramen, where it ends in the internal jugular vein. In its course it rests upon the squama
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    External vertebral venous plexuses

    External vertebral venous plexuses

    The external vertebral venous plexuses (extraspinal veins) best marked in the cervical region, consist of anterior and posterior plexuses which anastomose freely with each other. They are best developed in the cervical region, and there anastomose with the vertebral, occipital, and deep cervical veins. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior mesenteric vein

    Inferior mesenteric vein

    In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the large intestine. It usually terminates when reaching the splenic vein, which goes on to form the portal vein with the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). Anatomical variations include the IMV draining into the confluence of the SMV and splenic vein and the IMV draining in the SMV. Tributaries of the inferior mesenteric vein drain the large intestine, sigmoid colon and rectum and include the
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    104
    Internal pudendal veins

    Internal pudendal veins

    The internal pudendal veins (internal pudic veins) are the venæ comitantes of the internal pudendal artery. They begin in the deep veins of the penis which issue from the corpus cavernosum penis, accompany the internal pudendal artery, and unite to form a single vessel, which ends in the hypogastric vein. They receive the veins from the urethral bulb, and the perineal and inferior hemorrhoidal veins. The deep dorsal vein of the penis communicates with the internal pudendal veins, but ends mainly in the pudendal plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    105
    Radial veins

    Radial veins

    In anatomy, the radial veins are venae comitantes that accompany the radial artery through the back of the hand and the lateral aspect of the forearm. They join the ulnar veins to form the brachial veins. They follow the same course as the radial artery.
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    Subclavian vein

    Subclavian vein

    The subclavian veins are two large veins, one on either side of the body. Their diameter is approximately that of the smallest finger. Each subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. From here it joins with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein (also known as "innominate vein"). The angle of union is termed the venous angle. The subclavian vein follows the subclavian artery and is separated from the subclavian artery by the insertion of anterior scalene. Thus, the subclavian vein lies anterior to the anterior scalene while the subclavian artery lies posterior to the anterior scalene (and anterior to the middle scalene). The thoracic duct drains into the left subclavian vein, near its junction with the left internal jugular vein. It carries lymph (water and solutes) from the lymphatic system, as well as chylomicrons or chyle, formed in the intestines from dietary fat and lipids. The right lymphatic duct drains its lymph into the junction of the right internal jugular vein, and the right subclavian vein. Sub (below), and clavian (pertaining to the
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    107
    Accessory hemiazygos vein

    Accessory hemiazygos vein

    The accessory hemiazygos vein (vena azygos minor superior) is a vein on the left side of the vertebral column that generally drains the fifth through eighth intercostal spaces on the left side of the body. The accessory hemiazygos vein varies inversely in size with the left superior intercostal vein. It receives the posterior intercostal veins from the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th intercostal spaces between the left superior intercostal vein and highest tributary of the hemiazygos vein; the left bronchial vein sometimes opens into it. It either crosses the body of the eighth thoracic vertebra to join the azygos vein or ends in the hemiazygos. When this vein is small, or altogether absent, the left superior intercostal vein may extend as low as the fifth or sixth intercostal space.
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    Confluence of sinuses

    Confluence of sinuses

    The confluence of sinuses or torcular herophili is the connecting point of the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, and occipital sinus. It is found deep to the occipital protuberance of the skull. Blood arriving at this point then proceeds to drain into the left and right transverse sinuses. The superior sagittal sinus often drains into (either exclusively or predominantly) one transverse sinus, and the occipital sinus drains into the other. An older term often used for the confluence of sinuses "torcular herophili", describes the veins as a gutter, or canal, and honors Herophilos, the Greek anatomist who was the first to use cadavers for the systematic study of anatomy. This term more precisely refers to the concavity in the bone which is the location of the confluence of sinuses.
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    Middle thyroid vein

    Middle thyroid vein

    The middle thyroid vein collects the blood from the lower part of the thyroid gland, and after being joined by some veins from the larynx and trachea, ends in the lower part of the internal jugular vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pampiniform plexus

    Pampiniform plexus

    The pampiniform plexus is a network of many small veins found in the human male spermatic cord. It is formed by the union of multiple spermatic veins from the back of the testis and tributaries from the epididymis. The veins of the plexus ascend along the cord in front of the ductus deferens. Below the superficial inguinal ring they unite to form three or four veins, which pass along the inguinal canal, and, entering the abdomen through the deep inguinal ring, coalesce to form two veins. These again unite to form a single vein, the testicular vein, which opens on the right side into the inferior vena cava, at an acute angle, and on the left side into the left renal vein, at a right angle.The pampiniform plexus forms the chief mass of the cord. In addition to its function in venous return from the testes, the pampiniform plexus also plays a role in the temperature regulation of the testes. It acts as a heat exchanger, cooling blood in adjacent arteries. An abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform plexus is a medical condition called varicocele. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained
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    Superior epigastric vein

    Superior epigastric vein

    In human anatomy, superior epigastric vein refers to a blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood and drains into the internal thoracic vein. It anastomoses with the inferior epigastric vein at the level of the umbilicus and drains the anterior part of the abdominal wall and some of the diaphragm. Along its course, it is accompanied by a similarly named artery, the superior epigastric artery.
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    Middle cerebral vein

    Middle cerebral vein

    The superficial middle cerebral vein (superficial Sylvian vein) begins on the lateral surface of the hemisphere, and, running along the lateral cerebral sulcus, ends in the cavernous or the sphenoparietal sinus. It is connected: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Anterior facial vein

    Anterior facial vein

    The anterior facial vein (facial vein) commences at the side of the root of the nose and is a direct continuation of the angular vein where it also receives a small nasal branch. It lies behind the facial artery and follows a less tortuous course. It receives blood from the external palatine vein before it either joins the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein to form the common facial vein, or drains directly into the internal jugular vein. From its origin it runs obliquely downward and backward, beneath the Zygomaticus and zygomatic head of the Quadratus labii superioris, descends along the anterior border and then on the superficial surface of the Masseter, crosses over the body of the mandible, and passes obliquely backward, beneath the Platysma and cervical fascia, superficial to the submandibular gland, the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus. A common misconception states that the facial vein has no valves http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20491800 . Its walls are not so flaccid as most superficial veins. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior intercostal veins

    Posterior intercostal veins

    The posterior intercostal veins are veins that drain the intercostal spaces posteriorly. They run with their corresponding posterior intercostal artery on the underside of the rib, the vein superior to the artery. Each vein also gives off a dorsal branch that drains blood from the muscles of the back. There are eleven posterior intercostal veins on each side. Their patterns are variable, but they are commonly arranged as:
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    Ulnar veins

    Ulnar veins

    In anatomy, the ulnar veins are venae comitantes for the ulnar artery. They mostly drain the medial aspect of the forearm. They arise in the hand and terminate when they join the radial veins to form the brachial veins. They follow the same course as the ulnar artery.
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    Vertebral vein

    Vertebral vein

    The vertebral vein is formed in the suboccipital triangle, from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas. They unite with small veins from the deep muscles at the upper part of the back of the neck, and form a vessel which enters the foramen in the transverse process of the atlas, and descends, forming a dense plexus around the vertebral artery, in the canal formed by the foramina transversaria of the cervical vertebrae. This plexus ends in a single trunk, which emerges from the foramen transversarium of the sixth cervical vertebra, and opens at the root of the neck into the back part of the innominate vein near its origin, its mouth being guarded by a pair of valves. On the right side, it crosses the first part of the subclavian artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior vena cava

    Inferior vena cava

    The inferior vena cava (or IVC), also known as the posterior vena cava, is the large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart. It is posterior to the abdominal cavity and runs alongside of the vertebral column on its right side (i.e. it is a retroperitoneal structure). It enters the right atrium at the lower right, back side of the heart. The IVC is formed by the joining of the left and right common iliac veins and brings blood into the right atrium of the heart. It also anastomoses with the azygos vein system (which runs on the right side of the vertebral column) and venous plexuses next to the spinal cord. The caval opening is at T8. The specific levels of the tributaries are as follows: Because the IVC is not centrally located, there are some asymmetries in drainage patterns. The gonadal veins and suprarenal veins drain into the IVC on the right side, but into the renal vein on the left side, which in turn drains into the IVC. By contrast, all the lumbar veins and hepatic veins usually drain directly into the IVC. The tributaries of Inferior vena cava can be remembered using the mnemonic, "I Like To Rise So High",
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    Occipital vein

    Occipital vein

    The occipital vein begins as a plexus at the posterior aspect of the scalp from the external occipital protuberance and superior nuchal line to the back part of the vertex of the skull. From the plexus emerges a single vessel, which pierces the cranial attachment of the Trapezius and, dipping into the venous plexus of the suboccipital triangle, joins the deep cervical and vertebral veins. Occasionally it follows the course of the occipital artery and ends in the internal jugular; in other instances, it joins the posterior auricular vein and through it opens into the external jugular. The parietal emissary vein connects it with the superior sagittal sinus; and as it passes across the mastoid portion of the temporal bone, it receives the mastoid emissary vein which connects it with the transverse sinus. The occipital diploic vein sometimes joins it. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Axillary vein

    Axillary vein

    In human anatomy, the axillary vein is a large blood vessel that conveys blood from the lateral aspect of the thorax, axilla (armpit) and upper limb toward the heart. There is one axillary vein on each side of the body. Its origin is at the lower margin of the teres major muscle and a continuation of the brachial vein. Its tributaries include the basilic vein and cephalic vein, which are both superficial veins. It terminates at the lateral margin of the first rib, at which it becomes the subclavian vein. It is accompanied along its course by a similarly named artery, the axillary artery.
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    Internal thoracic vein

    Internal thoracic vein

    In human anatomy, the internal thoracic vein (previously known as the internal mammary vein) is a vessel that drains the chest wall and mamma, a term used for breast in anatomy. Bilaterally, it arises from the superior epigastric vein, accompanies the internal thoracic artery along its course and terminates in the brachiocephalic vein.
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    Right gastroepiploic vein

    Right gastroepiploic vein

    The right gastroepiploic vein (right gastroomental vein) drains into the superior mesenteric vein and drains venous blood from the lower parts of the antero-superior and posteroinferior surfaces of the stomach; it runs from left to right along the greater curvature of the stomach between the two layers of the greater omentum. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superficial temporal vein

    Superficial temporal vein

    The superficial temporal vein is a vein of the side of the head. It begins on the side and vertex of the skull in a plexus which communicates with the frontal vein and supraorbital vein, with the corresponding vein of the opposite side, and with the posterior auricular vein and occipital vein. From this network frontal and parietal branches arise, and unite above the zygomatic arch to form the trunk of the vein, which is joined by the middle temporal vein emerging from the temporalis muscle. It then crosses the posterior root of the zygomatic arch, enters the substance of the parotid gland, and unites with the internal maxillary vein to form the posterior facial vein. The superficial temporal vein receives in its course the following: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior ophthalmic vein

    Superior ophthalmic vein

    The superior ophthalmic vein begins at the inner angle of the orbit in a vein named the nasofrontal which communicates anteriorly with the angular vein; it pursues the same course as the ophthalmic artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of that vessel. Forming a short single trunk, it passes between the two heads of the Rectus lateralis and through the medial part of the superior orbital fissure, and ends in the cavernous sinus. The ethmoidal veins drain into the superior ophthalmic vein. Vorticose veins also drain into the superior ophthalmic vein. The medial angle of the eye, nose and lips (known as the danger triangle of the face) usually drain through the facial vein, via the ophthalmic vein through the cavernous sinus. As a result, an infection of the face may spread to the cavernous sinus and pterygoid venous plexus. This can lead to damage of the nerves running through the cavernous sinus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Azygos vein

    Azygos vein

    The azygos vein is a vein running up the right side of the thoracic vertebral column. It can also provide an alternate path for blood to the right atrium by allowing the blood to flow between the venae cavae when one vena cava is blocked. The azygos vein transports deoxygenated blood from the posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen into the superior vena cava vein. The anatomy of this blood vessel can be quite variable. In some rare variations for example, it also drains thoracic veins, bronchial veins and even gonadal veins. The vein is so named because it has no symmetrically equivalent vein on the left side of the body. It is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus posteriorly at the root of the right lung to join the superior vena cava. This "arch of the azygos vein" (arcus venae azygos) is an important anatomic landmark. As a rare anatomical variation, the arch can be displaced laterally, thereby creating a pleural septum separating an azygos lobe from the upper lobe of the right lung. A major tributary is the
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    Bronchial veins

    The bronchial veins are small vessels that return blood from the larger bronchi and structures at the roots of the lungs. The right side drains into the azygos vein, while the left side drains into the left superior intercostal vein or the accessory hemiazygos vein. The bronchial veins are counterparts to the bronchial arteries; however they only carry ~13% of the blood flow of the bronchial arteries. The remaining blood is returned to the heart via the pulmonary veins.
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    External jugular vein

    External jugular vein

    The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the exterior of the cranium and the deep parts of the face, being formed by the junction of the posterior division of the retromandibular vein with the posterior auricular vein. It commences in the substance of the parotid gland, on a level with the angle of the mandible, and runs perpendicularly down the neck, in the direction of a line drawn from the angle of the mandible to the middle of the clavicle at the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus. In its course it crosses the sternocleidomastoideus obliquely, and in the subclavian triangle perforates the deep fascia, and ends in the subclavian vein lateral to or in front of the scalenus anterior, piercing the roof of the posterior triangle. It is separated from the sternocleidomastoideus by the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia, and is covered by the platysma, the superficial fascia, and the integument; it crosses the cutaneous cervical nerve, and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. The external jugular vein varies in size, bearing an inverse proportion to the other veins of the neck, it is occasionally double. The
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    Femoral vein

    Femoral vein

    In the human body, the femoral vein is a blood vessel that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath. It begins at the adductor canal (also known as Hunter's canal) and is a continuation of the popliteal vein. It ends at the inferior margin of the inguinal ligament, where it becomes the external iliac vein. Several large veins drain into the femoral vein: Occlusion of the femoral vein can be life-threatening. The practice of delivering recreational drugs intravenously using the femoral vein is relatively common amongst injecting drug users (IDUs). The term superficial femoral vein is not recognized as a legitimate anatomic term. However, some specialist physicians (e.g. radiologists, and orthopaedic/vascular surgeons) use the term superficial femoral vein for the distal part of the femoral vein to: Usage of this term is discouraged by many physicians because it leads to confusion among general medical practitioners. The femoral vein is considered a deep vein, unlike the adjective superficial suggests and has led some physicians to falsely conclude it is a superficial vein, which has resulted in patients (with deep vein thrombosis) being denied efficacious anticoagulant
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    Frontal vein

    Frontal vein

    The frontal vein (supratrochlear vein) begins on the forehead in a venous plexus which communicates with the frontal branches of the superficial temporal vein. The veins converge to form a single trunk, which runs downward near the middle line of the forehead parallel with the vein of the opposite side. The two veins are joined, at the root of the nose, by a transverse branch, called the nasal arch, which receives some small veins from the dorsum of the nose. At the root of the nose the veins diverge, and, each at the medial angle of the orbit, joins the supraorbital vein, to form the angular vein. Occasionally the frontal veins join to form a single trunk, which bifurcates at the root of the nose into the two angular veins. Glabella This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Great saphenous vein

    Great saphenous vein

    The great saphenous vein (GSV), also long saphenous vein, is the large (subcutaneous) superficial vein of the leg and thigh. The terms "safaina" (Greek, meaning "manifest," "to be clearly seen") and "el safin" (Arabic, meaning "hidden/concealed") have both been claimed as the origin for the word "saphenous." The GSV originates from where the dorsal vein of the first digit (the large toe) merges with the dorsal venous arch of the foot. After passing anterior to the medial malleolus (where it often can be visualized and palpated), it runs up the medial side of the leg. At the knee, it runs over the posterior border of the medial epicondyle of the femur bone. The great saphenous vein then courses laterally to lie on the anterior surface of the thigh before entering an opening in the fascia lata called the saphenous opening. It joins with the femoral vein in the region of the femoral triangle at the saphenofemoral junction. At the ankle it receives branches from the sole of the foot through the medial marginal vein; in the lower leg it anastomoses freely with the small saphenous vein, communicates with the anterior and posterior tibial veins and receives many cutaneous veins; in the
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    Lingual veins

    Lingual veins

    The lingual veins begin on the dorsum, sides, and under surface of the tongue, and, passing backward along the course of the lingual artery, end in the internal jugular vein. The vena comitans of the hypoglossal nerve (ranine vein), a branch of considerable size, begins below the tip of the tongue, and may join the lingual; generally, however, it passes backward on the Hyoglossus, and joins the common facial. The lingual veins are important clinically as they are capable of rapid absorption of drugs; for this reason, nitroglycerin is given under the tongue to patients suspected of having angina pectoris. Moore NA and Roy W. Rapid Review: Gross Anatomy. Elsevier, 2010. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ovarian veins

    The ovarian veins correspond with the spermatic in the male; they form a plexus in the broad ligament near the ovary and uterine tube, and communicate with the uterine plexus. They end in the same way as the spermatic veins in the male. Valves are occasionally found in these veins. Like the uterine veins, they become much enlarged during pregnancy. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
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    Peroneal vein

    Peroneal vein

    In anatomy, the fibular veins (also known as the peroneal veins) are accompanying veins (venae comitantes) of the fibular artery. The fibular veins are deep veins that help carry blood from the lateral compartment of the leg. They drain into the posterior tibial veins, which will in turn drain into the popliteal vein. The fibular veins accompany the fibular artery.
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    Sigmoid sinus

    Sigmoid sinus

    The sigmoid sinuses (left & right), within the human head, are two areas beneath the brain which allow blood to drain inferiorly from the posterior center of the head. They drain from the transverse sinuses (under the back of the brain) and converge with the inferior petrosal sinuses to form the internal jugular vein. See diagram (at right): labeled under the brain as "PARS SIGMOID." (for Latin: sigmoideus). Each sigmoid sinus begins beneath the temporal bone and follows a tortuous course to the jugular foramen, at which point the sinus becomes continuous with the internal jugular vein.
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