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Roger Excoffon (7 September 1910 – 1983), French typeface designer and graphic designer.
Excoffon was born in Marseilles, studied law at the University of Aix-en-Provence, and after, moved to Paris to apprentice in a print shop. In 1947 he formed his own advertising agency and concurrently became design director of a small foundry in Marseille called Fonderie Olive. Later he co-founded the prestigious Studio U+O (a reference to Urbi et Orbi).
Excoffon's best known faces are Mistral and Antique Olive, the latter which he designed in the period 1962–1966. Air France was one of Excoffon's largest and most prestigious clients. The airline continues to use a customized variant of Antique Olive in its wordmark and livery.
Excoffon's faces, even his most sober, Antique Olive, have an organic vibrancy not found in similar sans-serif types of the period. His typefaces gave voice to an exuberant body of contemporary French and European graphic design.
These foundry types were produced by Roger Excoffon:
Calligraphy (from Greek κάλλος kallos "beauty" + γραφή graphẽ "writing") is a type of visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument or brush in one stroke (as opposed to built up lettering, in which the letters are drawn.) (Mediavilla 1996: 17). A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner" (Mediavilla 1996: 18). The story of writing is one of aesthetic evolution framed within the technical skills, transmission speed(s) and material limitations of a person, time and place (Diringer 1968: 441). A style of writing is described as a script, hand or alphabet (Fraser and Kwiatkowski 2006; Johnston 1909: Plate 6).
Modern calligraphy ranges from functional hand-lettered inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the abstract expression of the handwritten mark may or may not compromise the legibility of the letters (Mediavilla 1996). Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may create all of these; characters are historically disciplined yet fluid and spontaneous, at the moment
Computer Modern is the family of typefaces used by default by the typesetting program TeX. It was created by Donald Knuth with his Metafont program, and was most recently updated in 1992. Computer Modern, or variants of it, remain very widely used in scientific publishing, especially in disciplines that make frequent use of mathematical notation.
The Computer Modern typefaces are described in great detail (including full source code) in the book Computer Modern Typefaces, volume E in the Computers and Typesetting series, which is unique in the history of font design: in Knuth's words, they "belong to the class of sets of books that describe precisely their own appearance."
As implied by the name, Computer Modern is a modern font. Modern, or "Didone", fonts have high contrast between thick and thin elements, and their axis of "stress" or thickening is perfectly vertical. Computer Modern, specifically, is based on Monotype Modern 8a, and like its immediate model it has a large x-height relative to the length of ascenders and descenders.
The most unusual characteristic of Computer Modern, however, is the fact that it is a complete type family designed with the Metafont system. The
FF Dax is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Hans Reichel, published by FontFont library. The typeface is popular in advertising and in marketing. Other designs, Barmeno and Sari, more bulbous cousins of FF Dax with curvier ends, have also been designed by Reichel.
The UPS Sans typeface, used in most of United Parcel Service branding since 2005, is a modified version of FF Dax. W.M. Morrison, the British supermarket chain uses FF Dax on most in-store promotional material, hanging product location signs, and points of interest around the store - such as special offers and two-for-one deals.
In 2005 Hans Reichel reworked FF Dax into a cleaner, more mature text face called FF Daxline.
FF Dax is widely adopted in several advertising materials, it is also used as a branding font by a few organisations and companies.
The typeface was adopted in the United Kingdom by David Cameron in 2005 as part of the branding for his campaign for leadership of the Conservative Party. After Cameron was elected, the party was immediately rebranded in the style of the Cameron campaign, and Dax was used for a new version of the party logo and across all its subsequent advertising, leaflets and
Cheltenham is a display typeface, designed in 1896 by architect Bertram Goodhue and Ingalls Kimball, director of the Cheltenham Press. The original drawings were known as Boston Old Style and were made about 14" high. These drawings were then turned over to Morris Fuller Benton at American Type Founders (ATF) who developed it into a final design. Trial cuttings were made as early as 1899 but the face was not complete until 1902. The face was patented by Kimball in 1904. Later the basic face was spun out into an extensive type family by Morris Fuller Benton.
Cheltenham is not based on a single historical model, and shows influences of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Originally intended as a text face, "Chelt" became hugely successful as the "king of the display faces." Part of the face's huge popularity is because, as it has elements of both an old style and transitional face, a Cheltenham headline complements virtually any body type. The overwhelming popularity of the face for display purposes lasted until the advent of the geometric sans-serif typefaces of the 1930s.
The following versions were available in foundry type:
The popularity of Cheltenham continued strong right in the
The Andy typeface (originally known as Mead font) is a childish style design by Steve Matteson and owned by Monotype Imaging. This typeface family has a controlled spontaneity feature which combines informality and legibility needed for long documents with handwriting form.
The TrueType versions of this typeface have been tuned to be highly legible at low sizes, a quality level that is called ESQ ("Enhanced Screen Quality"), a term used by the foundry.
Andy Bold is a casual script based on the handwriting of Steve's friend Andy Mead.
Segoe ( /ˈsiːɡoʊ/ SEE-goh) is a Humanist typeface family that is best known for its usage by Microsoft. The company uses Segoe in their online and printed marketing materials, including recent logos for a number of products. Additionally, the Segoe UI family of fonts is utilized by numerous Microsoft applications, and may be installed by applications (such as Microsoft Office 2007 and Windows Live Messenger 2009) or bundled with certain operating systems (including Windows Vista and Windows 7). The font is also used for outlook.com, Microsoft's latest email service which will replace Hotmail. As of August 2012, Microsoft uses Segoe as part of their corporate logo.
The Segoe name is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation, although the typeface was originally developed by Monotype.
Segoe was designed by Steve Matteson during his employment at Agfa Monotype. Licensed to Microsoft for use as a branding typeface and user interface font, it was designed to be friendly and legible. Matteson created a range of weights and italics with a humanist feel.
In 2004, Microsoft registered certain Segoe and Segoe Italic fonts as original font designs with the European Union trademark
Folkard is a font based on hand lettering by British artist and calligrapher Charles Folkard. The font was developed by Dave Nalle of Scriptorium Fonts from samples of his characteristic hand lettering taken from book covers and sheet music which he illustrated and decorated.
Folkard has swashed capital letters and several variant forms of a number of the letters. The lowercase characters are distinguished by having characteristics similar to insular minuscule lettering, while the upper case characters are a fanciful variant on traditional roman characters.
Folkard has become popular as a font for book covers and merchandising, particularly in association with fairy and fantasy subject matter.
Adrian Frutiger (born May 24, 1928 in Unterseen, Canton of Bern, Switzerland) is a typeface designer who influenced the direction of digital typography in the second half of the 20th century and into the 21st. He is best known for creating the Univers and Frutiger typefaces.
Adrian Frutiger was born in Unterseen, Canton of Bern, the son of a weaver. As a boy, he experimented with invented scripts and stylized handwriting in negative reaction to the formal, cursive penmanship then required by Swiss schools. His early interest in sculpture was discouraged by his father and by his secondary school teachers; they encouraged him to work in printing. Though in the world of print, he maintains the love of sculpture that has influenced his type forms.
At the age of sixteen, he was apprenticed for four years, as a compositor, to the printer Otto Schaerffli in Interlaken; between 1949 and 1951 he studied under Walter Käch and Alfred Willimann in the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of applied arts) in Zürich, where students studied monumental inscriptions from Roman forum rubbings. At the Kunstgewerbeschule, Frutiger primarily concentrated on calligraphy — a craft favouring the nib and the brush,
Neuzeit S is a sans-serif typeface designed by C.W. Pischner in 1928 for the Stempel type foundry. The German name translates to English as "new time." The face combines characteristics of both geometric and realist (neo-grotesque) sans-serif classifications. In 1959 additional weights were added by the Linotype foundry's version. A related but different face, DIN Neuzeit, is rounder and more purely a geometric sans-serif.
Neuzeit S is distinct for its contrast of wide circular characters o, O, p, q, and Q with the more compact characters h, n, u, and t.
Webdings is a TrueType dingbat font developed in 1997. It was initially distributed with Internet Explorer 4.0, then as part of Core fonts for the Web, and is included in all versions of Microsoft Windows since Windows 98. Most of the glyphs have no Unicode character equivalents.
When typing the initials for New York City, "NYC", the three resulting glyphs are an eye, a heart, and a city skyline: "I Love New York." A Microsoft spokesperson explained that "typographers took pains to ensure that the image corresponding with the capital letters NYC was a pleasant one". This occurred after Wingdings accidentally associated "NYC" with a poison (death) symbol, a Jewish Star of David, and a thumbs-up, creating what appeared to some people as an endorsement of anti-Semitism.
Ad Lib is a decorative typeface that was designed in 1961 by Freeman Craw. It was extremely popular from the early- to mid-1960s, and is often used today to evoke that era. It was used in the Pink Panther titles. It is also used as the font to display scores on the television screen and for the logo on the 1996-97 version of The Newlywed Game.
See also: Samples of display typefaces
Trebuchet MS is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Vincent Connare for the Microsoft Corporation in 1996. It is named after the trebuchet, a medieval siege engine. The name was inspired by a puzzle question that Connare heard at Microsoft headquarters: "Can you make a trebuchet that could launch a person from main campus to the new consumer campus about a mile away? Mathematically, is it possible and how?" Connare "thought that would be a great name for a font that launches words across the Internet".
Trebuchet MS distinguishes itself from other common sans-serif typefaces through several characteristics, the most notable of which include:
Microsoft refers to Trebuchet MS as "a good web design font", being one of their "Core fonts for the Web". Trebuchet MS is included with several products, including the Windows operating system, components of the Office productivity suite, and Internet Explorer. It is the default typeface for title bars in Windows XP (when using the default Luna theme: for Windows Classic, either Tahoma or Microsoft Sans Serif are commonly used).
In some versions of the font (those shipped with Windows 2000 and early versions of Internet Explorer), the
Folio is a realist sans-serif typeface designed by Konrad Bauer and Walter Baum in 1957 for the Bauersche Gießerei (in English: Bauer foundry). Bauer licensed the design to Founderie Typographique Francaise for sale in France under the name Caravelle.
Like Helvetica and Univers, which were also released at the same time, it is part of the International Typographic Style and modeled after Akzidenz-Grotesk. However, Folio is more closely modeled on Akzidenz-Grotesk than the other two, which have larger x-heights. Due to good marketing, the typeface experienced moderate success in the United States. The typeface family was extended in 1963, adding an Extra Bold weight and a Bold Condensed width.
The cold type version was issued by Hell AG.
Characteristics of this typeface are:
lower case: square dot over the letter i. double storey a.
upper case: the capital Q's tail is centered under the figure, the uppercase J has a slight hook, and there are two versions of uppercase R, one with a straight tail and one with a curved tail.
Handel Gothic is a geometric sans-serif typeface.
The typeface was designed in the mid-1960s by Donald J. Handel (1936-2002), who worked for the famous designer Saul Bass. It was used in the 1973 United Airlines logo developed by Bass.
Handel Gothic was an instant success when first released. The typeface was originally distributed in film format by PhotoStar and got re-issued in the 1980s by Robert Trogman.
It was a popular font in the 1980s due to its futuristic design, and even today is used to signify the future.
The Bitstream version uses a rounded downward leg on R instead of the diagonal legged R.
It is a version by Tilde SIA with Cyrillic support. The family includes 1 font.
It is a re-proportioned version designed by Rod McDonald, released in March 2008 by International Typeface Corporation. This OpenType family includes 5 fonts in 5 weights and includes fractions, ligatures, ordinals, stylistic alternates and subscript/superscript.
Andreas is a humanist serif typeface designed by Michael Harvey, and licensed from the Adobe Type library. Harvey drew the lettering in 1988 as part of the book-jacket design for James F. Peck's book In the Studios of Paris: William Bouguereau and His American Students, a Yale University Press publication. That lettering became the foundation for the 1986 typeface Andreas.
In keeping with the book's subject, Harvey wanted letterforms that reflected the Art Nouveau period. The letterforms also bear comparison with the condensed, calligraphic thirteenth century Italian monumental capitals. Due to space constraints, the type had to be narrow enough to allow the title to fit on a single line across the top, so as to not intrude on the Van Gogh painting that filled the rest of the jacket. To accomplish this he drew the letterforms freehand, giving them highly animated organic strokes and narrow character set. He also added distinctive junctions of letter strokes to the D, P, and R. The typeface was drawn in outline, intending to reverse to white, so as to not be overly assertive on the cover.
Myriad is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Robert Slimbach and Carol Twombly for Adobe Systems. The typeface is best known for its usage by Apple Inc., replacing Apple Garamond as Apple's corporate font since 2002. Myriad is easily distinguished from other sans-serif fonts due to its special "y" descender (tail) and slanting "e" cut. Myriad is similar to Frutiger.
This PostScript Type 1 font family was released after the original Myriad MM. It initially included four fonts in two weights, with complementary italics. All these Type 1 versions supported the ISO-Adobe character set; all were discontinued in the early 2000s.
Myriad Web is a version of Myriad in TrueType font format, optimized for onscreen use. It supports Adobe CE and Adobe Western 2 character sets. Myriad Web comprises only five fonts: Myriad Web Pro Bold, Myriad Web Pro Regular, Myriad Web Pro Condensed Italic, Myriad Web Pro Condensed, Myriad Web Pro Italic. Myriad Web Pro is slightly wider than Myriad Pro, while the width of Myriad Web Pro Condensed is between Myriad Pro Condensed and Myriad Pro SemiCondensed.
The family is bundled as part of the Adobe Web Type Pro font pack.Dobre.
Myriad Pro is the
Nimbus Mono is a monospaced typeface created by URW Studio in 1984, and eventually released under the GPL and AFPL (as Type 1 font for Ghostscript) in 1996 and LPPL in 2009. It features Normal, Bold, Italic, and Bold Italic weights, and is one of several freely licensed fonts offered by URW++. Although the characters are not exactly the same, Nimbus Mono has metrics that are very similar to Courier and Courier New.
It is one of the Ghostscript fonts, free alternatives to 35 basic PostScript fonts (which include Courier). It is a standard typeface in many GNU/Linux distributions.
Rudolf Koch (20 November 1876 – 9 April 1934) was a leading German calligrapher, typographic artist and teacher, born in Nuremberg. He was primarily a calligrapher with the Gebr. Klingspor foundry. He created several typefaces, in both fraktur and roman styles. Fritz Kredel studied under Koch at the Offenbach School of Design.
Koch wrote a book containing 493 old-world symbols, monograms and runes entitled The Book of Signs (reprinted in 1955, in the Dover Pictorial Archive Series). He had also a column in the magazine Die zeitgemäße Schrift, a magazine of design published by Heintze & Blanckertz.
Granjon is an old style serif typeface designed by George William Jones (1860–1942) in the period 1928–1929, and based on the Garamond typeface that was used in a book printed by the Parisian Jean Poupy in 1592. The roman design was from Claude Garamond and the italic version was from Robert Granjon. Because several other Garamonds were on the market in the 1920s, Jones decided to name his type Granjon. Many of the Garamond revivals of the 1920s were later shown to be actually based on the types of Jean Jannon.
Chauncey H. Griffith of the American Linotype office contributed to the development of the typeface family by developing a bold weight. A longtime popular text type, Granjon's digital version is sometimes criticized as being "anemic" in smaller point sizes.
A symbol is something that represents an idea, a process, or a physical entity. The purpose of a symbol is to communicate meaning. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture of a tent might represent a campsite. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose symbolizes love and compassion.
In cartography, an organized collection of symbols forms a legend, or key.
The word derives from the Greek symbolon meaning token or watchword. It is an amalgam of syn- "together" + bole "a throwing, a casting, the stroke of a missile, bolt, beam." The sense evolution in Greek is from "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Hence, "outward sign" of something. The meaning "something which stands for something else" was first recorded 1590, in Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene.
Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who studied archetypes, proposed an alternative definition of symbol, distinguishing it from the term sign. In Jung's view, a sign stands for something known, as a word stands for its referent. He contrasted this with symbol,
Fette Fraktur is a blackletter typeface of the sub-classification Fraktur designed by the German punchcutter Johann Christian Bauer (1802–1867) in 1850. The C.E. Weber Foundry published a version in 1875, and the D Stempel AG foundry published the version shown at right in 1908.
Fette Fraktur (German for bold Fraktur) is based on the Fraktur type of blackletter faces. This heavy nineteenth century version was developed more for advertising than text, similar to the extremely heavy advertising versions of Didone classification faces like Poster Bodoni, Thorogood, and Fat Face.
For a span of nearly a hundred years, the original Fraktur script was used as a standard text face in German-speaking Europe and parts of Scandinavia. During the period of the Third Reich Fraktur and blackletter faces were initially approved of in contrast to sans-serif faces (associated with the Bauhaus and cultural Bolshevism). Approved use of blackletter Fraktur faces by the Nazi regime continued until January 3, 1941, when Martin Bormann, director of the Party Chancellery issued a directive discontinuing the use of blackletter faces because of an alleged discovery of Jewish contributions in the development
Hoefler Text is a contemporary serif Antiqua font that was designed for Apple Computer to demonstrate advanced type technologies. Hoefler Text was created to allow the composition of complex typography; as such it takes cues from a range of classic fonts, such as Garamond and Janson.
Designed by Jonathan Hoefler in 1991, a version of Hoefler Text has been included with every version of Mac OS since System 7.5.
Hoefler Text incorporates automatic ligatures, the round and long s, real small capitals, old style figures and swashes. Hoefler Text also has a matching ornament font. It was, until OpenType made advanced typographic features more common, one of only a few fonts in common usage that contained old style, or ranging figures, which are designed to harmonize with standard upper- and lowercase text.
Since the introduction of the font, Hoefler Text has been expanded to include additional typographic features, and versions of the font published by Hoefler & Frere-Jones now include three weights, swash caps, italic small capitals, and two sets of engraved capitals.
Hoefler Text was used in the Wikipedia logo until the 2010 redesign, when it was replaced with Linux Libertine.
A computer font (or font) is an electronic data file containing a set of glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats. Although the term font first referred to a set of metal type sorts in one style and size, since the 1990s it is generally used to refer to a scalable set of digital shapes that may be printed at many different sizes.
There are three basic kinds of computer font file data formats:
Bitmap fonts are faster and easier to use in computer code, but non-scalable, requiring a separate font for each size. Outline and stroke fonts can be resized using a single font and substituting different measurements for components of each glyph, but are somewhat more complicated to render on screen than bitmap fonts, as they require additional computer code to render the outline to a bitmap for display on screen or in print. Although all types are still in use, most fonts seen and used on computers are outline fonts.
A raster image can be displayed in a different size only with some distortion, but renders quickly; outline or stroke image formats are resizable but take more time to render as pixels must be drawn from scratch each time they are displayed.
Fonts are designed and
Umbra is a sans-serif display typeface designed in 1935 by R. Hunter Middleton. It is an adaptation of the uppercase set of his earlier typeface Tempo Light. The name Umbra refers to its shadow effect, in which the actual letter shape consists of negative space and is defined solely by its black dimensional shadow.
Bembo is the name given to a 20th-century revival of an old style serif or humanist typeface cut by Francesco Griffo around 1495.
The typeface Bembo seen today is a revival designed under the direction of Stanley Morison for the Monotype Corporation in 1929.
It is considered a good choice for expressing classic beauty or formal tradition in typographical design and is generally held to be a good book face.
Characteristics of this typeface are the following:
lower case: double-storey a.
upper case: the capital Q's tail is centered under the figure, the uppercase J has a slight hook, and there are two versions of uppercase R, one with a straight tail and one with a curved tail.
Bembo is a classic typeface that displays the characteristics that identify Old Style, humanist designs:
Griffo cut punches for the Venetian press of the humanist printer Aldus Manutius. The face was first used in February 1496 (1495 more veneto), in the setting of a book entitled Petri Bembi de Aetna Angelum Chalabrilem liber, a 60-page text about a journey to Mount Aetna written by the young Italian humanist poet Pietro Bembo, later a Cardinal and secretary to Pope Leo X.
Six years later Griffo was
Kabel is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed by German typeface designer Rudolf Koch, and released by the Klingspor foundry in 1927. The face was named to honor the newly completed trans-Atlantic telephone cable. Today the typeface is licensed by the Elsner+Flake GbR foundry.
Like its contemporary Futura it bears influence of two earlier geometric sans-serif typefaces; the 1919 Feder Schrift, drawn by Jakob Erbar, and more so his 1922 design called Erbar. Still, Kabel comes less out of the influences of German modernism, but more German expressionism. Stroke weights are more varied than most geometric sans-serifs, and the terminus of vertical strokes are cut to a near eight-degree angle. This has the effect of not quite sitting on the baseline and making for a more animated, less static feeling than Futura. Uppercase characters are broad and show influence of monumental roman capitals. The capital W is splayed and the G has no terminal. Lowercase characters a, e, and g show a link with Carolingian script.
Victor Caruso's 1975 revival, licensed by D Stempel AG, for the International Typeface Corporation follows the formulary ITC approach of a dramatically increased x-height
AMS Euler is an upright cursive typeface, commissioned by the American Mathematical Society (AMS) and designed and created by Hermann Zapf with the assistance of Donald Knuth. It tries to emulate a mathematician's style of handwriting mathematical entities on a blackboard, which is upright rather than italic. It blends very well with other typefaces made by Hermann Zapf, such as Palatino, Aldus and Melior, but very badly with the default TeX font Computer Modern. All the alphabets were executed with the computer-assisted design system Metafont developed by Knuth. Work on the design took place 1980-81 with copyright by American Mathematical Society in 1983.
The AMS Euler typeface is named after Leonhard Euler.
First implemented in METAFONT, AMS Euler was first used in the book Concrete Mathematics, co-authored by Knuth, which was dedicated to Euler. This volume also saw the debut of Knuth's Concrete Roman font, designed to complement AMS Euler. The typeface is now also available in other formats, including PostScript Type 1 and TrueType.
The family consist of seven alphabets: Text, Greek, Fraktur, Text Bold, Greek Bold, Script Bold and Fraktur Bold.
In 2009, AMS released version 3.0
Architype Albers is a geometrically constructed stencil sans-serif typeface based upon a series of experiments between 1926 and 1931 by Josef Albers, German designer, educator and typographer, (1888–1976). The Architype Albers typeface is one of a collection of several revivals of early twentieth century typographic experimentation designed by Freda Sack and David Quay of The Foundry.
Albers studied art in Berlin, Essen, Germany, and Munich before enrolling as a student at the Weimar Bauhaus in 1920. He began teaching in the preliminary course of the Department of Design in 1922, and was promoted to professor in 1925, the year the Bauhaus moved to Dessau. He taught there until the school was closed by the Nazis in 1933.
Albers designed a series of stencil faces while teaching at the Dessau Bauhaus. The typeface is based on a limited palette of geometric forms combined in a size ratio of 1:3. Drawn on a grid, the elements of square, triangle, and circle combine to form letters with an economy of form. Never intended for text, the face was designed for use on posters and in large scale signs.
Edward Johnston, CBE (11 February 1872 – 26 November 1944) was a British craftsman who is regarded, with Rudolf Koch, as the a father of modern calligraphy, in the form of the broad edged pen as a writing tool, a particular form of calligraphy.
Johnston was born in San José, Uruguay. He started teaching at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London's Southampton Row, where he influenced the typeface designer and sculptor Eric Gill. Then he moved on to the Royal College of Art and many students were inspired by his teachings. In 1912 Johnston followed Gill to Ditchling where he died in 1944.
He is most famous for designing the sans-serif Johnston typeface that was used throughout the London Underground system until it was re-designed in the 1980s. He also redesigned the famous roundel symbol used throughout the system.
He has also been credited for reviving the art of modern penmanship and lettering single-handedly through his books and teachings. Johnston also devised the simply crafted round calligraphic handwriting style, written with a broad pen, known as the foundational hand.
In 1921, students of Johnston founded the Society of Scribes & Illuminators (SSI), probably the
Jonathan Hoefler (born August 22, 1970) is an American typeface designer. Hoefler (pronounced “Heffler”) founded Hoefler & Frere-Jones (originally The Hoefler Type Foundry, established 1989), a type foundry in New York that Hoefler shares with fellow type designer Tobias Frere-Jones.
Hoefler has designed original typefaces for Rolling Stone Magazine, Harper’s Bazaar, The New York Times Magazine, Sports Illustrated, and Esquire and several institutional clients, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and alternative band They Might Be Giants. Perhaps his best-known work is the Hoefler Text family of typefaces, designed for Apple Computer and now appearing as part of the Macintosh operating system.
In 1995, Hoefler was named one of the forty most influential designers in America by I.D. magazine, and in 2002, the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI) presented him with its most prestigious award, the Prix Charles Peignot for outstanding contributions to type design. Hoefler and Frere-Jones have been profiled in The New York Times, Time Magazine, and Esquire Magazine, and appearances on National Public Radio and CBS Sunday Morning.
Hoefler's work is part of the
Peignot is constructed sans-serif display typeface, designed by A. M. Cassandre in 1937. It was commissioned by the French foundry Deberny & Peignot. The typeface is notable for not having a traditional lowercase, but in its place a "multi-case" combining traditional lowercase and small capital characters. The typeface achieved some popularity in poster and advertising publishing from its release through the late 1940s. Use of Peignot declined with the growth of the International Typographic Style which favored less decorative, more objective typefaces like Akzidenz-Grotesk. Peignot experienced a revival in the 1970s as the typeface used on The Mary Tyler Moore Show and the second season of That's My Mama. While often classified as "decorative," the face is a serious exploration of typographic form and legibility. It is now owned by Linotype Corp. and is distributed both by Linotype and by Adobe.
Skeleton Antique is a slab serif wooden letterpress typeface designed by William Hamilton Page and first shown in his company's 1865 catalog. The face is nearly monoline in its stroke width and lacks the sweltering over-onamentation typical not only of Page's faces, but of those typical of the nineteenth century.
A virtual type revival was designed by Jordan Davies for Wooden Type Fonts in 2005.
Transport is a sans serif typeface first designed for road signs in the United Kingdom. It was created between 1957 and 1963 by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert as part of their work as designers for the Department of Transport's Anderson and Worboys committees.
Before its introduction, British road signs used the capitals-only Llewelyn-Smith alphabet that was introduced following the Maybury Report of 1933 and revised in 1955–57. Older signs, known as fingerposts, tended to use a variety of sans serif alphabets as supplied by their manufacturers. For the kinds of roads on which either of these alphabets was likely to be seen, legibility was not a pressing issue, but the planning and building of Britain's first motorway in the 1950s was a catalyst for change.
The Ministry of Transport appointed an Advisory Committee on Traffic Signs for Motorways under the chairmanship of Sir Colin Anderson in 1957 and Jock Kinneir and his assistant Margaret Calvert were appointed as graphic designers to it. All aspects of signing were investigated and tested, initially on the Preston bypass (1958, now part of the M6 motorway), before their introduction on the (London–Yorkshire) M1 motorway a
Albertus is a glyphic, serif typeface designed by Berthold Wolpe in the period 1932 to 1940 for the Monotype Corporation type foundry. Wolpe named the font after Albertus Magnus, the thirteenth-century German philosopher and theologian.
Wolpe studied as a metal engraver, and Albertus was modeled to resemble letters carved into bronze. The face began as titling capitals. Eventually a lowercase roman was added, and later an italic, which is distinct for its narrow character set. Albertus has slight glyphic serifs. It is available in light and italic varieties. The Cyrillic glyphs have been added.
The project began in 1932. Titling caps were released first, in 1932, followed by a roman upper and lowercase in 1940 with light weight following later.
Albertus' popularity and usefulness continued right through the phototypesetting era and was made available for photocomposition by Monotype and perhaps other vendors as well.
Monotype licences Albertus to Linotype which has released a digital version.
Frutiger (pronounced with a hard g) is a series of typefaces named after its designer, Adrian Frutiger. Initially available as a sans serif, it was later expanded to include ornamental and serif typefaces.
Characteristics of this typeface are:
lower case: square dot over the letter i. double storey a.
upper case: the capital Q's tail is centered under the figure, the uppercase J has a slight hook, and there are two versions of uppercase R, one with a straight tail and one with a curved tail.
Frutiger is a sans-serif typeface by the Swiss type designer Adrian Frutiger. It was commissioned in 1968 by the newly built Charles De Gaulle International Airport at Roissy, France, which needed a new directional sign system. Instead of using one of his previously designed typefaces like Univers, Frutiger chose to design a new one. The new typeface, originally called Roissy, was completed in 1975 and installed at the airport the same year.
Frutiger's goal was to create a sans serif typeface with the rationality and cleanliness of Univers, but with the organic and proportional aspects of Gill Sans. The result is that Frutiger is a distinctive and legible typeface. The letter
Bookshelf Symbol 7 is a typeface which was packaged with Microsoft Office 2003.
In 2004, Microsoft released a critical update (Knowledge Base Article 833407) to remove two swastikas (one diagonal, one straight) and a Star of David from this typeface, presumably after complaints from users who took the swastikas as support for Nazism.
Calibri is a humanist sans-serif typeface family under the Microsoft ClearType Font Collection. In Microsoft Office 2007, it replaced Times New Roman as the default typeface in Word and replaced Arial as the default in PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, and WordPad. It continued to be the default typeface in Microsoft Office 2010 applications.
Calibri was designed by Lucas de Groot for Microsoft to take advantage of Microsoft's ClearType rendering technology.
The font features subtly rounded stems and corners that are visible at larger sizes. The typeface includes characters from Latin, Latin extended, Greek, Cyrillic and Thai scripts. OpenType features include small caps, subscripts and superscripts, and extra ligatures.
As with other Sans Serif ClearType Collection fonts, it includes unique italic type features, which are common in modern typefaces.
The typeface is distributed with Windows Vista, Windows 7, Microsoft Office 2007, Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac and Microsoft Office 2011 for Mac
The typeface is available in Google Docs as of September 2010.
This typeface, along with Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel, is also distributed with the free Powerpoint 2007
Architype Van Doesburg is a geometric sans-serif typeface based upon a 1919 alphabet designed by Theo Van Doesburg, a cofounder of the De Stijl art movement. The digital revival shown at right was produced by Freda Sack and David Quay of The Foundry.
The face is constructed entirely of perpendicular evenly weighted strokes. Each character is based upon a square divided into a raster of 25 smaller squares. Van Doesburg's earliest uses of the alphabet was in limited quantity, made up of letterpress ruling pieces, and not as strictly formed as his more finished 1919 version. A similarly constructed rectilinear sans-serif typeface, designed in 1917 by Piet Zwart bears comparison. The face is similar to Van Doesburg's later 1928 alphabet designed for the Café Aubette in Strasbourg. Both faces anticipate later typographic explorations of geometric reductionism of Wim Crouwel's 1967 New Alphabet and early digital faces like Zuzana Licko's faces Lo-Res and Emperor 8. The Architype Van Doesburg typeface is part of a collection of several revivals of early twentieth century typographic experimentation designed by Freda Sack and David Quay of The Foundry.
San Francisco was one of the original bitmap typefaces for the Apple Macintosh computer. It was designed by Susan Kare to mimic the ransom note effect. An official TrueType version was never made, and San Francisco was rendered obsolete with the arrival of System 7.
Saint Francis, by Hank Gillette, is a free TrueType font of similar design sometimes used as a surrogate on non-Apple systems.
Thesis is a large typeface family designed by Lucas de Groot. The typefaces were designed between 1994 and 1999 to provide a modern humanist corporate font. Each typeface is available in a variety of weights as well as in italic.
Thesis fonts have become popular and can be seen in various publications or logotypes.
The range of weights are designed using de Groot's "interpolation theory". The optical interpolation b, in the three stems a (thinnest), b (interpolation) and c (thickest), is set to the geometric mean of a and c, i.e. b² = ac (as opposed to the linear arithmetic mean).
It is a sans-serif font family. It included fonts in 8 weights and 2 widths, with complementary italic fonts.
In TheSans Condensed, each weight only includes roman and italic, but all 4 number styles can be found.
It is a monospaced variant. 3 widths have been produced. All fonts use hanging monospaced figures.
It is a monospaced variant with ragged strokes. It included fonts in regular and bold weights in the widest TheSansMono width, with complementary italic fonts. It uses hanging monospaced figures.
It is a slab serif font family. It included fonts in 8 weights and 1 width, with complementary italic
A dingbat is an ornament, character or spacer used in typesetting, sometimes more formally known as a printer's ornament or printer's character. The term continues to be used in the computer industry to describe fonts that have symbols and shapes in the positions designated for alphabetical or numeric characters.
Examples of characters included in Unicode (ITC Zapf dingbats series 100 and others):
The advent of Unicode and the universal character set it provides allowed commonly-used dingbats to be given their own character codes, from 2700 to 27BF (hexadecimal). Although fonts claiming Unicode coverage will contain glyphs for dingbats in addition to alphabetic characters, fonts that have dingbats in place of alphabetic characters continue to be popular, primarily for ease of input. Such fonts are also sometimes known as pi fonts.
Some of the dingbat symbols have been used as signature marks, used in bookbinding to order sections.
Dingbats were added to the Unicode Standard in June, 1993 with the release of version 1.1.
The Unicode block for Dingbats is U+2700–U+27BF:
Johnston (or Johnston Sans) is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by and named after Edward Johnston. It is well known for its use by Transport for London.
Johnston's former student Eric Gill also worked on the development of the typeface, which was later to influence his own Gill Sans typeface, produced 1928–32.
Features of the font are the perfect circle of the letter O and the use of a diagonal square dot above minuscule letters i and j and for the full stop. Commas, apostrophes and other punctuation marks are also based on the diagonal square dot. The capitals of the typeface are based on Roman square capitals, and the lower-case on the humanistic minuscule, the handwriting in use in Italy in the fifteenth century. In this, it marked a break with the kinds of sans serif previously used, sometimes known as grotesque, which tended to have squarer shapes.
The typeface was commissioned in 1913 by Frank Pick, Commercial Manager of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (also known as 'The Underground Group'), as part of his plan to strengthen the company's corporate identity, and introduced in 1916. Pick specified to Johnston that he wanted a typeface that would
A monospaced font, also called a fixed-pitch, fixed-width or non-proportional font, is a font whose letters and characters each occupy the same amount of horizontal space. This contrasts to variable-width fonts, where the letters differ in size to one another.
The first monospaced typefaces were designed for typewriters, which could only move the same distance forward with each letter typed. This also meant that monospaced fonts need not be typeset like variable width fonts and were, arguably, easier to deal with.
Note that this article generally assumes Western (Latin-based, Cyrillic, or Greek) writing systems. East Asian rules of typography, for example, require CJK fonts to always be monospaced at least as far as the main characters for writing words (i.e. not punctuation) are concerned. Other scripts vary in their use of monospaced fonts.
Monospaced fonts were widely used in early computers and computer terminals, which often had extremely limited graphical capabilities. Hardware implementation was simplified by using a text mode where the screen layout was addressed as a regular grid of tiles, each of which could be set to display a character by indexing into the hardware's
Architype Schwitters is a geometric sans-serif typeface based upon a 1927 phonetic alphabet designed by Kurt Schwitters (1887–1948). The digital revival, shown at right, was produced by Freda Sack and David Quay of The Foundry.
Like many new experimental types to arise from the early twentieth century avant garde in Europe, Schwitters' type is an attempt to remake the Western writing system through reduction, and the abandonment of idiosynchronies. Schwitters proposed a monocase system, adopting a rectilinear interpretation of roman capitals, and contrasting these with six vowel alternate characters, A, e, I, O, Ü, and y scaled to the same height but based upon Carolingian lowercase. The vowel alternates, though primarily used for the short sound, are used somewhat indiscriminately in his print work. Unlike his contemporaries, Herbert Bayer, Theo Van Doesburg, and Jan Tschichold all who produced experimental universal alphabets that rejected uppercase, Schwitters retained the form of roman capitals.
ITC Kristen is a casual script typeface consisting of two weights designed by George Ryan for the International Typeface Corporation (ITC). It was inspired by a handwritten menu at a Cambridge, Massachusetts restaurant, and has an asymmetric structure suggesting a child's handwriting.
A TrueType version of Kristen is shipped with Microsoft Publisher 2000.
Times New Roman is a serif typeface commissioned by the British newspaper The Times in 1931, created by Victor Lardent at the English branch of Monotype. It was commissioned after Stanley Morison had written an article criticizing The Times for being badly printed and typographically antiquated. The font was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of The Times. Morison used an older font named Plantin as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. Morison's revision became known as Times New Roman and made its debut in the 3 October 1932 issue of The Times newspaper. After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. The Times stayed with Times New Roman for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from broadsheet to tabloid in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch font five times since 1972. However, all the new fonts have been variants of the original New Roman font.
Some experts believe that the design was based on an earlier original work of William Starling Burgess. This theory remains controversial.
Because of its popularity, the typeface has been
Kris Holmes (b. 1950, Reedley, California) is a calligrapher who has worked on many typeface designs, some of which have been direct adaptations of her calligraphy. She is with Charles Bigelow the co-creator of the Lucida font family.
She received her B.A. from Harvard University and her MFA from UCLA Film School in Animation. She has taught at the Rochester Institute of Technology, Portland State University, the The Museum Art School (Portland), Rhode Island School of Design, Santa Monica College, and the Otis College of Art and Design.
Recent projects include the design of Lucida Grande, the system font for Apple Computer’s OSX Operating System and the creation of the core fonts of the Java 2 language and developer kit for Sun Microsystems. These multi-lingual fonts cover five scripts, including Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew and Arabic, and twelve styles, comprising 10,000 characters in all. Other computer platform clients include the Microsoft Corporation, Sun Microsystems’ Solaris division, and Lucent Technologies. Font designs include: Microsoft Wingdings (Windows 95 and 98), Lucida Console (Windows NT), TrueType Chicago, Monaco, Geneva, New York, Apple Chancery, Textile,
Nimbus Sans is a sans-serif typeface created by URW++, based on Helvetica.
It is a version using URW++ font source. The family supports Western Europe, East Europe, Turkish, Baltic, Romanian languages.
Some of the fonts have history predating Helvetica's first release. For example, Nimbus Sans bold condensed, Nimbus Sans bold condensed (D) were dated 1940; Nimbus Sans Black Condensed, Nimbus Sans Black Condensed (D) were dated 1946.
The fonts ended with (D) names have slightly lighter font weights and tighter spacing.
It is a version of Nimbus Sans with even tighter spacing than the Nimbus Sans (D) fonts. Other changes include alternate designs for currency symbols.
It is a version with more right lean than Nimbus Sans italic fonts. The family currently only includes 1 font, in Black weight in medium width.
It is a monospaced variant of Nimbus Sans. The family currently only includes 1 font, in Regular weight in medium width.
It is a family supporting Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, CJK ideographic, Japanese kanam, Korean Hangul syllables, Thai characters. The family includes 5 fonts in 1 (medium) width, with 4 proportional an 1 monospaced fonts. The proportional fonts are in 4 weights
In the early days of computer optical character recognition, there was a need for a font that could be recognized by the computers of that day, and by humans. The resulting compromise was the OCR-A font, which used simple, thick strokes to form recognizable characters. The font is monospaced (fixed-width), with the printer required to place glyphs 0.254 cm (0.10 inch) apart, and the reader required to accept any spacing between 0.2286 cm (0.09 inch) and 0.4572 cm (0.18 inch).
The OCR-A font was standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as X3.4-1977. X3.4 has since become the INCITS and the OCR-A standard is now called ISO 1073-1:1976. There is also a German standard for OCR-A called DIN 66008.
In 1968, American Type Founders produced OCR-A, one of the first optical character recognition typefaces to meet the criteria set by the U.S. Bureau of Standards. The design is simple so that it can be easily read by a machine, but it is more difficult for the human eye to read.
As metal type gave way to computer-based typesetting, Tor Lillqvist used MetaFont to describe the OCR-A font. That definition was subsequently improved by Richard B. Wales. Their work is
Univers (French pronunciation: [ynivɛʁ], "ünivair") is the name of a realist sans-serif typeface designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1954.
Originally conceived and released by Deberny & Peignot in 1957, the type library was acquired in 1972 by Haas. Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei (Haas Type Foundry) was later folded into the D. Stempel AG and Linotype collection in 1985 and 1989 respectively.
Univers is one of a group of neo-grotesque sans-serif typefaces, all released in 1957, that includes Folio and Neue Haas Grotesk (later renamed Helvetica). These three faces are sometimes confused with each other, because each is based on the 1898 typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk. These typefaces figure prominently in the Swiss Style of graphic design.
Different weights and variations within the type family are designated by the use of numbers rather than names, a system since adopted by Frutiger for other type designs. Frutiger envisioned a large family with multiple widths and weights that maintained a unified design idiom. However, the actual typeface names within Univers family include both number and letter suffixes.
Currently, Univers type family consists of 44 faces, with 16 uniquely numbered weight,
Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is a linguist, script encoder, typesetter, and font designer. His central area of expertise is with writing systems of the world, specifically in the representation of these systems in formats for computer and digital media. He holds both American and Irish citizenship.
He has been described as "probably the world's leading expert in the computer encoding of scripts" for his work to add a wide variety of scripts and characters to the Universal Character Set. Since 1993, he has written over two hundred proposals which have added thousands of characters to ISO/IEC 10646 and The Unicode Standard.
Everson was born in Norristown, Pennsylvania, and moved to Tucson, Arizona at the age of 12. His interest in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien led him to study Old English and then other Germanic languages. He read German, Spanish, and French for his B.A. at the University of Arizona (1985), and the History of Religions and Indo-European linguistics for his M.A. at the University of California, Los Angeles (1988). In 1989, his former professor Marija Gimbutas asked him to read a paper on Basque mythology at an Indo-Europeanist Conference held in Ireland;
Akira Kobayashi (小林 旭, Kobayashi Akira, born November 3, 1938 in Tokyo, Japan) is a Japanese actor. His nickname is Maitogai (マイトガイ, "mighty guy").
Kobayashi attended Meiji University but left before graduating. He became an actor at Nikkatsu and made his film debut in 1956. He solidified his popularity with such films as Nangoku Tosa o Ato ni Shite (A Farewell to Southern Tosa) and starred in the "Wataridori" ("Rambler") and "Senpūji" ("Whirlwind Child") film series. Kobayashi, along with Yujiro Ishihara and others, formed the core of Nikkatsu Action's golden age.
Kobayashi was married to popular singer Misora Hibari in 1962, but the marriage ended in divorce two years later in 1964.
Kobayashi sang some of the theme songs from his movies such "Gitā o Motta Wataridori" ("The Guitar-toting Rambler") and "Ginza Maitogai" ("Ginza's Whirlwind Child"), which became hits.
In addition to those songs, he performed the song "Jidōsha Shō Ka" ("Auto Show Song") (which, in 2005, is featured in Asahi Breweries' "Cocktail Partner" commercial) and comical songs like "Koi no Yamanotesen" ("The Yamanote Line of Love") and some songs of the enka variety, such as "Mukashi no Namae de Deteimasu" ("I'm
Margaret Calvert (born 1936) is a typographer and graphic designer who, with colleague Jock Kinneir, designed many of the road signs used throughout the United Kingdom, as well as the Transport font used on road signs and the Rail Alphabet font used on the British railway system and an early version of the signs used in airports.
Born in South Africa, Calvert moved to England in 1950, she studied at the Chelsea College of Art. Kinneir, her tutor there, asked her to help him design the signs for Gatwick Airport, where they chose the black on yellow scheme for the signs after researching the most effective combination.
In 1957, Kinneir was appointed head of signs for Britain's roads. He then hired Calvert to redesign the road sign system and she came up with simple, easy-to-understand pictograms, including the signs for 'men at work' (a man digging), 'farm animals' (based on a cow named Patience that lived on a farm near to where she grew up), and 'schoolchildren nearby' (a girl leading a boy by the hand, whom she later revealed to be herself), based on pre-existing European road signs. The Worboys Committee was formed by the British government in July 1963 to review signage on all
Dom Casual is an American typeface designed in 1951 by Peter Dom. It is an informal design that emulates brush script.
Dom Casual was often seen in 1960s television programs, such as nearly all Warner Bros. cartoons from 1960–1964 and Hanna-Barbera and Filmways Productions end titles, as well as Bewitched end titles. Dom Casual was also used for the credits and logos of the television shows Full House (1987–1995) and Clarissa Explains It All (1991–1994). It has also been used extensively for signage on The Price Is Right and Gadget Boy. The face has also been used on The Chart Show for the names of the artists and song titles as well for the end credits used from 1991-1996. Other uses for the type included Only Fools And Horses, Bullseye for the scores, names and the end credits. Neighbours was also responsible for their use of Dom Casual for the credits. The Tweenies also used the face for its credits. SCCA Pro Racing uses this typeface on the number boards in the World Challenge series. In business and commerce, The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company ("A&P") used it in their instore broadsheet signage and in newspaper ads into the mid-1970s. Sut Jhally has also been known to
Arthur Eric Rowton Gill /ˈɡɪl/ (22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was a British sculptor, typeface designer, stonecutter and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement. He is a controversial figure, with his well-known religious views and subject matter being seen as at odds with his sexual and paraphiliac behaviour and erotic art.
Gill was named Royal Designer for Industry, the highest British award for designers, by the Royal Society of Arts. He also became a founder-member of the newly established Faculty of Royal Designers for Industry.
Gill was born in 1882 in Brighton, Sussex (now East Sussex). He was the elder brother of MacDonald "Max" Gill (1884-1947), the well known graphic artist. In 1897 the family moved to Chichester. He studied at Chichester Technical and Art School, and in 1900 moved to London to train as an architect with the practice of W.D. Caroe, specialists in ecclesiastical architecture. Frustrated with his training, he took evening classes in stonemasonry at Westminster Technical Institute and in calligraphy at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, where Edward Johnston, creator of the London Underground typeface, became a strong
Giambattista Bodoni (February 16, 1740 in Saluzzo – November 29, 1813 in Parma) was an Italian engraver, publisher, printer and typographer of high repute remembered for designing a family of different typefaces called Bodoni.
Bodoni came from a printmaking background, his father and grandfather both being in that trade. He worked for a time as an apprentice in the Vatican's Propaganda Fide printing house in Rome. There, it was said he impressed his superiors so much with his eagerness to learn, studiousness in mastery of ancient languages and types, and energy of effort, that he was allowed to place his own name on his first books, a Coptic Missal and a version of the Tibetan alphabet. With Baskerville in England and the Didot family in France, Bodoni was a leader in originating pseudoclassical typefaces.
After recovering from a long battle with malaria, Bodoni was hired by the Duke Ferdinand of Bourbon-Parma to organize a printing house in Parma, to be one of the great houses of Italy, called la Stamperia Reale. Bodoni got to work publicizing the house with the creation of specimen books, which were very well received amongst the upper classes of European capitals. Soon, fine
Hermann Zapf (born November 8, 1918) is a German typeface designer who lives in Darmstadt, Germany. He is married to calligrapher and typeface designer Gudrun Zapf von Hesse.
Zapf's work, which includes Palatino and Optima, has been widely copied, often against his will. The best known example may be Monotype's Book Antiqua, which shipped with Microsoft Office and was widely considered a "knockoff" of Palatino. In 1993, Zapf resigned from ATypI (Association Typographique Internationale) over what he viewed as its hypocritical attitude toward unauthorized copying by prominent ATypI members.
Hermann Zapf was born in Nuremberg during turbulent times marked by the German Revolution of 1918–1919 in Munich and Berlin, the end of World War I, the exile of Kaiser Wilhelm, and the establishment of Bavaria as a free state by Kurt Eisner. In addition, the Spanish Flu Pandemic took hold of Europe in 1918 and 1919 and killed two of Zapf's siblings. Famine later struck Germany, and Zapf's mother was grateful to send him to school in 1925, where he received daily meals in a program organized by Herbert Hoover. In school, Zapf was mainly interested in technical subjects. One of his favorite books
Lydian is a typeface designed by Warren Chappell for American Type Founders in 1938. While the stressed letter designs (most notably in the rounded capitals C, G, O, and Q) suggest a calligraphic style, this is considered a sans-serif font. It is available in bold, italic, and condensed, as well as a Cursive variant. The original foundry font was commissioned and cast by American Type Founders and included an alternate capital A with a cross bar and the original italic used old-style figures for numerals. The various members of the family were introduced over the course of eight years:
It was used by the International Baccalaureate Organization in their document section headings until 2007.
A U.S. design patent was applied for on 11 January 1939 and was granted (#116,996) on 3 October 1939.
Lucille Ball used the font effectively for the end credits of both her later color television series The Lucy Show (1962–68) - the later episodes - and its immediate successor Here's Lucy (1968–74)
It was also used for the on-screen credits on the television series Friends (1994–2004).
Century Gothic is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed for Monotype Imaging in 1991. It is a digital typeface that has never been made into actual foundry type. Century Gothic takes inspiration from Sol Hess's Twentieth Century, which was drawn between 1937 and 1947 for the Lanston Monotype Company as a version of the successful Futura typeface, but with a larger x-height and more even stroke width. The Century Gothic face is distinct for its single-storey lowercase a and g. Century Gothic is more closely related to Avant Garde Gothic, designed by Herb Lubalin, and released by the International Typeface Corporation (ITC) in 1970. Century Gothic is similar to ITC Avant Garde in its pure geometry, and does not possess the subtle variation in stroke width found in either Futura or Twentieth Century. However, it differs from ITC Avant Garde in that Century Gothic does not have a descender on lowercase u (making it appear like a Greek upsilon υ), whereas Avant Garde does. Century Gothic also has larger, rounder tittles on the letters i and j, whereas Avant Garde keeps the tittles square and the same width as the letter strokes.
According to the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay,
Courier is a monospaced slab serif typeface designed to resemble the output from a strike-on typewriter. The typeface was designed by Howard "Bud" Kettler in 1955, and it was later redrawn by Adrian Frutiger for the IBM Selectric Composer series of electric typewriters.
Although the design of the original Courier typeface was commissioned by IBM, the company deliberately chose not to secure legal exclusivity to the typeface and it soon became a standard font used throughout the typewriter industry. Since IBM deliberately chose not to seek any copyright, trademark, or design patent protection, the Courier typeface cannot now be trademarked or copyrighted and is completely royalty free.
As a monospaced font, in the 1990s, it found renewed use in the electronic world in situations where columns of characters must be consistently aligned. It has also become an industry standard for all screenplays to be written in 12 point Courier or a close variant. 12 point Courier New was also the U.S. State Department's standard typeface until January 2004, when it was replaced with 14 point Times New Roman. Reasons for the change included the desire for a more "modern" and "legible" font.
Emigre, also known as Emigre Graphics, is a digital type foundry, publisher and distributor of graphic design centered information based in Berkeley, California, that was founded in 1984 by husband-and-wife team Rudy VanderLans and Zuzana Licko. The type foundry also published Emigre magazine between 1984 and 2005. Note that unlike the word émigré, Emigre is officially spelled without accents.
Emigre was founded in 1984 as an independent foundry, developing typefaces without an association to a typesetting equipment manufacturer. Coinciding with the advent of the Macintosh computer, Emigre took advantage of the new medium to design digital typefaces, as such they did not require the manufacturing infrastructure of a traditional type foundry. Licko began designing fonts that, rather than trying to imitate letterpress technology, capitalized on the idiosyncrasies of bitmap design and dot matrix printing, and later, vector-based design. The company is credited with being the first type foundry to design original fonts made on and for a computer.
Through a good part of the late 1980s and most of the 1990s, some of the most cutting-edge typefaces were developed or released by Emigre.
Aldo Novarese (b. 29 June 1920 in Pontestura Monferrato – d. 16 September 1995 in Turin) was an Italian type designer who lived and worked mostly in Turin where he produced an impressive number of unique designs.
After learning woodcutting, copper engraving and lithography at the Scuola Arteri Stampatori in Turin, Novarese began working as a draftsman at the Nebiolo type foundry, becoming art director there in 1952. He taught at the Scuola Viglandi Paravia for ten years beginning in 1948. By 1977 foundry type had become largely obsolete, and Novarese then left Nebiolo to become a free-lance designer.
One of Novarese's most famous designs is the Microgramma typeface (designed in collaboration with Alessandro Butti), which was later renamed Eurostile with the addition of lower-case letters. It utilized shapes based on rectangles with rounded corners, reflecting the modern designs that were gaining popularity at the time, such as television screens and airplane windows. It became very popular as a typeface that evokes technology (it can be seen on the speedometers on many cars and vehicles, particularly older models).
Novarese's designs were both innovative and classical, and those
Junicode ("Junius-Unicode") is a free (SIL Open Font License) old-style serif typeface developed by Peter S. Baker of the University of Virginia. The design is based on a 17th century typeface used in Oxford, England.
Junicode contains many special characters and ligatures for medievalists, along with numerous other Unicode glyphs. The font has OpenType features for advanced typesetting and includes true small caps.
The most recent revision of Junicode is 0.7.6, released on 8 April 2012.
The designs of the Junicode roman characters are based on a 17th century typeface design used at the Oxford University Press, also known as Clarendon Press. Peter Baker based the Junicode roman design on those used in Linguarum Vett. Septentrionalium Thesaurus (1703–1705). The designs represent an intermediate stage between earlier 16th century typefaces (such as Garamond) and later 18th century typefaces (such as Caslon). The Junicode roman character design shares a number of features with these earlier and later typefaces.
Junicode's Greek typeface design is a traditional revival as well. It is based on the Greek Double Pica cut by Alexander Wilson (c. 1714-1786), a Scottish doctor, astronomer,
Sistina is an old style serif typeface designed in 1950 by Hermann Zapf.
Sistina is an all-capitals titling font intended as a heavy supplement to Michelangelo Titling, based on inscriptional capitals in Rome. Sistina was first released in metal in 1951. The recent digital version from Linotype adds small capitals. Hermann Zapf also collaborated with Akira Kobayashi to make a revised version of Sistina named "Palatino Imperial" as part of the Palatino Nova font family.
DIN 1451 is a realist sans-serif typeface that is widely used for traffic, administrative and technical applications. It was defined by the German standards body DIN - Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardization) in the standard sheet DIN 1451-Schriften (typefaces) in 1931.
The DIN 1451 typeface is very legible, both a medium and a condensed version are defined today; an older extended version is no longer used since the early 1980s, but may still be encountered on older road signs in Germany. DIN 1451 is the typeface used on road signage in Germany and a number of other countries. It was also used on German car number plates as from 1956, until replaced there in November 2000 by FE-Schrift, a typeface especially designed to make the plates more tamper-proof and to optimize automatic character recognition. The typeface has gained popularity due to its wide exposure through its release as a PostScript typeface in 1990. Since then it also used by non-governmental organisations and businesses. For graphic design and desktop publishing, several type foundries offer redesigned and extended versions of this typeface.
In 1931 the DIN institute published DIN 1451.
Garamond /ˈɡærəmɒnd/ is the name given to a group of old-style serif typefaces named after the punch-cutter Claude Garamond (c. 1480–1561). Most of the Garamond faces are more closely related to the work of a later punch-cutter, Jean Jannon. A direct relationship between Garamond’s letterforms and contemporary type can be found in the Roman versions of the typefaces Adobe Garamond, Granjon, Sabon, and Stempel Garamond.
Garamond’s letterforms convey a sense of fluidity and consistency. Some unique characteristics in his letters are the small bowl of the a and the small eye of the e. Long extenders and top serifs have a downward slope.
Garamond is considered to be among the most legible and readable serif typefaces for use in print (offline) applications. It has also been noted to be one of the most eco-friendly major fonts when it comes to ink usage.
Claude Garamond came to prominence in the 1540s, first for a Greek typeface he was commissioned to create for the French king Francis I, to be used in a series of books by Robert Estienne. The French court later adopted Garamond’s Roman types for their printing and the typeface influenced type across France and Western Europe. Garamond
Adobe ( /əˈdoʊbi/, UK /əˈdoʊb/; Arabic: الطوب) is a natural building material made from sand, clay, water, and some kind of fibrous or organic material (sticks, straw, and/or manure), which the builders shape into bricks (using frames) and dry in the sun. Adobe buildings are similar to cob and mudbrick buildings. Adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world. In hot climates, compared with wooden buildings, adobe buildings offer significant advantages due to their greater thermal mass, but they are known to be particularly susceptible to earthquake damage.
Buildings made of sun-dried earth are common in West Asia, North Africa, West Africa, South America, southwestern North America, Spain (usually in the Mudéjar style), Eastern Europe and East Anglia, particularly Norfolk, known as 'clay lump. Adobe had been in use by indigenous peoples of the Americas in the Southwestern United States, Mesoamerica, and the Andean region of South America for several thousand years, although often substantial amounts of stone are used in the walls of Pueblo buildings. (Also, the Pueblo people built their adobe structures with handfuls or
International Business Machines Corporation, or IBM, is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.
The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) through a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR adopted the name International Business Machines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTR's subsidiary in Canada and later South America. Its distinctive culture and product branding has given it the nickname Big Blue.
In 2012, Fortune ranked IBM the #2 largest U.S. firm in terms of number of employees (433,362), the #4 largest in terms of market capitalization, the #9 most profitable, and the #19 largest firm in terms of revenue. Globally, the company was ranked the #31 largest in terms of revenue by Forbes for 2011. Other rankings for 2011/2012 include #1 company for leaders (Fortune), #1 green
William Addison Dwiggins (June 19, 1880 Martinsville, Ohio - December 25, 1956 Hingham Center, Massachusetts) was a U.S. type designer, calligrapher, and book designer. He attained prominence as an illustrator and commercial artist, and he brought to the designing of type and books some of the boldness that he displayed in his advertising work.
He and his wife Mabel Hoyle Dwiggins (February 27, 1881 - September 28, 1958) are buried in the Hingham Center Cemetery, Hingham Center, Massachusetts, just steps from their home at 30 Leavitt Street, and Dwiggins’ studio at 45 Irving Street.
His scathing attack on contemporary book designers in An Investigation into the Physical Properties of Books (1919) led to his working with the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. Alblabooks, a series of finely conceived and executed trade books followed and did much to increase public interest in book format. Dwiggins was perhaps more responsible than any other designer for the marked improvement in book design in the 1920s and 1930s. He gained recognition as a calligrapher and wrote much on the graphic arts, notably essays collected in MSS by WAD (1949), and his Layout in Advertising (1928; rev. ed. 1949)
Willow is a name shared by two typefaces.
ITC Willow was designed by Tony Forster in 1990. Although a contemporary typeface, Willow is the reminiscent of the Scottish Arts and Crafts style made popular by painter and social reformer Jessie Marion King (1875–1949), and architect and designer Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868–1928) of the Glasgow School. The face is based upon a sign for the Willow Tea Room, one of three tea rooms in Glasgow designed by Mackintosh. The typeface is distinct for the double crossbars on the uppercase A and H, and the unusual design of the uppercase O, which is raised above the baseline, with two dots centred beneath the bowl.
Willow Regular was designed by Joy Redick in 1990, and is part of the Adobe Originals Woodtype Collection.
The TV show American Horror Story features a variant of ITC Willow* prominently in the episodes as well as the series logotype itself.
The Charles Rennie Mackintosh Font was also used in the motion picture Spider Man II. It featured in the display signage for the Broadway play (Oscar Wilde's "The Importance of Being Earnest") in which Mary Jane Watson (Kirsten Dunst), Peter Parker's on-off girlfriend, was appearing. The movie's
Allegro is a display typeface that was designed by Hans Bohn for the Ludwig & Mayer type foundry in 1936. Its unusual design suggests both musical notes and stenciled letters. It was common in commercial design in the mid–20th Century, but is seldom used today. It is only available in a single weight. Digital versions are available from Bitstream and Adobe Systems.
Dead History is a typeface which explores combining structural elements of both geometric sans-serif and Didone serif typefaces. Designed in 1990 by P. Scott Makela, the face is licensed by Emigre.
Dead History’s strokes transition from unbracketed serifs and contrasting stroke width on the left side of characters to a mono-weighted sans-serif with soft, rounded terminals on the right. Max Kisman’s 1991 typeface FF Fudoni, a combination of Futura and Bodoni elements is a similar exploration.
FIG Script is a script typeface designed by Eric Olson in 2002 for Process Type Foundry, a digital foundry which he co-founded.
The name FIG is an acronym for "Frank (Sheeran), Ian (Chai), and Glenn (Chappell) who collaborated in the development of the FIGlet computer program developed to generates text banners, in a variety of typefaces, composed of letters made up of arrangements of smaller ASCII characters. Olson used FIGlet in creating his ASCII-based FIG typefaces. Olson describes the FIG types as an "exploration into the generative possibilities type design software and simple grid structures." While suggestion of a raster is clearly visible in the face, a hominess similar to that found in nineteenth century cross-stitched samplers is also found. Many characters have swashes, and the overall effect is reminiscent of cursive.
Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German painter who was born in Hanover, Germany.
Schwitters worked in several genres and media, including Dada, Constructivism, Surrealism, poetry, sound, painting, sculpture, graphic design, typography and what came to be known as installation art. He is most famous for his collages, called Merz Pictures.
Kurt Schwitters was born on 20 June 1887, at No.2 Rumannstraße, Hanover, the only child of Edward Schwitters and his wife Henriette (née Beckemeyer). His parents were proprietors of a ladies' clothes shop. They sold the business in 1898, using the money to buy five properties in Hanover which they rented out, allowing the family to live off the income for the rest of Schwitter's life in Germany. In 1901 the family moved to Waldstraße (later Waldhausenstraße) 5, future site of the Merzbau. The same year, Schwitters suffered his first epileptic seizure, a condition that would exempt him from military service in World War I until the last stages of the conflict, when conscription began to be applied to a far wider section of the population.
After studying art at the Dresden Academy alongside Otto Dix
Monotyping is a type of printmaking made by drawing or painting on a smooth, non-absorbent surface. The surface, or matrix, was historically a copper etching plate, but in contemporary work it can vary from zinc or glass to acrylic glass. The image is then transferred onto a sheet of paper by pressing the two together, usually using a printing-press. Monotypes can also be created by inking an entire surface and then, using brushes or rags, removing ink to create a subtractive image, e.g. creating lights from a field of opaque colour. The inks used may be oil based or water based. With oil based inks, the paper may be dry, in which case the image has more contrast, or the paper may be damp, in which case the image has a 10 percent greater range of tones.
Monotyping produces a unique print, or monotype; most of the ink is removed during the initial pressing. Although subsequent reprintings are sometimes possible, they differ greatly from the first print and are generally considered inferior. These prints from the original plate are called "ghost prints." Prints made by pressing the prints onto another surface, effectively making the print into a plate, is called a "cognate".
Parisine is a typeface created by Jean-François Porchez. Distributed by Typofonderie.
It is used in Paris Métro, tramways, buses and RER parts operated by the RATP in Île-de-France.
It was originally developed in 1996 as a custom typeface in Bold and Bold Italic developed for the RATP to improve signage legibility and space economy. The design was based on the proportions of Helvetica Bold, condensed at 90%.
In 1999, the font was extended to a font family for multiple uses like communication material, maps, etc. In 2000, hinted TrueType versions were added for internal corporate use. The name Parisine is a trademark of the RATP.
It is an OpenType variant of Parisine. A small caps version was produced called Parisine SC, see Parisine PRO for Small Caps.
OpenType features include ligatures, fractions, ordinals/superior letters and figures, caps figures, oldstyle figures (SC versions only), a tabular figures.
It is an OpenType variant of Parisine, which further expanded upon Parisine Std. Previous version of Parisine PRO was called Parisine PTF.
Each member of the family is composed of more than 720 glyphs and feature around 26700 kerning pairs.
OpenType features include small caps,
NPS Rawlinson Roadway is an old style serif typeface currently used on the United States National Park Service's road signs. It was created by Terminal Design to replace Clarendon. Type designer James Montalbano named the typeface after his wife's last name.
The typeface, which takes up 15% less space than its predecessor, was found by the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute to increase readability by 11%.
Robert Slimbach is a type designer, who has worked at Adobe Systems since 1987. He has won many awards for his digital typeface designs, including the rarely-awarded Charles Peignot Award from the Association Typographique Internationale, and repeated TDC awards from the Type Directors Club.
Slimbach was born in Evanston, Illinois in 1956. Shortly after, he moved to Southern California where he spent his childhood and his youth. After leaving college he developed an interest in graphic design and typefaces while running a small screen printshop for manufacturing posters and greeting cards. This work brought him into contact with Autologic Incorporated in Newbury Park, California. After training from 1983 to 1985, Slimbach worked as a type designer with Autologic Incorporation, where Sumner Stone also worked for a short time. There he received further training, not just as a type designer but also as a calligrapher. Slimbach was then self-employed for two years and developed the two fonts ITC Slimbach and ITC Giovanni for the International Typeface Corporation in New York.
In 1987 he joined Adobe Systems. Since then, he has concentrated primarily on designing typefaces for digital
Andalé Mono (usually appearing as Andale Mono) is a monospaced sans-serif typeface designed by Steve Matteson for terminal emulation and software development environments, originally for the Taligent project by Apple Inc. and IBM. The Andalé design was originally created by Monotype, as part of Andalé font families.
Andalé Mono was first distributed as an Internet Explorer 4.0 add-on, originally under the name Monotype.com. Starting with version 1.25 of the font, it was renamed to Andale Mono, and distributed with Internet Explorer 5 and 6.
This typeface is no longer distributed with modern versions of Microsoft Windows (from Windows ME onwards), having been replaced by Lucida Console. It is still available for download as part of the Core fonts for the Web package on Sourceforge and it is bundled with Mac OS X.
The Andale Mono typeface family sold by Ascender Corporation includes bold and italics variants, in TrueType format. This version supports WGL character set.
Andalé Mono is also sold by Monotype, it does not include italics, and does not support Greek, Cyrillic, and most Latin Extended-A/B characters found in Ascender version. It is available in OpenType CFF, TrueType,
Copperplate Gothic is a typeface designed by Frederic W. Goudy and released by the American Type Founders (ATF) in 1901. While termed a "Gothic" (another term for sans-serif), the face has small glyphic serifs that act to emphasize the blunt terminus of vertical and horizontal strokes. The typeface shows an unusual combination of influences: the glyphs are reminiscent of stone carving, the wide horizontal axis is typical of Victorian display types, yet the result is far cleaner and leaves a crisp impression in letterpress or offset printing.
The typeface is most often used in stationery, for social printing, and is classically seen acid-etched into glass on the doors of law offices, banks and restaurants.
Franklin Gothic and its related faces are realist sans-serif typefaces originated by Morris Fuller Benton (1872–1948) in 1902. “Gothic” is an increasingly archaic term meaning sans-serif. Franklin Gothic has been used in many advertisements and headlines in newspapers. The typeface continues to maintain a high profile, appearing in a variety of media from books to billboards. Despite a period of eclipse in the 1930s, after the introduction of European faces like Kabel and Futura, they were re-discovered by American designers in the 1940s and have remained popular ever since.
Franklin Gothic is an extra-bold sans-serif type which can be distinguished from other sans serif typefaces, as it has a more traditional double-story g and a. Other main distinguishing characteristics are the tail of the Q and the ear of the g. The tail of the Q curls down from the bottom center of the letterform in the book weight and shifts slightly to the right in the bolder fonts. It draws upon earlier, nineteenth century models, from many of the twenty-three foundries consolidated into American Type Founders in 1892. Historian Alexander Lawson speculated that Franklin Gothic was influenced by Berthold’s
Lucida ( /ˈluːsɪdə/) is an extended family of related typefaces designed by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes in 1985.
There are many variants called Lucida, including scripts (Blackletter, Calligraphy, Handwriting), serif (Fax, Bright), and sans-serif (Sans, Sans Unicode, Grande, Sans Typewriter).
Bigelow & Holmes, together with the (now defunct) TeX vendor Y&Y, extended the Lucida family with a full set of TeX mathematical symbols, making it one of the few typefaces that provide full-featured text and mathematical typesetting within TeX.
It is a family of fonts containing arrows.
Released in 1992, it is a family of cursive blackletter fonts.
Based on Lucida Serif, it features more contrasted strokes and serifs.
The font was first used as the text face for Scientific American magazine, and its letter-spacing was tightened to give it a slightly closer fit for use in two and three column formats.
It is a script font family developed from Chancery cursive.
Released in 1994, it is a casual font similar to Lucida Handwriting, but without connecting strokes.
It is a variant of Lucida Sans Typewriter with smaller line spacing, and added WGL4 character set.
Released in 1992, it is a slab
Stanley Morison (6 May 1889 – 11 October 1967) was a British typographer, designer and historian of printing. He was one of the most influential type-designers of the 20th century, having designed the Times New Roman typeface (1931) and several historical revivals for the Monotype Corporation.
Stanley Morison was born in Britain on 6 May 1889, at Wanstead, Essex, but spent most of his childhood and early adult years (1896–1912) in London at the family home in Fairfax Road, Harringay. He was self-taught, having left school after his father abandoned his family.
In 1913 Morison became an editorial assistant on The Imprint magazine.
During the First World War he was a conscientious objector, and was interned.
In 1918 he became design supervisor at the Pelican Press. This was followed by a similar position at the Cloister Press. In 1922 he was a founder-member of the Fleuron Society, dedicated to typographic matters (a fleuron being a typographic flower or ornament). He edited the society's journal, The Fleuron, from 1925 to 1930. The quality of the publication's artwork and printing was considered exceptional. From 1923 to 1925 he was also a staff editor/writer for the Penrose
Claude Garamond (ca. 1490 – 1561) was a French publisher from Paris. He was one of the leading type designers of his time, and is credited with the introduction of the apostrophe, the accent and the cedilla to the French language. Several contemporary typefaces, including those currently known as Garamond, Granjon, and Sabon, reflect his influence. Garamond was an apprentice of Simon de Colines; later, he was an assistant to Geoffroy Tory, whose interests in humanist typography and the ancient Greek capital letterforms, or majuscules, may have informed Garamond's later work.
Garamond came to prominence in 1541, when three of his Greek typefaces (e.g. the Grecs du roi (1541)) were requested for a royally-ordered book series by Robert Estienne. Garamond based these types on the handwriting of Angelo Vergecio, the King's Librarian at Fontainebleau, as well as that of his ten-year-old pupil, Henri Estienne. According to Arthur Tilley, the resulting books are "among the most finished specimens of typography that exist." Shortly thereafter, Garamond created the Roman types for which he would most be remembered, and his influence spread rapidly throughout and beyond France during the
Herbert Bayer (April 5, 1900 – September 30, 1985) was an Austrian American graphic designer, painter, photographer, sculptor, art director, environmental & interior designer, and architect, who was widely recognized as the last living member of the Bauhaus and was instrumental in the development of the Atlantic Richfield Company's corporate art collection until his death in 1985.
Bayer apprenticed under the artist Georg Schmidthammer in Linz. Leaving the workshop to study at the Darmstadt Artists' Colony, he became interested in Walter Gropius's Bauhaus manifesto. After Bayer had studied for four years at the Bauhaus under such teachers as Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and László Moholy-Nagy, Gropius appointed Bayer director of printing and advertising.
In the spirit of reductive minimalism, Bayer developed a crisp visual style and adopted use of all-lowercase, sans serif typefaces for most Bauhaus publications. Bayer is one of several typographers of the period including Kurt Schwitters and Jan Tschichold who experimented with the creation of a simplified more phonetic-based alphabet. From 1925 to 1930 Bayer designed a geometric sans-serif Proposal for a Universal Typeface that
Bernhard Gothic is a family of geometric sans serif typeface designed by Lucian Bernhard in 1929 for the American Type Founders (ATF). Five variations by Bernhard were introduced over two years:
A final member of the family, Bernhard Gothic Medium Condensed, was introduced by ATF in 1936, but it is unclear as to who the designer was.
Bernhard Gothic is more organic and less regular than other geometric sans-serif typefaces, including Futura, Kabel, and Twentieth Century, showing influence of Bernhard's earlier more expressionistic faces.
Intertype's 1936 copy was called Greeting Gothic.
Digital copies are available from Elsner+Flake, Font Company, URW++, Berthold, Spiece Graphics, Monotype Imaging and FontHaus.
The DejaVu fonts are modifications of the Bitstream Vera fonts designed for greater coverage of Unicode, as well as providing more styles. The Bitstream Vera family was limited mainly to the characters in the Basic Latin and Latin-1 Supplement portions of Unicode (roughly equivalent to ISO-8859-15) but was released with a license that permitted changes. The DejaVu fonts project was started with the aim to "provide a wider range of characters... while maintaining the original look and feel through the process of collaborative development". The development of the fonts is done by many contributors, and is organized through a wiki and a mailing list.
The DejaVu fonts project was started by Štěpán Roh. Over time, it has absorbed several other projects that also existed to extend the Bitstream Vera typefaces; these projects include the Olwen Font Family, Bepa, Arev Fonts (only partially), and the SuSE standard fonts. The fonts are free software, and may thus freely be embedded. DejaVu fonts can be obtained from the DejaVu project on SourceForge. Some GNU/Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu, Fedora, OpenSUSE and Mandriva Linux) include DejaVu fonts in their default installation. The open
Didone is a typeface classification recognized by the Association Typographique Internationale (AtypI), and part of the VOX-ATypI classification system.
It is characterized by:
Examples include the slightly condensed, unbracketed serif typefaces Bodoni, Computer Modern, Didot, Vertrina and Walbaum. The classification is also known as modern. This style emerged in the late 18th century; Didot was its first representative.
Richard 'Jock' Kinneir (11 February 1917 – 23 August 1994) was a typographer and graphic designer who, with colleague Margaret Calvert, designed many of the road signs used throughout the United Kingdom. Their system has become a model for modern road signage.
Kinneir was born in Hampshire in 1917. He studied engraving at the Chelsea School of Art from 1935 to 1939. After World War II Kinneir was employed as an exhibition designer by the Central Office of Information. He next worked for the Design Research Unit, and then opened his own practice in 1956. He also taught part-time at the Chelsea School of Art.
Kinneir's first big commission was the design of the signage for Gatwick Airport. He chose one of his students at Chelsea, Margaret Calvert, to assist him. When Sir Colin Anderson, the chairman of the P&O Line shipping company read about the Gatwick signage, he chose Kinneir to design a baggage labelling system for P&O. In 1957 Anderson was appointed chairman of the government committee formed to design signs for the new British motorway network. T. G. Usborne, the Ministry of Transport official in charge of the Anderson Committee, then formed a new committee under Sir Walter
Motorway is a typeface designed by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert for use on the motorway network of the United Kingdom. It was first used on the M6 Preston bypass in 1958 and has been in use on the UK's motorways since. It is also used in some other countries, most notably the Republic of Ireland and Portugal.
The Motorway alphabet appears on road signs on motorways in the United Kingdom, and is used for route numbers. It is available in two weights: Motorway Permanent is the standard weight, and is used for pale text on a dark background (i.e. white-on-blue permanent motorway signs) while Motorway Temporary is heavier, and is used for dark text on a pale background (i.e. black-on-yellow temporary motorway signs).
Motorway features a limited character set - only the numbers "0" to "9", the letters "M", "A", "B", "N","E" "S", "W", the symbols "(", ")" and "&", and the word "Toll" (treated as a single character).
All other text on UK road signs appears in Transport.
The Motorway font is also used in the Republic of Ireland. Its use is slightly different to that in the UK - in the Republic, motorway route numbers are always in Motorway font, whether the sign is on a motorway or
Requiem is an old style serif typeface designed by Jonathan Hoefler in 1992 for Travel & Leisure magazine. The typeface takes inspiration from a set of inscriptional capitals found in Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi's 1523 writing manual, Il Modo de Temperare le Penne. Italics are based on the cancelleresca corsiva chancellery model. The typeface family is large, containing three sizes of small capitals, two ornaments fonts, and italic ligatures. A display or titling variant has an especially thin serifs and overall stroke weight.
Tahoma is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Matthew Carter for the Microsoft Corporation in 1994 with initial distribution along with Verdana for Windows 95.
Similar to Verdana, Tahoma has a narrower body, less generous counters, much tighter letter spacing, and a more complete Unicode character set. Tahoma was first designed as a bitmap font, and TrueType outlines were "carefully wrapped" around those bitmaps. The bold weight was based upon a double pixel width, rendering it closer to a heavy or black weight. It has a distinct advantage over such fonts as Arial for use with technical material in that uppercase "I" (eye) is distinguished from lowercase "l" (ell). Since 2010, Italic and small caps versions are available from Ascender Corporation.
Tahoma is often compared to the humanist sans-serif typeface Frutiger. In an interview with Daniel Will-Harris, Matthew Carter acknowledges some similarities with his earlier typeface Bell Centennial.
The Tahoma typeface family was named after the Native American name for the stratovolcano Mount Rainier (Mount Tahoma) which is a prominent feature of the southern landscape around the Seattle metropolitan area.
Tahoma was an official
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (April 28, 1869–April 23, 1924) was a American architect celebrated for his work in neo-gothic design. He also designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press.
Goodhue was born in Pomfret, Connecticut to Charles Wells Goodhue and his second wife, Helen (Eldredge) Grosvenor Goodhue. Due to financial constraints he was educated at home by his mother until, at age 11 years, he was sent to Russell's Collegiate and Commercial Institute. Finances prevented him from attending university, but he received an honorary degree from Trinity College in Connecticut in 1911. In lieu of formal training he moved to Manhattan, New York City in 1884 to apprentice at the architectural firm of Renwick, Aspinwall and Russell (one of its principals, James Renwick, Jr., was the architect of Grace Church and St. Patrick's Cathedral, both in New York City). Goodhue's apprenticeship ended in 1891 when he won a design competition for St. Matthew's in Dallas.
After completing his apprenticeship, Goodhue moved to Boston Massachusetts, where he was befriended by a group of young, artistic intellectuals involved in the founding of the Society of
Caledonia is a transitional serif typeface designed by William Addison Dwiggins in 1938 for the Mergenthaler Linotype Company.
Dwiggins chose the name Caledonia, the Roman name for Scotland, to express the face's basis on the early nineteenth century Scotch Roman typeface; however, though Dwiggins began with the thought of copying the classical Scotch Romans, eventually he drew more inspiration from the Bulmer design of William Martin. The face has a more vertical stress than an old style garalde faces, with mostly unbracketed horizontal serifs. The G is open and the R has a curved tail. the t is unbracketed. Italic characters p and q have no foot serif. The character set, as drawn by Dwiggins was wide, including ranging (old style) figures, lining figures, and small capitals in the text and bold weights. A Greek version of the face is available. Caledonia ranks with Times New Roman as one of the most used book text faces.
Caledonia made initially for machine composition with foundry type only made later, and then only in Germany. The following variants were designed by Dwiggins and released by Linotype:
Linotype also made 36 point matrices for Caledonia Bold Condensed, but it is
American Type Founders (ATF) was a business trust created in 1892 by the merger of 23 type foundries, representing about 85% of all type manufactured in the United States. ATF was the dominant American manufacturer of metal type from its creation in 1892 until at least the 1940s; it continued to be influential into the 1960s.
By the beginning of the final decade of the nineteenth century type founding was in a state of crisis. With the introduction of the Linotype, which could cast whole lines of body type in-house, demand for hand-set type was down. Throughout the late 1880s prices were maintained by an informal cartel of foundries, but as the number of foundries increased and with the invention of hot metal type, prices dropped dramatically. Additionally, type at this time was not standardized, either to body size or to base line, and printers resented the incompatibility of types from different foundries. Leaders in the industry, notably Joseph W. Phinney of the Dickinson Type Foundry in Boston, set up a committee to address these problems, eventually recommending consolidation.
By the late 1880s, there were some 34 foundries in the United States. In 1892, 23 foundries were
Anvylon is a monospaced typeface for use in programming and tabular material with a remarkable retro look-and-feel of the early video terminals and line printers that makes activities such as 8-bit coding and console work much more appealing and comfortable.
Designed for optimal grid fitting at small sizes, its main features are forced to a very restricted set of integer positions and dimensions, absolutely unhinted, and mostly free of overshoots.
Red Circle is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed by Harold Lohner and based upon the c. 1930 lettering used in packaging and advertising for the range of A&P's Eight O'Clock, Red Circle, and Bokar brands of whole bean arabica coffees.
Red Circle is an all uppercase typeface exhibiting the geometric exploration of the Art Deco period. While having an overall rectilinear structure, circular forms are prominent in the characters A, B, D, M, N, and R. The lettering bears comparison with Georg Trump's City typeface. Exterior corners are rounded, and cross strokes extend left of the stem in characters A, B, E, H, K, P, and R. The characters M and N take the form of Carolingian minuscule characters m and n similar to the same characters in Herbert Bayer's 1927 experimental universal typeface Architype Bayer.
Lohner offers the face as a font for the Mac and Windows operating systems.
Aldus is an old style serif typeface designed by Hermann Zapf in 1954. It is named for Aldus Manutius, the famous fifteenth century Venetian printer.
Aldus was designed as a book weight text face companion for Palatino, which Zapf considered to be a display typeface. Aldus (which Zapf wished to be called Palatino Book) is designed to complement Palatino, but with a lighter stroke weight, more open counters, and better suited for text in smaller point sizes.
Aldus nova was also designed by Hermann Zapf, with Akira Kobayashi. A bold weight is added into the font family. The character set support is similar to Palatino nova, but Greek and Cyrillic are not available in book weight fonts. The bar in ampersand is only available in book roman font.
Constantia is part of the suite of typefaces that come with Microsoft Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Office 2007.
The development began in 2003.
Constantia is featured in the Microsoft ClearType Font Collection, a set of fonts developed to take advantage of ClearType to improve the reading experience in Windows Vista and Office 2007.
This font, along with Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas and Corbel, is also distributed with the free Powerpoint 2007 Viewer and the Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack.
Elsevier B.V. (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɛlzəvir]) is a publishing company which publishes medical and scientific literature. It is a part of the Reed Elsevier group. Based in Amsterdam, the company has operations in the United Kingdom, USA, and elsewhere.
Elsevier took its name from the Dutch publishing house Elzevir, which, however, had no connection with the present company. The Elzevir family operated as booksellers and publishers in the Netherlands. Its founder, Lodewijk Elzevir (1542–1617), lived in Leiden and established the business in 1580. The modern company was founded in 1880. Leading products include journals such as The Lancet and Cell, books such as Gray's Anatomy, the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, the Trends and Current Opinion series of journals, and the online citation database Scopus. Its free researcher collaboration tool, 2collab, launched in 2007, was discontinued in 2011.
Elsevier publishes 250,000 articles a year in 2,000 journals. Its archives contain seven million publications. Total yearly downloads amount to 240 million. The company is currently being boycotted by academics who object to its business model, which includes "paywalls" and
Alexa is a typeface. It was designed for Adobe Systems in 1995 by John Benson, a famous United States carver of inscriptions, including those at the John F. Kennedy Memorial in Arlington National Cemetery. Benson modeled the friendly, casual script after his own handwriting and named it after his niece. Although based on the cancelleresca style of 16th-century Italian writing masters, Alexa has no swash terminals or ligatures. The absence of these features and its pronounced slope give this typeface a distinctly modern look for lively lines and pages. One can use Alexa for both text and display sizes.
Berthold Ludwig Wolpe (29 October 29, 1905 - 5 July 5, 1989) was a German calligrapher, typographer, type designer, book designer and illustrator. He was born in Offenbach near Frankfurt, emigrated to England in 1935 and became a naturalized British citizen in 1947. He was made a Royal Designer for Industry in 1959, awarded an honorary doctorate by the Royal College of Art in 1968 and appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1983.
Wolpe began his career as an apprentice in a firm of metalworkers, followed by four years as a student of Rudolf Koch at the Offenbach Kunstgewerbeschule. In 1932 he visited London and met Stanley Morison, who invited Wolpe to design a printing type of capital letters for the Monotype Corporation. The typeface, Albertus, was first shown in 1935 and completed in 1940. When World War II was declared Wolpe, along with other German nationals living in England, was sent to an internment camp in Australia. He was permitted to return to England in 1941 and joined the production department at Faber and Faber. His use of Albertus and hand-painted lettering became strongly identified with Faber jackets in the years that followed, and
Corbel is a sans-serif typeface designed by Jeremy Tankard for Microsoft and released in 2005. It is a part of the new suite of fonts that come with Microsoft Windows Vista developed to take advantage of ClearType to improve the reading experience in Windows Vista and Office 2007.
Corbel is designed to give an uncluttered, clean appearance on screen. The letter forms are open with soft, flowing curves. It is legible, clear and functional at small sizes. At larger sizes the detailing and style of the shapes is more apparent resulting in a modern sans serif type with a wide range of possible uses.
Corbel includes text figures (old style or lowercase numerals), which are very suitable for setting running text. This is an uncommon feature in screen fonts, especially in sans-serif faces (lowercase numerals are found in Microsoft's serif Georgia typeface).
This font, along with Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas and Constantia, is also distributed with the free PowerPoint 2007 Viewer and the Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack.
Erik Spiekermann (born May 30, 1947 in Stadthagen, Lower Saxony) is a German typographer and designer. He is a professor at the University of the Arts Bremen.
Spiekermann studied art history at Berlin's Free University, funding himself by running a letterpress printing press in the basement of his house.
Between 1972 and 1979, he worked as a freelance graphic designer in London before returning to Berlin and founding MetaDesign with two partners.
In 1989 he and his wife, Joan Spiekermann, started FontShop, the first mail-order distributor for digital fonts. FontShop International followed and now publishes the FontFont range of typefaces. MetaDesign combined clean, teutonic-looking information design and complex corporate design systems for clients like BVG (Berlin Transit), Düsseldorf Airport, Audi, Volkswagen and Heidelberg Printing, amongst others.
In 2001 Spiekermann left MetaDesign over policy disagreements and started UDN | United Designers Networks with offices in Berlin, London and San Francisco.
In April 2006, the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena awarded Spiekermann an Honorary Doctorship for his contribution to design. His family of typefaces for Deutsche Bahn
Gill Sans is a sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill.
The original design appeared in 1926 when Douglas Cleverdon opened a bookshop in his home town of Bristol, where Gill painted the fascia over the window in sans-serif capitals that would later be known as Gill Sans. In addition, Gill had sketched a design for Cleverdon, intended as a guide for him to make future notices and announcements.
Gill further developed it into a complete font family after Stanley Morison commissioned the development of Gill Sans to combat the families of Erbar, Futura and Kabel which were being launched in Germany during the latter 1920s. Gill Sans was later released in 1928 by Monotype Corporation.
Gill Sans became popular when in 1929 Cecil Dandridge commissioned Eric Gill to produce Gill Sans to be used on the London and North Eastern Railway for a unique typeface for all the LNER's posters and publicity material.
Gill was a well established sculptor, graphic artist and type designer, and the Gill Sans typeface takes inspiration from Edward Johnston’s Johnston typeface for London Underground, which Gill had worked on while apprenticed to Johnston. Eric Gill attempted to make the ultimate legible
Jim Crow is the American Type Founders' 1933 and 1949 re-casting of the Dickinson Type Foundry's type of the 1850s, Gothic Shade. Dickenson, a Boston type foundry, had been incorporated into ATF in the original merger of 1892. The face was also known as Tombstone. ATF only cast the face in 24 point, but later versions by the Los Angeles Type Foundry were cast from 18 to 30 point. It was often used to indicate political motifs. While cold type versions were popular right through the 1970s, no major foundry has issued a digital version, and it is seldom used today.
Lucian Bernhard (March 15, 1883–May 29, 1972) was a German graphic designer, type designer, professor, interior designer, and artist during the first half of the twentieth century. He was born in Stuttgart, Germany, on March 15, 1883, as Emil Kahn to a Jewish family, but changed in 1905 to his more commonly known pseudonym. His first name is often spelled Lucien.
He was influential in helping create the design style known as Plakatstil (Poster Style), which used reductive imagery and flat-color as well as Sachplakat ('object poster') which restricted the image to simply the object being advertised and the brand name. He was also known for his designs for Stiller shoes, Manoli cigarettes, and Priester matches.
Though he studied briefly at the Akademie in Munich, he was largely self-taught. He moved to Berlin in 1901 where he worked as a poster designer and art director for magazines. In 1920 he became a professor at the Akademie der Künste until 1923, when he emigrated to New York City. In 1928 he opened the Contempora Studio with Rockwell Kent, Paul Poiret, Bruno Paul, and Erich Mendelsohn where he worked as a graphic artist and interior designer. After 1930 he worked primarily as
Microsoft YaHei (Chinese: 微软雅黑; pinyin: Wēiruǎn Yǎhēi) is a sans-serif gothic typeface created by Founder Electronics and Monotype under commission from Microsoft. Hinting for the font was undertaken by Monotype Imaging.
The font family includes two fonts in regular and bold weights: named MSYH.TTF and 'Microsoft YaHei Bold' in a separate file, MSYHBD.TTF. OpenType features include vertical writing.
Microsoft YaHei is distributed with the Simplified Chinese version of the Windows Vista and Windows 7 operating system as the default user interface font, aiming to be more legible than its SimSun predecessor when used with ClearType. It is also included in the Simplified Chinese version of Microsoft Office 2007.
Downloading and installing the Simplified Chinese ClearType fonts for Windows XP from Microsoft also makes Microsoft YaHei available on Windows XP.
The font file contains all 20,902 original CJK Unified Ideographs code points specified in Unicode, plus approximately 80 code points defined by the Standardization Administration of China. It supports GBK character set, with localized glyphs.
Nimbus Roman is a serif typeface created by URW Studio in 1982.
Nimbus Roman No 9 L is a serif typeface created by URW Studio in 1987, and eventually released under the GPL and AFPL (as Type 1 font for Ghostscript) in 1996 and LPPL in 2009. It features Normal, Bold, Italic, and Bold Italic weights, and is one of several freely licensed fonts offered by URW++.
Although the characters are not exactly the same, Nimbus Roman No 9 L has metrics almost identical to Times and Times New Roman. It is one of the Ghostscript fonts, a free alternatives to 35 basic PostScript fonts (which include Times).
It is a standard typeface in many GNU/Linux distributions. It was used as default font in OpenOffice.org Writer in some GNU/Linux distributions (e.g. Ubuntu - up to version 8.10; since Ubuntu 9.04 the default font was changed to Liberation Serif).
Optima is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Hermann Zapf between 1952 and 1955 for the D. Stempel AG foundry, Frankfurt, Germany.
Though classified as a sans-serif, Optima has a subtle swelling at the terminal producing a suggestion of a glyphic serif. Optima’s design follows humanist lines, but its italic variant is merely an oblique, essentially a sloped roman without characteristic italic letterforms such as a single-storey a and rounded base of v and w. This is more typical of a realist sans-serif such as Helvetica or Univers. Also unconventional for the contemporary sans, Optima’s capitals (like Palatino’s) are directly derived from the classic Roman monumental capital model (one other well-executed example is Meier’s Syntax). It is clear from the reverence in Zapf’s designs that he regards the Roman capitals as ideal forms, and his executions in type prove the thesis. Like Palatino, another Zapf design, Optima is both widely admired and much imitated. Optima and Palatino are trade marks of Linotype (a Monotype company).
In the Bitstream font collection, Zapf Humanist is provided as an Optima clone. Other Optima clones include Optane from the WSI Fonts collection,
Terminus is a monospaced bitmap font designed by Dimitar Zhekov. The font is designed with a goal to be easy on eyes during long hours in front of the computer screen. Terminus is suitable for viewing .nfo files and other types of ASCII art. The bitmap font is available in many Linux distributions, and there is also a third-party TrueType version for use on other operating systems.
Tiresias is a family of TrueType realist sans-serif typefaces that were designed for best legibility by people with impaired vision at the Scientific Research Unit of Royal National Institute of the Blind in London. The research basis of Tiresias Screenfont’s legibility claims have been called into question.
Tiresias is the font used in subtitles for digital terrestrial television (DVB-T), and digital satellite (DVB-S) targeting the UK. It is also used in Ireland, Denmark and Finland's national public-broadcasting company'.
The family includes
In late 2007, all Tiresias fonts except Tiresias Screenfont were released under the GNU General Public License version 3 or any later version.
Casey is a sans-serif typeface created and owned by the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC), a transit operator in Hong Kong. The typeface was created in 1996 by Dalton Maag under the order of KCRC for use on the corporate identity of its railway system.
Casey was introduced in 1996 by the KCRC. It was modified from Myriad (letters) and Formata Cond (numbers), and the name Casey comes from KC, the first 2 letters of KCRC. The Casey typeface looks thinner than Myriad and Segoe UI.
Casey is created by KCRC for the use of its corporate identity on its railway system. Its first usage was on the KCRC logo, which was revised in 1996. When the Metro Cammell EMU of the KCR East Rail (now East Rail Line) was modernised, their fleet number was clearly posted in Casey. The same practice was done when the new SP1900 trains came into service.
When the KCR West Rail (now West Rail Line) started operation, its usage expanded to all signage and station nameboards in the WR stations, and even became the font used in the leaflets and brochures distributed by the Corporation.
While some of the ex-KCR signages are changed to signs with MTR style (with Myriad as the font typeface) after the Rail
FF DIN is a realist sans-serif typeface designed in 1995 by Albert-Jan Pool, based on DIN-Mittelschrift and DIN-Engschrift, as defined in the German standard DIN 1451 DIN is an acronym for Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardisation).
Pool encountered Erik Spiekermann at a 1994 meeting of the ATypI (Association Typographique Internationale) in San Francisco, who encouraged him to design a revival of DIN 1451 for release by FontFont, the type foundry Spiekermann had just established. Today, FF DIN is one of the foundry’s best-selling typefaces.
Sharing structural similarities with DIN 1451, FF DIN differs in its weight distribution, naming conventions, and has a far wider character set, including ranging (old style) figures, and several refinements allowing it to perform better as a print and screen text face.
The family includes 5 font weights in 2 widths (Normal and Condensed), each with italics. The entire family includes extended characters such as arrows, fractions, Euro sign, lozenge, mathematic symbols, extra accented Latin letters, superscript numeral figures. Alternate glyphs are also included, such as rounded dots, old style figures, and alternate
Gentium (Latin for of the nations) is a Unicode serif typeface designed by Victor Gaultney. Gentium fonts are free and open source software, and are released under the SIL Open Font License (OFL), which permits modification and redistribution. Gentium has wide support for languages using the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic alphabets, and the International Phonetic Alphabet. Gentium Plus variants released in November 2010 now include over 5,500 glyphs and advanced typographic features through OpenType and Graphite.
The original release of Gentium defined roughly 1,500 glyphs covering almost all of the range of Latin characters used worldwide, as well as monotonic and polytonic Greek, designed to flow in harmony with the Latin. Gentium comes with a variant called GentiumAlt ("Gentium Alternative"), which contains flatter diacritics intended to improve the appearance of letters with multiple diacritics, as well as a glyph variant of the Greek circumflex that resembles an inverted breve.
In 2003, the Gentium font was awarded a Certificate of Excellence in Type Design from the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI) as one of the best designs of the previous five years.
Liberation is the collective name of four TrueType font families: Liberation Sans, Liberation Sans Narrow, Liberation Serif and Liberation Mono. These fonts are metric-compatible with Monotype Corporation's Arial, Arial Narrow, Times New Roman, and Courier New (respectively), the most commonly used fonts on Microsoft Windows operating system and Office suite.
Liberation Sans, Liberation Sans Narrow and Liberation Serif closely match the metrics of Monotype Corporation fonts Arial, Arial Narrow and Times New Roman, respectively.
Liberation Mono is styled closer to Liberation Sans than Monotype's Courier New, though its metrics match with Courier New.
The Liberation fonts are intended as free, open-source replacements of the aforementioned closed source fonts.
All three fonts support code pages 437, 737, 775, 850, 852, 855, 857, 860, 861, 863, 865, 866, 869, 1250, 1251, 1252, 1253, 1254, 1257, the Macintosh Character Set (US Roman), and the Windows OEM character set.
The Liberation family supports only the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic alphabets, leaving out many writing systems. Extension to other writing systems is prevented by its unique licensing terms.
The fonts were developed by
Old English Text is a 1935 revival of William Caslon's c. 1760 typeface Caslon Black, which was inspired by late medieval English textura letter forms.
Old English Text is in the graphic identity of several brands, and is popular for its evocation of a liturgical or historic tone of voice.
It is also the font for the Beaconhouse School System and the font used for text in GTA:San Andreas (such locations and the logo of the game). In the Japanese anime Death Note it is used as the font by which the characters conceal themselves while on webchat.
Robert E. Smith (c. 1918 – c. 2004), was an American pilot who flew in World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War, serving in the Army Air Corps, the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force during his career.
In 1941, on the cusp of the United States entering into war, Smith dropped out of The Citadel to become "a Yank in the RAF" and begin flying with the famed Eagle squadron in England.
In 1942, a telegram was sent home to his family in Norfolk, Virginia informing them that Smith was shot down over France and was missing, presumed to be killed in action. In fact, while flying with 133 Eagle Squadron, Smith ran out of fuel and was forced to ditch his plane following a bomber escort mission gone awry. On 26 September 1942, the squadron was blown several hundred miles off course and was unable to return to their bases in England. Of the twelve pilots on the mission, nine were killed, one was taken prisoner, one managed to crash landed in England and Smith after bailing out over France. Smith evaded capture for four months in enemy territory (in spite of being unable to speak German or French). Using the railways and various disguises, Smith worked his way toward
Tasse is a revival of Paul Renner's Steile Futura. The family consists of 4 weights and 5 widths each, but no italic fonts were made. Nelson maintained Renner's alternative characters, adding additional alternate characters. The face is licensed by Font Bureau.
Tasse shows influence of pen-written letters in contrast to the modular geometry of Futura. The face is unusual for a sans-serif in having a true italic rather than a sloped Roman. Lowercase italic a becomes single story, and the suggestion of calligraphic strokes are found in the italic characters e, h, K, k, m, n, and u. Renner's original character set offered alternative, more rounded, versions of uppercase roman characters A, E, M, and W.
Verdana is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Matthew Carter for Microsoft Corporation, with hand-hinting done by Thomas Rickner, then at Monotype. Demand for such a typeface was recognized by Virginia Howlett of Microsoft's typography group. The name "Verdana" is based on a portmanteau of verdant (something green), and Ana (the name of Howlett's eldest daughter).
Characteristics of this typeface are:
lower case: square dot over the letter i. double storey a.
upper case: the capital Q's tail is centered under the figure, the uppercase J has a slight hook, and there are two versions of uppercase R, one with a straight tail and one with a curved tail.
Bearing similarities to humanist sans-serif typefaces such as Frutiger, Verdana was designed to be readable at small sizes on a computer screen. The lack of serifs, large x-height, wide proportions, loose letter-spacing, large counters, and emphasized distinctions between similarly-shaped characters are chosen to increase legibility.
As an example of the attention given to making similar characters easily distinguishable, the digit 1 (one) in Verdana was given a horizontal base and a hook in the upper left to distinguish it from
Agfa-Gevaert N.V. (Agfa) (Euronext: AGFB, FWB: AGE) is a Belgian multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products and systems, as well as IT solutions. The company has three divisions. Agfa Graphics offers integrated prepress and industrial inkjet systems to the printing and graphics industries. Agfa HealthCare supplies hospitals and other care organizations with imaging products and systems, as well as information systems. Agfa Specialty Products supplies products to various industrial markets. It is part of the Agfa Materials organization. In addition to the Agfa Specialty Products activities, Agfa Materials also supplies film and related products to Agfa Graphics and Agfa HealthCare.
In the past, Agfa film and cameras were prominent consumer products. However, in 2004, the consumer imaging division was sold to a company founded via management buyout. AgfaPhoto GmbH, as the new company was called, filed for bankruptcy after just one year. The brands are now licensed to other companies by AgfaPhoto Holding GmbH, a holding firm. Following this sale, Agfa-Gevaert's commerce today is 100% business-to-business.
Avenir is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1988, and released by Linotype GmbH, now a subsidiary of Monotype Corporation.
The name Avenir is French for “future,” and takes inspiration from early geometric sans-serif typefaces Erbar (1922) designed by Jakob Erbar, and Futura (1927) designed by Paul Renner. Frutiger intended Avenir to be a more organic, humanist interpretation of these highly geometric types. While similarities can be seen with Futura, the two-story lowercase a is more like Erbar, and also recalls Frutiger’s earlier namesake typeface Frutiger.
Avenir was originally released in 1988 with three weights, each with a roman and oblique version, and used Frutiger’s two-digit weight and width convention for names: 45 (book); 46 (book oblique); 55 (text weight); 56 (text weight oblique); and, 75 (bold) and 76 (bold oblique). The typeface family was later expanded to six weights, each with a roman and oblique version.
In 2004, Frutiger, together with Linotype in-house type designer Akira Kobayashi, reworked the Avenir family to address on-screen display issues. The result was titled Avenir Next. The typeface family was increased to 24 fonts: 6
Calisto MT is an old style serif typeface designed in 1986 for the Monotype foundry by Ron Carpenter, British typographer, born 1950.
The Calisto face is intended to function as both a text and display face. Stroke contrast is minimal and maintenance of even color, especially in smaller point sizes, contributes to high legibility. Roman and italic characters are animated by serifs and terminals cut on an angle to the baseline, and a concave indent at the terminals reminiscent of Belwe and Palatino types. Minuscule characters have a somewhat extreme x-height.
Caslon Antique is a decorative American typeface that was designed in 1894 by Berne Nadall. It was originally called "Fifteenth Century", but was renamed "Caslon Antique" by Nadall's foundry, Barnhart Bros. & Spindler, in the mid-1920s.
The design of the typeface is meant to evoke the Colonial era. Early printers would reuse metal type over and over again, and the faces would become chipped and damaged from use. Caslon Antique emulates this look.
Despite the name, it is not a member of the Caslon family of typefaces. The renaming is believed to have been a marketing maneuver to boost the popularity of a previously unpopular typeface by associating it with the highly popular Caslon types.
Caslon Antique is popular today when a "old-fashioned" or "gothic" look is desired. It is used by the musical group The Sisters of Mercy on their albums, for the logo of the musical Les Misérables, and for the covers of the books in A Series of Unfortunate Events. It is also frequently used on historical displays. It was used for the previous edition of the Warhammer Fantasy Role-Play, and the 1985 reboot of the TV series The Twilight Zone. Most recently, it has been used on promotional material
Dave Nalle (b. March 19, 1959 in Beirut, Lebanon) is a political writer, game author and font designer who was active in the early history of the development of the internet. He is Chairman of the Republican Liberty Caucus, a group that promotes libertarianism within the Republican Party and is Senior Politics Editor at Blogcritics online magazine and is the CEO of Scriptorium Fonts.
Nalle grew up overseas and in Washington, DC with parents who were in the foreign service. He was educated at British and American schools, eventually completing high school at St. Albans School. As a child and teen he lived in Syria, Iran, Jordan, England and the Soviet Union and traveled extensively throughout the Middle East and Central Asia.
He attended Franklin and Marshall College where he earned degrees in English and History, headed the student chapter of Students for a Libertarian Society and worked as a regional organizer for the Ed Clark presidential campaign in 1980. During and after college he had a variety of political jobs in Washington, including working for Al Gore at the Congressional Clearinghouse on the Future as a newsletter editor, at the National Republican Senatorial Committee,
John Benson (1928–1995) was a British television announcer, best known for saying "And Now ... from Norwich, it's the quiz of the week" at the start of each edition of the UK's long-running Sale of the Century, which ran on ITV from 1971 to 1983.
Although he spent most of his career working as an announcer for Anglia Television, he was also the chief staff announcer for ABC Television between 1957 and 1966. He was also a relief announcer for Rediffusion London and freelanced at Westward, Thames and TVS. During the 1960s, he presented the weekly Top Twenty Show, a one-hour British pop music charts count-down broadcast in Northern Germany every Saturday on the BFBS (British Forces Broadcasting Service).
Amongst his other game show credits are Strike It Lucky, Gambit, What's My Line and the long-running 3-2-1. He also acted as the in-vision announcer and "comedic foil" to Jonathan Ross on The Last Resort, an irreverent, late night talk show (broadcast on Channel 4) and modelled on America's Late Show with David Letterman. He also made sporadic appearances as an actor in shows such as the BBC sitcom, Birds of a Feather.
He died in Norfolk in 1995 at the age of 67.
Rockwell is a serif typeface belonging to the classification slab serif, or Egyptian, where the serifs are unbracketed and similar in weight to the horizontal strokes of the letters. The typeface was designed at the Monotype foundry's in-house design studio in 1934. The project was supervised by Frank Hinman Pierpont. Slab serifs are similar in form and in typographic voice to realist sans-serifs like Akzidenz Grotesk or Franklin Gothic. Rockwell is geometric, its upper- and lowercase O more of a circle than an ellipse. A serif at the apex of uppercase A is distinct. The lowercase a is two-story, somewhat incongruous for a geometrically drawn typeface.
Because of its monoweighted stroke, Rockwell is used primarily for display rather than lengthy bodies of text. Rockwell is based on an earlier, more condensed slab serif design called Litho Antique. The 1933 design for Monotype was supervised by Frank Hinman Pierpont.
The Guinness World Records used Rockwell in some of their early-1990s editions. Informational signage at Expo 86 made extensive use of the Rockwell typeface. Docklands Light Railway also used a bold weight of this typeface in the late 1980s and early '90s. The New York
Skia is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Matthew Carter for Apple Computer in 1994. Skia is Greek for "shadow,"and the letterforms take inspiration from 1st century BC Greek writing. The typeface was the first QuickDraw GX font, featured in System 7.5 and higher, including Mac OS X. It is the only font Apple has shipped with their OS which makes use of TrueType variable axes (a feature akin to Adobe's "multiple master" technology).
Skia was also the code name for the QuickDraw GX project.
In typography, Futura is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed in 1927 by Paul Renner. It is based on geometric shapes that became representative of visual elements of the Bauhaus design style of 1919–1933. Commissioned by the Bauer Type Foundry, in reaction to Ludwig & Mayer's seminal Erbar of 1922, Futura was commercially released in 1936.
The family was originally cast in Light, Medium, Bold, and Bold Oblique fonts in 1928. Light Oblique, Medium Oblique, Demibold, and Demibold Oblique fonts were later released in 1930. Book font was released in 1932. Book Oblique font was released in 1939. Extra Bold font was designed by Edwin W. Shaar in 1952. Extra Bold Italic font was designed in 1955 by Edwin W. Shaar and Tommy Thompson. Matrices for machine composition were made by Intertype.
Although Renner was not associated with the Bauhaus, he shared many of its idioms and believed that a modern typeface should express modern models, rather than be a revival of a previous design. Renner's initial design included several geometrically constructed alternative characters and ranging (old-style) figures, which can be found in the typeface Architype Renner.
Futura has an appearance of
Everson Mono is a monospaced humanist sans serif Unicode font whose development by Michael Everson began in 1995. At first, Everson Mono was a collection of 8-bit fonts containing glyphs for tables in ISO/IEC 10646; at that time, it was not easy to edit cmaps to have true Unicode indices, and there were very few applications which could do anything with a font so encoded in any case. The original "Everson Mono" had a MacRoman character set, and other versions were named with suffixes: "Everson Mono Latin B", "Everson Mono Currency", "Everson Mono Armenian" and so on. A range of fonts with the character set of the ISO/IEC 8859 series were also made. A large font distributed in 2003 was named "Everson Mono Unicode", but since 2008 the font has been named simply "Everson Mono". There are at present no bold or bold-italic styles, but an italic style was added in July 2010.
Everson Mono version 5.1.5, dated 2008-12-07, contains 6,343 characters (6,350 glyphs). Its previous major version (version 4.1.3, dated 2003-02-13) contained 4,893 characters (4,899 glyphs).
In short, this font covers following scripts: Armenian, Canadian Syllabics, Cherokee, Cyrillic, Georgian, Greek (excepting
Prestige Elite, also known simply as Prestige or Elite, is a monospaced typeface.
It was created by Clayton Smith in 1953 for IBM. Along with Courier, it was extremely popular for use in electric typewriters, especially the IBM Selectric. Unlike Courier, however, its popularity has not extended into the computer age; while Prestige software fonts can be obtained, they are not in wide use.
Donald Ervin Knuth ( /kəˈnuːθ/ kə-NOOTH; born January 10, 1938) is a computer scientist and Professor Emeritus at Stanford University.
He is the author of the seminal multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming. Knuth has been called the "father" of the analysis of algorithms. He contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he also popularized the asymptotic notation.
In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, and the Computer Modern family of typefaces.
As a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB/CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, and designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures.
Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where his father owned a small printing business and taught bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, where he enrolled, earning achievement awards. He applied his intelligence in
Arno is a type family created by Robert Slimbach at Adobe. The name refers to the river that runs through Florence, the centre of the Italian Renaissance. The typeface draws its inspiration from 15th and 16th century early humanistic typefaces and is designed in the tradition of early book types such as Venetian and Aldine.
The retail Arno Pro family consists of 3 (4 for Display fonts) weights in roman and italic, 5 optical sizes. Each font supports Adobe CE, Adobe Western 2, Cyrillic, mono- and polytonic Greek, Latin Extended, Vietnamese, dingbats character sets. Supported OpenType features include titling capitals, stylistic alternates, ligatures, proportional numbers, old style figures, small caps, subscripts and superscripts, ordinals, swashes (italic fonts only).
This font family is included with Adobe Creative Suite 3, Adobe Font Folio 11.
The font family is a contemporary book type rooted in classical foundational forms. These forms being the calligraphically-inspired humanistic types of the Italian Renaissance. Because the traditional forms of text have had a rather conservative evolution the familiar handwriting practices remains embedded in the reader's mind. Robert
Bell (sometimes known as John Bell) is a Scotch Roman typeface designed in 1788 by Richard Austin. After a short initial period of popularity, the face fell until disuse until it was revived in the 1930s, after which it enjoyed an enduring acceptance as a text face.
Characteristics of this typeface are:
lower case: square dot over the letter i. double storey a.
upper case: dropped horizontal element on A.
John Bell, impressed by the clarity and contrast found in contemporary French typefaces cut by Firmin Didot, commissioned Austin, a skilful punch cutter first trained as an engraver, to produce a face for his British Letter Foundry. Bell wanted a sharply serifed face, like Didot in its contrast of thick and thin strokes, but more like Baskerville in its use of bracketed, less rectilinear, serifs. The result was the first Scotch Roman face, later described by Stanley Morison as the first English modern typeface. After Bell's foundry was closed, the matrices came into the possession of Stephenson Blake.
The initial success of the face was short lived however, as the introduction of lithography at the beginning of the nineteenth century caused taste in typefaces to change
Bell Gothic is a realist sans-serif typeface designed by Chauncey H. Griffith in 1938 while heading the typographic development program at the Mergenthaler Linotype Company. The typeface was commissioned by AT&T as a proprietary typeface for use in telephone directories (and should not be confused with the Bell typeface, designed for the British typefounder and publisher John Bell (1746-1831) by the punchcutter Richard Austin). Bell Gothic was superseded by Matthew Carter's typeface Bell Centennial in 1978, the one hundredth anniversary of AT&T's founding.
Earlier in Griffith's career at Mergenthaler Linotype, he had developed a highly successful newspaper text face called Excelsior (typeface) which overcame many of the limitations of printing smaller point sizes on low quality newsprint. This contributed to his addressing similar limitations of telephone book printing. Bell Gothic was designed to be highly legible at small sizes, economical in its use of space (and hence paper), and reproduce well on uncoated, absorbent paper newsprint stock under less than optimal conditions. Griffith's face Bell Gothic is distinct for the cross bars on the uppercase I, the foot and cross bar on
Bodoni is a series of serif typefaces first designed by Giambattista Bodoni (1740–1813) in 1798. The typeface is classified as Didone modern. Bodoni followed the ideas of John Baskerville, as found in the printing type Baskerville: increased stroke contrast and a more vertical, slightly condensed, upper case; but took them to a more extreme conclusion. Bodoni had a long career and his designs evolved and varied, ending with a typeface of narrower underlying structure with flat, unbracketed serifs, extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes, and an overall geometric construction. Though these later designs are rightfully called "modern", the earlier designs are "transitional". Some digital versions of Bodoni are said to be hard to read due to "dazzle" caused by the alternating thick and thin strokes, particularly as the thin strokes are very thin at small point sizes. This only occurs when display versions are used at text sizes, and it is also true of much display type that is used at text sizes. Non-dazzling versions of Bodoni that are intended to be used at text size are "Bodoni Old Face", optimized for 9 points; ITC Bodoni 12 (for 12 points); and ITC Bodoni 7 (for 7
Monaco is a monospaced sans-serif typeface designed by Susan Kare and Kris Holmes. The face shipped with all versions of OS X and was already present with previous versions of the Mac operating system. Characters are distinct, and it is difficult to confuse 0 (figure zero) and O (uppercase O), or 1 (figure one) | (Vertical bar) I (uppercase i) and l (lowercase l).
Monaco has been released in at least three forms. The original was a bitmap monospace font that still appears in the ROMs of even New World Macs, and is still the default form in 9 point size even on OS X. The second is the outline form, loosely similar to Lucida Console and created as a TrueType font for System 6 and 7; this is the standard. There was briefly a third known as MPW, since it was designed to be used with the Macintosh Programmer's Workshop IDE; it was essentially a straight conversion of the bitmap font into an outline font with the addition of some of the same disambiguation features as were added to the TrueType Monaco.
With the August 2009 release of OS X v10.6 "Snow Leopard", Menlo was introduced as the default monospaced font instead of Monaco in Terminal and Xcode, However, Monaco remains a part of OS
Monotype Imaging Holdings (NASDAQ: TYPE) is a Delaware corporation based in Woburn, Massachusetts, and specializing in typesetting and typeface design (type foundry) as well as text and imaging solutions for use with consumer electronics devices. Monotype Imaging Holdings is the owner of Monotype Imaging Inc., Linotype, International Typeface Corporation, among others. Monotype Imaging Holdings and its predecessors and subsidiaries have been responsible for many developments in printing technology—in particular the Monotype machine, which was the first fully mechanical typesetter, and the Linotype machine—and the design and production of typefaces in the 19th and 20th centuries. Monotype Imaging’s subsidiaries are the owners of some of the most widely used typeface designs, including Helvetica, ITC Franklin Gothic, ITC Avant Garde, Optima, and Times New Roman.
The Lanston Monotype Machine Company was founded by Tolbert Lanston in Washington, D.C., in 1887. Lanston had a patented mechanical method of punching out metal types from cold strips of metal which were set (hence typesetting) into a matrix for the printing press. In 1896 Lanston patented the first hot metal typesetting
William Caslon (1692 – January 23, 1766), also known as William Caslon I, was an English gunsmith and designer of typefaces. He was born at Cradley, Worcestershire, and in 1716 started business in London as an engraver of gun locks and barrels, and as a bookbinder's tool cutter. Having contact with printers, he was induced to fit up a type foundry, largely through the encouragement of William Bowyer. The distinction and legibility of his type secured him the patronage of the leading printers of the day in England and on the continent.
Caslon's typefaces were inspired by the Dutch Baroque types, the most commonly used types in England before Caslon's faces. His work influenced John Baskerville and are thus the progenitors of the typeface classifications Transitional (which includes Baskerville, Bulmer, and Fairfield), and Modern (which includes Bell, Bodoni, Didot, and Walbaum).
Caslon typefaces were immediately popular and used for many important printed works, including the first printed version of the United States Declaration of Independence. Caslon's types became so popular that the expression about typeface choice, "when in doubt, use Caslon," came about. The Caslon types fell
Wingdings are a series of dingbat fonts which render letters as a variety of symbols. They were originally developed in 1990 by Microsoft by combining glyphs from Lucida Icons, Arrows, and Stars licensed from Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes. Certain versions of the font's copyright string include an attribution to Type Solutions, Inc., the maker of a tool used to hint the font.
Wingdings is a TrueType dingbat font included in all versions of Microsoft Windows from version 3.1 onwards.
The Wingdings trademark is owned by Microsoft, and the design and glyph order was awarded US Design Patent D341848 in 1993. The patent expired in 2005. In many other countries, a Design Patent would be called a registered design. It is registration of a design to deter imitation, rather than a claim of a novel invention.
This font contains many largely recognized shapes and gestures as well as some recognized world symbols, such as the Star of David and the symbols of the zodiac. The font is not mapped to Unicode, although many of its symbols are available in that system.
Wingdings 2 is a TrueType font distributed, for example, with Microsoft Office. The font was developed in 1990 by Type Solutions,
Zapfino is a calligraphic typeface designed for Linotype by typeface designer Hermann Zapf in 1998. It is based on an alphabet Zapf originally penned in 1944. As a font, it makes extensive use of ligatures and character variations (for example, the lower case letter d has nine variations).
In 1983, Zapf had completed the typeface AMS Euler with Donald Knuth and David Siegel of Stanford University for the American Mathematical Society, a typeface for mathematical composition including fraktur and Greek letters. David Siegel had recently finished his studies at Stanford and was interested in entering the field of typography. He told Zapf his idea of making a typeface with a large number of glyph variations; he wanted to start with an example of Zapf's calligraphy that was reproduced in a publication by the Society of Typographical Arts in Chicago.
Zapf was concerned that this was the wrong way to go, and while he was interested in creating a complicated program, he was worried about starting something new. However, Zapf remembered a page of calligraphy from his sketchbook from 1944, and considered the possibility of making a typeface from it. He had previously tried to create a
Adobe Jenson is an old style serif typeface drawn for Adobe Systems by type designer Robert Slimbach. Its Roman styles are based on a Venetian oldstyle text face cut by Nicolas Jenson in 1470, and its italics are based on those by Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi. The result is an organic, somewhat idiosyncratic font, with a low x-height, and inconsistencies that help differentiate letters to make it a highly readable typeface appropriate for large amounts of text.
Adobe Jenson was first released in 1996 as a multiple master Postscript font, and is now sold as an OpenType font under the name Adobe Jenson Pro. The multiple master version included weight and optical size axes.
Adobe Jenson Pro is an OpenType update of the original family. The font family supports Adobe CE, ISO-Adobe (later Adobe Western 2), dingbat character sets. The family comes with 4 weights each in roman and italic, and 4 optical sizes. Supported OpenType features include Stylistic alternates, ligatures, proportional numbers, old style figures, small caps, subscripts and superscripts, ordinals, and swashes (italic fonts only).
Cambria is part of the suite of fonts that comes with Microsoft Windows Vista, Windows 7, Microsoft Office 2007, Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac and Microsoft Office 2011 for Mac, specifically designed for on-screen reading and to be aesthetically pleasing when printed at small sizes. It is a transitional serif font. It has very even spacing and proportions. Diagonal and vertical hairlines and serifs are relatively strong, while horizontal serifs are small and intend to emphasize stroke endings rather than stand out themselves. This principle is most noticeable in the italics where the lowercase characters are subdued in style. Cambria was designed by Dutch typographer Jelle Bosma in 2004, with Steve Matteson and Robin Nicholas.
A completely unrelated font using the Cambria name was created by type designer Ian Koshnick in 1989 for his software publishing company, Cambria Publishing.
This is a variant designed for mathematical and scientific texts, as a replacement for Times New Roman. Led by Jelle Bosma of Agfa Monotype and Ross Mills of Tiro Typeworks, the project was planned when development of Cambria had started, but Cambria Math was developed in three stages.
It is distributed
Comic Sans MS (or Comic Sans) is a sans-serif casual script typeface. The modern Comic Sans was designed by Vincent Connare and released in 1994 by Microsoft Corporation. It is classified as a casual, non-connecting script, and was designed to imitate the historical look of comic book lettering, for use in informal documents.
The typeface has been supplied with Microsoft Windows since the introduction of Windows 95, initially as a supplemental font in the Windows Plus Pack and later in Microsoft Comic Chat. The font's widespread use, often in situations for which it was not intended, has been criticized.
Microsoft designer Vincent Connare says that he began work on Comic Sans in October 1994. Connare had already created a number of child-oriented fonts for various applications, so when he saw a beta version of Microsoft Bob that used Times New Roman in the word balloons of cartoon characters, he decided to create a new face based on the lettering style of comic books he had in his office, specifically The Dark Knight Returns (lettered by John Costanza) and Watchmen (lettered by Dave Gibbons).
He completed the face too late for inclusion in MS Bob, but the programmers of Microsoft
Georgia is a transitional serif typeface designed in 1993 by Matthew Carter and hinted by Tom Rickner for the Microsoft Corporation, as the serif companion to the first Microsoft sans serif screen font, Verdana. Microsoft released the initial version of the font on November 1, 1996 as part of the core fonts for the Web collection. Later, it was bundled with Internet Explorer 4.0 supplemental font pack.
This font was used on the official logo, and all marketing associated with the Atlanta 1996 Olympic Games, held in the US state of the same name, Georgia.
Georgia is designed for clarity on a computer monitor even at small sizes, partially effective due to a large x-height. The typeface is named after a tabloid headline titled "Alien heads found in Georgia."
The Georgia typeface is similar to Times New Roman, but with many subtle differences: Georgia is larger than Times at the same point size, and has a greater x-height at the same actual size; Times New Roman is slightly narrower, with a more vertical axis; and Georgia's serifs are slightly wider and have blunter, flatter ends. Georgia incorporates influences from Clarendon-style typefaces, especially in b, r, j, and c (uppercase
Microgramma, a typeface similar to Eurostile, which was based upon it, is a sans serif font which was designed by Aldo Novarese and Alessandro Butti for the Nebiolo Type Foundry in 1952. It became popular for use with technical illustrations in the 1960s and was a favourite of graphic designers by the early seventies, its uses ranging from publicity and publication design to packaging, largely because of its availability as a Letraset typeface. Early typesetters (like the AM Varityper) also incorporated it.
The typeface is almost always used in its extended and bold extended forms (pictured). Initially, it only had capital letters. Later versions, by Linotype and URW/Nebiolo, contain lower case letters, accented Latin characters, mathematical symbols, and Latin ligatures. In the URW/Nebiolo version, there are also extended Latin, subscripts and superscripts, extended Latin ligatures.
Microgramma OnlyShadow is a variant of Microgramma Bold that contains only the shadows of Microgramma Extended Bold, designed by URW Studio and Aldo Novarese in 1994. Although Alessandro Butti died in 1959, URW credited Alessandro Butti as designer for the new font.
The Euro sign in the font has a
Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington that develops, manufactures, licenses and supports a wide range of products and services related to computing. The company was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975. Microsoft is the world's largest software maker measured by revenues. It is also one of the world's most valuable companies.
Microsoft was established to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. The company's 1986 initial public offering, and subsequent rise in its share price, created an estimated three billionaires and 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions. In May 2011, Microsoft acquired Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in its largest acquisition to date.
As of 2012, Microsoft is market dominant in both the PC operating system and office suite markets (the latter with Microsoft
Pricedown is a display typeface designed by Ray Larabie in 1998 based on The Price Is Right logo. The typeface is used in the video game Grand Theft Auto, and on the cover of "Weird Al" Yankovic's Ultimate Video Collection, as well in a show on TV Azteca in Mexico called Joserra Presenta.
Rail Alphabet is a typeface designed by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert for British Railways. First used by them in signing tests at London's Liverpool Street Station, it was then adopted by the Design Research Unit (DRU) as part of their comprehensive 1965 rebranding of the company.
Rail Alphabet is similar, but not identical, to a bold weight of Helvetica (and, not quite as similar, Akzidenz Grotesk or Arial). Akzidenz Grotesk had earlier also provided the same designers the broad inspiration for the Transport typeface used for all road signs in the United Kingdom.
The DRU's 1965 rebranding of British Rail included a new logo (the double arrow), a shortened name British Rail, and the total adoption of Rail Alphabet for all lettering other than printed matter including station signage, trackside signs, fixed notices, signs inside trains and train liveries. Key elements of the rebranding were still being used during much of the 1980s and Rail Alphabet was also used as part of the livery of Sealink ships until that company's privatisation in the late 1980s.
By the end of the 1980s, British Rail's various business units were developing their own individual brands and identities
Caslon refers to a number of serif typefaces designed by William Caslon I (1692–1766), and various revivals thereof.
Caslon shares the irregularity characteristic of Dutch Baroque types. It is characterized by short ascenders and descenders, bracketed serifs, moderately-high contrast, robust texture, and moderate modulation of stroke. The A has a concave hollow at the apex, the G is without a spur. Caslon's italics have a rhythmic calligraphic stoke. Characters A, V, and W have an acute slant. The lowercase italic p, q, v, w, and z all have a suggestion of a swash.
Caslon's earliest design dates to 1722. Caslon is cited as the first original typeface of English origin, but type historians like Stanley Morison and Alfred F. Johnson, a scientist who worked at the British Museum, did point out the close similarity of Caslon's design to the Dutch Fell types cut by Voskens and other type cut by the Dutchman Van Dyck.
The earliest information about William Caslon as punch-cutter and typefounders can be found in:
The two next authors fully based their writings on the three publications previously mentioned.
The first founts cut by William Caslon were:
There is much uncertainty about the
Charcoal is a sans-serif typeface designed by David Berlow of Font Bureau during the period 1994–1997. Charcoal was the default menu font in Apple Computer's Mac OS 8 and 9, replacing Chicago as part of the new Platinum interface. In Mac OS X, it was replaced with Lucida Grande as the system typeface. Charcoal is designed for high legibility, even at smaller point sizes, displayed on computer monitors.
While similar in design to realist sans-serifs, Charcoal has a distinctive organic quality. The letterforms have a high x-height, a vertical axis, and maintain generous counter-form in and around the letterforms. Descending characters, g, j, p, q, and y are shallow, compensating for the high x-height, and allowing for reduced leading in text. While designed primarily for monitor display, Charcoal has had considerable popularity in print, including in letterpress printing.
Virtue is a free TrueType font of similar design sometimes used as a surrogate on non-Apple systems.
Truth, an expanded Charcoal family, is sold by Font Bureau, designed by David Berlow, and was released in 2005. It contains small differences from Charcoal, and is available in seven weights. The weights are Thin,
Lucas de Groot (born 21 June 1963 in Noordwijkerhout, the Netherlands), known professionally as Luc(as) de Groot, is a Dutch type designer. He is the head of the type foundry Fontfabrik.
He is mostly known for the very large font family Thesis (TheSans, TheSerif, TheMix, TheSansMono and later TheAntiqua) and Corpid (previously AgroSans).
De Groot has also designed various custom fonts for particular clients: Calibri and Consolas for Microsoft; SunSans for Sun Microsystems; SpiegelSans and Taz for, respectively, the German magazines Der Spiegel and die tageszeitung; and FolhaSerif for the Brazilian newspaper Folha.
De Groot teaches at the Design Faculty of the University of Applied Sciences, Potsdam, Germany.
Theo van Doesburg (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈteɪɔ vɑn ˈdusbʏrx], 30 August 1883 – 7 March 1931) was a Dutch artist, who practised painting, writing, poetry and architecture. He is best known as the founder and leader of De Stijl.
Theo van Doesburg was born as Christian Emil Marie Küpper on 30 August 1883 in Utrecht as the son of the photographer Wilhelm Küpper and Henrietta Catherina Margadant. After a short training in acting and singing he decided to become a painter. He always regarded his stepfather, Theodorus Doesburg, to be his natural father, so that his first works are signed with Theo Doesburg, to which he later added the insertion "van". His first exhibition was in 1908. From 1912 onwards, he supported his works by writing for magazines. Although he considered himself to be a modern painter at that time, his early work is in line with the Amsterdam Impressionists and is influenced by Vincent van Gogh, both in style and subject matter. This suddenly changed in 1913 after reading Wassily Kandinsky's Rückblicke, in which he looks back at his life as a painter from 1903–1913. It made him realize there was a higher, more spiritual level in painting that originates from the mind
Lithos is a glyphic sans-serif typeface designed by Carol Twombly in 1989 for Adobe Systems. Lithos is inspired by the unadorned, geometric letterforms of the engravings found on Ancient Greek public buildings. The typeface consists of only capital letters, and comes in five weights, with no italics.
According to Twombly, Lithos only used Greek inscriptions as inspiration, making Lithos more of a modern reinterpretation than a faithful reproduction. Twombly also designed Trajan and Charlemagne based respectively on ancient Roman and Byzantine inscriptions. Those typefaces, unlike Lithos, were modeled more directly upon their historical counterparts. One example of Lithos' departure from historical accuracy is the inclusion of bold weights, which never existed in historical Greek inscriptions.
Publications associated with African, African-American and Southwestern cultures have used Lithos for its "ethnic" feel, even if it is the wrong ethnicity. Lithos has also become something of a generic stand-in whenever a "primitive" feel is desired. For this reason, Lithos has been compared to Rudolf Koch's typeface, Neuland, which was originally intended to be a modern reinterpretation of
Bitstream Inc. (NASDAQ:BITS) is a type foundry that produces digital typefaces (fonts). Founded in 1981 by Matthew Carter and Mike Parker among others, it claims to be the oldest such company. It is located in Marlborough, Massachusetts. The font business was acquired by Monotype Imaging in March, 2012. The remainder of the business, responsible for Pageflex and Bolt Browser, was spun off to a new entity named Marlborough Software Development Holdings Inc.
Besides building a library of "classic" fonts (usually under different names for trademark reasons), Bitstream has developed a number of fonts itself. The Bitstream font collection is most widely used through its inclusion with the CorelDRAW software. Bitstream also created the freeware Bitstream Vera family of fonts.
Another Bitstream product is Font Fusion, a font rasterizing engine developed jointly with Type Solutions, Inc., which is now owned by Bitstream.
One of their best known fonts is Swiss 721 BT, which is a Helvetica clone with condensed versions and a rounded version. It was among the first digitally available Swiss family typefaces, being designed for that purpose in 1982.
The company had a high level of
Candara is a humanist sans-serif typeface, which is bundled with Microsoft Windows Vista and Windows 7. Candara’s verticals show both entasis and ekstasis on opposite sides of stems, high-branching arcades in the lowercase, large apertures in all open forms, and unique ogee curves on diagonals.
The family supports most of the WGL4 character set. OpenType features include automatic ligature sets, numerals (tabular, proportional, oldstyle and lining), numerator, denominator, scientific inferior subscripts, and small caps.
Candara is featured in the Microsoft ClearType Font Collection, a set of fonts developed to take advantage of ClearType to improve the reading experience in Windows Vista and Office 2007.
This font, along with Calibri, Cambria, Consolas, Constantia and Corbel, is also distributed with the free Powerpoint 2007 Viewer and the Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack.
Meiryo (メイリオ, Meirio) is a Japanese sans-serif gothic typeface. Microsoft bundled Meiryo with Office Mac 2008 as part of the standard install, and it replaces MS Gothic as the default system font for Vista on Japanese systems.
It was decided that a new Japanese font was needed, as the current ones (mainly MS Gothic and MS Mincho) are incompatible with Microsoft's ClearType subpixel rendering technology: Meiryo is intended to increase legibility of characters on LCD screens. ClearType has been available in Windows for Latin fonts since the release of Windows XP in October 2001. However, unlike Latin fonts which use the ClearType hinting system for all sizes, the Japanese fonts distributed with Windows included embedded bitmap versions of the fonts in small sizes. Although fonts using only hinted CJK glyphs exist (such as Arial Unicode MS), they had not been distributed with Windows prior to Vista.
Meiryo UI is a version that uses condensed kana, introduced with Windows 7 and is also available as an update in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. Similar to MS Gothic, the Meiryo UI fonts are bundled with the same Meiryo TTC files of respective weights.
Meiryo UI update is also
In typography, a sans-serif, sans serif, san serif or simply sans typeface is one that does not have the small projecting features called "serifs" at the end of strokes. The term comes from the French word sans, meaning "without". Sans-serif fonts tend to have less line width variation than serif fonts, but they can have one.
In print, sans-serif fonts are used for headlines rather than for body text. The conventional wisdom holds that serifs help guide the eye along the lines in large blocks of text. Sans-serifs, however, have acquired considerable acceptance for body text in Europe.
Sans-serif fonts have become the de facto standard for body text on-screen, especially online. This is partly because interlaced displays may show twittering on the fine details of the horizontal serifs. Additionally, the low resolution of digital displays in general can make fine details like serifs disappear or appear too large.
Before the term “sans-serif” became standard in English typography, a number of other terms had been used. One of these outmoded terms for sans serif was gothic, which is still used in East Asian typography and sometimes seen in font names like Century Gothic or Trade
Zuzana Licko (Slovak: Zuzana Ličko; born 1961) is a typeface designer based out of the San Francisco Bay Area who was born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. Licko came to the United States when she was a child along with her family. She studied architecture, photography and computer programming before earning a degree in graphic communications at the University of California at Berkeley.
Zuzana’s father was a biomathematician and at the University of California, San Francisco and through his job she became involved with computers during the summer months when she helped him with data processing work.
When she first started attending the university her goal was to earn a degree in architecture but she then changed to a visual studies major because she believed becoming an architect was in her eyes, too similar to going to business school.
While at Berkeley, Zuzana took a calligraphy class, which happened to be her least favorite due to the fact that she had to write with her right hand even though she was left handed. This experience later influenced her when she started working on type design, which was more computer-based.
In an interview featured in Eye (No. 43, Vol. 11, Spring
Cassandre, pseudonym of Adolphe Jean-Marie Mouron (24 January 1901 – 17 June 1968) was a Ukrainian-French painter, commercial poster artist, and typeface designer.
He was born Adolphe Jean-Marie Mouron in Kharkov, Ukraine, to French parents. As a young man, Cassandre moved to Paris, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts and at the Académie Julian. The popularity of posters as advertising afforded him an opportunity to work for a Parisian printing house. Inspired by cubism as well as surrealism, he earned a reputation with works such as Bûcheron (Woodcutter), a poster created for a cabinetmaker that won first prize at the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes.
Cassandre became successful enough that with the help of partners he was able to set up his own advertising agency called Alliance Graphique, serving a wide variety of clients during the 1930s. He is perhaps best known for his posters advertising travel, for clients such as the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits.
His creations for the Dubonnet wine company were among the first posters designed in a manner that allowed them to be seen by occupants in moving vehicles. His posters
Architype Renner is a geometric sans-serif typeface reproducing the experimental alternate characters of Paul Renner's 1927–29 typeface Futura for the Bauer foundry. Renner's original design for Futura shows the influence of Herbert Bayer's experimental "Universal" alphabet. The alternate characters Renner proposed for Futura were mostly deleted from the face's character set, resulting in a more conventional, and perhaps more economically successful typeface.
Alternate characters were drawn for lowercase a, g, and r, and for some punctuation, and uppercase characters including German accents. Both lining and text figures were produced. The Renner Architype typeface is one of a collection of several revivals of early twentieth century typographic experimentation designed by Freda Sack and David Quay of The Foundry.
Bernhard Modern is an modern style classification serif typeface designed by Lucian Bernhard in 1937 for the American Type Founders (ATF).
Lucian Bernhard's Bernhard Modern typeface was the ATF's response to the many popular old style engraving faces of the early 20th century. A somewhat decorative text typeface, it is distinct for its low x-height, elongated ascenders, and relatively short descenders giving it an appearance of height without requiring excessive leading. Serifs are wide and splayed. The lowercase roman g is unusual for having the upper bowl larger than the lower one. Fordham University, in New York City, currently uses Bernhard Modern as the central typeface of its design identity.
Chicago is a sans-serif typeface designed by Susan Kare for Apple Computer. It was used in the Macintosh operating system user interface between 1984 and 1997 and was an important part of Apple’s brand identity. It is also used in early versions of the iPod user interface. While initially a bitmap font, Apple commissioned the type foundry Bigelow & Holmes to create a TrueType version, as the OS’s capabilities improved. The typeface is named after the U.S. city of Chicago.
According to Susan Kare, Chicago was the first font to be developed for the Macintosh. Before the team settled on the familiar “world cities” naming convention for the fonts, it was called Elefont (Elefont is also the name of a bold semi-serif typeface designed by Bob McGrath in 1978). The first bitmap version included only a 12 pt. version. This font, with only very minor changes to spacing, was used for menus, dialogs, window titles and text labels in up to and including version 7.6 of the system. The TrueType version had many differences from the bitmap version, which became more apparent at greater sizes. One of Chicago’s major features was that it could remain legible while being made “grey” (to indicate a
Cholla Slab is a geometric slab-serif variant of a larger typeface family called Cholla designed by Sibylle Hagmann in the period 1998–1999 for the Art Center College of Design. Cholla is licensed by the Emigre foundry. The typeface is named for a group of cactus species indigenous to the Mojave desert.
The family is distinct for maintaining a highly unified design across weights and the serif and sans serif variants while allowing for a wide range of variation in form and counter-form across the family. Similarities in structure can be found with the 1930 Berthold foundry typeface City.
The typeface family has been awarded by both the Type Directors Club of New York and the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI).
Clearview, also known as Clearview Hwy, is the name of a humanist sans-serif typeface family for guide signs on roads in the United States. It was developed by independent researchers with the help of the Texas Transportation Institute and the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, under the supervision of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It is expected to gradually replace the FHWA typefaces over the next few decades in many applications.
The standard FHWA typefaces, developed in the 1940s, were designed to work with a system of highway signs in which almost all words are capitalized. The designers of Clearview sought to create a typeface adapted for mixed-case signage, initially expecting it would be based on an existing European sans-serif typeface. Instead, using a similar weight to the FHWA fonts, a new font was created from scratch. Two key differences are much larger counter spaces, the enclosed spaces in letters like the lower case "e" or "a," and a higher x-height, the relative height of the lower case "x" to the upper case "X." Smaller counter spaces in the FHWA fonts reduced legibility, particularly when the letters glowed from headlight illumination at night.
Fälschungserschwerende Schrift (forgery-impeding typeface) or FE-Schrift has been the only typeface used on new vehicle registration plates of Germany since November 2000, except for plates issued to military-registered vehicles, which still use the former DIN 1451 typeface. The abbreviation "FE" is derived from the compound German adjective "fälschungserschwerend" combining the noun "Fälschung" (falsification) and the verb "erschweren" (to hinder).
The motivation for the creation of the typeface was spun in the late 1970s in the light of Red Army Faction terrorism when it was discovered that with the then-standard font for vehicle registration plates—the DIN 1451 font—it was particularly easy to modify letters by applying a small amount of black paint or tape. For example, it was easy to change a "P" to an "R" or "B", a "3" to an "8", or an "L" or "F" to an "E". Modifications to FE-font plates are somewhat more difficult, as they also require the use of white paint, which is easily distinguished at a distance from the retroreflective white background of the plate, in particular at night.
The original design for the FE-Schrift typeface has been created by Karlgeorg Hoefer who was
Friz Quadrata is a glyphic serif typeface designed by Ernst Friz and Victor Caruso in 1973. It is currently available from the ITC and Linotype foundries.
Friz Quadrata's strong, classic look has been used by a range of institutions and entities. The font's regular version is used for all official logos of the Chilean Government for the current and previous administrations. The logos of the University of Wisconsin - Madison and Polish private university Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Bankowości are in Friz Quadrata; The University of Arizona uses Friz Quadrata as its official font for all logos and trademarks, along with Austin Community College in Austin, Texas and King's College in Charlotte, NC. The now-defunct Progressive Conservative Party of Canada used this typeface from 1996 to the party's dissolution in 2003. The New Mexico Democratic Party uses the font for its logo, and it is also the typeface for the Quebec wordmark. It was also used by the University of Phoenix in its logo until recently.
The font is highly recognizable, especially in the United States, on the identifying plaque of One Police Plaza, the headquarters of the New York City Police Department, which has its
Helvetica is a widely used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann.
Characteristics of this typeface are:
lower case: square dot over the letter i. double storey a.
upper case: dropped horizontal element on A.
Helvetica was developed in 1957 by Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann at the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei (Haas type foundry) of Münchenstein, Switzerland. Haas set out to design a new sans-serif typeface that could compete with the successful Akzidenz-Grotesk in the Swiss market. Originally called Neue Haas Grotesk, its design was based on Schelter-Grotesk and Haas’ Normal Grotesk. The aim of the new design was to create a neutral typeface that had great clarity, no intrinsic meaning in its form, and could be used on a wide variety of signage.
When Linotype adopted Neue Haas Grotesk (which was never planned to be a full range of mechanical and hot-metal typefaces) its design was reworked. After the success of Univers, Arthur Ritzel of Stempel redesigned Neue Haas Grotesk into a larger family.
In 1960, the typeface's name was changed by Haas' German parent company Stempel to Helvetica in order to make it more
Kaufmann is the name of a brush script typeface drawn in 1936 by Max R. Kaufmann for the American Type Founders (ATF). The stroke weight is monotone. Uppercase characters are freely drawn, while lowercase are more regular in height and width, recalling cursive handwriting. Lowercase characters are close fitting, effecting the look of a connecting script. The d is looped.
The fluid forms of both the upper- and lowercases, combined with an even weight of stroke, have made Kaufmann popular in neon sign fabrication.
A slightly modified form of the typeface has recently been used for the logo of the Pop Idol series and various international spinoffs. The most notable change is the long stylised flick added to the capital "A" in the American Idol, Australian Idol and Asian Idol logos. The "Z" featuring in the NZ Idol logo is also very different from a standard Kaufmann "Z".
Kaufmann was also used to display the players' names on Topps baseball cards from 1970 and 1994, and is featured on the marquee of the Ed Sullivan Theater in New York City, in the Late Show with David Letterman logo.
Lucida Grande is a humanist sans-serif typeface. It is a member of the Lucida family of typefaces designed by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes. It has been used throughout Mac OS X user interface since 1999, as well as in Safari for Windows up to the browser's version 3.2.3 released on May 12, 2009.
The typeface looks very similar to Lucida Sans and Lucida Sans Unicode. Like Sans Unicode, Grande supports the most commonly used characters defined in version 2.0 of the Unicode standard.
The two weights of this typeface are Regular and Bold, both included in Mac OS X and Safari. There are no italics for this typeface.
Lucida Grande contains 2,826 Unicode-encoded glyphs (2,245 Characters) in version 5.0d8e1 (Revision 1.002).
Language support by version:
Almost all glyphs in Lucida Grande (and Lucida Grande Bold) look identical to their matching counterparts in Lucida Sans (and Lucida Sans Demibold) as well as Lucida Sans Unicode, with the very few exceptions of:
These slightly different characters look clearer in small font sizes in display and user interface (especially graphical and web-based) uses.
Apart from Mac OS X, many websites and blogs use Lucida Grande as the default typeface
Warren Chappell (1904, Richmond, Virginia–1991, Charlottesville, Virginia) was an American illustrator, book and type designer, and author.
He was a graduate of the University of Richmond, and then studied at the Art Students League of New York, under Boardman Robinson, where he later taught. In 1931-2 he studied type design and punch-cutting under Rudolf Koch at the Design School Offenbach in Germany. In 1935 he studied illustration at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center. The University of Richmond awarded him an honorary D.F.A. in 1968. In 1970 his work in the graphic arts was recognized by the Rochester Institute of Technology, with the presentation of their Goudy Award.
After running his own studio in New York City for several years, Chappel traveled to Germany just before World War II to work at Stempel on the typeface Trajanus. He returned to the United States at the onset of the war, having seen only initial proofs. He first saw the completed typeface in Swedish design magazines during the war. He later devoted himself to book design and illustration and was closely associated with the firm of Alfred A. Knopf for which he designed many books. He also did illustrations for
The Union of Russian Workers in the United States and Canada, commonly known as the "Union of Russian Workers" (Союз Русских Рабочих, Soiuz Russkikh Rabochikh) was an anarchist political association of Russian emigrants in the United States. The group was established shortly after the failure of the Russian Revolution of 1905 and was essentially annihilated in America by the 1919 Red Scare in which it was specifically targeted by the Bureau of Investigation of the U.S. Department of Justice. Thousands of the group's adherents were arrested and hundreds deported in 1919 and 1920; still more voluntarily returned to Soviet Russia. During its brief existence the organization, which was only loosely affiliated with the anarchosyndicalist Industrial Workers of the World, published numerous books and pamphlets in the Russian language by anarchist writers, operated reading rooms and conducted courses to teach newly-arrived Russians the English language, and fulfilled a social function for emigrants half a world from home.
The Union of Russian Workers (URW) was established in New York City in 1908 by refugees from the defeated Russian Revolution of 1905. While some have estimated that by
Vincent Connare (born 1960 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a former Microsoft in-house font designer. Amongst his creations are the Comic Sans font, often known as the standard typeface for comic and video game text, and the Trebuchet MS font, both of which ship as standard on current releases of Microsoft Windows and Mac OS, with Comic Sans being the least admired. Besides text typefaces he finalized and hinted the font Marlett which has been used for scalable User Interface icons in Microsoft Windows since 1995 and created portions of the font Webdings that was first shipped with Internet Explorer.
He currently works in the UK for Dalton Maag, an independent font design studio.
Connare studied at Milford High School in Milford, Massachusetts and the New York Institute of Technology, and gained a master's degree in Type Design at the University of Reading.
Charlotte Sans is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Michael Gills in 1992 as part of a larger family called Charlotte, which includes a related serif text face. The face was designed for Letraset.
Charlotte Sans bears comparison with Eric Gill's 1927 face Gill Sans sharing several humanist sans-serif characteristics: a double story roman a and g, and a single story lowercase italic a. Charlotte Sans has a tapered glyphic stroke in the t. Terminals in vertical strokes are not parallel with the baseline but instead cut at an angle. Similarities can be seen with Syntax and FF Scala Sans. The overall stroke width is varied and rhythmic is seen especially in the serif version of the face which was inspired by the types of eighteenth century punch-cutter Pierre-Simon Fournier.
Cooper Black is a heavily weighted, old style serif typeface designed by Oswald Bruce Cooper in 1921 and released by the Barnhart Brothers & Spindler type foundry in 1922. The typeface is drawn as an extra bold weight of Cooper Old Style. Though not based on a single historic model, Cooper Black exhibits influences of Art Nouveau, Art Deco, and the Machine Age. Cooper Black was a predominant lettering style popularized by Oswald Bruce Cooper in Chicago and the Midwest of America in the 1920s, given typographic form. An earlier weight of Cooper's type designs, Cooper Old Style (later just "Cooper") was released first, though Cooper Black was what BB&S foundry was after. Cooper Black was advertised as being "for far-sighted printers with near-sighted customers", as well as "the Black Menace" by detractors.
Cooper Hilite is a version of Cooper Black originally designed by painting white relief impressions onto a printed proof of Cooper Black. A messy version was released by the Russian type foundry Paratype in 1993. A detailed version that is a direct digital rendering of 'Oz' Cooper's original was released by the Wordshape type foundry in 2010. The Wordshape version is accompanied by
Windsor is an old style serif display typeface created in 1905 by Elisha Pechey for the Stephenson Blake type foundry. Capitals M and W are widely splayed, P and R have very large upper bowls. The Lowercase a, h, m and n of the Windsor font have angled right hand stems, e has an angled cross-stroke. Besides the basic font it is also available in two other styles, Light and Roman. Various foundries introduced minor variations so that today there are versions by Linotype, Elsner+Flake, URW++, Mecanorma and Stephenson Blake.
Beginning with 1977's Annie Hall, almost all the title sequences and credits of Woody Allen's films use sparse, white Windsor Light Condensed over a black background. The same font was used in the Ebury Press 2007 edition (ISBN 0091920213) of his 2007 book Mere Anarchy.
Windsor Bold was used for the title and credits of the TV series All in the Family, 227, and Who's The Boss?.
The Whole Earth Catalog, published between 1968 and 1972, used Windsor font on its cover.
Max's Kansas City in New York City used lowercase Windsor Bold in its logo from 1965 to 1981. The 7th Street Entry at the First Avenue nightclub in Minneapolis, Minnesota has also used lowercase
The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) is a UK charity offering information, support and advice to almost two million people in the UK with sight loss.
The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) was founded by Thomas Rhodes Armitage, a successful doctor who suffered from eyesight problems.
In 1868 Dr Armitage founded an organisation known as the British and Foreign Society for Improving Embossed Literature for the Blind. This later became the British and Foreign Blind Association. In 1875 Her Majesty Queen Victoria became the organisation's first patron.
The organisation received a Royal Charter in 1948, and changed its name to Royal National Institute for the Blind in 1953. In 2002, RNIB membership was introduced and the organisation's name changed to Royal National Institute of the Blind. In June 2007 the organisation changed its name again, to Royal National Institute of Blind People.
RNIB is a national organization with branches and services throughout the United Kingdom including Northern Ireland. The charity's headquarters are in London, England. RNIB's patron is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
In October 2008, RNIB and Action for Blind People agreed in
Arnold Böcklin is a display typeface that was designed in 1904 by Schriftgiesserei Otto Weisert foundry. It was named in memory of Arnold Böcklin, a Swiss symbolist painter who died in 1901.
It is probably the best-known Art Nouveau typeface.
The font had a renaissance in the 1960s and 70s as part of the general Art Nouveau revival in popular design. Its influence can be seen in the work of illustrators such as Roger Dean. The Stuckist artist Paul Harvey has also used the typeface in his work.
The OpenType version supports ISO-Adobe 2, Adobe CE, and Latin Extended character sets.
Because it was included in early versions of Corel Draw under the name "Arabia", it became connected with Middle East and Oriental themes and used in a variety of contexts, from kebab restaurants to colonial shops, despite having little in common with actual Arabian lettering.
The font is used for the title of the TV show That '70s Show and on James Blunt's album Back to Bedlam.
The logo of White Dwarf magazine from the late 1970s to the early '80s.
Deberny & Peignot (Fonderie Deberny et Peignot) was a French type foundry, created by the 1923 merger of Peignot foundry and the Laurent & Deberny foundry. It was bought by the Haas Type Foundry of Switzerland in 1972, which in turn was merged into D. Stempel AG in 1985, then into Linotype GmbH in 1989, and is now part of Monotype Corporation.
Starting in 1925, Deberny & Peignot types were distributed in the United States by Continental Type Founders Association.
These foundry types were produced by Deberny & Peignot:
Deberny & Peignot's release of "Univers" in 1957 was the first typeface to be manufactured simultaneously as hand-set type, Monotype mechanical type, and photo type, bridging all the technological advances that had developed over the history of typesetting to that time. The company produced twenty-one width and weight variations of "Univers" complete with an innovative numbering system that identified each characteristic, and dispensing with historical names, such as "bold" and "extra bold."
The Eurostile type font style is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed by Aldo Novarese in 1962. Novarese originally made Eurostile for one of the best-known Italian foundries, Nebiolo, in Turin.
Novarese developed Eurostile because although the similar Microgramma, which he had also designed, came with a variety of weights, it had only upper-case letters. A decade after he had designed Microgramma, Novarese remedied this flaw with his design of Eurostile, which added lower-case letters, a bold condensed variant, and an ultra narrow design he called Eurostile Compact, for a total of seven fonts.
Eurostile is a popular display font. Its linear nature suggests modern architecture, with an appeal both technical and functional. The squarish shapes with their rounded corners evoke the appearance of television screens of the 1950s and 1960s. As such, it has found some popularity in contemporary graphic design, as well as in science fiction novel and film artwork.
Introduced by Nebiolo in 1962.
The popularity of Eurostile continued strong right in the cold type era, and it was offered by various manufacturers under the following names:
In the URW version, there are also Greek,
Harold Lohner (born 1958 in Schenectady, New York) is a printmaker and designer of freeware and shareware fonts. Lohner has been a significant aspect of the cultural life of the New York State Capital Region since his artwork first appeared in The Artists of the Mohawk-Hudson Region exhibition in 1978. His works have been subsequently featured or included in over 80 exhibitions, receiving a dozen honors and awards. Lohner is a native of the region and earned BA, MA, and MFA degrees from the University at Albany. In 1982 he accepted a faculty position at Russell Sage College and was Gallery Director there from 1985-1997. In 2002, Lohner transferred to Sage College of Albany. He is a member of Phi Kappa Phi and was named Professor of the Year in 2006. He currently teaches printmaking, artists’ books, and the freshman Visualization course. He is Coordinator of the Fine Arts program and is the faculty advisor for the Little Gallery. Lohner is a rare individual who has made significant contributions as an artist, mentor, and gallerist.
Lohner has designed over 100 typefaces, and has licensed some of his shareware designs to the non-profit organization Autumn Leaves. He has also
Josef Albers (March 19, 1888 – March 25, 1976) was a German-born American artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of the 20th century.
Albers was born into a Roman Catholic family of craftsmen in Bottrop, Westphalia, Germany. He worked from 1908 to 1913 as a schoolteacher in his home town, where in 1918 he also received his first public commission, Rosa mystica ora pro nobis, a stained-glass window for a church. He studied art in Berlin, Essen, and Munich, before enrolling as a student in the basic course of Johannes Itten at the prestigious Weimar Bauhaus in 1920. Although Albers studied painting, it was as a maker of stained glass that he joined the faculty of the Bauhaus in 1922, approaching his chosen medium as a component of architecture and as a stand-alone art form. The director and founder of the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius, asked him in 1923 to teach in the preliminary course ‘Werklehre' of the Department of Design to introduce newcomers to the principles of handicrafts, because Albers came from that background and had appropriate practice and knowledge. In
Karlgeorg Hoefer (February 6, 1914 – October 8, 2000) was a German calligrapher and typographer.
Hoefer was born in Schlesisch-Drehnow (now Drzonów) in Silesia. He taught typography at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach (until 1970 "Werkkunstschule Offenbach"). He held several calligraphy workshops for calligraphic societies in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, Boston, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Portland and Washington. In 1987 he founded the Schreibwerkstatt-Klingspor Offenbach and supported the Klingspor Museum in Offenbach am Main.
He designed fonts for Linotype, Klingspor, and Ludwig & Mayer.
Today his most commonly seen font is the FE-Schrift, the standard font for German number plates.
He died in Offenbach in 2000.
Ming or Song is a category of typefaces used to display Chinese characters, which are used in the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages. They are currently the most common style of type in print for Chinese and Japanese.
The names Song (or Sung) and Ming correspond to the Song Dynasty when a distinctive printed style of regular script was developed, and the Ming Dynasty during which that style developed into the Ming typeface style. In Mainland China, the most common name is Song (the Mainland Chinese standardized Ming typeface in Microsoft Windows being named SimSun). In Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and Korea, Ming is prevalent. In Hong Kong and Taiwan, “Song typeface” (宋體) has been used but “Ming typeface” (明體) has increased currency since the advent of desktop publishing. Some type foundries use "Song" to refer to this style of typeface that follows a standard such as the Standard Form of National Characters, and “Ming” to refer to typefaces that resemble forms found in the Kangxi dictionary.
Characteristics of Ming typefaces include the following:
Possessing variable line weight and characteristic decorations at the end of lines similar to serifs, this type style is comparable to
Nobel is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed by Sjoerd Henrik de Roos (1877–1962) and Dick Dooijes (1909–1998) in the period 1929–1935 for the Amsterdam Type foundry). Capitalizing upon Lettergieterij Amsterdam's substantial financial interest in the Berlin typefoundry H. Berthold AG, de Roos conceived of a revival of Berthold Grotesk. Begun just two years after the release of Futura, Nobel is a similar exploration of geometric form but allows far more biomorphic shapes and variation.
In its light-weight version, Nobel shares considerable similarities with the purity of Futura, yet in the text and bold weights idiosynchronies emerge, revealing a less strident structure. The a is double-storyed, the g has an open tail, and the t has a distinctive curved terminal.
Neither de Roos or Dooijes considered Nobel to be a great achievement, yet it became one of the best selling sans-serif types of the Lettgieterij Amsterdam, continuing in popularity into the mid-1960s. Some post-war functionalists including Wim Crouwel ridiculed Nobel, describing it as parody of the nineteenth century grotesques.
Andrea Fuchs and Fred Smeijers of the Dutch Type Library produced a revival in 1993. In
GE Inspira is a typeface developed by Michael Abbink around 2002 for the new visual identity system of the General Electric Company. Since it is a proprietary typeface of GE, not much is known about it. According to the GE Brand Manual, the typeface is at the forefront of GE's brand expression and is recognized as being "Clear, Precise, and Modern". The typeface comes in four styles, GE Inspira Book, GE Inspira Regular, GE Inspira Pitch, and GE Inspira Small Caps.
As noted above, GE Inspira comes in four styles: GE Inspira Book, GE Inspira Regular, GE Inspira Pitch, and GE Inspira Small Caps. There are some major differences between these fonts, and while GE Inspira Book and GE Inspira Regular are similar in many ways, their "a"s are the most significant difference between the two. GE Inspira Book was created, as the name hints, in order to provide clear, readable text for small-texted literature, like the company's Annual Report. Finally, GE Inspira Pitch is a somewhat bolder version, designed for use in on-screen or projected presentations.
GE Inspira is available for download from GE Brand Central, but it requires a GE single sign-on account, which requires employment at General
Apple Inc., (NASDAQ: AAPL) formerly Apple Computer Inc., is an American multinational corporation which designs and manufactures consumer electronics and software products. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the iPod and the iPhone. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system, the iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, the iWork suite of productivity software, and Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products. The company operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.
Architype Bayer is a geometric sans-serif typeface based upon the 1927 experimentation of Herbert Bayer. Bayer reacted to the Germanic use of capitalization for all nouns by abandoning uppercase. His new case combined characters based on the Carolingian minuscule with uppercase K rescaled to top-align on the mean line. The Bayer Architype typeface is one of a collection of several revivals of early twentieth century typographic experimentation designed by Freda Sack and David Quay of The Foundry.
Vera is a group typeface (font) with a liberal license. It was designed by Jim Lyles from Bitstream, and it is closely based on Bitstream's Prima, for which Lyles was also responsible. It is a TrueType font with full hinting instructions, which improve its rendering quality on low-resolution devices such as computer monitors. The font has also been repackaged as a Type 1 PostScript font, called Bera, for LaTeX users.
Vera consists of serif, sans-serif, and monospace fonts, as follows:
Although Vera itself covers only common punctuation and the Latin alphabet with some diacritics, its license allows others to make and distribute derivative works with some restrictions, and the DejaVu fonts project is expanding it with additional glyphs and styles. With over 80% installation base, the DejaVu fonts have been gaining on the role as sans-serif default fonts in GNU/Linux. On Windows and Macintosh systems, DejaVu is, however, practically unknown, whereas Bitstream Vera Sans has installation bases of 25% and 20% there, and 79% on Unix, according to a survey. The Bitstream Vera Sans Mono typeface in particular is suitable for technical work, as it clearly distinguishes 'l' (lowercase L)
Carol Twombly (born 1959) is an American calligrapher and typeface designer who has designed many typefaces, including Trajan, Myriad and Adobe Caslon. She worked as a type designer at Adobe Systems from 1988 through 1999, during which time she designed, or contributed to the design of, many typefaces. She retired from type design in early 1999, to focus on her other design interests, involving textiles and jewelry.
Twombly attended and graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) where she first studied sculpture, and later changed her major to graphic design. She credits her professors Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes, whose studio she worked in, for her inspiration and stimulating her interest in typography. At Stanford University Twombly was one of only five people to graduate from the short-lived digital typography program.
Twombly was the 1984 recipient of the Morisawa gold prize, and the 1994 winner of the Prix Charles Peignot, given by the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI) - the first woman, and second American, to receive this award given to a promising typeface designer under the age of 35.
Chauncey H. Griffith (1879–1956), American printer and typeface designer. Griffith was born in the U.S. state of Ohio, and began his career as a compositor and pressman. In 1906 he joined the Mergenthaler Linotype Company as part of their sales force. He became sales manager, and oversaw the entrenchment of Linotype equipment as the industry standard in newspaper and book composition.
Griffith advanced to become a vice president for typographic design, working closely with the typeface designers William Addison Dwiggins and Rudolph Ruzicka. He developed the typeface Excelsior in 1931 and it was widely adopted as a text and display face for newspapers across the United States. While Griffith was head of typographic development, Linotype issued revivals of Baskerville, Granjon, and Janson. In 1938 Griffith designed the typeface Bell Gothic for the Bell Telephone Company's directories.
Griffith's typeface designs include:
Ed Benguiat (pron. "ben'-gee ot"; born Ephram Edward Benguiat, October 27, 1927) is an American typographer. He has crafted over 600 typefaces including Tiffany, Bookman, Panache, Edwardian Script, and the self-titled typefaces Benguiat and Benguiat Gothic. He also designed logotypes for The New York Times, Playboy, Sports Illustrated, the original Planet of the Apes film, Super Fly and countless others.
From TYPO: "He is also known for his designs or redesigns of the logotypes for Esquire, the New York Times, Coke, McCall’s, Ford, Reader’s Digest, Photography, Look, Sports Illustrated, The Star Ledger, The San Diego Tribune, AT&T, A&E, Estee Lauder, ...the list goes on and on. You name it, he’s done it."
Benguiat grew up in Brooklyn, NY. He was once a very prominent jazz percussionist playing in several big bands with the likes of Stan Kenton and Woody Herman. In an interview Benguait stated this of his chosen career as a designer: "I’m really a musician, a jazz percussionist. One day I went to the musician’s union to pay dues and I saw all these old people who were playing bar mitzvahs and Greek weddings. It occurred to me that one day that’s going to be me, so I decided to
The Font Bureau, Inc. or Font Bureau is a digital type foundry based in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. The foundry is one of the leading designers of typefaces, specializing in type designs for magazine and newspaper publishers.
Font Bureau was founded in 1989 by Roger Black and David Berlow. Before founding Font Bureau, Roger Black was an established publications designer and consultant. David Berlow is a noted type designer. The New York Times Magazine, Newsweek, Esquire Magazine, Rolling Stone and the Wall Street Journal rank among Font Bureau's client list. Apart from Black and Berlow, other prominent designers at Font Bureau have included Tobias Frere-Jones, now of Hoefler & Frere-Jones, and Cyrus Highsmith. Matthew Carter has been a frequent collaborator with the foundry.
In October 2009, news sources reported that Font Bureau was "suing NBC Universal for at least $2 million over the entertainment company's use of its fonts." Font Bureau claimed NBC broke its license agreement in its use of the fonts Antenna, Bureau Grotesque and Interstate in marketing material.
FontShop was founded in Berlin in 1989 by Erik Spiekermann and Joan Spiekermann, who were then husband and wife, and Neville Brody. FontShop was the first font reseller in digital type history. There are four independent FontShops in Austria, Benelux, Germany, and the USA.
FontShop International is licensor for the four FontShops. FontShop USA, based in San Francisco, is owned by FSI; all other FontShops are separate, independent companies concentrating on their own markets. While FontShop International produces typefaces as a foundry (FontFont typeface library, e.g. FF DIN, FF Dax, and FF Meta) and publishes FontBook, the FontShops work as resellers of FontFonts but also of fonts from over 120 other foundries.
FontShop Germany organises the annual European design conferences TYPO Berlin since 1995 and since 2011 TYPO London. Since 2012, FontShop USA organises an annual TYPO conference in San Francisco.
In 2008, FontShop also published a web-based font editor called FontStruct.
John Baskerville (28 January 1706 – 8 January 1775) was an English businessman, in areas including japanning and papier-mâché, but he is best remembered as a printer and typographer.
Baskervillle was born in the village of Wolverley, near Kidderminster in Worcestershire and was a printer in Birmingham, England. He was a member of the Royal Society of Arts, and an associate of some of the members of the Lunar Society. He directed his punchcutter, John Handy, in the design of many typefaces of broadly similar appearance.
John Baskerville printed works for the University of Cambridge in 1758 and, although an atheist, printed a splendid folio Bible in 1763. His typefaces were greatly admired by Benjamin Franklin, a printer and fellow member of the Royal Society of Arts, who took the designs back to the newly-created United States, where they were adopted for most federal government publishing. Baskerville's work was criticized by jealous competitors and soon fell out of favour, but since the 1920s many new fonts have been released by Linotype, Monotype, and other type foundries – revivals of his work and mostly called 'Baskerville'. Emigre released a popular revival of this typeface in
The Kowloon–Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC; Traditional Chinese: 九廣鐵路公司) was established in 1982 under the Kowloon–Canton Railway Corporation Ordinance for the purposes of operating the Kowloon–Canton Railway (KCR), and to construct and operate other new railways. On 2 December 2007, the MTR Corporation Limited, another railway operator in Hong Kong, took over the operation of the KCR network under a 50-year service concession agreement, which can be extended. Under the service concession, KCRC retains ownership of the KCR network with the MTR Corporation Limited making annual payments to KCRC for the right to operate the network. The KCRC is wholly owned by the Hong Kong Government and its activities are governed by the KCRC Ordinance as amended in 2007 by the Rail Merger Ordinance to enable the service concession agreement to be entered into with the MTR Corporation Limited.
From 1910 to 1982, the KCR network was operated as a department of the Hong Kong Government. The Kowloon–Canton Railway Corporation was created in December 1982 after the government decided to corporatise its railway department. Until 2007, the KCRC owned and operated a network of heavy rail, light rail and
Malgun Gothic (맑은 고딕) is a Korean sans-serif typeface developed by Sandoll Communications, with hinting by Monotype Imaging, as a replacement of Dotum and Gulim as the default system font for the Korean language version of Windows Vista. It was first shipped with Windows Vista, being available to download later for Windows Server 2008 and Windows XP users.
The font has received wide acclaim from Korean users.
The font uses Segoe UI for Latin text, while the Korean glyphs are created based on the typeface of Hunminjeongeum, and streamlined with modern form of characters as well as upright and well-regulated strokes. The font supports KS X 1001 character set, but unlike Dotum and Gulim, there are no Han ideographic glyphs (Windows will pull from the Gulim hanja set instead), and the fonts don't include half-width fixed Latin glyphs. Hanja designed for Malgun by ChinaType Design, Monotype Imaging Inc. are in existence and will be released to complete the set sometime in the future. The glyphs aren't rounded at terminals.
Windows Vista includes two roman weights of the font.
Stencil refers to two typefaces released within months of each other in 1937. The face created by R. Hunter Middleton for Ludlow was advertised in June, while Gerry Powell's version for American Type Founders appeared one month later. Both fonts consist of only capital letters with rounded edges and thick main strokes, much like a Clarendon typeface, except with breaks in the face to give it the appearance of the stenciled alphabets used on boxes and crates.
Stencil has been copied by many digital producers, including Linotype GmbH, Adobe, URW. As the A.T.F. version is heavier, it is often called Stencil Bold when copied.
In 1997, Alexei Chekulaev made a Cyrillic version of Stencil Bold, called Stencil Cyrillic Regular.
In Rookledge's Classic International Typefinder, the entry Stencil Bold shows the existence of a lowercase letters in the font that are unavailable from either actual type foundries or the producers of digital type.
Stencil is a common font for army-themed displays, including The A-Team and M*A*S*H television series. It is also used as the font for the logo for the Disney TV show Recess.
Stencil is also used in the logo for The Home Depot.
Susan Kare (born 1954) is an artist and graphic designer who created many of the interface elements for the Apple Macintosh in the 1980s. She was also one of the original employees of NeXT (the company formed by Steve Jobs after leaving Apple in 1985), working as the Creative Director.
Kare was born in Ithaca, New York and is the sister of aerospace engineer Jordin Kare. She graduated from Harriton High School in 1971, received her B.A., summa cum laude, in Art from Mount Holyoke College in 1975 and her Ph.D. from New York University in 1978. She next moved to San Francisco and worked for the Museum of Modern Art.
Kare joined Apple Computer, Inc. after receiving a call from her high school friend, Andy Hertzfeld, in the early 1980s. Susan Kare worked at Apple Computer starting in 1982 (Badge #3978). She was originally hired into the Macintosh software group to design user interface graphics and fonts; her business cards read "HI Macintosh Artist". Later, she was a Creative Director in Apple Creative Services working for the Director of that organization, Tom Suiter.
She is the designer of many typefaces, icons, and original marketing material for the original Macintosh operating
The Mergenthaler Linotype Company is a corporation founded in the United States in 1886 to market the linecaster invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler. With the company's primary product, the Linotype machine ( /ˈlaɪnətaɪp/), it became the world's leading manufacturer of book and newspaper typesetting equipment; outside North America, its only serious challenger for book production was the Anglo-American Monotype Corporation.
The invention of a machine to replace the labor-intensive task of setting type by hand was one that many inventors had tackled during the 19th Century. The difficulty was not in creating the text, but in returning the characters to a proper position for future use. Mergenthaler solved this problem by placing type molds on the sides of specially keyed matrices. The matrices would be lined up and hot lead alloy forced to fill the matrices, creating the line of type. Then the matrices would progress through the machine, where a special keying system on one end of the matrix, unique for each character, would allow the matrix to drop only into the correct storage slot, ready for future use.
Another problem Mergenthaler solved was in justifying the type, giving flush
Gothic typefaces (simplified Chinese: 黑体; traditional Chinese: 黑體; pinyin: hēitǐ; Japanese: ゴシック体 goshikku-tai; Korean: 돋움 dotum, 고딕체 godik-che) are a type style characterised by strokes of even thickness, reduced curves, and lack of decorations, akin to sans serif styles in Western typography. It is the second most commonly used style in East Asian typography, after Ming.
Similar to Ming and Song typefaces, sans-serif typefaces were designed for printing, but they were also designed for legibility. They are commonly used in headlines, signs, and video applications.
In English, Gothic is an outmoded typographic term for sans-serif. It was so named because the type color of early sans serif typefaces was thought to be similar to that of the blackletter or “gothic” script.
The term “gothic” is now rare in English, having been largely replaced by "sans-serif" except in the names of some typefaces such as "Century Gothic". However, it is still the standard term in Japan for typefaces lacking the equivalent of serifs. These additions, seen in Minchō typefaces, are called uroko (fish scales) in Japanese.
In Korean, godik ("gothic") was used to describe sans-serif-like typefaces until
Morris Fuller Benton (November 30, 1872 – June 30, 1948) was an influential American typeface designer who headed the design department of the American Type Founders (ATF), for which he was the chief type designer from 1900 to 1937. Benton was America's most prolific type designer, having completed 221 typefaces, ranging from revivals of historical models like ATF Bodoni, to adding new weights to existing faces such as Goudy Old Style and Cheltenham, and to designing original designs such as Hobo, Bank Gothic, and Broadway. Benton's large family of related neogrotesque sans-serif typefaces, known as "gothics" as was the norm at the time, includes Alternate Gothic, Franklin Gothic, and News Gothic. These typefaces better anticipated and were more similar to later realist sans-serif typefaces such as Helvetica than the other early grotesque types of his contemporaries.
In addition to his strong aesthetic design sense, Morris was a master of the technology of his day. His father, Linn Boyd Benton, invented the pantographic engraving machine, which was capable not only of scaling a single font design pattern to a variety of sizes, but could also condense, extend, and slant the design
New York is a transitional serif typeface designed in 1983 for the Macintosh computer by Susan Kare, Charles Bigelow, and Kris Holmes. It was originally titled “Ardmore.” The typeface was the standard bitmap serif font for the early Macintosh operating systems. New York is one of several of what Apple Computer cofounder Steve Jobs called “World Class Cities” typefaces.
Designed as a bitmap face, a TrueType format was released, which did not much resemble the bitmap version. New York, along with the other “city-named” original Mac operating system faces were largely been supplanted by the Lucida family of fonts with the release of Mac OS X.
Rufscript is a handwriting-based Unicode font created by Hiran Venugopalan, from the handwriting of a friend of the creator. It contains only the basic Latin characters (95 characters). It is created using only free software tools (Fontforge, Inkscape, gedit and GIMP).
The source SFD files are licensed under GNU General Public License version 3 with Font Exception terms.
Seleniak’s outlines are based on the logo of the eponymous MSX video game, also created by its designer. Thus, all ratios are multiples of the typical 8x8 px video character unit, giving the typeface a characteristic appearance and interesting fitting properties.
Arial, sometimes marketed or displayed in software as Arial MT, is a sans-serif typeface and set of computer fonts. Fonts from the Arial family are packaged with all versions of Microsoft Windows, some other Microsoft software applications, Apple Mac OS X and many PostScript 3 computer printers. The typeface was designed in 1982 by a 10-person team, led by Robin Nicholas and Patricia Saunders, for Monotype Typography.
The Arial typeface comprises many styles: Regular, Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Black, Black Italic, Extra Bold, Extra Bold Italic, Light, Light Italic, Narrow, Narrow Italic, Narrow Bold, Narrow Bold Italic, Condensed, Light Condensed, Bold Condensed, and Extra Bold Condensed. The extended Arial type family includes even more styles: Rounded (Light, Regular, Bold, Extra Bold); Monospaced (Regular, Oblique, Bold, Bold Oblique). Many of these have been issued in multiple font configurations with different degrees of language support. The most widely used and bundled Arial fonts are Arial Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, along with the same styles of Arial Narrow, plus Arial Black and Black Italic. More recently Arial Rounded has also been widely
Baskerville is a transitional serif typeface designed in 1757 by John Baskerville (1706–1775) in Birmingham, England. Baskerville is classified as a transitional typeface, positioned between the old style typefaces of William Caslon, and the modern styles of Giambattista Bodoni & Firmin Didot.
The Baskerville typeface is the result of John Baskerville's intent to improve upon the types of William Caslon. He increased the contrast between thick and thin strokes, making the serifs sharper and more tapered, and shifted the axis of rounded letters to a more vertical position. The curved strokes are more circular in shape, and the characters became more regular. These changes created a greater consistency in size and form.
Baskerville's typeface was the culmination of a larger series of experiments to improve legibility which also included paper making and ink manufacturing. The result was a typeface that reflected Baskerville's ideals of perfection, where he chose simplicity and quiet refinement. His background as a writing master is evident in the distinctive swash tail on the uppercase Q and in the cursive serifs in the Baskerville Italic. The refined feeling of the typeface makes it
Beteckna is a sans-serif typeface created by Johan Mattson, and released under the GPL. It features Normal, Bold, Italic, Bold Italic and Small Caps weights. It is inspired by Paul Renner's popular Futura typeface, but bears some obvious dissimilarities, most noticeably in the terminals of some of the bold-weights letters which are more angular and pointed than Futura. Beteckna also has shorter ascenders. It is available for download from the Open Font Library.
Geneva is a realist sans-serif typeface designed by Susan Kare for Apple Computer. It is one of the oldest fonts shipped with the Macintosh operating system. The original version was a bitmap font, but later versions were converted to TrueType when that technology became available on the Macintosh platform. Because this Macintosh font is not commonly available on other platforms, many find Verdana or Arial to be an acceptable substitute.
Geneva was originally a redesigned version of the famous Linotype typeface Helvetica; the TrueType version of the font is somewhat different.
A slightly modified version of Geneva known as Simple can be found in the Apple Newton operating system.
George Wallace Jones (April 12, 1804 – July 22, 1896), a frontiersman, entrepreneur, attorney, and judge, was among the first two United States Senators to represent the state of Iowa after it was admitted to the Union in 1846. A Democrat who was elected before the birth of the Republican Party, Jones served over ten years in the Senate, from December 7, 1848 to March 4, 1859.
Jones was born in Vincennes, Indiana. He was the son of John Rice Jones, who became active in efforts directed toward the introduction of slavery to the country north of the Ohio River. When George was six years old, his father moved the family to Missouri Territory, recently acquired from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase. As a child he served as a drummer for a volunteer company in the War of 1812. He later moved to Kentucky where he attended Transylvania University in 1825, and returned to Missouri to study law with his brother. After he was admitted to the bar and had practiced law for a short time, he went to work at Sinsinawa Mound, then in Michigan Territory, where he mined lead and worked and a storekeeper. He returned to Missouri, where he courted and married seventeen-year-old Josephine
Braggadocio is a geometrically constructed sans-serif stencil typeface designed by W.A. Woolley in 1930 for the Monotype Corporation. The design was based on Futura Black.
Though a stencil face, Braggadocio bears comparison with the heavier weighted Didone faces like Thorogood, Poster Bodonii, and Fat Face. A product of the Art Deco era, Braggadocio shares similarities with Architype Albers and Futura Black, the typeface used in the wordmark of Au Bon Pain, a U.S. restaurant-bakery chain.
The lowercase characters a, f, c, s and y have terminals similar to the Fat Face model. The face is atypical in a topological sense in that none of the characters has a circular counter-form (hole).
Charles A. Bigelow (b. 1945, Detroit, Michigan) is a type historian, professor, and designer. Bigelow grew up in the Detroit suburbs and attended the Cranbrook School in Bloomfield Hills. He received a MacArthur Fellowship in 1982. Along with Kris Holmes, he is the co-creator of Lucida and Wingdings font families. He runs the Bigelow and Holmes foundry.
In mid-2006, Bigelow accepted the Melbert B. Cary Distinguished Professorship at Rochester Institute of Technology's School of Print Media.
Consolas is a monospaced (non-proportional) typeface, designed by Luc(as) de Groot. It is a part of a new suite of fonts that take advantage of Microsoft's ClearType font rendering technology. It comes with Microsoft's Windows Vista, Windows 7, Microsoft Office 2007 and Microsoft Visual Studio 2010, and is available for download from Microsoft. Among the Windows Vista fonts, Consolas is most similar to the original Windows 3.1 monospaced font Courier New or Lucida Console and Monaco from Mac OS X. It is the only standard Windows Vista font with a slash through the zero character.
Consolas is a departure in the realm of Windows programming fonts because it is designed to work with a specific form of font antialiasing, specifically Microsoft's ClearType technology. The font hinting is correspondingly ClearType-specific, and as a result the font is highly aliased when used with ClearType switched off.
Consolas supports the following OpenType layout features: stylistic alternates, localized forms, uppercase-sensitive forms, oldstyle figures, lining figures, arbitrary fractions, superscript, subscript.
Although Consolas is designed as a replacement for Courier New, only 713 glyphs were
Fletcher is the name given to a revival of a nineteenth century blackletter typeface designed in the Paris foundry of Theophile Beaudoire (1833–1903). The typeface appears in the title pages of many 1870s books. Dan X. Solo's revival is based on a Beaudoire & Cie. specimen and alters several characters towards improved legibility.
The face is geometrically constructed, and though showing influence of the pen has no curved strokes in some ways anticipating Jonathan Barnbrook's 1990 Bastard typeface.
Frederic W. Goudy (Bloomington, Illinois, March 8, 1865 – Marlborough-on-Hudson, May 11, 1947) was a prolific American type designer whose typefaces include Copperplate Gothic, Kennerly, and Goudy Old Style. He also designed, in 1938, University of California Oldstyle, for the sole proprietary use of the University of California Press. The Lanston Monotype Company released a version of this typeface as Californian for wider distribution in 1956, while ITC created a digital version, called ITC Berkeley, in 1983.
In 1903, Goudy and Will Ransom founded the Village Press in Park Ridge, Illinois. This venture was modeled on the Arts and Crafts movement ideals of William Morris. It was moved to Boston, then New York. In 1908, he created his first significant typeface for the Lanston Monotype Machine Company: E-38, sometimes known as Goudy Light. However, in that same year the Village Press burned to the ground, destroying all of his equipment and designs. In 1911, Goudy produced his first "hit," Kennerly Old Style, for an H. G. Wells anthology published by Mitchell Kennerly. His most widely used type, Goudy Old Style, was released by the American Type Founders Company in 1915, becoming
ITC Benguiat is a decorative serif typeface designed by Ed Benguiat and released by the International Typeface Corporation (ITC) in 1978. The face is loosely based upon typefaces of the Art Nouveau period but is not considered an academic revival. The face follows ITC's design formulary of an extremely high x-height, combined with multiple widths and weights.
The font family consists of 3 weights at 2 widths each, with complementary italic.
It is also sold as 'Revival 832' by Bitstream, 'BG' by Itek.
The font is used in the logo of the National Assembly of Quebec.
It is a version released in September 2008. It includes support for Central European and many Eastern European characters.
ITC Benguiat Gothic is a sans-serif variant for the original serif font family. Both faces are loosely based upon typefaces of the Art Nouveau period but are not considered academic revivals. The face follows ITC's design formulary of an extremely high x-height, combined with multiple widths and weights.
The font family consists of 4 weights at 1 width each, with complementary italic.
It is also sold as 'Informal 851' by Bitstream, 'BT' by Itek.
Jonathan Barnbrook (born 1966, Luton), is a British graphic designer, film maker and typographer. He trained at Central St Martin's and at the Royal College of Art (both in London).
Barnbrook is arguably most-recognised for his design of the cover artwork of David Bowie's 2002 album Heathen which featured the debut for his 'Priori' typeface. This is particularly appropriate as Barnbrook cites record cover artwork as an early design influence, and possibly the interest that drew him to graphic design.
Barnbrook is also a well known font designer. These are released through 'VirusFonts' ) and include Bastard, Exocet, False Idol, Infidel, Moron, Newspeak, Olympukes, Sarcastic, Shock & Awe. Many have emotive and controversial titles reflecting the style and themes of Barnbrook's work. His most famous and controversial font Mason originally released as Manson, is available from Emigre.
From 1997-2003 Barnbrook collaborated with Young British Artist Damien Hirst, most notably on the design, layout and typography of his book I Want To Spend the Rest of My Life Everywhere, with Everyone, One to One, Always, Forever, Now. and on artwork associated with his restaurant Pharmacy.
In digital typography, Lucida Sans Unicode OpenType font from the design studio of Bigelow & Holmes is designed to support the most commonly used characters defined in version 2.0 of the Unicode standard. It is a sans-serif variant of the Lucida font family and supports Latin, Greek, Cyrillic and Hebrew scripts, as well as all the letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
It is the first Unicode encoded font. It was developed by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes in 1993, and was first shipped with the Microsoft Windows NT 3.1 operating system.
The font comes pre-installed with all Microsoft Windows versions since Windows 98. A nearly identical font, called Lucida Grande, ships as the default system font with Apple's Mac OS X operating system, and in addition to the above, also supports Arabic and Thai scripts.
Letters in the International Phonetic Alphabet, particularly upside down letters, are aligned for easy reading upside down. Thus, the font is among the most ideal for upside-down text, compared to other Unicode typefaces, which have the turned "t" and "h" characters aligned with their tops at the base line and thus appear out of line.
A flaw in Lucida Sans Unicode is
Mrs Eaves is a transitional serif typeface designed by Zuzana Licko in 1996, and licensed by Emigre, a typefoundry run by Licko and husband Rudy VanderLans.
Mrs Eaves is named after Sarah Eaves, the woman who became John Baskerville's wife. As Baskerville was setting up his printing and type business, Mrs. Eaves moved in with him as a live-in housekeeper, eventually becoming his wife after the death of her first husband, Mr. Eaves. Mrs Eaves is a revival of the types of English printer and punchcutter John Baskerville, and is related to contemporary Baskerville typefaces.
Like Baskerville, Mrs Eaves has a near vertical stress, departing from the old style model. Identifying characters, similar to Baskerville's types, are the lowercase g with its open lower counter and swashlike ear. Both the roman and italic uppercase Q have a flowing swashlike tail. The uppercase C has serifs at top and bottom; there is no serif at the apex of the central junction in uppercase W; and the uppercase G has a sharp spur suggesting a vestigial serif.
Licko's revival is less academic than some, basing as many of its details on contemporary methods of reproduction: the flatness of offset lithography in
Oswald Bruce Cooper (13 March 1879 - 17 December 1940) was an American type designer, lettering artist, graphic designer, and teacher of these trades.
Cooper was born in Mount Gilead, Ohio but moved to Coffeyville, Kansas when quite young. He left high school at seventeen to become a printer’s devil. He studied illustration at Frank Holme’s School of Illustration, first as a correspondence student, then moving to Chicago to study in person. While doing poorly at drawing, he did so well in a lettering class taught by Frederic Goudy, that he soon became director of the correspondence department for the school. After Holme died in 1903, the school closed due to financial difficulties, and Cooper took it on himself to provide correspondence education to prepaid students.
In 1904 Cooper and Fred S. Bertsch formed the design firm of Bertch & Cooper, providing ad campaigns for such accounts as the Packard Motor Car Company and Anheuser-Busch Breweries, with Cooper providing distinctive hand lettering and sometimes the copy writing as well. In 1914 the firm became a full-service type shop. By the time Fred Bertsch retired in 1924, Bertch & Cooper employed more than fifty people and was the
Blackletter, also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century. It continued to be used for the German language until the 20th century. Fraktur is a notable script of this type, and sometimes the entire group of faces is known as Fraktur. Blackletter is sometimes called Old English, but it is not to be confused with the Old English language, despite the popular, though mistaken, belief that the language was written with blackletter. The Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) language predates black letter by many centuries, and was itself written in the insular script.
Carolingian minuscule was the direct ancestor of blackletter. Blackletter developed from Carolingian as an increasingly literate 12th-century Europe required new books in many different subjects. New universities were founded, each producing books for business, law, grammar, history, and other pursuits, not solely religious works for which earlier scripts typically had been used.
These books needed to be produced quickly to keep up with demand. Carolingian, though legible, was time-consuming and labour-intensive to
Didot is a name given to a group of typefaces named after the famous French printing and type producing family. The classification is known as modern, or Didone. The typeface we know today was based on a collection of related types developed in the period 1784–1811. Firmin Didot (1764–1836) cut the letters, and cast them as type in Paris. His brother, Pierre Didot (1760–1853) used the types in printing. His edition of La Henriade by Voltaire in 1818 is considered his masterwork. The typeface takes inspiration from John Baskerville's experimentation with increasing stroke contrast and a more condensed armature. The Didot family's development of a high contrast typeface with an increased stress is contemporary to similar faces developed by Giambattista Bodoni in Italy. Didot is described as neoclassical, and is evocative of the Age of Enlightenment.
The "Foundry Daylight" version of Didot was commissioned and used by broadcast network CBS for many years alongside its famous "eye" logo. While the network's use of Didot with its logo is not as prevalent as it once was, it is still a common sight.
The Style Network uses a bold weight of Didot in its on-air identity and the News Gothic
Exocet is a typeface designed by Jonathan Barnbrook for the Emigre foundry in 1991. It was originally designed for the European annual Illustration Now. It was used extensively for product designs in the 1990s, most notably for Tazo Tea. It can be seen in the 1993 movie Demolition Man where it is used extensively in the museum scene. It was also used in the film Dogma, the film Star Trek Nemesis, the Dungeons and Dragons campaign setting Planescape, the English translation of the Korean manhwa Priest, the Diablo computer game series and the Sony PlayStation scrolling shooter game Einhänder. The stylized "Q" logo from the Quake series of videogames is thought to be a modification of the exocet "Q".
The font is inspired by ancient incised Greek and Roman letter carvings, with geometric shapes used for the main construction. For example, the stylized "Q" is based on Qoppa, an ancient form of "Q", while the "O" with a cross () is an early form of Theta.
It is an all-capitals font, with different capital glyphs shown for both lowercase and capital letters, as evidenced by the T/t difference in the image. It is available in “light” and “heavy” varieties. There is no italic.
Fantasy is a genre of fiction that commonly uses magic and other supernatural phenomena as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. Many works within the genre take place in imaginary worlds where magic is common. Fantasy is generally distinguished from the genre of science fiction by the expectation that it steers clear of scientific themes, though there is a great deal of overlap between the two, both of which are subgenres of speculative fiction.
In popular culture, the genre of fantasy is dominated by its medievalist form, especially since the worldwide success of The Lord of the Rings and related books by J. R. R. Tolkien. Fantasy has also included wizards, sorcerers, witchcraft, etc., in events which avoid horror. In its broadest sense, however, fantasy comprises works by many writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians, from ancient myths and legends to many recent works embraced by a wide audience today.
Fantasy is a vibrant area of academic study in a number of disciplines (English, cultural studies, comparative literature, history, medieval studies). Work in this area ranges widely, from the structuralist theory of Tzvetan Todorov, which emphasizes the fantastic as a
George Homer Ryan, Sr. (born February 24, 1934, in Maquoketa, Iowa) was the 39th Governor of the U.S. state of Illinois from 1999 until 2003. He was a member of the Republican Party. Ryan received worldwide attention for his 1999 moratorium on executions in Illinois and for commuting more than 160 death sentences to life sentences in 2003. He is currently serving a prison sentence, having been convicted of federal corruption charges after leaving office.
Ryan grew up in Kankakee County, Illinois. After serving in the U.S. Army in Korea, he worked for his father's two drugstores. He attended Ferris State College of Pharmacy (now Ferris State University) in Big Rapids, Michigan. Eventually, he built his father's pair of pharmacies into a successful family-run chain (profiting from lucrative government-contract business selling prescription drugs to nursing homes) which was sold in 1990.
Ryan was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1954. He served a 13 month tour in Korea, working in a base pharmacy.
On June 10, 1956, Ryan married his high school sweetheart, the former Lura Lynn Lowe (July 5, 1934 – June 27, 2011). They have five daughters (including a set of triplets); Julie, Joanne,
Monotype Grotesque is a realist sans-serif typeface designed by Frank Hinman Pierpont (1860–1937) and released by the Monotype foundry in 1926.
Pierpont based his design for Monotype Grotesque on Ideal, an earlier more idiosyncratic sans-serif by the H. Berthold AG foundry and William Thorowogood's 1832 face titled "Grotesque." Uppercase characters are of near equal width, the G has a spur in some weights, and the M in the non-condensed weights is square. The lowercase characters a, e, g, and t follow the model of twentieth century English romans. Monotype Grotesque is a large extended typeface family with multiple widths from condensed to extended.
Though Monotype Grotesque never achieved the popularity of Akzidenz Grotesk, or its own contemporaries Futura, and Gill Sans, it remained a steady seller through the twentieth century, and is found in early twentieth century avant garde printing from western and central Europe.
The basic family design is inconsistent across different styles, particularly in Black, Condensed, Extended fonts.
OpenType version supports ISO Adobe 2 (Adobe Western 2) character set.
Arial is designed based on Monotype Grotesque.
It is a variant with altered
In typography, a slab serif (also called mechanistic, square serif or Egyptian) typeface is a type of serif typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs. Serif terminals may be either blunt and angular (Rockwell), or rounded (Courier). Slab serif typefaces generally have no bracket (feature connecting the strokes to the serifs). Some consider slab serifs to be a subset of modern serif typefaces.
Because of their bold appearance, they are most commonly used in large headlines and advertisements but are seldom used in body text. One recent exception to the general lack of the use of Slab Serif in body text is Egyptienne, a font designed for the The Guardian newspaper in the UK, which is used throughout the paper and within its body. Another common exception to this rule is in the use of monospaced text, many fonts for which are modeled on the typefaces used by typewriters. Though widely utilized in the field of computer science due to their fixed-width nature, the everyday use of typewriter-like fonts is declining in the wake of electronic publishing and the spread of electronic reading devices.
As printed material began to branch out from the familiar realm of books, new
VAG Rundschrift or VAG Rounded (Rundschrift is German for 'round writing') is a geometric sans-serif typeface that was designed as a corporate typographic voice for the Volkswagen AG motor manufacturer.
It features rounded termini on all strokes. Volkswagen ended its use of the VAG Rounded family in the early 1990s, and it is widely available today and is licensed through Adobe Systems.
With many recent Web 2.0 startups, a clear trend in their new logos is the use of soft, rounded typefaces dominated by VAG Rounded, which is said to "lend a modern friendliness to what might otherwise be a cold trademark" and, as of 2007, can be seen on T-Mobile USA literature. Apple Inc. has been utilizing the typeface on the keyboards of their line of notebook computers since 1999, with the release of the first-generation iBook, and on their desktop keyboards since August 2007. Australian retailer Big W has changed their logo (previously in Helvetica Neue) to light blue VAG Rounded. Dick Smith, as part of the Woolworths Limited Group, also use this font in most of their advertising. Bankwest also use this font for their "Happy Banking Initiative". As of Late 2006, Adecco also use the font in
Adobe Systems Incorporated ( /əˈdoʊbiː/ ə-DOH-bee) is an American multinational computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, United States. The company has historically focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more-recent foray towards rich Internet application software development.
Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution. The company name Adobe comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, California, which ran behind the houses of both of the company's founders. Adobe acquired its former competitor, Macromedia, in December 2005, which added newer software products and platforms such as ColdFusion, Dreamweaver, Flash and Flex to its product portfolio.
As of 2010, Adobe Systems has 9,117 employees, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe also has major development operations in Orlando; Seattle; San Francisco; Lehi, Utah; Minneapolis; Waltham,
Adobe Systems’ division of typography is an innovator in font technology and design, Adobe was a forerunner in the development of PostScript Type 1 and Type 3 font formats and OpenType technology, as well as being an established digital type foundry.
The following lists include original designs released by Adobe (known as "Adobe Originals"), including its historical representations, or revivals of fonts.
Antiqua is a style of text used to mimic the hand. Antiqua, Blackletter, Fraktur and Textura are all examples of Handwriting text or Old Style text.
Antiqua typefaces are those designed between about 1470 and 1600, specifically those by Nicolas Jenson and the Aldine roman commissioned by Aldus Manutius and cut by Francesco Griffo. Antiqua letterforms were modelled on a synthesis of Roman inscriptional capitals and Carolingian writing. They are also known as Venetian types and occasionally as old style, differentiated from modern styles by the more or less uniform thickness of all strokes and by slanted serifs. The term "Antiqua" later came to sometimes be used for Roman type in general as opposed to blackletter, as in the Antiqua-Fraktur dispute in the German-speaking world.
Berne Nadall (born February 28, 1869) - Calson Antiqua (1896–1898). An American designer
Hermann Zapf (born November 8, 1918- ) - Zapf Renaissance Antiqua (1984–1987). Created many different fonts over the years
Paul Renner (1878–1956) - Renner Antiqua (1939). Paul Renner created the Futura (typeface).
Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944), a Czech designer who did significant work on book and type design - created
Astur is a decorative typeface that was designed in 1940 and licensed by the Spanish foundry Nacional Typefoundry. The letters appear to be made of wooden planks, and it is often used when an outdoor or camping look is desired. The font's name, a reference to the ancient inhabitants of northern Spain (the Astures), is meant to underline its rustic appearance.
A common software version of the font is called "Woodplank".
See also: Samples of display typefaces
Breitkopf Fraktur is a Blackletter font designed by typographer and German music publisher Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf (1719-1794). Breitkopf was the son of the publisher Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf, founder of the publishing house Breitkopf & Härtel, a firm that continues to the present day.
Egyptienne is a serif typeface belonging to the classification slab serif, or Egyptian, where the serifs are unbracketed and similar in weight to the horizontal strokes of the letters. Egyptienne was designed in 1956 by Adrian Frutiger for the Deberny & Peignot Foundry and was the first new text face created for the process of photocomposition.
The x-height is high, and some lowercase characters, especially a and e bear comparison with other Frutiger typefaces, especially Meridien and Serifa. Egyptienne shows historical influence of the Clarendon faces.
Fraktur [fʁakˈtuːɐ] ( listen) is a calligraphic hand and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand. The blackletter lines are broken up – that is, their forms contain many angles when compared to the smooth curves of the Antiqua (common) typefaces modeled after antique Roman square capitals and Carolingian minuscule. From this, Fraktur is sometimes contrasted with the "Latin alphabet" in northern European texts, being sometimes called the "German alphabet", despite simply being a typeface of Latin. Similarly, the term "Fraktur" or "Gothic" is sometimes applied to all of the blackletter typefaces (known in German as Gebrochene Schrift).
Here is the entire alphabet in Fraktur, using the TeX \mathfrak font (see Help: Displaying a formula):
It's sometimes spelt "Fraktur", being the initial 'F' in the upper case in the middle of the sentence. The word derives from the past participle fractus ("broken") of Latin frangere ("to break"); the same root as the English word 'fracture'.
Besides the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, the ß (Eszett [ɛsˈtsɛt]) and vowels with umlauts, Fraktur typefaces include the ſ (long s). They also sometimes include a variant form of the
Haettenschweiler is a realist sans-serif typeface based on an uppercase metal-cast type called Schmalfette Grotesk (German for bold condensed sans-serif). The face is named for Walter Haettenschweiler, who with Armin Haab, published the book Lettera which uses Schmalfette Grotesk.
Haettenschweiler is often compared with Helvetica Inserat and Impact. Haettenschweiler has narrower characters than Impact. The uppercase R has a curved tail similar to that in the Helvetica family. Counters are minimal, contributing to a loss of legibility in smaller point sizes and in distance reading. The face is installed with Microsoft Office products and is widely available as shareware. It is used in the Nottingham Forest logo, with a modified R and a lower-case e at upper-case height. It is also used on the dollar amounts on the board on the American game show Jeopardy! since 1984.
Letraset is a company based in the Kingsnorth Industrial Estate in Ashford, Kent, UK. It is known mainly for manufacturing sheets of artwork elements which can be transferred to artwork being prepared. The name Letraset was often used to refer generically to sheets of dry transferrable lettering of any brand. This technique was very widespread for lettering and other elements before the advent of the computer techniques of word processing and desktop publishing.
When artwork was prepared by hand, Letraset sheets were available with letters in a large range of typefaces, styles, sizes, symbols, and other graphic elements. The letters could be transferred one by one to artwork being prepared. This was always a tedious job, but the alternative, to do the lettering by hand, was also tedious and required graphic artist skills.
The name Letraset comes from the lettering application, once ubiquitous but now rarely used, although still available. Currently, Letraset's line of print patterns and textures are more commonly used than its lettering.
For a brief period in the 1960s, Letraset also applied the dry transferable technique to create a children's game called Action Transfers, which
Linux Libertine is a digital typeface created by the Libertine Open Fonts Project, which aims to create free and open alternatives to proprietary typefaces such as Times Roman. It is developed with the free font editor FontForge and is licensed under the GNU General Public License and the SIL Open Font License.
Linux Libertine is a proportional serif typeface inspired by 19th century book type and is intended as a replacement for the Times font family.
The typeface has five styles: regular, bold, italic, bold italic, and small capitals, all of which are available in TrueType and OpenType format, as well as in source code. The OpenType version allows automatic positioning and substitution, including true fractions, ligatures and kerning.
There is also a complementary organic sans-serif face, Linux Biolinum.
Linux Libertine contains more than 2,000 Unicode characters and supports many non-ASCII character sets such as Greek, Cyrillic, and Hebrew. Additionally, it offers several ligatures (such as ff, fi, and ct, and the capital ß). It also includes special characters such as International Phonetic Alphabet, arrows, floral symbols, Roman numbers, text figures, and small caps. The Tux
Matthew Carter (Born in London on October 1st, 1937) is a type designer and the son of the English typographer Harry Carter (1901–1982). He lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. He designed the early 1.0 web fonts Verdana and Georgia. In 2010, he was named a MacArthur Fellow.
Although Carter had intended to get a degree in English at Oxford University he was advised to take a year off so he would be the same age as his contemporaries who had gone into National Service. It was through his father, Harry Carter, also a type designer, that Matthew Carter was given an internship at the Joh. Enschedé type foundry in the Netherlands. At the age of 19, Carter spent a year studying in The Netherlands where he learned from Jan van Krimpen's assistant P. H. Raedisch, who taught Carter the art of punch cutting. By 1961 Carter was able to use the skills he acquired to cut his own version of the semi-bold typeface Dante.
Carter's career in type design has witnessed the transition from physical metal type to digital type. Carter eventually returned to London where he became a freelancer as well as the typographic advisor to Crosfield Electronics, distributors of Photon
Palatino is the name of a large typeface family that began as an old style serif typeface designed by Hermann Zapf initially released in 1948 by the Linotype foundry.
In 1984 Palatino was one of the typefaces originally included by Apple Computer in the Macintosh. In the early days of desktop publishing it gained great popularity until it began to be replaced by Times Roman. In 1999, Zapf revised Palatino for Linotype and Microsoft, called Palatino Linotype. The revised family incorporated extended Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic character sets.
Under the collaboration of Zapf and Akira Kobayashi, the Palatino typeface family was expanded. Linotype released the Palatino nova, Palatino Sans, and Palatino Sans Informal families, expanding the Palatino typeface families to include humanist sans-serif typefaces. Palatino nova was released in 2005, while the others were released in 2006.
Named after 16th century Italian master of calligraphy Giambattista Palatino, Palatino is based on the humanist fonts of the Italian Renaissance, which mirror the letters formed by a broad nib pen; this gives a calligraphic grace. But where the Renaissance faces tend to use smaller letters with longer
Papyrus is a widely available typeface designed by Chris Costello, a graphic designer, illustrator, and web designer.
The font was created in 1982 and released the next year with Letraset. It was hand-drawn over a period of six months by means of calligraphy pen and textured paper. Costello described his goal as a font that would represent what English language texts would have looked like if written on papyrus 2000 years ago. Papyrus has a number of distinctive characteristics, including rough edges, irregular curves, and high horizontal strokes in the capitals. ITC, the current owner of the typeface, describes it as an "unusual roman typeface [that] effectively merges the elegance of a traditional roman letterform with the hand-crafted look of highly skilled calligraphy."
An alternative font published by Elsner+Flake is Papyrus EF Alternatives (or Papyrus EF Regular), providing a slight variation to Costello's font. Its differences include a shorter, sharper capital P, a capital E with a top bar longer than the middle bar, and a swash A.
Papyrus is often used where an antique look is desired, such as a coffee shop or church flyer.
As has been the case with Comic Sans, Papyrus is
Paul Renner (August 9, 1878 – April 25, 1956) was a typeface designer, most notably of Futura. He was born in Wernigerode, Germany and died in Hödingen.
He was born in Prussia and had a strict Protestant upbringing, being educated in 19th century Gymnasium. He was brought up to have a very German sense of leadership, of duty and responsibility. He was suspicious of abstract art and disliked many forms of modern culture, such as jazz, cinema, and dancing. But equally, he admired the functionalist strain in modernism. Thus, Renner can be seen as a bridge between the traditional (19th century) and the modern (20th century). He attempted to fuse the Gothic and the roman typefaces.
Renner was a prominent member of the Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation). Two of his major texts are Typografie als Kunst (Typography as Art) and Die Kunst der Typographie (The Art of Typography). He created a new set of guidelines for good book design and invented the popular Futura, a geometric sans-serif font used by many typographers throughout the 20th century and today. The typeface Architype Renner is based upon Renner's early experimental exploration of geometric letterforms for the Futura
In typography, serifs are semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A typeface with serifs is called a serif typeface (or serifed typeface). A typeface without serifs is called sans serif or sans-serif, from the French sans, meaning “without”. Some typography sources refer to sans-serif typefaces as "Grotesque" (in German "grotesk") or "Gothic", and serif typefaces as "Roman".
Serif fonts are widely used in traditional printed material such as books and newspapers. Many magazines employ sans serif typefaces, as some editors state that they are "cleaner", regardless of any impact on readability from the lack of serifs. Numerous studies have been done on the readability of serif vs. sans serif typefaces, without a consistent conclusion. Some studies indicate that serif typefaces may be more readable in print, but there is no consensus. Studies of on-screen use are also ambiguous, suggesting that low screen resolutions make serifs more difficult to discern, with a resulting erosion of readability compared to sans serif fonts.
Serifs are thought to have originated in the Latin alphabet with inscriptional lettering—words carved into
Tommy George Thompson (born November 19, 1941) is a United States Republican politician who was the 42nd Governor of Wisconsin from 1987 to 2001 and U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services from 2001 to 2005. Thompson was a candidate for the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, but dropped out early after a poor performance in polls. In 2012, he is the Republican nominee for the United States Senate seat being vacated by Herb Kohl.
Thompson was born in Elroy, Wisconsin. His mother, Julie (née Dutton), was a teacher, and his father, Allan Thompson, owned and ran a gas station and country grocery store. His brother, Ed Thompson is a former Mayor of Tomah, Wisconsin, and was the Libertarian Party nominee for Governor of Wisconsin in 2002. He is a former captain in the United States Army and United States Army Reserve, and holds a law degree from the University of Wisconsin Law School.
Thompson was elected to the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1966; he became the Assembly's assistant minority leader in 1973 and minority leader in 1981. He was famous for aggressively utilizing parliamentary procedure to give his minority party some limited say in the legislative process. This, however, lead
Tratex (earlier called GePos) is the name of a geometric sans-serif typeface family for road signs in Sweden. It was developed for maximal readability in traffic. Tratex is free to download and use for illustrations and prints. Tratex also contains Sami characters. Tratex was designed by Carl-Gustaf Gustafsson.