This type is used to classify dishes into broad categories, such as appetizers, soups, desserts, etc.
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A veggie burger is a hamburger-style, or chicken-style, patty that does not contain animal products. The patty of a veggie burger may be made from vegetables (like corn), textured vegetable protein (like soy), legumes (beans), nuts, mushrooms, or grains or seeds, like wheat and flax.
The veggie burger, by name, may have been created in London in 1982 by Gregory Sams, who called it the 'VegeBurger'. Gregory and his brother Craig had run a natural food restaurant in Paddington since the 1960s; a Carrefour hypermarket in Southampton sold 2000 packets in three weeks after its launch.
Using the name Gardenburger, an early veggie burger was developed by Paul Wenner around 1981 or 1982 in Wenner's vegetarian restaurant, The Gardenhouse, in Gresham, Oregon.
Some fast food companies have been offering vegetarian foods increasingly since the beginning of the 21st century.
In places such as India where vegetarianism is widespread, McDonald's and KFC serve veggie burgers. Since February 2010, McDonald's Germany, its fourth-biggest global market, is serving veggie burgers in all its restaurants. Different kinds of veggie burgers are also served permanently in McDonald's restaurants in:
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables (such as carrots, potatoes, beans, peppers and tomatoes, etc.), meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, sausages, and seafood are also used. While water can be used as the stew-cooking liquid, wine, stock, and beer are also common. Seasoning and flavourings may also be added. Stews are typically cooked at a relatively low temperature (simmered, not boiled), allowing flavors to mingle.
Stewing is suitable for the least tender cuts of meat that become tender and juicy with the slow moist heat method. This makes it popular in low-cost cooking. Cuts having a certain amount of marbling and gelatinous connective tissue give moist, juicy stews, while lean meat may easily become dry.
Stews may be thickened by reduction or with flour, either by coating pieces of meat with flour before searing, or by using a roux or beurre manié, a dough consisting of equal parts of butter and flour. Thickeners like cornstarch or arrowroot may also be used.
Stews are similar to soups, and
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans. Seafood prominently includes fish and shellfish. Shellfish include various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Historically, sea mammals such as whales and dophins have been consumed as food, though that happens to a lesser extent these days. Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are widely eaten as seafood around the world, especially in Asia (see the category of sea vegetables). In North America, although not generally in the United Kingdom, the term "seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, so all edible aquatic life may be referred to as seafood. For the sake of completeness, this article includes all edible aquatic life.
The harvesting of wild seafood is known as fishing and the cultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture, mariculture, or in the case of fish, fish farming. Seafood is often distinguished from meat, although it is still animal and is excluded in a strict vegetarian diet. Seafood is an important source of protein in many diets around the world, especially in coastal areas.
Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but a
Soup is a generally warm food that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a broth.
Traditionally, soups are classified into two main groups: clear soups and thick soups. The established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch; bisques are made from puréed shellfish or vegetables thickened with cream; cream soups may be thickened with béchamel sauce; and veloutés are thickened with eggs, butter, and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include rice, lentils, flour, and grains; many popular soups also include carrots and potatoes.
Soups are similar to stews, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two; however, soups generally have more liquid than stews.
Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 6,000 BC. Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the
A meat pie is a pie with a filling of meat and/or other savoury ingredients. Principally popular in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa, meat pies differ from a pasty in the sense that a pasty is typically a more portable, on-the-go item, as opposed to a more conventional pie.
The beginnings of the meat pie can be traced back to the Neolithic Period, around 9500 BC. The ancient Egyptians' diet featured basic pies made from oat, wheat, rye, and barley, and filled with honey and baked over hot coals.
These pies were eventually adopted by the Greeks, and it is there that a flour-water paste substance closely resembling pie pastry was created and was first filled with meat. In Greece, these pies were usually fried or cooked under coals. The Romans, tasting the delicacy from the Greeks, incorporated it into their own diet with little changes. According to the records kept by the wealthy, Romans used a variety of meats, oysters, mussels, lampreys, and fish as filling and a mixture of flour, oil, and water to keep it in. This 'pastry' cover was not meant to be eaten and was thrown away.
In combination with the spread of Roman roads, the invading crusaders encounter
Alcopop is a colloquial term describing certain flavored alcoholic beverages, including:
The term 'alcopop' (a portmanteau of the words alcohol and pop) is used by advocates of tighter restrictions on alcoholic beverage sales, who argue that the beverages are especially appealing to underage drinkers. Other terms include FAB (flavored alcoholic beverage), FMB (flavored malt beverage), PPS (pre-packaged spirit or premium packaged spirits), and RTD (Ready To Drink - Aus & NZ). The alcoholic beverage industry does not use the term "alcopop."
Alcopops tend to be sweet and served in small bottles (typically 330 ml in Europe and 355 ml, the normal size of a soda pop can, in North America), and between 4% and 7% alcohol by volume. In Europe and Canada, alcopops tend to be pre-mixed spirits, including vodka (e.g. Smirnoff Ice) or rum (e.g. Bacardi Breezer). In the United States, on the other hand, alcopops often start out as un-hopped beers, depending on the state in which they are sold. Much of the malt (and alcohol) is removed (leaving mostly water), with subsequent addition of alcohol (usually vodka or grain alcohol), sugar, coloring and flavoring. Such drinks are legally classified as
Smoked fish are fish that have been cured by smoking.
Foods have been smoked by humans throughout history. Originally this was done as a preservative. In more recent times fish is readily preserved by refrigeration and freezing and the smoking of fish is generally done for the unique taste and flavour imparted by the smoking process.
According to Jeffrey J. Rozum "The process of smoking fish occurs through the use of fire. Wood contains three major components that are broken down in the burning process to form smoke. The burning process is called pyrolysis, which is simply defined as the chemical decomposition by heat. The major wood components are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin."
"The major steps in the preparation of smoked fish are salting (bath or injection of liquid brine or dry salt mixture), cold smoking, cooling, packaging (air/vacuum or modified), and storage. Smoking, one of the oldest preservation methods, combines the effects of salting, drying, heating and smoking. Typical smoking of fish is either cold (28–32°C) or hot (70–80°C). Cold smoking does not cook the flesh, coagulate the proteins, inactivate food spoilage enzymes, or eliminate the food pathogens, and
Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking a dough of flour and water and often additional ingredients.
The word itself, Old English bread, is common in various forms to many Germanic languages, such as Frisian brea, Dutch brood, German Brot, Swedish bröd, and Norwegian and Danish brød; it has been claimed to be derived from the root of brew. It may be connected with the root of break, for its early uses are confined to broken pieces or bits of bread, the Latin crustum, and it was not until the 12th century that it took the place—as the generic name for bread—of hlaf (𐌷𐌻𐌰𐌹𐍆𐍃 [hlaifs] in Gothic: modern English loaf), which appears to be the oldest Teutonic name. Old High German hleib and modern German Laib derive from this Proto-Germanic word for "loaf", and through borrowing it gave rise to Polish chleb, Russian хлеб (khleb), Finnish leipä and Estonian leib as well.
Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants. It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primi
An amuse-bouche [aˌmyzˈbuʃ] or amuse-gueule [aˌmyzˈɡœl] is a single, bite-sized hors d’œuvre. Amuse-bouches are different from appetizers in that they are not ordered from a menu by patrons, but, when served, are done so for free and according to the chef's selection alone. These, often accompanied by a complementing wine, are served both to prepare the guest for the meal and to offer a glimpse into the chef's approach to cooking.
The term is French, literally translated to "mouth amuser". The plural form is amuse-bouche or amuse-bouches. In France, amuse-gueule is the proper term normally employed in conversation and literary writing, while amuse-bouche is a euphemistic hypercorrection appeared in the 1980s on restaurant menus and used almost only there, the stand-alone word gueule (in proper usage animal's mouth) being a derogative way of saying mouth or face .
The amuse-bouche as an identifiable course arose during the Nouvelle Cuisine movement, which emphasized smaller, more intensely flavored courses. It differs from other hors d'œuvres in that it is small, usually just one or two bites, and preselected by the chef and offered free of charge to all present at the table.
An Angus burger is a hamburger made using beef from Angus cattle. The name Angus burger is presently used by several fast-food hamburger chains for one or more "premium" burgers; however, it does not belong to any single company. In addition, pre-made frozen Angus burgers are increasingly available from retailers.
Burger King is believed to have been the first major fast-food burger chain to introduce an Angus burger.
Since 2006, McDonald's has test-marketed their own version of the sandwich in several markets, including Chicago, Illinois and upstate New York. The test sandwich was offered in three varieties that had similar makeup of the standard BK version, the mushroom Swiss and the bacon cheese.
In Canada, the hamburger chain Harvey's sells an Angus burger on their menu, while McDonald's Canada introduced an Angus burger in May 2008. In mid 2009, two varieties of the Angus burger were added to McDonald's Australia and New Zealand menus. The first is the "Grand Angus" which consists of Angus beef, as well as mustard, McChicken Sauce, processed cheese, red onion, salad and tomato. The second is the "Mighty Angus", which consists of Angus beef, processed cheese, McChicken Sauce,
A condiment is an edible substance, such as sauce, added to food to impart a particular flavor, enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish. The term originally described pickled or preserved foods, but has shifted meaning over time. Many condiments are available packaged in single-serving sachets (packets), like mustard or ketchup, particularly when supplied with take-out or fast-food meals. Condiments are usually applied by the diner. Condiments are sometimes added prior to serving, for example a sandwich made with ketchup or mustard. Some condiments are used during cooking to add flavor or texture to the food; barbecue sauce, teriyaki sauce, soy sauce, marmite are examples.
The Meal, Ready-to-Eat – commonly known as the MRE – is a self-contained, individual field ration in lightweight packaging bought by the United States military for its service members for use in combat or other field conditions where organized food facilities are not available. The MRE replaced the canned MCI or Meal, Combat, Individual rations in 1981 and is the intended successor to the lighter LRP ration developed by the United States Army for Special Forces and Ranger patrol units in Vietnam.
The first soldier ration established by a Congressional Resolution during the Revolutionary War consisted of enough food to feed a man for one day, mostly beef, peas, and rice. During the Civil War, the military moved toward canned goods. Later, self-contained kits were issued as a whole ration, and contained canned meat, pork, bread, coffee, sugar and salt. During the First World War, canned meats were replaced with lightweight preserved meats (salted or dried), to save weight and allow more rations to be carried by soldiers carrying their supplies on foot. At the beginning of World War II, a number of new field rations were introduced, including the Mountain ration and the Jungle ration.
A dip or dipping sauce is a common condiment for many types of food. Dips are used to add flavor or texture to a food, such as pita bread, dumplings, crackers, cut-up raw vegetables, seafood, cubed pieces of meat and cheese, potato chips, tortilla chips, and falafel. Unlike other sauces, instead of applying the sauce to the food, the food is typically put, dipped, or added into the dipping sauce (hence the name). Dips are commonly used for finger foods, appetizers, and other easily held foods. Thick dips based on sour cream, crème fraiche, milk, yogurt, mayonnaise, soft cheese, or beans are a staple of American hors d'oeuvres and are thinner than spreads which can be thinned to make dips. Alton Brown suggests that a dip is defined based on its ability to "maintain contact with its transport mechanism over three feet of white carpet".
Dip is a very widespread food. Forms of dip are eaten all over the world.
Some types of dip include:
Dumplings are cooked balls of dough. They are based on flour, potatoes or bread, and may include meat, fish, vegetables, or sweets. They may be cooked by boiling, steaming, simmering, frying, or baking. They may have a filling, or there may be other ingredients mixed into the dough. Dumplings may be sweet or savoury. They can be eaten by themselves, in soups or stews, with gravy, or in any other way. While some dumplings resemble solid water-boiled doughs, such as gnocchi, others such as wontons resemble meatballs with a thin dough covering.
Fufu fit the definition of a dumpling in that they are starchy balls of dough that are steamed. Fufu are staples to the diet of many regions of Africa, although they may be known by several other names. The fufu originates in Ghana, where it is often eaten in soups, much like the matzo ball, or with a vegetarian or meat-based stew. An example of the variation of fufu is the banku and kenkey, dumplings formed from fermented cornmeal dough. Banku are boiled while kenkey are partly boiled then finished by steaming in banana leaves. There are several other versions of fufu in Africa and the Caribbean.
Souskluitjies are dumplings found in South
A sausage is a food usually made from ground meat with a skin around it.
Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine, but sometimes synthetic. Some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may be removed after.
Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique. Sausages may be preserved by curing, drying, or smoking.
Sausage making is a logical outcome of efficient butchery. Traditionally, sausage makers would salt various tissues and organs such as scraps, organ meats, blood, and fat to help preserve them. They would then stuff them into tubular casings made from the cleaned intestines of the animal, producing the characteristic cylindrical shape. Hence, sausages, puddings, and salami are among the oldest of prepared foods, whether cooked and eaten immediately or dried to varying degrees.
Early humans made the first sausages by stuffing roasted intestines into stomachs. The Greek poet Homer mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey, Epicharmus wrote a comedy titled The Sausage, and Aristophanes' play The Knights is about a sausage-vendor who is elected leader. Evidence suggests that sausages were already popular both
A cocktail is an alcoholic mixed drink that contains two or more ingredients—at least one of the ingredients must be a spirit.
Cocktails were originally a mixture of spirits, sugar, water, and bitters. It now means almost any mixed drink that contains alcohol. A cocktail today usually contains one or more kinds of spirit and one or more mixers, such as soda or fruit juice. Additional ingredients may be sugar, honey, milk, cream, and various herbs.
The origin of the word cocktail is disputed.
The first recorded use of the word cocktail is found in The Morning Post and Gazetteer in London, England on March 20, 1798:
The first recorded use of the word cocktail in the United States is said to be in The Farmer's Cabinet on April 28, 1803:
A definition of cocktail appeared in the May 13, 1806, edition of The Balance and Columbian Repository, a publication in Hudson, New York, in which an answer was provided to the question, "What is a cocktail?". It replied:
Compare the ingredients listed (spirits, sugar, water, and bitters) with the ingredients of an Old Fashioned, which originated as a term used by late 19th century bar patrons to distinguish cocktails made the “old-fashioned” way from
Gogigui literally "meat + roasting", or Korean barbecue refers to the Korean method of grilling beef, pork, chicken, or other types of meat. Such dishes are often prepared at the diner's table on gas or charcoal grills that are built into the center of the table itself. Some Korean restaurants that do not have built-in grills provide portable stoves for diners to use at their tables.
The most representative form of gogigui is bulgogi usually made from thinly sliced beef sirloin or tenderloin. Another popular form of it is galbi made from marinated beef short ribs. However, gogigui also includes many other kinds of marinated and non-marinated meat dishes, and can be divided into several categories.
Korean barbecue is not only popular among Korean consumers but has gained popularity internationally.
Bulgogi is the most popular variety of Korean barbecue. Before cooking, the meat is marinated with a mixture of soy sauce, sugar, sesame oil, garlic, pepper. It is traditionally cooked with grilling method using gridirons or perforated dome griddles that sit on braziers, but pan-cooking has become common as well.
Galbi made with beef short ribs, marinated in a sauce that may contain soy
Pudding most often refers to a dessert, but it can also be a savory dish.
In the United States and Canada, pudding characteristically denotes a sweet milk-based dessert similar in consistency to egg-based custards, instant custards, or a mousse, though it may also refer to other types such as bread and rice pudding.
In the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries, pudding refers to rich, fairly homogeneous starch- or dairy-based desserts such as rice pudding and Christmas pudding. It is also used as a synonym for the dessert course. The word is also used for savory dishes such as Yorkshire pudding, black pudding, suet pudding and steak and kidney pudding.
The word pudding is believed to come from the French boudin, originally from the Latin botellus, meaning "small sausage," referring to encased meats used in Medieval European puddings.
The original pudding was formed by mixing various ingredients with a grain product or other binder such as butter, flour, cereal, eggs, suet, resulting in a solid mass. These puddings are baked, steamed or boiled.
Depending on its ingredients such a pudding may be served as a part of the main course or as a dessert.
Boiled pudding was a common
A shooter is a neologism for an alcoholic mixed drink that contains one ounce (33 ml) of two or more spirits. Some shooters also have a non-alcoholic ingredient. They are generally drunk quickly, rather than being sipped.
Shooters can be shaken, stirred, blended, layered, or simply poured. Shot glasses or sherry glasses are the usual drinkware in which shooters are served. They are most commonly served at bars, and some bartenders have their own "signature" shooter.
The ingredients of shooters vary from bartender to bartender and from region to region. Two shooters can have the same name but different ingredients, resulting in two very different tastes.
The names of shooters are quite varied, and some of them incorporate vulgarities for shock value.
An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits. They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age.
The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states. Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social events in these cultures.
Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. A high blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcohol can be addictive and addiction to alcohol is known as alcoholism.
Beer and wine are produced by fermentation of sugar- or starch-containing plant material. Beverages produced by fermentation followed by distillation have a higher alcohol content and are
Hors d'oeuvre (UK /ɔːˈdɜrv/ or /ɔːˈdɜrvr(ə)/, US /ɔrˈdɜrv/; French: [ɔʁ dœvʁ] ( listen), literally "apart from the [main] work") or the first course, are food items served before the main courses of a meal. The French (singular and plural) is hors d’œuvre; in English, the œ ligature is usually replaced by the digraph "oe" with the plural often written as "hors d'oeuvres" and pronounced /ɔrˈdɜrvz/. There are several related terms, such as a one-bite appetizer, an amuse-bouche (or other terms below, under: See also).
If there is an extended period between when guests arrive and when the meal is eaten (for example during a cocktail hour), these might also serve the purpose of sustaining guests during the wait, in the same way that apéritifs are served as a drink before meals. Hors d'oeuvre are sometimes served with no meal afterward. This is the case with many reception and cocktail party events.
Hors d'oeuvre may be served at the dinner table as a part of the meal, or they may be served before seating. Hors d'oeuvre prior to a meal are either rotated by waiters or passed. Stationary hors d'oeuvre served at the table may be referred to as "table hors d'oeuvre". Passed hors d'oeuvre
A drink, or beverage, is a kind of liquid which is specifically prepared for human consumption. There are many groups for drinks. It can be divided into various groups such as plain water, alcohol, non alcoholic drinks, soft drinks (carbonated drinks), fruit or vegetable juices and hot drinks. In addition to fulfilling a basic need, drinks form part of the culture of human society.
Despite the water content in all beverages, water itself is not usually considered a beverage. There are also another names for water. It can be called sky juice, mineral water or just plain water. The word beverage usually refers to drinkable liquids which are not purely water.
An alcoholic beverage is a drink that contains ethanol, commonly known as alcohol (although in chemistry the definition of "alcohol" includes many other compounds). Beer has been a part of human culture for 8,000 years. In many countries, drinking alcoholic beverages in a local bar or pub is a cultural tradition. Asian countries produce several varieties of alcoholic beverages (e.g. rice wine, Raja Khan, Tongba a millet brew).
A non-alcoholic drink is one that contains little or no alcohol. This category includes low-alcohol
Fricassee or Fricassée /ˈfrɪkəsiː/ is a method of cooking meat in which the meat is cut up, sauteed, and braised, and served with its sauce, traditionally a white sauce.
Fricassee is an old term, dating back to at least the 15th century. It is a French word, but the exact etymology is uncertain. It is theorized to be a compound of the French frire (to fry) and casser or quasser (to break in pieces).
Many cooking references describe fricassee simply as a French stew, usually with a white sauce. Mastering the Art of French Cooking describes it as "halfway between a saute and a stew," in that a saute has no liquid added, while a stew includes liquid from the beginning. In a fricassee, cut-up meat is first sauteed (but not browned), then liquid is added and it is simmered to finish cooking.
By the general description of frying and then braising in liquid, there are recipes for fricassee as far back as the earliest version of Le Viandier, circa 1300. In 1490, it is first referred to specifically as "friquassee," in the print edition of Le Viandier.
Fricassee of chicken is commonly found, both in modern recipes and antique ones, but virtually all kinds of meat, poultry, fish, and even
A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients.
For most western cultures, pies are defined by their crusts. A filled pie (also single-crust or bottom-crust), has pastry lining the baking dish, and the filling is placed on top of the pastry, but left open. A top-crust pie, which may also be called a cobbler, has the filling in the bottom of the dish and the filling covered with a pastry or other covering before baking. A two-crust pie has the filling completely enclosed in the pastry shell. Flaky pastry is a typical kind of pastry used for pie crusts, but many things can be used, including baking powder biscuits, mashed potatoes, and crumbs.
Pies can be a variety of sizes, ranging from bite-size to ones designed for multiple servings.
The need for nutritious, easy-to-store, easy-to-carry, and long-lasting foods on long journeys, in particular at sea, was initially solved by taking live food along with a butcher or cook. However, this took up additional space on what were either horse-powered treks or small ships, reducing the time of travel before additional food was required.
A sandwich is a food item, consisting of two or more slices of bread with one or more fillings between them, Sandwiches are a widely popular type of lunch food, typically taken to work, school, or picnics to be eaten as part of a packed lunch. They generally contain a combination of salad vegetables, meat, cheese, and a variety of sauces or savoury spreads. The bread can be used as it is, or it can be coated with any condiments to enhance flavour and texture. They are widely sold in restaurants and cafes.
The sandwich is the namesake of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich.
The ancient Jewish sage Hillel the Elder is said to have wrapped meat from the Paschal lamb and bitter herbs between two pieces of old-fashioned soft matzah, flat, unleavened bread, during Passover in the manner of a modern sandwich wrap made with flatbread. Flat breads of only slightly varying kinds have long been used to scoop or wrap small amounts of food en route from platter to mouth throughout Western Asia and northern Africa. From Morocco to Ethiopia to India, bread is baked in flat rounds, contrasting with the European loaf tradition.
During the Middle Ages in Europe, thick slabs of coarse and usually
An entrée (/ˈɑːntreɪ/AHN-tray; French "entrance") is a dish served before the main course, or between two principal courses of a meal.
The disappearance in the early 20th century of a large communal main course such as a roast as a standard part of the meal in the English-speaking world has led to the term being used to describe the main course itself in some areas. This usage is largely confined to North America and it is unusual in most English speaking countries. However, this use is given by some British dictionaries but not others.
The term entrée is rarely used for an hors d'oeuvre, also called a "first course", "appetizer" or "starter". In France, however, the term "entrée", a French word which means an entrance or beginning, always describes a first course, not the main course.
In 1970, Richard Olney, an American living in Paris, gave the place of the entrée in a French full menu: "A dinner that begins with a soup and runs through a fish course, an entrée, a sherbet, a roast, salad, cheese and dessert, and that may be accompanied by from three to six wines, presents a special problem of orchestration". In 1967 Julia Child and her co-authors outlined the character of such
Spanish cuisine consists of a variety of dishes, which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep maritime roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to an array of unique cuisines with literally thousands of recipes and flavours. It is also renowned for its health benefits and fresh ingredients, as Mediterranean diet.
The first introduction of a product to ancient Iberia was that of wheat. Wheat was thought to be brought by Iberians from the south of the peninsula. It was perhaps brought from Aquitaine, due to the difficulty of transporting from the south. In time, the wheat of Iberia came to be considered to be the best in the Roman Empire, and became one of the main commodities of foreign trade. The Romans' early approval of wheat led to its spread from Spain to Greece and Egypt and easterly parts of Russia.
There were two major kinds of diet peninsula. One was found in the northwest part of the peninsula, with more animal fats, that correspond to the husbandry of the north. The other could be considered the precursor
Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink sold in a street or other public place, such as a market or fair, by a hawker or vendor, often from a portable stall. While some street foods are regional, many are not, having spread beyond their region of origin. Most street foods are also classed as both finger food and fast food, and are cheaper on average than restaurant meals. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 2.5 billion people eat street food every day.
Today, people may purchase street food for a number of reasons including "ethnic taste, nostalgia, and the opportunity to eat quickly obtained, reaonably priced and flavorful food in a sociable setting." Historically, in places such as ancient Rome, street food was purchased because urban poor did not have kitchens in their homes.
Small fried fish were a street food in ancient Greece, although Theophrastus held the custom of street food in low regard. Evidence of a large number of street food vendors were discovered during the excavation of Pompeii. Street food was widely utilized by poor urban residents of ancient Rome whose tenement homes did not have ovens or hearths, with chickpea soup being one of the common
The Naan burger is a hamburger made with naan bread. The naan burger has very similar ingredients to normal burgers, but is sometimes made with ham . The use of flatbread creates a taste experience different from hamburgers made with bread.
KFC in India serves naan burgers, but their origins are unknown. Naan burgers, as served in the form closest to the traditional hamburger, may have originated in Britain where both American and Indian food are popular and available in most markets.
It is also served in Toronto, Canada. Several restaurants, including Moxie's located in Yorkdale, and The Host located in Yorkville, offer a dish with naan served with smoked salmon, barbecued chicken, lettuce, tomatoes, fenugreek, and other garnishings. These dishes also have its origin in the dynamic Indian cooking style prevalent in Canada.
An aphrodisiac is a substance that increases sexual desire. The name comes from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexuality and love. Throughout history, many foods, drinks, and behaviors have had a reputation for making sex more attainable and/or pleasurable. However, from a historical and scientific standpoint, the alleged results may have been mainly due to mere belief by their users that they would be effective (i.e., the placebo effect). In particular, Western medical science has no substantiated claims that any particular food increases sexual desire or performance.
Some purported aphrodisiacs gain their reputation from the principles of sympathetic magic, for example oysters, due to their shape.
Alkyl nitrites (poppers), have a long history of use as a sexual enhancement aid, going back about fifty years. According to the text "Isobutyl nitrite and Related Compounds", many researchers agree that the alkyl nitrite may be a true aphrodisiac in the sense of promoting and enhancing sexual response.
Some compounds that activate the melanocortin receptors MC3-R and MC4-R in the brain are effective aphrodisiacs. One compound from this class, bremelanotide, formerly known as PT-141,
In cultures around the world, dessert or pudding is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal, usually consisting of sweet food. The word comes from the French language as dessert and this from Old French desservir, "to clear the table" and "to serve." The etymology is linked to the medieval practice of a two part meal. During the first, nobles (at a high) and servants (separate) would eat together in the same room. During the second - dessert, the noble family would retreat in separate private quarters for an intimate part of the meal without servants. The food consumed during dessert included but was not limited to sweets.
Common Western desserts include cakes, cookies, biscuits, gelatin dessert, pastries, ice cream, pies, pudding, and candies. Fruit may also be eaten with or as a dessert. Variations of desserts can be found all around the world, such as in Russia, where breakfast foods such as bliny, oladi, and syrniki served with honey and jam are also popular as desserts. Desserts are sometimes eaten with a dessert spoon, intermediate in size between a teaspoon and a tablespoon, or a "fruit spoon".
The first desserts were candies, made from raw honeycomb and dried
A flatbread is a simple bread made with flour, water, and salt and then thoroughly rolled into flattened dough. Many flatbreads are unleavened — made without yeast or sourdough culture — although some flatbread is made with yeast, such as pita bread.
There are many other optional ingredients that flatbreads may contain, such as curry powder, diced jalapeños, chili powder, or black pepper. Olive oil or sesame oil may be added as well. Flatbreads can range from one millimeter to a few centimeters thick.
Flatbread was already known in Ancient Egypt and Sumer.
The term unleavened bread can also refer to breads which are not prepared with leavening agents. These flatbreads hold special religious significance to adherents of Judaism and Christianity. Jews consume unleavened breads such as matzo during Passover.
Unleavened bread is used in the Western Christian liturgy when celebrating the Eucharist. On the other hand, most Eastern Churches explicitly forbid the use of unleavened bread (Greek: azymes) for Eucharist as pertaining to the Old Testament and allow only for bread with yeast, as a symbol of the New Covenant in Christ's blood. Indeed, this was one of the three points of
An ice cream soda or float (United States, Canada, New Zealand, and East Asia), coke float or Snowball (United Kingdom, New Zealand), or spider (New Zealand and Australia), is a beverage that consists of ice cream in either a soft drink or in a mixture of flavored syrup and carbonated water.
The ice cream soda was invented by Robert McCay Green in Philadelphia, PA, in 1874 during the sesquicentennial celebration. The traditional story is that, on a particularly hot day, Mr. Green ran out of cream for the flavored sodas he was selling and used vanilla ice cream from a neighbor and invented a new drink.
His own account, published in Soda Fountain magazine in 1910, states that while operating a soda fountain at the Franklin Institute's semicentennial celebration in Philadelphia in 1874, he wanted to create a new treat to attract customers away from another vendor who had a fancier, bigger soda fountain. After some experimenting, he decided to combine ice cream and soda water. During the celebration, he sold vanilla ice cream with soda water and a choice of 16 different flavored syrups. The new treat was a sensation, and soon other soda fountains began selling ice cream sodas. Green's
A snack is a portion of food oftentimes smaller than that of a regular meal, that is generally eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged and processed foods and items made from fresh ingredients at home.
Traditionally, snacks were prepared from ingredients commonly available in the home or the leftovers of the previous night. Often leftovers, sandwiches made from cold cuts, nuts, fruit, and the like were used as snacks. The Dagwood sandwich was originally the humorous result of a cartoon character's desire for large snacks. Beverages, such as coffee, are not generally considered snacks though they may be consumed between meals like a snack, or along with snack foods. A beverage may be considered a snack if it possesses a substantive food item (e.g., strawberries, bananas, kiwis) that has been blended to create a smoothie.
Plain snacks like plain cereals, pasta and vegetables are also mildly popular, and the word snack has often been used to refer to a larger meal involving cooked or leftover items. Six-meal eating is a form of eating that interjects healthy snacks in between small meals, to stave off hunger and promote weight loss.
With the spread of
Breakfast (literally meaning to break the fasting period of the prior night) is the first meal taken after rising from a night's sleep, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day's work. Among English speakers, "breakfast" can be used to refer to this meal, or, less commonly, to refer to a meal composed of traditional breakfast foods (eggs, oatmeal, sausages, etc.) served at any time of day.
Breakfast foods vary widely from place to place, but often include a carbohydrate such as grains or cereals, fruit and/or vegetables, a protein food such as eggs, meat or fish, and a beverage such as tea, coffee or fruit juice. Coffee, tea, juice, breakfast cereals, pancakes, sausages, bacon, sweet breads, fresh fruit, vegetables, eggs, mushrooms, black pudding, baked beans, muffins, crumpets and toast with butter or margarine and/or jam or marmalade are common examples of breakfast foods, though a large range of preparations and ingredients are associated with breakfast globally.
Nutritional experts have referred to breakfast as the most important meal of the day, citing studies that find that people who skip breakfast are disproportionately likely to have problems with
Candy, specifically sugar candy, is a confection made from a concentrated solution of sugar in water, to which flavorings and colorants are added. Candies come in numerous colors and varieties and have a long history in popular culture.
The Middle English word "candy" began to be used in the late 13th century, coming into English from the Old French çucre candi, derived in turn from Persian Qand (=قند) and Qandi (=قندی), "cane sugar", probably derived from Sanskrit word khanda (खण्ड) "piece (of sugar)," perhaps from Dravidian (cf. Tamil kantu for candy, or kattu "to harden, condense"). In North America, candy is a broad category that includes candy bars, chocolates, licorice, sour candies, salty candies, tart candies, hard candies, taffies, gumdrops, marshmallows, and more. Vegetables or fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied.
Outside North America, the generic English-language name for candy is sweets or confectionery (United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa and other commonwealth countries). In Australia and New Zealand, small pieces of sweet substance are known as "lollies".
In North America, Australia, NZ and the UK, the word "lollipop"
Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is commercially prepared food designed for ease of consumption. Products designated as convenience foods are often prepared food stuffs that can be sold as hot, ready-to-eat dishes; as room-temperature, shelf-stable products; or as refrigerated or frozen products that require minimal preparation (typically just heating).
These products are often sold in portion controlled, single serve packaging designed for portability. Convenience food can include products such as candy; beverages such as soft drinks, juices and milk; fast food; nuts, fruits and vegetables in fresh or preserved states; processed meats and cheeses; and canned products such as soups and pasta dishes.
Modern convenience food saw its beginnings in the period that began after World War II in the United States. Many of these products had their origins in military developed foods designed for storage longevity and ease of preparation in the battle field. After the war, many commercial food companies were left with surplus manufacturing facilities. These companies developed new lines of canned and freeze dried foods that were designed for use in the home. Like many product
A salmon burger is a type of fishcake made mostly from salmon in the style of a hamburger. It is challenging to make and cook as the salmon requires a binder to make it stick together and is easy to overcook which makes it too dry. Salmon burgers are especially common in Alaska where they are routinely offered as an alternative to beef hamburgers.
Broth is a liquid food preparation, typically consisting of either water or an already flavored stock, in which bones, meat, fish, cereal grains, or vegetables have been simmered. Broth is used as a basis for other edible liquids such as soup, gravy, or sauce. It can be eaten alone or with garnish. If other ingredients are used, such as rice, pearl barley or oats, it is then generally called soup.
In Britain, a broth is defined as a soup in which there are solid pieces of meat or fish, along with some vegetables. A broth is usually made with a stock or plain water as its base, with meat or fish added while being brought to a boil, and vegetables added later. Being a thin and watery soup, broth is frequently made more substantial by adding rice, barley or pulses. Broth is distinct from stock, which is a thin liquid made by simmering raw ingredients until all the taste has been retrieved from them, then sieving the resulting liquid.
United States cooking schools often differentiate between broth, usually made from portions of animal meat, and stock often made from vegetable scraps and bones.
Broth has been made for many years using the animal bones which, traditionally, are boiled in
Salads are a category of dishes whose prototype is raw vegetables served with a sauce or dressing including oil and an acid as a light savory dish with a minimum of three ingredients. Salads also include a variety of related dishes, including ones with cold cooked vegetables, including grains and pasta; ones which add cold meat or seafood; sweet dishes made of cut-up fruit; and even warm dishes. Though the prototypical salad is light, a dinner salad can constitute a complete meal.
Green salads include leaf lettuce and leafy vegetables with a sauce or dressing. Most salads are served cold, although some, such as south German potato salad, are served warm.
Salads are generally served with a dressing, as well as various garnishes such as nuts or croutons, and sometimes with the addition of meat, fish, pasta, cheese, eggs, or whole grains.
Salads may be served at any point during a meal, such as:
The word "salad" comes from the French salade of the same meaning, from the Latin salata (salty), from sal (salt). In English, the word first appears as "salad" or "sallet" in the 14th century.
Salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty oil-and-vinegar
A burgerless burger, especially in Southern California, means a burger made without a meat patty. Unlike the vegetarian burger, not available in all fast-food restaurants, a "burgeless burger" is more widely available.
Some restaurants that serve burgerless burgers include:
A burgerless burger can also be a burger made from a non-beef meat substitute because of fear of BSE, a.k.a. Mad Cow Disease. For example, some restaurants may call their BLT sandwich or ham & cheese sandwich a "burgerless burger". Vegetable based protein burgers offer a healthful alternative to beef burgers.
Noodle soup refers to a variety of soups with noodles and other ingredients served in a light broth. Noodle soup is an East and Southeast Asian staple. The type of noodles range from rice noodles to egg noodles.
There are a myriad of noodle soup dishes originating in China, and many of these are eaten in, or adapted in various Asian countries.
Philippine noodle soups can be seen served in street stalls, as well as in the home. They show a distinct blend of Oriental and Western culture adjusted to suit the Philippine palate. They are normally served with condiments such as patis, soy sauce, calamansi juice, as well as pepper to further adjust the flavor. Like other types of soup, they may be regarded as comfort food and are regularly associated with the cold, rainy season in the Philippines. They are normally eaten with a pair of spoon and fork, alternating between scooping the soup, and handling the noodles, and are less commonly eaten with the combination of chopsticks and a soup spoon.
Chinese style noodle soups in Thailand are commonly eaten at street stalls, canteens and food courts. A variety of noodles, from wide rice noodles to egg noodles, are served in a light stock made
Smoked meat is a method of preparing red meat (and fish) which originates in prehistory. Its purpose is to preserve these protein-rich foods, which would otherwise spoil quickly, for long periods. There are two mechanisms for this preservation: dehydration and the antibacterial properties of absorbed smoke. In modern days, the enhanced flavor of smoked foods makes them a delicacy in many cultures.
Smoking of meat and fish has been practiced for ages. Indigenous cultures around the world may have used smoke during the drying of fish to drive away the flies. They soon found that the absorbed smoke acted as a preservative. Perhaps the most famous "smokers of meat" were the Caribbean natives who smoked it on a rack over a smoky fire, a setup they called "barbacoa" (one possible etymological origin of barbecue).
Along with bagels, smoked meat has been popular in Montreal since the nineteenth century, and has taken such strong root in that city that many Montrealers, and even many non-Montrealers, identify it as emblematic of the city's cuisine. Current and former residents and tourists make a point of visiting Montreal's best-known smoked meat establishments such as Schwartz's,
Barbecue (also barbeque, BBQ, bar-B-Q and barbie) is a method and apparatus for char grilling food in the hot smoke of a wood fire, usually charcoal fuelled. In the USA to grill is to cook in this manner quickly, while barbecue is typically a much slower method utilizing less heat than grilling, attended to over an extended period of several hours.
The term as a noun can refer to the meat, the cooking apparatus itself (the "barbecue grill" or simply "barbecue") or to the party that includes such food or such preparation methods. The term as an adjective can refer to foods cooked by this method. The term is also used as a verb for the act of cooking food in this manner.
Barbecue is usually done in an outdoor environment by cooking and smoking the meat over wood or charcoal. Restaurant barbecue may be cooked in large brick or metal ovens specially designed for that purpose.
Barbecue has numerous regional variations in many parts of the world.
Most etymologists believe that barbecue derives from the word barabicu found in the language of the Taíno people of the Caribbean and the Timucua of Florida, and entered European languages in the form barbacoa. The word translates as "sacred
Cake is a form of bread or bread-like food. In its modern forms, it is typically a sweet baked dessert. In its oldest forms, cakes were normally fried breads or cheesecakes, and normally had a disk shape. Determining whether a given food should be classified as bread, cake, or pastry can be difficult.
Modern cake, especially layer cakes, normally contain a combination of flour, sugar, eggs, and butter or oil, with some varieties also requiring liquid (typically milk or water) and leavening agents (such as yeast or baking powder). Flavorful ingredients like fruit purées, nuts, dried or candied fruit, or extracts are often added, and numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients are possible. Cakes are often filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders or candied fruit.
Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions, particularly weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays. There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some rich and elaborate, and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure; while at one time considerable
A sweet dish that often served in the Midwest of the USA as part of a potluck or other social gatherings and functions. As to whether it is a salad or a dessert, popular lore has it that it depends on which end of the table it is sitting.
A main dish is the featured or primary dish in a meal consisting of several courses. It usually follows the entrée ("entry") course. In the United States it may in fact be called the "entree".
The main dish is usually the heaviest, heartiest, and most complex or substantive dish on a menu. The main ingredient is usually meat or fish; in vegetarian meals, the main course sometimes attempts to mimic a meat course. It is most often preceded by an appetizer, soup, and/or salad, and followed by a dessert. For those reasons the main course is sometimes referred to as the "meat course".
In formal dining, a well-planned main course can function as a sort of gastronomic apex or climax. In such a scheme, the preceding courses are designed to prepare for and lead up to the main course in such a way that the main course is anticipated and, when the scheme is successful, increased in its ability to satisfy and delight the diner. The courses following the main course then calm the palate and the stomach, acting as a sort of dénouement or anticlimax.
"Entrée" is sometimes used as a synonym for the main course in English in the United States. In 1970, Richard Olney, an American living in Paris,
Pastry is the name given to various kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and/or eggs. Small cake, tarts and other sweet baked products are called "pastries."
Pastry may also refer to the dough from which such baked products are made. Pastry dough is rolled out thinly and used as a base for baked products. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts, quiches and pasties.
Pastry is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is light and airy and fatty, but firm enough to support the weight of the filling. When making a shortcrust pastry, care must be taken to blend the fat and flour thoroughly before adding any liquid. This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less likely to develop gluten. On the other hand, overmixing results in long gluten strands that toughen the pastry. In other types of pastry, such as Danish pastry and croissants, the characteristic flaky texture is achieved by repeatedly rolling out a dough similar to that for yeast bread, spreading it with butter, and folding it to produce many thin
A side dish, sometimes referred to as a side order, side item, or simply a side, is a food item that accompanies the entrée or main course at a meal.
Side dishes such as salad, potatoes and bread are commonly used with main courses throughout many countries of the western world. New side orders introduced within the past decade, such as rice and couscous, have grown to be quite popular throughout Europe, especially at formal occasions (with couscous appearing more commonly at dinner parties introduced by many Middle Eastern attributes).
When used as an adjective qualifying the name of a dish, the term "side" usually refers to a smaller portion served as a side dish, rather than a larger, main dish-sized serving. For example, a "side salad" is usually served in a small bowl or salad plate, in contrast to a large dinner-plate-sized entrée salad.
A typical American meal with a meat-based main dish might include one vegetable side dish, sometimes in the form of a salad, and one starch side dish, such as bread, potatoes, rice, or pasta.
Some common side dishes include:
Some restaurants offer a limited selection of side dishes which are included with the price of the entrée as a
A steak (from Old Norse steik, "roast") is generally a cut of meat or fish cut perpendicular to the muscle fibers, or of fish cut perpendicular to the spine. Meat steaks are usually grilled, pan-fried, or broiled, while fish steaks may also be baked.
Steak can also be meat cooked in sauce (eg. steak and kidney pie) or minced meat formed into a steak shape (eg. Salisbury steak, hamburger steak).
Without qualification, the word "steak" generally refers to beefsteak. Steaks from other animals are usually qualified as, e.g., 'swordfish steak' or 'venison steak'.
The more tender cuts of beef, from the loin and rib, are cooked quickly, using dry heat, and served whole. Less tender cuts from the chuck or round are cooked with moist heat or are mechanically tenderized (eg. cube steak). Steak can be cooked to a level of very rare (bleu, a cold raw center), rare, medium rare, medium, medium well done, or well done. Beef, unlike certain other meats, does not need to be cooked through. Food-borne human illnesses are not normally found within a beef steak, though surfaces can potentially be contaminated from handling, and thus, very rare steak (seared on the outside and raw within) is generally