The Tropical Cyclone type holds all hurricanes, typhoons, tropical storms and other 'warm core' storm systems.
A tropical cyclone is a storm system fueled by the heat released when moist air rises and the water vapor in it condenses. The term describes the storm's origin in the tropics and its cyclonic nature, which means that its circulation is counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. Tropical cyclones are distinguished from other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows by the heat mechanism that fuels them, which makes them "warm core" storm systems.
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Hurricane Iris was a Category 4 hurricane that devastated Belize in October 2001. It was the eleventh tropical cyclone, ninth named storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the second strongest storm of the season behind Hurricane Michelle.
Tropical Depression Eleven formed just southeast of Barbados on October 4. It traveled across the Windward Islands, and was named Tropical Storm Iris while south of Puerto Rico on the 5th. Iris continued to the west and intensified. After passing just south of Jamaica, Iris reached Category 4 hurricane strength. Iris made landfall near Monkey River Town, Belize, on October 9 at Category 4 strength, but weakened rapidly. It dissipated later that day.
At least 49 were killed by Iris, 3 in the Dominican Republic, 4 in Guatemala, 22 in Belize, and 19 from the M/V Wave Dancer, a ship that capsized off the Belize coast. Newspapers have reported an additional 30 deaths in Belize, but the government there has only confirmed the 20 deaths from the Wave Dancer. Damage in Belize is reported at $66.2 million (2001 USD, $72.9 million 2006 USD) and total damage is estimated to be $150 million (2001 USD,
Hurricane Nora was only the third tropical cyclone on record to reach Arizona as a tropical storm. Nora was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone and seventh hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. The September storm formed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and aided by waters warmed by El Niño, eventually peaked at Category 4 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.
Nora intensified and weakened quickly before taking an unusual path, which lead it to make landfall twice as a hurricane in Baja California. After landfall, its remnants affected the Southwestern United States with tropical storm-force winds, torrential rain and flooding. Nora is blamed for two direct casualties in Mexico, as well as substantial beach erosion on the Mexican coast, flash flooding in Baja California, and record precipitation in Arizona. Nora persisted far inland and eventually dissipated near the Arizona/Nevada border.
Nora formed early on September 16, 1997, while located 290 miles (460 km) southwest of the Mexican port of Acapulco, Guerrero, from the same tropical wave that had earlier created Hurricane Erika. Due to favorable conditions associated with El Niño, the tropical disturbance
The Indianola Hurricane of 1886 destroyed the town of Indianola, Texas. It was one of the most intense hurricanes ever to hit the United States.
The storm began east of the Lesser Antilles on August 12. The tropical storm moved northwestward through the islands, reaching hurricane strength on August 13. It hit the Dominican Republic as a Category 2 hurricane, weakened a bit, and hit southeastern Cuba as a Category 2 hurricane. The storm weakened over land. this went on for 10 days
When the tropical storm reached the favorable Gulf of Mexico waters on the August 18, it again strengthened. As the hurricane approached the coast of Texas, it rapidly intensified to a 150 mph (240 km/h) hurricane. At the time, it was tied for the strongest hurricane ever recorded (the first reported, and confirmed, Category 5 hurricane would be in 1928). On August 19, winds increased in Indianola, and, on August 20, it made landfall as a catastrophic Category 4 hurricane. Pressure at landfall is estimated to be 925 mbar, which would make it the fifth strongest hurricane known to have hit the United States, and by winds, it was the fourth most powerful hurricane to hit the U.S. mainland. The hurricane had
The 1991 Perfect Storm, also known as the Halloween Nor'easter of 1991, was a nor'easter that absorbed Hurricane Grace and ultimately evolved into a small hurricane late in its life cycle. The initial area of low pressure developed off Atlantic Canada on October 28. Forced southward by a ridge to its north, it reached its peak intensity as a large and powerful cyclone. The storm lashed the East Coast of the United States with high waves and coastal flooding, before turning to the southwest and weakening. Moving over warmer waters, the system transitioned into a subtropical cyclone before becoming a tropical storm. It executed a loop off the Mid-Atlantic states and turned toward the northeast. On November 1 the system evolved into a full-fledged hurricane with peak winds of 75 miles per hour (120 km/h), although the National Hurricane Center left it unnamed to avoid confusion amid media interest in the predecessor extratropical storm. It later received the name "the Perfect Storm" after a conversation between Boston National Weather Service forecaster Robert Case and author Sebastian Junger. The system was the fourth hurricane and final tropical cyclone in the 1991 Atlantic
Tropical Storm Gert was the fourth of seven tropical cyclones (4 hurricanes, two major hurricanes, and four tropical storms) to make landfall in Mexico during 2005. It formed in July in the Bay of Campeche, becoming the seventh named storm of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season.
As a tropical wave, Gert crossed Honduras and the Yucatán peninsula before organizing into Tropical Depression Seven on the afternoon of July 23 in the Bay of Campeche. It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Gert early the next day, gaining the record for the earliest formation of a seventh named storm in an Atlantic hurricane season. Gert strengthened little before making landfall south of Tampico, Tamaulipas, late on July 24, with maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (70 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 1005 mbar (29.68 inHg). It moved inland over central Mexico before dissipating on the next day. Gert struck in approximately the same area as Hurricane Emily just four days earlier, causing fear of flooding and landslides due to saturated lands. As a precaution, some 1,000 people were evacuated from low-lying residences and businesses near the towns of Naranjos Amatlán and Tamiahua.
A tropical wave entered
Severe Tropical Storm Kammuri (international designation: 0212, JTWC designation: 16W, designated Tropical Storm Lagalag by PAGASA and sometimes known as just Tropical Storm Kammuri) killed hundreds of people in the wake of a deadly flood season in China. The system developed from a large monsoonal system that persisted toward the end of July 2002 near the Philippines. On August 2, a tropical depression formed off the northwest coast of Luzon and moved west-northwestward. Late on August 3, it intensified into Tropical Storm Kammuri off the coast of Hong Kong. A weakening ridge turned the storm northward toward the coast of China. The storm made landfall with late on August 4, after reaching peak winds of 100 km/h (65 mph). The system dissipated over the mountainous coastline of eastern China and merged with a cold front on August 7.
High rainfall from Kammuri affected large portions of China, particularly in Guangdong Province where it moved ashore. In that province, over 100,000 people had to evacuate due to flooding and after 6,810 houses were destroyed. The floods damaged roads, railroads, and tunnels, and left power and water outages across the region. Rainfall was beneficial
Hurricane Keith caused extensive damage in Central America, especially in Mexico and Belize. The fifteenth tropical cyclone, eleventh named storm, and seventh hurricane of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season, Keith developed as a tropical depression from a tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea on September 28. The depression gradually strengthened, and became Tropical Storm Keith on the following day. As the storm tracked westward, it continued to intensify and was upgraded to a hurricane on September 30. Shortly thereafter, Keith began to rapidly deepen, and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane less than 24 hours later. Keith then began to meander erratically offshore of Belize, which significantly weakened the storm due to land interaction. By late on October 2, Keith made landfall in Ambergris Caye, Belize as a minimal hurricane. It weakened quickly weakened to a tropical storm, before another landfall occurred near Belize City early on the following day. While moving inland over the Yucatán Peninsula, Keith weakened further, and was downgraded to a tropical depression before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico on October 4. Once in the Gulf of Mexico, Keith began to re-strengthen
Tropical Storm Amelia was the westernmost forming Atlantic tropical cyclone on record. It formed during the 1978 Atlantic hurricane season. It caused a severe flooding disaster in Texas after it dissipated. Amelia developed from a tropical wave that moved through the Atlantic Ocean uneventfully. The disturbance then entered an area of the Gulf of Mexico that was conducive to tropical cyclogenesis and became the first tropical depression of the season, after which it was forecast to make landfall before any significant intensification. However, the tropical depression defied predictions, quickly strengthening into a weak tropical storm just hours before making landfall in Corpus Christi. The storm lasted roughly a day over land before becoming unidentifiable after being active for just under 48 hours.
Amelia affected the Texas coast for two days, causing several shipping incidents and minor damage in Corpus Christi and South Padre Island. While active, there were no deaths linked to the storm. However, the biggest impact from the storm followed its dissipation, when its remnants contributed to record rainfall totals over the state. The state, already suffering from a previous
Hurricane Hortense was the first hurricane landfall in Guadeloupe and Puerto Rico since Hurricane Hugo in 1989. The eight tropical cyclone, eight named storm, and sixth hurricane of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season, Hortense developed on September 3 from a tropical wave in the central Atlantic Ocean. Initially a tropical depression, it headed westward without significant strengthening for four days due to unfavorable upper-level winds. While nearing the Lesser Antilles upper-level winds decreased, allowing the depression to become Tropical Storm Hortense on September 7. Hortense crossed Guadeloupe as a moderately strong tropical storm on September 8 and entered the Caribbean Sea. By on the following day, it was upgraded to a hurricane, while curving northwestward and approaching Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. Hortense made landfall in Puerto Rico on September 9 and brushed Dominican Republic shortly thereafter. After re-entering the Atlantic, Hortense began to substantially strengthened and peaked as a 140 mph (220 km/h) Category 4 hurricane early on September 13. Thereafter, the storm steadily weakened as it tracked rapidly north-northeastward. Early on September 15, Hortense made
The Chenière Caminada Hurricane, also known as the Great October Storm, was a powerful hurricane that devastated the island of Chenière Caminada, Louisiana in early October 1893. It was one of two deadly hurricanes during the 1893 Atlantic hurricane season; the storm killed an estimated 2,000 people, mostly from storm surge.
The hurricane was first observed on September 27, 1893, in the northwest Caribbean Sea. Its previous history is unknown; possibly it formed from a trough of low pressure in the area, a similar method of formation for two other storms this season. The storm moved to the northwest, quickly strengthening into a hurricane on September 28. It continued to intensify to 95 mph winds before hitting near Cancún of the Yucatán Peninsula on the 29th.
While crossing the peninsula, the hurricane weakened to 90 mph, but restrengthened over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico. A low pressure trough over the northern Gulf of Mexico brought the hurricane northward and northeastward. On October 1, this compact hurricane became a major hurricane, and early the next day, it became a Category 4 as it approached the Louisiana coast.
On the morning of October 2, with a peak of
Hurricane Lisa was a long-lived Cape Verde-type hurricane in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the twelfth named storm, as well as the ninth and final hurricane of the season. Lisa formed on September 19 and spent nearly two weeks fluctuating between a tropical depression and a tropical storm while traversing the central Atlantic. It briefly became a hurricane on October 2 in the north Atlantic before weakening and becoming extratropical shortly afterward. It was never a threat to land.
The system originated out of a tropical wave that crossed the African coast on September 16. The wave slowly organized as it tracked south of Cape Verde, and it organized enough to be declared Tropical Depression Thirteen on September 19 while to the southwest of Cape Verde. From the outset, the system was hindered by significant wind shear from the southwest as a result of the outflow of Karl to its west. Nonetheless, on the morning of September 20, the depression organized enough to become Tropical Storm Lisa with maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (70 km/h). A poorly defined eye also began to develop at that time despite its relatively weak intensity.
Lisa continued to gradually intensify
Hurricane Carla was one of two Category 5 tropical cyclones during the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season. It struck the Texas coast as a Category 4 hurricane, becoming one of the most powerful storms to ever strike the United States. Hurricane Carla was the second most intense storm to ever strike the Texas coast. The storm caused over $2 billion (2005 US dollars) in damages, but due to the evacuation of over 500,000 residents the death toll was only 43.
A tropical depression developed in the western Caribbean Sea on September 3 from a disturbance in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. It moved northwestward, becoming Tropical Storm Carla on the 5th and Hurricane Carla on the 6th. After skimming the Yucatán Peninsula as a weak hurricane, Carla entered the Gulf of Mexico and headed for the U.S. Gulf Coast.
As it moved slowly across the Gulf of Mexico, Carla steadily strengthened to its peak of 175 mph (280 km/h) winds (Category 5 intensity) on September 11. Just before landfall, it weakened, but Carla was still a very strong and unusually large Category 4 hurricane at its landfall between Port O'Connor and Port Lavaca, Texas, on the 11th. At the time, Carla became the largest hurricane
Hurricane Dolly was a Category 1 hurricane that struck Mexico. The storm killed 14 people and left many homeless. The fourth named storm and the third hurricane of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season, Dolly developed from a tropical wave in the west-central Caribbean on August 19. Becoming a tropical storm shortly thereafter, the system was then named Dolly by the National Hurricane Center. Dolly continued to strengthen further, and became a minimal hurricane before making landfall near Chetumal, Quintana Roo on August 20. Dolly rapidly weakened over the Yucatán Peninsula, and was only a tropical depression after being inland for about 24 hours. Dolly continued out into the Bay of Campeche, and it regained hurricane strength before a second landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas on August 23. Dolly again rapidly weakened over Mexico, but the system reached the Pacific Ocean before dissipating on August 26.
Fourteen people were reported dead in Mexico. Hundreds of homes were destroyed, and large areas of crop land were flooded. A monetary estimate of the damage is not available.
Dolly formed from a tropical wave which moved off the west coast of Africa and entered the Caribbean between
Tropical Storm Harvey was a strong tropical storm over the western Atlantic Ocean in August during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Harvey was the eighth named storm of the record-breaking season.
Tropical Storm Harvey formed from a tropical wave to the southwest of Bermuda on August 2 and passed close to Bermuda on August 4, bringing heavy rain to the island. After it moved east away from Bermuda, Harvey reached its peak strength before the storm turned to the northeast. Harvey became a strong extratropical storm on August 8 and the system survived for a few more days in the central Atlantic.
A tropical wave left the African coast on July 22 and crossed much of the Atlantic without significant development. While approaching the Leeward Islands on July 28, the National Hurricane Center monitored the system closely for any possible development, which did not occur at that time. Though by August 2, convection began increasing, and as a result, the system developed into Tropical Depression Eight later that day, while centered about 350 miles (595 km) southwest of Bermuda. On the following day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Harvey.
Due to initially strong wind
Tropical Storm Nicholas was a long-lived tropical storm in October and November of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming from a tropical wave on October 13 in the central tropical Atlantic Ocean, Nicholas slowly developed due to moderate levels of wind shear throughout its lifetime. Deep convection slowly organized, and Nicholas attained a peak intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) on October 17. After moving west-northwestward for much of its lifetime, it turned northward and weakened due to increasing shear. The storm again turned to the west and briefly restrengthened, but after turning again to the north Nicholas transitioned to an extratropical cyclone on October 24. As an extratropical storm, Nicholas executed a large loop to the west, and after moving erratically for a week and organizing into a tropical low, it was absorbed by a non-tropical low. The low continued westward, crossed Florida, and ultimately dissipated over the Gulf Coast of the United States on November 5.
Nicholas had no impact as a tropical cyclone, and impact from the low that absorbed the storm was limited to rainfall, gusty winds, and rough surf. Nicholas extended the above average levels of tropical
Tropical Storm Ana was the only tropical cyclone on record in the North Atlantic basin to exist in the month of April. The formation of Ana marked the fourth earliest start to an Atlantic hurricane season since reliable records began in 1851. The first tropical cyclone of the season, it developed as a subtropical cyclone from a non-tropical low on April 20 to the west of Bermuda. It tracked east-southeastward and organized, and on April 21 it transitioned into a tropical cyclone with peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). Tropical Storm Ana turned east-northeastward, steadily weakening due to wind shear and an approaching cold front, and on April 24 it became an extratropical cyclone. The storm brushed Bermuda with light rain, and the remnants produced precipitation in the Azores and the United Kingdom. Swells generated by the storm capsized a boat along the Florida coastline, causing two fatalities.
A non-tropical low pressure area developed about 240 miles (390 km) south-southwest of Bermuda on April 18 through the interaction of an upper-level trough and a surface frontal trough. The surface trough, which extended from the gale center to Hispaniola, brought a plume of moisture
Hurricane Danny was the only hurricane to make landfall in the United States during the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season, and the second hurricane and fourth tropical storm of the season. The system became the earliest-formed fifth tropical or subtropical storm of the Atlantic season in history when it attained tropical storm strength on July 17, and held that record until the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season when Tropical Storm Emily broke that record by several days. Like the previous four tropical or subtropical cyclones of the season, Danny had a non-tropical origin, after a trough spawned convection that entered the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Danny was guided northeast through the Gulf of Mexico by two high pressure areas, a rare occurrence in the middle of July. After making landfall on the Gulf Coast, Danny tracked across the southeastern United States and ultimately affected parts of New England with rain and wind.
Danny is notable for its extreme rainfall, the tornadoes generated by it, and the destruction it produced on its path, causing a total of nine fatalities and $100 million (1997 USD, $145 million 2012 USD) in damage. The storm dropped a record amount of
Tropical Storm Odette was a rare off-season tropical storm that affected the Caribbean Sea in December 2003. The 15th tropical storm of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season, Odette formed near the coast of Panama a few days after the official end of the Atlantic hurricane season, and ultimately made landfall on the Dominican Republic as a moderate tropical storm.
The storm caused heavy damage throughout the Dominican Republic from unusually heavy rainfall in December. Preparation preceding Odette's landfall resulted in only eight deaths and 14 injuries. Total damage is unknown, though crop damage in the Dominican Republic totaled to over $8 million (2003 USD, $8.8 million 2006 USD).
By November 30, the last day of the Atlantic hurricane season, a stationary front extended across eastern Cuba into the southwestern Caribbean Sea. On December 1, a low pressure area developed within the frontal zone just north of Panama, and an anticyclone aloft produced good outflow over the low-level center. The low remained nearly stationary for the next several days, and it gradually became separated from the stationary front. Convection increased across the area due to moisture from the eastern
The 1926 Miami hurricane (or Great Miami Hurricane) was a Category 4 hurricane that devastated Miami in September 1926. The storm also caused significant damage in the Florida Panhandle, the U.S. state of Alabama, and the Bahamas. The storm's enormous regional economic impact helped end the Florida land boom of the 1920s and pushed the region on an early start into the Great Depression.
The Cape Verde-type hurricane formed on September 6. Moving west-northwest while traversing the tropical Atlantic, the storm later passed near St. Kitts on September 14. By September 17 it was battering the Bahamas, impacting the Turks and Caicos Islands with winds estimated at 150 mph (240 km/h). Then, in the early morning hours of September 18, it made landfall just south of Miami between Coral Gables and South Miami as a devastating Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm crossed the peninsula south of Lake Okeechobee, entered the Gulf of Mexico, and made another landfall near Mobile, Alabama as a Category 3 hurricane on September 20 before hooking westward along coastal Alabama and Mississippi, eventually dissipating on September 22 after moving inland over
Super Typhoon Patsy (international designation: 7025, JTWC designation: 27W, PAGASA name: Super Typhoon Yoling) was the twenty-seventh named storm, twelfth typhoon, and seventh super typhoon of the 1970 Pacific typhoon season.
November 14, 1970 brought sufficient organization for a tropical disturbance to be designated a tropical depression. A steady intensification carried Tropical Storm Patsy's windspeeds up to 155 mph (250 km/h) and a pressure of 918 mbar. It made landfall in Luzon with 130 mph (210 km/h) sustained wind speeds on November 19. After emerging in the South China Sea, Patsy remained at tropical storm strength. It struck Vietnam during its Civil War as a weak tropical storm on November 22. The 8-day-old cyclone dissipated shortly after its final landfall.
US$80 million ($403 million in 2005) in damage was reported to have been caused by Patsy, though the total was likely higher. Deaths were officially reported to be 241, but an estimated 30 people unofficially died in Vietnam, raising the toll to 271+. And additional 351 people were reported missing. The total deaths and damage will likely be never known, as the Vietnam War was raging on at the same time.
Hurricane Ginger was the second-longest lasting Atlantic hurricane on record. The eighth tropical cyclone and fifth hurricane of the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season, Ginger spent 27.25 days as a tropical cyclone, lasting from September 6 to October 3. The storm formed northeast of the Bahamas, and for the first nine days of its duration tracked generally eastward or northeastward while gradually strengthening to peak winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). On September 14, Ginger slowed and turned to a general westward track, passing near Bermuda on September 23. There, the hurricane produced gusty winds and high waves, but no damage.
While over the western Atlantic Ocean, Ginger became the last target of Project Stormfury, which sought to weaken hurricanes by depositing silver iodide into tropical cyclone rainbands. Ginger ultimately struck North Carolina on September 30 as a minimal hurricane, lashing the coastline with gusty winds that caused power outages across the region. Heavy rainfall flooded towns and left severe crop damage, with 3 million bushels of corn and 1 million bushels of soybean lost. Damage in the state was estimated at $10 million (1971 USD, $57.4 million 2012 USD).
Hurricane Isidore was the ninth named storm and the second hurricane in the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. Isidore was the fifth of eight named storms to occur in September. The tropical cyclone peaked as a Category 3 hurricane, causing damage as well as four fatalities in Jamaica, Cuba, Mexico, and the United States. Isidore is noted for threatening to strike the northern Gulf Coast as a Category 4 hurricane, but instead striking as a moderate tropical storm due to a track change that brought the storm over the Yucatán Peninsula for over a day, which significantly weakened the cyclone. Its primary impact was the heavy rainfall which fell across southeast Mexico and from the central United States Gulf coast into the Ohio Valley.
On September 9, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa. Despite moving through a dry environment, its convection became organized as an anticyclone developed over the wave. On September 14, convection was well-organized enough around a small closed wind circulation to classify the system as Tropical Depression Ten near Trinidad and Tobago. Land interaction from Venezuela later weakened the depression back to a tropical wave. The wave continued
Super Typhoon Nina (international designation: 7503, JTWC designation: 04W, PAGASA name: Bebeng) was a short-lived but intense super typhoon that caused catastrophic damage and loss of life in China after causing the Banqiao Dam to collapse. Over 171,000 people died because of the resulting floods, making it one of the deadliest tropical cyclones recorded in history. The collapse of the dam due to heavy floods also caused a string of smaller dams to collapse, adding more damage by the typhoon.
A well defined trough line extending southeastward into the Philippine Sea spawned a disturbance on July 29. After initial status as a disturbance, Tropical Depression 04W moved southwestward for 36 hours as the structure of the system began to organize. On July 31, the depression slowed down and began to rapidly intensify to a tropical storm and was named "Nina" then it began to turn to the northwest. A subtropical ridge prevented Nina from turning further north and it began to track west-northwest just before reaching typhoon intensity.
Nina underwent explosive development on the late hours of August 1. Aircraft reconnaissance reported a 65 hPa drop of pressure on the same day as well as
Hurricane Lenny was the second-strongest November North Atlantic hurricane on record. It was the twelfth tropical storm, eighth hurricane, and record-breaking fifth Category 4 hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Lenny formed on November 13 in the western Caribbean Sea and maintained an unprecedented west-to-east track for its entire duration. It attained hurricane status south of Jamaica on November 15 and passed south of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico over the next few days. Lenny rapidly intensified over the northeastern Caribbean on November 17, attaining peak winds of 155 mph (250 km/h) about 21 mi (34 km) south of Saint Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. It gradually weakened while moving through the Leeward Islands, eventually dissipating on November 23 over the open Atlantic Ocean.
Before moving through the Lesser Antilles, Lenny produced rough surf that killed two people in northern Colombia. Strong winds and rainfall resulted in heavy crop damage in southeastern Puerto Rico. Despite the hurricane's passage near Saint Croix at peak intensity, damage on the small island was only described as "moderate", although there was widespread flooding and erosion.
Tropical Storm Beryl was the third tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. Developing from a tropical disturbance on July 18, it tracked generally northward, and strengthened to attain peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) under generally favorable conditions. After turning to the northeast, Beryl weakened over cooler waters. On July 21 it struck the island of Nantucket, and shortly thereafter it became extratropical. The extratropical remnants continued northeastward through Nova Scotia, and on July 22 it merged with an approaching cold front.
Beryl produced rough seas along the northeast United States coastline. In Massachusetts, its impact was limited to light rainfall and gusty winds, with no reported damage. Beryl later produced moderate rainfall and gusty winds across Atlantic Canada, resulting in some localized power outages though little damage. No deaths were reported.
A cold front moved off the East Coast of the United States on July 16 and stalled off the coast of North Carolina. It gradually decayed into a surface low pressure trough, and developed into two disturbances; one was centered 290 miles (490 km) south-southeast of Cape Cod and another was located
Hurricane Esther was the fifth named storm and fifth hurricane of the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season. A long-lived Category 4 Cape Verde-type hurricane, Esther spent its lifetime offshore, before moving up the East Coast of the United States. Esther came very close to Nantucket Island as a rapidly weakening Category 3 hurricane, then passed over Cape Cod as a tropical storm, and later came ashore in Maine while losing its tropical characteristics. Esther also made a rather unusual anticyclonic loop over the north Atlantic Ocean.
The hurricane caused $6 million (1961 USD, $37.4 million 2005 USD) in damage along the Eastern Seaboard, mostly on Long Island. Seven indirect deaths were also attributed to Esther after a Navy aircraft crashed in the Atlantic Ocean north of Bermuda, one of only a few documented occurrences of a tropical cyclone causing an airplane crash.
Esther was also one of the first storms targeted by a joint Navy-Weather Bureau experiment aimed at weakening hurricanes by seeding their eyewalls with silver iodide. Two flights were made into the storm, and the results of this expedition led to the establishment of the ill-fated Project Stormfury in 1962.
Typhoon Longwang (Traditional Chinese: 龍王, Simplified Chinese: 龙王; international designation: 0519, JTWC designation: 19W, dubbed Typhoon Maring for Philippine advisories) was the typhoon of the 2005 Pacific typhoon season, with maximum wind speeds of 125 knots (230 km/h) at peak intensity. It made landfall twice, killing 148 people. Damage totaled $100 million (2005 USD) on Taiwan, with an additional $150 million on Mainland China.
The system formed about 335 nautical miles (620 km) south-southeast of Iwo Jima, Japan on September 26. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center initiated a warning for it at 00:00 UTC the same day. It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Longwang six hours later. Longwang is Chinese for Dragon King. At 03:00 UTC September 27, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center upgraded it to a typhoon. It continued to increase in strength as it tracked west to west-northwest towards Taiwan. PAGASA named the storm Maring for Philippine warnings on September 29. It made landfall near Hualien City, Taiwan on October 2.
The typhoon was upgraded to Category 2 strength on September 27, and again to Category 3 strength later that day. It was further upgraded to Category 4 strength at 06:00
Hurricane Klaus was a minimal Atlantic hurricane that dropped heavy rainfall across the Lesser Antilles in October 1990. The eleventh tropical cyclone and sixth hurricane of the 1990 Atlantic hurricane season, Klaus developed from a tropical wave on October 3 a short distance east of Dominica. It drifted northwestward, and quickly intensified to attain hurricane status on October 5. Though its closest approach to the Lesser Antilles was within 12 miles (19 km), the strongest winds remained to its northeast due to strong wind shear, which caused Klaus to steadily weaken. After deteriorating into a tropical depression, Klaus briefly restrengthened over the Bahamas before dissipating on October 9 under the influence of developing tropical storm, Marco.
The hurricane affected many areas which were devastated by Hurricane Hugo in the previous year. Heavy rainfall on Saint Lucia destroyed about 15% of its yearly banana crop. Damage was heaviest on Martinique, where seven casualties occurred and 1,500 people were left homeless. The rainfall caused severe flooding on the island, resulting in some landslides. The remnant moisture of Klaus entered the southeastern United States, dropping
Super Typhoon Mike (international designation: 9025, JTWC designation: 27W, PAGASA name: Ruping) was the strongest and deadliest typhoon of the 1990 Pacific typhoon season as it crossed the Philippines in November.
An area of persistent convection over the Caroline Islands was first noted in the Significant Tropical Weather Advisory on November 6. As it headed westward, its outflow rapidly improved, with banding and a more circular cloud pattern. The organization continued, and it was upgraded to Tropical Depression 27W on the 7th. Early on the 8th, the depression strengthened to Tropical Storm Mike near the island of Yap.
Mike continued its westward movement and its intensification rate, and became a typhoon early on November 9, the 18th of the season. At this time, a weakness in the subtropical ridge, which kept the storm on its westward movement, was bring Mike northward. This did not occur, and Mike kept its persistent westward motion. On November 10, the typhoon rapidly intensified, reaching peak winds of 165 mph later that day. In a 48-hour period, the typhoon deepened 99 millibars to a minimum central pressure of 915 mb.
Mike retained its intensity of 165 mph winds for a day
The 1947 Fort Lauderdale hurricane was an intense tropical cyclone that affected the Bahamas, southernmost Florida, and the Gulf Coast of the United States in September 1947. The fourth Atlantic tropical cyclone of the year, it formed in the eastern Atlantic Ocean on September 4, becoming a hurricane, the third of the 1947 Atlantic hurricane season, less than a day later. After moving south by west for the next four days, it turned to the northwest and rapidly attained strength beginning on September 9. It reached a peak intensity equivalent to that of a Category 5–the highest possible ranking–160 mph (260 km/h) on September 16 while near the Bahamas. In spite of contemporaneous forecasts that predicted a strike farther north, the storm then turned to the west and poised to strike South Florida, crossing first the northern Bahamas at peak intensity. In the Bahamas, the storm produced a large storm surge and heavy damage, but with no reported fatalities.
A day later, the storm struck South Florida as a strong Category 4 hurricane, its eye becoming the first of a major hurricane to strike Fort Lauderdale, with estimated wind gusts as high as 180 mph (290 km/h). In Florida, advance
Tropical Storm Gamma was the 24th tropical storm of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall in Honduras since Hurricane Mitch of 1998. Gamma formed on November 18 from a tropical wave which had left the coast of Africa on November 3. Between November 13 and November 16 the system was designated Tropical Depression Twenty-Seven and moved westward through the Windward Islands into the Caribbean. Although its winds were not of tropical storm force, the storm brought damagingly heavy rainfall to Trinidad and to St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
On November 18, after a period of disorganization during which it appeared to be dissipating, the system strengthened and was upgraded to a tropical storm off the coast of Honduras and given the name Gamma. There, its torrential rainfall triggered deadly landslides. Gamma's winds and rains also reached into Belize, where they were less deadly. The storm dissipated on November 22, having killed 39 people.
Tropical Storm Gamma originated out of a tropical wave that moved off the western coast of Africa on November 3. For a late-season tropical wave, the system kept an unusually high amount of convection
Severe Tropical Cyclone Steve was a tropical cyclone that affected northern Australia from 27 February 2000 until 11 March 2000. Cyclone Steve was noted for its longevity and traversal of northern and western Australia. It impacted on regions of northern Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia before clearing to the south of the continent. Steve is the first known Australian cyclone to make four distinct landfalls in the country.
A tropical low formed in the Coral Sea to the east of Willis Island on 25 February 2000. The system rapidly intensified to become Tropical Cyclone Steve at around 7am Eastern Standard Time (EST) (UTC+10) on the 27 February 2000. The cyclone crossed the Queensland coast as a Category 2 system on 27 February to the north of Cairns at around 7pm EST. Steve weakened slowly over land and was downgraded to a tropical low on 28 February.
The low tracked westward and re-intensified to tropical cyclone strength over the Gulf of Carpentaria on the same day at around 10pm EST. The cyclone passed over Mornington Island in the southern Gulf of Carpentaria and crossed the Northern Territory coast north of Port McArthur on 1 March as a Category 1. The
Hurricane Alex was the first named storm, the first hurricane, and the first major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. The first storm of the season, Alex formed unusually late in the season; the fifth latest since 1954. It developed from the interaction between an upper-level low and a weak surface trough on July 31 to the east of Jacksonville, Florida. It moved northeastward, and strengthened to attain winds of 100 mph (160 km/h) before passing within 10 miles (16 km) of the Outer Banks coast. Alex strengthened further and reached a peak of 120 mph (190 km/h) winds while off the coast of New England, one of only two hurricanes to reach Category 3 status north of 38° N. Alex caused a scare of a hurricane-force direct hit in the Outer Banks of North Carolina, which had been devastated by Hurricane Isabel less than a year earlier.
The hurricane produced light damage in the Outer Banks, primarily from flooding and high winds. Over 100 houses were damaged, while numerous cars were disabled from the flooding. Damage totaled about $7.5 million (2004 USD). Alex produced strong waves and rip tides along the East Coast of the United States, causing one death and several
The 1939 California tropical storm, also called the 1939 Long Beach tropical storm, El Cordonazo, The Lash of St. Francis was a tropical cyclone that hit Southern California in September, 1939. Formerly a hurricane, it was the only tropical storm to make landfall in California in the twentieth century. The only other known tropical cyclone to directly affect California is the 1858 San Diego Hurricane, and only three other eastern Pacific tropical cyclones have caused gale-force winds in the continental United States. The tropical storm caused heavy flooding, leaving many dead, mostly at sea.
On September 15, a tropical depression formed off the coast of Central America. It moved west-northwest, passing southwest of the Revillagigedo Islands. It then turned north and then north-eastward. For some time, it was a hurricane, and it lost that intensity on or just before September 25. The tropical storm made landfall near San Pedro, California early on September 25 with winds of severe gale strength. It dissipated later that day. The strongest reported wind was of Force 11, reported by a ship, making this system a minimal hurricane. The lowest pressure was reported by the same ship and
Severe Tropical Cyclone Zoe (RSMC Nadi designation:04F, JTWC designation:06P) was the most intense tropical cyclone recorded in the Southern Hemisphere.
On December 24, the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (JTWC) and the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in Nadi, Fiji (RSMC Nadi), started to monitor a tropical depression that had developed within the South Pacific Convergence Zone about 670 km (415 mi) to the east of the Tuvaluan atoll of Funafuti. Over the next 24 hours the depression slowly developed further as it emerged from the convergence zone and started to be steered towards the south-southeast under the influence of a mid level ridge of high pressure. During the next day as the depression organized further in an area of low vertical wind shear, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert before reporting later that day that the depression had developed into Tropical Cyclone 04P with 1-minute wind speeds equivalent to a tropical storm. RSMC Nadi then reported that the depression had intensified into a category one tropical cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale and named it as Zoe.
During the next morning RSMC Nadi noted that Zoe had
Hurricane Belle was the third tropical storm and first hurricane of the 1976 Atlantic hurricane season. The system formed as a tropical depression northeast of the Bahamas and strengthened as it moved northward towards New York and New England. Belle became a major hurricane that threatened much of the East Coast of the United States. However, the storm weakened prior to landfall and struck Long Island, New York, as a Category-1 hurricane, spreading moderate to heavy rainfall from eastern North Carolina through New England. The system evolved into an extratropical cyclone as it passed through New England. Belle caused $100 million (1976 US dollars) in damage.
On July 28, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa. It moved quickly across the Atlantic Ocean at speeds up to 23 mph (37 km/h), and slowly organized with a large area of convection with a possible low level circulation as early as July 31. The convection became detached from the wave, and moved northwestward to a position near the Bahamas. As it remained stationary, it developed a circulation and became a tropical depression on August 6. Under weak steering currents, it looped, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Belle
Hurricane Danielle was a hurricane for ten days without making landfall on the mainland of North America. The fourth tropical cyclone and fourth named storm of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, Danielle developed from a tropical wave while located almost 700 miles (1,100 km) west-southwest of Cape Verde on August 24. Initially a tropical depression, favorable conditions allowed for strengthening into Tropical Storm Danielle later that day. The storm sharply intensified and became a hurricane on August 25. Strengthening continued and Danielle peaked with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) on August 26. Thereafter, the storm oscillated in intensity for several days, ranging from a minimal Category 1 hurricane to a strong Category 2 hurricane, as atmospheric conditions differed throughout its path. Danielle crossed seas in the wake of Hurricane Bonnie, which also contributed to weakening. After tracking west-northwest for several days, an anticyclone near Bermuda curved the storm to the northeast while it was located northeast of The Bahamas on August 31.
By early on September 2, Danielle weakened to a Category 1 hurricane, as it was passing northwest of Bermuda. Thereafter, the storm
Tropical Storm Debby was the fifth tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. Debby formed just off the coast of Africa on August 21 from a tropical wave. After passing near the Cape Verde islands, Debby moved generally northwestward for much of its life, reaching a peak intensity of 50 mph (85 km/h). Strong wind shear weakened the storm, and Debby dissipated on August 27 over the northern Atlantic Ocean.
Early in its life, Debby was forecast to pass through the southern Cape Verde islands as a tropical storm, potentially causing life-threatening flooding. Most computer models consistently predicted Debby to track to the northwest throughout its lifetime, though intensity was more problematic for forecasters. The National Hurricane Center continually predicted Debby to intensify to hurricane status, though strong vertical shear ultimately prevented the storm from becoming a hurricane.
A vigorous tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa late on August 20, and almost immediately developed convective banding and a broad circulation. A broad area of low pressure formed within the wave the next day while located 260 mi (420 km) southeast of the Cape Verde islands. Though
Tropical Storm Doria was the costliest tropical cyclone in the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season. The fifth tropical storm of the season, Doria developed from a tropical wave on August 20 to the east of the Lesser Antilles, and after five days without development it attained tropical storm status to the east of Florida. Doria turned to the north, and reached peak winds of 65 mph (105 km/h) as it was making landfall near Morehead City, North Carolina. It turned to the northeast, and moved through the Mid-Atlantic and New England as a tropical storm before becoming an extratropical storm over Maine on August 29.
In North Carolina, Doria produced moderate rainfall, resulting in localized flooding and damage. The storm spawned a tornado near Norfolk, Virginia, damaging twelve houses and downing hundreds of trees. Tropical Storm Doria dropped heavy precipitation in New Jersey, peaking at 10.29 inches (261 mm) in Little Falls. The rainfall led to record-breaking river levels and flooding in several houses, resulting in damage to dozens of houses across the state. Moderate damage and rainfall continued along its path into New England and southeastern Canada. In all, Tropical Storm Doria
Hurricane Marty was the deadliest tropical cyclone of the 2003 Pacific hurricane season. Forming on September 18, it became the 13th tropical storm and fourth hurricane of the year. The storm moved generally northwestward and steadily intensified despite only a marginally favorable environment for development, and became a Category 2 hurricane before making two landfalls on the Baja California peninsula and mainland Mexico.
The hurricane was responsible for significant flooding and storm surges that caused $100 million (2003 USD) in damage mostly on the peninsula of Baja California, and resulted in the deaths of 12 people. Marty affected many of the same areas that had been affected by Hurricane Ignacio a month earlier.
A tropical wave moved into the Pacific Ocean from Central America on September 10. Convection along the wave became better organized as it moved westward, and a tropical depression developed on September 18. The depression moved generally west-northwestward before strengthening into Tropical Storm Marty on September 19. The storm entrained dry air into its circulation as it curved toward the northwest, disrupting the storm's convective structure and inhibiting
Hurricane Kenna was the second-most intense Pacific hurricane to strike the west coast of Mexico in recorded history. Kenna was the sixteenth tropical depression, thirteenth tropical storm, seventh hurricane, sixth major hurricane, and third Category 5 hurricane of the 2002 Pacific hurricane season. After forming on October 22 to the south of Mexico from a tropical wave, forecasters consistently predicted the storm to strengthen much less than it actually did. Moving into an area of favorable upper-level conditions and warm sea surface temperatures, Kenna quickly strengthened to reach peak winds of 165 mph (265 km/h) on October 25 while located about 255 mi (410 km) southwest of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. Weakening as it turned to the northeast, the hurricane struck near San Blas, Nayarit, with winds of 140 mph (225 km/h) before dissipating on October 26 over the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains.
The name "Kenna" was retired from the list of Pacific hurricane names due to its effects on Mexico, which included US$101 million in damage and four deaths. The worst of the hurricane's effects occurred between San Blas in Nayarit and Puerto Vallarta in Jalisco, where over 100 people were
Severe Cyclonic Storm Agni (IMD Designation: ARB 0404, JTWC Designation: 05A) was a tropical cyclone of the 2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season notable for its record proximity to the equator. It was the second North Indian Ocean cyclone to receive a name, after Onil earlier in the year. Agni formed on November 28 well to the southwest of India in the Arabian Sea, and steadily intensified as it tracked northwestward. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated peak 1 minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph), while the India Meteorological Department (IMD) estimated peak 3 minute sustained winds of 100 km/h (65 mph); the IMD is the official warning center for the north Indian Ocean. After peaking, it weakened due to wind shear, dry air, and cooler waters, and the JTWC issued its final advisory on December 3 as it approached the coast of Somalia. The remnants of Agni moved along the Somalian coastline until dissipating on December 5.
A tropical disturbance was observed on November 19 about 800 km (500 mi) southeast of Colombo, Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal. The disturbance tracked westward, gradually organizing and prompting the JTWC to issue a Tropical Cyclone Formation
Hurricane Erika was the strongest and longest-lasting tropical cyclone in the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season. Erika developed from a tropical wave on September 3 and moved west-northwestward across the tropical Atlantic Ocean; it steadily intensified until it attained hurricane status on September 4, becoming the fifth named storm, third hurricane, and only major hurricane of the season. Erika passed a short distance to the north of the Lesser Antilles, and later turned to the north in response to an approaching trough. The hurricane quickly strengthened to reach maximum sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) on September 8; after maintaining its peak strength for 24 hours, Erika began to weaken as it passed over cooler waters. It turned to the east, weakened to a tropical storm, and became extratropical after passing near the Azores archipelago.
The hurricane produced light rainfall and winds throughout the northern Lesser Antilles. The passage of Erika carried a cloud of volcanic ash to Antigua from the eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano on Montserrat, a rare occurrence. Strong waves from the hurricane produced beach erosion and coastal flooding in northern Puerto Rico, and
Subtropical Storm Nicole was the first subtropical storm to receive a name using the standard hurricane name list that did not become a tropical cyclone. The fourteenth tropical or subtropical storm of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, Nicole developed on October 10 near Bermuda from the interaction of an upper level trough and a cold front. The storm turned to the northeast, and after attempting to transition into a tropical cyclone, it dissipated as it was absorbed into a larger extratropical storm.
Nicole dropped moderate amounts of rainfall in Bermuda, while rough seas caused problems for cruise lines. In Canada, the remnants of the storm combined with an extratropical storm produced strong winds and rainfall, damaging trees and power lines. The remnant storm also produced gusty winds across New England, while swells from the storm provided welcome surf conditions along the East Coast of the United States.
An upper-level trough and a decaying cold front persisted across the western Atlantic Ocean in early October. The interaction between the two led to the formation of an area of low pressure on October 8 to the southwest of Bermuda. The system lacked a single well-defined
Hurricane Gordon was a long-lived and catastrophic late-season hurricane of the 1994 Atlantic hurricane season. The twelfth and final tropical cyclone of the season, Gordon formed in the southwestern Caribbean on November 8 after two tropical waves enhanced convection around in area of disturbed weather. Without strengthening, the storm made landfall Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua. Later on November 10, the storm began to strengthen as it tracked further from land, it almost immediately strengthened into Tropical Storm Gordon, the seventh named named storm that season. and the third hurricane of the 1994 Atlantic hurricane season. Gordon also made landfalls in Jamaica and Cuba while a minimal tropical storm.
Following a winding path, it crossed Cuba, entering into the southwestern Atlantic, although it resembled a subtropical cyclone. By the time it entered the Gulf of Mexico it was a fully tropical cyclone again. Tropical Storm Gordon then headed north-northwestward and paralleled the coast of Cuba. Gordon later cross the Florida Keys and also made landfall in Fort Myers, Florida while still a weak tropical storm. Gordon began to strengthen further as it crossed Florida and entered the
Super Typhoon Babs (international designation: 9811, JTWC designation: 20W, PAGASA name: Typhoon Loleng) was a powerful Category 4 typhoon. It was the second typhoon to strike the Philippines days after Typhoon Zeb made landfall.
A tropical depression formed on October 13 and the next day it was upgraded to a tropical storm and was named Babs. Babs moved westward before stalling off the coast of the Philippines and drifting for several days. In proximity to Typhoon Zeb, the Babs barely strengthened until October 19.
Babs rapidly strengthened into a Category 4 typhoon with 140 mph (115 Kt) winds, then twelve hours later Babs reached a peak intensity of 155 mph before passing over Catanduanes Island on the 21st. The typhoon continued to move westward where it paralleled the coast of Luzon and then entered the South China Sea. Babs then recurved north and then northeast before dissipating west of Taiwan.
Just like Typhoon Zeb days earlier, Babs was very destructive to the Philippines. According to several observers, about 221 people were killed with 199 of them in the southern tip of Luzon. Elsewhere there were 22 fatalities. Catanduanes Island was hardest hit as 71 deaths were
Cyclone Vance was a tropical cyclone that struck Western Australia during the active 1998–99 Australian region cyclone season, and was also one of six tropical cyclones to form off the coast of Australia during that season. When making landfall the Learmonth Meteorological Office (35 km south of Exmouth) recorded the highest Australian wind gust of 267 km/h (166 mph). The previous highest gust was 259 km/h (161 mph) at nearby Mardie during Cyclone Trixie of 1975. This record was surpassed in 2010 after a world record wind-gust of 408 km/h (253 mph) at Barrow Island during Cyclone Olivia in 1996 was declared official by the World Meteorological Organisation.
Forming on 19 March 1999, in the Timor Sea, Vance then curved west-southwest where it recurved and struck the Pilbara coast of Western Australia on 22 March as a Category 5 cyclone on the Australian scale and dissipating the following day.
Vance caused severe damage across the western coast of Australia. The hardest hit town was Exmouth where 10 percent of the buildings sustained severe damage. However, because of advanced warnings there were no reports of fatalities. Damage totaled $100 million (1999 USD).
An area of low
Hurricane Erin was the fifth named tropical cyclone and the second hurricane of the unusually active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. Erin began as a tropical wave off the west coast of Africa on July 22, and crossed the Atlantic ocean without ever developing. On July 31, the last day of the month, it strengthened into a tropical depression, and was later named Erin. It made landfall on the central eastern Florida coastline on August 2 as a Category 1 hurricane, and again along the Florida Panhandle as a Category 2 hurricane on August 3, respectively, causing a moderate amount of damage. The system reached peak strength at 100 mph (160 km/h) and 973 millibars in central pressure.
Hurricane and tropical storm warnings and watches were issued for both coasts, prior to Erin's two landfalls. Tornado and flood watches and warnings were also issued for these areas, as a preparation for the impact of Erin.
$700 million (1995 USD; $923 million 2006 USD), was the total monetary damage estimate from Erin. The monetary damages from the system primarily came from downed tree, crop damages, and ship damages. There was various other damages that also occurred as a result of Erin's impact. Erin
Hurricane King was the most severe hurricane to strike Florida since the 1926 Miami hurricane. It was the eleventh tropical storm and the last of a record-setting eight major hurricanes in the 1950 Atlantic hurricane season. The cyclone formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 13, and initially moved northeastward, slowly strengthening. Hurricane King crossed Cuba on October 17, causing seven deaths and $2 million in damage (1950 USD). It reached its peak intensity of 120 mph (190 km/h) and subsequently made landfall on downtown Miami, Florida. The hurricane damaged 20,861 houses in southern Florida, 580 of them severely, and destroyed a further 248. Further inland, King caused heavy crop damage, particularly to the citrus industry. After weakening to a tropical storm, King moved across Georgia, where it caused isolated power outages and minor damage. Across the United States, the hurricane left 4 fatalities and $30 million in damage.
The origins of Hurricane King were from a tropical cyclone that developed just off the north coast of Honduras on October 13. It was a small system throughout its duration, and initially moved toward the east and east-northeast. At the time, the
Hurricane Ophelia was the fifteenth named tropical cyclone and the eighth hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was a long-lived storm that was most remembered for its very erratic and extremely slow track off the East Coast of the United States, alternating several times between tropical storm and hurricane intensity.
Ophelia caused some damage and beach erosion along the United States coastline from Florida to North Carolina, with its closest approach occurring on September 14 and 15 with its western eyewall crossing land and the eye remaining just offshore. Minimal damage and erosion was also reported in Atlantic Canada when Ophelia hit as a tropical storm in extratropical transition on September 17 and 18.
On September 6 a non-tropical low over the northern Bahamas became more organized and formed into Tropical Depression Sixteen between Andros and Grand Bahama. Shortly after forming the depression moved over Grand Bahama and moved north parallel to the Florida coastline. The computer models initially predicted two distinct possibilities for the storm's future with some models indicating the storm would cross over Florida and enter the Gulf of Mexico while others
TropicalStorm Delta was a late-forming tropical storm of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season which struck the Canary Islands as a strong extratropical storm, causing significant damage and then crossed over Morocco before dissipating. It was the twenty-sixth tropical or subtropical storm of the season, making the 2005 season the first to record so many storms.
Tropical Storm Delta, like most late-season storms, developed out of an extratropical low. The storm gradually gained tropical characteristics and was briefly a subtropical storm on November 22. Delta moved erratically for a few days before moving towards the Canary Islands. It became extratropical just before it passed to the north of the archipelago.
On November 19, a broad area of eastward moving low pressure formed in the central Atlantic Ocean about 1400 miles (2200 km) southwest of the Azores. It moved steadily eastward through November 20 but on November 21, under the influence of a cold front to its north, the low turned northeastward and started to develop central convection. On November 22 the non-tropical low pressure system began to gain some tropical characteristics and its northward motion slowed to a stop. Late
Hurricane Ioke (also referred to as Typhoon Ioke, international designation: 0612, JTWC designation: 01C, and sometimes called Super Typhoon Ioke) was the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Central Pacific. The first storm to form in the Central Pacific in the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, Ioke was a record breaking, long-lived and extremely powerful storm that traversed the Pacific for 17 days, reaching the equivalent of Category 5 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale three times.
The cyclone developed from the Intertropical Convergence Zone on August 20 far to the south of Hawaii. Encountering warm waters, little wind shear, and well-defined outflow, Ioke intensified from a tropical depression to Category 4 status within 48 hours. Late on August 22 it rapidly weakened to Category 2 status before crossing over Johnston Atoll. Two days later favorable conditions again allowed for rapid strengthening, and Ioke attained Category 5 status on August 25 before crossing the International Date Line. As it continued westward its intensity fluctuated, and on August 31 it passed near Wake Island with winds of 155 mph (249 km/h). Ioke gradually weakened as it turned
Hurricane Kyle was the fourth longest-lived Atlantic tropical or subtropical cyclone on record. The eleventh named storm and third hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, Kyle developed as a subtropical cyclone on September 20 to the east-southeast of Bermuda. Looping westward, it transitioned into a tropical cyclone and became a hurricane on September 25. For the next two weeks, Kyle tracked generally westward, oscillating in strength several times because of fluctuations in environmental conditions. On October 11, the cyclone turned northeastward and made landfalls near Charleston, South Carolina, and Long Beach, North Carolina, at tropical storm status. After lasting as a cyclone for 22 days, Kyle dissipated on October 12 as it was absorbed by an approaching cold front.
The hurricane brought light precipitation to Bermuda, but no significant damage was reported there. Moderate rainfall accompanied its two landfalls in the United States, causing localized flash flooding and road closures. Floodwaters forced the evacuation of a nursing home and several mobile homes in South Carolina. Kyle spawned at least four tornadoes, the costliest of which struck Georgetown, South
Hurricane Greta–Olivia was a Category 4 hurricane that crossed over Central America, changing names upon reaching the Eastern Pacific during the 1978 Atlantic hurricane season and 1978 Pacific hurricane season. Striking Honduras on the fourth anniversary of Hurricane Fifi, Greta threatened to reproduce the devastating effects of the catastrophic storm; however damage and loss of life was significantly less than feared. Upon regaining tropical storm status in the eastern Pacific basin, Greta became one of the handful of tropical cyclones to achieve this feat and the first since Hurricane Fifi regenerated into Orlene in 1974.
A tropical wave exited the coast of Africa near Dakar, Senegal on September 7. It moved westward, remaining disorganized until an increase of convection occurred on the 10th. The wave continued to organize as it passed through the Lesser Antilles, and based on ship and land reports, the wave was upgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while 75 miles west-northwest of Trinidad. Though located in a climatologically unfavorable area, the depression intensified, and reached tropical storm status on the 14th.
A strong trough ahead of Greta prevented
Typhoon Chanchu (international designation: 0601, JTWC designation: 02W, also designated Typhoon Caloy by PAGASA) was the second tropical storm and first typhoon of the 2006 Pacific typhoon season recognized by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, Chanchu was the first tropical storm of the season. Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) estimated that the maximum sustained wind speed near its centre reached 185 km/h, making it the most intense typhoon on HKO's record to enter the South China Sea in May. The name submitted by Macau means "pearl".
The disturbance that would become Chanchu formed on May 5, 2006. When it was declared a tropical depression on the 9th, Chanchu became the third tropical cyclone of the season. It strengthened into a typhoon and struck the Philippines twice, killing 41 people and causing $1.9 million (2006 USD) in agricultural damage. It made its third and final landfall near Shantou in eastern Guangdong province early on May 18, 2006 local time (late May 17 UTC) as an 85 mph (135 km/h) typhoon and subsequently moved northeast into coastal Fujian province. The maximum gust was 67.3 m/s. Total damage in Fujian is estimated at
Tropical Storm Helene was a long-lived tropical cyclone that oscillated for ten days between a tropical wave and a 70 mph (110 km/h) tropical storm. It was the twelfth tropical cyclone and eighth tropical storm of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season, forming on September 15 east of the Windward Islands. After degenerating into a tropical wave, the system produced flooding and mudslides in Puerto Rico. It reformed into a tropical depression on September 19 south of Cuba, and crossed the western portion of the island the next day while on the verge of dissipation. However, it intensified into a tropical storm in the Gulf of Mexico, reaching its peak intensity while approaching the northern Gulf Coast.
The storm rapidly weakened before moving ashore near Fort Walton Beach, Florida on September 22. It produced heavy rainfall along the Florida Panhandle that reached 9.56 in (243 mm). The rains flooded hundreds of houses and caused the Sopchoppy River to reach a record crest. Gusty winds left about 5,000 people without power, though the rains alleviated drought conditions. In South Carolina, Helene spawned a tornado that killed one person and injured six others; heavy rainfall in the
Typhoon Haitang (international designation: 0505, JTWC designation: 05W, PAGASA name: Typhoon Feria, also sometimes known as Super Typhoon Haitang) was the first super typhoon of the 2005 season in the northwestern Pacific. It had winds up to 255 km/h (160 mph) at peak intensity, and caused over 18 serious injuries and 13 confirmed deaths in Taiwan and People's Republic of China. Damage totaled about $1.1 billion (2005 USD), most of which occurred in mainland China.
It formed on the evening of July 11 as a poorly organized depression about 280 km (110 nm) west of Marcus Island, Japan at 1200 UTC (2000 JST). By 1800 UTC (0300 JST July 13), it had reached a high, destructive tropical storm strength and was named Haitang, a Chinese name for flowering crabapple. It grew to typhoon strength at 1800 UTC (0300 JST July 14) the following day. As it moved westward it continued to gain in strength, reaching category three status as it entered the Philippine area of responsibility. Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) named the storm Feria for Philippine warnings on July 15. By July 16, the storm continued tracking west and became a threat to
Typhoon Ruby was a destructive late-season Category 4 typhoon during the 1988 Pacific typhoon season. Ruby left 540 dead and caused $220 million (1988 US dollars) in damage. It was named Typhoon Unsang for PAGASA advisories.
Tracked as the 23rd tropical cyclone of the 1988 Pacific typhoon season, Typhoon Ruby sideswiped Guam and the Marianas Islands before slamming into the Philippine island of Luzon on October 24.
Ruby brought heavy rains and a 12 foot storm surge to Guam and the Marianas Islands, leaving enormous damage but no deaths.
On Luzon, the storm's 140 mph (220 km/h) winds caused tremendous damage to the town of Siniloan. In the Polillo Islands, east of Manila, Ruby spawned rare tornadoes that leveled homes. In the northern part of the Philippines, many fishing boats were wrecked by 30-40 foot waves, and 32 more people drowned.
The passenger ferry the Dona Marilyn was in the Visayan Sea when the storm struck the vessel. The ferry was not designed for deep water, and the open decks let water into the interior of the ship. The storm caused the ferry to pitch to the starboard until one of the decks was below the water, causing the ship to fill up rapidly. The
Hurricane Fico was the longest-lived hurricane of the 1978 Pacific hurricane season and at the time was the longest-lasting Pacific hurricane on record, the record being held today by Hurricane John of 1994. The sixth tropical storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane, Fico developed from a tropical disturbance off the coast of Mexico on July 9. It moved northwestward and then westward, quickly reaching peak winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) on July 12. Moving nearly due westward, the intensity of Fico fluctuated from Category 1 to Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale for the following days, and it passed about 170 miles (275 km) south of Hawaii on July 20 with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). Fico slowly weakened as it turned to the northwest over cooler waters, and became an extratropical cyclone on July 28 to the northeast of Midway Island.
Swells from Fico, combined with swells from a storm in the Southern Hemisphere, produced rough surf throughout the Hawaiian islands. The surf destroyed one house and resulted in considerable damage along the southern coast of the island of Hawaii. No deaths were reported, and damage totaled $200,000 (1978 USD, $619,000
Hurricane Philippe was a short-lived hurricane that formed over the Atlantic in September during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Philippe was the sixteenth named storm and ninth hurricane of the season.
Hurricane Philippe initially formed to the east of the Lesser Antilles on September 17 and moved to the north strengthening as it did so. Philippe became a hurricane on September 18 and stayed as such for two days before increasing wind shear from a non-tropical system took its toll on September 20 and weakened Philippe into a tropical storm. Philippe continued to weaken as it looped around this low and was absorbed by it on September 23.
On September 9 a tropical wave moved off the African coast and moved west into the Atlantic. It started to become more organized on September 13 and the National Hurricane Center began to watch it closely for further development. Tropical Depression Seventeen formed from the wave on September 17 when it was 350 miles (560 km) east of Barbados. The depression strengthened further to become Tropical Storm Philippe that evening, and the official forecasts correctly indicated that Philippe would move northwards and not approach the Lesser Antilles
Typhoon Helen was the most destructive tropical cyclone to strike Japan during the 1972 Pacific typhoon season. Originating from a tropical disturbance on September 11 near the Northern Mariana Islands, Helen gradually intensified as it moved northwestward. By September 14, it reached typhoon strength and soon turned northeast towards Japan. Accelerating due to a trough over the East China Sea, Helen rapidly approached the country and made landfall near Cape Kushimoto as a Category 3 equivalent typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Later that day, a weakened Helen emerged into the Sea of Japan. After merging with an upper-level low, the storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 19 and was last noted two days later after moving through southern Hokkaido.
In Japan, Typhoon Helen produced torrential rain, peaking at 790 mm (31 in) in Hokkaido, and damaging winds that caused widespread damage. A total of 4,213 homes were destroyed and another 146,547 were damaged as a result of flash flooding and landslides. Numerous vessels ran aground due to rough seas associated with the storm, including several thousand ton cargo freighters. In all, 87 fatalities and
Hurricane Edith was the strongest hurricane to form during the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season. It developed from a tropical wave on September 5 and quickly strengthened into a hurricane in the Caribbean Sea. Edith rapidly intensified on September 9 and made landfall on Cape Gracias a Dios as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. It quickly lost intensity over Central America and after briefly entering the Gulf of Honduras it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. After moving across the Gulf of Mexico a trough turned the storm to the northeast and Edith, after having restrengthened while accelerating towards the coast, made landfall on Louisiana with winds of 105 mph (170 km/h) on September 16. Edith steadily weakened over land and dissipated over Georgia on September 18.
The hurricane killed two people when it passed near Aruba. Striking northeastern Central America as a Category 5 hurricane, Edith destroyed hundreds of homes and killed at least 35 people. In Texas high tides caused coastal flooding but little damage. Edith caused moderate to heavy damage in portions of Louisiana due to flooding and a tornado outbreak from the storm. One tornado, rated F3
Tropical Storm Earl caused minor damage in the Windward Islands in mid-August 2004. The sixth tropical cyclone and sixth named storm of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, Earl developed on August 13 from a tropical wave that was centered well east of the Lesser Antilles. The depression gradually organized and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Earl about 24 hours after developing in a tropical cyclone. As it was approaching the Windward Islands, Earl continued to slowly strengthen, peaking as a 50 mph (85 km/h) tropical storm early on August 15. Around that time, the storm crossed through the Windward Islands at the same intensity. Early on September 16, Earl unexpectedly degenerated back into a tropical wave while located in the southeastern Caribbean Sea, though the remnants of Earl re-developed into Hurricane Frank in the eastern Pacific Ocean on August 23.
Gusty winds in Grenada damaged at least 34 roofs and knocked down twelve trees and six electrical poles. Additionally, a nursing home on the island was evacuated due to significant structural damage. Two homes were de-roofed in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, while moderate crop damage to bananas was reported. Downed trees and
Hurricane Diana was the deadliest tropical cyclone during the 1990 Atlantic hurricane season, killing 139 people in Mexico. Forming out of a tropical wave on August 4, the system brushed Honduras before intensifying into a tropical storm the following day. Gradually gaining strength, Diana struck the Yucatán Peninsula with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). Due to the interaction with land, the cyclone weakened somewhat before moving over the warm waters of the Bay of Campeche on August 6. Once over water, the Diana quickly became a hurricane and later reached its peak intensity on August 7 as a Category 2 on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Shortly thereafter, the storm made landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas with winds of 100 mph (165 km/h). Rapid weakening ensued once the storm moved over the high terrain of Mexico and Diana diminished to a tropical depression roughly 24 hours after moving onshore. The cyclone later emerged into the Gulf of California on August 9 before losing all tropical characteristics, though its remnants were monitored until August 14 when the system lost its identity over Arizona.
Throughout Mexico, Hurricane Diana produced torrential rains that triggered
Hurricane Marilyn was the fifteenth tropical depression and thirteenth named storm of the unusually busy 1995 Atlantic hurricane season, following closely on the heels of Hurricane Luis. Hurricane Marilyn was the most powerful storm to hit the Virgin Islands since Hurricane Hugo of 1989.
Marilyn formed late in the UTC day on September 13, and reached hurricane strength soon thereafter. Marilyn struck the Lesser Antilles on September 14 at Category 1 strength, and intensified to nearly Category 3 strength by the time it reached the U.S. Virgin Islands. A Hurricane Hunter reconnaissance flight reported hail, which is unusual for tropical cyclones. After heading north past Bermuda, Marilyn weakened and became extratropical on September 22. The remnant circulation wandered the Atlantic Ocean from September 23 - October 1, just south of Nova Scotia. Marilyn peaked at 115 mph (185 km/h), but was predicted to reach 125 mph (205 km/h) (maximum Category 3-status).
Marilyn is directly responsible for thirteen deaths, most due to drowning on boats or offshore. 11 000 people were left homeless on the island of St. Thomas, and estimated damages were set at $2 billion (1995 USD) in the USVI The
The New Orleans Hurricane of 1915 was an intense Category 4 hurricane that made landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana during the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. The hurricane killed 275 people and caused $13 million (1915 US dollars) in damage.
The storm was first reported near the Lesser Antilles between Puerto Rico and South America. In the Caribbean, it strengthened to a 145 mph (230 km/h) Category 4 hurricane on September 25. As the hurricane moved closer to the Gulf Coast, hurricane warnings were put up from Florida to Louisiana. The storm made landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana on September 29 as a strong Category 4 hurricane with 145 mph (200 km/h) sustained winds. The storm then moved north and weakened into a tropical storm as it crossed into Mississippi, Alabama and Tennessee. The storm became extratropical as it moved north.
In New Orleans winds of 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) reached the city at 7am, climbing to 60 miles (97 km) an hour over the next 5 hours. Hurricane conditions were experienced from the afternoon into the night, with steady winds of 102 mph (164 km/h) and gusts up to 130 mph (210 km/h). There were reports of damage in New Orleans, with roofs blown off
Super Typhoon Mireille (international designation: 9119, JTWC designation: 21W, PAGASA designation: Oniang) was one of the deadliest typhoons of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season (next to Typhoon Gladys and Tropical Storm Thelma) as it crossed Japan in September.
A poorly organized area of convection was first noted in the monsoon trough over the southern Marshall Islands on September 13. It slowly organized, and became a tropical depression on September 15 (though operationally it was upgraded a day later). It continued to strengthen, reaching tropical storm status later on the September 15 and typhoon strength the next day. Mireille was a small storm, and after reaching a primary peak of 85 miles per hour (140 km/h) it weakened due to the larger circulation of Tropical Storm Luke to Mireille's north.
After passing close to Guam and Saipan yet remaining far enough away to not cause much damage, Mireille escaped Luke's harm, and restrengthened. Initially a small storm, the typhoon increased in size from this point until its death. On September 21 and 22, it rapidly intensified to a peak of 150 mph (240 km/h) winds, and began to execute the Fujiwhara effect with Typhoon Nat in the
Typhoon Rusa (international designation: 0215, JTWC designation: 21W) was the most powerful typhoon to strike South Korea in 43 years. It was the 21st JTWC tropical depression, the 15th named storm, and the 10th typhoon of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season. It developed on August 22 from the monsoon trough in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, well to the southeast of Japan. For several days, Rusa moved to the northwest, eventually intensifying into a powerful typhoon. On August 26, the storm moved across the Amami Islands of Japan, where Rusa left 20,000 people without power and caused two fatalities. Across Japan, the typhoon dropped torrential rainfall peaking at 902 mm (35.5 in) in Tokushima Prefecture.
After weakening slightly, Rusa made landfall on Goheung, South Korea with winds of 140 km/h (85 mph 10 minute sustained). It was able to maintain much of its intensity due to warm air and instability from a nearby cold front. Rusa weakened while moving through the country, dropping heavy rainfall that peaked at 897.5 mm (35.33 in) in Gangneung. A 24 hour total of 880 mm (35 in) in the city broke the record for the highest daily precipitation in the country; however, the heaviest
The 1999 Orissa cyclone, also known as Cyclone 05B, and Paradip cyclone, was the deadliest tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean since the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, and deadliest Indian storm since 1971. The Category Five storm made landfall just weeks after a category 4 storm hit the same general area.
A tropical depression formed over the Malay Peninsula on October 25. It moved to the northwest and became a tropical storm on October 26. It continued to strengthen into a cyclone on October 27. On October 28, it became a severe cyclone with a peak of 160 mph (260 km/h) winds. It hit India the next day as a 155 mph (250 km/h) cyclone. It caused the deaths of 15,000 people, and heavy to extreme damage in its path of destruction.
A tropical disturbance developed in the South China Sea in mid-to-late October. It tracked westward and organized itself enough to have the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issue a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) on October 23. But the system failed to organize itself any further in the Pacific, and the TCFA was cancelled. When the system reached the Andaman Sea on October 25, another TCFA was issued. Shortly after, the convective area consolidated,
Season:1999–00 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season
Cyclone Leon–Eline was a long-lived Indian Ocean tropical cyclone which traversed almost the entire Indian ocean and made devastating strikes on Madagascar and Mozambique, and had less serious effects in South Africa and Zimbabwe where it eventually died out.
The storm was first identified as a tropical low south of Java at February 3 by Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (PTCWC) at Australia. The system was located about 325 nm from Christmas Island, moving west-southwest and slowly gaining strength. The first warning by Joint Typhoon Warning Center for Tropical Cyclone 11S was issued next day, and on same day it was named as Tropical Cyclone Leon by Perth TCWC. The cyclone continued its track to southwest whilst intensifying. It achieved hurricane strength on February 5, with estimated sustained winds of 80 mph and minimum central pressure of 960 mbar. However by February 7 Leon had begun to weaken due to increasing wind shear and it was downgraded to tropical storm. Leon was moving now fairly straightly towards west. It crossed 90°E longitude at February 8 and became Southwest Indian Ocean cyclone. As it had left Perth TCWC's area of responsibility, it was renamed as Eline by
Hurricane Andrew was a destructive tropical cyclone that was, at the time, the costliest hurricane in United States history. The fourth tropical cyclone, first named storm, and first hurricane of the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season, Andrew developed from a tropical wave over the central Atlantic on August 16. Initially, strong wind shear prevented much intensification. A decrease in shear the following day permitted the depression to strengthen, subsequently becoming Tropical Storm Andrew by 1200 UTC on August 17. However, increased wind shear late on August 18 diminished convection associated with the storm. Over the next two days, wind shear significantly decreased, and Andrew became a minimal hurricane on August 23. Thereafter, Andrew turned westward under the influence of a high-pressure system and began to rapidly intensify later that day. Shortly before crossing through the Bahamas, Andrew strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane on August 23. The system weakened slightly over the Bahamas to a Category 4 hurricane, but briefly re-intensified into a Category 5 hurricane on August 24 before making landfall on Elliott Key, and later in Homestead, Florida.
The hurricane emerged
Hurricane Easy was the fifth tropical storm, hurricane, and major hurricane of the 1950 Atlantic hurricane season. The hurricane developed in the western Caribbean Sea on September 1, and tracked northeastward. After crossing Cuba, the hurricane rapidly strengthened in the eastern Gulf of Mexico to reach peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). Easy executed a cyclonic loop, moved northeastward to hit near Cedar Key, Florida, executed a second loop, and hit western Florida again. After rapidly weakening over Florida, the hurricane turned to the northwest, and ultimately dissipated over northeastern Arkansas on September 9. From the point when Hurricane Easy entered the Gulf of Mexico until it weakened to a tropical storm, it was observed nearly constantly from radars or Reconnaissance Aircraft.
Easy is the most recent major hurricane to strike the Homosassa, Florida, area. Due to the hurricane remaining near the northwest Florida coast for an extended period of time, Easy produced severe rainfall and strong waves, resulting in heavy damage in the Cedar Key area. Hurricane Easy was one of two major hurricanes to strike Florida during the year; the other was Hurricane King which affected
Hurricane Elena was a category 3 major hurricane that produced heavy damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States in August and September of the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season. The fifth tropical storm, fourth hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season, Elena developed near Cuba from a tropical wave. It quickly strengthened, reaching peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) after stalling in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Elena turned to the west-northwest, and ultimately made landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi, as a Category 3 hurricane. The storm quickly dissipated over land.
Elena's unusual path through the Gulf of Mexico, which included a loop, prompted many to evacuate from the coastline. Due to its powerful winds, Elena caused $2.7 billion in damage (2005 USD), primarily in property damage. The hurricane caused extensive beach erosion in Florida, while powerful waves damaged the oyster crop. Hurricane Elena was responsible for no direct deaths, though four people were indirectly killed due to the storm.
The precursor to Hurricane Elena was a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on August 23. It remained weak due to its fast westward motion and Saharan Air
Hurricane Georges ( /ˈʒɔrʒ/) was a powerful and long-lived Cape Verde-type Category 4 hurricane which caused severe destruction as it traversed the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico in September 1998, making seven landfalls along its path. Georges was the seventh tropical storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season. It became the second most destructive storm of the season after Hurricane Mitch and the costliest Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Georges killed 604 people, mainly on the island of Hispaniola, and caused extensive damage resulting at nearly $6 billion (1998 US dollars, $8.56 billion 2012 USD) in damages mostly in St. Kitts and Nevis, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola.
The hurricane made landfall in at least seven different countries (Antigua and Barbuda, St. Kitts and Nevis, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Cuba and the United States) and Puerto Rico, a Commonwealth of the United States — more than any other hurricane since Hurricane Inez of the 1966 season.
A tropical wave exited the coast of Africa on September 13. Moving westward, the large system quickly developed a closed circulation, and was classified Tropical
Hurricane Gustav was a Category 2 hurricane that paralleled the East Coast of the United States in September 2002 during the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the seventh named storm and first hurricane of the season. Initially a subtropical depression north of the Bahamas, Gustav passed slightly to the east of the Outer Banks of North Carolina as a tropical storm before moving northeastward and making two landfalls in Atlantic Canada as a Category 1 hurricane. The storm was responsible for one death and $100,000 in damage, mostly in North Carolina. The interaction between Gustav and a non-tropical system produced strong winds that caused an additional $240,000 (2002 USD) in damage in New England, but this damage was not directly attributed to the hurricane.
Gustav spent the early part of its existence as a subtropical storm, and was the first such storm to be named from the current lists by the National Hurricane Center. Previously, subtropical storms were not given names. The cyclone was also the latest-forming first hurricane of the season since 1941.
An area of disturbed weather in association with a weak surface trough and a stronger upper-level trough between the Bahamas
Hurricane Iwa, taken from the Hawaiian language name for the frigatebird (ʻiwa, lit. "Thief"), was at the time the costliest hurricane to affect the state of Hawaiʻi. Iwa was the twenty-third tropical storm and the twelfth and final hurricane of the 1982 Pacific hurricane season. It developed from an active trough of low pressure near the equator on November 19. The storm moved erratically northward until becoming a hurricane on November 23 when it began accelerating to the northeast in response to strong upper-level flow from the north. Iwa passed within 25 miles of the island of Kauaʻi with peak winds of 90 mph (145 km/h) on November 23 (November 24 Coordinated Universal Time), and the next day it became extratropical to the northeast of the state.
The hurricane devastated the islands of Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, and Oʻahu with wind gusts exceeding 100 mph (160 km/h) and rough seas exceeding 30 feet (9 m) in height. The first significant hurricane to hit the Hawaiian Islands since statehood in 1959, Iwa severely damaged or destroyed 2,345 buildings, including 1,927 houses, leaving 500 people homeless. Damage throughout the state totaled $312 million (1982 USD, $751 million 2012 USD). One
Tropical Storm Arlene was an unusually large and early-forming tropical storm forming during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the first storm of the season, which would become the most active on record. Tropical Storm Arlene formed near Honduras on June 8 and moved northwards. It crossed western Cuba on June 10 and strengthened to just under hurricane strength before making its final landfall on the Florida Panhandle the next day. The storm weakened as it continued to move north over the United States, becoming extratropical on June 13. Arlene was responsible for only one death and minor damages.
Early in the season — nearly two months earlier than the first storm formation in 2004 — a low-pressure area formed and persisted north of Honduras. Despite significant shear, the low managed to become Tropical Depression One on June 8 just north of Honduras. The depression began to head north towards western Cuba that day, but as it was a very large and poorly organized system under the influence of heavy shear, the official forecasts from the National Hurricane Center emphasized that the route the storm would take was uncertain. Despite this uncertainty, the official forecasts
Tropical Storm Beryl was a deadly tropical storm which killed 115 people when it passed just south of the Cape Verde Islands. Beryl, the second named storm of the 1982 Atlantic hurricane season, developed out of a well organized tropical wave which was first noted near Dakar, Senegal on August 27. The wave was declared a tropical depression the next morning and upgraded it to a tropical storm later that same day. Beryl passed 35 mi (55 km) south of the island of Brava, Cape Verde by August 29. Beryl gradually intensified as it moved away from the islands and peaked just short of hurricane status on September 1 with peak winds of 72 mph (115 km/h). After peaking, Beryl quickly weakened to a tropical depression by the night of September 2. The depression continued on a general path towards the west until is dissipated on September 6 while located to the north of the Leeward Islands.
The origins of Tropical Storm Beryl can be traced back to a well developed tropical wave which was first noted off the eastern coast of Africa on August 27. The wave quickly intensified and was determined to have become a tropical depression and given the number Two on the morning of August 28. The
Tropical Storm Hermine was a moderate tropical storm that made landfall in southeastern Massachusetts. The eighth tropical cyclone and named storm of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, it formed from the same frontal zone over the western Atlantic that spawned Hurricane Gaston. Hermine remained weak and disorganized for its entire existence, peaking with winds of 60 mph (97 km/h). The storm began to weaken as it tracked northward, and made landfall in southern Massachusetts on August 31. Hermine had minimal effects, mostly limited to gusty winds and locally heavy rainfall. As the extratropical remnants progressed northward, moderate rain fell in parts of New Brunswick, resulting in minor basement flooding and road closures.
A frontal zone over the subtropical Atlantic, which spawned Hurricane Gaston, developed an area of convection south of Bermuda on August 25. While developing a mid-level circulation on the following day, the area of convection system detached from the frontal zone. A weak surface circulation developed, and the system became Tropical Depression Eight at 1800 UTC on August 27. Initially, the system remained a weak tropical depression while the convection
Typhoon Ewiniar (international designation: 0603, JTWC designation: 04W, PAGASA name: Ester) was the third named storm of the 2006 Pacific typhoon season and one that lasted for twelve days as a tropical cyclone, moving on a generally northward track. During its lifespan, it affected Palau, Yap, eastern China, the Ryūkyū Islands of Japan, South Korea as well as North Korea, briefly threatening to make landfall in North Korea before doing so in South Korea. Ewiniar is responsible for at least 181 deaths. However, an unofficial report stated that up to 10,000 people had been killed by flooding in North Korea, with 4,000 people missing.
On June 29, a persistent tropical disturbance was classified as a tropical depression by the JTWC while east of Palau. The depression moved northwestward and was upgraded to Tropical Storm 04W by the JTWC the next day on June 30, while the JMA named the storm Tropical Storm Ewiniar at around the same time. The name "Ewiniar" was submitted by the Federated States of Micronesia, and refers to a traditional storm god of Chuuk.
Ewiniar moved west-northwestward over the next two days, bringing heavy rain and localized flooding to the Yap Islands. Ewiniar
Super Typhoon Herb was the strongest and the largest storm of 1996. Herb struck the Ryūkyū Islands, Taiwan and the People's Republic of China, causing major damage. The name Herb was used in the Western Pacific name list for the first time after the list had been revised earlier in 1996. Although the name was not retired, the Western Pacific name list was changed from English names to Asian names in 2000, so 1996 was the in fact the only occasion when the name was used (it was never used in the Atlantic Ocean or the Eastern Pacific.)
The active monsoon trough that spawned Typhoons Frankie (08W) and Gloria (09W) consolidated into a third area well east of the other two to develop Tropical Depression 10W near Saipan on July 23. It moved northward at first, then westward in response to the subtropical ridge to its north. Tropical Depression 10W was upgraded to Tropical Storm Herb on July 24. Tropical Storm Herb moved west, growing in size and strengthening to Typhoon Herb on July 25 before 48 hours later reaching Category 4 (125 knots). An interaction with Typhoon Gloria (in what is known as the "Fujiwhara effect") saw Herb downgraded to 115 knots. Shortly afterward Herb began to
Season:2003–04 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season
Cyclone Gafilo was a powerful tropical cyclone which struck Madagascar in March 2004, causing devastating damage. It is the most intense cyclone ever to form in the south-western Indian Ocean.
Gafilo began as a very tropical disturbance on February 29, 2004 in the central Indian Ocean, south of Diego Garcia. First advisories for Tropical Disturbance 09 were issued on March 2 by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center on La Réunion and Joint Typhoon Warning Center. At this point, it was moving to west-northwest at fairly rapid pace. Development became quicker, and next day it was named Tropical Storm Gafilo. Its forward motion also slowed, and it began to turn southwards. On March 4, Gafilo was upgraded to tropical cyclone. Next day, March 5, Gafilo began a cycle of rapid deepening with winds increasing to 145 mph (230 km/h) making it a Category 4 cyclone. It was now moving west-southwest heading straight for Madagascar. The next day, March 6, 2004 saw it reach its estimated peak intensity of 895 hPa and sustained windspeed of 160 mph (260 km/h). After midnight, Gafilo struck the northeast coast of Madagascar near to the town of Antalaha as a Category 5 cyclone, the highest possible
Hurricane Beulah was the second tropical storm, second hurricane, and only major hurricane during the 1967 Atlantic hurricane season. It tracked through the Caribbean, struck the Yucatán peninsula of Mexico as a major hurricane, and moved west-northwest into the Gulf of Mexico, briefly gaining Category 5 intensity. It was the strongest hurricane during the 1967 Atlantic hurricane season. The hurricane made landfall in northeastern Mexico with winds near 160 mph (257 km/h). The cyclone then weakened before moving into Texas as a major hurricane. It spawned 115 tornadoes across Texas, which established a new record for the highest amount of tornadoes produced by a tropical cyclone. Due to its slow movement over Texas, Beulah led to significant flooding. At the time, Beulah ranked as the second-costliest hurricane on record, having left roughly $1 billion (1967 USD) in damage. Only Hurricane Betsy two years prior had caused such considerable losses. Throughout its path, at least 688 people were killed.
A convective area in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) developed into a tropical depression on September 5 east of the Lesser Antilles. It moved slowly through the islands, and
Tropical Storm Arlene was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall in the U.S. state of Texas since Hurricane Jerry in 1989. The first named storm of the annual hurricane season, Arlene developed from a tropical wave in the Gulf of Mexico on June 18. The depression slowly strengthened as it tracked west-northwestward and eventually north-northwestward across the western Gulf of Mexico. Arlene was subsequently upgraded to a tropical storm on June 19, but failed to intensify further due to its proximity to land. The cyclone then made landfall on Padre Island, Texas, with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and dissipated into a remnant area of low pressure on June 21.
The precursor tropical wave to Tropical Storm Arlene dropped heavy rainfall over Central America. As a result, 20 fatalities occurred, all of which were from a mudslide in El Salvador. There were also reports of significant flooding in Mexico, which affected seven states within the country. In Texas, Arlene also dropped torrential rainfall, with isolated areas receiving 10 in (250 mm) or higher. More than 600 houses and 12 businesses in state reported flood damage. In surrounding areas, the outer rainbands of Arlene also
Typhoon Bess (international designation: 8210, JTWC designation: 11W) was the eleventh tropical storm, sixth typhoon, and first super typhoon of the 1982 Pacific typhoon season. A powerful super typhoon, Bess reached peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) over the open waters of the western Pacific Ocean. The typhoon came near and struck southeastern Japan in early August as a minimal category 1 typhoon, causing great damage and 59 casualties.
The monsoon trough extended across the Western Pacific Ocean during the middle of July. Two areas of convection organized on the eastern end, and the easternmost developed into Tropical Depression Eleven-W over the Marshall Islands late on July 21. The other area became Typhoon Andy. The tropical depression, initially disorganized with loosely organized cloud bands, moved to the northwest and, due to an increase of deep convection, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Bess on July 23.
Tropical Storm Bess continued to move to the west-northwest. In its formative stages, the storm's low-level center and mid-level circulation were not aligned, but when this problem was fixed on July 24 Bess quickly intensified into a typhoon. The westward building of
Hurricane Donna in the 1960 Atlantic hurricane season was a Cape Verde-type hurricane which moved across the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Hispanola, Cuba, The Bahamas, and every state on the East Coast of the United States. Hurricane Donna holds the record for retaining major hurricane status (Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) in the Atlantic Basin for the longest period of time. For nine days, September 2 to September 11, Donna consistently had maximum sustained winds of at least 115 mph (185 km/h). From the time it became a tropical depression to when it dissipated after becoming an extratropical storm, Donna roamed the Atlantic from August 29 to September 14, a total of 17 days. While crossing the Atlantic, Donna briefly achieved Category 5 strength.
The precursor to this storm was a well-organized tropical disturbance which moved off the shore of Africa on August 28 and August 29. The crash of an airliner at Dakar on August 29 was attributed to this disturbance. Before reaching the Cape Verde Islands, the system was well enough organized to be considered a tropical depression on August 29. By August 30, the system became Tropical Storm Donna. Moving
Tropical Storm Barry was a strong tropical storm that made landfall on the Florida Panhandle during August 2001. The third tropical cyclone and second named storm of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season, Barry developed from a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on July 24. The wave entered the Caribbean on July 29 and spawned a low-pressure area, which organized into Tropical Storm Barry on August 3. After fluctuations in intensity and track, the storm attained peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) over the Gulf of Mexico. Barry headed northward and moved ashore along the Gulf Coast before dissipating on August 7.
Unlike the devastating Tropical Storm Allison earlier in the season, Barry's effects were moderate. Nine deaths occurred: six in Cuba and three in Florida. As a tropical cyclone, Barry produced heavy rainfall that peaked at 8.9 in (230 mm) at Tallahassee. Gusts in the area reached 79 mph (127 km/h), which was the highest wind speed recording for the storm. The precursor tropical wave to Barry dropped large amounts of rain on southern Florida, leading to significant flooding and structural damage. Moderate flooding and wind damage occurred throughout the Florida
Typhoon Bess (international designation: 7423, JTWC designation: 27W, PAGASA name: Susang) was the twenty-third tropical storm and the ninth typhoon of the 1974 Pacific typhoon season. Though the storm was only a Category 1 typhoon at its peak, it managed to cause $9.8 million dollars worth of damage, enough to merit the name's retirement.
The tropical disturbance that was to become Typhoon Bess formed on October 6 in the western Pacific, south of Guam. By October 9, two centres had developed. The northern centre developed further, while the southern centre dissipated, having been initially tracked for four days. This northern centre attained tropical storm strength on October 9 following the dissipation of the southern centre.
While traveling west-north-west at 12 mph, Bess became a minimal typhoon on October 10 in the Philippine Sea.
Bess swept over Luzon while retaining typhoon strength, but weakened to a tropical storm on October 12 in the South China Sea. Bess made landfall on Hainan Island on October 13 and weakened further to a tropical depression while doing so. Bess finally dissipated on October 14 over northern Vietnam.
Bess made landfall three times; Luzon, Hainan Island
The 1930 Dominican Republic Hurricane, also known as Hurricane San Zenon, is the fifth deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. The second of two known tropical cyclones in the 1930 Atlantic hurricane season, the hurricane was first observed on August 29 to the east of the Lesser Antilles. The cyclone was a small but intense Category 4 hurricane, killing as many as 8,000 people when it crossed the Dominican Republic.
The system is estimated to have formed on August 29 about halfway between the Lesser Antilles and the Cape Verde islands, although there were indications it may have formed closer to the African coast a few days earlier. Moving westward, the system slowly intensified, with its track and path based mainly on continuity. It is estimated to have become a hurricane on August 31 about 385 miles (620 km) east of Guadeloupe. Operationally, the hurricane was first observed on September 1, while the storm was passing through the Lesser Antilles as an intensifying hurricane. Based on north winds in Dominica and south winds in Barbados, the evidence of the circulation prompted an observer to report, "[there are] evidences of an approaching hurricane." Cautionary advice was
Severe Tropical Cyclone Thelma was a tropical cyclone that affected northern Australia from 6 December 1998 until 12 December 1998. Cyclone Thelma was one of the most intense tropical cyclones to be observed off the coast of Australia. Thelma formed in the Arafura Sea north of the Northern Territory while intensifying rapidly into a Category 5 cyclone, passing very near the Tiwi Islands and posing a severe threat to Darwin, but fortunately passed by at a distance of 200 km (120 mi). It then moved across the Timor Sea before hitting the north Kimberley coast. Thelma was the first known Category 5 cyclone to be observed in the Timor Sea, and was also the most intense cyclone to threaten Darwin since Cyclone Tracy on Christmas Eve in 1974. Ten months after the storm's passage, the skull of an 81-year-old man, who was believed to have been swept away by flood waters, was discovered.
A developing low in the Timor Sea in early December was named Thelma at 2 p.m. Australian Central Standard Time (0430 UTC) on 6 December, located about 350 km (220 mi) north of Darwin. The new cyclone drifted slowly south while rapidly intensifying. Thelma's intensity increased from a Category 2 to a
Hurricane Helene was the strongest hurricane in the 1958 Atlantic hurricane season, reaching peak winds of 135 miles per hour (217 km/h) and tied with Hurricane Ilsa as the strongest tropical cyclone of the season. The system moved to the north of the West Indies and skirted the coast of the Southeast United States before moving through the Atlantic shipping lanes offshore Newfoundland. Helene was the only hurricane of the season to impact the United States. Because the hurricane remained offshore, winds and rainfall were confined to the immediate coastline of North Carolina. Damage amounted to US$11 million ($72 million in 2005 USD), making Helene the costliest storm of the season.
A tropical wave was detected on September 19 near Cape Verde. The system began to slowly intensify as it moved west-northwest at 20 miles per hour (32 km/h). On September 20, hurricane hunter aircraft crews reported a fall in pressure and maximum winds between 35 miles per hour (56 km/h) and 40 miles per hour (64 km/h). Helene reached tropical storm strength on September 23 with 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) winds as it slowed down and intensified further. After reaching hurricane strength, the storm then
Hurricane Chantal was one of three tropical cyclones to make landfall in Texas during the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season. The third named storm and the first hurricane of the season, Chantal slowly developed on July 30 in the southern Gulf of Mexico from a tropical disturbance that was previously within Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) while near Trinidad and Tobago. While heading north-northwestward, the depression steadily intensified and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Chantal on the following day. Thereafter, Chantal became to quickly strengthen and became a hurricane on August 1. After intensifying slightly further, Chantal made landfall near High Island, Texas later on that day. The storm quickly weakened upon moving inland and weakened to a tropical storm a few hours after landfall. Early on August 2, Chantal weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated over Oklahoma by August 4.
While making landfall in Texas, the storm produced relatively small tides, with most locations reporting waves less than 4 feet (1.2 m) in height. As a result, some locations experienced extensive beach erosion. In addition, there were numerous rescues made by the U.S. Coast Guard. Due to
Hurricane Dora was the first tropical cyclone on record to make landfall over the extreme northeast coast of Florida. Dora was also the first storm to produce hurricane force winds to Jacksonville, Florida, in the almost 80 years of record keeping. Dora killed five people and left over $200 million in damage, mainly in Florida. Dora was one of three hurricanes to affect Florida during the 1964 season, the others being Cleo and Isbell.
Hurricane Dora was first identified as a broad area of low pressure on August 28, 1964, as it moved off the west coast of Africa into the Atlantic Ocean near Dakar, Senegal. Traveling west-southwestward, the system brushed the Cape Verde Islands the following day. By August 31, images from the eighth Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS VIII) depicted a developing storm with a central dense overcast, banding features and cirrus outflow. Observations from ships in the vicinity of the storm indicated decreasing barometric pressures and wind gusts up to 40 mph (65 km/h). On September 1, reconnaissance aircraft flew into the system and determined that it had already become a tropical storm, with sustained winds reaching 60 mph (95 km/h).
Hurricane Emily was a Category 3 tropical cyclone during the 1993 Atlantic hurricane season. Emily formed as a tropical depression over the open Atlantic Ocean on August 22 and moved generally northwestward. Initially, the cyclone remained disorganized due to unfavorable wind shear, but it was upgraded to a hurricane on August 26 after reconnaissance aircraft observed unusually high winds. It continued to strengthen while moving toward the west to west-northwest, becoming a major hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas. On September 1, the storm brushed the Outer Banks of North Carolina before heading back out to sea. Despite coming within miles of North Carolina as a major hurricane, the storm caused only three deaths and $50 million (2004 US dollars) in damages.
Hurricane Emily originated from an African tropical wave that passed through the Cape Verde Islands on August 17, 1993. The wave traversed the tropical Atlantic and developed a closed cyclonic circulation five days later, when the National Hurricane Center (NHC) classified it as a tropical depression. At the time, it was located 800 miles (1,300 km) east-northeast of Puerto Rico while moving toward the northwest. The
Hurricane Emily was the only major hurricane to develop during the below-average 1987 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming out of a tropical disturbance that moved off the west coast of Africa on September 20, the storm quickly attained hurricane status before undergoing rapid intensification. On September 22, the storm attained its peak intensity with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 958 mbar (hPa; 28.29 inHg). The storm weakened slightly to Category 2 status before making landfall in the Dominican Republic. After weakening to a tropical storm, Emily rapidly tracked northeastward through the Atlantic Ocean, undergoing a second phase of rapid intensification before passing directly over Bermuda on September 25. The following day the final public advisory from the National Hurricane Center was issued on the storm as it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.
Hurricane Emily brought heavy rains and strong winds in the Windward Islands on September 21, leaving numerous homes damaged and severe losses in the banana industry. Losses throughout the islands amounted to $291,000. In the Dominican Republic, despite the storm's high intensity, relatively moderate
Hurricane Floyd was a very powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane which struck the east coast of the United States. It was the sixth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd triggered the third largest evacuation in US history (behind Hurricane Gustav and Hurricane Rita, respectively) when 2.6 million coastal residents of five states were ordered from their homes as it approached. The Cape Verde-type hurricane formed off the coast of Africa and lasted from September 7 to September 19, peaking in strength as a very strong Category 4 hurricane—just short of the highest possible rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. It was among the largest Atlantic hurricanes of its strength ever recorded.
Floyd was once forecast to strike Florida, but turned away. Instead, Floyd struck The Bahamas at peak strength, causing heavy damage. It then paralleled the East Coast of the United States, causing massive evacuations and costly preparations from Florida through the Mid-Atlantic states. The storm weakened significantly, however, before striking Cape Fear, North Carolina as a very strong Category 2 hurricane, and caused further damage
Hurricane Gaston was a minimal hurricane that made landfall in South Carolina on August 29, 2004. It then crossed North Carolina and Virginia before exiting to the northeast and dissipating. The storm killed nine people – eight of them directly – and caused $130 million (2004 USD) in damage. Gaston produced torrential downpours that inundated Richmond, Virginia. Although originally designated a tropical storm, Gaston was reclassified as a hurricane when post-storm analysis revealed it had maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (Category 1 hurricane strength).
On August 22, 2004, a cold front—the same front which eventually spawned Tropical Storm Hermine—moved off the coast of the Carolinas and drifted southward before stalling on August 24. On August 25, Surface observations indicated that a broad low pressure area developed along the deteriorating frontal boundary. Convection remained sporadic and disorganized, until thunderstorm activity began to increase and the system developed banding structure on August 26. At 1200 UTC on August 27, the low organized, and was designated as Tropical Depression Seven while located about 130 mi (210 km) east-southeast of Charleston, South
Hurricane Iniki ( /iːˈniːkiː/ ee-NEE-kee; Hawaiian: ʻiniki meaning "strong and piercing wind") was the most powerful hurricane to strike the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in recorded history. Forming on September 5 during the strong El Niño of 1991–1994, Iniki was one of eleven Central Pacific tropical cyclones during the 1992 season. It attained tropical storm status on September 8 and further intensified into a hurricane the next day. After turning to the north, Iniki struck the island of Kauaʻi on September 11 at peak intensity; it had winds of 145 mph (235 km/h), and was a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. It was the first hurricane to hit the state since Hurricane Iwa in the 1982 season, and the first major hurricane since Hurricane Dot in 1959. Iniki dissipated on September 13 about halfway between Hawaii and Alaska.
Iniki caused around $1.8 billion (1992 USD) of damage and six deaths. At the time, Iniki was among the costliest United States hurricanes, and it remains one of the costliest hurricanes on record in the eastern Pacific. The storm struck just weeks after Hurricane Andrew—the costliest tropical cyclone ever at the time—struck the U.S. state of
Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest and most destructive Atlantic hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall. At least 1,833 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making it the deadliest U.S. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane; total property damage was estimated at $81 billion (2005 USD), nearly triple the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992.
Hurricane Katrina formed over the Bahamas on August 23, 2005 and crossed southern Florida as a moderate Category 1 hurricane, causing some deaths and flooding there before strengthening rapidly in the Gulf of Mexico. The hurricane strengthened to a Category 5 hurricane over the warm Gulf water, but weakened before making its second landfall as a Category 3 hurricane on the morning of Monday, August 29 in southeast Louisiana. It caused severe destruction along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge. The most significant number of deaths occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana,
Hurricane Lili was a relatively long-lived hurricane during the very active 1996 Atlantic hurricane season. Lili formed on October 14 from a tropical wave, which emerged from the coast of west Africa on October 4. The tropical wave which developed into Lili was slow to form due to unfavorable wind shear in the Atlantic and eastern Caribbean Sea. Even after development occurred on October 14, further strengthening of Lili was gradual, having not attained tropical storm status until October 16 and hurricane status on October 17. After making landfall on Cuba, Hurricane Lili accelerated northeastward, briefly peaking as a category 3 hurricane near the Bahamas. For almost an entire week, Hurricane Lili oscillated in intensity while fluctuating several times in forward speed. Over two weeks had passed before Lili finally transitioned into an extratropical storm north of the Azores on October 29.
Hurricane Lili caused considerable damage across Central America, Cuba, and the Bahamas, and United Kingdom. Damage from Hurricane Lili totaled at $660 million (1996 USD, $978 million 2012 USD), with $150,000 (1996 USD, $222 thousand 2012 USD) in the United States, $362 million (1996 USD,
Tropical Storm Chantal was a North Atlantic tropical cyclone that moved across the Caribbean Sea in August 2001. Chantal developed from a tropical wave on August 14 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It tracked rapidly westward for much of its duration, and after degenerating into a tropical wave it passed through the Windward Islands. Chantal reached a peak intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) twice in the Caribbean Sea, and each time it was anticipated to attain hurricane status; however, wind shear and later land interaction prevented strengthening to hurricane status. On August 21 Chantal moved ashore near the border of Mexico and Belize, and the next day it dissipated.
In the Windward Islands, lightning caused two indirect deaths in Trinidad. Chantal dropped light to moderate rainfall across its path, most significantly in Quintana Roo in Mexico where it caused widespread mudslides. Damage in Belize totaled $4 million (2001 USD; $5.25 million 2012 USD), due to the combined impact of high waves, moderate winds, and rainfall. Overall damage was minor.
A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 11. Associated deep convection quickly decreased after tracking westward through
Typhoon Saomai (international designation: 0608, JTWC designation: 08W, designated Typhoon Juan by PAGASA and sometimes called Super Typhoon Saomai) was a powerful typhoon that affected areas of Taiwan and the east coast of the People's Republic of China. It was the eighth tropical storm, fifth typhoon, and third super typhoon of the 2006 Pacific typhoon season recognized by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, Saomai was the seventh tropical storm and fifth typhoon of the season. The name "Saomai" was submitted by Vietnam, and is from the Vietnamese word for "morning star" (sao Mai), a reference to the planet Venus.
The typhoon brought heavy rain and wind to areas of the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the east coast of China. It was responsible for 458 deaths and $2.5 billion (2006 USD) in damage. Saomai affected many of the same areas affected by Tropical Storm Bilis a month earlier, and the China Meteorological Administration reported that Saomai was the strongest typhoon that ever occurred over China's offshore region as well as the most powerful typhoon ever to make landfall over Mainland China.
A tropical disturbance
Hurricane Flora is among the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes in recorded history, with a death total of over 7,000. The seventh tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the 1963 Atlantic hurricane season, Flora developed from a disturbance in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on September 26 while located about 755 miles (1,215 km) southwest of the Cape Verde islands. After remaining a weak depression for several days, it rapidly organized on September 29 to attain tropical storm status. Flora continued to quickly strengthen to reach Category 3 hurricane status before moving through the Windward Islands and passing over Tobago, and it reached maximum sustained winds of 145 miles per hour (233 km/h) in the Caribbean.
The storm struck southwestern Haiti near peak intensity, turned to the west, and drifted over Cuba for four days before turning to the northeast. Flora passed through the Bahamas and accelerated northeastward, becoming an extratropical cyclone on October 12. Due to its slow movement across Cuba, Flora is the wettest known tropical cyclone for Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. The significant casualties caused by Flora were the most for a tropical cyclone in the
Cyclone Ingrid was a tropical cyclone which struck northern Australia during the 2004-05 Australian region cyclone season. Its minimum pressure was 924 mbar (hPa).
Ingrid developed in the Coral Sea on 3 March 2005. Although its sustained winds were high enough to be classified as a Category 4 storm, it diminished to Category 3 strength on 9 March as it moved west towards the Australian coast. The eye, with very destructive wind gusts up to 220 km/h within a 20 km radius, reached the far northern coast of the Australian state of Queensland between 6 am and 9 am on 10 March 2005 AEST, and hit the Cape York Peninsula as a Category 2 storm. However, it was downgraded to a Category 1 storm as it crossed the peninsula north of the towns of Coen and Lockhart River.
After passing the town of Weipa, Ingrid gained strength once again as it moved out across the Gulf of Carpentaria towards the Northern Territory. It struck the town of Nhulunbuy as a Category 4 storm. It crossed the Cobourg Peninsula in the early hours of 13 March, heading west. Ingrid crossed the Tiwi Islands as a Category 3 storm, and moved west into the Timor Sea. Winds were in excess of 200 km/h.
On 15 March Ingrid
Hurricane David was the fourth named tropical cyclone, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 1979 Atlantic hurricane season. A Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, David was among the deadliest hurricanes in the latter half of the 20th century, killing over 2,000 people in its path, mostly in the Dominican Republic. As of 2011, it remains the only hurricane to make landfall on the Dominican Republic at Category 5 intensity.
David was a Cape Verde-type hurricane, traversing through the Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, and East Coast of the United States during late August and early September. With winds of 175 mph (280 km/h), Hurricane David was the strongest hurricane to strike the Dominican Republic in recorded history, and the deadliest since the 1930 Dominican Republic Hurricane. Also, the hurricane was the strongest to hit Dominica in the 20th century, and was the deadliest Dominican tropical cyclone since a hurricane killed over 200 in September of the 1834 season. David was the second male name for a tropical storm since 1952, first to reach Category 5 intensity and the first to be retired.
A tropical wave that moved off the coast of
Tropical Storm Claudette was a long living tropical storm that produced heavy rain across Puerto Rico and Texas in late July 1979. The storm killed 2 people and left $1.1 billion (2005 USD) in damage. Claudette was one of three destructive storms of the 1979 Atlantic hurricane season.
The origins of Tropical Storm Claudette have been traced back to a very intense tropical wave emerging from the coast of Africa in early July 1979. In Dakar, Senegal, winds were as high as 100 mph (155 km/h) in the 550 mbar level of the atmosphere. This system traced westward for four days before a surface circulation was evident, which is when it formed as a tropical depression, situated 450 miles (724 km) east of the Leeward Islands on July 15 at 1600 UTC. The new tropical depression gradually intensified, and about 24 hours later, the depression was upgraded to a tropical storm the following day; the National Hurricane Center assigned the name Claudette.
As the storm moved westward, it encountered wind shear, weakening it back to depression status when it hit Puerto Rico. Claudette moved across islands of Hispaniola and Cuba as a tropical wave before reforming in the Gulf of Mexico on July 21.
Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm killed as many as 1,000 people in Haiti before striking the United States near the border between North and South Carolina, as a Category 4 hurricane. After causing 95 fatalities in the US, Hazel struck Canada as an extratropical storm, raising the death toll by 81 people, mostly in Toronto. As a result of the high death toll and the damage Hazel caused, its name was retired from use for North Atlantic hurricanes.
In Haiti, Hazel destroyed 40% of the coffee trees and 50% of the cacao crop, affecting the economy for several years to come. The hurricane made landfall in the Carolinas, and destroyed most waterfront dwellings near its point of impact. On its way to Canada, it affected several more states, including Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York, bringing gusts near 160 km/h (100 mph) and causing $308 million (1954 USD) in damage. When Hazel arrived in Ontario, rivers and streams passing through the Greater Toronto Area overflowed their banks, causing severe flooding. As a result, many residential areas located in floodplains,
Hurricane Opal was a hurricane that formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1995. Opal was the ninth hurricane and the strongest of the abnormally active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. It crossed the Yucatán Peninsula while still a tropical depression from September 27, then strengthened northward in the Gulf, becoming the most powerful Category 4 Atlantic hurricane before making a second landfall, October 4, in the Florida Panhandle near Pensacola as a 115-mph (185-km/h) hurricane. Opal devastated the Pensacola/Panhandle area with a 15-ft (5-m) storm surge and travelled up the entire state of Alabama, becoming a tropical storm in Tennessee. Opal also caused heavy damage in the mid-Atlantic states before dissipating.
Throughout the storm's path from Central America into New England, a total of 63 people died in storm-related events. Losses attributed to Opal exceeded $3.5 billion, much of which took place in the United States. The name "Opal" was retired in 1996, replaced by "Olga" for the 2001 season.
On September 11, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began monitoring a tropical wave off the western coast of Africa. Tracking towards the west, the wave entered the Caribbean
Hurricane Betsy was the first tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Basin to cause at least $1 billion (1965 USD) in damage. The third tropical cyclone, second named storm, and second hurricane of the 1965 Atlantic hurricane season, Betsy developed well east of the Windward Islands from an area of disturbed weather on August 27. Forming as a tropical depression, it tracked generally west-northward until crossing on August 28. Thereafter, it tracked north-northwestward. By August 29, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Betsy. The storm then rapidly intensified and became a Category 1 hurricane later that day. Betsy executed a small cyclonic loop on August 30 and August 31, followed by a turn to the west on September 1. Significant intensification resumed on September 1, and by the following day, Betsy was a Category 3 hurricane. By late on September 3, Betsy became a Category 4 hurricane. While northeast of the Bahamas, Betsy became tracking erratically and executed another cyclonic loop, starting on September 4. The storm steadily weakened, and was briefly downgraded to a Category 2 hurricane early on September 6. However, the storm promptly re-strengthened into a Category 3
The 1933 Chesapeake-Potomac Hurricane was the eighth storm and third hurricane of the very active 1933 Atlantic hurricane season. The August storm formed in the central Atlantic, where it moved west-northwest. Aided by the warm ocean waters, the hurricane briefly reached Category 4 status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale before making landfall along the Virginia/North Carolina coast as a Category 1 storm.
The hurricane caused severe damage along the East Coast of the United States. The state hardest hit by the storm was Virginia, where the center of circulation passed directly over Norfolk. The hurricane was the worst storm to strike Virginia until Hurricane Isabel of 2003. Elsewhere, the hurricane left damage across Maryland, Washington, D.C. and Delaware. In all, the hurricane caused $27.2 million (1933 USD, $488 million 2012 USD) in damage and 30 fatalities.
A strong tropical storm was detected on August 17 northeast of the Leeward Islands. The storm became a hurricane just hours later and continued on its west-northwest heading, reaching Category 2 status on August 19 and passing 150 miles (241 km) to the south of Bermuda. Then the storm slowed its forward speed and
Hurricane Audrey was the first major hurricane of the 1957 Atlantic hurricane season. Audrey was the only storm to reach Category 4 status in June. A powerful hurricane, Audrey caused catastrophic damage across eastern Texas and western Louisiana. It then affected the South Central United States as a powerful extratropical storm. The heaviest rainfall directly from Audrey fell near the Gulf coast, though heavy rainfall across the Midwest was caused by its moisture flowing towards a weather front to the north. In its wake, Audrey left $1 billion (2005 USD) in damage and 431 fatalities. At the time period, the devastation from Hurricane Audrey was the worst since the Great New England Hurricane of 1938.
A tropical wave moved across the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea where it became a tropical depression on June 25. The depression stalled in the Gulf of Mexico where it showed signs of rapid intensification. At 1800 UTC, the tropical depression became Hurricane Audrey. The fledgling storm was centered 380 miles (612 km) southeast of Brownsville, Texas. By June 26, the storm was already at Category 2 strength as it moved northeastward at 5 mph (8 km/h). Later, the storm's forward
Hurricane Bertha was an intense and early-forming major hurricane that affected areas from the Leeward Islands to the United States in July of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season. The second tropical cyclone and named storm during the season, Bertha originated from a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa in early July. Steadily organizing while moving generally towards the west, the disturbance was designated as a tropical depression at 0000 UTC on July 5, and was further upgraded to a tropical storm by 1200 UTC later that day. Over the next few days, continued intensification occurred, and Bertha became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale, the first hurricane of the season, prior to moving through the northern Leeward Islands. Late on June 8, a period of rapid intensification began, and at 0600 UTC on July 9, Bertha reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) with a minimum barometric pressure of 960 mbar (28 inHg). Moving around the western periphery of the subtropical ridge, Bertha passed north of the Bahamas as a weakening hurricane before turning towards the north-northeast and undergoing another period of
Hurricane Cesar–Douglas was a devastating tropical cyclone that killed 122 people throughout Central and South America in late-July 1996. The Category 1 hurricane formed in late July in the Caribbean Sea and pounded Central America with rain, killing 67 people and causing local governments to deem the region a disaster area. After crossing Central America, the storm redeveloped in the eastern Pacific as Hurricane Douglas, which became part of the 1996 Pacific hurricane season and reached Category 4 strength in the open ocean.
The origins of Hurricane Cesar were from a tropical wave and an elongated area of low pressure that emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa on July 17. For several days, the wave moved westward without any organization, although an anticyclone aloft provided conditions favorable for development. On July 22, convection, or thunderstorms, increased along the wave as it approached the southern Windward Islands. Surface pressure steadily dropped as the system moved through the Lesser Antilles, and a circulation began developing near Trinidad and Tobago. Based on surface and satellite data, it is estimated the system developed into Tropical
Hurricane Danny was a minimal Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale that made landfall in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The fourth tropical cyclone and third hurricane of the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season, Danny originated from a tropical wave that moved into the western Caribbean in the middle of August, and struggled to reach tropical storm status until it entered the central Gulf of Mexico. Organizing rapidly, the system reached hurricane status several hundred miles south of Louisiana, and reached a peak intensity of 90 mph (150 km/h) before making landfall near Lake Charles, Louisiana.
Danny produced an outbreak of 39 tornadoes and flash flooding across the United States Gulf Coast and Southeastern United States causing 100 million dollars (1985 USD) and five fatalities, two of them directly related to the storm.
A tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa on July 30 and continued across the Atlantic and though the Leeward Islands without any significant shower activity. However, associated shower activity increased as the system moved through the Caribbean. By August 10, a broad low pressure system formed. On August 12, data from a Hurricane Hunter
Hurricane Fran caused extensive damage in the United States in early September 1996. The sixth named storm, fifth hurricane, and fourth major hurricane of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season, Fran developed from a tropical wave near Cape Verde on August 23. Due to nearby Hurricane Edouard, the depression remained disorganized as it tracked westward, though it eventually intensified into Tropical Storm Fran on August 27. While heading west-northwestward, Fran steadily strengthened into a hurricane on August 29, but weakened back to a tropical storm on the following day. On August 31, Fran quickly re-intensified into a hurricane. By September 2, Fran began to parallel the islands of the Bahamas and slowly curved north-northwestward. Fran peaked as a 120 mph (195 km/h) Category 3 hurricane by early on September 5. Thereafter, Fran weakened slightly, before it made landfall near Cape Fear, North Carolina early on September 6. The storm rapidly weakened inland and was only a tropical depression later that day. Eventually, Fran curved east-northeastward and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over Ontario early on September 9.
In Florida, high tides capsized a boat with five people
Hurricane Lili was one of only five Atlantic tropical cyclones on record to reach hurricane status in the month of December. The final of thirteen tropical storms in the 1984 Atlantic hurricane season, Lili developed as a subtropical cyclone which originated from a frontal trough to the south of Bermuda on December 12. It tracked southeastward, then northward, slowly attaining tropical characteristics and becoming a hurricane on December 20. Lili turned to the south and southwest, briefly threatening the northern Caribbean islands before weakening and dissipating near the coast of the Dominican Republic. The storm produced light rainfall but no damage.
In the second week of December, a frontal trough stalled south of Bermuda. An upper level disturbance moved over the area on December 9, and produced widespread convection along the frontal wave. The system moved to the northeast, and based on a developing circulation within the convection, the National Hurricane Center classified the system as a subtropical storm on December 12 while located 275 miles (440 km) northeast of Bermuda.
With winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) and strengthening, the subtropical storm initially drifted
Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical storm that devastated southeast Texas in June of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. The first storm of the season, Allison lasted unusually long for a June storm, remaining tropical or subtropical for 15 days. The storm developed from a tropical wave in the northern Gulf of Mexico on June 4, 2001, and struck the upper Texas coast shortly thereafter. It drifted northward through the state, turned back to the south, and re-entered the Gulf of Mexico. The storm continued to the east-northeast, made landfall on Louisiana, then moved across the southeast United States and Mid-Atlantic. Allison was the first storm since Tropical Storm Frances in 1998 to strike the northern Texas coastline.
The storm dropped heavy rainfall along its path, peaking at over 40 inches (1,000 mm) in Texas. The worst flooding occurred in Houston, where most of Allison's damage occurred: 30,000 became homeless after the storm flooded over 70,000 houses and destroyed 2,744 homes. Downtown Houston was inundated with flooding, causing severe damage to hospitals and businesses. Twenty-three people died in Texas. Along its entire path, Allison caused $5.5 billion ($7.1 billion
Tropical Storm Bonnie was a small tropical storm that made landfall on Florida in August 2004. The second storm of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, Bonnie developed from a tropical wave on August 3 to the east of the Lesser Antilles. After moving through the islands, its fast forward motion caused it to dissipate. However, it later regenerated into a tropical storm near the Yucatán Peninsula. Bonnie attained peak winds of 65 mph (105 km/h) over the Gulf of Mexico, turned to the northeast, and hit Florida as a 45 mph (70 km) tropical storm. The storm accelerated to the northeast and became an extratropical cyclone to the east of New Jersey. Bonnie was the first of five tropical systems to make landfall on Florida in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, and the second of a record eight disturbances to reach tropical storm strength during the month of August.
Bonnie's impact was minimal. Throughout the Caribbean Sea, the storm's effects consisted primarily of light rainfall, and in Florida, the precipitation caused flooding and minor damage. The tropical storm caused a tornado outbreak across the Southeastern United States which killed three people and inflicted over $1 million
Tropical Storm Charley was the third named storm of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season. Charley was the second tropical storm to make landfall in Texas during that season (Frances being the other). The storm originated with a tropical wave that moved off the West African coast on August 9. The wave moved generally west-northwestward, producing occasional bursts of convection, finally arriving in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico by August 19, when animated satellite images began to indicate it had possibly developed a low pressure center. Hurricane Hunter investigations into the system the next day revealed that this was not the case. The system lingered for two days, lacking an organized low level center of circulation until early on the morning of August 21, when advisories were initiated on the tropical depression, 185 miles (298 km) east of Brownsville, Texas. The depression became a tropical storm later that day, as it moved steadily west-northwestward, strengthening, and then weakening again before making landfall the next morning around Port Aransas, Texas. The storm moved slowly inland and finally dissipated on the morning of the August 24 near the town of Del Rio,
Typhoon Tip (international designation: 7920, JTWC designation: 23W, PAGASA name: Warling) was the largest and most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded. The nineteenth tropical storm and twelfth typhoon of the 1979 Pacific typhoon season, Tip developed out of a disturbance in the monsoon trough on October 4 near Pohnpei. Initially, a tropical storm to its northwest hindered the development and motion of Tip, though after it tracked further north Tip was able to intensify. After passing Guam, it rapidly intensified and reached peak winds of 305 km/h (190 mph) and a worldwide record low sea-level pressure of 870 mbar (870.0 hPa; 25.69 inHg) on October 12. At its peak strength, it was also the largest tropical cyclone on record with a wind diameter of 2,220 km (1,380 mi). It slowly weakened as it continued west-northwestward and later turned to the northeast under the influence of an approaching trough. Tip made landfall on southern Japan on October 19 and became an extratropical cyclone shortly thereafter.
U.S. Air Force aircraft flew 60 weather reconnaissance missions into the typhoon, making Tip one of the most closely observed tropical cyclones. Rainfall from the typhoon led to
The 1821 Norfolk and Long Island Hurricane was one of four known tropical cyclones that have made landfall in New York City. Another, even more intense hurricane struck the region in pre-Columbian times (sometime between 1278 and 1438) and was detected by paleotempestological research. The third was the 1893 New York hurricane and the fourth was Hurricane Irene in 2011.
The first of three recorded tropical cyclones recorded in the 1821 Atlantic hurricane season, it was first observed off the southeast United States coast on September 1, with winds estimated in excess of 135 mph (215 km/h). It moved ashore near Wilmington, North Carolina, and passed near Norfolk, Virginia before moving through the Delmarva Peninsula and New Jersey just inland. The hurricane struck New York City on September 3, approximately near Jamaica Bay, and on September 4 it was observed over New England. The hurricane occurred just 6 years after the destructive Great September Gale of 1815.
A tropical cyclone was first observed on September 1 off the southeast coast of the United States. Initially, it was believed to be the same storm that struck Guadeloupe on the same day, though subsequent research indicated
Hurricane Carol was among the worst tropical cyclones to affect the New England region of the United States. It developed from a tropical wave near the Bahamas on August 25, 1954, and slowly strengthened as it moved northwestward. On August 27, Carol intensified to reach winds of 105 mph (169 km/h), but weakened as its motion turned to a northwest drift. A strong trough of low pressure turned the hurricane northeastward, and Carol intensified to attain Category 3 status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. The well-organized hurricane made landfall on Long Island and Connecticut on August 30 near peak intensity, and quickly became extratropical over land.
Carol was similar to the New England Hurricane of 1938, as they were near the same intensity when affecting New England, in addition to both storms accelerating toward the region. Both systems hit within 40 miles (64 km) of each other at high tide, resulting in a substantial storm surge in Narragansett Bay. At the time, Carol was the third costliest United States hurricane, and the nineteenth costliest U.S. hurricane when adjusted for inflation, as of 2004.
A tropical wave developed into a tropical depression over the
Hurricane Gordon was the first tropical cyclone since 1992 to affect the Azores while retaining tropical characteristics. The eighth tropical storm, third hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season, Gordon formed on September 10 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It gradually matured into a hurricane as it tracked northward, reaching its peak intensity with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) early on September 14 while located about 575 mi (925 km) southeast of Bermuda. After becoming nearly stationary, Gordon weakened to minimal hurricane status, although it re-intensified after accelerating to the east. It weakened again after moving over cooler waters, and passed through the Azores on September 20. Coincidentally, Hurricane Gordon of 2012 passed through the same area. Shortly thereafter, it became an extratropical cyclone and subsequently affected Spain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.
The only land area affected while Gordon was tropical – the Azores – sustained little damage, in spite of wind gusts reaching hurricane force on Santa Maria Island. Impact was much more significant from the storm in its extratropical phase. In Spain, wind gusts reached
Hurricane Paul was a particularly deadly and destructive Pacific hurricane which killed a total of 1,696 people and caused $1.156 billion in damage. The sixteenth named storm and tenth hurricane of the 1982 Pacific hurricane season, Paul developed as a tropical depression just offshore Central America on September 18. The depression briefly moved inland two days later just before heading westward out to sea. The storm changed little in strength for several days until September 25, when it slowly intensified into a tropical storm. Two days later, Paul attained hurricane status, and further strengthened to Category 2 intensity after turning northward. The hurricane then accelerated toward the northeast, reaching peak winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). Paul made landfall over Baja California Sur on September 29, and subsequently moved ashore in Sinaloa, Mexico the next day.
Prior to making landfall near the El Salvador-Guatemala border as a tropical depression, the precursor disturbance dropped heavy rainfall over Nicaragua, which later spread into El Salvador and Guatemala. Many rivers in the region burst their banks after five days of rainfall, causing severe flooding and multiple
Tropical Storm Norma was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone of the 1970 Pacific hurricane season. The storm formed off the coast of Mexico and intensified rapidly, peaking as a strong tropical storm on September 3 before starting a weakening trend which saw it dissipate before making landfall on Baja California.
While the storm never made landfall, the remnants from the storm fueled the Labor Day Storm of 1970, which caused floods in Arizona that resulted in heavy damage and loss of life. The rainfall from this storm broke records, mostly for 24 hour rainfall totals. Despite not being tropical when the damages were done, Norma is considered to be the deadliest system in Arizona history.
A tropical disturbance was first noted in a satellite picture taken on August 30. Soon after, a weak low pressure center associated with the system formed 100 nautical miles (190 km) southwest of Acapulco, Mexico. The system later went through rapid intensification, becoming a tropical depression on August 31 and Tropical Storm Norma later that day. Initially with a loose organization, Norma continued to organize and strengthen, reaching its peak of 60 mph (100 km/h) on September 2. Satellite
Cyclone Catarina (Portuguese pronunciation: [kataˈɾinɐ]) is one of several informal names for a South Atlantic tropical cyclone that hit southeastern Brazil in late March 2004. The storm developed out of a stationary cold-core upper-level trough on March 12. Almost a week later, on March 19, a disturbance developed along the trough and traveled towards the east-southeast until March 22 when a ridge caused the forward motion of the disturbance to cease. The disturbance was in an unusually favorable environment with below average wind shear and above average sea surface temperatures. The combination of the two led to a slow transition from an extratropical cyclone to a subtropical cyclone by March 24. The storm continued to obtain tropical characteristics and became a tropical storm the next day while the winds steadily increased. The storm reached winds of 75 mph (120 km/h)—equivalent to a low-end category one hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale—on March 26. At this time it was unofficially named Catarina and was also the first hurricane-intensity tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Unusually favorable conditions persisted and Catarina
Hurricane Gladys was the most destructive hurricane in the 1968 Atlantic hurricane season, causing over $100 million (2005 US dollars) in damage and ten deaths. The last storm of the season, it caused heavy rainfall along its path through the Western Caribbean Sea, Florida, and up through Atlantic Canada. When paralleling just off the coast of North Carolina, Gladys was responsible for breaking the state's worst drought since 1932.
A tropical wave moved through the Lesser Antilles on October 11. When it reached the western Caribbean Sea, upper level conditions became favorable for continued organization, and it was upgraded to a tropical depression on October 13. Two other systems in the western Caribbean, one of which was a tropical depression, prevented significant of the depression which was to become Gladys. As it moved north-northwestward though, it became the dominant system, and became Tropical Storm Gladys on the 15th.
Warm water temperatures and a developing anticyclone allowed Gladys to continue strengthening, and on October 16 while south of Cuba the storm was upgraded to a hurricane. Gladys crossed the narrow, western part of the island just hours later, and emerged
Hurricane Gordon was one of two U.S. landfalling tropical storms of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season. The seventh named storm and fourth hurricane of the season, Gordon developed in the extreme western Caribbean Sea from a tropical wave on September 14. Shortly thereafter, the depression moved inland over the Yucatan Peninsula and later emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on September 15. The depression began to quickly organize, and by early on September 16, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Gordon. After becoming a tropical storm, Gordon continued to intensify and was reclassified as a hurricane about 24 hours later; eventually, the storm peaked as an 80 mph (130 km/h) Category 1 hurricane. However, southwesterly upper-level winds caused Gordon to weaken as it approached land, and it was downgraded to a tropical storm by late on September 17. At 0300 UTC on September 18, Gordon made landfall near Cedar Key, Florida as a strong tropical storm. After moving inland, Gordon rapidly weakened and had deteriorated to tropical depression status by nine hours later. Later that day, Gordon merged with a frontal boundary while centered over Georgia.
Prior to becoming a tropical cyclone, the
The 1991 Bangladesh cyclone (IMD designation:BOB 01, JTWC designation:02B) was among the deadliest tropical cyclones on record. On the night of 29 April 1991 a powerful tropical cyclone struck the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh with winds of around 250 km/h (155 mph). The storm forced a 6 metre (20 ft) storm surge inland over a wide area, killing at least 138,000 people and leaving as many as 10 million homeless.
An area of persistent cloudiness, in part due to the monsoon trough, developed into a tropical depression on April 22 in the Bay of Bengal. The wind speed and overall size increased, with the depression becoming Tropical Storm 02B on the 24th. The enormous wind field at the time encompassed nearly the entire bay.
The tropical storm continued slowly northwestward, slowly strengthening to a cyclone-strength storm on the 27th. The cyclone moved between a high pressure system to its northwest and east, and as mid-level westerlies met up with the storm, the cyclone moved northeastward. The westerlies enhanced upper level outflow, and in combination with warm water temperatures the cyclone steadily strengthened to a major hurricane on the 28th.
On the 28th and
Hurricane Agnes was, at the time, the costliest hurricane to hit the United States in recorded history. The second tropical cyclone and first named storm of the 1972 Atlantic hurricane season, Agnes developed on June 14 from the interaction of a polar front and an upper trough over the Yucatán Peninsula. Initially forming as a tropical depression, the storm headed slowly eastward and emerged into the western Caribbean Sea on June 15. Once in the Caribbean, the depression began to strengthen, and by the following day, it became Tropical Storm Agnes. Thereafter, Agnes slowly curved northward and passed just west of Cuba on June 17. Early on June 18, the storm intensified enough to be upgraded to Hurricane Agnes. Heading northward, the hurricane eventually made landfall near Panama City, Florida late on June 19. After moving inland, Agnes rapidly weakened and was only a tropical depression when it entered Georgia. The weakening trend halted as the storm crossed over Georgia and into South Carolina. While over eastern North Carolina, Agnes re-strengthened into a tropical storm on June 21, as a result of baroclinic activity. Early the following day, the storm emerged into the Atlantic
Hurricane Alicia was the costliest tropical cyclone in the Atlantic since Hurricane Agnes in 1972. Alicia was the third depression, the first tropical storm, and the only major hurricane of the 1983 Atlantic hurricane season. It struck Galveston and Houston, Texas directly, causing $2.6 billion (1983 USD; $6.07 billion 2012 USD) in damage and killing 21 people; this made it the worst Texas hurricane since Hurricane Carla in 1961. In addition, Alicia was the first billion-dollar tropical cyclone in Texas history.
Hurricane Alicia was the first hurricane to hit the United States mainland since Hurricane Allen in August 1980. The time between the two storms totaled three years and eight days (1,103 days). Hurricane Alicia became the last major hurricane (Category 3 or higher) to strike Texas until the stronger Hurricane Bret in 1999 made landfall. Alicia was the first storm for which the National Hurricane Center issued landfall probabilities.
Hurricane Alicia was notable for the delayed post storm evacuation of Galveston Island (since the eye of the storm traveled the evacuation route up Interstate 45 from Galveston to Houston). The hurricane was also notable for the shattering of
Hurricane Bonnie was the second named storm and the first hurricane of the 1986 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the eleventh hurricane on record to hit the United States in June. Bonnie hit Louisiana and Texas causing $2 million (1986 USD, $3.426 million 2005 USD). Three deaths were reported in association with Bonnie.
On June 22, near Sarasota, Florida, a disturbance with a low-level vortex was discovered in the central Gulf of Mexico. It developed a more organized circulation on June 23, and was designated Tropical Depression Two, just south of the Louisiana coastline. The newly formed tropical system strengthened to tropical storm intensity the next day, becoming Tropical Storm Bonnie.
It became a category 1 hurricane on June 25, east-southeast of the Texas-Louisiana border. Bonnie made landfall in eastern Texas on the same day it reached hurricane strength, near High Island. Bonnie then slowly began to weaken, while moving to the north-northeast . Bonnie was absorbed by a frontal zone on the 28th, near the Mississippi River in Arkansas.
Before Hurricane Bonnie made landfall near High Island, 22,000 people were evacuated. Once it hit, the tropical cyclone caused a storm
Hurricane Edouard was the strongest hurricane in the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season, reaching winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) on its path. Edouard remained a major hurricane for eight days, an unusually long amount of time. A Cape Verde-type hurricane, the storm formed near the coast of Africa in the middle of August. It moved westward then curved northward, and persisted until early September when it became extratropical to the southeast of New England. Edouard was originally forecast to strike the northeast United States, but it produced hurricane force gusts to portions of southeastern Massachusetts while remaining offshore. The winds caused minor damage totaling $20 million. In addition, the hurricane generated strong waves and rip currents to coastlines, killing two people in New Jersey and causing numerous injuries.
A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 19, accompanied with spiral bands of convection around an area of low pressure. A large circulation quickly developed once it reached the Atlantic Ocean, and the system organized into Tropical Depression Four late on August 19 while located 345 mi (555 km) southeast of Cape Verde. Initial forecasts predicted for
Hurricane Hilda was the third hurricane to make landfall in the United States during the 1964 Atlantic hurricane season. Originating near Cuba, the cyclone intensified while moving through the Gulf of Mexico, and became a Category 4 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico before striking Louisiana in early October. In combination with a frontal zone located across the Southeast United States, the hurricane spread heavy rains through the South through the Carolinas into the Mid-Atlantic States. Hilda led to significant damage to oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, as well as $126 million (1964 USD) in damage, and 38 deaths.
Hilda originated from a slow-moving easterly wave that was moving westward through the Caribbean Sea. On the morning of September 28, a weak cyclonic circulation formed just off of Cuba and intensified as it moved westward. It became a storm after passing the western tip of Cuba.
Hilda moved at about 9 mph (14 km/h) and entered the Gulf of Mexico, intensifying steadily. The storm reached hurricane status, reaching its peak intensity on October 1 of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimal pressure of 941 mbar (27.8 inHg). Hilda turned northward on October 1 at an average speed
Hurricane Liza was one of the deadliest East Pacific tropical cyclones on record. The seventeenth tropical cyclone, thirteenth named storm, and the eight hurricane of the 1976 Pacific hurricane season, Liza developed from an area of disturbed weather to the southwest of Mexico on September 25. Developing as a tropical depression, it gradually intensified into Tropical Storm Liza later on the following day. Liza continued north-northeastward and steadily strengthened. By September 28, Liza was upgraded to a hurricane. Thereafter, Liza began to steadily deepen, and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane from late on September 28 to early on September 30. Thereafter, Liza weakened in the Gulf of California, and was a Category 3 hurricane when the storm made landfall near Guaymas, Sonora on October 1. Liza rapidly deteriorated while moving inland, and dissipated on the following day.
Liza brought heavy rainfall, which caused significant flash flooding. A dike burst and hundreds of people were swept away by flood water. In addition, high winds produced by the storm tore off roofs. Overall, at least 650 fatalities and $100 million (1976 USD) in damage are attributed to the hurricane.
Hurricane Irene was a long-lived Cape Verde-type Atlantic hurricane during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm formed near Cape Verde on August 4 and crossed the Atlantic, turning northward around Bermuda before becoming extratropical southeast of Newfoundland. Irene persisted for 14 days as a tropical system, the longest duration of any storm of the 2005 season. It was the ninth named storm and fourth hurricane of the record-breaking season.
Irene proved to be a difficult storm to forecast due to oscillations in strength. After almost dissipating on August 10, Irene peaked as a Category 2 hurricane on August 16 before being absorbed by a larger extratropical system late on August 18. Although there were initial fears of a landfall in the United States due to uncertainty in predicting the storm's track, Hurricane Irene never approached land and caused no recorded damage. However, swells up to 8 ft (2.4 m) and strong rip currents resulted in one fatality in Long Beach, New York.
A vigorous tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa on August 1, initially weakening due to cooler sea surface temperatures. It moved westward and passed near Cape Verde, where convection
Typhoon Maemi (international designation: 0314, JTWC designation: 15W, also known to PAGASA forecasters as Typhoon Pogi and sometimes called Super Typhoon Maemi) was a powerful category 5 super typhoon that struck South Korea, killing 117 people. The name Maemi is contributed by North Korea and it means cicada. Maemi was one of the two strongest typhoons of the 2003 Pacific typhoon season (the other being Typhoon Lupit), with a barometric pressure reading of 885 millibars according to the U.S. Navy.
A tropical depression formed on September 5 near Guam. The developing disturbance moved west-northwest where it reached tropical storm status, and it was named Maemi. On September 7, Maemi became a typhoon about 650 miles southeast of Okinawa, Japan. The storm then rapidly intensified as it underwent recurvature. By September 9, it was a strong Category 4 typhoon with 130 kt (145 mph) winds. After reaching a Category 5 peak of 140 kt (160 mph) winds, Maemi bypassed Miyakojima, with the center of the storm coming within ten miles of the island. After brushing Miyakojima, Maemi approached Okinawa. On September 11, the eye of the storm was 130 miles away from land as the storm brushed the
Cyclone Tracy was a tropical cyclone that devastated the city of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, from Christmas Eve to Christmas Day, 1974. It is the most compact cyclone or equivalent-strength hurricane on record in the Australian basin, with gale-force winds extending only 48 kilometres (30 mi) from the centre and was the most compact system worldwide until 2008 when Tropical Storm Marco of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season broke the record, with gale-force winds extending only 19 kilometres (12 mi) from the centre. After forming over the Arafura Sea, the storm moved southwards and affected the city with Category 4 winds on the Australian cyclone intensity scale, while there is evidence to suggest that it had reached Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale when it made landfall.
Tracy killed 71 people, caused $837 million in damage (1974 AUD) and destroyed more than 70 percent of Darwin's buildings, including 80 percent of houses. Tracy left more than 41,000 out of the 47,000 inhabitants of the city homeless prior to landfall and required the evacuation of over 30,000 people. Most of Darwin's population was evacuated to Adelaide, Whyalla, Alice Springs and
Hurricane Fefa was a major Pacific hurricane of the 1991 Pacific hurricane season that despite causing minimal effects its name was removed from the list of tropical cyclone names. The sixth tropical storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the season, the storm developed from a tropical wave on July 29 about 975 miles (1,575 km) south-southeast of Cabo San Lucas. It moved west-northwestward, and under generally favorable conditions it strengthened to attain peak winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) on August 2. Fefa turned to the west towards Hawaii, and slowly weakened until dissipating near the island of Hawaii.
The hurricane produced rough surf, moderate wind gusts, and locally heavy rainfall during its passage over Hawaii. No damages or deaths were reported. Two people were injured in the island of Hawaii due to lightning strikes from the storm.
A westward-moving tropical wave exited the coast of Africa on July 17. It tracked across the unfavorable Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea without development, and after crossing Central America, it entered the eastern Pacific Ocean on July 25. The cloud pattern and convection began to become better organized on July 28, and
Hurricane Gert was a large tropical cyclone that caused significant flood damage throughout Central America and Mexico in September 1993. The seventh named storm and third hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Gert originated as a tropical depression from a tropical wave over the southwestern Caribbean Sea on September 14. The following day, the cyclone briefly attained tropical storm strength before moving ashore in Nicaragua. It proceeded into Honduras and reorganized into a tropical storm over the Gulf of Honduras on September 17, although it weakened back to a depression upon entering Belize the next day. After crossing the Yucatán Peninsula, Gert emerged over warm water in the Bay of Campeche and strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane on September 20. The hurricane made a final landfall on the Gulf Coast of Mexico near Tuxpan, Veracruz, with peak sustained winds of 100 mph (165 km/h). The rugged terrain quickly disrupted its structure, and Gert entered the Pacific Ocean as a tropical depression near the state of Nayarit on September 21. There, it briefly redeveloped a few strong thunderstorms before dissipating over open water five days later.
Gert's broad wind
Hurricane Lane was the thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. The strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall in Mexico since Hurricane Kenna of 2002, Lane developed on September 13 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. It moved northwestward, parallel to the coast of Mexico, and steadily intensified in an area conducive to further strengthening. After turning to the northeast, Lane attained peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), and made landfall in the state of Sinaloa at peak strength. It rapidly weakened and dissipated on September 17, and later brought precipitation to southern part of the U.S. state of Texas
Throughout its path, Lane resulted in four deaths and moderate damage. Damage was heaviest in Sinaloa, where the hurricane made landfall, including reports of severe crop damage. Across Mexico, an estimated 4,320 homes were affected by the hurricane, with about 248,000 people affected. Moderate flooding was reported in Acapulco, resulting in mudslides in some areas. Damage across the country totaled $2.2 billion (2006 MXN), or $206 million (2006 USD, or $218 million in 2010 USD).
A tropical wave moved
Hurricane Linda was the strongest eastern Pacific hurricane on record. Forming from a tropical wave on September 9, 1997, Linda steadily intensified and reached hurricane status within 36 hours of developing. It rapidly intensified, reaching winds of 185 miles per hour (298 km/h) and an estimated central pressure falling to 902 millibars (26.6 inHg). The hurricane was briefly forecast to move toward southern California, but instead, it turned out to sea and dissipated on September 17. It was the fifteenth tropical cyclone, thirteenth named storm, seventh hurricane, and fifth major hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season.
While near peak intensity, Hurricane Linda passed near Socorro Island, where it damaged meteorological instruments. The hurricane produced high waves along the southwestern Mexican coastline, forcing the closure of five ports. If Linda had made landfall on California as predicted, it would have been the strongest storm to do so since a storm in 1939. Though it did not hit the state, the hurricane produced light to moderate rainfall across the region, causing mudslides and flooding in the San Gorgonio Wilderness; two houses were destroyed and 77 others were
Severe Tropical Storm Bilis (international designation: 0604, JTWC designation: 05W, designated Typhoon Florita by PAGASA and sometimes known as just Tropical Storm Bilis) was a tropical storm that caused significant damage to areas of the Philippines, Taiwan, and southeastern China. It was the fifth tropical storm of the 2006 Pacific typhoon season recognized by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, Bilis was the fourth tropical storm of the season. The storm was also designated a typhoon by PAGASA, though it was never officially designated as such by the JMA. The word Bilis, submitted by the Philippines, means 'speed' or 'swiftness' in Tagalog.
Despite never officially reaching typhoon strength, Bilis was responsible for $4.4 billion (2006 USD) in damage and 859 fatalities in the Philippines, Taiwan, and China. Most of the damage was caused by heavy rain, which triggered widespread flash flooding and landslides. Many of the areas Bilis flooded were later affected by Typhoon Kaemi, Typhoon Prapiroon, and intense Typhoon Saomai.
A tropical disturbance developed northeast of Yap on July 7 and slowly increased in organization. The Joint
The Great Hurricane of 1780, also known as Huracán San Calixto, the Great Hurricane of the Antilles, and the 1780 Disaster, is probably the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. Between 20,000 and 22,000 people died when the storm passed through the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean starting on October 10 and ending on October 16. Specifics on the hurricane's track and strength are unknown since the official Atlantic hurricane database only goes back to 1851.
The hurricane struck Barbados with winds possibly exceeding 320 km/h (200 mph), before moving past Martinique, Saint Lucia, and Sint Eustatius; thousands of deaths were reported on the islands. Coming in the midst of the American Revolution, the storm caused heavy losses to British and French fleets contesting for control of the area. The hurricane later passed near Puerto Rico and over the eastern portion of Hispaniola (today's Dominican Republic). There, it caused heavy damage near the coastlines. It ultimately turned to the northeast before being last observed on October 20 southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland.
The death toll from the Great Hurricane alone exceeds that of any other entire decade of Atlantic hurricanes.
Hurricane Abby was the first named storm and first hurricane of the 1968 Atlantic hurricane season. Abby was one of four tropical cyclones to strike Florida during the 1968 season and one of three tropical cyclones to form in June 1968. Forming in the Gulf of Mexico, Abby briefly reached hurricane strength before making hitting Punta Gorda, Florida, as a tropical storm.
Abby's slow movement produced heavy rains across Florida and the Southeastern United States which caused 6 indirect fatalities and $450,000 dollars (1968 USD, $2.5 million 2005 USD) in damage.
A mid-tropospheric trough persisted over the western Caribbean Sea in late May. When a weak cold front moved into the area, it generated convection, gaining enough organization to be called a tropical depression on June 1. The initial circulation was not embedded within the convection, but as it moved slowly north-northeastward, it was able to strengthen and become better organized, reaching tropical storm strength on the 2nd. It crossed the western tip of Cuba, and upon reaching the southeast Gulf of Mexico Abby achieved hurricane strength. Abby then reached a peak intensity 75 mph (121 km/h) and a low pressure of
Hurricane Fifi (later Hurricane Orlene) was a catastrophic tropical cyclone that killed between 3,000 and 10,000 people in Honduras in September 1974, ranking it as the fourth deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. Originating from a strong tropical wave on September 14, the system steadily tracked west-northwestward through the eastern Caribbean Sea. On September 16, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Fifi just off the coast of Jamaica. The storm quickly intensified into a hurricane the following afternoon and attained its peak intensity on September 18 as a strong Category 2 hurricane. Maintaining hurricane intensity, Fifi brushed the northern coast of Honduras before making landfall in Belize the following day. The storm quickly weakened after landfall, becoming a depression late on September 20. Continuing westward, the former hurricane began to interact with another system in the eastern Pacific.
Early on September 22, Fifi re-attained tropical storm status before fully regenerating into a new tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Orlene. Orlene storm traveled in an arced path toward Mexico while quickly intensifying into a Category 2 hurricane before landfall. The
Hurricane Juliette was a long lasting Category 4 hurricane in the 2001 Pacific hurricane season. It caused 12 deaths and $400 million (2001 USD; $525 million 2012 USD) in damage when it hit Baja California in late September.
The tropical wave that later produced Juliette first produced Tropical Depression Nine in the Atlantic Ocean. Forming in the Caribbean Sea, the depression dissipated over Central America on September 20, a day after formation. By early on September 21, the remnants of Nine had re-organized in Pacific, and was then upgraded into a tropical depression. Six hours later, the depression was upgraded into a tropical storm. However, the storm was not named Juliette until later that day, when the storm was operationally believed to have formed (which came after reports from a Hurricane Hunter aircraft).
In an environment of light wind shear, meteorologists predicted to new system to reach hurricane intensity within two days. Within 100 mi (160 km) off the coast of Guatemala, the system moved generally west-northwest over the next five days, paralleling the Mexican Riviera. While a major decrease in thunderstorm activity initially inhibited intensification it became
Tropical Storm Henri was weak a tropical storm that formed in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The eighth storm of the season, Henri was one of six tropical cyclones to hit the United States in the year. Henri formed from a tropical wave in the Gulf of Mexico in early September, and crossed over Florida as a tropical depression. Its remnants later moved into the Mid-Atlantic before dissipating completely.
Henri caused little damage as a tropical cyclone. In Florida, it dropped heavy rainfall, though damage was limited to minor flooding damage. In Delaware and Pennsylvania, damage was greater, where heavy rainfall damaged hundreds of houses and businesses. The resulting floods in Delaware were described as a 1 in 500 year event. The total damage by Henri along its path amounted to $19.6 million (2003 USD, $21.5 million 2006 USD), but no deaths were reported.
On August 22, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa, and it moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea without developing significantly. On September 1 the wave axis entered the Gulf of Mexico, and upon doing so convection steadily organized around a low-level center of circulation. The system moved
Typhoon Gay, also known as the Kavali Cyclone of 1989, was a small but powerful tropical cyclone that caused more than 800 fatalities in and around the Gulf of Thailand in November 1989. The worst typhoon to affect the Malay Peninsula in 35 years, Gay originated from a monsoon trough over the Gulf of Thailand in early November. Owing to favorable atmospheric conditions, the storm rapidly intensified, attaining winds of more than 120 km/h (75 mph) by November 3. Later that day, Gay became the first typhoon since 1891 to make landfall in Thailand, striking Chumphon Province with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). The small storm emerged into the Bay of Bengal and gradually reorganized over the following days as it approached southeastern India. On November 8, Gay attained its peak intensity as a Category 5–equivalent cyclone with winds of 260 km/h (160 mph). The typhoon then moved ashore near Kavali, Andhra Pradesh. Rapid weakening ensued inland, and Gay dissipated over Maharashtra early on November 10.
The typhoon's rapid development took hundreds of vessels in the Gulf of Thailand by surprise, leading to 275 offshore fatalities. Of these, 91 occurred after an oil drilling ship, the
Hurricane Jerry was the tenth named storm and the sixth and final hurricane of the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season. Jerry was also the fourth U.S. landfalling storm and the third storm to strike Texas during the 1989 season; the two previous storms were Allison in June and Chantal in August. When it hit, it marked the most number of Texas landfalls in one season since 1886. Only four October tropical cyclones have struck and/or caused significant effects along the upper-Texas coast over the past 150 years, which occurs about once every 38 year, with only six having done so in the past 175 years.
Hurricane Jerry more notable for its unpredictability, as it was unexpected that it would continue northwest into the upper Texas coast, with computer models predicting a majority of the United States Gulf Coast was at threat of landfall. Although there was unpredictability and a hurricane warning issued only eight hours before landfall, only three fatalities resulted and $70 million (1989 USD, $131 million 2012 USD) in property damage.
A tropical wave emerged from the coast of northwest Africa on September 23. No additional signs of development were noted as the tropical wave crossed the
Hurricane Juan was a significant tropical cyclone that struck the southern part of Atlantic Canada in late September 2003. It was the tenth named storm and the sixth hurricane of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. Juan formed southeast of Bermuda on September 24 from a tropical wave that had tracked across the subtropical Atlantic Ocean. It tracked northward and strengthened over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, reaching Category 2 strength on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale on September 27. The hurricane peaked in intensity with sustained winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) that same day, losing some strength as it raced over cooler waters toward the coast of Nova Scotia. Juan made landfall between Shad Bay and Prospect in the Halifax Regional Municipality early on September 29 as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph (162 km/h). Juan retained hurricane strength while crossing Nova Scotia from south to north, though it weakened to a tropical storm over Prince Edward Island. It was absorbed by another extratropical low later on September 29 near Anticosti Island in the northern Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
The hurricane inflicted extensive damage across central Nova Scotia and
Hurricane Alice is the only known Atlantic hurricane to span two calendar years and one of only two named Atlantic tropical cyclones, along with Tropical Storm Zeta of 2005, to do so. The twelfth tropical cyclone and the eighth hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season, Alice developed on December 30, 1954 from a trough of low pressure in the central Atlantic Ocean in an area of unusually favorable conditions. The storm moved southwestward and gradually strengthened to reach hurricane status. After passing through the Leeward Islands on January 2, 1955, Alice reached peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) before encountering cold air and turning to the southeast. It dissipated on January 6 over the southeastern Caribbean Sea.
Alice produced heavy rainfall and moderately strong winds across several islands along its path. Saba and Anguilla were affected the most, with total damage amounting to $623,500 (1955 USD, $4.7 million 2006 USD). There was an earlier hurricane named Alice in the season. Operationally, lack of definitive data prevented the U.S. Weather Bureau from declaring the system a hurricane until January 2. It received the name Alice in early 1955, though re-analysis of
Hurricane Epsilon was a long-lasting hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season in late November and early December. It was the 27th of 28 tropical or subtropical cyclones, as well as the last of 15 hurricanes of the record-breaking year. Originating from a cold front beneath an upper-level low, Epsilon formed on November 29 about 915 mi (1470 km) east of Bermuda. Initially, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecast the storm to transition into an extratropical cyclone within five days, due to conditions unfavorable for significant intensification. Epsilon continually defied forecasts, at first due to an unexpected loop to the southwest, and later due to retaining its strength despite cold waters and strong wind shear.
On December 1, Epsilon began a northeast motion due to an approaching trough, and the next day it attained hurricane status. After turning to the east, it developed characteristics of an annular hurricane, meaning it had a circular eye, a ring of convection, and had little fluctuations in its intensity. On December 5 Epsilon attained peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h), and the next day it turned to the south and southwest. Late on December 7, the winds dropped
Hurricane Francelia was the second-deadliest hurricane of the 1969 Atlantic hurricane season behind Hurricane Camille, killing 100 people as it made landfall on Central America in Belize. The storm crossed into the eastern Pacific Ocean as a disturbance after making landfall and moving inland, eventually reforming and becoming Hurricane Glenda.
The origins of Hurricane Francelia were from a tropical wave – an elongated low pressure area – that exited the western coast of Africa on August 19. It moved westward across the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and the annual summary of 1969 tropical cyclone activity indicated there may have been a depression briefly located within the system. On August 26, an area of convection, or thunderstorms, developed along the wave, about 800 miles (1300 km) east of Barbados. A Hurricane Hunters flight two days later reported no circulation. As the system moved through the southern Lesser Antilles, ships and land observations suggested a circulation developed, indicating the formation of a tropical depression in the extreme southeastern Caribbean Sea early on August 29.
The new tropical cyclone moved quickly west-northwestward away from South America, and on
Hurricane Hugo was a rare but powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that caused widespread damage and loss of life in the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Southeast United States. Hurricane Hugo formed over the eastern Atlantic near the Cape Verde Islands on September 9, 1989. Hugo moved thousands of miles across the Atlantic, rapidly strengthening to briefly attain category 5 hurricane strength on its journey. It later crossed over Guadeloupe and St. Croix on September 17 and 18 as a category 4 hurricane. Weakening slightly more, Hurricane Hugo passed over Puerto Rico as a strong category 3 hurricane. Further weakening occurred several hours after re-emerging into the Atlantic, becoming downgraded to a category 2 hurricane. However, Hugo re-strengthened into a category 4 hurricane before making landfall at Charleston Harbor on September 21. Hugo had devolved to a remnant low near Lake Erie by the next day.
Hurricane Hugo caused 34 fatalities (most by electrocution or drowning) in the Caribbean and 27 in South Carolina, left nearly 100,000 homeless, and resulted in $10 billion (1989 USD) in damage overall, making it the most damaging hurricane ever recorded at the time. Of this
Hurricane Mitch was the most powerful hurricane and the most destructive of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph (285 km/h). The storm was the thirteenth tropical storm, ninth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the season. Along with Hurricane Georges, Mitch was the most notable hurricane in the season. At the time, Hurricane Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane observed in the month of October, though it has since been surpassed by Hurricane Wilma of the 2005 season. The hurricane matched the fourth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record (it has since dropped to seventh).
Mitch formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, and after drifting through extremely favorable conditions, it rapidly strengthened to peak at Category 5 status, the highest possible rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. After drifting southwestward and weakening, the hurricane hit Honduras as a minimal hurricane. It drifted through Central America, reformed in the Bay of Campeche, and ultimately struck Florida as a strong tropical storm.
Due to its slow motion from October 29 to November 3, Hurricane Mitch dropped historic amounts of rainfall
Tropical Storm Hanna was a moderately strong tropical storm that affected the Gulf Coast and Southeastern regions of the United States. The tenth tropical cyclone and ninth named storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, Hanna formed through the complex interaction of a surface trough, a tropical wave, and an upper-level low pressure system, a disturbance in the upper atmosphere. Designated a tropical depression at 0000 UTC on September 12, the storm remained disorganized throughout its duration, though it attained tropical storm status and a peak intensity of 1,001 mbar (29.6 inHg), with winds of 60 miles per hour (100 km/h). Hanna crossed extreme southeastern Louisiana, and made a second landfall along the Alabama–Mississippi border.
Because most of the associated convective activity was east of the center of circulation, Louisiana and Mississippi received minimal damage. However, on Dauphin Island, Alabama, the storm caused coastal flooding which closed roads and forced the evacuation of residents. Florida received high wind gusts, heavy rainfall, and strong surf that resulted in the deaths of three swimmers. 20,000 homes in the state lost electricity. The heavy rainfall
Super Typhoon Dot (international designation: 8522, JTWC designation: 21W, PAGASA name: Typhoon Saling) was the only super typhoon of the 1985 season, with maximum wind speeds of 150 knots (175 mph or 280 km/h) at peak intensity. Dot is also the sixth-most intense tropical cyclone in terms of wind speed to affect Bicol Region, Philippines between 1947 and 2004.
A tropical disturbance in a trough was first detected 150 nautical miles (280 kilometres) southeast of Ponape on October 11. Moving west-northwest, the system reached tropical storm intensity on October 13 south of Guam , and was named Dot.
Continuing its track towards the west, it attained typhoon status north of Yap late on October 14. Continuing to move west-northwestward at a nearly-constant 12 knots, it rapidly intensified on October 15, with the minimum sea-level pressure of the storm deepening 66 millibars in 23 hours - a rate of a drop of 2.8 mb/hour (in comparison, Hurricane Wilma of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, the most intense Atlantic storm ever recorded, deepened at a rate of 3 mb/hour at one point). This rapid deepening caused problems with the JTWC's intensity forecasts, and by the end of the day Dot
Hurricane Jeanne was the deadliest hurricane in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the tenth named storm, the seventh hurricane, and the fifth major hurricane of the season, as well as the third hurricane and fourth named storm of the season to make landfall in Florida. After wreaking havoc on Hispaniola, Jeanne struggled to reorganize, eventually strengthening and performing a complete loop over the open Atlantic. It headed westwards, strengthening into a Category 2 hurricane and passing over the islands of Great Abaco and Grand Bahama in the Bahamas on September 25. Jeanne made landfall later in the day in Florida just 2 miles (3 kilometers) from where Frances had struck 3 weeks earlier. Building on the rainfall of Frances and Ivan, Jeanne brought near-record flood levels as far north as West Virginia and New Jersey before its remnants turned east into the open Atlantic. Jeanne is blamed for at least 3,006 deaths in Haiti with about 2,800 in Gonaïves alone, which was nearly washed away by floods and mudslides. The storm also caused 7 deaths in Puerto Rico, 18 in the Dominican Republic and at least 4 in Florida, bringing the total number of deaths to at least 3,025; Jeanne
Hurricane Charley was the costliest tropical cyclone of the 1986 Atlantic hurricane season. The third tropical storm and second hurricane of the season, Charley formed as a subtropical low on August 13 along the Florida panhandle. After moving off the coast of South Carolina, the system transitioned into a tropical cyclone and intensified into a tropical storm on August 15. Charley later attained hurricane status before moving across eastern North Carolina. It gradually weakened over the north Atlantic Ocean before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on August 20. Charley's remnants remained identifiable for over a week until after crossing the British Isles and dissipating on August 30.
The storm brought light to moderate precipitation to much of the southeastern United States. In Georgia and South Carolina, the rainfall alleviated drought conditions. In North Carolina, where the hurricane made landfall, tidal flooding and downed trees were the primary impact. The storm brought high winds to southeastern Virginia, where 110,000 people were left without power. Minor damage extended along the Atlantic coastline northward through Massachusetts. One traffic fatality was
Hurricane Eloise was the most destructive tropical cyclone of the 1975 Atlantic hurricane season. The fifth tropical storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the season, Eloise formed as a tropical depression on September 13 to the east of the Virgin Islands. The depression tracked westward and intensified into a tropical storm while passing to the north of Puerto Rico. Eloise briefly attained hurricane intensity soon thereafter, but weakened back to a tropical storm upon making landfall over Hispaniola. A weak and disorganized cyclone, Eloise emerged into open waters of the northern Caribbean Sea; upon striking the northern Yucatan Peninsula, it turned north and began to re-intensify. In the Gulf of Mexico, the cyclone quickly matured and became a Category 3 hurricane on September 23. Eloise made landfall along the Florida Panhandle west of Panama City before moving inland across Alabama and dissipating on September 24.
The storm produced torrential rainfall throughout the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, causing extensive flooding that led to severe damage and more than 40 deaths. Thousands of people in these areas became homeless as flood waters submerged
Tropical Storm Alberto was the first tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming on June 10 in the northwestern Caribbean, the storm moved generally to the north, reaching a maximum intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) before weakening and moving ashore in the Big Bend area of Florida on June 13. Alberto then moved through eastern Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia as a tropical depression before becoming extratropical on June 14.
Across the Western Caribbean, the storm produced heavy rainfall, causing some minor damage. In Florida, a moderate storm tide caused coastal damage and flooding, while Alberto's outer rainbands produced several tornadoes. The storm was indirectly responsible for two drownings off the coast of Tampa Bay. In North Carolina, heavy rainfall caused locally severe flooding, and one child drowned in a flooded storm drain near Raleigh. The remnants of Alberto produced strong winds and left four people missing in Atlantic Canada. Overall, damage was minor along Alberto's path.
In early June 2006, an area of convection persisted across Central America and the western Caribbean in association with a broad, nearly stationary trough of low pressure.
Tropical Storm Leslie was a weak, short-lived tropical cyclone that was never well-organized; however, its precursor was costlier than any other tropical cyclone in the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season. The twelfth named storm of the season, Leslie formed on October 4 over eastern Florida as a subtropical cyclone, out of a trough of low pressure. Strengthening over open waters, it attained enough tropical characteristics to be reclassified as Tropical Storm Leslie on October 5. The storm reached peak winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) before wind shear weakened it, and on October 7 transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over the open Atlantic Ocean. Leslie lasted three more days before losing its identity.
The precursor to Leslie produced torrential rainfall across Florida, peaking at 17.5 in (440 mm). The flooding damaged thousands of houses and caused three indirect deaths. Damage in southern Florida totaled $950 million (2000 USD, $1.28 billion 2012 USD), around half of which was from agricultural damage. After the flooding, portions of south Florida were declared a disaster area. Because of the limited impact as a tropical cyclone, the name Leslie was not retired in the Spring of
The 1889 Apia cyclone was a Pacific tropical cyclone, which swept across Apia, Samoa on March 15, 1889 during the Samoan crisis. The effect on shipping in the harbour was devastating, largely because of what has been described as 'an error of judgement that will forever remain a paradox in human psychology'.
Events ashore had led to upheaval in the Pacific nations and colonies. Both the United States and Imperial Germany saw this as a potential opportunity to expand their holdings in the Pacific through gunboat diplomacy. In order to be ready should such an opportunity arise, both nations had dispatched squadrons to the town to investigate the situation and act accordingly. A British ship was also present, ostensibly to observe the actions of the other nations during the Samoan upheavals.
During the days preceding the cyclone of the 15th, increasing signs were visible of the impending disaster. March was cyclone season in this area, and Apia had been hit by a cyclone just three years previously, which the captains of the ships heard about from local people, especially as the weather began to change and the atmospheric pressure began to fall. The captains were experienced Pacific
Hurricane Gilbert was an extremely powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that formed during the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season and brought widespread destruction to the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. It was the most intense hurricane ever observed in the Atlantic basin, until Hurricane Wilma surpassed it during 2005. Gilbert was also one of the largest tropical cyclones ever observed in the Atlantic basin. At one point, its tropical storm-force winds measured 588 mi (946 km) in diameter. In addition, Gilbert was the most intense tropical cyclone in recorded history to strike Mexico.
The seventh named storm and third hurricane of the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season, Gilbert developed from a tropical wave on September 8 while located 400 mi (640 km) east of Barbados. Following intensification into a tropical storm the next day, Gilbert steadily strengthened as it tracked west-northwestward into the Caribbean Sea. On September 10, Gilbert attained hurricane intensity, and rapidly intensified into a Category 3 hurricane on September 11. After striking Jamaica the following day, rapid intensification occurred once again, and the storm became a Category 5 hurricane on the
Hurricane Gloria was a powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that formed during the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season and prowled the Atlantic Ocean from September 16 to September 28. Gloria reached Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale near the Bahamas, but weakened significantly by the time it made landfall on North Carolina's Outer Banks. Gloria closely followed the Mid-Atlantic coastline and made a second landfall on Long Island, and, after crossing the Long Island Sound, it made a third landfall in Connecticut.
Overall, the storm caused extensive damage along the East Coast of the United States, amounting to $900 million ($1.94 billion in 2012 terms), and was responsible for eight fatalities. The storm was the first significant system to strike the northeastern United States since Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and the first major storm to affect New York and Long Island directly since Hurricane Donna in 1960.
Gloria began as a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on September 15. It moved westward through the favorable tropical Atlantic Ocean, and organized into a tropical depression the next day while south of Cape Verde. Tracking steadily west-northwestward
Hurricane Joan was a powerful hurricane that caused death and destruction in over a dozen countries in the Caribbean and Central America. Moving on a due west course for nearly two weeks in October 1988, Hurricane Joan caused widespread flooding and over 200 deaths after moving into Central America. Widespread suffering and economic crises were exacerbated by Joan, primarily across Nicaragua, as heavy rains and high winds impacted those near the hurricane's path.
After crossing Central America into the Pacific, the cyclone was renamed Tropical Storm Miriam, with the system's dissipation occurring southwest of Mexico. Joan-Miriam was the final hurricane of the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season and the final named storm of the Pacific hurricane season.
One of the latest Cape Verde-type hurricanes to form in any season, Joan formed from an area of convection in the intertropical convergence zone that moved off the coast of Africa early in October. It developed banding and was upgraded to Tropical Depression Seventeen on October 10 and later designated as Tropical Storm Joan while located at low latitude in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Joan gradually strengthened as it passed over the
Hurricane Rita was the fourth–most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico. The eighteenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and fifth major hurricane of the season, Rita formed near The Bahamas from a tropical wave on September 18 that originally developed off the coast of West Africa. It moved westward, and after passing through the Florida Straits Rita entered an environment of abnormally warm waters. It rapidly intensified to reach peak winds of 180 mph (285 km/h) on September 20. After steadily weakening and beginning to curve to the northwest, Rita gradually weakened and made landfall on Sabine Pass, Texas with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) on September 20. It weakened over land and degenerated into a large low-pressure area over the lower Mississippi Valley on September 26.
In Louisiana, the storm surge from Rita inundated low-lying communities near the coast, worsening effects caused by Hurricane Katrina less than a month prior. The surge topped levees, allowing water to surge further inland. Lake Charles suffered from severe flooding. Areas in Texas suffered from extensive wind damage. Nine counties were
Tropical Storm Bret was a short-lived tropical storm of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season that made landfall in the Mexican state of Veracruz, the first of four during the season. The second named storm of the season, Bret developed along a tropical wave on June 28 in the Bay of Campeche, and quickly intensified. Tracking to the west-northwest, Bret moved ashore within 24 hours of forming, and dissipated shortly thereafter.
Bret was the first of six tropical cyclones (three hurricanes, two of them major, and three tropical storms) to make landfall in Mexico during the season. With the formation of the tropical storm on June 28, the 2005 season became the first since 1986 with two storms in the month of June. The storm dropped heavy rainfall along its path, peaking at 266 mm (10.67 inches), which caused flooding and one drowning death. About 7,500 people were affected, and damage totaled over 100 million pesos (2005 MXN, $9.3 million 2005 USD, $10.3 million 2008 USD).
A tropical wave accompanied by a weak surface low pressure area crossed Central America and eastern Mexico from June 24 through June 27. An area of disturbed weather associated with the system moved into the Bay of
The 1915 Galveston Hurricane was a deadly hurricane that struck Leeward Islands, Hispanola, Cuba and Texas, in mid August of the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. Striking Galveston, Texas, 15 years after the 1900 Galveston Hurricane, its 21-ft (6.4-m) waves were slowed by the new Galveston Seawall but changed the beach structure: on August 17, the entire 300-ft (91.5–m) beach was eroded to become an offshore sandbar, later returning partially, but never the same. The 1915 storm caused a great deal of destruction in its path, leaving 275-400 people dead and $50 million dollars (1915 USD, $921 million 2005 USD) in damage.
A Cape Verde type hurricane, the 1915 Hurricane was detected as a tropical storm moving westward on August 5. Then it was officially observed on August 10 as a Category 1 hurricane. By that time, the storm was centered north of Barbados. On August 11, the eye of the hurricane passed south of the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. A weather station in San Juan recorded a 29.60 inch (987 mbar) pressure reading and winds up to 60 mph (110 km/h). The hurricane continued to move westward between 18 and 20 mph (25–30 km/h) where it brushed Haiti and made landfall in Jamaica.
Hurricane Bret was the first of five Category 4 hurricanes that developed during the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season and the first tropical cyclone since Hurricane Jerry in 1989 to make landfall in Texas at hurricane intensity. Forming from a tropical wave on August 18, Bret slowly organized within weak steering currents in the Bay of Campeche. By August 20, the storm began to track northward and underwent rapid intensification on August 21. After this period of strengthening, Bret attained its peak intensity with winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 944 mbar (hPa; 27.88 inHg). Later that day, the storm weakened to a Category 3 hurricane and made landfall on Padre Island, Texas. Shortly thereafter, the storm weakened further, becoming a tropical depression 24 hours after moving inland. The remnants of the storm eventually dissipated early on August 26 over northern Mexico.
Along the Texas coastline, Bret threatened several cities, prompting 180,000 residents to evacuate. Numerous shelters were opened throughout the region and prisons were evacuated. Several days prior to the storm's arrival, the NHC issued hurricane watches, and later warnings for areas near the
On August 27, 1893 a major hurricane which came to be known as the Sea Islands Hurricane struck the United States near Savannah, Georgia. It was one of two deadly hurricanes during the 1893 Atlantic hurricane season; the storm killed an estimated 1,000–2,000 people, mostly from storm surge. This is also the storm that made famous United States Life-Saving Service Keeper Dunbar Davis.
Modern analysis of historical records has allowed the history of this storm to be pieced together, although the analysis is only estimations since few accurate meteorological records were taken.
On August 15, 1893, a tropical storm formed east of Cape Verde. It likely passed directly through islands on the 16th, leaving their vicinity during the evening of the 17th. It became a hurricane on the 19th, while crossing the Atlantic between the Cape Verde Islands and the Lesser Antilles. The hurricane continued to strengthen, attaining Category 3 status on August 22 while located northeast of the Lesser Antilles. By the evening of the 25th, the storm was approaching the Bahamas. During the approach it began to deviate from its westerly course and arc west-northwest. It is believed that the first effects of
Cyclone Percy was the seventh named storm of the 2004-05 South Pacific cyclone season and the fourth and final cyclone to form during the February 2005 outbreak in the South Pacific Ocean.
Percy was also the most damaging of the February cyclones as it battered the Cook Islands, which were still recovering from the impacts of Cyclones Meena, Nancy and Olaf. Percy then devastated the island of Tokelau, leaving many homeless and millions in dollars in property damages (although exact damage figures are unavailable). Because of warnings in anticipation of the storm, there were no deaths and there were only a few injuries.
A discernible area of low pressure formed east of Tuvalu on 23 February. The area of low pressure moved eastward, where it strengthened into Tropical Depression 10F a day later. Since the depression was located in an area of low wind shear and warm water temperatures, it was able to quickly strengthen into Tropical Storm Percy. At this point in time, Percy was located 120 miles (190 km) east of Fongafale, Tuvalu, and was moving towards the east-southeast at 14 kt (16 mph, 26 km/h). On 26 February, Percy reached Category 1 status, while located 400 miles (644 km)
Severe Tropical Cyclone Rosita was a tropical cyclone that affected northern Australia from 15 April through 21 April 2000. Rosita was one of the most intense tropical cyclones to hit the west Kimberley coast in the last hundred years. Crossing the coast as a Category 5 about 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Broome on 20 April, Rosita caused severe damage in the Eco Beach resort and the vegetation around Broome. Its region of very destructive winds (gusts exceeding 170 km/h) passed south of Broome by only 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). Cyclone Rosita was the first cyclone to directly hit Broome since Cyclone Lindsay in March 1985.
A weak low in the Timor Sea formed on 14 April, initially moving west south-west and turned southward during 16 April and 17 April. The low slowly strengthened and was named Rosita on 17 April, while located approximately 670 kilometres (420 mi) to the north of Port Hedland at about 6 p.m. WST (1000 UTC). On the morning of 18 April, a ship reported a relatively high pressure of 997 hPa while passing very close to the centre of Cyclone Rosita, however, near-storm-force winds were reported.
Rosita then entered a very favourable environment which allowed rapid
The Hurricane of 1900 made landfall on September 8, 1900 in the city of Galveston, Texas, in the United States. It had estimated winds of 145 miles per hour (233 km/h) at landfall, making it a Category 4 storm on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. It was the deadliest hurricane in US history, and the second costliest hurricane in US history based on the US dollar's 2005 value (to compare costs with those of Hurricane Katrina and others).
The hurricane caused great loss of life with the estimated death toll between 6,000 and 12,000 individuals; the number most cited in official reports is 8,000, giving the storm the third-highest number of deaths or injuries of any Atlantic hurricane, after the Great Hurricane of 1780 and 1998's Hurricane Mitch. The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 is the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States. By contrast, the second-deadliest storm to strike the United States, the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane, caused more than 2,500 deaths, and the deadliest storm of recent times, Hurricane Katrina, claimed the lives of approximately 1,800 people.
The hurricane occurred before the practice of assigning official code names to tropical storms was
Hurricane Calvin was one of three Pacific hurricanes to make landfall in July. The fourth tropical cyclone, third named storm, and second hurricane of the 1993 Pacific hurricane season, Calvin developed from an area of convection to the south of Mexico on July 4. On the following day, the system intensified into a tropical storm, which was named Calvin. Continued strengthening occurred as Calvin turned northward, after originally heading westward. As Calvin was turning northward, it was upgraded to a hurricane on July 6. Calvin eventually turned northwest, and became a Category 2 hurricane. By July 7, Calvin made landfall near Manzanillo as a Category 2 hurricane. Calvin rapidly weakened after landfall, and was a tropical storm when it re-emerged into the Pacific Ocean on early on July 8. Despite this, Calvin did not re-intensify, and instead weakened as it headed rapidly northwestward. As Calvin made a second Mexican landfall near the southern tip of Baja California Peninsula on July 8, it weakened to a tropical depression. Early on July 9, Calvin dissipated shortly after again emerging into the Pacific Ocean.
Calvin was only the third July hurricane on record to make landfall on
Hurricane Gert was the fourth of five major hurricanes in the moderately active 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. A Cape Verde-type hurricane, Gert formed on September 11 off the coast of Africa before heading west-northwest. It reached a peak wind speed of 150 mph (240 km/h) by September 15 over the open central Atlantic east-northeast of the Leeward Islands. It gradually curved to the northwest and later to the north, due to a weakness in the subtropical ridge created by Hurricane Floyd. Hurricane Gert passed east of Bermuda on September 21 and began a steady weakening trend at that time. It turned to the northeast, and on September 23, Gert transitioned into an extratropical cyclone to the southeast of Atlantic Canada before being absorbed by a larger storm.
For several days, Gert threatened to strike Bermuda, prompting the evacuation of tourists. Although Gert's center did not make landfall, it passed a short distance east of the island, producing hurricane force winds that left 11,000 people without power. High waves swept two people out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine. Later, strong waves struck Newfoundland and left heavy marine damage.
A tropical wave moved off the
Hurricane Michelle was the thirteenth named storm and the strongest tropical cyclone of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. Michelle developed from a tropical wave that moved across the Atlantic, and formed into Tropical Depression Fifteen on the October 29. The depression slowly intensified as forming, and became Tropical Storm Michelle on November 1. It strengthened more, until reaching its peak strength as a Category 4. One of only five November Category 4 hurricanes, Michelle made landfall on south-central Cuba with winds of 140 mph (225 km/h), the strongest Cuban landfall since Hurricane Fox in the 1952 season.
The hurricane brought torrential rains across its path from Central America through the Greater Antilles, especially in the countries of Cuba and Honduras. In total, Michelle caused 17 fatalities and $2 billion (2001 USD; $2.63 billion 2012 USD) in damage. As a result of the severe affects, the name Michelle was retired following the season.
A tropical wave moved off of the west coast of Africa on October 16. The tropical wave moved across the open Atlantic, and reached the Lesser Antilles on October 23. Still a weak tropical wave, shower activity increased on October
Hurricane Stan was the eighteenth named tropical storm and eleventh hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was also the sixth of seven tropical cyclones (three hurricanes, two of them major, three tropical storms and one tropical depression) to make landfall in Mexico. Stan was a relatively weak storm that only briefly reached hurricane status. It was embedded in a larger non-tropical system of rainstorms that dropped torrential rains in the Central American countries of Guatemala and El Salvador and in southern Mexico, causing flooding and mudslides that led to 1,628 fatalities. Throughout the affected countries, the storm left roughly $3.9 billion in damage.
Hurricane Stan originated from a tropical wave that was first identified by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) off the west coast of Africa on September 17, 2005. Traveling westward, the wave remained weak, barely being notable. By September 22, before convection began to increase; however, wind shear in the region prevented this development from lasting. The system entered the Caribbean Sea several days later, a region with more favorable conditions for cyclonic development. Intermittent convection formed
Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical cyclone that produced severe flooding in the southern United States. The second tropical cyclone and the first named storm of the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season, Allison formed on June 24 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Development of Allison was a result of the interaction of a tropical wave and the remnants of Pacific hurricane Hurricane Cosme. It moved south and became a tropical storm on June 26. By June 27, Allison made landfall near Freeport, Texas. Allison quickly weakened to a tropical depression later that day, and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on the following day.
The storm caused heavy rainfall, amounting to 30 in (760 mm) in some places. In total, 11 fatalities resulted from the storm, as well as $560 million (1989 USD, $1.05 billion 2012 USD) in damage.
Three meteorological phenomena combined to produce Tropical Storm Allison. First, Hurricane Cosme moved northward through Mexico in response to a strong mid to upper-level ridge. Its remnants entered the Gulf of Mexico on June 22, when a westward moving tropical wave reached the area. Finally, a strong anticyclone over the Gulf allowed for the disturbed area to
Tropical Storm Jose was a short-lived tropical storm which made landfall in central Mexico during August 2005. Jose was the tenth named storm of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and the fourth of six tropical cyclones (three hurricanes and three tropical storms) to make landfall in Mexico in that year.
Tropical Storm Jose formed in the Bay of Campeche on August 22 and made landfall in the Mexican state of Veracruz the next day. It retained tropical characteristics for less than one day before dissipating, but still brought heavy levels of rainfall to the region. Mudslides caused by the rainfall killed eight people, six of those directly, and caused $45 million (2005 USD) in damage.
Tropical Storm Jose was first identified as a tropical wave that moved off the western coast of Africa on August 8, 2005. On August 13, the system spawned Tropical Depression Ten over the central Atlantic; the wave itself continued westward, entering the Caribbean Sea on August 17. Slight development took place as the system moved over the Yucatán Peninsula; however, by the time int entered the Bay of Campeche on August 21, little convection was associaed with the system. The following morning,
Hurricane Bonnie was a major hurricane that made landfall in North Carolina, United States, inflicting severe crop damage. The second named storm, first hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, Bonnie developed from a tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on August 14. The wave gradually developed, and the system was designated a tropical depression on August 19. The depression began tracking towards the west-northwest, and became a tropical storm the next day. On August 22, Bonnie was upgraded to a hurricane, with a well-defined eye. The storm peaked as a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, and around the same time, the storm slowed and turned more towards the north-northwest. A large and powerful cyclone, Bonnie moved ashore in North Carolina early on August 27, slowing as it turned northeast. After briefly losing hurricane status, the storm moved offshore and regained Category 1-force winds, although it weakened again on entering cooler waters.
Fearing a major hurricane strike, coastal locations from Florida to Virginia performed extensive preparations in advance of the storm. In addition to tropical cyclone
Hurricane Earl was an atypical, short-lived Category 2 hurricane that caused moderate damage throughout the Southeast United States. It formed out of a poorly organized tropical disturbance over the southwest Gulf of Mexico late on August 31, 1998. Tracking towards the northeast, the storm quickly intensified into a hurricane on September 2 and made landfall early the next day near Panama City, Florida. Rapidly tracking towards Atlantic Canada, the extratropical remnants of Earl significantly intensified before passing over Newfoundland on September 6. The remnants were absorbed by former Hurricane Danielle two days later.
Moderate beach erosion occurred along the coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida as waves reached 20 ft (6.1 m). Throughout Florida, nearly 2,000 homes were damaged and a few were destroyed. Severe flooding caused by storm surge and heavy rains was the main cause of damage in the state. Offshore, two men drowned after their boat capsized during the storm. A minor tornado outbreak took place in relation to Earl in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. A tornado in South Carolina killed one person after completely destroying the
Hurricane Wilma was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin. Wilma was the twenty-second storm (including the subtropical storm discovered in reanalysis), thirteenth hurricane, sixth major hurricane, and fourth Category 5 hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 season. A tropical depression formed in the Caribbean Sea near Jamaica on October 15, and intensified into a tropical storm two days later, which was named Wilma. After heading westward as a tropical depression, Wilma turned abruptly southward after becoming a tropical storm. Wilma continued intensifying, and eventually became a hurricane on October 18. Shortly thereafter, extreme intensification occurred, and in only 24 hours, Wilma became a Category 5 hurricane with winds of 185 mph (295 km/h).
Intensity slowly leveled off after becoming a Category 5 hurricane, and winds had decreased to 150 mph (240 km/h) before reaching the Yucatán Peninsula on October 20 and 21. After crossing the Yucatán Peninsula, Wilma emerged into the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane. As Wilma began accelerating to the northeast, gradual re-intensification occurred, and the hurricane became a Category 3 hurricane
Tropical Storm Kim (international designation: 8315, JTWC designation: 16W) was the only storm of 1983 to move from the Western Pacific basin into the North Indian Ocean basin as it moved across southern Indochina and into the Bay of Bengal as a tropical depression. Although Kim was a weak tropical storm, it still managed to cause 200 deaths and heavy crop damage in Indochina.
On October 9, 1983, a weak tropical disturbance formed to the northeast of Truk. Over the next few days the disturbance moved towards the west and was a persistent feature on satellite imagery, however the disturbance showed no signs off developing and was expected to dissipate over the southern Philippines. On October 14, the disturbance moved into the Sulu Sea it lost its convective signature and was no longer identifiable as a Tropical disturbance, however the next day the system moved into the South China Sea and rapidly developed into a Tropical depression. At this time the southwest monsoon was well developed in the South China Sea and provided a favourable environment for further development of the depression.
A Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert was then released on the Tropical Depression, early on
Tropical Storm Larry was the twelfth tropical storm in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. It was one of eight storms to impact Mexico from either the Pacific or Atlantic Oceans in the season, a near-record. Larry formed in early October from an extratropical storm in the Bay of Campeche, and reached a peak intensity of 65 mph (100 km/h). Due to weak steering currents, the storm moved southward, which resulted in the storm hitting the Tabasco coastline. The storm was the first Tabascan landfall since Tropical Storm Brenda in 1973.
Larry drifted across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, dropping heavy rainfall of over 9 in (229 mm) in places. The rainfall led to flooding and mudslides, causing damage to thousands of houses. The flooding killed five people and resulted in $53.6 million (2003 USD) in damage. Larry was one of three tropical cyclones to hit Mexico in a short period of time, including Tropical Depression Nora and Tropical Storm Olaf in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 17. It moved across the shear-ridden Atlantic Ocean without development, and remained disorganized until reaching the western Caribbean Sea on September 26.
Tropical Storm Otto was a tropical storm that formed during the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. It formed on 29 November, very late in the season, and persisted into December, dissipating on 3 December. Tropical Storm Otto was the fifteenth and final storm to be named in 2004. No damages were reported relating to Otto, as it remained far from land, never moving within 800 miles (1290 km) from the island of Bermuda, the nearest land mass. Tropical Storm Otto was most notable for having been a rather rare out-of-season storm, as it continued its life into the month of December (the official hurricane season ended on 30 November).
On 21 November, a cold front left the east coast of the United States and slowly moved eastward. It then stalled midway between Bermuda and the Azores Islands on 25 November. At this point, an extratropical low developed along the front, due to a strong upper-level trough that was moving southward. The low formed about 1,150 miles (1,850 km) southwest of the Azores Islands on 26 November. The surface low rapidly deepened and became a large gale area late that day, due to the strong baroclinic effects of the upper-level low. The upper-level trough was still
Super Typhoon Karen (was also Tropical Storm Karen in the Central Pacific, international designation: 6228) was a powerful Category 5 super typhoon that devastated Guam at near peak intensity with winds of Category 5 strength. Karen later tracked near Japan as a weak Category 2, strong Category 1, typhoon; its effects were felt in Japan. Karen was possibly the strongest typhoon to hit Guam.
On November 7, the 28th storm of the season formed; it was named Karen. It then moved north and rapidly strengthened into a Category 5 Super Typhoon. Karen was also reported to have two eyewalls at the time it slammed into Guam. It is believed that Karen may have had two eyewalls due to an eyewall replacement cycle. Karen then increased its speed from about six mph as it moved towards the northwest at around eighteen mph. On November 11, while over Guam, it had winds of 160+ and a minimum pressure of at least 935 millibars. It maintained Category 5 intensity for 4.25 days, second only to Typhoon Nancy in length. On November 14, Karen then curved northeast and began to weaken over the colder waters of the Pacific. On November 17, it was downgraded to a tropical storm. The following day Karen
Super Typhoon Irma (international designation: 8126, JTWC designation: 26W, PAGASA name: Typhoon Anding), was the 25th named storm, fourteenth typhoon, and second super typhoon of the 1981 Pacific typhoon season. A powerful late season typhoon, Irma reached a peak wind speed of 160 mph (260 km/h) before hitting the northern Philippines as category 2 typhoon, causing considerable damage and 200+ casualties. Irma was the third strongest typhoon to make landfall in the Philippines since records began in 1947.
An area of convection was detected on November 15 near Ponape. The disturbance was moving northward and then westward as a cluster of thunderstorms. Because of the strong outflow from nearby Typhoon Hazen, the disturbance never was able to strengthen further. When Hazen moved off to the west, the tropical system was able to re-organize itself as a central circulation was defined on radar and satellite readings. On November 17, a Hurricane Hunter aircraft detected 35 mph (56 km/h) winds, which upgraded the disturbance to Tropical Depression 26W. 26W continued to move westward where it further strengthened and became Tropical Storm Irma as it bypassed Guam to the north on November
Hurricane Alma was a rare June major hurricane in the 1966 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the earliest Atlantic hurricane in the calendar year in fifteen years, as well as the earliest continental U.S. hurricane strike since 1825. Alma developed on June 4 over Central America, and while moving through Honduras, it dropped heavy rainfall that killed at least 73 people in the city of San Rafael. Offshore northern Honduras, the system produced heavy rainfall in Swan Island. Alma moved northeastward and intensified into a hurricane on June 6. It crossed western Cuba, causing heavy crop damage and water shortages. Alma destroyed over 1,000 houses, and damage was estimated around $200 million (1966 USD). The storm killed 12 people in the country.
After crossing Cuba, Alma intensified further to reach winds of 125 mph (201 km/h) in the Gulf of Mexico. The hurricane passed west of Key West, Florida, causing a power outage and flooding. Alma dropped heavy rainfall and produced winds across most of Florida, which damaged crops and caused scattered power outages. The hurricane weakened before moving ashore near Apalachee Bay. Damage in was estimated at $10 million, and there were six
Hurricane Celia was the costliest tropical cyclone in Texas history until Hurricane Alicia in 1983. The eighth tropical cyclone, third named storm, and second hurricane of the 1970 Atlantic hurricane season, Celia developed in the western Caribbean Sea from a tropical wave on July 31. Initially, the depression tracked north-northwestward without significantly intensify. By the following day, the depression crossed over western Cuba and entered into the Gulf of Mexico soon thereafter. Shortly after emerging into the Gulf of Mexico, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Celia. With warm sea surface temperatures, Celia rapidly intensified into a major hurricane on the August 1.
The intensification was temporary and Celia weakened to a minimal hurricane the next morning. As Celia moved towards the Texas coastline, it began to rapidly intensify again. The storm reached its peak as it made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas, as a strong Category Three hurricane late on August 3. The storm caused 15 fatalities in Texas before dissipating inland the next day. Damages in Texas totaled to $930 million, making Celia the costliest disaster in Texas history at the time. To date, Celia
Hurricane Felix caused severe beach erosion along the East Coast of the United States in August 1995. The seventh tropical cyclone, sixth named storm, and third hurricane of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season, Felix developed from a tropical wave in the eastern Atlantic Ocean on August 8. Although it was initially a tropical depression, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Felix later that day. Further intensification was slow, with Felix reaching hurricane status on August 11. Under favorable conditions, Felix began to rapidly deepen while curving northwestward. Late on August 12, Felix peaked as a low-end Category 4 hurricane. However, it soon weakened rapidly to a Category 1 hurricane. Less than three days later, Felix passed only 75 miles (121 km) southeast of Bermuda. Although it also posed a threat to the East Coast of the United States, Felix curved northward and then east-northeastward while remaining offshore, thereby avoiding landfall. Felix briefly threatened Bermuda again, but weakened to a tropical storm and turned back to the northeast on August 20. It accelerated east-northeastward, and passed a short distance offshore of Newfoundland, where it transitioned into an
Hurricane Irene was a hurricane that produced somewhat heavy damage across southern Florida during the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. The ninth tropical storm and the sixth hurricane of the season, Irene developed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 13 from a tropical wave. It moved northward, hitting western Cuba before attaining hurricane status. Irene struck Florida as a Category 1 hurricane, moved across the state, and moved northward over the Gulf Stream. It approached the Carolinas but remained offshore. Irene turned eastward, and rapidly intensified to reach Category 2 hurricane status before becoming extratropical due to cooler waters.The hurricane first produced heavy rainfall across western Cuba, causing four deaths and damage. Irene was a wet Florida hurricane in October, similar to many hurricanes of the 1930s and 1940s. It later dropped 10 to 20 inches (255 to 510 mm) of rainfall in the Miami metropolitan area, causing urban flooding unseen since Hurricane Dennis in 1981. Despite being only a Category 1 hurricane, Irene caused eight indirect deaths and $800 million (1999 USD) in damage across Florida.
The hurricane produced flooding and caused one death in the
Hurricane Iris was the ninth named storm and fifth hurricane of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. Iris was the first of three tropical cyclones to affect the Lesser Antilles in a three-week period, preceding the more destructive hurricanes Luis and Marilyn. It developed from a tropical wave to the east of the Lesser Antilles on August 22 and attained hurricane status within 30 hours. The hurricane weakened to a tropical storm before crossing the islands of the eastern Caribbean from August 26 through August 28. During that time, Iris became one of four active tropical storms in the Atlantic basin. Earlier it had interacted with Hurricane Humberto, and beginning on August 30, Iris interacted with Tropical Storm Karen. Iris re-intensified into a hurricane and attained peak sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) while moving slowly across the central Atlantic. The hurricane accelerated to the north and absorbed a dissipating Tropical Depression Karen on September 3. Iris weakened to a tropical storm and became extratropical on September 4, though its remnants reattained hurricane-force winds before affecting western Europe on September 7.
As a tropical storm, Iris produced heavy
The Tampa Bay Hurricane of 1921 (also known as the Tarpon Springs Hurricane) was the third hurricane, second major hurricane, and final storm of an inactive 1921 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the first hurricane to directly make landfall in Tampa Bay, Florida and one of several notable hurricanes to make landfall in Florida. The storm took a typical path for an October Atlantic hurricane, brushing past Cuba before hitting near Tampa. The hurricane was also the most destructive storm of the season, causing around $10 million (1921 USD, $92 million (2005 USD) in damage.
The storm was observed on October 21 while several hundred miles southwest of Jamaica. Its origin is unknown, though it possibly developed from an extratropical storm over Panama a day earlier. A high pressure system over Bermuda caused a north-northwest motion, allowing for the storm to intensify over favorable conditions. On October 22, the storm attained hurricane status shortly after passing 10 miles (16 km) east of the Swan Islands. On October 23, the hurricane entered the Yucatán Channel, with its eastern side brushing Cuba.
As it turned to the north in the Gulf of Mexico, the hurricane continued to
Typhoon Pongsona (international designation: 0226, JTWC designation: 31W) was the last typhoon of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, and was the costliest United States disaster in 2002. The name "Pongsona" was contributed by North Korea for the Pacific tropical cyclone list and is the Korean name for the garden balsam. Pongsona developed out of an area of disturbed weather on December 2, and steadily intensified to reach typhoon status on December 5. On December 8 it passed through Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands while near its peak winds of 175 km/h (110 mph 10-min). It ultimately turned to the northeast, weakened, and became extratropical on December 11.
Typhoon Pongsona produced strong wind gusts peaking at 278 km/h (173 mph 1-min), which left the entire island of Guam without power and destroyed about 1,300 houses. With strong building standards and experience from repeated typhoon strikes, there were no fatalities directly related to Pongsona, although there was one indirect death from flying glass. Damage on the island totaled over $700 million (2002 USD, $904 million 2012 USD), making Pongsona among the five costliest typhoons on the island. The typhoon also caused
Hurricane Danielle was the first of several Cape Verde-type hurricane to form during the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Danielle was the fourth named storm and third hurricane of the season. Danielle formed on August 13, 2004 in the far eastern Atlantic Ocean and remained over the central Atlantic, peaking as a strong Category 2 hurricane on August 16 before weakening over cooler waters; becoming a remnant low on August 21 and dissipating on August 24. Danielle never approached land, although it briefly threatened the Azores as it made the northerly turn. As a result, there was no impact caused by the storm.
Hurricane Danielle began as a vigorous tropical wave over Africa. As the wave emerged into the Atlantic, it quickly became more organized due to favorable conditions, including low wind shear. The circulation consolidated and spawned Tropical Depression Four on the morning of August 13 south-southeast of the Cape Verde islands. The system was over somewhat cooler water at first with sea surface temperatures around 79°F (26°C); however, the low shear environment allowed the depression to continue to organize. Late that evening, the system strengthened into Tropical Storm
The Okeechobee hurricane, or San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was a deadly hurricane that struck the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, and Florida in September of the 1928 Atlantic hurricane season. As of 2010, it is the only recorded hurricane to strike Puerto Rico at Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, and one of the ten most intense ever recorded to make landfall in the United States.
The hurricane caused devastation throughout its path. As many as 1,200 people were killed in Guadeloupe. The storm directly struck Puerto Rico at peak strength, killing at least 300 and leaving hundreds of thousands homeless. In South Florida at least 2,500 were killed when a storm surge from Lake Okeechobee breached the dike surrounding the lake, flooding an area covering hundreds of square miles. In total, the hurricane killed at least 4,078 people and caused around US$100 million ($1.35 billion 2012 USD) in damages over the course of its path.
The storm was first observed 900 miles (1450 km) to the east of Guadeloupe on September 10 by the S.S. Commack. At the time, this was the most easterly report of a tropical cyclone ever received through ship's radio. A Cape
Hurricane Dennis was an North Atlantic hurricane that affected the Bahamas and parts of the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast during the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. The fifth tropical cyclone, fourth tropical storm, and third hurricane of the season, Dennis originated from a tropical wave that passed north of the Leeward Islands in mid-to-late August. Moving west-northwest, the wave organized into a tropical depression on August 24. Tracking just north of Grand Turk that same day, the depression was upgrade to a tropical storm just several hours later. Positioned on the eastern end of an elongated trough, Dennis was embedded within an area of high wind shear. However, despite this, the storm strengthened into a hurricane on August 26, and then further into Category 2 hurricane status on August 28. Moving in an erractic motion off the North Carolina coastline, Dennis became entangled within a cold front that caused dry air to impact the circulation, thus weakening the storm to a tropical storm. On August 30, Dennis made landfall along the Outerbanks of North Carolina, resulting in tropical storm-force sustained winds and hurricane-force gusts in the area. Rapidly weakening, Dennis
Hurricane Inez was a deadly, destructive, powerful and very long-lived Cape Verde-type hurricane that carved an erratic path through the Lesser Antilles, Hispaniola, Cuba, the Bahamas, Florida, and Mexico in 1966. Forming unusually far east for late in the season, Inez is among the deadliest hurricanes on record, with an approximate death toll of over 1,000 people across several Caribbean countries. In addition to being exceptionally deadly and intense, Inez was the first solitary storm on record to affect the West Indies, Bahamas, Florida, and Mexico all on one track; 32 years later, Hurricane Georges would follow the same track and affect a dozen different countries.
Inez originated as a weak tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on September 18. The disturbance was tracked west-southwestward by satellite, and the cloud mass organized into a tropical depression on September 21 in the central tropical Atlantic. The depression began to move west-northwest on September 23, with little intensification until the afternoon of September 24, when significant development began to occur and the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Inez while located 800 miles east of
Hurricane Juan was a hurricane that formed in October 1985 and looped twice near the Louisiana coast, causing torrential flooding for several days. Juan was the costliest hurricane of the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season, and at the time was among the costliest of all historical U.S. hurricanes. Juan was the last of three hurricanes to affect Louisiana during the season, including Danny in August and Elena in early September.
An upper level low pressure system combined with a tropical wave developed a broad trough of low pressure over the central Gulf of Mexico on October 24. A rapid increase in cloudiness and convection led to the formation of a tropical depression on October 26. A high pressure system to its northeast forced it westward, where it became Tropical Storm Juan later on October 26.
At the time and throughout its lifetime, Juan was very disorganized, and resembled a subtropical cyclone with its winds well away from the center. A developing trough brought the storm northward, where it became better organized. Early on October 28, Juan reached hurricane strength, and hours later it reached a peak of 85 mph (140 km/h) winds.
Under the influence of a large scale upper-level
Hurricane Kathleen was a tropical cyclone that caused destructive impacts in California. On September 7, 1976, a tropical depression formed; two days later it accelerated north towards the Baja California Peninsula. Kathleen brushed the Pacific coast of the peninsula as a hurricane on September 9 and made landfall as a fast-moving tropical storm the next day. With its circulation intact and still a tropical storm, Kathleen headed north into the United States and affected California and Arizona. Kathleen finally dissipated late on September 11.
Damage in the United States was considerable. California received record rainfall, with over a foot of rain falling in some areas. Flooding caused catastrophic destruction to Ocotillo, and six people drowned. Flooding extended west; railway tracks were destroyed in Palm Desert and high winds and severe flooding were record in Arizona. Overall, the damage total was $160 million (1976 USD) and 12 deaths were blamed on the storm.
Tropical cyclones do not typically bring high winds to the southwestern United States. Most Pacific hurricanes are embedded in easterly winds south of the subtropical ridge, and thus move westward—away from large land
Tropical Storm Chris was the fourth tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming on July 31 in the Atlantic Ocean east of the Leeward Islands from a tropical wave, Chris moved generally to the west-northwest, skirting the northern fringes of the Caribbean islands. Chris was a relatively short-lived storm, reaching a peak intensity with winds at 65 mph (100 km/h) on August 2, while positioned north of St. Martin. The storm gradually weakened before finally dissipating on August 5, near eastern Cuba. Overall impact was minimal, amounting to moderate amounts of rainfall throughout its path. No deaths were reported.
A tropical wave moved westward off the coast of Africa on July 27. Initially, virgorous convection persisted throughout the wave axis, though dry air greatly diminished the convection on July 28. The wind field remained well-defined as it continued westward, and deep convection increased two days later along the northern end of the wave axis. Dvorak classifications began on July 30 in response to an increase in vertical depth and organization of the convection. On July 31 a buoy recorded a change of wind direction from northeast to west, indicating a small
Tropical Storm Thelma (international designation: 9125, JTWC designation: 27W, Philippine name: Uring) was the deadliest tropical storm of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season, killing between 5,101 to 8,100 people as it crossed the Philippines.
A tropical disturbance developed over the eastern Caroline Islands in late October. The disturbance was in a line of future storms, including what would become Super Typhoon Seth and Tropical Storm Verne. The disturbance that would become Thelma tracked to the west-northwest, to become Tropical Depression 27W on November 1. Its convection increased as it turned westward, and it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Thelma on November 4.
Thelma was originally forecast to move northward in response to a break in the subtropical ridge, but the ridge remained strong. Thelma began a west-southwest track on November 4, reaching a peak of 50 mph (80 km/h) winds before interaction with the Philippines weakened it. The storm made landfall on the island of Samar in the eastern Philippines on November 5, continued to the west, and weakened to a 40 mph (64 km/h) tropical storm. In the South China Sea, strong vertical shear kept Thelma a minimal storm, where it
Typhoon Chataan (international designation: 0206, JTWC designation: 08W) was the deadliest natural disaster in the history of Chuuk, a state in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The typhoon formed on June 28, 2002, near the FSM, and for several days it meandered while producing heavy rainfall across the region. On Chuuk, the highest 24-hour precipitation total was 506 mm (19.9 in), which was greater than the average monthly total. The rain produced floods up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) deep, causing deadly landslides across the island that killed 47 people. There was also one death on nearby Pohnpei, and damage in the FSM totaled over $100 million.
After affecting the FSM, Chataan began a northwest track as an intensifying typhoon. Its eye passed just north of Guam on July 4, though the eyewall moved across the island and dropped heavy rainfall. Totals were highest in southern Guam, peaking at 536 mm (21.1 in). Flooding and landslides from the storm severely damaged or destroyed 1,994 houses. Damage on the island totaled $60.5 million, and there were 23 injuries. The typhoon also affected Rota in the Northern Marianas Islands with gusty winds and light rainfall. Typhoon Chataan
Typhoon Zeb (international designation: 9810, JTWC designation: 18W, PAGASA name: Typhoon Iliang) was a very powerful Category 5 typhoon with a minimum central pressure reading of 900 millibars and 180 mph sustained winds.
Zeb formed out of a low pressure system that emerged from a monsoon trough. The low then became a tropical depression south of Guam. On October 10, the system reached tropical storm strength and was named Zeb. Zeb then moved westward before reaching typhoon status northwest of Palau. Overnight, the storm explosively intensified from a 70 mph tropical storm to a 180 mph supertyphoon on the 13th. While maintaining its strength, Zeb made landfall on the island of Luzon. Zeb then turned a north-northwesterly course while weakening to a Category 2 storm.
Zeb then later recurved and brushed past Taiwan before accelerating towards Japan on the 17th. Now downgraded to a tropical storm, Zeb struck the islands of Kyūshū and Shikoku before merging with a cold front on the 18th. During its life it also absorbed Tropical Storm Alex.
83 people died in the Philippines and there was severe damage on the island of Luzon. About most of the rice harvest was ruined and the town of
The 1929 Bahamas Hurricane (also known as the Great Andros Island Hurricane) was the second hurricane and the only major hurricane during the very inactive 1929 Atlantic hurricane season. The hurricane was the only hurricane to cause any significant damage, resulting in $676,000 (1929 USD, $7.3 million 2005 USD) in damage. Only a year after the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane, the hurricane caused only three deaths in southern Florida, a low number due to well-executed warnings. The hurricane was much more severe in the Bahamas, where damage was near extreme due to the hurricane stalling over the area for an extended period of time. There, the hurricane caused 48 deaths.
A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 11. It moved across the Atlantic Ocean and passed the northern Leeward Islands before being detected as a tropical storm on the 22nd. The storm then moved westward and became a Category 1 hurricane on September 23. It continued to intensify, becoming a Category 3 hurricane on September 24 as it passed through the northern Bahamas. Due to higher pressures to the north, the hurricane drifted to the southwest, causing the hurricane to strike near Nassau on the 26th
Typhoon Imbudo (international designation: 0307, JTWC designation: 09W, PAGASA name: Harurot and sometimes known as Super Typhoon Imbudo or Super Typhoon Harurot) was the 9th JTWC tropical depression (09W), the 7th named storm, and the 7th typhoon of the 2003 Pacific typhoon season. The typhoon's name, contributed by the Philippines, means funnel or downspout.
An area of convection was first noted near Chuuk on July 13. It slowly developed, reforming on the 15th to the southwest of the previous area. Moderate diffluence and little shear aloft, with an upper level low to the northeast providing poleward outflow, allowed the area to become Tropical Depression 09W about 360 nautical miles (670 km) east-southeast of Yap on July 16.
The depression tracked to the northwest along the southwestern periphery of the mid-level ridge, and with warm sea temperatures, it became Tropical Storm Imbudo on July 17. Imbudo intensified at a quick pace, reaching typhoon status on the 18th. With increased banding features and even greater from a Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough cell to its northeast, Imbudo rapidly strengthened to a 150 mph (240 km/h) super typhoon on the 20th. The typhoon continued
Super Typhoon Nancy (international designation: 6118) was an extremely powerful tropical cyclone of the 1961 Pacific typhoon season. The system had possibly the strongest winds ever measured in a tropical cyclone, and caused extensive damage and at least 173 deaths and thousands of injuries in Japan and elsewhere in September 1961. The destruction was so heavy that the Japan Meteorological Agency gave the typhoon its own special name, one of only eight systems to have been named.
A tropical depression formed from a low near Kwajalein Atoll on September 7. It strengthened rapidly; by the time position fixes could be taken, Nancy was nearly a super typhoon. Moving gradually westward, Nancy explosively deepened and reached wind speeds equivalent to a Category 5 (Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) on September 9. It would maintain that intensity for the next several days.
Shortly after reaching peak intensity, Nancy approached the Ryūkyū Islands and began turning. It passed near Okinawa and over Haze. The ridge steering Nancy broke down, and the typhoon turned sharply and headed towards Japan. Nancy made landfall as a strong typhoon on September 16 as it passed directly over Muroto Zaki.
Typhoon Paka was the last tropical cyclone in the 1997 Pacific Ocean hurricane and typhoon season, and was among the strongest Pacific typhoons in the month of December. Paka, which is the Hawaiian name for Pat, developed on November 28 from a trough well to the southwest of Hawaii. The storm tracked generally westward for much of its duration, and on December 7 it crossed into the western Pacific Ocean. Much of its track was characterized by fluctuations in intensity, and on December 10 the cyclone attained typhoon status as it crossed the Marshall Islands. On December 16, Paka struck Guam and Rota with winds of 230 km/h (145 mph), and it strengthened further to reach peak winds on December 18 over open waters. Subsequently, it underwent a steady weakening trend, and on December 23 Paka dissipated.
Typhoon Paka first impacted the Marshall Islands, where it dropped heavy rainfall and left 7007800000000000000US$80 million. Later, it passed just north of Guam, where strong winds destroyed about 1,500 buildings and damaged 10,000 more; 5,000 people were left homeless, and the island experienced a complete power outage following the typhoon. Damage on the island totaled
Tropical Storm Debby was a weak but costly tropical cyclone that affected the Lesser Antilles in September 1994. It was the fourth named tropical storm of the 1994 Atlantic hurricane season; it developed on September 9 east of Barbados. Debby made landfall on Saint Lucia early on September 10, producing heavy rainfall and tropical storm-force wind gusts. The rains caused flooding and landslides, damaging about half of the island's banana plantations. Several villages were isolated after roads and bridges were damaged. Damage totaled about $103 million (1994 USD). On nearby Dominica, Debby damaged crops and fisheries.
While Debby was crossing Saint Lucia, its strongest thunderstorms were located north and east of the center due to wind shear. A station in Martinique reported hurricane-force winds, and about 20,000 people on the island lost power. After entering the eastern Caribbean Sea, Debby attained peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h), although continued wind shear caused the storm to dissipate on September 11. In Puerto Rico, one person died due to high waves. The storm caused power outages and flooding in the Dominican Republic. Throughout its path, Debby killed nine people.
Severe Tropical Cyclone Larry (RSMC Nadi designation: 15F, JTWC designation: 17P) was a tropical cyclone that made landfall in Australia during the 2005–06 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season. Larry originated as a low pressure system over the eastern Coral Sea on 16 March and was monitored by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in Brisbane, Australia. The low-pressure area formed into a tropical cyclone two days later and quickly strengthened into a Category 5 storm on the Australian tropical cyclone scale. Larry made landfall in Far North Queensland close to Innisfail on 20 March as a Category 4 with wind gusts reaching 240 kilometres per hour (150 mph) and dissipated over land soon after.
Throughout Queensland, Cyclone Larry resulted in roughly A$1.5 billion ($1.1 billion USD) in damage. At the time, this made Larry the costliest tropical cyclone to ever impact Australia; surpassing Cyclone Tracy in 1974, (not accounting for inflation).
Larry began as a low pressure system over the eastern Coral Sea that was monitored by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology from 16 March 2006. It formed into a tropical cyclone 1,150 kilometres (710 mi) off the coast of Queensland,
Hurricane Betsy in 1956 was the first North Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in Puerto Rico in 24 years. The third tropical cyclone of the 1956 Atlantic hurricane season, Betsy developed from a tropical wave on August 9 to the east of the Lesser Antilles. It rapidly developed into a 120 mph (195 km/h) major hurricane before striking Guadeloupe. There, Betsy heavily damaged 1000 houses and left severe crop destruction, and there were 18 deaths in the territory. As Betsy continued into the northeastern Caribbean, it capsized a ship, killing its crew of two.
On August 12, Betsy struck southeastern Puerto Rico and quickly crossed the island. Damage was heaviest where it moved ashore and in the territory's central portion, and throughout Puerto Rico there were 15,023 houses that were destroyed by Betsy. Multiple locations reported heavy crop damage, including Camuy which reported a complete loss of the corn crop. Hurricane Betsy was the first hurricane to be observed from the San Juan radar, and also resulted in the first hurricane warning on the island to be released on television. The hurricane left $40 million in damage and 16 deaths, which prompted a federally declared disaster
Hurricane Diana was the fourth tropical storm, the first hurricane, the first major hurricane, and the strongest storm of the 1984 Atlantic hurricane season. Diana was the first major hurricane to hit the U.S. East Coast in nearly 20 years. Watches and warnings were issued for the storm along the East coast between eastern Florida and Virginia. It caused moderate damage in North Carolina while it looped offshore and after it made landfall as a Category 2 hurricane. Forming on September 8, Diana moved northward and wandered across North Carolina for a couple of days during mid-September, dropping heavy rainfall. Once it left the state and accelerated east-northeast, Diana quickly evolved into an extratropical cyclone. Damages to the United States totaled $65.5 million dollars (1984 USD). Three indirect fatalities were caused by the cyclone.
The origins of Hurricane Diana can be traced back to a stalled out area of low pressure just north of the Bahamas along the tail end of a cold front on September 6. Shower and thunderstorm activity began to increase the next day but was generally disorganized. Around 1200 UTC on September 8, a ship in the vicinity of the low reported a sustained
Hurricane Isabel was the costliest and deadliest hurricane in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The ninth named storm, fifth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the season, Isabel formed near the Cape Verde Islands from a tropical wave on September 6 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It moved northwestward, and within an environment of light wind shear and warm waters it steadily strengthened to reach peak winds of 165 mph (265 km/h) on September 11. After fluctuating in intensity for four days, Isabel gradually weakened and made landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) on September 18. It quickly weakened over land and became extratropical over western Pennsylvania the next day.
In North Carolina, the storm surge from Isabel washed out a portion of Hatteras Island to form what was unofficially known as Isabel Inlet. Damage was greatest along the Outer Banks, where thousands of homes were damaged or even destroyed. The worst of the effects of Isabel occurred in Virginia, especially in the Hampton Roads area and along the shores of rivers as far west and north as Richmond and Washington, DC. Virginia reported the most deaths and damage from
Hurricane Jose caused moderate damage in the Lesser Antilles in October 1999. The fourteenth tropical cyclone, tenth named storm, and eighth hurricane of the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season, Jose developed from a tropical wave several hundred miles east of the Windward Islands on October 17. The depression quickly strengthened and by October 18, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Jose. The storm tracked northwestward and while approaching the Leeward Islands, Jose became a hurricane on the following day. By midday on October 20, Jose briefly peaked as a 100 mph (155 km/h) Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. However, wind shear quickly weakened the storm back to a Category 1 hurricane before it made landfall in Antigua. Further deterioration occurred and Jose had been reduced to a tropical storm before its second landfall in Tortola on October 21. While located north of Puerto Rico on October 22, the storm turned northward, shortly before curving north-northeastward. Wind shear briefly decreased, allowing Jose to re-intensify into a hurricane while pass east of Bermuda on October 24. However, on the following day, wind shear increased again, while sea surface
Hurricane Kate was the second-longest tropical cyclone in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The eleventh tropical storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the season, Kate developed from a tropical wave in the central tropical Atlantic on September 25. Its unusual track included four major changes in direction. The storm moved northwestward until a weakness in the subtropical ridge forced it eastward. Kate strengthened to a hurricane, turned sharply westward while moving around a mid-level low, and intensified to a 125 mph (205 km/h) major hurricane on October 4. Kate turned sharply northward around the periphery of an anticyclone, weakened, and became extratropical after passing to the east of Newfoundland. The extratropical storm persisted for three days until losing its identity near Scandinavia.
The storm had minimal effects on land, limited to moderately strong winds and heavy rainfall over Newfoundland. Kate threatened Atlantic Canada just one week after Hurricane Juan caused severe damage in Nova Scotia.
On September 21, a tropical wave – a trough of relatively low atmospheric pressure – began moving slowly westward from the west coast of Africa, passing near
Hurricane Maria was a Cape Verde-type hurricane which formed in September 2005 during the annual hurricane season. Maria was the thirteenth named storm, sixth hurricane, and fourth major hurricane of the record-breaking season. Hurricane Maria formed in the central Atlantic on September 1 and tracked to the northwest, strengthening as it moved over warm waters. The storm reached its peak strength on September 5 east of Bermuda and gradually weakened before becoming extratropical on September 10. Hurricane Maria did not affect any land as a tropical system, but it brought tropical storm-force winds to Iceland as an extratropical cyclone and produced heavy rain and three fatalities in Norway.
A powerful tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 27. As it moved west into the Atlantic, it became more organized and the system developed into Tropical Depression Fourteen about midway between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles on September 1. Shear from an upper-level low to the southwest slowed the development of the storm and caused uncertainties in the National Hurricane Center's forecasts, as some models indicated that the depression would dissipate and others that it would
Tropical Storm Alpha was the twenty-third named storm of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. The twenty-one names from the predetermined A–W list having been used, Alpha was the first tropical storm ever to be given a name from the Greek alphabet. On October 20, Tropical Depression Twenty-five formed from a tropical wave near the Windward Islands. It became a tropical storm on October 23, and reached its peak intensity but weakened again before making landfall in the Dominican Republic that afternoon. Crossing the island of Hispaniola it weakened to a tropical depression, and persisted until October 24, when it dissipated. Its remnant low was absorbed by Hurricane Wilma's large circulation.
Alpha dumped torrential rain on the island of Hispaniola, making it the eighth wettest storm to impact poverty-stricken Haiti. It caused 26 deaths, 17 of them in Haiti and all of them caused by floods and rain-related landslides. Roads were blocked for weeks and hundreds of houses were destroyed.
Alpha's origins were from a tropical wave that developed near the Windward Islands on October 20. Satellite images indicated that a low pressure center associated with the tropical wave formed near
Tropical Storm Fay was the sixth named storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season; it was a moderate tropical storm which caused flooding in parts of Texas and Mexico. In early September, a trough of low pressure moved south into the Gulf of Mexico, and became stationary. A low pressure center developed along this trough, and on September 5, a Hurricane Hunter airplane reported that the system had gained sufficient organization to be a tropical depression, 95 miles (153 km) southeast of Galveston. The depression drifted south-southwest while strengthening, reaching its peak strength of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) on the morning of September 6. The system then made an abrupt turn to the west-northwest, and remained steady in strength and course until landfall the next day, near Matagorda. The system weakened at a fast rate after landfall, but its circulation would not totally dissipate for three more days.
The storm caused extremely heavy rainfall in inland areas; damage totalled $4.5 million (2002 USD; $5.2 million USD in 2007); no deaths occurred as a result of Fay.
In the first few days of September 2002, an upper-level trough emerged in the Gulf of Mexico and stalled.
Tropical Storm Franklin was a tropical storm over the western Atlantic Ocean during July of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the sixth named storm of the season and twice approached hurricane strength. The storm formed over the Bahamas on July 21 then moved north erratically, approaching Bermuda on July 26. Franklin eventually became extratropical near Newfoundland on July 30, before being absorbed by a larger system. The National Hurricane Center struggled to predict Tropical Storm Franklin mainly due to difficulties in predicting the effects of wind shear. There were only minor effects on land from Tropical Storm Franklin and no damages were caused.
A tropical wave emerged from the African coast late on July 10. The wave entered the Bahamas on July 21 and organized into Tropical Depression Six while 70 miles (110 km) east of Eleuthera. Initially the storm was predicted to execute a clockwise loop and drift to the west in response to a high pressure system. Several models indicated the possibility of the storm to drift westward into central Florida. Soon after the depression formed, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Franklin.
Tropical Storm Franklin suffered high
Tropical Storm Grace was a weak tropical storm that struck Texas in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The eleventh tropical depression and the seventh tropical storm of the season, Grace was also the weakest storm of the season. On August 30 the storm developed from a long-track tropical wave in the western Gulf of Mexico. Grace remained disorganized throughout its lifetime due to an upper level low to its west. The weak storm moved northwestward and made landfall on southeastern Texas. Grace quickly weakened over land, and dissipated on September 2 as it merged into a cold front.
In Texas, the storm dropped heavy rainfall, causing minor flash flooding damage. The cold front, combined with the remnants of the storm, dropped moderate to heavy rainfall from Texas through the Mid-Atlantic. The worst of the flooding occurred in Indianapolis, where record rainfall affected over 700 homes. Despite the rainfall, damage was minimal along its path.
A strong tropical wave accompanied with a low pressure system moved off the coast of Africa on August 19. It moved quickly westward and organized, developing banding features and cirrus outflow near the blossoming convection. The wave nearly
Tropical Storm Zeta was a late-developing tropical storm over the central Atlantic which formed after the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season had officially ended (on November 30), and continued into January 2006. Becoming a tropical depression at approximately midnight on December 30 (UTC), it became the record-breaking thirtieth tropical cyclone of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and after intensifing into Tropical Storm Zeta six hours later, it become the season's twenty-seventh named storm. Zeta was one of only two Atlantic tropical cyclones to span two calendar years (the other being Hurricane Alice in 1954-55).
Zeta originated from an area of low pressure on December 29, which previously developed within an upper-level trough. After becoming a tropical storm, the National Hurricane Center continually predicted it would weaken rapidly. Like the previous tropical cyclone, Hurricane Epsilon, Zeta defied these predictions. The storm reached its peak strength on January 2, 2006 before finally dissipating on January 6. As Zeta never approached land there was no impact from the storm other than minor shipping problems. Several ships encountered the storm, and several crews in the 2005
Typhoon Babe (international designation: 7709, JTWC designation: Super Typhoon 10W, PAGASA name: Miling) was the strongest typhoon of the 1977 Pacific typhoon season and caused major damage in the Ryūkyū Islands, Japan. The lowest pressure recorded in association with the typhoon was 907.3hPa on Okinoerabu Island. According to newspaper reports, Babe was "the worst typhoon to threaten Japan in 18 years". Japan Meteorological Agency gave a special name to Babe: Okinoerabu Typhoon (沖永良部台風, Okinoerabu Taifū). Unusually, a Hurricane Babe existed in the Atlantic basin at the same time.
On September 1, a weak surface circulation with associated convection occurred at 7N-150E and a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert was issued by the JTWC. On September 2, Tropical Depression 10 formed near the Caroline Islands at 8.3N-144.6E and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Babe at 8.9N-141.5E on the same day: a latitude of the formation of Babe was lower than that of Tropical Storm Ivan in the Atlantic Basin: it formed at 9.7N-30.3W on September 3, 2004.
At first, Babe did not show any significant development while it moved westward: the subtropical ridge between the trough and it forced it northward.
Super Typhoon Omar (international designation: 9215, JTWC designation: 15W, PAGASA name: Lusing) was the 15th tropical depression, the 15th named storm, and the 9th typhoon of the 1992 Pacific typhoon season. It caused 2 deaths in Taiwan and $457 million (1992 USD, $618.9 million 2005 USD) in damage.
After an active early part to August, the monsoon trough re-established itself to spawn an area of convection near the Marshall Islands on August 20. It tracked westward, and slowly organized into Tropical Depression 15W four days later. Another monsoon depression to 15W's west caused some vertical shear due to its large outflow, but it still managed to become Tropical Storm Omar on the night of August 24.
The other monsoon depression, which became Tropical Storm Polly, moved far enough to the west to allow Omar to slowly strengthen. Had the shear from Polly continued, Omar might not have made it past tropical storm strength, but it held together and became a typhoon on August 27. As the cyclone neared Guam, Omar quickly intensified, and reached winds of 115 mph. On the afternoon of August 28, the typhoon crossed Guam, and continued to the west-northwest. On the following evening, the
The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and India's West Bengal on November 12, 1970. It was the deadliest tropical cyclone ever recorded, and one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern times. Up to 500,000 people lost their lives in the storm, primarily as a result of the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying islands of the Ganges Delta. This cyclone was the sixth cyclonic storm of the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and also the season's strongest, reaching a strength equivalent to a strong Category 3 hurricane.
The cyclone formed over the central Bay of Bengal on November 8 and travelled north, intensifying as it did so. It reached its peak with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) on November 12, and made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan that night. The storm surge devastated many of the offshore islands, wiping out villages and destroying crops throughout the region. In the most severely affected upazila, Tazumuddin, over 45% of the population of 167,000 was killed by the storm.
The Pakistani government led by junta leader General Yahya Khan was severely criticized for its delayed handling of the
Hurricane Allen was a powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane which struck southern Texas. It was the first and strongest hurricane of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season. The first named storm and first tropical cyclone of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season, it was one of the strongest hurricanes in recorded history, one of the few hurricanes to reach Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale on three separate occasions, and spent more time as a Category 5 than any other Atlantic hurricane. Allen is the second of only two hurricanes in the recorded history of the Atlantic basin to achieve sustained winds of 190 mph (305 km/h), after Hurricane Camille in 1969.
Throughout its life, Allen moved through the deep tropics on a west-northwesterly course through the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico before making landfall near the United States/Mexico border. At peak strength, it passed near Haiti, causing hundreds of deaths and heavy damage. After crossing the Gulf of Mexico, Allen weakened as it struck the lower Texas coast, causing high winds, a significant storm surge, and heavy rainfall which caused damage to southern Texas. Overall, Allen killed 290
Hurricane Debby was a minimal Category 1 hurricane that formed in mid-to-late August of 2000. Debby formed east of the Windward Islands on August 19, 2000, becoming the seventh tropical cyclone of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm strengthened to a hurricane the next day, becoming the fourth named storm and second hurricane of the year. Afterwards, it moved west, passing over the Leeward Islands, and just north of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. Debby remained somewhat disorganized for the rest of its lifespan, and dissipated off the southern coast of Cuba on August 24.
In Barbuda, Debby caused moderate roof damage; throughout the Lesser Antilles, gusty winds damaged fruit trees and power lines. In the United States Virgin Islands, damage estimates added up to $200,000 (2000 USD). Debby also dropped up to 12 inches (30.5 cm) of rain across Puerto Rico, causing mudslides and damaging bridges and roads. 406 homes were affected from the flooding, with damage totaling to $501,000 (2000 USD), primarily in the municipality of Caguas. Also on the island, the storm was indirectly responsible for one death. On the northern coast of the Dominican Republic, waves and rainfall caused
Tropical Storm Bill was a tropical storm that affected the Gulf Coast of the United States in the summer of 2003. The second storm of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season, Bill developed from a tropical wave on June 29 to the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. It slowly organized as it moved northward, and reached a peak of 60 mph (95 km/h) shortly before making landfall in south-central Louisiana. Bill quickly weakened over land, and as it accelerated to the northeast, moisture from the storm, combined with cold air from an approaching cold front, produced an outbreak of 34 tornadoes. Bill became extratropical on July 2, and was absorbed by the cold front later that day.
Upon making landfall on Louisiana, the storm produced a moderate storm surge, causing tidal flooding. In a city in the northeastern portion of the state, the surge breached a levee, which flooded many homes in the town. Moderate winds combined with wet soil knocked down trees, which then hit a few houses and power lines, and left hundreds of thousands without electric power. Two people drowned from rough surf in Florida. Further inland, tornadoes from the storm produced localized moderate damage. Throughout its path,
The 1985 Puerto Rico floods produced the deadliest single landslide on record in North America, killing at least 130 people in the Mameyes neighborhood of barrio Portugués Urbano in Ponce. The floods were the result of a westward-moving tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on September 29. The system moved into the Caribbean Sea on October 5 and produced torrential rainfall across Puerto Rico, peaking at 31.67 in (804 mm) in Toro Negro State Forest. Two stations broke their 24-hour rainfall records set in 1899. The rains caused severe flooding in the southern half of Puerto Rico, which isolated towns, washed out roads, and caused rivers to exceed their banks. In addition to the deadly landslide in Mameyes, the floods washed out a bridge near Coamo that killed several people. The storm system caused about $125 million in damage and 180 deaths, which prompted a presidential disaster declaration. The tropical wave later spawned Tropical Storm Isabel.
The tropical wave that caused the flooding moved off the west coast of Africa on September 29. Moving westward, the system entered the eastern Caribbean Sea on October 5, although rainfall began spreading across Puerto Rico
Tropical Storm Matthew was a weak tropical storm in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season that made landfall on Louisiana. Matthew was the thirteenth tropical storm of the season and the ninth storm to affect the United States. Matthew formed over the western Gulf of Mexico on October 8 and struck south-central Louisiana two days later. The combination of this storm and an upper cyclone over the southern Plains brought heavy rains to much of the Gulf Coast, with the highest amounts reported lying over 15 inches (381 mm) in northern Louisiana. Damage was minimal, totaling $305,000 (2004 USD), and no casualties were reported.
A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 19. The wave moved westward, but was difficult to track due to its proximity to Hurricane Lisa and another large tropical wave. It passed through the Lesser Antilles, and slowly organized as convection increased due to an upper level low. On October 5, it entered the Gulf of Mexico, and developed an area of low pressure two days later. The system continued to organize, and on October 8, after developing a circulation, it developed into Tropical Depression Fourteen while located 205 miles (330 km) to the
1899 San Ciriaco hurricane, also known as the 1899 Puerto Rico Hurricane, was the longest-lived Atlantic hurricane and the eleventh deadliest tropical cyclone in the basin. It was an intense and long-lived Atlantic Cape Verde-type hurricane which crossed Puerto Rico over the two day period August 8 to August 9, 1899. Many deaths occurred as a result, due to flooding. The cyclone kept tropical storm strength or higher for 28 days, which makes it the longest duration Atlantic hurricane on record and the second-longest anywhere in the world (behind Hurricane John in 1994). The estimated ACE of 73.57 is the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic basin.
The exact origins of the tropical cyclone are unknown, but it was first observed on August 3 to the west-southwest of Cape Verde. That day, a ship reported tropical storm force winds and an atmospheric pressure of 995 mbar. For a few days, its exact path was unknown due to lack of observations, although it is estimated that the storm continued west-northwestward and attained hurricane status on August 5. On August 7, as it approached the northern Lesser Antilles, the hurricane began to be tracked continuously by ship and land
The Florida Keys Hurricane or Atlantic Gulf Hurricane of 1919 was an intense Atlantic hurricane, killing 772 people as it moved through the Florida Keys and Texas. The second tropical cyclone of the 1919 hurricane season, it moved in the proximity of the eastern Greater Antilles and Bahamas before moving through the Florida Keys and central Gulf of Mexico into southern Texas. It is one of the most intense hurricanes on record for Key West, Florida and the first hurricane to cause significant damage to the city of Corpus Christi, Texas. Damage from the storm totaled $22 million (1919 USD).
On September 1, 1919, daily weather maps depicted a tropical wave near the Lesser Antilles. The poorly developed system, lacking a low-level circulation, gradually became better defined and was classified as a tropical depression the following day near the island of Guadeloupe. Around this time, the system had developed a closed low with a barometric pressure of 1010 mbar (hPa; 29.82 inHg). Although no gale-force winds were reported in the region, the system is thought to have attained tropical storm status early on September 3 while situated southeast of Puerto Rico. Tracking northwest, the storm
The 1933 Outer Banks Hurricane was the thirteenth storm, sixth hurricane and fourth major hurricane of the very active 1933 Atlantic hurricane season. The hurricane formed on September 8, 1933 where it moved in a similar track to the 1933 Chesapeake-Potomac Hurricane a month earlier. The hurricane reached a peak intensity of 120 mph (193 km/h) and a low barometric pressure of 957 millibars before hitting the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The storm later turned north-eastward and hit Nova Scotia.
Like the Chesapeake-Potomac Hurricane a month earlier, the September Hurricane caused severe damage along the Outer Banks, while the damage in Virginia was minimal. There was considerable damage also in New England. In all the hurricane left 21-39 people dead and over $1 million (1933 USD, $18 million 2012 USD) in damage.
A tropical storm formed on September 8, east of the Leeward Islands and was not detected until September 10. By that time the storm was already a Category 1 hurricane. The storm then turned on a west-northwest trajectory as it reached Category 2 status. The hurricane maintained that status for three days until it reached Category 3 status on September 14. The next day,
Hurricane Charley was the third named storm, the second hurricane, and the second major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Charley lasted from August 9 to August 15, and at its peak intensity it attained 150 mph (240 km/h) winds, making it a strong Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm made landfall in southwestern Florida at maximum strength, thus making it the strongest hurricane to hit the United States since Hurricane Andrew struck Florida twelve years before, in 1992.
After moving briskly through the Caribbean Sea, Charley crossed Cuba on Friday, August 13 as a Category 3 hurricane, causing heavy damage and four deaths. That same day, the hurricane crossed over the Dry Tortugas, just 22 hours after Tropical Storm Bonnie struck northwestern Florida. This was the first time in history that two tropical cyclones struck the same state in a 24-hour time period. At its peak intensity of 150 mph (240 km/h), Hurricane Charley struck the northern tip of Captiva Island and the southern tip of North Captiva Island, causing severe damage in both areas. Charley, the strongest hurricane to hit southwest Florida since Hurricane Donna in 1960,
Hurricane Cindy was a tropical cyclone that briefly reached minimal hurricane strength in the Gulf of Mexico during July in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and made landfall in Louisiana. It was the third named storm and first hurricane of the season. Cindy was originally thought to have been a tropical storm at peak strength, but was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane in the post-storm analysis.
Hurricane Cindy initially formed on July 3 just east of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The depression soon made landfall on the peninsula and weakened before reemerging in the Gulf of Mexico on July 4. The storm strengthened as it moved north becoming a hurricane just before making landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana, on July 5. The storm weakened as it moved overland and became extratropical on July 7.
Hurricane Cindy was responsible for 3 deaths in the United States and brought heavy rains to Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Maryland. An unusually strong F2 tornado was spawned from Cindy's remnants and caused severe damage in Hampton, Georgia. Cindy also caused flooding and a severe blackout in New Orleans, Louisiana, which encouraged the population to evacuate when
Hurricane Danny was the fourth named storm and second hurricane of the well-above average 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. Developing from a tropical wave at a high latitude on July 16, Danny was not expected to strengthen past minimal tropical storm intensity initially. However, as the storm followed a large loop-like path over the northern Atlantic Ocean, Danny reached hurricane intensity on July 19 at an unusually high latitude and in an area of higher than normal atmospheric pressures. After maintaining its strength for nearly 24 hours, the convection associated with the system quickly diminished as the storm moved over cooler water temperatures, and Danny degenerated to a remnant area of low pressure. The system turned to the southwest and west, and dissipated on July 27, about 630 miles (1,015 km) east of where the storm originally formed. Danny did not affect land and resulted in no injuries or fatalities.
A large and well-organized tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on July 9. However, due to cooler waters, the wave weakened as it tracked northwestward, and by the next day it was devoid of deep convection. On July 13, deep convection developed near a mid-level
Hurricane Erika was a weak hurricane that struck extreme northeastern Mexico near the Texas-Tamaulipas border in mid-August of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. Erika was the eighth tropical cyclone, fifth tropical storm, and third hurricane of the season. At first, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) operationally did not designate it as a hurricane because initial data suggested winds of 70 mph (115 km/h) at Erika's peak intensity. It was not until later data was analyzed that the NHC revised it to Category 1 intensity in the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm developed from a non-tropical area of low pressure that was tracked for five days before developing in the eastern Gulf of Mexico on August 14. Under the influence of a high pressure system, Erika moved quickly westward and strengthened under favorable conditions. It made landfall as a hurricane on northeastern Mexico on August 16 and rapidly dissipated inland.
While Erika's precursor disturbance was moving across Florida, it dropped heavy rainfall. In south Texas, Erika produced moderate winds of 50 to 60 mph (80 to 95 km/h) along with light rain, causing minor and isolated wind damage in the state. In
Hurricane Ernesto was the costliest tropical cyclone of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. The sixth tropical storm and first hurricane of the season, Ernesto developed from a tropical wave on August 24 in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Ernesto first affected the northern Caribbean, reaching minimal hurricane status near Haiti before weakening and moving across eastern Cuba as a tropical storm. Despite initial predictions for it to track through the eastern Gulf of Mexico as a major hurricane, Ernesto moved across eastern Florida as a weak tropical storm. After turning to the northeast, it re-intensified and made landfall on August 31 on the North Carolina coast just below hurricane status. Late the next day, Ernesto became extratropical after entering southern Virginia. The remnants spread moisture across the northeastern United States before dissipating over eastern Canada on September 4.
The deaths of at least eleven people were attributed to Ernesto, which dumped heavy rains throughout its path, especially in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. While moving across the Caribbean, it affected several countries, and initially Ernesto posed a threat to the Gulf Coast of the
Hurricane Faith was the northernmost tracking tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin, as well as the longest distance traveled. The eighth tropical cyclone and sixth named storm of the 1966 Atlantic hurricane season, Faith developed from an area of disturbed weather between Cape Verde and the west coast of Africa on August 21. Tracking westward, the tropical depression gradually intensified, and became a tropical storm on the following day. Continuing to head westward across the Atlantic, it intensified and weakened slightly in nearly the same manner for the next several days, until rapid intensification occurred on August 28. Weakening back slightly, it tracked a long distance across the Atlantic, reaching as far north as the Faroe Islands before weakening further. Hurricane Faith finally transitioned into an extratropical storm over the North Sea.
Although Hurricane Faith was tracked for a very long distance, there were only four fatalities and minimal damage due to the affected areas being sparsely populated.
The origins of Hurricane Faith were from an area of disturbed weather that emerged into the Atlantic along the west coast of Africa on August 18. Moving off Africa,
Hurricane Frederic was the sixth tropical cyclone, third hurricane and second major hurricane of the 1979 Atlantic hurricane season. Frederic was the costliest hurricane to ever hit the U.S. Gulf Coast at that particular time. Starting with heavy rains and moderate winds over the Leeward Islands and Puerto Rico, Frederic weakened to tropical-storm force across Cuba, regaining hurricane force in the Gulf of Mexico well before landfall in Alabama on the night of September 12, 1979, at Dauphin Island. By that time it had 125 mph (201 km/h) winds and storm surge of 8–12 ft (2-4.7 m). Frederic crossed the state line, slowing to a tropical storm near Meridian, Mississippi.
Damage estimates vary from $6–9 billion (2008 USD), with variations due to inadequate reporting of private insurance claims as well as lack of hard data on uninsured damage. FEMA, which had been established only three months before Frederic hit, was the focal point for nearly $250 million in federal aid for recovery, $188 million of which went to Alabama (1979 USD).
Frederic originated as a tropical wave which moved off the west coast of Africa late on August 27, 1979, and became a tropical depression at 0600 (GMT) on
Hurricane Ivan was a large, long-lived, Cape Verde-type hurricane that caused widespread damage in the Caribbean and United States. The cyclone was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane and the fourth major hurricane of the active 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Ivan formed in early September, had reached Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, and became the 10th most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded. At its peak in the Gulf of Mexico, Ivan was the size of the state of Texas. It also spawned 119 tornadoes across the eastern United States.
Ivan caused catastrophic damage to Grenada as a strong Category 3 storm, heavy damage to Jamaica as a strong Category 4 storm and then Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands and the western tip of Cuba as a Category 5 storm. After peaking in strength, the hurricane moved north-northwest across the Gulf of Mexico to strike Gulf Shores, Alabama as a strong Category 3 storm, causing significant damage. Ivan dropped heavy rains on the Southeastern United States as it progressed northeast and east through the eastern United States, becoming an extratropical cyclone. The remnant low from the storm moved into the western
Hurricane Lili was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season for the United States. Lili was the twelfth named storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm developed from a tropical disturbance in the open Atlantic on September 21. It continued westward, affecting the Lesser Antilles as a tropical storm, then entered the Caribbean. As it moved west, the storm dissipated while being affected by wind shear south of Cuba, and regenerated when the vertical wind shear weakened. It turned to the northwest and strengthened up to category 2 strength on October 1. Lili made two landfalls in western Cuba later that day, and then entered the Gulf of Mexico. The hurricane rapidly strengthened on October 2, reaching Category 4 strength that afternoon. It weakened rapidly thereafter, and hit Louisiana as a Category 1 hurricane on October 3. It moved inland and dissipated on October 6.
Lili caused extensive damage through the Caribbean, particularly to crops and poorly built homes. Mudslides were common on the more mountainous islands, particularly Haiti and Jamaica. In the United States, the storm cut off
Hurricane Nate was an Atlantic hurricane that threatened Bermuda but remained at sea during early September 2005. The fourteenth named storm and seventh hurricane of the annual Atlantic hurricane season, Nate formed southwest of Bermuda on September 5 and initially moved very slowly to the northeast. Early forecasts suggested a possible threat to the island, but Nate passed well to its south as a Category 1 hurricane on September 8. After moving away from the island, the storm entered a region with cooler sea surface temperatures and unfavorable wind shear, causing it to weaken to a tropical storm before becoming extratropical on September 10. The extratropical remnant was later absorbed by a larger weather system.
The hurricane caused no structural damage while tropical, although it generated rip currents in combination with other storms that killed one person off the New Jersey coast. Nate dropped light rainfall and produced gusty winds on the island of Bermuda. The remnants of hurricanes Nate and Maria contributed to heavy rainfall in parts of Scotland and later Western Norway, triggering a mudslide that killed one person. Canadian Navy ships en route to the US Gulf Coast,
Hurricane Pauline was one of the strongest and deadliest Pacific hurricanes to make landfall in Mexico. The sixteenth tropical storm, eighth hurricane, and seventh major hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season, Pauline developed out of a tropical wave from Africa on September 16, 1997, moving across South America and into the Pacific Ocean. On October 5, the depression intensified into a tropical storm early the next day and by October 7, Pauline had reached hurricane intensity. It initially moved eastward, then turned northwestward and quickly strengthened to reach peak winds of 135 mph (215 km/h). It paralleled the Mexican coastline a short distance offshore before weakening and making landfall near Puerto Angel, on October 9, and dissipated the next day.
Hurricane Pauline produced torrential rainfall along the Mexican coastline, peaking at 32.62 inches (930 mm) in Puente Jula. Intense flooding and mudslides in some of the poorest areas of Mexico killed between 230 to 500 people, making it one of the deadliest Eastern Pacific storms in recorded history. The passage of the hurricane destroyed or damaged tens of thousands of houses, leaving around 300,000 homeless and
Hurricane Roxanne caused extensive flooding in Mexico due to its erratic movement. The seventeenth storm, tenth hurricane, and the fifth and final major hurricane of the very active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season, Roxanne developed in the southwestern Caribbean Sea from an area of low pressure on October 7. The depression curved northward, causing it to avoid landfall in Center America. By October 9, the depression intensified enough to be upgraded to Tropical Storm Roxanne. On the following day, Roxanne turned west-northward, where it promptly intensified into a hurricane. As Roxanne headed generally westward, it began to rapidly deepen, and reached Category 3 intensity less than 24 hours after becoming a hurricane. Shortly thereafter, Roxanne made landfall near Cozumel, Mexico at its peak intensity, which caused severe damage.
Roxanne rapidly weakened while traversing the Yucatan Peninsula, and it emerged into the Bay of Campeche on October 12, the storm was only a Category 1 hurricane. Further weakening occurred, and Roxanne was downgraded to a tropical storm later that day. Roxanne tracked northwestward and eventually re-intensified into a hurricane on October 14. Thereafter,
Typhoon Ike (international designation: 8411, JTWC designation: 13W, PAGASA name: Nitang) was the deadliest typhoon of the 1984 Pacific typhoon season and crossed the Philippines in September. This tropical cyclone formed on August 27 in the Philippine Sea, and strengthened as it moved westward into the southern Philippines, becoming a typhoon on August 31. Typhoon Ike caused extreme wind and flooding damage when it crossed the Philippines, resulting in 1492 fatalities, one of the Philippines' worst natural disaster in modern times, and its worst typhoon since Amy struck the archipelago in 1951. A total of 200,000 to 480,000 were left homeless. Emerging from the Philippines as a strong tropical storm, Ike restrengthened as it tracked northwest through the South China Sea across northeast Hainan Island. Weakening back into a tropical storm, Ike moved inland into mainland China. In Hong Kong, winds gusted to 49 knots (91 km/h) at Tate's Cairn. Extensive crop damage was experienced in southern China, with Ike becoming the most significant tropical cyclone to strike Guangxi since 1954. Total damage was reportedly US$111 million (1984 dollars). The name Ike was retired after this
Super Typhoon Kate (international designation: 7020, JTWC designation: 22W, PAGASA name: Titang) was the second of two super typhoons to strike the Philippines within a week in October 1970, the first being Super Typhoon Joan. As a result, Kate produced heavy damage and over 631 casualties. At the time, Kate was the deadliest typhoon to strike the Philippines.
Super Typhoon Kate was first identified by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) on October 7, 1970, and by the Japan Meteorological Agency on October 9, 1970 as a tropical disturbance near the Marshall Islands. The system tracked in a general westward direction and relocated itself further south during this period in response to Typhoon Joan wake to the northwest. By October 13, convection sharply increased as the system entered a region of strong diffluence. The following day, the disturbance featured a marked increase in organization as thunderstorms continued to consolidate around the center of circulation. During the afternoon of October 15, reconnaissance aircraft reached the storm and reported that it was already nearing typhoon status. Sustained winds were measured at 110 km/h (70 mph) along with a barometric
Super Typhoon Nina (international designation: 8722, JTWC designation: 22W) was the fourth most intense typhoon of the 1987 Pacific typhoon season and was also the deadliest and the most destructive typhoon of that season. Nina, also designated Super Typhoon Sisang, was the worst typhoon to strike the Philippines in 17 years, since Patsy in 1970.
Nina formed from an low pressure system west of the international date line on November 17. For two days the disturbance moved westward until November 19 when it was upgraded to tropical depression status. Later, Nina was further upgraded to tropical storm status south of the Truk Atoll on November 21 as the storm moved southwestward at 20 mph. Later that day, the storm reached typhoon status. Nina then passed north of the islands of Ulithi and Yap.
As Nina approached the Philippine Islands, the storm rapidly intensified into a giant, 800 mile wide Category 5 Super Typhoon, with sustained winds at 165 mph (145 kt). On November 25, Supertyphoon Nina made landfall in the Bicol Region, bringing extremely strong winds and heavy rains and a maximum gust of 175 kts (205 mph). The storm's barometric pressure plunged to 930 millibars (27.46 inHg)
Typhoon Ora (international designation: 7205, JTWC designation: 06W, PAGASA name: Konsing) was a June 1972 Category 1 typhoon that left 131 people dead and $15 million (1972 USD, $68.4 million 2005 USD) in damage.
A tropical wave embedded in a trough formed on June 20 and moved westward without development. By June 23, the disturbance had strengthened, and became Tropical Storm Ora about 330 miles east of the Philippines.
Although poorly organized, Ora continued strengthening, becoming a Category 1 typhoon before encountering a high pressure system.
The area of high pressure forced the storm to make landfall on Luzon on June 25, emerging over the South China Sea later that day. Ora then continued its northwest track, turning northeast near Hainan Island and making landfall in southern China as a tropical storm. Ora then weakened and dissipated after moving inland.
Ora made landfall in the Philippines and again in southern China. The first landfall brought 115 mph gusts and 9.3 inches (236.2 mm) of rain in a 24 hour period to Luzon. Flashfloods from Ora damaged homes and businesses, and the storm surge caused many ships offshore to run aground. A sailboat capsized near Rapu Rapu