Includes resgistries of top level internet domains.
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INRegistry is the official .IN registry. It was appointed by the government of India, and is operated under the authority of NIXI, the National Internet eXchange of India.
Most countries have their own Top Level Domain. The INRegistry has been created by NIXI, the National Internet Exchange of India. NIXI is a Not-for-Profit Company under Section 25 of the Indian Companies Act, 1956, with the objective of facilitating improved Internet services in the country.
Under NIXI, the INRegistry functions as an autonomous body with primary responsibility for maintaining the .IN ccTLD and ensuring its operational stability, reliability, and security. It will implement the various elements of the new policy set out by the Government of India and its Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Department of Information Technology.
The Government decided to revamp the administration of the .IN registry in late 2004. INRegistry has assumed responsibility for the registry from the previous registry authority, The National Centre for Software Technology (NCST) and its Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC). This change was announced via an executive order through a gazette
The University of the South Pacific (USP) is a public research university with a number of locations spread throughout a dozen countries in Oceania. It is an international centre for teaching and research on Pacific culture and environment. USP's academic programmes are recognised worldwide, attracting students and staff from throughout the Pacific Region and internationally. The colonial link and the establishment of the University of the South Pacific in 1968 allowed the education system to follow suit from the qualification system of the Commonwealth. University of the South Pacific is the only university in the Oceania region to be internationally recognized outside of Australia and New Zealand with its bachelor's and other awards programme. USP is owned by the governments of 12 Pacific Island countries: the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.
USP offers Undergraduate and postgraduate study programmes including:
The Campus Director, University of the South Pacific, Private Bag, Apia, Samoa.
The Campus Director, The University of the South Pacific, Private Mail Bag
The National Internet Development Agency of Korea (한국인터넷진흥원, NIDA) is the South Korean Ministry of Information and Communication sub-organization dealing with the allocation and maintenance of South Korea's IPv4/IPv6 address space (and the related WHOIS information), Autonomous System Numbers, and .kr country code top-level domain (ccTLD).
The organization was created in 2004 pursuant to Article 9 of the Act on Internet Address Resources (passed on July 30, 2004), and subsumed the Korea Network Information Center, previously a non-profit organization founded in 1999. The president of the organization as of November 2008 was Dr. Park Syung-Kyoo.
The Institute for research in fundamental sciences (previously the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, often shortened to IPM (Persian: پژوهشگاه دانشهای بنیادی)) is a government-sponsored advanced research institute founded in 1989 in Tehran, Iran. The institute was the first Iranian organization to connect to the Internet. It is also the domain name registry of .ir domain names.
The institute has four main campuses, all north of Tehran in the Farmanieh district, immediately south of Niavaran. It offers advanced PhD degrees in areas such as Mathematical Logic and Plasma Physics among others.
IPM is directed by Mohammad Javad Larijani, its original founder.
IPM has eight schools:
Verisign, Inc. (NASDAQ: VRSN) is an American company based in Reston, Virginia that operates a diverse array of network infrastructure, including two of the Internet's thirteen root nameservers, the authoritative registry for the .com, .net, and .name generic top-level domains and the .cc and .tv country-code top-level domains, and the back-end systems for the .jobs, and .edu top-level domains. Verisign also offers a range of security services, including managed DNS, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) mitigation and cyber-threat reporting.
In 2010, Verisign sold its authentication business unit – which included SSL (secure socket layer), PKI (public key infrastructure), Verisign Trust Seal, and Verisign Identity Protection (VIP) services – to Symantec for $1.28 billion. The deal capped a multi-year effort by Verisign to narrow its focus to its core infrastructure and security business units.
Verisign's former CFO Brian Robins announced in August 2010 that the company would move from its original domicile of Mountain View, California to Dulles in Northern Virginia by 2011 due to 95% of the company's business being on the East Coast.
Verisign was founded in 1995 as a spin-off of
DK Hostmaster A/S is a Danish company that exclusively supervises the .dk top-level domain. It was established in 1999 and is owned completely by Dansk Internet Forum (DIFO, Danish: Danish Internet Forum).
You can visit the website only by typing dk. in your browser.
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (also KACST; Arabic: مدينة الملك عبدالعزيز للعلوم والتقنية) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is an organization established in 1977 as the Saudi Arabian National Center for Science & Technology (SANCST); in 1985, it was renamed King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
In 1984, it named Abdul Rahman Al-Athel as its President. In 2007, Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim Al-Suwaiyel, who used to be the KACST vice president for research, became the president. HH Dr. Turki AL Saud is the KACST vice president.
The research complex is divided into the following research institutes:
KACST has many different research centers, including:
KACST is now working in the following programs:
The National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan (NSTIP) is a collaboration between the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology and the Ministry of Economy and Planning. This program was approved by the Council of Ministers in 2002. This program has fifteen strategic technologies that will help the future development of Saudi Arabia.
These plans are: Water, Oil and Gas, Petrochemicals Technology, Nanotechnologies, Biotechnology, Information Technology, ECP
The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is a United States Department of Defense agency that provides information technology (IT) and communications support to the President, Vice President, Secretary of Defense, the military Services, and the Combatant Commands.
As part of the Base Realignment and Closure, DISA is planning to move from Arlington, Virginia to Fort Meade, Maryland by September 2011.
In September 1992, several Defense Management Report Decisions (DMRD) expanded DISA's role. DMRD 918 created the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII), now known as the Global Information Grid. At the same the Defense Information Systems Network was created to consolidate 122 DoD networks.
DISA, a Combat Support Agency, engineers and provides command and control capabilities and enterprise infrastructure to continuously operate and assure a global net-centric enterprise in direct support to joint warfighters, National level leaders, and other mission and coalition partners across the full spectrum of operations.
DISA's Command and Control acronyms include the Net-Enabled Command Capability (NECC), Global Combat Support System (GCSS), Combatant Command/Joint Task Force (CC/JTF),
SITA is a multinational information technology company specialising in providing IT and telecommunication services to the air transport industry. The company provides its services to over 550 members and 2,700 customers worldwide—this amounts to over 90% of the world's airline business.
SITA's consolidated revenues in 2009 were $1.49 billion (€1.07 billion).
SITA, originally known as the Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques, was founded in February 1949 by 11 airlines in order to bring about shared infrastructure cost efficiencies by combining their communications networks. The 11 original airlines were: Air France, KLM, Sabena, Swissair, TWA, British European Airways Corporation (BEAC), British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), British South American Airways (BSAA), Swedish A.G.Aerotransport, Danish Det Danske Luftfartselskab A/S, and Noweigan Det Norske Luftfartselskap. SITA was the first company to handle data traffic in real time via a packet switched network over common carrier leased lines.
In 1989 computer reservations systems, aerospace manufacturers, tour operators, airfreight forwarders, airport authorities, and other organizations in the air
EURid vzw/asbl (European Registry for Internet Domains) is a non-profit organisation appointed by the European Commission on 8 April 2003 as the domain name registry to operate the new .eu top-level domain.
EURid is a consortium of three European ccTLD operators: DNS Belgium (.be), IIT-CNR (.it) and NIC-SE (.se). It has been established in Belgium, having its headquarters in Brussels. In October 2006, they opened their first branch office in Stockholm. Two further branch offices have been opened in Italy and the Czech Republic. There are four associate members: The Academic and Research Network of Slovenia (ARNES), the registry for .si, the national top-level domain for Slovenia, CZ.NIC, the registry for .cz, the national top-level domain for the Czech Republic, ISOC-ECC, the European chapter of the Internet Society, and BUSINESSEUROPE, a confederation of 39 industry-related federations from 33 countries.
EURid uses the Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) which enables registrars to perform operations on .eu domain names directly.
The web site is available in all the official languages of the European Union: Bulgarian, Danish, German, Czech, Estonian, English, Spanish, French,
The University of Cyprus (UCY) (Greek: Πανεπιστήμιο Κύπρου, Turkish: Kıbrıs Üniversitesi) is a public coeducational university established by the Republic of Cyprus in 1989. It admitted its first students in 1992 and has currently approximately 6000 students (2010/2011). It was the first university to be established in Cyprus.
The University of Cyprus was established in 1989 and admitted its first students in 1992. It was founded in response to the growing intellectual needs of the Cypriot people, and is well placed to fulfil several aspirations of the country.
The University is a vigorous community of scholars engaged in the generation and diffusion of knowledge. Despite its brief history, the University of Cyprus has earned the respect of the international academic community and the appreciation of Cypriot society. Admission for the majority of undergraduate students is by entrance examinations organized by the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Cyprus, and the competition for places is approximately 10 to 1. A number of places are reserved for students with special needs or circumstances. Every effort is made to offer practical solutions to students facing
The University of Los Andes (Spanish: Universidad de los Andes), is a coeducational, nonsectarian private university located in city centre of Bogotá, Colombia. Founded in 1948, the University has nine faculties: Administration, Architecture and Design, Arts and Humanities, Sciences, Social Sciences, Law, Economics, Engineering and Medicine, which offer undergraduate and postgraduate programmes; and the Center for Research and Training in Education (CIFE), and the Interdisciplinary Center for Development Studies (CIDER), for postgraduate programmes. In addition, the University includes the ﬁrst private school for public affairs - the Alberto Lleras Camargo Government School, which is named after a former President of the Republic and Rector of the University. Furthermore, the international summer school programme offers its students the opportunity to expand their international perspective by taking advanced courses in specialised areas. A great percentage of professors have gone to the most prestigious universities around the world and the country. Representing a high quality education and an elite institution, it is ranked as a top tier university in Latin America. occupying the
The Falkland Islands Development Corporation (FIDC) is a quasi-autonomous, government-established, largely self-funding body responsible for encouraging the economic development of the Falkland Islands. It was set up in 1984 and is mainly funded from its own reserves and income streams. Initiatives it has fostered include air transport, connection to the global containerised shipping network, supporting agricultural diversification, establishing a meat export industry and promoting tourism. It also offers advice, loans and grants to further local business development.
Educause is a nonprofit association whose mission is "to advance higher education by promoting the intelligent use of information technology." Membership is open to institutions of higher education, corporations serving the higher education information technology market, and other related associations and organizations.
The association provides a social networking Connect site that supports blogs, wikis, podcasts and other platforms for IT professionals to generate and find content and to engage their peers; professional development opportunities; print and electronic publications, including e-books, monographs, and the magazines Educause Quarterly (EQ) and Educause Review; strategic policy advocacy; teaching and learning initiatives; applied research; special interest discussion groups; awards for leadership and transformative uses of information technology; and a resource center for IT professionals in higher education.
Major initiatives of Educause include the Core Data Service, the Educause Center for Applied Research (ECAR), the Educause Learning Initiative (ELI), Net@edu (advanced networking), the Educause Policy Program, and the Educause/Internet2 Computer and Network
The Public Interest Registry is a Reston, Virginia-based not-for-profit created by the Internet Society (ISOC) in 2002 to manage the .ORG top-level domain. It took over operation of .ORG in January 2003 and officially applied for the .NGO domain in May 2012. The organization is involved in internet policy, education and security issues, like the Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) protocol, domain tasting, DNS filtering and internet adoption in third world countries.
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) circulated a request for proposals in May 2002 for a new organization to manage .ORG. The Internet Society (ISOC) put forth one of eleven proposals ICANN received. ISOC won an endorsement within ICANN and was recommended to the selection committee in a preliminary report before being selected. The proposal included the creation of a separate entity, called the Public Interest Registry, to oversee the .ORG domain. Its board of directors is appointed by ISOC. Afilias was selected as the back end technical provider for .ORG under contract with the Public Interest Registry. The largest domain transfer in history occurred on January 1, 2003, when
The Landskapsregering is the government of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland. The government is led by a Lantråd, the premier of Åland, who is elected by the Lagting, the parliament of Åland.
Government member parties: Åland Social Democrats (S), Åland Centre Party (C), The Independent Group (Obs) and The Moderates of Åland (M):
Minister of Education and Culture:
Government member parties: Åland liberals (lib) and Åland centre (c):
The Museum Domain Management Association (MuseDoma) was created in 2000 by the International Council of Museums (ICOM) and the J. Paul Getty Trust. MuseDoma is the sponsoring organization for the .museum top-level domain.
The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system. The UPU contains four bodies consisting of the Congress, the Council of Administration (CA), the Postal Operations Council (POC) and the International Bureau (IB). It also oversees two cooperatives including the Telematics and EMS Cooperatives respectively. Each member agrees to the same terms for conducting international postal duties. The UPU’s headquarters are located in Bern, Switzerland.
French is the official language of the UPU. English was added as a working language in 1994. The majority of the UPU's documents and publications – including its flagship magazine, Union Postale - are available in the United Nations' official languages.
Prior to the establishment of the UPU, each country had to prepare a separate postal treaty with other nations it wished to carry international mail to or from. To simplify the complexity of this system, the United States called for an International Postal Congress in 1863. This led Heinrich von Stephan, Royal Prussian and later German
The Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (University of the Valley of Guatemala) is a private, not-for-profit, secular university located in Guatemala City, Guatemala. It was founded in 1966 by a private foundation, which had previously overseen the American School of Guatemala. It was the first private university to give a strong emphasis to technology and technical background in the country. The registry for the .gt country-code domain name is operated by this university.
The University has four faculties:
The school has clubs and associations, which promote student participation.
Each career may have its own association. Currently, the school has 15 associations.
The school has clubs for interested students.
The Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) (French: Authorité canadienne pour les enregistrements Internet ACEI) is the organization that manages the .CA country code top-level domain, the policies that support Canada’s Internet community and Canada’s involvement in international Internet governance. CIRA is a member-driven organization. Membership in CIRA is free, and open to anyone who holds a .CA domain.
CIRA was incorporated in 1998 and assumed operation of .CA on December 1, 2000 from the University of British Columbia. CIRA is currently based in the national capital Ottawa, Ontario.
A 15 member Board of Directors, consisting of both elected and appointed members, set CIRA's strategic directions. Board members are elected annually by CIRA Members through an online process.
In 2009, CIRA rolled out the DNSSEC testbed.
DENIC Verwaltungs- und Betriebsgesellschaft eG is the manager of the .de domain, the country-code top-level domain for Germany.
In 2005, it was one of five bidders seeking to win contract to operate the .net contract offered by ICANN.
The Country code top-level domain (ccTLD) 'DE' (".de") refers to Germany. See also NIC (Network Information Centre).
The Eritrean Telecommunication Services Corporation (formerly the Telecommunications Service of Eritrea), more commonly known as EriTel, is the sole operator of land line telephone communication infrastructure in Eritrea. It is also the sole operator of the mobile telephone service, however, it is but one of several internet service providers in Eritrea.
Mobile service by EriTel started in March 2004 and service has grown considerably since inception. EriTel operates a GSM 900 network which covers almost all major urban areas including: Asmara, Embatkala, Ghinda, Massawa, Dekemhare, Mendefera, Keren, Adi Keyh, Barentu, Teseney, Agordat, Sawa, and Nakfa.
This branch of EriTel was founded jointly between the Government of Eritrea and Ubambo Investment Holdings Limited (a South African firm). Eritel doesn't provide its customers with SMS services to foreign locations.
As an internet operator it was among the first to get a license to operate. To provide its product the company provides internet cafes, leased lines, and dial-up connections. Connections are typically overcrowded however, and congestion is an acknowledged problem. EriTel controls the national gateway and created it in
The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, Italian: Santa Sede) is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome. The primacy of Rome makes its bishop the worldwide leader of the church, commonly known as the Pope. Since Rome is the preeminent episcopal see of the Church, it contains the central government of the church, including various agencies essential to administration. Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole Roman Catholic Church. It is also recognized by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained."
Often incorrectly referred to as "the Vatican", the Holy See is not the same entity as the Vatican City State, which came into existence only in 1929; the Holy See, the episcopal see of Rome, dates back to early Christian times. Ambassadors are officially accredited not to the Vatican City State but to "the Holy See", and papal representatives to states and international organizations are recognized as representing the Holy See, not the Vatican City State.
Though all episcopal sees may be considered "holy", the expression "the Holy See" (without further specification) is
UKERNA is the trading name for the JNT Association, which since 1994 has had responsibility for the management of the United Kingdom￢ﾀﾙs Higher Education networking programme. It manages the operation and development of the JANET network, which links the UK￢ﾀﾙs education and research organisations to each other, as well as to the rest of the world through links to the global Internet. UKERNA is an acronym for United Kingdom Education and Research Network Association.
The histories of UKERNA and JANET are closely entwined. JANET came first: see the separate article on JANET for more information.
In the 1970s the UK￢ﾀﾙs Computer Board commissioned two reports from working parties led by Professor Mike Wells into the state of networking between the nation￢ﾀﾙs educational establishments. The reports recommended the setting up of a national research network that would link university computing centres. The second report concluded with a recommendation that the Computer Board and the Research Councils ￢ﾀﾘset up a small, full-time unit to co-ordinate, guide and rationalise network development involving those bodies receiving their principal funding from the Department of Education and
Estonian Educational and Research Network (EENet) is a governmental nonprofit organization established in August 1993 by the Ministry of Education of Estonia with the task of managing, coordinating and developing the computer network of science, education and culture. Since 1997 EENet operates as a state agency administered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.
In 1993 the whole network consisted of less than two hundred computers in Tartu and Tallinn. In the beginning of the year 2004 the number of end-users of Estonian academic network was approximately 210,000 people: researchers, students, teachers, pupils etc. The network extends to most counties in Estonia.
The mission of EENet is to provide a high quality national network infrastructure for the Estonian research, educational and cultural communities. The services of EENet include permanent Internet connection as well as several other services - webhosting, e-mail services, FTP, DNS, consultations in case of security problems, etc. Development projects are being carried out in cooperation with universities and institutes. In 2004 the project "Estonian GRID" (Eesti GRID) was started. EENet also participates in
The Agostinho Neto University (Universidade Agostinho Neto) is a public Angolan university based in the capital, Luanda. Until 2009, it had campuses in all major Angolan cities. In the academic year 2005/06, 68 licensing courses were ministered by Agostinho Neto University, being 18 in Bachelor’s Degree and 15 in Master’s Degree involving various areas of scientific knowledge within the various faculties, institutes and higher learning schools. It is one of seven recognized universities, both private and public, in Angola . In 2009, the Agostinho Neto University was split up and its campuses outside Luanda were transformed into six autonomous universities, in Benguela, Cabinda, Huambo, Lubango, Malange and Uíge. Today, the "Universidade Agostinho Neto" is reduced to the status of one regional university among others, confined to the Luanda and Bengo provinces, but even so it is the largest university in Angola. While until 2000 its only competitor had been the Catholic University of Angola, it faces at this stage (2011) the competition of about a dozen private universities.
Two state-run university institutions were founded in Portuguese Africa in 1962 by the Portuguese Ministry of
Camtel is a national telecommunications and Internet service provider in Cameroon. The company is busy building its network, including: Access to a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network; digitization of the country's telephone exchanges; and optical fiber along the highway between Douala and Yaoundé, and between Kribi and Lolodorf.
There are 47 telephone exchanges in the company's system. There are about 150,000 telephone lines in its cable network and its switching network. Camtel operates 3 satellite earthlink stations; Bepanda, Zamengoe and Garoua.
DhivehiNet is the brand name of internet and hosting service provided by Dhiraagu. Under this name Dhiraagu provides several services including internet access, web hosting, selling domain names, e-mail service and administering .mv ccTLD. DhivehiNet website acts as a web portal, displaying hot news, IT related information and as well as DhivehiNet's services.
Under DhivehiNet name Dhiraagu provides internet service ranging from basic Dial-up to Dedicated Satellite Access.
Dhiraagu provides web hosting including dedicated hosting. The three hosting packages available are Bronze Package, Silver Package and Gold Package. All of these packages get unlimited bandwidth traffic. Dhiraagu only provides web hosting on Unix platform for shared hosting services. However for dedicated hosting can be on any platform.
The Island Council is the legislative body of the Pitcairn Islands. It also doubles as the court of the British dependency, making it one of the few bodies in the world to possess both legislative and judicial authority.
The Council has ten members. The Mayor and the Chairman of the Island Council, both of whom are directly elected, hold membership on the council ex officio. Four ordinary councillors are popularly elected. The four ordinary councillors, together with the Council Chairman, co-opt a sixth member. The colonial governor appoints two councillors, one of whom is the Island Secretary. The tenth seat is reserved for a commissioner liaising between the governor and the Council. Apart from the Mayor, who serves a three-year term, and the Island Secretary, whose term is indefinite, all councillors serve one-year terms.
The presiding officer of the council was traditionally the Magistrate, who held executive, legislative, and judicial authority. Following a constitutional review in 1998, his office was divided and replaced by the Mayor and the Council Chairman, effective from 1999).
Following the Pitcairn Islands election, 2011 general election held in December 2011, the
Israel Internet Association is a non-profit organization and .il country code top level domains (ccTLD) registry. It was the second organization in the world to be accepted as a chapter of the Internet Society.
It is also responsible for managing the Israeli Internet Exchange (IIX).
Middle East Technical University (METU; in Turkish, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as ODTÜ) is a public technical university located in Ankara, Turkey. The university puts special emphasis on research and education in engineering and natural sciences, offering about 40 undergraduate programs within 5 faculties, and 97 masters and 62 doctorate programs within 5 graduate schools. The main campus of METU spans an area of 11,100 acres (4,500 ha), comprising, in addition to academic and auxiliary facilities, a forest area of 7,500 acres (3,000 ha), and the natural lake Eymir. METU has more than 95,000 alumni worldwide. The official language of instruction at METU is English.
Over one third of the 1,000 highest scoring students in the national university entrance examination choose to enroll in METU; and most of its departments accept the top 0.1% of the nearly 1.5 million applicants. METU had the greatest share in national research funding by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) in the last five years, and it is the leading university in Turkey in terms of the number of European Union Framework Programme (FP) projects participation.
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) is an organization in Kuwait which engages in scientific and applied research for several purposes, including preserving the environment, serving the economy, advising the government of scientific issues, and others.
KISR was established in 1967 by the Arabian Oil Company. The institute was to carry out applied research in petroleum, arid-zone agriculture and marine biology. In 1973, an amiri decree was made by Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah to organize KISR under the responsibility of the Council of Ministers. The objectives of KISR were also reorganized. Another amiri decree was made in 1981 to establish KISR as an independent public institution.
Environmental Management; Coastal Management and Atmospheric Pollution; Urban Infrastructure Development; Advanced Systems
Arid land Agriculture and Greenery; Aquaculture, Fisheries, and Marine Environment; Biotechnology
Petroleum Production; Petrochemical Processes; Petroleum Refining
Economic Studies; Quantitative Methods and Modelling
Hydrology; Water Management; Desalination; Wastewater
The Petroleum Research and Studies Center (PRSC) of the Kuwait Institute for
Afilias Limited is the registry operator of the .info and .mobi Top-level domain, and the service provider of the .org generic top-level domain (gTLD), .asia TLD catering to the Asia, Australia, and Pacific regions, .aero Airline and Aviation Industry TLD, and a provider of domain name registry services for several countries around the world, including .MN (Mongolia), .AG (Antigua and Barbuda), .BZ (Belize), .GI (Gibraltar), .HN (Honduras), .IN (India), .ME (Montenegro), .SC (the Seychelles), and .VC (St. Vincent and the Grenadines). Afilias also provides ancillary support to other domains, including .SG (Singapore).
Afilias was formed in September 2000 by a group of industry-leading domain name registrars in recognition of the need for increased competition in the domain name industry at the registry level. Afilias was selected by ICANN in November 2000 to launch .info, the first new generic Top Level Domain supported by EPP and based on a "thick" registry model. .info remains the most successful new generic Top Level Domain launched since .com.
As of January 2008, Afilias supports over 14 million domain names, making it the second largest registry service provider in the
Christmas Island Internet Administration Limited (CIIA) is a community-owned non-profit Christmas Island company, the objects of which are to be trustee and policy-setting body for the .cx ccTLD, and administrator of the Christmas Island Information Economy Development Trust. Christmas Island Internet Administration owns and operates the only Internet Service Provider (http://www.pulau.cx) in the Territory on a not-for-profit basis.
The Midcounties Co-operative Limited is the largest independent consumer co-operative in the United Kingdom. It is a registered Industrial and Provident Society, and a member of Co-operatives UK and the Co-operative Retail Trading Group.
The Society's principal activity is retailing in the mid counties of England. Its trading groups are Food, Funeralcare, Travel, Pharmacy, Post Office, Childcare, Employee Benefits and Energy. The Midcounties Co-operative has its headquarters in Warwickshire, with trading outlets in Oxfordshire, Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Shropshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and the surrounding counties, but also has a national trading presence through its Childcare, Energy and Employee Benefits businesses. It is a £740m business with more than 470 branches, 8,500 employees and 245,000 active trading members. The Society has recently been ranked in The Sunday Times Best 100 Companies To Work For list. Its mission statement is 'To be a successful consumer co-operative working towards creating a better, fairer world, and to enhance the lives of our colleagues, members, customers, and the communities we serve'.
A subsidiary, The Midcounties Co-operative Domains
The Academic and Research Network of Slovenia (Slovene: Akademska in raziskovalna mreža Slovenije) is a public institute in Slovenia, established in May 1992. Its main task is development, operation and management of the communication and information network for education and research. ARNES also operates the Slovenian Internet Exchange. The members of its management board are appointed by the Government of Slovenia.
Part of ARNES is also SI-CERT, the Slovenian Computer Emergency Response Team. It was established in 1994 and has been led by Gorazd Božič. SI-CERT was involved in the take-down of the recordings of the Government of Slovenia's closed session recordings leaked in December 2011 on YouTube. The recordings were taken down by YouTube after the copyright-related lawsuit threat by SI-CERT. It has not been involved in the investigation of the leak.
CARNet (Croatian Academic and Research Network, Croatian: Hrvatska akademska i istraživačka mreža) is the national research and education network of Croatia. It is funded from the government budget and it operates from offices in Zagreb and five other cities. CARNet was established in 1991 as a project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia. In March 1995 the Government of the Republic of Croatia passed the Decree on founding of the CARNet institution with the purpose of facilitating progress of individuals, as well as of the society as a whole, through the use of new information technologies. CARNet's activities can be divided in three basic areas: Internet service provision, encouragement of information society development and education for the new era.
CARNet's mission is to "provide the infrastructure, knowledge and the necessary resources to individuals and organizations that wish to build Croatia as an information society. Improvement of higher education and science as well as of the work and lives of students, associates, lecturers and scientists by applying the information and communication technology, getting to know its capabilities and
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the entity that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and numbers. IANA is a department operated by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, also known as ICANN.
Prior to the establishment of ICANN for this purpose, IANA was administered primarily by Jon Postel at the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of the University of Southern California (USC), under a contract USC/ISI had with the United States Department of Defense, until ICANN was created to assume the responsibility under a United States Department of Commerce contract.
IANA is broadly responsible for the allocation of globally unique names and numbers that are used in Internet protocols that are published as RFC documents. These documents describe methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems. IANA also maintains a close liaison with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and RFC Editorial team in fulfilling this function.
In the case
Nominet UK is the .uk domain name registry in the United Kingdom, which was founded by Dr Willie Black and five others on 14 May 1996 when its predecessor, the "Naming Committee" was unable to deal with the volume of registrations then being sought under the .uk domain. Nominet is a non-profit company limited by guarantee. It has members who act as shareholders, but without the right to participate in the profits of the company. Anyone can become a member, but most members are internet service providers who are also registrars. As one of the first professional ccTLD operators, Nominet became the model for many other operators worldwide.
Unlike the model for gTLDs and ccTLDs in some other countries, by and large, customers wishing to register a domain do not approach Nominet directly, but register the domain via a registrar. This is an organisation that is authorised by Nominet to register and update domains on behalf of customers, and that has provided a PGP public key to enable Nominet to authenticate communications from them. Registrars were formerly known as "tagholders".
As of August 2008, the .uk register held 7,000,000 .uk domain names making it the fourth largest Top Level
The General Services Administration (GSA) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. The GSA supplies products and communications for U.S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, and develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies, and other management tasks.
GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of roughly $26.3 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually. It contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U.S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,300 owned and leased buildings and a 210,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by the GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, DC, the largest U.S. Federal building after The Pentagon and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center which had previously been the Battle Creek Sanitarium run by John Harvey Kellogg.
GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service (FAS) and the Public Buildings Service (PBS). Other divisions include the Office of Governmentwide
The IE Domain Registry (IEDR) is the domain name registry for the .ie country code top-level domain. Formally, the IE Domain Registry Limited is a private company, limited by guarantee, incorporated in Ireland having its registered office and principal place of business in Sandycove, County Dublin. It operates on a not-for-profit basis and is a member of the CENTR representative body. IE Domain Registry Limited took over the administration of .ie in July 2000. Prior to that, the .ie ccTLD had been administered by University College Dublin.
The IE Domain Registry (IEDR) operates a managed registry model for Ireland’s national .ie domain. The managed registry model requires that all applicants provide evidence authenticating their claim to their chosen .ie domain name at the time of application. Applicants must show that the domain they are applying for is related to their company, business, association or trademarked name. Company names and trademarks are often self-evident. Sole Traders and small businesses and some companies use Registered Business Name (RBN) certificates that are acquired by registering a business name through the Irish Companies Registration Office .
SETAR N.V., is the privatised full telecommunications service provider for the island of Aruba. The services provided by SETAR include: telephone, internet and GSM-related wireless services. SETAR also owns Tele Aruba. SETAR has been in operation on Aruba for over 10 years. Annual sales are offered by SETAR, especially during the holidays.
The University of Guyana, in Georgetown, Guyana, is a public university established in 1963 by the Guyanese government.
Cheddi Jagan, then Premier of British Guiana, considered that the University of the West Indies, to which his government had contributed since 1948, was not meeting the demand of his countrymen for higher education. On January 4, 1962, Jagan wrote to Harold Drayton, then in Ghana, to ask him to seek the advice of W.E.B. DuBois on starting a new university.
Drayton returned to British Guiana in December 1962, and it was on his advice that Jagan wrote to socialist scholars in the United Kingdom and United States, including Joan Robinson at the University of Cambridge, Paul Baran at Stanford University, and Lancelot Hogben at Birmingham to involve them in the recruitment of staff.
The University opened on the grounds of Queen's College in late 1963. Its first chancellor was Edgar Mortimer Duke and its first Principal and Vice-Chancellor was the British biologist and mathematician, Lancelot Hogben.
The university is divided into a number of faculties:
It also contains the Institute of Distance and Continuing Education.
DNS Belgium or DNS.be is a non-profit organisation responsible for managing the .be top level domain. Domain names are registered by the various agents of DNS Belgium, on behalf of their individual clients, as part of a decentralised registration and applications procedure.
Established in 1999 by the Internet Service Providers Association, Fabrimetal and the Belgium Telecommunications Users Group, DNS Belgium adopted this decentralised network of registrars on December 11, 2000 in order to create a simpler, automated procedure for the registration of domain names. Since 2003, the company has been party to a data escrow agreement, to ensure continuity of services. The organisation's name is derived, in part, from the term domain name server.
DNS.be is a founder member of the EURid consortium which administers the .eu TLD, and provided the model upon which the organisation is based.
SWITCH is the manager of the .ch and .li country-code top-level domains for Switzerland and Liechtenstein, respectively. It also manages the educational networks among Swiss universities and research facilities, and the links to other (non Swiss) university networks. It also mirrors open source software (including several distributions of Linux, e.g. (K)Ubuntu).
The University of Puerto Rico (UPR) is the state university system of Puerto Rico. The system consists of 11 campuses and has approximately 64,511 students and 5,300 faculty members. UPR has the largest and most diverse academic offerings in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, with 472 academic programs and 32 doctoral programs.
In 1900, at Fajardo, the "Escuela Normal Industrial" (normal school) was established as the first higher education center in Puerto Rico. Its initial enrollment was only 20 students and 5 professors. The following year it was moved to Rio Piedras. On March 12, 1903, a law was passed which officially created the University of Puerto Rico. That same day, the "Escuela Normal" was proclaimed as the first department of the University of Puerto Rico.
The Master Plan for the Río Piedras Campus directs future growth for the University of Puerto Rico’s largest campus, a branch expected to serve 27,000 students by 2020. The study reviews existing facilities, identifies attainable development scenarios, and provides phasing and implementation strategies. The plan also envisions new development including a sports and recreation center; housing for 800 students; and academic
The Global Name Registry, Limited was the operator of the .name top-level domain for individuals' names as delegated by ICANN on August 1, 2001.
The company focused on digital identity and .name as a core part of providing individuals worldwide with personal, memorable digital identities. Global Name Registry offered two core products: a personalized email address with forwarding capabilities, and a personalized domain name.
The Global Name Registry launched .name in 2002.
VeriSign, Inc., acquired Global Name Registry in late 2008 and ICANN approved the reassignment of the .name TLD to VeriSign in early 2009.
Janet is a private UK government-funded computer network dedicated to research and education. All further- and higher-education organisations in the UK are connected to Janet, as are all the Research Councils; the majority of these sites are connected via 20 metropolitan area networks (though Janet refers to these as Regional Networks, emphasising that Janet connections are not just confined to a metropolitan area) across the UK. The network also carries traffic between schools within the UK, although many of the schools' networks maintain their own general Internet connectivity. The name was originally a contraction of Joint Academic NETwork but it is now known as Janet in its own right.
The network is linked to other European and worldwide NRENs through GEANT and peers extensively with other ISPs at Internet Exchange Points in the UK. Any other networks are reached via transit services from commercial ISPs using Janet's Peering Policy.
The Janet network is operated by Janet, whose legal name is Janet(UK), was previously known as UKERNA (the United Kingdom Education and Research Networking Association). Janet is also responsible for the .ac.uk and .gov.uk domains. It is funded by
Neustar, Inc. (NYSE: NSR) is a provider of real-time information and analytics for the Internet, telecommunications, entertainment, and marketing industries as well as a provider of clearinghouse and directory services to the global communications and Internet industries.
Neustar was incorporated in Delaware in 1998. Neustar started as a business unit within Lockheed Martin Corporation. It spun off to keep the neutrality that was essential to its original core contract with the nation's telecommunications providers. In 2010, Neustar named Lisa Hook as President and Chief Operating Officer.
Within the United States and Canada, Neustar operates the North American Numbering Plan, the authoritative directories that manage virtually all telephone area codes and numbers, and enables the routing of calls among thousands of competing Communications Service Providers (CSPs). All telecommunications service providers (TSPs) that offer telecommunications services to the public at large must access the Neustar clearinghouse to properly route virtually all of their customers’ calls. Also, Neustar provides clearinghouse services to emerging CSPs, including Internet service providers (ISPs),
The Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation (ETC) was, until December 2010, the sole telecommunication service provider in Ethiopia. Based in Addis Ababa, it was the second-largest state-owned company in Ethiopia, the largest being Ethiopian Airlines.
It was replaced by Ethio Telecom on December 2, 2010. The new company is also fully owned by the state, but management is outsourced to France Télécom for two years. The government said it outsourced the management as ETC was not able to meet the demands of the fast growing country. It also said that telecom services would not be privatized, at least not in the near future.
Originally a division of the Ministry of Post, Telephone and Telegraph, what would become the ETC was established as the Imperial Board of Telecommunications of Ethiopia (IBTE) by proclamation No. 131/52 in 1952. Under the Derg Regime, the IBTE was reorganized as the Ethiopian Telecommunications Service on October 1975, which was in turn reorganized on January 1981 as the Ethiopian Telecommunications Authority. On November 1996, the Ethiopian Telecommunications Authority became ETC by Council of Ministers regulation No. 10/1996. The subsequent Proclamation 49/1996
Naukowa i Akademicka Sieć Komputerowa ("research and academic computer network") or NASK is a Polish research and development organization and data networks operator. It is also the national registry of the .pl domain.
The NASK-maintained national register of Internet names in the “.pl” domain is a fully automated system in which domains are registered by over 98 NASK partners. Partners operate in the “registry-registrars” system based on EPP, in which NASK (registry) allows partner companies (registrars) to register domains in the national “.pl” register, thus enabling them to enter the market with an independent offer. Full automation and registrars’ direct access to the central database are the system’s core features. At present, over 99.9% of registrations in the “.pl” domain are carried out by the registrars.
NASK was the first to have introduced registration of domains with national diacritic signs, the so-called IDNs (Internationalized Domain Names) in all European and many non-European languages (e.g. in Hebrew). NASK is the world’s first national Internet domain registrar to have obtained the ISO 9001:2000 certificate covering the entire Internet domain registration
The Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone (T&T) Department was created in 1971.
Today 'BTTB' provides land-line telephone services in the urban areas, domestic long-distance and international services. Though the Bangladeshi government has given out nationwide PSTN licences the lucrative Dhaka market (which account for majority of the nationwide market) is still under the monopoly of BTTB. In 2004, BTTB forayed in to the mobile telephony market of Bangladesh by launching a separate company called Teletalk.
BTTB provides dial-up Internet access in all 64 districts of the country, making it the most-accessible Internet service provider in the country. As of June 2008 its total dial-up subscriber is 28659. It also handles the .bd domain.
On 1 July 2008, BTTB transformed to a Govt. Public Limited Company with a new name Bangladesh Telecommunications Company Limited BTCL.
As of March 2008 total subscriber of BTTB was 872.409 thousand .
The China Internet Network Information Center (simplified Chinese: 中国互联网络信息中心; traditional Chinese: 中國互聯網絡信息中心; pinyin: Zhōngguó Hùlián Wǎngluò Xìnxī Zhōngxīn), or CNNIC, was founded as a non-profit organization on June 3, 1997.
CNNIC is the administrative agency responsible for Internet affairs under the Ministry of Information Industry of the People's Republic of China. It is based in the Zhongguancun high tech district of Beijing.
CNNIC is responsible for operating and administering China’s domain name registry. CNNIC manages both the “.CN” country code top level domain and the Chinese Domain Name system (Internationalized domain names that contain Chinese characters).
As of January 2009, CNNIC only opens the CN domain to registered businesses, requires supporting documentations for domain registration such as business license or personal ID, and suspended overseas registrars even for domestic registrants. CNNIC denies that it mandates existing personal domain names to be transferred to businesses. Trend Micro suggests this move is still not enough to stop modern security threats from the .cn domain.
CNNIC allocates Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and AS Numbers to domestic
The Japan Registry Service Co., Ltd. (JPRS) was incorporated on December 26, 2000. Its mandate is to manage the .jp ccTLD, including the operation of the registry and DNS servers. As a specific purpose corporation, it is intended to carry out its duties in a fair and neutral manner.
JPRS came into existence out of a resolution at the 11th General Meeting of JPNIC, who had until then been managing the .jp domain. It was decided that due to the growing importance and complexity of the .jp domain, a separate corporation should be created with the purpose of running the registry.
In the period following the resolution, details were worked out, a structure was set up, and then on 2003-06-30, JPNIC, in co-operation with ICANN, transitioned the .jp domain to JPRS.
JPRS is the registry for the .jp domain. In this capacity, they are responsible for the administration and operation of the .jp domain, interacting with the public through private registrars.
JPRS is also a participant in the internationalized domain names (IDN) effort, which seeks to allow non-ASCII characters to be used in domain names. JPRS supports Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) which is a system by
Uninett Norid AS, trading as Norid, is the domain name registry for the three Norwegian country code top-level domains (ccTLD) .no, .sj and .bv. The non-profit company is based in Trondheim, where it shares offices with its parent company Uninett; both companies being owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. Norid operates under contract with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, supervised by the Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority. Uninett took over responsibility for the Norwegian domain in 1987, and in 2003 it was spun off as a separate company. Only .no is open for registration.
The registry for .no was in 1983 given to Pål Spilling at the Norwegian Telecommunications Administration's research institute. However, policy-makers wanted the domain to be managed by a non-commercial organization, and the responsibility was transferred to Uninett, a supplier of information and communications technology to Norwegian public universities, colleges and research institutions, on 17 March 1987. At the time Uninett was administrated as a division of SINTEF, but became a limited company owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research in 1993. Norid
The Papua New Guinea University of Technology or 'Unitech' is based 8 km outside of Lae, in the Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea. It has 13 teaching departments and 3 affiliated colleges.
It is the second largest university in PNG after its 'sister' university the University of Papua New Guinea in Port Moresby. While UPNG concentrates on the arts, pure sciences, law and medicine, Unitech focuses on research in technological or applied sciences. It is the only technological university in the South Pacific, outside of Australia and New Zealand.
Unitech was created as the PNG Institute of Higher Technical Education in May 1965 and was located in Port Moresby. In 1968 it moved to a 2 square kilometre campus outside of Lae and in March 1970 was renamed the PNG Institute of Technology. The institution achieved its present status in August 1973 when it became a university proper.
The university has grown from just 37 students in 1967 to over 2,000 currently each year. By the end of 2003 Unitech had awarded 10,122 degrees, diplomas and certificates to students mainly from PNG and neighbouring Pacific countries.
Unitech offers courses in the following fields:
Tor (short for The Onion Router) is a system intended to enable online anonymity. Tor client software directs internet traffic through a worldwide volunteer network of servers to conceal a user's location or usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Using Tor makes it more difficult to trace Internet activity, including "visits to Web sites, online posts, instant messages and other communication forms", back to the user and is intended to protect users' personal freedom, privacy, and ability to conduct confidential business by keeping their internet activities from being monitored.
"Onion Routing" refers to the layered nature of the encryption service: The original data are encrypted and re-encrypted multiple times, then sent through successive Tor relays, each one of which decrypts a "layer" of encryption before passing the data on to the next relay and, ultimately, its destination. This reduces the possibility of the original data being unscrambled or understood in transit.
The Tor client is free software and use of the Tor network is free of charge.
An alpha version of the software, with the onion routing network "functional and deployed", was
The University of Curaçao mr. dr. Moises Frumencio da Costa Gomez is the state university of Curaçao. It is a public university, graduating approximately one hundred students per year.
The University of Curaçao has existed in its present form since 1973. Its history, however, dates back to 1970, the year in which the Law College of the Netherlands Antilles was established by a national decree dated October 6, 1970 (O.B. 1970 no. 1130), to prepare students to take the LL.B. Antillean Law exam. The Law College became the College of the Netherlands Antilles in 1974, after a degree program in Business Administration was established. The Department of Business Administration was changed into the Department of Business Administration and Public Administration in 1977, after which students could also obtain a bachelor’s degree in Public Administration. Finally, with the foundation of the UNA in 1979 by a national decree dated 12 January 1979 (O.B. 1979 no. 12), the Antillean College of Technology (established 1972), was transformed into the Faculty of Engineering.
In 2011 the University of the Netherlands Antilles was renamed the University of Curaçao mr. dr. Moises Frumencio da Costa