A symptom is a sign or indication of the existence of a disease or medical condition. A symptom can be either a sensation, a change in health function or a physical condition which indicates a particular illness or disorder in humans.
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Diastolic heart murmurs are heart murmurs heard during diastole.
Diastolic murmurs start at or after S2 and end before or at S1.
Many involve narrowing of the atrioventricular valves or regurgitation of the semilunar valves.
Heart failure (HF), often called congestive heart failure (CHF) or congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is an inability of the heart to provide sufficient pump action to distribute blood flow to meet the needs of the body. Heart failure can cause a number of symptoms including shortness of breath, leg swelling, and exercise intolerance. The condition is diagnosed with echocardiography and blood tests. Treatment commonly consists of lifestyle measures such as smoking cessation, light exercise including breathing protocols, decreased salt intake and other dietary changes, and medications. Sometimes it is treated with implanted devices (pacemakers or ventricular assist devices) and occasionally a heart transplant.
Common causes of heart failure include myocardial infarction and other forms of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. The term "heart failure" is sometimes incorrectly used to describe other cardiac-related illnesses, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cardiac arrest, which can cause heart failure but are not equivalent to heart failure.
Heart failure is a common, costly, disabling, and potentially deadly condition. In
Bowel obstruction (or intestinal obstruction) is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion. It can occur at any level distal to the duodenum of the small intestine and is a medical emergency. The condition is often treated conservatively over a period of 2-5 days with the patient's progress regularly monitored by an assigned physician. Surgical procedures are performed on occasion however in life-threatening cases, such as when the root cause is a fully lodged foreign object or malignant tumor.
Depending on the level of obstruction, bowel obstruction can present with abdominal pain, abdominal distension, vomiting, fecal vomiting, and constipation.
Bowel obstruction may be complicated by dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities due to vomiting; respiratory compromise from pressure on the diaphragm by a distended abdomen, or aspiration of vomitus; bowel ischaemia or perforation from prolonged distension or pressure from a foreign body.
In small bowel obstruction the pain tends to be colicky (cramping and intermittent) in nature, with spasms lasting a few minutes. The pain tends to be central and
Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a tachycardia, or fast heart rhythm, that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart. This is a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia because it may lead to ventricular fibrillation, asystole, and sudden death.
Ventricular tachycardia can be classified based on its morphology:
Another way to classify ventricular tachycardias is the duration of the episodes: Three or more beats in a row on an ECG that originate from the ventricle at a rate of more than 100 beats per minute constitute a ventricular tachycardia.
A third way to classify ventricular tachycardia is on the basis of its symptoms: Pulseless VT is associated with no effective cardiac output, hence, no effective pulse, and is a cause of cardiac arrest. In this circumstance, it is best treated the same way as ventricular fibrillation (VF), and is recognized as one of the shockable rhythms on the cardiac arrest protocol. Some VT is associated with reasonable cardiac output and may even be asymptomatic. The heart usually tolerates this rhythm poorly in the medium to long term, and patients may certainly deteriorate to pulseless VT or to VF.
Less common is ventricular tachycardia
A deformity, dysmorphism, or dysmorphic feature is a major difference in the shape of a body part or organ compared to the average shape of that part.
Deformity may arise from numerous causes:
Deformity can occur in non-humans, as well. Frogs can be mutated due to Ribeiroia (Trematoda) infection.
In many cases in which a major deformity is present at birth, it is the result of an underlying condition severe enough that the baby does not survive very long. The mortality of severely deformed births may be due to a range of complications including missing or non-functioning vital organs, structural defects that prevent breathing or eating, and high susceptibility to injuries or infections that lead to death.
Mythological creatures may have been created due to a deformative syndrome also, for instance, descriptions of mermaids may be related to the symptoms of sirenomelia. The Irish Mythology includes the Fomorians, who are almost without exception described as being deformed, possessing only one of what most have two of (eyes, arms, legs, etc.) or having larger than normal limbs.
An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue. Ulcers can result in complete loss of the epidermis and often portions of the dermis and even subcutaneous fat. Ulcers are most common on the skin of the lower extremities and in the gastrointestinal tract. An ulcer that appears on the skin is often visible as an inflamed tissue with an area of reddened skin. A skin ulcer is often visible in the event of exposure to heat or cold, irritation, or a problem with blood circulation. They can also be caused due to a lack of mobility, which causes prolonged pressure on the tissues. This stress in the blood circulation is transformed to a skin ulcer, commonly known as bedsores or decubitus ulcers. Ulcers often become infected, and pus forms.
Skin ulcers appear as open craters, often round, with layers of skin that have eroded. The skin around the ulcer may be red, swollen, and tender. Patients may feel pain on the skin around the ulcer, and fluid may ooze from the ulcer. In some cases, ulcers can bleed and, rarely, patients experience fever. Ulcers sometimes seem not to heal; healing, if it does occur, tends to be slow. Ulcers that heal
Macrocephaly (from the ancient Greek μακρό- macro- long- + -κέφαλος -kephalos -head), occurs when the head is abnormally large; this includes the scalp, the cranial bone, and the contents of the cranium.
Macrocephaly may be pathologic, but many people with an unusually large head are healthy. Pathologic macrocephaly may be due to megalencephaly (enlarged brain), hydrocephalus (water on the brain), cranial hyperostosis (bone overgrowth), and other conditions. Pathologic macrocephaly is called "syndromic" when it is associated with any other noteworthy condition, and "non-syndromic" otherwise. Pathologic macrocephaly can be caused by congenital anatomic abnormalities, genetic conditions or by environmental events.
Many genetic conditions are associated with macrocephaly, including familial macrocephaly, autism, PTEN mutations such as Cowden disease, neurofibromatosis type 1, and tuberous sclerosis; overgrowth syndromes such as Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism), Weaver syndrome, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (Bulldog syndrome), and macrocephaly-capillary malformation (M-CMTC) syndrome; neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous syndromes such as Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, and
A bone tumor, also spelled, bone tumour, is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone. Abnormal growths found in the bone can be either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Bone tumors may be classified as "primary tumors", which originate in bone or from bone-derived cells and tissues, and "secondary tumors" which originate in other sites and spread (metastasize) to the skeleton. Carcinomas of the prostate, breasts, lungs, thyroid & kidneys are the primary carcinomas that most commonly metastasize to the bone. Secondary malignant bone tumors are estimated to be 50 to 100 times as common as primary bone cancers.
Primary tumors of bone can be divided into benign tumors and cancers. Common benign bone tumors may be neoplastic, developmental, traumatic, infectious, or inflammatory in etiology. Some benign tumors are not true neoplasms, but rather, represent hamartomas, namely the osteochondroma. The most common locations for many primary tumors, both benign and malignant include the distal femur and proximal tibia.
Examples of benign bone tumors include osteoma, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, giant cell tumor of bone, aneurysmal bone cyst, and
Abdominal obesity, also known as belly fat or clinically as central obesity, is excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen. There is a strong correlation between central obesity and cardiovascular disease. Abdominal obesity is not confined only to the elderly and obese subjects. Abdominal obesity has been linked to Alzheimer's Disease as well as other metabolic and vascular diseases.
Visceral and central abdominal fat and waist circumference show a strong association with type 2 diabetes.
Visceral fat, also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso, as opposed to subcutaneous fat‚ which is found underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat‚ which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle. Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and perirenal fat. An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, the "pot belly" or "beer belly" effect, in which the abdomen protrudes excessively. This body type is also known as "apple shaped‚" as opposed to "pear shaped‚" in which fat is deposited on the hips and buttocks.
Subcutaneous emphysema, sometimes abbreviated SCE or SE and also called tissue emphysema, or Sub Q air, occurs when gas or air is present in the subcutaneous layer of the skin. Subcutaneous refers to the tissue beneath the cutis of the skin, and emphysema refers to trapped air. Since the air generally comes from the chest cavity, subcutaneous emphysema usually occurs on the chest, neck and face, where it is able to travel from the chest cavity along the fascia. Subcutaneous emphysema has a characteristic crackling feel to the touch, a sensation that has been described as similar to touching Rice Krispies; this sensation of air under the skin is known as subcutaneous crepitation.
Pneumomediastinum was first recognized as a medical entity by Laennec who reported it as a consequence of trauma in 1819. This complication has many causes. It was well described Dr. Louis Hamman in the 1939 in woman after labor and delivery at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. It is sometimes called Hamman's syndrome though usually referred by thoracic surgeons and pulmonologists as Macklin's Syndrome. First reported by L. Macklin in 1939 and later by M.T. Macklin and C.C. Macklin in 1944, the latter two
Granuloma is a medical term for a tiny collection of immune cells known as macrophages. Granulomas form when the immune system attempts to wall off substances that it perceives as foreign but is unable to eliminate. Such substances include infectious organisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as other materials such as keratin and suture fragments. A granuloma is therefore a special type of inflammation that can occur in a wide variety of diseases. The adjective granulomatous means characterized by granulomas.
In medical practice, doctors occasionally use the term "granuloma" loosely to mean "a small nodule". Since a small nodule can represent anything from a harmless nevus to a malignant tumor, this usage of the term is not very specific. Examples of the inaccurate use of the term granuloma are the lesions known as vocal cord granuloma, pyogenic granuloma and intubation granuloma, all of which are examples of granulation tissue, not granulomas. "Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma" is a lesion characterized by keloid-like fibrosis in the lung, and is not granulomatous. Similarly, radiologists often use the term granuloma when they see a calcified nodule on X-ray or CT scan of the
Genu varum (also called bow-leggedness, bandiness, bandy-leg, and tibia vara), is a physical deformity marked by (outward) bowing of the leg in relation to the thigh, giving the appearance of an archer's bow. Usually medial angulation of both femur and tibia is involved.
Blount's Disease is a deformity in the legs, mostly from the knees to the ankles. The affected bone curves in or out and forms the usual "archers bow" which can also be called bow-legs. There are two types of Blount's Disease. The first type is Infantile: this means that children under four are diagnosed with this disease. Blount's Disease in this age is very risky because sometimes it is not detected and it passes to the second type of Blount's Disease. The second type of Blunt's Disease is found mostly in older children and in teens, sometimes in one leg and sometimes in both; the patient's age determines how severe the diagnosis is.
Treatment for children is typically braces but also surgery may be necessary, especially for teens. The operation consists of taking a piece of Tibia out and breaking the Fibula and straightening out the bone, there is also a choice of elongating the legs. But if not treated early
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (i.e. both vertically and horizontally) in relation to each other. It is usually the result of impaired function of the extraocular muscles (EOM's), where both eyes are still functional but they cannot converge to target the desired object. Problems with EOM's may be due to mechanical problems, disorders of the neuromuscular junction, disorders of the cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) that stimulate the muscles, and occasionally disorders involving the supranuclear oculomotor pathways or ingestion of toxins.
Diplopia is often one of the first signs of a systemic disease, particularly to a muscular or neurological process, and it may disrupt a person’s balance, movement, and/or reading abilities.
Binocular diplopia is double vision arising as a result of the misalignment of the two eyes relative to each other, such as occurs in esotropia or exotropia. In such a case while the fovea of one eye is directed at the object of regard, the fovea of the other is directed elsewhere, and the image of the object of regard falls
Winterbottom's sign is seen in the early phase of African trypanosomiasis, a disease caused by the parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense which is more commonly known as African sleeping sickness. Dr Anthony Martinelli describes Winterbottom's sign as the swelling of lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) along the back of the neck, in the posterior cervical chain of lymph nodes, as trypanosomes travel in the lymphatic fluid and cause inflammation.
It may be suggestive of cerebral infection.
The term Winterbottom's sign derives from descriptions of the posterior cervical lymphadenopathy associated with African trypanosomiasis made by Dr. Thomas Masterman Winterbottom (1766-1859) in 1803. Contrary to some beliefs, Winterbottom was not a slave trader using the sign to weed out the ill, rather, he was an abolitionist physician who traveled to newly created colony of Sierra Leone, home to freed American slaves. While working in Sierra Leone, he is credited with extensively documenting the unique tropical diseases of the region and working to improve public health.
Kyphosis (from Greek – kyphos, a hump), also called roundback or Kelso's hunchback, is a condition of over-curvature of the thoracic vertebrae (upper back). It can be either the result of degenerative diseases (such as arthritis), developmental problems (the most common example being Scheuermann's disease), osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebrae, or trauma.
In the sense of a deformity, it is the pathological curving of the spine, where parts of the spinal column lose some or all of their lordotic profile. This causes a bowing of the back, seen as a slouching posture.
While most cases of kyphosis are mild and only require routine monitoring, serious cases can be debilitating. High degrees of kyphosis can cause severe pain and discomfort, breathing and digestion difficulties, cardiovascular irregularities, neurological compromise and, in the more severe cases, significantly shortened life-spans. These types of high end curves typically do not respond well to conservative treatment, and almost always warrant spinal fusion surgery, which can successfully restore the body's natural degree of curvature.
The Cobb angle is the preferred method of measuring kyphosis.
The common cold (also known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza, or a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which affects primarily the nose. Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 viruses are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.
Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect, with the common cold primarily affecting the nose, the throat (pharyngitis), and the sinuses (sinusitis). Symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The primary method of prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face masks.
No cure for the common cold exists, but the symptoms can be treated. It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult contracting two to three colds a year and the average child contracting between six and twelve. These infections have been with humanity since antiquity.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, noun of action from confundere "to pour together", or "to mingle together" also "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something:
"Acute Mental Confusion" is used interchangeably with Delirium in International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and Medical Subject Headings to describe a pathological degree in which it usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and/or personal identity) sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material). Confusion as such is not synonymous with inability to focus attention, although severe inability to focus attention can cause, or greatly contribute to, confusion. Together, confusion and inability to focus attention (both of which affect judgment) are the twin symptoms of a loss or lack of normal brain function (cognition). The milder degrees of confusion as pathological symptoms are relative to previous function. Thus (for example) a mathematician confused about manipulation of simple fractions
Angular cheilitis (also called perlèche, cheilosis or angular stomatitis) is an inflammatory lesion at the labial commissure, or corner of the mouth, and often occurs bilaterally. The condition manifests as deep cracks or splits. In severe cases, the splits can bleed when the mouth is opened and shallow ulcers or a crust may form.
Angular cheilitis causes red, wet, crusting and breakdown of the skin at the corner of the mouth.
Although the sores of angular cheilitis may become infected by the fungus Candida albicans (thrush), or other pathogens, studies have linked the initial onset of angular cheilitis with nutritional deficiencies, namely riboflavin (vitamin B2) and iron deficiency anemia, which in turn may be evidence of poor diets or malnutrition (e.g. celiac disease). Zinc deficiency has also been associated with angular cheilitis. Angular cheilitis can also be a sign of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia nervosa due both to malnutrition and as a side effect of constant vomiting.
Cheilosis may also be part of a group of symptoms (upper esophageal web, iron deficiency anemia, glossitis, and cheilosis) defining the condition called Plummer-Vinson syndrome (aka Paterson-Brown-Kelly
Horseshoe kidney, also known as ren arcuatus (in latin), renal fusion or super kidney, is a congenital disorder affecting about 1 in 500 people.
In this disorder, the patient's kidneys fuse together to form a horseshoe-shape during development in the womb. The fused part is the isthmus of the horseshoe kidney.
Fusion abnormalities of the kidney can be categorized into two groups: horseshoe kidney and crossed fused ectopia. The 'horseshoe kidney' is the most common renal fusion anomaly.
In patients with this condition, the central portion of the kidney may be found just inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery because the normal embryologic ascent of the kidneys is arrested by its presence in people with central fusion of the kidneys. Horseshoe kidney is often asymptomatic, though persons affected by this condition may experience nausea, abdominal discomfort, kidney stones and urinary tract infections at greater frequency than those without renal fusion. There is currently no cure for renal fusion other than symptomatic treatment. People with a horseshoe kidney must drink lots of water (more than most people), to keep from having a kidney stone or other symptoms from
Fever (also known as pyrexia) is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation of body temperature above the normal range of 36.5–37.5 °C (98–100 °F) due to an increase in the temperature regulatory set-point. This increase in set-point triggers increased muscle tone and shivering.
As a person's temperature increases, there is, in general, a feeling of cold despite an increasing body temperature. Once the new temperature is reached, there is a feeling of warmth. A fever can be caused by many different conditions ranging from benign to potentially serious. There are arguments for and against the usefulness of fever, and the issue is controversial. With the exception of very high temperatures, treatment to reduce fever is often not necessary; however, antipyretic medications can be effective at lowering the temperature, which may improve the affected person's comfort.
Fever differs from uncontrolled hyperthermia, in that hyperthermia is an increase in body temperature over the body's thermoregulatory set-point, due to excessive heat production and/or insufficient thermoregulation.
A wide range for normal temperatures has been found. Fever is generally agreed to be present if
An epileptic seizure, occasionally referred to as a fit, is defined as a transient symptom of "abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain". The outward effect can be as dramatic as a wild thrashing movement (tonic-clonic seizure) or as mild as a brief loss of awareness (absence seizure). It can manifest as an alteration in mental state, tonic or clonic movements, convulsions, and various other psychic symptoms (such as déjà vu or jamais vu). Sometimes it is not accompanied by convulsions but a full body "slump", where the person simply will lose body control and slump to the ground. The medical syndrome of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is termed epilepsy, but seizures can occur in people who do not have epilepsy. For more information, see non-epileptic seizure.
About 4% of people will have an unprovoked seizure by the age of 80 and the chance of experiencing a second seizure is between 30% and 50%. Treatment may reduce the chance of a second one by as much as half. Most single episode seizures are managed by primary care physicians (emergency or general practitioners), whereas investigation and management of ongoing epilepsy is usually done by neurologists.
In medicine, a coma (from the Greek κῶμα koma, meaning deep sleep) is a state of unconsciousness lasting more than six hours, in which a person: cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal sleep-wake cycle; and, does not initiate voluntary actions. A person in a state of coma is described as being comatose.
Although a coma patient may appear to be awake, they are unable to consciously feel, speak, hear, or move. For a patient to maintain consciousness, two important neurological components must function impeccably. The first is the cerebral cortex which is the gray matter covering the outer layer of the brain. The other is a structure located in the brainstem, called reticular activating system (RAS or ARAS).
Injury to either or both of these components is sufficient to cause a patient to experience a coma. The cerebral cortex is a group of tight, dense, "gray matter" composed of the nucleus of the neurons whose axons then form the "white matter", and is responsible for perception, relay of the sensory input (sensation) via the thalamic pathway, and most importantly directly or indirectly in charge of all the neurological
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. It is a nonspecific medical sign having many causes, which can broadly be broken down into infection, direct toxicity, hepatic tumours, or metabolic disorder. Often, hepatomegaly will present as an abdominal mass. Depending on the cause, it may sometimes present along with jaundice.
After a thorough medical history and physical examination, blood tests should be done — importantly, the liver-function series, which will give a good impression of the patient's broad metabolic picture.
An ultrasound of the liver can reliably detect a dilated biliary-duct system, which helps distinguish parenchymal liver disease from extrahepatic bile-duct obstruction. Ultrasound can also detect the characteristic texture of a cirrhotic liver, and can guide fine-needle aspiration of cysts, abscesses and tumours.
Computed tomography (CT) can help obtain more accurate anatomical information, and is unaffected by obesity or the presence of bowel gases.
Leukoplakia is a condition where patches of keratosis appear as adherent white patches on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, including the tongue, but also other areas of the gastro-intestinal tract, urinary tract and the genitals. The clinical appearance is highly variable. Leukoplakia is not a specific disease entity, but is diagnosis of exclusion. It must be distinguished from diseases that may cause similar white lesions, such as candidiasis or lichen planus. The lesions of leukoplakia cannot be scraped off easily.
It is sometimes described as precancerous. It is also associated with smoking.
Tobacco, either smoked or chewed, is considered to be the main culprit in its development.
The term "candidal leukoplakia" is sometimes used to describe certain types of oral candidiasis.
Although the term "leukoplakia" often applies to conditions of the mouth, it can also be used to describe conditions of the genitals and urinary tract.
Leukoplakic lesions are found in approximately 3% of the world's population. Like erythroplakia, leukoplakia is usually found in adults between 40 and 70 years of age, with a 2:1 male predominance.
Leukoplakia is primarily caused by the use of
Anemia (/əˈniːmiə/; also spelled anaemia and anæmia; from Ancient Greek: ἀναιμία anaimia, meaning lack of blood, from ἀν- an-, "not" + αἷμα haima, "blood") is a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency.
Because hemoglobin (found inside RBCs) normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences.
Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. The several kinds of anemia are produced by a variety of underlying causes. It can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few. The three main classes include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood
Tooth loss is a process in which one or more teeth come loose and fall out. Tooth loss is normal for deciduous teeth (baby teeth), when they are replaced by a person's adult teeth. Otherwise, losing teeth is undesirable and is the result of injury or disease, such as mouth trauma, tooth injury, tooth decay, and gum disease. The condition of being toothless or missing one or more teeth is called edentulism.
Tooth loss due to tooth decay and gum disease may be prevented by practicing good oral hygiene, and regular check-ups (twice per year) at the dentist's office.
In contact sports, risk of mouth trauma and tooth injury is reduced by wearing mouthguards and helmets with a facemask (e.g., a football helmet, a goalie mask).
There are three basic ways to replace a missing tooth or teeth, including a fixed dental bridge, dentures, and dental implants.
Researchers in Japan have successfully regrown fully functional teeth in mice. Epithelial and mesenchymal cells were extracted from the mice, cultured to produce a tooth "germ", and the germ was then implanted into the bone at the space of a missing tooth. A tooth of the correct external and internal structure, hardness, strength, and
Back pain is pain felt in the back that usually originates from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine.
Back pain may have a sudden onset or can be a chronic pain; it can be constant or intermittent, stay in one place or radiate to other areas. It may be a dull ache, or a sharp or piercing or burning sensation. The pain may radiate into the arms and hands as well as the legs or feet, and may include symptoms other than pain, such as weakness, numbness or tingling.
Back pain is one of humanity's most frequent complaints. In the U.S., acute low back pain (also called lumbago) is the fifth most common reason for physician visits. About nine out of ten adults experience back pain at some point in their life, and five out of ten working adults have back pain every year.
The spine is a complex interconnecting network of nerves, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments, and all are capable of producing pain. Large nerves that originate in the spine and go to the legs and arms can make pain radiate to the extremities.
Back pain can be divided anatomically: neck pain, middle back pain, lower back pain or tailbone pain.
By its duration: acute (less than 4 weeks),
Conjunctivitis (also called pink eye or madras eye) is inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids). It is most commonly due to an infection (usually viral, but sometimes bacterial) or an allergic reaction.
A former superintendent of the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology in the city of Madras (the present day Chennai), India, Kirk Patrick, was the first to have found the adenovirus that caused conjunctivitis, leading to the name Madras eye for the disease.
Classification can be either by cause or by extent of the inflamed area.
Blepharoconjunctivitis is the dual combination of conjunctivitis with blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids).
Keratoconjunctivitis is the combination of conjunctivitis and keratitis (corneal inflammation).
Episcleritis is an inflammatory condition that produces a similar appearance to conjunctivitis, but without discharge or tearing.
Red eye (hyperaemia), irritation (chemosis) and watering (epiphora) of the eyes are symptoms common to all forms of conjunctivitis. However, the pupils should be normally reactive and the visual acuity normal.
Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with an infection
Dysgeusia ( /dɪsˈɡjuːziə/ dis-GEW-zee-ə) is a distortion of the sense of taste. Dysgeusia is also often associated with ageusia, which is the complete lack of taste, and hypogeusia, which is the decrease in taste sensitivity. An alteration in taste or smell may be a secondary process in various disease states, or it may be the primary symptom. The distortion in the sense of taste is the only symptom, and diagnosis is usually complicated since the sense of taste is tied together with other sensory systems. Common causes of dysgeusia include chemotherapy, asthma treatment with albuterol, and zinc deficiency. Different drugs could also be responsible for altering taste and resulting in dysgeusia. Due to the variety of causes of dysgeusia, there are many possible treatments that are effective in alleviating or terminating the symptoms of dysgeusia. These include artificial saliva, pilocarpine, zinc supplementation, alterations in drug therapy, and alpha lipoic acid.
The sense of taste is based on the detection of chemicals by specialized taste cells in the mouth. The mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus all have taste buds, which are replaced every ten days. Each taste bud contains
Haematochezia (or hematochezia; also haemochezia or hemochezia) (from Greek αἷμα ("blood") and χέζειν ("to defaecate")) is the passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools (contrast with melena). Haematochezia is commonly associated with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, but may also occur from a brisk upper GI bleed. The difference between haematochezia and rectorrhagia is that the latter rectal bleeding is not associated with defaecation. Instead, it is associated with expulsion of fresh red bright blood without stools.
In adults, most common causes are haemorrhoids and diverticulosis, both of which are relatively benign; however, it can also be caused by colorectal cancer, which is potentially fatal. In a newborn infant, haematochezia may be the result of swallowed maternal blood at the time of delivery, but can also be an initial symptom of necrotizing enterocolitis, a serious condition affecting premature infants. In babies, haematochezia in conjunction with abdominal pain is associated with intussusception. In adolescents and young adults, inflammatory bowel disease, particularly ulcerative colitis, is a serious cause of haematochezia that must be
Urticaria (from the Latin urtica, nettle , commonly referred to as hives, is a kind of skin rash notable for pale red, raised, itchy bumps. Hives are frequently caused by allergic reactions; however, there are many nonallergic causes. Most cases of hives lasting less than six weeks (acute urticaria) are the result of an allergic trigger. Chronic urticaria (hives lasting longer than six weeks) is rarely due to an allergy.
The majority of chronic hives cases have an unknown (idiopathic) cause. In perhaps as many as 30 to 40% of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria, it is caused by an autoimmune reaction. Acute viral infection is another common cause of acute urticaria (viral exanthem). Less common causes of hives include friction, pressure, temperature extremes, exercise, and sunlight.
Wheals (raised areas surrounded by a red base) from urticaria can appear anywhere on the surface of the skin. Whether the trigger is allergic or not, a complex release of inflammatory mediators, including histamine from cutaneous mast cells, results in fluid leakage from superficial blood vessels. Wheals may be pinpoint in size, or several inches in diameter.
Angioedema is a related condition
Moon face, or moon facies, is a medical sign which people are often born with, resulting in a large chin and large forehead. This results in a 'moon' shape, when looked at from the side. It is often associated with Cushing's syndrome or steroid treatment (especially corticosteroids), which has led to it being known as Cushingoid facies ("Cushings-like face") or steroid facies respectively.
Sclerodactyly is a localized thickening and tightness of the skin of the fingers or toes. Sclerodactyly is commonly accompanied by atrophy of the underlying soft tissues.
The term "sclerodactyly" is made up from the Greek "skleros" meaning hard and "daktylos" meaning a finger or toe – "hard fingers or toes".
It is sometimes associated with scleroderma and mixed connective tissue disease, auto-immune disorders.
Sclerodactyly is a component of the CREST variant of scleroderma (CREST is an acronym that stands for calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia.)
Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms. Here, SARI refers to Severe Acute Respiratory Infection.
Symptoms commonly include fever, shivering, chills, malaise, dry cough, loss of appetite, body aches and nausea, typically in connection with a sudden onset of illness. In most cases, the symptoms are caused by cytokines released by immune system activation.
Common causes of ILI include the common cold and influenza, which tends to be less common but more severe than the common cold. Still less common causes include side effects of many drugs and manifestations of many other diseases.
The causes of influenza-like illness range from benign self-limited illnesses such as gastroenteritis, rhinoviral disease, and influenza, to severe, sometimes life-threatening, diseases such as meningitis, sepsis, and leukemia.
Technically, any clinical diagnosis of influenza is a diagnosis of ILI, not of influenza. This distinction usually is of no great concern because, regardless of cause, most cases of ILI are mild and self-limiting.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Willis-Ekbom disease is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs, but can affect the arms, torso, and even phantom limbs. Moving the affected body part modulates the sensations, providing temporary relief.
RLS sensations could be pain, an aching, an itching or tickling in the muscles, like "an itch you can't scratch" or an unpleasant "tickle that won't stop", or even a "crawling" feeling. The sensations typically begin or intensify during quiet wakefulness, such as when relaxing, reading, studying, or trying to sleep. In addition, most individuals with RLS have limb jerking during sleep, which is an objective physiologic marker of the disorder and is associated with sleep disruption. Some controversy surrounds the marketing of drug treatments for RLS. It is a "spectrum" disease with some people experiencing only a minor annoyance and others experiencing major disruption of sleep and significant impairments in quality of life.
The sensations—and the need to move—may return immediately after ceasing movement or at a later time. RLS may
A sneeze (or sternutation) is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane. Sneezing is possibly linked to sudden exposure to bright light, sudden change (fall) in temperature, breeze of cold air, a particularly full stomach, or viral infection, and can lead to the spread of disease.
The function of sneezing is to expel mucus containing foreign particles or irritants and cleanse the nasal cavity. During a sneeze, the soft palate and uvula depress while the back of the tongue elevates to partially close the passage to the mouth so that air ejected from the lungs may be expelled through the nose. Because the closing of the mouth is partial, a considerable amount of this air is usually also expelled from the mouth. The force and extent of the expulsion of the air through the nose varies.
Sneezing typically occurs when foreign particles or sufficient external stimulants pass through the nasal hairs to reach the nasal
Tinnitus ( /tɪˈnaɪtəs/ or /ˈtɪnɪtəs/; from the Latin word tinnītus meaning "ringing") is the perception of sound within the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound. Tinnitus is not a disease, but a condition that can result from a wide range of underlying causes: neurological damage (multiple sclerosis), ear infections, oxidative stress, foreign objects in the ear, nasal allergies that prevent (or induce) fluid drain, wax build-up and exposure to loud sounds. Withdrawal from benzodiazepines may cause tinnitus as well. In-ear earphones, whose sound enters directly into the ear canal without any opportunity to be deflected or absorbed elsewhere, are a common cause of tinnitus when volume is set beyond moderate levels.
Tinnitus may be an accompaniment of sensorineural hearing loss or congenital hearing loss, or it may be observed as a side effect of certain medications. However, the most common cause is noise-induced hearing loss.
As tinnitus is usually a subjective phenomenon, it is difficult to measure using objective tests, such as by comparison with noise of known frequency and intensity, as in an audiometric test. The condition is often rated clinically on a
Tachycardia comes from the Greek words tachys (rapid or accelerated) and kardia (of the heart). Tachycardia typically refers to a heart rate that exceeds the normal range. A heart rate over 100 beats per minute is generally accepted as tachycardia. Tachycardia can be caused by various factors which often are benign. However, tachycardia can be dangerous depending on the speed and type of rhythm.
The upper threshold of a normal human heart rate is based upon age. Tachycardia for different age groups is as listed below:
When the heart beats excessively rapidly, the heart pumps less efficiently and provides less blood flow to the rest of the body, including the heart itself. The increased heart rate also leads to increased work and oxygen demand by the heart, which can lead to rate related ischemia.
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is used to classify the type of tachycardia. They may be classified into narrow and wide complex based on the QRS complex. Presented in the order of most to least common they are:
Tachycardias may be classified as either narrow complex tachycardias (supraventricular tachycardias) or wide complex tachycardias. Narrow and wide refer to
Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning "disease of the lymph nodes." It is, however, almost synonymously used with "swollen/enlarged lymph nodes". It could be due to infection, auto-immune disease, or malignancy.
Inflammation of a lymph node is called lymphadenitis. In practice, the distinction between lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis is rarely made. Inflammation of lymph channels is called lymphangitis.
Tangier disease (ABCA1 deficiency) may also cause lymphadenopathy.
Enlarged lymph nodes are a common symptom in a number of infectious and malignant diseases. It is a recognized symptom of many diseases, of which some are as follows:
There are three distinct patterns of benign lymphadenopathy:
Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy (BHL) is a radiographic term that describes the enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. It is easily and most commonly identified by a chest x-ray.
The following are causes of BHL:
In medicine, pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries, together known as the lung vasculature, leading to shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, and other symptoms, all of which are exacerbated by exertion. Pulmonary hypertension can be a severe disease with a markedly decreased exercise tolerance and heart failure. It was first identified by Dr. Ernst von Romberg in 1891. According to the most recent classification, it can be one of five different types: arterial, venous, hypoxic, thromboembolic or miscellaneous.
Because symptoms may develop very gradually, patients may delay seeing a physician for years. Common symptoms are shortness of breath, fatigue, non-productive cough, angina pectoris, fainting or syncope, peripheral edema (swelling around the ankles and feet), and rarely hemoptysis (coughing up blood).
Pulmonary venous hypertension typically presents with shortness of breath while lying flat or sleeping (orthopnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea), while pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) typically does not.
A detailed family history is established to determine whether the disease
Hirsutism or frazonism is the excessive hairiness on women in those parts of the body where terminal hair does not normally occur or is minimal - for example, a beard or chest hair. It refers to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair) and it is therefore primarily of cosmetic and psychological concern. Hirsutism is a medical sign rather than a disease and may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, especially if it develops well after puberty. The amount and location of the hair is measured by a Ferriman-Gallwey score.
Hirsutism affects women and sometimes men, since the rising of androgens causes a male pattern of body hair, sometimes excessive, particularly in locations where women normally do not develop terminal hair during puberty (chest, abdomen, back and face). The medical term for excessive hair growth that affect both men and women is hypertrichosis.
Hirsutism can be caused by either an increased level of androgens, the male hormones, or an oversensitivity of hair follicles to androgens. Male hormones such as testosterone stimulate hair growth, increase size and intensify the growth and pigmentation of hair. Other symptoms associated with a high level of male
Hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature.
Hyperhidrosis can either be generalized or localized to specific parts of the body. Hands, feet, armpits, and the groin area are among the most active regions of perspiration due to the relatively high concentration of sweat glands. When excessive sweating is localized it is referred to as primary or focal hyperhidrosis. Generalized or secondary hyperhidrosis usually involves the body as a whole and is the result of an underlying condition.
Hyperhidrosis can also be classified depending by onset, either congenital or acquired. Primary or focal hyperhidrosis is found to start during adolescence or even before and seems to be inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait. Primary or focal hyperhidrosis must be distinguished from secondary hyperhidrosis, which can start at any point in life. The latter form may be due to a disorder of the thyroid or pituitary glands, diabetes mellitus, tumors, gout, menopause, certain drugs, or mercury poisoning.
Hyperhidrosis may be also divided into palmoplantar (symptomatic sweating of primarily the
Pharyngitis ( /færɨnˈdʒaɪtɨs/) comes from the Greek word pharynx φάρυγξ meaning throat and the suffix -itis ίτις meaning inflammation. It is an inflammation of the throat. In most cases it is quite painful, and is the most common cause of a sore throat.
Like many types of inflammation, pharyngitis can be acute – characterized by a rapid onset and typically a relatively short course – or chronic. Pharyngitis can result in very large tonsils which cause trouble swallowing and breathing. Pharyngitis can be accompanied by a cough or fever, for example, if caused by a systemic infection.
Most acute cases are caused by viral infections (40–80%), with the remainder caused by bacterial infections, fungal infections, or irritants such as pollutants or chemical substances. Treatment of viral causes are mainly symptomatic while bacterial or fungal causes may be amenable to antibiotics and anti-fungal respectively.
Pharyngitis is a type of inflammation, most commonly caused by an upper respiratory tract infection. It may be classified as acute or chronic. An acute pharyngitis may be catarrhal, purulent or ulcerative, depending on the virulence of the causative agent and the immune capacity of
Vomiting (known medically as emesis and informally as throwing up and numerous other terms) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation. The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea, which usually precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting. In severe cases, where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may be required.
Vomiting is different from regurgitation, although the two terms are often used interchangeably. Regurgitation is the return of undigested food back up the esophagus to the mouth, without the force and displeasure associated with vomiting. The causes of vomiting and regurgitation are generally different.
Vomiting can be dangerous if the gastric content enters the respiratory tract. Under normal circumstances the gag reflex and coughing prevent this from
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.
The ventricular septum consists of an inferior muscular and superior membranous portion and is extensively innervated with conducting cardiomyocytes.
The membranous portion, which is close to the atrioventricular node, is most commonly affected in adults and older children in the United States. It is also the type that will most commonly require surgical intervention, comprising over 80% of cases.
Membranous ventricular septal defects are more common than muscular ventricular septal defects, and are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly.
A VSD can be detected by cardiac auscultation. Classically, a VSD causes a pathognomonic holo- or pansystolic murmur. Auscultation is generally considered sufficient for detecting a significant VSD. The murmur depends on the abnormal flow of blood from the left ventricle, through the VSD, to the right ventricle. If there is not much difference in pressure between the left and right ventricles, then the flow of blood through the VSD will not be very great and the VSD may be silent. This situation occurs a) in
An abscess (Latin: abscessus) is a collection of pus (dead neutrophils) that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue in which the pus resides due to an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e.g., splinters, bullet wounds, or injecting needles). It is a defensive reaction of the tissue to prevent the spread of infectious materials to other parts of the body. One example of an abscess is a BCG-oma, which is caused because of incorrect administration of the BCG vaccine.
The organisms or foreign materials kill the local cells, resulting in the release of cytokines. The cytokines trigger an inflammatory response, which draws large numbers of white blood cells to the area and increases the regional blood flow.
The final structure of the abscess is an abscess wall, or capsule, that is formed by the adjacent healthy cells in an attempt to keep the pus from infecting neighboring structures. However, such encapsulation tends to prevent immune cells from attacking bacteria in the pus, or from reaching the causative organism or foreign object.
Abscesses must be differentiated from empyemas, which are accumulations of pus in a
Hypertelorism is an abnormally increased distance between two organs or bodily parts, usually referring to an increased distance between the orbits (eyes)--orbital hypertelorism. In this condition the distance between the inner eye corners as well as the distance between the pupils is greater than normal. Hypertelorism should not be confused with telecanthus, in which the distance between the inner eye corners is increased but that of the outer eye corners remains unchanged. Therefore the distance between the pupils is normal.
Hypertelorism is a symptom in a variety of syndromes, including Edwards Syndrome (Trisomy 18), 1q21.1 duplication syndrome, Basal Cell Nevus syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Hypertelorism can also be seen in Apert syndrome, craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Noonan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis, LEOPARD syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, Andersen–Tawil syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome and Cri du chat syndrome, along with Piebaldism, prominent inner third of the eyebrows, irises of different color, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mucopolysaccharide metabolism disorders (Morquio syndrome, Hurler's syndrome), deafness and also in
In medicine, Raynaud's phenomenon ( /reɪˈnoʊz/) is a vasospastic disorder causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other areas. This condition may also cause nails to become brittle with longitudinal ridges. Named after French physician Maurice Raynaud (1814–1881), the phenomenon is believed to be the result of vasospasms that decrease blood supply to the respective regions. Stress and cold are classic triggers of the phenomenon.
It comprises both Raynaud's disease (also known as "Primary Raynaud's phenomenon") where the phenomenon is idiopathic, and Raynaud's syndrome (secondary Raynaud's), where it is caused by some other instigating factor, most commonly connective tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Measurement of hand-temperature gradients is one tool used to distinguish between the primary and secondary forms.
In extreme cases, the secondary form can progress to necrosis or gangrene of the fingertips.
Raynaud's phenomenon is an exaggeration of vasomotor responses to cold or emotional stress. More specifically, it is a hyperactivation of the sympathetic system causing extreme vasoconstriction of the peripheral blood vessels, leading to
A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage. As a result, the affected area of the brain cannot function, which might result in an inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or an inability to see one side of the visual field.
A stroke is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and death. Risk factors for stroke include old age, high blood pressure, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), diabetes, high cholesterol, tobacco smoking and atrial fibrillation. High blood pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke. It is the second leading cause of death worldwide.
An ischemic stroke is occasionally treated in a hospital with thrombolysis (also known as a "clot buster"), and some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from neurosurgery. Treatment to recover any lost function is termed stroke rehabilitation, ideally in a stroke unit and involving health
Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. It is caused by the release (degranulation) of substances from mast cells or basophils under the influence of anaphylatoxins. It causes difficulty in breathing which can be very mild to severe.
Bronchospasms appear as the feature of asthma, chronic bronchitis, anaphylaxis, as a possible side effect of the drug pilocarpine (which is used to treat illness resulting from the ingestion of deadly nightshade as well as other things) and also as a side effect for beta blockers (used to treat hypertension) and other drugs. It can present as a sign of giardiasis.
Bronchospasms are one of several conditions associated with cold housing.
Some of the things that can cause bronchospasms are consuming foods, taking medicines, getting insect bites or stings when one is allergic to them, and fluctuating hormone levels, particularly in women.
A few of the more common allergens are foods such as eggs, milk, peanuts, walnuts, tree and other nuts, fish, especially shellfish, soy and wheat; insect bites and stings, especially bee stings; and other medicines, especially penicillin and its
Fecal incontinence (or faecal incontinence, FI) is the loss of regular control of the bowels. Involuntary excretion and leaking are common occurrences for those affected. Subjects relating to defecation are often socially unacceptable, thus those affected may be beset by feelings of shame and humiliation. Some do not seek medical help and instead attempt to self-manage the problem. This can lead to social withdrawal and isolation, which can turn into cases of agoraphobia. Such effects may be reduced by undergoing prescribed treatment, taking prescribed medicine and making dietary changes.
To fully understand FI, it is helpful to study the normal continence mechanism. The rectum is believed to act as a reservoir to store stool until it fills past a certain volume, at which time the defecation reflexes are stimulated. In continent individuals, defecation can be temporarily delayed until it is socially acceptable to defecate. With continent individuals, the rectum is able to expand to a degree to accommodate this function. Distension of the rectum creates the sensation of needing to defecate.
The point at which the rectum joins the anal canal is known as the anorectal ring, which is
In medicine, hematuria, or haematuria, is the presence of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine. It may be idiopathic and/or benign, or it can be a sign that there is a kidney stone or a tumor in the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, prostate, and urethra), ranging from trivial to lethal. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection.
Occasionally "hemoglobinuria" is used synonymously, although more precisely it refers only to hemoglobin in the urine.
Red discoloration of the urine can have various causes:
Often, the diagnosis is made on the basis of the medical history and some blood tests—especially in young people in whom the risk of malignancy is negligible and the symptoms are generally self-limiting.
Ultrasound investigation of the renal tract is often used to distinguish between various sources of bleeding. X-rays can be used to identify kidney stones, although CT scanning is more precise.
In older patients, cystoscopy with biopsy of suspected lesions is often employed to investigate for bladder cancer.
If combined with pain, it may be loin pain hematuria syndrome.
The most common causes of
A hallucination, in the broadest sense of the word, is a perception in the absence of a stimulus. In a stricter sense, hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. The latter definition distinguishes hallucinations from the related phenomena of dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness; illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception; imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary control; and pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception, but is not under voluntary control. Hallucinations also differ from "delusional perceptions", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus (i.e. a real perception) is given some additional (and typically bizarre) significance.
Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality — visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive, nociceptive, thermoceptive and chronoceptive.
A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in any of the senses above.
Epilepsy (from Ancient Greek ἐπιληψία) is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. Some definitions of epilepsy require that seizures be recurrent and unprovoked, but others require only a single seizure combined with brain alterations which increase the chance of future seizures.
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal, excessive or hypersynchronous neuronal activity in the brain. About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, and nearly 90% of epilepsy occurs in developing countries. Epilepsy becomes more common as people age. Onset of new cases occurs most frequently in infants and the elderly. As a consequence of brain surgery, epileptic seizures may occur in recovering patients.
Epilepsy is usually controlled, but not cured, with medication. However, over 30% of people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. Surgery may be considered in difficult cases. Not all epilepsy syndromes are lifelong – some forms are confined to particular stages of childhood. Epilepsy should not be understood as a single disorder, but rather as syndromic with vastly divergent symptoms, all involving episodic
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. People are considered as obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of the person's height in metres, exceeds 30 kg/m.
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis and asthma. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.
Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. Diet quality can be improved by reducing
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include mutations (which can destroy the gene to build up the organ), poor nourishment, poor circulation, loss of hormonal support, loss of nerve supply to the target organ, excessive amount of apoptosis of cells, and disuse or lack of exercise or disease intrinsic to the tissue itself. Hormonal and nerve inputs that maintain an organ or body part are referred to as trophic [noun] in medical practice ('trophic" is an adjective that can be paired with various nouns). Trophic describes the trophic condition of tissue. A diminished muscular trophic is designated as atrophy.
Atrophy is the general physiological process of reabsorption and breakdown of tissues, involving apoptosis on a cellular level. When it occurs as a result of disease or loss of trophic support due to other disease, it is termed pathological atrophy, although it can be a part of normal body development and homeostasis as well.
Examples of atrophy as part of normal development include shrinking and the involution of the thymus in early childhood, and the tonsils in adolescence.
Disuse atrophy of muscles (muscle atrophy) and
Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are many biological causes of infertility, some which may be bypassed with medical intervention.
Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile during the rest of the menstrual cycle. Fertility awareness methods are used to discern when these changes occur by tracking changes in cervical mucus or basal body temperature.
Definitions of infertility differ, with demographers tending to define infertility as childlessness in a population of women of reproductive age, while the epidemiological definition is based on "trying for" or "time to" a pregnancy, generally in a population of women exposed to a probability of conception. The time that needs to pass (during which the couple has tried to conceive) for that couple to be diagnosed with infertility differs between different jurisdictions. Existing definitions of infertility lack uniformity, rendering comparisons in prevalence between countries or over time
A stereotypy is a continuous, repetitive, purposeless or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance, found in patients with mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, tardive dyskinesia, and stereotypic movement disorder. Stereotypies may be simple movements such as body rocking, or complex, such as self-caressing, crossing and uncrossing of legs, and marching in place.
Some professionals who evaluate children with autism refer to stereotypies as stimming, based on the notion that that the role of stereotypies is self-stimulation. Stereotypy can involve the various senses, so a repetitive movement may be motivated by visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, vestibular or taste sensations.
Research is ongoing to determine the cause, or more likely, causes of stereotypic behaviors. Some theories hold that the individual's nervous system is in a state of low arousal, or hyposensitivity, so the brain demands high levels of sensory input. Other theories propose that certain repetitive behaviors can actually provide a calming effect by blocking out the effects of overstimulation from the environment. For hypersensitive people, it may provide a "norming" effect, allowing the person
A bruise, also called a contusion, is a type of relatively minor hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding interstitial tissues. Bruises can involve capillaries at the level of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, or bone. A bruise may be named by the length of its diameter as an petechia (less than 3 mm), purpura (3 mm to 1 cm) or ecchymosis (1 to 3 cm), although these terms can also refer to internal bleeding not caused by trauma.
As a type of hematoma, a bruise is always caused by internal bleeding into the interstitial tissues, usually initiated by blunt trauma, which causes damage through physical compression and deceleration forces. Trauma sufficient to cause bruising can occur from a wide variety of situations including accidents, falls, and surgeries. Disease states such as insufficient or malfunctioning platelets, other coagulation deficiencies, or vascular disorders, such as venous blockage associated with severe allergies can lead to the formation of bruises in situations in which they would not normally occur and with only minimal trauma. If the trauma is sufficient to break the skin
Café au lait spots or Café au lait macules are pigmented birthmarks. The name café au lait is French for "milky coffee" and refers to their light-brown color. They are also called "giraffe spots" or "coast of Maine spots."
Café au lait spots can arise from diverse and unrelated causes:
Diagnosis is visual with measurement of spot size and count of number of spots having clinical significance for diagnosis of associated disorders such as Neurofibromatosis type I.
Café au lait spots are benign and do not cause any ailment themselves.
They can be treated with lasers.
Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common. Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.
Candidiasis encompasses infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. Candida infections of the latter category are also referred to as candidemia and are usually confined to severely immunocompromised persons, such as cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients, as well as nontrauma emergency surgery patients.
Superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes by Candida causing local inflammation and discomfort are common in many human populations. While clearly attributable to the presence of the opportunistic pathogens of the genus Candida, candidiasis describes a number of different disease syndromes that often differ in their causes and outcomes.
Candidiasis may be divided into the following types:
Symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on the area affected. Most candidial infections result in minimal complications such as
A chancre ( /ˈʃæŋkər/ SHANG-kər) is a painless ulceration (sore) most commonly formed during the primary stage of syphilis. This infectious lesion forms approximately 21 days after the initial exposure to Treponema pallidum, the gram-negative spirochaete bacterium yielding syphilis. Chancres transmit the sexually transmissible disease of syphilis through direct physical contact. These ulcers usually form on or around the anus, mouth, penis, and vagina. Chancres may diminish between three to six weeks without the application of medication.
In addition, chancres as well as a painless ulceration formed during the primary stage of syphilis, are associated with the African trypanosomiasis sleeping sickness, surrounding the area of the tsetse fly bite.
The word "chancre" (French pronunciation: [ʃɑ̃kʁ]) means "little ulcer" in Old French. Related to the English "canker", they both come from the Latin cancer, meaning crab, which is a translation from the Greek word "καρκἰνος (karkínos)", also meaning crab.
Similarities between the conditions chancre and chancroid:
Differences between the conditions chancre and chancroid:
Gout (also known as podagra when it involves the big toe) is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint. The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is the most commonly affected (approximately 50% of cases). However, it may also present as tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. The uric acid crystallizes, and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.
Clinical diagnosis is confirmed by seeing the characteristic crystals in joint fluid. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine improves symptoms. Once the acute attack subsides, levels of uric acid are usually lowered via lifestyle changes, and in those with frequent attacks, allopurinol or probenecid provide long-term prevention.
Gout has increased in frequency in recent decades, affecting about 1-2% of the Western population at some point in their lives. The increase is believed due to increasing risk factors in the population, such as metabolic syndrome, longer life expectancy and changes in diet. Gout
Malnutrition is the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess (too high an intake), or in the wrong proportions. A number of different nutrition disorders may arise, depending on which nutrients are under or overabundant in the diet. In most of the world, malnutrition is present in the form of undernutrition, which is caused by a diet lacking adequate calories and protein. While malnutrition is more common in developing countries, it is also present in industrialized countries. In wealthier nations it is more likely to be caused by unhealthy diets with excess energy, fats, and refined carbohydrates. A growing trend of obesity is now a major public health concern in lower socio-economic levels and in developing countries as well.
The World Health Organization cites malnutrition as the greatest single threat to the world's public health. Improving nutrition is widely regarded as the most effective form of aid. Nutrition-specific interventions, which address the immediate causes of undernutrition, have been proven to deliver among the best value for money of all development interventions. Emergency measures include
In medicine, red eye is a non-specific term to describe an eye that appears red due to illness, injury, or some other condition, conjunctivitis and subconjunctival hemorrhage being two of the less serious but more common causes. The goal of the primary care doctor presented with a red eye is to assess whether it is in need of emergent referral and action, or can be managed easily and effectively without additional resources. The term usually refers to hyperemia of the superficial blood vessels of the conjunctiva, sclera or episclera, and may be caused by diseases or disorders of these structures or adjacent structures that may affect them directly or indirectly.
There are many causes of which the most common is conjunctivitis. Others include blepharitis, acute glaucoma, injury, subconjunctival hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, episcleritis, scleritis, inflamed pterygium, inflamed pinguecula, dry eye syndrome, airborne contaminants, a burst blood vessel, tick borne illnesses like Rocky Mountain spotted fever, high stress levels and drug use including cannabis.
Particular signs and symptoms may indicate that the underlying cause is serious and requires immediate attention and,
A toothache, also known as odontalgia or, less frequently, as odontalgy, is an aching pain in or around a tooth.
The severity of a toothache can range from a mild discomfort to excruciating pain, which can be experienced either chronically or sporadically. This pain can often be aggravated somewhat by chewing or by hot or cold temperature. An oral examination complete with X-rays can help discover the cause. Severe pain may be considered a dental emergency.
A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing. For wheezes to occur, some part of the respiratory tree must be narrowed or obstructed, or airflow velocity within the respiratory tree must be heightened. Wheezing is commonly experienced by persons with a lung disease; the most common cause of recurrent wheezing is asthma attacks, though it can also be a symptom of lung cancer.
The differential diagnosis of wheezing is wide, and the cause of wheezing in a given patient is determined by considering the characteristics of the wheezes and the historical and clinical findings made by the examining physician.
Wheezes occupy different portions of the respiratory cycle depending on the site of airway obstruction and its nature. The fraction of the respiratory cycle during which a wheeze is produced roughly corresponds to the degree of airway obstruction. Bronchiolar disease usually causes wheezing that occurs in the expiratory phase of respiration. The presence of expiratory phase wheezing signifies that the patient's peak expiratory flow rate is less than 50% of normal.
Albinism (from Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology, also called achromia, achromasia, or achromatosis) is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin. Albinism results from inheritance of recessive gene alleles and is known to affect all vertebrates, including humans. While an organism with complete absence of melanin is called an albino ( /ælˈbaɪnoʊ/ American English, or /ælˈbiːnoʊ/ British English) an organism with only a diminished amount of melanin is described as albinoid.
Albinism is associated with a number of vision defects, such as photophobia, nystagmus and astigmatism. Lack of skin pigmentation makes for more susceptibility to sunburn and skin cancers. In rare cases such as Chediak Higashi Syndrome, albinism may be associated with deficiencies in the transportation of melanin granules. This also affects essential granules present in immune cells leading to increased susceptibility to infection.
In humans, there are two principal types of albinism, oculocutaneous, affecting the eyes, skin and
Bradycardia ( /ˌbrædɪˈkɑrdiə/; Greek βραδυκαρδία, bradykardía, "heart slowness"), in the context of adult medicine, is the resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beats/min. It may cause cardiac arrest in some patients, because those with bradycardia may not be pumping enough oxygen to their hearts. It sometimes results in fainting, shortness of breath, and if severe enough, death.
Trained athletes or young healthy individuals may also have a slow resting heart rate (e.g. professional cyclist Miguel Indurain had a resting heart rate of 28 beats per minute). Resting bradycardia is often considered normal if the individual has no other symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, chest discomfort, palpitations or shortness of breath associated with it.
The term relative bradycardia is used in explaining a heart rate which, although not actually below 60 beats per minute, is still considered too slow for the individual's current medical condition.
Bradycardia in an adult is any heart rate less than 60 beats per minute (bpm), although symptoms usually manifest only for heart rates less
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is a chronic symptom of mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus.
GERD is usually caused by changes in the barrier between the stomach and the esophagus, including abnormal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, which normally holds the top of the stomach closed; impaired expulsion of gastric reflux from the esophagus, or a hiatal hernia. These changes may be permanent or temporary ("transient").
Another kind of acid reflux, which causes respiratory and laryngeal signs and symptoms, is called laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) or "extraesophageal reflux disease" (EERD). Unlike GERD, LPR is unlikely to produce heartburn, and is sometimes called silent reflux.
The most-common symptoms of GERD are:
Less-common symptoms include:
GERD sometimes causes injury of the esophagus. These injuries may include:
Several other atypical symptoms are associated with GERD, but there is good evidence for causation only when they are accompanied by esophageal injury. These symptoms are:
Some people have proposed that symptoms
Lordosis is the inward curvature of a portion of the lumbar and cervical vertebral column. Two segments of the vertebral column, namely cervical and lumbar, are normally lordotic, that is, they are set in a curve that has its convexity anteriorly (the front) and concavity posteriorly (behind), in the context of human anatomy. When referring to the anatomy of other mammals, the direction of the curve is termed ventral. Curvature in the opposite direction, that is, apex posteriorly (humans) or dorsally (mammals) is termed kyphosis. Excessive or hyperlordosis is commonly referred to as swayback or saddle back, a term that originates from the similar condition that arises in some horses.
A major factor of lordosis is anterior pelvic tilt, when the pelvis tips forward when resting on top of the femurs.
A consequence of the normal lordotic curvatures of the vertebral column, (also known as secondary curvatures) is that there are differences in thickness between the anterior and posterior part of the intervertebral disc. Lordosis may also increase at puberty sometimes not becoming evident until the early or mid-20s. Imbalances in muscle strength and length are also a cause, such as weak
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung—especially affecting the microscopic air sacs (alveoli)—associated with fever, chest symptoms, and a lack of air space (consolidation) on a chest X-ray. Pneumonia is typically caused by an infection but there are a number of other causes. Infectious agents include: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Typical symptoms include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Diagnostic tools include x-rays and examination of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Presumed bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics.
Although pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death", the advent of antibiotic therapy and vaccines in the 20th century have seen radical improvements in survival outcomes. Nevertheless, in the third world, and among the very old, the very young and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death.
Pneumonitis refers to lung inflammation; pneumonia refers to pneumonitis, usually due to infection but sometimes non infectious, that has the additional feature of
Hunger is the physical sensation of desiring food. It is common for even the highly privileged to often experience mild hunger; brief experiences of the condition are not usually harmful. When politicians, relief workers and social scientists talk about people suffering from hunger, they usually refer to those who are unable to eat sufficient food to meet their basic nutritional needs for a sustained period of time.
Throughout history, a large proportion of the world's population have often experienced sustained periods of hunger. In many cases this resulted from disruptions to the food supply caused by war, plagues or adverse weather changes. For the first few decades after World War II, technological progress and enhanced political cooperation suggested it might be possible to substantially reduce the number of people suffering from hunger. While progress had been uneven, by 2000 the threat of extreme hunger has subsided for a great many of the world's people, especially in countries such as Brazil and Malaysia. The Millennium Development Goals included a commitment to achieve a further 50% reduction in the number of people suffering from extreme hunger by 2015. As of 2012, this
Panic attacks are periods of intense fear or apprehension that are of sudden onset and of variable duration of minutes to hours. Panic attacks usually begin abruptly, may reach a peak within 10 minutes, but may continue for much longer if the sufferer had the attack triggered by a situation from which they are not able to escape. In panic attacks that continue unabated, and are triggered by a situation from which the sufferer desires to escape, some sufferers may make frantic efforts to escape, which may be violent if others attempt to contain the sufferer. Some panic attacks can subside on their own over the next several hours. Often, those afflicted will experience significant anticipatory anxiety and limited symptom attacks in between attacks, in situations where attacks have previously occurred. The effects of a panic attack vary. Some, notably first-time sufferers, may call for emergency services. Many who experience a panic attack, mostly for the first time, fear they are having a heart attack or a nervous breakdown. Experiencing a panic attack has been said to be one of the most intensely frightening, upsetting and uncomfortable experiences of a person's life and may take
Pectus carinatum, (L carīnātus, equiv. to carīn(a) keel), also called pigeon chest, is a deformity of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs. It is the opposite of pectus excavatum.
Pectus carinatum is an overgrowth of cartilage causing the sternum to protrude forward. It occurs in 3 different ways. The least common way is post surgically after open heart surgery. Sometimes the sternum does not heal flat and there is a protrusion of the sternum. The second most common is from birth. It is evident in newborns as a rounded chest and as they reach 2 or 3 years old the sternum begins to grow outwardly even more. The most common occurrence for pectus carinatum seems to be in the 11-14 year old pubertal male undergoing a growth spurt. Some parents report that their child's pectus seemingly popped up 'overnight'.
It may occur as a solitary congenital abnormality or in association with other genetic disorders or syndromes : Marfan syndrome, Ehlers Danlos Syndrome, Morquio syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Trisomy 18, Trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome, Sly syndrome and Scoliosis.
In about 25% of cases of pectus carinatum, the
Urinary retention, also known as ischuria, is a lack of ability to urinate. It is a common complication of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), although it can also be caused by nerve dysfunction, constipation, infection, or medications (including anticholinergics, antidepressants, COX-2 inhibitors, amphetamines and opiates). Diagnosis and/or treatment may require use of a catheter or prostatic stent.
Urinary retention is characterised by poor urinary stream with intermittent flow, straining, a sense of incomplete voiding and hesitancy (a delay between trying to urinate and the flow actually beginning). As the bladder remains full, it may lead to incontinence, nocturia (need to urinate at night) and high frequency. Acute retention causing complete anuria is a medical emergency, as the bladder may distend (stretch) to enormous sizes and possibly tear if not dealt with quickly. If the bladder distends enough it will begin to become painful. The increase in pressure in the bladder can also prevent urine from entering the ureters or even cause urine to pass back up the ureters and get into the kidneys, causing hydronephrosis, and possibly pyonephrosis, kidney failure and sepsis. A
A congenital heart defect (CHD) is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels which is present at birth. Many types of heart defects exist, most of which either obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it, or cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern. Other defects, such as long QT syndrome, affect the heart's rhythm. Heart defects are among the most common birth defects and are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths. Approximately 9 people in 1000 are born with a congenital heart defect. Many defects don't need treatment, but some complex congenital heart defects require medication or surgery.
Signs and symptoms are related to the type and severity of the heart defect. Symptoms frequently present early in life, but it's possible for some CHDs to go undetected throughout life. Some children have no signs while others may exhibit shortness of breath, cyanosis, syncope, heart murmur, under-developing of limbs and muscles, poor feeding or growth, or respiratory infections. Congenital heart defects cause abnormal heart structure resulting in production of certain sounds called heart murmur. These can sometimes be detected by
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process. This is as opposed to formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. Scarring is confluent fibrosis that obliterates the architecture of the underlying organ or tissue.
The term is also sometimes used to describe a normal healing process, but this usage is less common.
Hypertrichosis (also called Ambras syndrome) is an abnormal amount of hair growth on the body; extensive cases of hypertrichosis have informally been called werewolf syndrome. The two distinct types of hypertrichosis are generalized hypertrichosis, which occurs over the entire body, and localized hypertrichosis, which is restricted to a certain area. Hypertrichosis can be either congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life. The excess growth of hair occurs in areas of the skin with the exception of androgen-dependent hair of the pubic area, face, and axillary regions.
Several circus sideshow performers in the 19th and early 20th centuries, such as Julia Pastrana, had hypertrichosis. Many of them worked as freaks and were promoted as having distinct human and animal traits.
The first recorded case of hypertrichosis was Petrus Gonsalvus of the Canary Islands. This was documented by Altrovandus in 1648. He noted two daughters, a son, and a grandchild in Gonzales' family all had hypertrichosis. Altrovandus dubbed them the Ambras family, after the Ambras Castle near Innsbruck, where portraits of the family were found. During the next 300 years, about 50 cases were observed.
A macule is a change in epidermis color, without elevation or depression and, therefore, nonpalpable, well or ill-defined, variously sized but, by convention, less than ten milimeters in diameter at the widest point. This skin lesion is recognizable due to the color difference compared with the surrounding normal skin, and may be of any color, white, blue, or red for example. Macules may be the result of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, vascular abnormalities, capillary dilatation (erythema), or purpura (extravasated red blood cells). Diseases of the skin that present with maculae include, but are not limited to, vitiligo, melasma, and junctional nevi.
Optic atrophy is the loss of some or most of the fibers of the optic nerve. In medicine, "atrophy" usually means "shrunken but capable of regrowth", so some argue that "optic atrophy" as a pathological term is somewhat misleading and use "optic neuropathy" instead.
The optic nerve is part of the brain and has no capability for regeneration. Hence, there can be no recovery from optic atrophy and the term may refer to serious or mild, but always irreversible visual loss due to damage to the optic nerve. Three types of degeneration are seen: transsynaptic, anterograde, and retrograde.
There may be symptoms associated with loss of vision (although there may be a particular difficulty with colour vision).
Bilateral Optic Atrophy: Loss of vision and discoloration of discs in both eyes. This is a genetic form and can be inherited.
symptoms will be extremely varied. some people will have near to normal vision, whereas others will have very poor vision
Optic atrophy can be congenital or acquired.
If congenital, it is usually hereditary with an onset of deterioration in childhood and may be accompanied by nystagmus. Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, (LHON) or Leber Optic Atrophy is
Strabismus (/strəˈbɪzməs/; Modern Latin, from Greek στραβισμός strabismos; cf. στραβίζειν strabizein "to squint", στραβός strabos "squinting, squint-eyed"), is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles, which prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision, which may adversely affect depth perception. Strabismus can present as manifest (heterotropia), apparent, latent (heterophoria) varieties. Strabismus can be either a disorder of the brain in coordinating the eyes, or of one or more of the relevant muscles' power or direction of motion. Difficult strabismus problems are usually co-managed between eye doctors.
Forms of paralytic strabismus include
Other forms of strabismus include:
One eye moves normally, while the other points in (esotropia or "crossed eyes"), out (exotropia), up (hypertropia) or down (hypotropia).
Strabismus is often referred to as "lazy eye", or known as amblyopia. In fact, amblyopia refers to the brain's ignoring input from one eye, which itself can result from discordance in the images provided by
Strawberry tongue is the appearance of tongue with inflamed red papillae, giving an appearance suggestive to a red strawberry.
It is seen in Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome, and scarlet fever.
It may mimic glossitis or Vitamin B12 deficiency.
Photodermatitis, sometimes referred to as sun poisoning or photoallergy, is a form of allergic contact dermatitis in which the allergen must be activated by light to sensitize the allergic response, and to cause a rash or other systemic effects on subsequent exposure. The second and subsequent exposures produce photoallergic skin conditions which are often eczematous.
Many medications and conditions can cause sun sensitivity, including:
Photodermatitis can also be caused by plants. This is called phytophotodermatitis.
Photdermatitis may result in swelling, a burning sensation, a red itchy rash sometimes resembling small blisters, and peeling of the skin. Nausea may also occur. There may also be blotches where the itching may persist for long periods of time. In these areas an unsightly orange to brown tint may form, usually near or on the face.
Prevention includes avoiding exposure to the sun and wearing sun block on the affected area.
A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking. It may be accompanied by feelings of giddiness or wooziness, or having a sensation of movement, spinning, or floating. Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system (eyes), vestibular system (ears) and proprioception (the body's sense of where it is in space). Degeneration of loss of function in any of these systems can lead to balance deficits.
When balance is impaired, an individual has difficulty maintaining upright orientation. For example, an individual may not be able to walk without staggering, or may not even be able to stand. They may have falls or near-falls. When symptoms exist, they may include:
Some individuals may also experience nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, faintness, changes in heart rate and blood pressure, fear, anxiety, or panic. Some reactions to the symptoms are fatigue, depression, and decreased concentration. The symptoms may appear and disappear over short time periods or may last for a longer period.
Cognitive dysfunction (disorientation) may occur with vestibular disorders. Cognitive deficits are not
An inverted nipple (occasionally invaginated nipple) is a condition where the nipple, instead of pointing outward, is retracted into the breast. In some cases, the nipple will be temporarily protruded if stimulated, but in others, the inversion remains regardless of stimulus. Women and men can have inverted nipples.
Individuals with inverted nipples may find that their nipples protract (come out) temporarily or permanently during pregnancy, or as a result of breastfeeding. Most women with inverted nipples who give birth are able to breastfeed without complication, but inexperienced mothers may experience higher than average pain and soreness when initially attempting to breastfeed. When a mother uses proper breastfeeding technique, the infant latches onto the areola, not the nipple, so women with inverted nipples are actually able to breastfeed without issue. An infant that latches on well may be able to slush out an inverted nipple. The use of a breast pump or other suction device immediately before a feeding may help to draw out inverted nipples. A hospital grade electric pump may be used for this purpose. Some women also find that using a nipple shield can help facilitate
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucous fluid. The condition, commonly known as "runny nose", occurs relatively frequently. Rhinorrhea is a common symptom of allergies or certain diseases, such as the common cold or hay fever. It can be a side effect of crying, exposure to cold temperatures, cocaine abuse or withdrawal, such as from opioids like methadone. Treatment for rhinorrhea is not usually necessary, but there are a number of medical treatments and preventative techniques available.
The term was coined in 1866 and is a combination of the Greek terms "rhin-" meaning "of the nose" and "-rhoia" meaning "discharge or flow".
Rhinorrhea is characterized by an excess amount of mucus produced by the mucous membranes that line the nasal cavities. The membranes create mucus faster than it can be processed, causing a backup of mucus in the nasal cavities. As the cavity fills up, it blocks off the air passageway, causing difficulty breathing through the nose. Air caught in nasal cavities, namely the sinus cavities, cannot be released and the resulting pressure may cause a headache or facial pain. If the sinus passage
Perspiration (sweating, transpiration, or diaphoresis) is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Two types of sweat glands can be found in humans: Eccrine glands and apocrine glands. The eccrine sweat glands are distributed over almost the whole
In humans, sweating is primarily a means of thermoregulation which is achieved by the water-rich secretion of the eccrine glands. Maximum sweat rates of an adult can be up to 2-4 liters per hour or 10-14 liters per day (10-15 g/min•m2) Evaporation of sweat from the skin surface has a cooling effect due to the latent heat of evaporation of water. Hence, in hot weather, or when the individual's muscles heat up due to exertion, more sweat is produced. Animals with few sweat glands, such as dogs, accomplish similar temperature regulation results by panting, which evaporates water from the moist lining of the oral cavity and pharynx. Primates and horses have armpits that sweat like those of humans. Although sweating is found in a wide variety of mammals, relatively few, such as humans and horses, produce large amounts of sweat in order to cool down.
A study has discovered that men, on average, start
A goitre or goiter (Latin gutteria, struma), is a swelling of the thyroid gland, which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx (voice box). Goitre is a term that refers to an enlargement of the thyroid (thyromegaly) and can be associated with a thyroid gland that is functioning properly or not.
Worldwide, over 90% cases of goitre are caused by iodine deficiency.
Goitre associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may be present with symptoms of the underlying disorder. For hyperthyroidism, the most common symptoms are weight loss despite increased appetite, and heat intolerance. However, these symptoms are often unspecific and hard to diagnose.
Regarding morphology, goitres may be classified either as the growth pattern or as the size of the growth:
Worldwide, the most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency, usually seen in countries that do not use iodized salt. Selenium deficiency is also considered a contributing factor. In countries that use iodized salt, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause.
Goitre is more common among women, but this includes the many types of goitre caused by autoimmune problems, and not only those caused by simple lack of
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a medical condition, caused by problems arising in the pituitary gland, in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone (GH). Growth hormone, also called somatropin, is a polypeptide hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction.
Growth hormone deficiency has different effects at different ages; in newborn infants, the primary manifestations may be hypoglycemia or micropenis, while in later infancy and childhood, growth failure is more likely. Deficiency in adults is rare, but may feature diminished lean body mass, poor bone density, and a number of physical and psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms include poor memory, social withdrawal, and depression, while physical symptoms may include loss of strength, stamina, and musculature. Other hormonal or glandular disorders frequently coincide with diminished growth hormone production.
GH deficiency can be treated through growth hormone replacement or injections of growth hormone.
Growth hormone deficiency can be congenital or acquired in childhood or adult life. It can be partial or complete. It is usually permanent, but sometimes transient. It may be an isolated deficiency
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. The most common causes are the overuse or over-stretching of a muscle or group of muscles. Myalgia without a traumatic history is often due to viral infections. Longer-term myalgias may be indicative of a metabolic myopathy, some nutritional deficiencies or chronic fatigue syndrome.
The most common causes of myalgia are overuse, injury or strain. However, myalgia can also be caused by diseases, disorders, medications, or as a response to a vaccination. It is also a sign of acute rejection after heart transplant surgery.
The most common causes are:
Muscle pain occurs with:
Overuse of a muscle is using it too much, too soon and/or too often. Examples are:
The most common causes of myalgia by injury are: sprains and strain (injury).
Multiple sclerosis (neurologic pain interpreted as muscular), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Myositis, Lupus erythematosus, Familial Mediterranean fever, Polyarteritis nodosa, Devic's disease, Morphea, Sarcoidosis
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, Conn's syndrome, Adrenal insufficiency, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism
Chronic fatigue syndrome aka Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Ehlers
Scoliosis (from Ancient Greek: σκολίωσις skoliosis "obliquity, bending") is a medical condition in which a person's spine is curved from side to side. Although it is a complex three-dimensional deformity, on an X-ray, viewed from the rear, the spine of an individual with scoliosis may look more like an "S" or a "C", rather than a straight line. Scoliosis is typically classified as either congenital (caused by vertebral anomalies present at birth), idiopathic (cause unknown, subclassified as infantile, juvenile, adolescent, or adult, according to when onset occurred), or neuromuscular (having developed as a secondary symptom of another condition, such as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, spinal muscular atrophy, or physical trauma). A lesser-known cause of scoliosis could be a condition called Chiari malformation.
Recent longitudinal studies reveal that the most common form of the condition, late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, is physiologically harmless and self-limiting. The rarer forms of scoliosis pose risks of complications.
Patients having reached skeletal maturity are less likely to have a worsening case. Some severe cases of scoliosis can lead to diminishing lung capacity, putting
An epicanthic fold, epicanthal fold or epicanthus is a skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye. Other names for this trait include plica palpebronasalis and palpebronasal fold.
One of the primary facial features often closely associated with the epicanthic folds is the nose bridge; all else equal, a lower-based nose bridge is more likely to result in epicanthic folds, and vice versa. There are various factors influencing whether someone has epicanthic folds, including geographical ancestry, age, and certain medical conditions.
Anthropologist Ashley Montagu wrote in 1988 that for some Mongoloids the "nose is flatter at the root (the miscalled bridge) and the slight fold of skin over the median part of the eye, the Epicanthic fold, is preserved." Epicanthic folds tend to become less distinct with age. European ethnic groups that tend to have epicanthus relatively frequently are Scandinavians, Poles, Germans, the Irish and British. They are most prominent in women and children. Epicanthic folds are characteristic for Bushmen populations in Southern Africa.
Many fetuses lose their epicanthic folds after 3 to 6 months of gestation.
Fatigue (also called exhaustion, tiredness, lethargy, languidness, languor, lassitude, and listlessness) is a state of awareness describing a range of afflictions, usually associated with physical and/or mental weakness, though varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work-induced burning sensation within one's muscles. Physical fatigue is the inability to continue functioning at the level of one's normal abilities. It is widespread in everyday life, but usually becomes particularly noticeable during heavy exercise. Mental fatigue, on the other hand, rather manifests in somnolence (sleepiness).
Fatigue is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Fatigue is considered a symptom, as opposed to a medical sign, because it is reported by the patient instead of being observed by others. Fatigue and ‘feelings of fatigue’ are often confused.
Physical fatigue or muscle weakness and/or aches, (or "lack of strength") is a direct term for the inability to exert force with one's muscles to the degree that would be expected given the individual's general physical fitness.
A test of strength is often used during a diagnosis of a muscular disorder before
Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant primary brain tumor that originates in the cerebellum or posterior fossa.
Previously, medulloblastomas were thought to represent a subset of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the posterior fossa. However, gene expression profiling has shown that medulloblastomas have a distinct molecular profile and are distinct from other PNET tumors.
Tumors that originate in the cerebellum are referred to as infratentorial because they occur below the tentorium, a thick membrane that separates the cerebral hemispheres of the brain from the cerebellum. Another term for medulloblastoma is infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Medulloblastoma is the most common PNET originating in the brain.
All PNET tumors of the brain are invasive and rapidly growing tumors that, unlike most brain tumors, spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and frequently metastasize to different locations in the brain and spine.
It was originally believed that there were six subtypes, based on different tumors' molecular fingerprints (each behaves very differently, depending on the child and the tumor's genetics, malignancy, metastasis, and other
Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and ensuing oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium).
Typical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck), shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, sweating, and anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom). Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue. A sizeable proportion of myocardial infarctions (22–64%) are "silent", that is without chest pain or other symptoms.
In medicine, malar rash (from Latin mala ‘jaw, cheek-bone’), also called butterfly rash, is a medical sign consisting of a characteristic form of facial rash. It is often seen in Lupus erythematosus but is not pathognomonic - it is also seen in other diseases such as Pellagra, dermatomyositis and Bloom Syndrome.
The malar rash of lupus is red or purplish and mildly scaly. Characteristically, it has the shape of a butterfly and involves the bridge of the nose. Notably, the rash spares the nasolabial folds of the face, which contributes to its characteristic appearance. It is usually macular with sharp edges and not itchy. The rash can be transient or progressive with involvement of other parts of the facial skin.
A malar rash is present in approximately 46-65% of lupus sufferers and varies between different populations.
There are numerous other conditions which can cause rashes with a similar appearance. Where lupus is suspected further medical tests (usually an ANA as a screening test which is not specific for systemic lupus erythematosus) and a detailed history and examination are necessary to differentiate it from other conditions.
Pop singer Seal has a malar rash on his face due
Tunnel vision (also known as Kalnienk vision) is the loss of peripheral vision with retention of central vision, resulting in a constricted circular tunnel-like field of vision.
Tunnel vision can be caused by:
When combined with piloting an aircraft, driving, crossing roads or operating heavy machinery, the consequences can be fatal.
Eyeglass users experience tunnel vision to varying degrees due to the corrective lens only providing a small area of proper focus, with the rest of the field of view beyond the lenses being unfocused and blurry.
Where a naturally sighted person only needs to move their eyes to see an object far to the side or far down, the eyeglass wearer may need to move their whole skull to point the eyeglasses towards the target object.
The eyeglass frame also blocks the view of the world with a thin opaque boundary separating the lens area from the rest of the field of view. The eyeglass frame is capable of obscuring small objects and details in the peripheral field.
Activities which require a protective mask, safety goggles, or fully enclosing protective helmet can also result in an experience approximating tunnel vision.
Underwater diving masks using a single
A webbed neck, or pterygium colli deformity, is a congenital skin fold that runs along the sides of the neck down to the shoulders. There are many variants.
It is a feature of Turner syndrome and Noonan syndrome, as well as the rarer Klippel-Feil syndrome.
On babies, webbed neck may look like loose folds of skin on the neck. As the child grows, the skin may stretch out to look like there is little or no neck.
An acrochordon (plural acrochorda, and also known as a (cutaneous) skin tag, or fibroepithelial polyp,) is a small benign tumor that forms primarily in areas where the skin forms creases, such as the neck, armpit, and groin. They may also occur on the face, usually on the eyelids. Acrochorda are harmless and typically painless, and do not grow or change over time. Though tags up to a half-inch long have been seen, they are typically the size of a grain of rice. The surface of an acrochordon may be smooth or irregular in appearance and is often raised from the surface of the skin on a fleshy stalk called a peduncle. Microscopically, an acrochordon consists of a fibro-vascular core, sometimes also with fat cells, covered by an unremarkable epidermis. However, tags may become irritated by shaving, clothing or jewelry.
It is believed that skin tags occur from skin rubbing up against skin, since they are so often found in skin creases and folds. Studies have shown existence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 in skin tags hinting at a possible role in its pathogenesis. Acrochorda have been reported to have an prevalence of 46% in the general population. A causal genetic component is thought to
A headache or cephalalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It can be a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and neck. The brain tissue itself is not sensitive to pain because it lacks pain receptors. Rather, the pain is caused by disturbance of the pain-sensitive structures around the brain. Nine areas of the head and neck have these pain-sensitive structures, which are the cranium (the periosteum of the skull), muscles, nerves, arteries and veins, subcutaneous tissues, eyes, ears, sinuses and mucous membranes.
There are a number of different classification systems for headaches. The most well-recognized is that of the International Headache Society. Headache is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Treatment of a headache depends on the underlying etiology or cause, but commonly involves analgesics.
Headaches are most thoroughly classified by the International Headache Society's International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD), which published the second edition in 2004. This classification is accepted by the WHO.
Other classification systems exist. One of the first published attempts was in 1951. The
A brain tumor, or tumour, is an intracranial solid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells) within the brain or the central spinal canal.
Brain tumors include all tumors inside the cranium or in the central spinal canal. They are created by an abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, usually in the brain itself, but also in lymphatic tissue, in blood vessels, in the cranial nerves, in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary gland, or pineal gland. Within the brain itself, the involved cells may be neurons or glial cells (which include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells). Brain tumors may also spread from cancers primarily located in other organs (metastatic tumors).
Any brain tumor is inherently serious and life-threatening because of its invasive and infiltrative character in the limited space of the intracranial cavity. However, brain tumors (even malignant ones) are not invariably fatal, especially lipomas which are inherently benign. Brain tumors or intracranial neoplasms can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign); however, the definitions of malignant or benign neoplasms differs from those commonly used in other types of
Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from cells originating in the cervix uteri. One of the most common symptoms of cervical cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding, but in some cases there may be no obvious symptoms until the cancer has progressed to an advanced stage. Treatment usually consists of surgery (including local excision) in early stages, and chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in more advanced stages of the disease.
Cancer screening using the Pap smear can identify precancerous and potentially precancerous changes in cervical cells and tissue. Treatment of high-grade changes can prevent the development of cancer in many victims. In developed countries, the widespread use of cervical screening programs has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection appears to be a necessary factor in the development of almost all cases (90+%) of cervical cancer. HPV vaccines effective against the two strains of this large family of viruses that currently cause approximately 70% of cases of cervical cancer have been licensed in the U.S, Canada, Australia, and the EU. Since the vaccines only cover some of the cancer-causing
Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially of the colon, that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and/or blood in the feces with fever, abdominal pain, and rectal tenesmus (a feeling of incomplete defecation). If left untreated, dysentery can be fatal.
In developed countries, dysentery is, in general, a mild illness, causing mild symptoms normally consisting of mild stomach pains and frequent passage of stool. Symptoms normally present themselves after one to three days and are usually no longer present after a week. The frequency of urges to defecate, the volume of feces passed, and the presence of mucus, pus and blood depend on the pathogen that is causing the disease. Temporary lactose intolerance can occur, which, in the most severe cases, can last for years. In some caustic occasions, vomiting of blood, severe abdominal pain, fever, shock, and delirium can all be symptoms.
Dysentery results from viral infections, bacterial infections, or parasitic infestations. These pathogens typically reach the large intestine after entering orally, through ingestion of contaminated food or water, oral contact with
Eczema or atopic dermatitis (from Greek ἔκζεμα ēkzema, "to boil over") is a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin).
The term eczema is broadly applied to a range of persistent skin conditions. These include dryness and recurring skin rashes that are characterized by one or more of these symptoms: redness, skin edema (swelling), itching and dryness, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding. Areas of temporary skin discoloration may appear and are sometimes due to healed injuries. Scratching open a healing lesion may result in scarring and may enlarge the rash.
The word eczema comes from Greek words, that mean "to boil over". Dermatitis comes from the Greek word for skin – and both terms refer to exactly the same skin condition. In some languages, dermatitis and eczema are synonymous, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and "eczema" a chronic one. The two conditions are often classified together.
The term eczema refers to a set of clinical characteristics. Classification of the underlying diseases has been haphazard and unsystematic, with many synonyms used to describe the same condition. A
A melanocytic nevus (also known as "Nevocytic nevus") is a type of lesion that contains nevus cells (melanocytes). Some sources equate the term mole with "melanocytic nevus". Other sources reserve the term "mole" for other purposes.
The majority of moles appear during the first two decades of a person’s life, while about one in every 100 babies is born with moles. Acquired moles are a form of benign neoplasm, while congenital moles, or congenital nevi, are considered a minor malformation or hamartoma and may be at a higher risk for melanoma. A mole can be either subdermal (under the skin) or a pigmented growth on the skin, formed mostly of a type of cell known as a melanocyte. The high concentration of the body’s pigmenting agent, melanin, is responsible for their dark color. Moles are a member of the family of skin lesions known as nevi.
Melanocytic nevi represent a family of lesions. The most common variants are:
According to the American Academy of Dermatology, the most common types of moles are skin tags, raised moles and flat moles. Benign moles are usually circular or oval and not very large, though some can be larger than the size of a typical pencil eraser. Some moles
Proctitis is an inflammation of the anus and the lining of the rectum, affecting only the last 6 inches of the rectum.
Symptoms are ineffectual straining to empty the bowels, diarrhea, rectal bleeding and possible discharge, a feeling of not having adequately emptied the bowels, involuntary spasms and cramping during bowel movements, left-sided abdominal pain, passage of mucus through the rectum, and anorectal pain.
Proctitis has many possible causes. It may occur idiopathically (idiopathic proctitis). Other causes include damage by irradiation (for example in radiation therapy for cervical cancer and prostate cancer) or as a sexually transmitted infection, as in lymphogranuloma venereum and herpes proctitis. Proctitis is also linked to stress and recent studies suggest a celiac disease-associated "proctitis" can result from an intolerance to gluten.
A common cause is engaging in anal sex with multiple partners infected with sexual transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men. Shared enema usage has been shown to facilitate the spread of Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis.
A common symptom is a continual urge to have a bowel movement—the rectum could feel full or have
Seborrhoeic dermatitis (also seborrheic dermatitis AmE, seborrhea) (also known as "seborrheic eczema") is an inflammatory skin disorder affecting the scalp, face, and torso. Typically, seborrheic dermatitis presents with scaly, flaky, itchy, and red skin. It particularly affects the sebaceous-gland-rich areas of skin. In adolescents and adults, seborrhoeic dermatitis usually presents as scalp scaling similar to dandruff or as mild to marked erythema of the nasolabial fold.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis is caused by seborrhea, a pathologic overproduction of sebum, and subsequent infection and inflammation.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis may involve an inflammatory reaction to a proliferation of a form of the yeast Malassezia, though this has not been proven.
The main species found in the scalp is Malassezia globosa, others being Malassezia furfur (formerly known as Pityrosporum ovale) and Malassezia restricta. The yeast produces toxic substances that irritate and inflame the skin. Patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis appear to have a reduced resistance to the yeast. However, the colonization rate of affected skin may be lower than that of unaffected skin.
Only saturated fatty acids (FAs) have been
Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may be due to infection, allergy, or autoimmune issues. Most cases are due to a viral infection and resolve over the course of 10 days. It is a common condition; for example, in the United States more than 24 million cases occur annually.
Sinusitis (or rhinosinusitis) is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the paranasal sinuses and is classified chronologically into several categories:
1. acute rhinosinusitis — a new infection that may last up to four weeks and can be subdivided symptomatically into severe and non-severe;
2. recurrent acute rhinosinusitis — four or more separate episodes of acute sinusitis that occur within one year;
3. subacute rhinosinusitis — an infection that lasts between four and 12 weeks, and represents a transition between acute and chronic infection;
4. chronic rhinosinusitis — when the signs and symptoms last for more than 12 weeks; and
5. acute exacerbation of chronic rhinosinusitis — when the signs and symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis exacerbate, but return to baseline after treatment.
All these types of sinusitis have similar symptoms, and are thus often difficult to
Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen. The spleen usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. It is one of the four cardinal signs of hypersplenism, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells affecting granulocytes, erythrocytes or platelets in any combination; a compensatory proliferative response in the bone marrow; and the potential for correction of these abnormalities by splenectomy. Splenomegaly is usually associated with increased workload (such as in hemolytic anemias), which suggests that it is a response to hyperfunction. It is therefore not surprising that splenomegaly is associated with any disease process that involves abnormal red blood cells being destroyed in the spleen. Other common causes include congestion due to portal hypertension and infiltration by leukemias and lymphomas. Thus, the finding of an enlarged spleen; along with caput medusa; is an important sign of portal hypertension.
Alotaibi G et al. classify splenomegaly as:
Splenomegaly should not be confused with hypersplenism. The former is a statement about the size of the spleen, and the latter about the spleen's function: these may coexist, or they may not.
Alopecia ( /ˌæləˈpiːʃə/, from Classical Greek ἀλώπηξ, alōpēx) means loss of hair from the head or body. Alopecia can mean baldness, a term generally reserved for pattern alopecia or androgenic alopecia. Compulsive pulling of hair (trichotillomania) can also produce hair loss. Hairstyling routines such as tight ponytails or braids may induce Traction alopecia. Both hair relaxer solutions, and hot hair irons can also induce hair loss. In some cases, alopecia is due to underlying medical conditions, such as iron deficiency.
Generally, hair loss in patches signifies alopecia areata. Alopecia areata typically presents with sudden hair loss causing patches to appear on the scalp or other areas of the body. If left untreated, or if the disease does not respond to treatment, complete baldness can result in the affected area, which is referred to as alopecia totalis. When the entire body suffers from complete hair loss, it is referred to as alopecia universalis. It is similar to the effects that occur with chemotherapy.
The physician should note the distribution of hair loss, presence and characteristics of skin lesions, and the presence of scarring. Part widths should be measured. All
In medicine, iron overload indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause. The most important causes are hereditary haemochromatosis (HHC), a genetic disorder, and transfusional iron overload, which can result from repeated blood transfusion.
Historically, the term haemochromatosis (spelled hemochromatosis in American English) was initially used to refer to what is now more specifically called haemochromatosis type 1 (or HFE-related hereditary haemochromatosis). Currently, haemochromatosis (without further specification) is mostly defined as iron overload with a hereditary/primary cause, or originating from a metabolic disorder. However, the term is currently also used more broadly to refer to any form of iron overload, thus requiring specification of the cause, for example, hereditary haemochromatosis. Hereditary haemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder with estimated prevalence in the population of 1 in 200 among patients with European ancestry, with lower incidence in other ethnic groups. The gene responsible for hereditary haemochromatosis (known as HFE gene) is located on chromosome 6; the majority of hereditary haemochromatosis patients have mutations in
Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), emotional lability, labile affect or emotional incontinence refers to a neurologic disorder characterized by involuntary crying or uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, or other emotional displays. PBA occurs secondary to neurologic disease or brain injury. Patients may find themselves crying uncontrollably at something that is only moderately sad, being unable to stop themselves for several minutes. Episodes may also be mood-incongruent: a patient might laugh uncontrollably when angry or frustrated, for example.
Historically there have been a variety of terms used including pseudobulbar affect, pathological laughter and crying, emotional lability, emotionalism, emotional dysregulation, or, more recently, involuntary emotional expression disorder (IEED).
Terms such as forced crying, involuntary crying, pathological emotionality, and emotional incontinence have also been used, although less frequently. Following FDA approval of a treatment indicated for pseudobulbar affect or PBA, this term is likely to become the preferred name in clinical and research use.
The cardinal feature of the disorder is a pathologically lowered threshold for
Opisthotonus or opisthotonos, from Greek roots, opistho meaning "behind" and tonos meaning "tension", is a state of a severe hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position. This abnormal posturing is an extrapyramidal effect and is caused by spasm of the axial muscles along the spinal column.
It is seen in some cases of severe cerebral palsy and traumatic brain injury or as a result of the severe muscular spasms associated with tetanus.
Opisthotonus can be produced experimentally in animals by transection of the midbrain (between the superior colliculus and the inferior colliculus), which results in severing all the corticoreticular fibers. Hyperextension occurs due to facilitation of the anterior reticulospinal tract caused by the inactivation of inhibitory corticoreticular fibers, which normally act upon the pons reticular formation. It has been shown to occur naturally only in birds and placental mammals.
Opisthotonus is more pronounced in infants. Opisthotonus in the neonate may be a symptom of meningitis, tetanus, severe kernicterus, or the rare Maple Syrup Urine Disease. This marked
Trismus is the inability to normally open the mouth due to one of many causes.
Treatment requires treating the underlying condition with dental treatments, physical therapy, and passive range of motion devices. Additionally, control of symptoms with pain medications (NSAIDs), muscle relaxants, and warm compresses may be used.
Splints have been used.
Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve. The pathway of the facial nerve is long and relatively convoluted, and so there are a number of causes that may result in facial nerve paralysis. The most common is Bell's palsy, an idiopathic disease that may only be diagnosed by exclusion.
A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making a diagnosis.
During the physical examination, a distinction must first be made between paralysis and paresis (incomplete paralysis). Not surprisingly, paralysis is far more serious and requires immediate treatment. It must also be determined whether the forehead is involved in the motor defect or not. This is usually accomplished by assessing how well a patient can raise his or her eyebrows. The question is an important one because it helps determine if the lesion is in the upper motor neuron component of the facial nerve, or in its lower motor neuron component. If the mimetic muscles do not contract anymore, facial nerve surgery is indicated, for example smile surgery.
Laboratory investigations include an audiogram, nerve conduction studies
Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing. Although classified under "symptoms and signs" in ICD-10, the term is sometimes used as a condition in its own right. Sufferers are sometimes unaware of their dysphagia.
It is derived from the Greek dys meaning bad or disordered, and phago meaning "eat". It may be a sensation that suggests difficulty in the passage of solids or liquids from the mouth to the stomach, a lack of pharyngeal sensation, or various other inadequacies of the swallowing mechanism. Dysphagia is distinguished from other symptoms including odynophagia, which is defined as painful swallowing, and globus, which is the sensation of a lump in the throat. A psychogenic dysphagia is known as phagophobia.
It is also worthwhile to refer to the physiology of swallowing in understanding dysphagia.
Some patients have limited awareness of their dysphagia, so lack of the symptom does not exclude an underlying disease. When dysphagia goes undiagnosed or untreated, patients are at a high risk of pulmonary aspiration and subsequent aspiration pneumonia secondary to food or liquids going the wrong way into the lungs. Some people present with "silent
A hammer toe or contracted toe is a deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer. Mallet toe is a similar condition affecting the distal interphalangeal joint.
Claw toe is another similar condition, with dorsiflexion of the proximal phalanx on the lesser metatarsophalangeal joint, combined with flexion of both the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. Claw toe can affect the second, third, fourth, or fifth toes.
Hammer toe most frequently results from wearing poorly fitting shoes that can force the toe into a bent position, such as excessively high heels or shoes that are too short or narrow for the foot. Having the toes bent for long periods of time can cause the muscles in them to shorten, resulting in the hammer toe deformity. This is often found in conjunction with bunions or other foot problems. It can also be caused by muscle, nerve, or joint damage resulting from conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or diabetes. Hammer toe can also be found in Friedreich's ataxia (GAA trinucleotide repeat).
In many cases, conservative
Hemoptysis or haemoptysis ( /hɨˈmɒptɨsɪs/) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e.g., in tuberculosis or other respiratory infections or cardiovascular pathologies).
There are many conditions involving Hemoptysis, including but not limited to bronchitis and pneumonia most commonly, but also lung neoplasm (in smokers, hemoptysis is often persistent), aspergilloma, tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and Cystic Fibrosis. Rarer causes include hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome), or Goodpasture's syndrome and Wegener's granulomatosis. In children, hemoptysis is commonly caused by the presence of a foreign body in the respiratory tract. The condition can also result from over-anticoagulation from treatment by drugs such as warfarin.
Blood-laced mucus from the sinus or nose area can sometimes be misidentified as symptomatic of hemoptysis (such secretions can be a sign of nasal or sinus cancer, but also a sinus infection). Extensive non-respiratory injury can also cause one to cough up blood. Cardiac causes like congestive
Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which the circumference of the head is more than two standard deviations smaller than average for the person's age and sex. Microcephaly may be congenital or it may develop in the first few years of life. The disorder may stem from a wide variety of conditions that cause abnormal growth of the brain, or from syndromes associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Two copies of a loss-of-function mutation in one of the microcephalin genes causes primary microcephaly.
In general, life expectancy for individuals with microcephaly is reduced and the prognosis for normal brain function is poor. The prognosis varies depending on the presence of associated abnormalities.
Microcephaly is a type of cephalic disorder.
A genetic factor may play a role in causing some cases of microcephaly. Relations have been found between autism, duplications of chromosomes and macrocephaly on one side. On the other side a relation has been found between schizophrenia, deletions of chromosomes and microcephaly.
"Microcephaly" means "small head" (literal translation from the Greek "μικρό κεφάλι"). "Microencephaly" means "small brain". Because the size of the head
Risus sardonicus is a highly characteristic, abnormal, sustained spasm of the facial muscles that appears to produce grinning.
The name of the condition derives from the appearance of raised eyebrows and an open "grin" - which can appear malevolent to the lay observer - displayed by those suffering from these muscle spasms.
It is most often observed as a sign of tetanus. Poisoning with strychnine may result in a risus sardonicus.
In 2009 scientists at the University of Eastern Piedmont in Italy claimed to have identified hemlock water dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) as the plant responsible for producing the sardonic grin. This plant is the most-likely candidate for the "sardonic herb," which was a neurotoxic plant used for the ritual killing of elderly people in pre-Roman Sardinia.
Arthur Conan Doyle's hero Sherlock Holmes uses the term to describe the facial distortion of the murder victim Bartholomew Sholto in his story The Sign of the Four.
A case of risus sardonicus features in the short story "Sardonicus" by Ray Russell, later used as the basis of the 1961 William Castle movie Mr. Sardonicus.
In the Batman comic book series, The Joker uses a toxin on some of his victims that
Sleep apnoea (or sleep apnea in American English; /æpˈniːə/) is a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal pauses in breathing or instances of abnormally low breathing, during sleep. Each pause in breathing, called an apnea, can last from a few seconds to minutes, and may occur 5 to 30 times or more an hour. Similarly, each abnormally low breathing event is called a hypopnea. Sleep apnea is diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or "sleep study".
There are three forms of sleep apnea: central (CSA), obstructive (OSA), and complex or mixed sleep apnea (i.e. a combination of central and obstructive) constituting 0.4%, 84% and 15% of cases respectively. In CSA, breathing is interrupted by a lack of respiratory effort; in OSA, breathing is interrupted by a physical block to airflow despite respiratory effort, and snoring is common.
Regardless of type, an individual with sleep apnea is rarely aware of having difficulty breathing, even upon awakening. Sleep apnea is recognized as a problem by others witnessing the individual during episodes or is suspected because of its effects on the body (sequelae). Symptoms may be present for years (or even decades) without
An anal fissure is a break or tear in the skin of the anal canal. Anal fissures may be noticed by bright red anal bleeding on the toilet paper, sometimes in the toilet. If acute they may cause severe periodic pain after defecation but with chronic fissures pain intensity is often less. Anal fissures usually extend from the anal opening and are usually located posteriorly in the midline, probably because of the relatively unsupported nature and poor perfusion of the anal wall in that location. Fissure depth may be superficial or sometimes down to the underlying sphincter muscle.
Most anal fissures are caused by stretching of the anal mucosa beyond its capability.
Superficial or shallow anal fissures look much like a paper cut, and may be hard to detect upon visual inspection, they will generally self-heal within a couple of weeks. However, some anal fissures become chronic and deep and will not heal. The most common cause of non-healing is spasming of the internal anal sphincter muscle which results in impaired blood supply to the anal mucosa. The result is a non-healing ulcer, which may become infected by fecal bacteria. In adults, fissures may be caused by constipation, the
Anasarca, or extreme generalized edema, is a medical condition characterised by widespread swelling of the skin due to effusion of fluid into the extracellular space.
It is usually caused by liver failure (cirrhosis of the liver) or renal failure/disease and severe malnutrition/protein deficiency. The increase in salt and water retention caused by low cardiac output can also result in anasarca as a long term maladaptive response.
It can also be created from the administration of exogenous intravenous fluid. Certain plant-derived anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, such as docetaxel, cause anasarca through a poorly understood capillary leak syndrome.
A blister is a small pocket of fluid within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid called serum or plasma. However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as blood blisters) or with pus (if they become infected).
The word "blister" entered English in the 14th century. It came from the Middle Dutch "bluyster", and was a modification of the Old French "blostre" which meant a leprous nodule—a rise in the skin due to leprosy.
A blister may form when the skin has been damaged by friction or rubbing, heat, cold or chemical exposure. Fluid collects between the epidermis—the upper layer of the skin—and the layers below. This fluid cushions the tissue underneath, protecting it from further damage and allowing it to heal.
Intense rubbing can cause a blister, as can any friction on the skin if continued long enough. This kind of blister is most common after walking long distances or wearing a poorly-tuned new pair of shoes. Blisters are most common on the hands and feet, as these extremities are susceptible while walking, running, or performing repetitive
Fibromyalgia (FM or FMS) is a medical disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and allodynia, a heightened and painful response to pressure. Fibromyalgia symptoms are not restricted to pain, leading to the use of the alternative term fibromyalgia syndrome for the condition. Other symptoms include debilitating fatigue, sleep disturbance, and joint stiffness. Some patients may also report difficulty with swallowing, bowel and bladder abnormalities, numbness and tingling, and cognitive dysfunction. Fibromyalgia is frequently comorbid with psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety and stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Not all people with fibromyalgia experience all associated symptoms. Fibromyalgia is estimated to affect 2–4% of the population, with a female to male incidence ratio of approximately 9:1. The term "fibromyalgia" derives from new Latin, fibro-, meaning "fibrous tissues", Greek myo-, "muscle", and Greek algos-, "pain"; thus the term literally means "muscle and connective tissue pain".
The brains of fibromyalgia patients show functional and structural differences from those of healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. Flushing is generally distinguished, despite a close physiological relation between them, from blushing, which is milder, generally restricted to the face, cheeks or ears, and generally assumed to reflect embarrassment. Flushing is also a cardinal symptom of carcinoid syndrome—the syndrome that results from hormones (often serotonin or histamine) being secreted into systemic circulation.
Commonly referred to as the sex flush, vasocongestion (increased blood flow) of the skin can occur during all four phases of the human sexual response cycle. Studies show that the sex flush occurs in approximately 50–75% of females and 25% of males, yet not consistently. The sex flush tends to occur more often under warmer conditions and may not appear at all under cooler temperatures.
During the female sex flush, pinkish spots develop under the breasts, then spread to the breasts, torso, face, hands, soles of the feet, and possibly over the entire body. Vasocongestion is also responsible for the darkening of the clitoris and the walls of the vagina during sexual
Inflammation (Latin, īnflammō, "I ignite, set alight") is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiate the healing process. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection, even in cases where inflammation is caused by infection. Although infection is caused by a microorganism, inflammation is one of the responses of the organism to the pathogen. However, inflammation is a stereotyped response, and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, which is specific for each pathogen.
Without inflammation, wounds and infections would never heal. Similarly, progressive destruction of the tissue would compromise the survival of the organism. However, chronic inflammation can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, periodontitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer (e.g., gallbladder carcinoma). It is for that reason that inflammation is normally closely regulated by the body.
Inflammation can be classified as either acute or
Self-harm (SH) or deliberate self-harm (DSH) includes self-injury (SI) and self-poisoning and is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue most often done without suicidal intentions. These terms are used in the more recent literature in an attempt to reach a more neutral terminology. The older literature, especially that which predates the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), almost exclusively refers to self-mutilation. The term is synonymous with "self-injury". The most common form of self-harm is skin-cutting but self-harm also covers a wide range of behaviors including, but not limited to, burning, scratching, banging or hitting body parts, interfering with wound healing, hair-pulling (trichotillomania) and the ingestion of toxic substances or objects. Behaviours associated with substance abuse and eating disorders are usually not considered self-harm because the resulting tissue damage is ordinarily an unintentional side effect. However, the boundaries are not always clearly defined and in some cases behaviours that usually fall outside the boundaries of self-harm may indeed represent self-harm if performed with explicit intent
A hiccup or hiccough ( /ˈhɪkəp/ HIK-əp) is a contraction of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute. In medicine it is known as synchronous diaphragmatic flutter (SDF), or singultus, from the Latin singult, "the act of catching one's breath while sobbing". The hiccup is an involuntary action involving a reflex arc. Once triggered, the reflex causes a strong contraction of the diaphragm followed about 0.25 seconds later by closure of the vocal cords, which results in the classic hic sound. At the same time, the normal peristalis of the esophagus is suppressed.
Hiccups may occur individually, or they may occur in bouts. The rhythm of the hiccup, or the time between hiccups, tends to be relatively constant.
A bout of hiccups, in general, resolves itself without intervention, although many home remedies are often used to attempt to shorten the duration. Medical treatment is occasionally necessary in cases of chronic hiccups.
Researchers at the Respiratory Research Group at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada, propose that the hiccup is an evolutionary remnant of earlier amphibian respiration. Amphibians such as tadpoles gulp air and water across their gills via
A neurofibroma is a benign nerve sheath tumor in the peripheral nervous system. Usually found in individuals with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), an autosomal dominant genetically-inherited disease, they can result in a range of symptoms from physical disfiguration and pain to cognitive disability. Neurofibromas arise from nonmyelinating-type Schwann cells that exhibit biallelic inactivation of the NF1 gene that codes for the protein neurofibromin. This protein is responsible for regulating the RAS-mediated cell growth signaling pathway. In contrast to schwannomas, another type of tumor arising from Schwann cells, neurofibromas incorporate many additional types of cells and structural elements in addition to Schwann cells, making it difficult to identify and understand all the mechanisms through which they originate and develop.
Neurofibromas have been subdivided into two broad categories: dermal and plexiform. Dermal neurofibromas are associated with a single peripheral nerve, while plexiform neurofibromas are associated with multiple nerve bundles. According to the World Health Organization classification system, dermal and plexiform neurofibromas are grade I tumors. Plexiform
Sinus arrhythmia is a normal phenomenon of mild acceleration and slowing of the heart rate that occurs with breathing in and out. It is usually quite pronounced in children, and steadily lessens with age. This can also be present during meditation breathing exercises that involve deep inhaling and breath holding patterns.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells. It is caused by accumulation of fluid in tissues. It can occur throughout the body (generalized), or a specific part or organ can be affected (localized).
Swelling is considered one of the five characteristics of inflammation; along with pain, heat, redness, and loss of function.
In a general sense, the suffix "-megaly" is used to indicate a growth, as in hepatomegaly, acromegaly, and splenomegaly.
A body part may swell in response to injury, infection, or disease. Swelling, especially of the ankle, can occur if the body is not circulating fluid well.
Generalized swelling, or massive edema (also called anasarca), is a common sign in severely ill people. Although slight edema may be difficult to detect to the untrained eye, especially in an overweight person, massive edema is very obvious.
Congenital swellings are present since birth. E.g. : hemangioma, meningocele etc. Some congenital swellings may not appear since birth, but later in life. E.g. : branchial cyst, dermatoid cyst, thyroglossal cyst.
Traumatic swellings develop
Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin color. It is caused by melanocyte or melanin depletion, or a decrease in the amino acid tyrosine, which is used by melanocytes to make melanin.
Oftentimes, hypopigmentation can be brought on by laser treatments; however, the hypopigmentation can be treated with other lasers or light sources.
It is seen in:
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. A bone fracture can be the result of high force impact or stress, or trivial injury as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, bone cancer, or osteogenesis imperfecta, where the fracture is then properly termed a pathologic fracture.
Although broken bone and bone break are common colloquialisms for a bone fracture, break is not a formal orthopedic term.
Although bone tissue itself contains no nociceptors, bone fracture is painful for several reasons:
Damage to adjacent structures such as nerves or vessels, spinal cord and nerve roots (for spine fractures), or cranial contents (for skull fractures) can cause other specific signs and symptoms.
The natural process of healing a fracture starts when the injured bone and surrounding tissues bleed, forming a fracture hematoma. The blood coagulates to form a blood clot situated between the broken fragments. Within a few days blood vessels grow into the jelly-like matrix of the blood clot. The new blood vessels bring phagocytes to the area, which gradually
Diaphoresis is excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other medical emergency conditions.
Diaphoretic is the state of perspiring profusely, or something that has the power to cause increased perspiration.
Diaphoresis is the medical term for profuse sweating or perspiring. It is performed by the skin's sweat glands as they release a salty fluid and aid in fever management. Sweating is an essential function that helps the body stay cool and is commonly found under the arms, on the feet, and on the palms of the hands. The amount of sweat that is released by the body is determined by the number of sweat glands a person is born with. There are approximately two to four million sweat glands throughout the body that will become completely active during puberty. Although women tend to have more sweat glands, men's are generally more active. For this reason men's bodies are better able to regulate core temperature.
When the body temperature rises, the autonomic nervous system stimulates the eccrine glands to secrete fluid onto the surface of the skin, where it cools the body as it evaporates.
Diaphoresis is a non-specific symptom or sign, which means that it has many possible
A heart block is a disease in the electrical system of the heart. This is opposed to coronary artery disease, which is disease of the blood vessels of the heart. While coronary artery disease can cause angina (chest pain) or myocardial infarction (heart attack), heart block can cause lightheadedness, syncope (fainting), and palpitations.
A heart block can be a blockage at any level of the electrical conduction system of the heart (shown in the diagram on the right).
Clinically speaking, most of the important heart blocks are AV nodal blocks and infra-Hisian blocks.
The SA nodal blocks rarely give symptoms. This is because if an individual had complete block at this level of the conduction system (which is uncommon), the secondary pacemaker of the heart would be at the AV node, which would fire at 40 to 60 beats a minute, which is enough to retain consciousness in the resting state.
Types of SA nodal blocks include:
In addition to the above blocks, the SA node can be suppressed by any other arrhythmia that reaches it. This includes retrograde conduction from the ventricles, ectopic atrial beats, atrial fibrillation, and atrial flutter.
The difference between SA node block and SA
Heberden's nodes are hard or bony swellings that can develop in the distal interphalangeal joints (DIP) (the joints closest to the end of the fingers and toes). They are a sign of osteoarthritis and are caused by formation of osteophytes (calcific spurs) of the articular (joint) cartilage in response to repeated trauma at the joint.
Heberden's nodes typically develop in middle age, beginning either with a chronic swelling of the affected joints or the sudden painful onset of redness, numbness, and loss of manual dexterity. This initial inflammation and pain eventually subsides, and the patient is left with a permanent bony outgrowth that often skews the fingertip sideways. Bouchard's nodes may also be present; these are similar bony growths in the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints (middle joints of the fingers), and are also associated with osteoarthritis.
Heberden's nodes are more common in women than in men, and there seems to be a genetic component involved in predisposition to the condition.
They are named after William Heberden (1710–1801).
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a tumor caused by Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). It was originally described by Moritz Kaposi (KA-po-she), a Hungarian dermatologist practicing at the University of Vienna in 1872. It became more widely known as one of the AIDS defining illnesses in the 1980s. The viral cause for this cancer was discovered in 1994. Although KS is now well-established to be caused by a viral infection, there is widespread lack of awareness of this even among persons at risk for KSHV/HHV-8 infection.
Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without internal involvement. Four subtypes have been described: Classic KS, affecting middle aged men of Mediterranean and Jewish descent; African endemic KS; KS in iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients; and AIDS-related KS. The erythematous to violaceous cutaneous lesions seen in KS have several morphologies: macular, patch, plaque, nodular, and exophytic. The cutaneous lesions can be solitary, localized or disseminated. KS can involve the oral cavity, lymph nodes, and viscera. Classic KS tends to be indolent, presenting with
A premature ventricular contraction (PVC), also known as a premature ventricular complex, ventricular premature contraction (or complex or complexes) (VPC), ventricular premature beat (VPB), or extrasystole, is a relatively common event where the heartbeat is initiated by the heart ventricles rather than by the sinoatrial node, the normal heartbeat initiator. The electrical events of the heart detected by the electrocardiogram allow a PVC to be easily distinguished from a normal heart beat.
A PVC may be perceived as a "skipped beat" or felt as palpitations in the chest. In a normal heartbeat, the ventricles contract after the atria have helped to fill them by contracting; in this way the ventricles can pump a maximized amount of blood both to the lungs and to the rest of the body. In a PVC, the ventricles contract first, which means that circulation is inefficient. However, single beat PVC arrhythmias do not usually pose a danger and can be asymptomatic in healthy individuals.
Premature ventricular contractions can occur in a healthy person of any age, but are more prevalent in the elderly and in men. They frequently occur spontaneously with no known cause.
Some possible causes
Rectal prolapse (rectal procdentia) refers to a medical condition where a section of the wall of the rectum prolapses (falls down) from the normal anatomical position with associated pelvic floor dysfunction. This may occur during with straining to defecate, or occur at rest.
Used unqualified, the term rectal prolapse often is used synonymously with complete rectal prolapse (external rectal prolapse), where the rectal walls have prolapsed to a degree where they protrude out the anus and are visible outside the body. However, most researchers agree that there are 3 to 5 different types of rectal prolapse, depending on if the prolapsed section is visible externally, and if the full or only partial thickness of the rectal wall is involved.
Rectal prolapse may occur without any symptoms, but depending upon the nature of the prolapse there may be mucous discharge (mucus coming from the anus), rectal bleeding, degrees of fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation symptoms.
Rectal prolapse is generally more common in elderly women, although it may occur at any age and in both genders. It is very rarely life threatening, but the symptoms can be debilitating if left untreated. Most
AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), or atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, is a type of tachycardia (fast rhythm) of the heart. It is a type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), meaning that it originates from a location within the heart above the bundle of His. AV nodal reentrant tachycardia is the most common regular supraventricular tachycardia. It is more common in women than men (approximately 75% of cases occurring in females). The main symptom is palpitations. Treatment may be with specific physical maneuvers, medication, or rarely synchronized cardioversion. Frequent attacks may require radiofrequency ablation, in which the abnormally conducting tissue in the heart is destroyed.
AVNRT occurs when a reentry circuit forms within or just next to the atrioventricular node. The circuit usually involves two anatomical pathways: the fast pathway and the slow pathway, which are both in the right atrium. The slow pathway (which is usually targeted for ablation) is located inferiorly and slightly posterior to the AV node, often following the anterior margin of the coronary sinus. The fast pathway is usually located just superior and posterior to the AV node. These
Nocturnal enuresis, commonly called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs. Nocturnal enuresis is considered primary (PNE) when a child has not yet had a prolonged period of being dry. Secondary nocturnal enuresis (SNE) is when a child or adult begins wetting again after having stayed dry.
Bedwetting is the most common childhood urologic complaint and one of the most common pediatric-health issues. Most bedwetting, however, is just a developmental delay—not an emotional problem or physical illness. Only a small percentage (5% to 10%) of bedwetting cases are caused by specific medical situations. Bedwetting is frequently associated with a family history of the condition.
Most girls can stay dry by age six and most boys stay dry by age seven. By ten years old, 95% of children are dry at night. Studies place adult bedwetting rates at between 0.5% to 2.3%.
Treatments range from behavioral-based options such as bedwetting alarms, to medication such as hormone replacement, and even surgery such as urethral enlargement. Since most bedwetting is simply a developmental delay, most treatment plans aim to protect or improve
Grey Turner's sign refers to bruising of the flanks.
This sign takes 24–48 hours. It can predict a severe attack of acute pancreatitis, with mortality rising from 8-10% to 40%.It is a sign of retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
It may be accompanied by Cullen's sign, which may then be indicative of pancreatic necrosis with retroperitoneal or intraabdominal bleeding.
It is named for British surgeon George Grey Turner.
Gynecomastia, /ˌɡaɪnɨkɵˈmæstiə/, is the abnormal development of large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement. The term comes from the Greek γυνή gyné (stem gynaik-) meaning "woman" and μαστός mastós meaning "breast." The condition can occur physiologically in neonates (due to female hormones from the mother), in adolescence, and in the elderly (Both in adolescence and elderly it is an abnormal condition associated with disease or metabolic disorders). In adolescent boys the condition is often a source of distress, but for the large majority of boys whose pubescent gynecomastia is not due to obesity, and when it's not severe it may shrink or disappear between the ages of 16-18.
The causes of common gynecomastia remain uncertain, although it has generally been attributed to high levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) resulting in low levels of free testosterone or the tissue responsiveness to them; a root cause is rarely determined for individual cases.Spironolactone (Aldactone), Digoxin and Furosemide are reported to cause gynecomastia. Breast prominence can result from hypertrophy of breast tissue, chest adipose tissue (fat) and skin,
Hypokalemia (American English) or hypokalaemia (British English), also hypopotassemia or hypopotassaemia (ICD-9), refers to the condition in which the concentration of potassium (K) in the blood is low. The prefix hypo- means "under" (contrast with hyper-, meaning "over"); kal- refers to kalium, the Neo-Latin for potassium, and -emia means "condition of the blood."
Normal plasma potassium levels are between 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L; at least 95% of the body's potassium is found inside cells, with the remainder in the blood. This concentration gradient is maintained principally by the Na+/K+ pump.
Mild hypokalemia is often without symptoms, although it may cause a small elevation of blood pressure, and can occasionally provoke cardiac arrhythmias. Moderate hypokalemia, with serum potassium concentrations of 2.5-3 mEq/L (Nl: 3.5-5.0 mEq/L), may cause muscular weakness, myalgia, and muscle cramps (owing to disturbed function of the skeletal muscles), and constipation (from disturbed function of smooth muscles). With more severe hypokalemia, flaccid paralysis and hyporeflexia may result. There are reports of rhabdomyolysis occurring with profound hypokalemia with serum potassium levels less
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the thickening of the myocardium (muscle) of the left ventricle of the heart.
While ventricular hypertrophy occurs naturally as a reaction to aerobic exercise and strength training, it is most frequently referred to as a pathological reaction to cardiovascular disease, or high blood pressure.
While LVH itself is not a disease, it is usually a marker for disease involving the heart. Disease processes that can cause LVH include any disease that increases the afterload that the heart has to contract against, and some primary diseases of the muscle of the heart.
Causes of increased afterload that can cause LVH include aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency and hypertension. Primary disease of the muscle of the heart that cause LVH are known as hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, which can lead into heart failure.
Long-standing mitral insufficiency also leads to LVH as a compensatory mechanism.
The principal method to diagnose LVH is echocardiography, by which the thickness of the muscle of the heart can be measured. The electrocardiogram (ECG) often shows signs of increased voltage from the heart in individuals with LVH, so this is often used as a
A mouth or oral ulcer (/ˈʌlsər/; from Latin ulcus and that from Greek "ἕλκος" - elkos, "wound") is an open sore in the mouth, or rarely a break in the mucous membrane or the epithelium on the lips or surrounding the mouth. The types of mouth ulcers are diverse, with a multitude of associated causes including: physical abrasion, acidic fruit, infection, other medical conditions, medications, and cancerous and nonspecific processes. Once formed, the ulcer may be maintained by inflammation and/or secondary infection. Two common types are aphthous ulcers ("canker sores") and cold sores (fever blisters, oral herpes). Cold sores around the lip are caused by viruses.
Mouth ulcers are relatively common. These lesions cause pain and if left untreated can cause tooth rot and gum decay. Epidemiological studies show an average prevalence between .15% and 4.5%. Mouth ulcers tend to be more common in women. Mouth ulcers occur most frequently among 16-25 year olds, and they rarely occur in anyone over 55. The frequency of mouth ulcers varies from fewer than 4 episodes per year (85% of all cases) to more than one episode per month (10% of all cases) including people suffering from continuous
Osler's nodes are painful, red, raised lesions found on the hands and feet. They are associated with a number of conditions, including infective endocarditis, and are caused by immune complex deposition. They are named after Sir William Osler who described them in the early 20th century. Their presence is one definition of Osler's sign.
Osler's nodes result from the deposition of immune complexes. The resulting inflammatory response leads to swelling, redness, and pain that characterize these lesions.
The nodes are commonly indicative of subacute bacterial endocarditis. 10–25% of endocarditis patients will have Osler's nodes. Other signs of endocarditis include Roth's spots and Janeway lesions. The latter, which also occur on the palms and soles, can be differentiated from Osler's nodes because they are nontender.
It can also be seen in
A wart is generally a small, rough growth, typically on a human’s hands or feet but often other locations, that can resemble a cauliflower or a solid blister. They are caused by a viral infection, specifically by one of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV). There are as many as 10 varieties of warts, the most common considered to be mostly harmless. It is possible to get warts from others; they are contagious and usually enter the body in an area of broken skin. They typically disappear after a few months but can last for years and can recur.
A range of types of wart have been identified, varying in shape and site affected, as well as the type of human papillomavirus involved. These include:
Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). There are about 130 known types of human papilloma viruses. HPV infects the squamous epithelium, usually of the skin or genitals, but each HPV type is typically only able to infect a few specific areas on the body. Many HPV types can produce a benign growth, often called a "wart" or "papilloma", in the area they infect. Many of the more common HPV and wart types are as follows:
Common warts have a characteristic appearance under the
Chorea (or choreia, occasionally) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias. The term chorea is derived from the Greek word χορεία (=dance; see choreia), as the quick movements of the feet or hands are comparable to dancing.
The term hemichorea refers to chorea of one side of the body, such as chorea of one arm but not both (comparable to hemiballismus).
Chorea is characterized by brief, semi-directed, irregular movements that are not repetitive or rhythmic, but appear to flow from one muscle to the next.
These 'dance-like' movements of chorea often occur with athetosis, which adds twisting and writhing movements. Walking may become difficult, and include odd postures and leg movements.
Unlike ataxia, which affects the quality of voluntary movements, or parkinsonism, which is a hindrance of voluntary movements, the movements of chorea and ballism occur on their own, without conscious effort. Thus, chorea is said to be a hyperkinetic movement disorder.
When chorea is serious, slight movements will become thrashing motions; this form of severe chorea is referred to as ballism or ballismus.
Chorea can occur in a variety
Oedema (British English) or edema (American English) ( /ɪˈdimə/; from the Greek οἴδημα - oídēma, "swelling"), formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin or in one or more cavities of the body that produces swelling. Generally, the amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis, and increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium or impaired removal of this fluid may cause edema.
Cutaneous oedema is referred to as "pitting" when, after pressure is applied to a small area, the indentation persists for some time after the release of the pressure. Peripheral pitting oedema, as shown in the illustration, is the more common type, resulting from water retention. It can be caused by systemic diseases, pregnancy in some women, either directly or as a result of heart failure, or local conditions such as varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, insect bites, and dermatitis.
Non-pitting oedema is observed when the indentation does not persist. It is associated with such conditions as lymphedema, lipoedema and myxedema.
Oedema caused by malnutrition defines kwashiorkor.
A rise in hydrostatic pressure occurs in cardiac
A tophus (Latin: "stone", plural tophi) is a deposit of monosodium urate crystals in people with longstanding high levels of uric acid in the blood. Tophi are pathognomonic for the disease gout. Most people with tophi have had previous attacks of acute arthritis, eventually leading to the formation of tophi.
Tophi form in the joints, cartilage, bones, and other places throughout the body. Sometimes, tophi break through the skin and appear as white or yellowish-white, chalky nodules. Without treatment, tophi may develop on average about ten years after the onset of gout, although their first appearance can range from three to forty-two years. The development of gouty tophi can also limit joint function and cause bone destruction, leading to noticeable disabilities, especially when gout cannot successfully be treated. When uric acid levels and gout symptoms cannot be controlled with standard gout medicines that decrease the production of uric acid (e.g., allopurinol, febuxostat) or increase uric acid elimination from the body through the kidneys (e.g., probenecid), this can be referred to as refractory chronic gout or RCG. They are more apt to appear early in the course of the
Aggression, in its broadest sense, is behavior, or a disposition, that is forceful, hostile or attacking. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. In narrower definitions that are used in social sciences and behavioral sciences, aggression is an intention to cause harm or an act intended to increase relative social dominance. Predatory or defensive behavior between members of different species may not be considered aggression in the same sense. Aggression can take a variety of forms and can be physical or be communicated verbally or non-verbally. Aggression differs from what is commonly called assertiveness, although the terms are often used interchangeably among laypeople, e.g. an aggressive salesperson.
Two broad categories of aggression are commonly distinguished. One includes affective (emotional) and hostile or retaliatory aggression, and the other includes instrumental, goal-oriented or predatory aggression. Data on violence from a range of disciplines lend some support to a distinction between affective and predatory aggression. However, some researchers question the usefulness of a hostile vs instrumental distinction in humans, despite its ubiquity in
Asterixis (also called the flapping tremor, or liver flap) is a tremor of the hand when the wrist is extended, sometimes said to resemble a bird flapping its wings. This motor disorder is characterized by jerking movements (as of the outstretched hands) and is associated with various encephalopathies due especially to faulty metabolism. The term derives from the Greek a, "not" and stērixis, "fixed position".
Usually there are brief, arrhythmic interruptions of sustained voluntary muscle contraction causing brief lapses of posture, with a frequency of 3–5 Hz. It is bilateral, but may be asymmetric.
R.D. Adams and J.M. Foley first described asterixis in 1949 in patients with severe liver failure and encephalopathy.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heart beat). It may cause no symptoms, but it is often associated with palpitations, fainting, chest pain, or congestive heart failure; however, in some people atrial fibrillation is caused by otherwise idiopathic or benign conditions.
AF increases the risk of stroke; the degree of stroke risk can be up to seven times that of the average population, depending on the presence of additional risk factors (such as high blood pressure). It may be identified clinically when taking a pulse, and the presence of AF can be confirmed with an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) which demonstrates the absence of P waves together with an irregular ventricular rate.
In AF, the normal regular electrical impulses generated by the sinoatrial node are overwhelmed by disorganized electrical impulses usually originating in the roots of the pulmonary veins, leading to irregular conduction of impulses to the ventricles which generate the heartbeat. AF may occur in episodes lasting from minutes to days ("paroxysmal"), or be permanent in nature. A number of medical conditions increase the risk of AF, particularly mitral stenosis
Epistaxis (from Greek επιστάζω (epistazo) to bleed from the nose: επί (epi) - "above", "over" + στάζω (stazo) - "to drip" [from the nostrils]) or a nosebleed is the relatively common occurrence of hemorrhage from the nose, usually noticed when the blood drains out through the nostrils. There are two types: anterior (the most common), and posterior (less common, more likely to require medical attention). Sometimes in more severe cases, the blood can come up the nasolacrimal duct and out from the eye. Fresh blood and clotted blood can also flow down into the stomach and cause nausea and vomiting. It is rarely fatal, accounting for only 4 of the 2.4 million deaths in the U.S. in 1999.
The causes of nosebleeds can generally be divided into two categories, local and systemic factors, although a significant number of nosebleeds occur with no obvious cause.
Nosebleeds are due to the rupture of a blood vessel within the richly perfused nasal mucosa. Rupture may be spontaneous or initiated by trauma. Nosebleeds are reported in up to 60% of the population with peak incidences in those under the age of ten and over the age of 50 and appear to occur in males more than females. An increase in
Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences), is the loss of blood or blood escape from the circulatory system. Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Desanguination is a massive blood loss, and the complete loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties, and blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume.
Hemorrhaging is broken down into four classes by the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS).
This system is basically the same as used in the staging of hypovolemic shock.
Individuals in excellent physical and cardiovascular shape may have more effective compensatory mechanisms before experiencing cardiovascular collapse. These patients may look deceptively stable, with minimal derangements in vital signs, while having poor peripheral perfusion. Elderly patients or those with chronic
Sinus bradycardia is a heart rhythm that originates from the sinus node and has a rate of under 60 beats per minute.
The decreased heart rate can cause a decreased cardiac output resulting in symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness, hypotension, vertigo, and syncope. The slow heart rate may also lead to atrial, junctional, or ventricular ectopic rhythms.
Bradycardia is not necessarily problematic. People who regularly practice sports may have sinus bradycardia, because their trained hearts can pump enough blood in each contraction to allow a low resting heart rate.
Sinus Bradycardia can aid in the sport of Freediving, which includes any of various aquatic activities that share the practice of breath-hold underwater diving. Bradycardia aids in this process due to drop in blood rate pulse. These adaptations enable the human body to endure depth and lack of oxygen far beyond what would be possible without the mammalian diving reflex.
Sinus bradycardia is a sinus rhythm of less than 60 bpm. It is a common condition found in both healthy individuals and those who are considered well conditioned athletes.
Tardive dyskinesia /ˈtɑrdɨv ˌdɪskɨˈniːʒə/ is a difficult-to-treat form of dyskinesia, a disorder resulting in involuntary, repetitive body movements. In this form of dyskinesia, the involuntary movements are tardive, meaning they have a slow or belated onset. This neurological disorder frequently appears after long-term or high-dose use of antipsychotic drugs, or in children and infants as a side effect from usage of drugs for gastrointestinal disorders.
Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements. Some examples of these types of involuntary movements include grimacing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering and pursing of the lips, and rapid eye blinking. Rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, torso, and fingers may also occur. In some cases, an individual's legs can be so affected that walking becomes difficult or impossible. These symptoms are the opposite of patients who are diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease. Parkinson's patients have difficulty moving, whereas tardive dyskinesia patients have difficulty not moving.
Respiratory irregularity, such as grunting and difficulty breathing, is another symptom associated with tardive
Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils most commonly caused by a viral or bacterial infection whose symptoms include sore throat and fever. The overwhelming majority of patients recover completely with or without medication. In 40%, symptoms have resolved in three days and within one week in 85%, regardless of whether streptococcal infection (an important cause) is present or not.
Common signs and symptoms include:
Less common symptoms include:
In cases of acute tonsillitis, the surface of the tonsil may be bright red and with visible white areas or streaks of pus.
Tonsilloliths occur in up to 10% of the population frequently due to episodes of tonsillitis.
The most common cause is viral infection and includes adenovirus, rhinovirus, influenza, coronavirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. It can also be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, or HIV. The second most common cause is bacterial infection of which the predominant is Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes strep throat. Less common bacterial causes include: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA ),Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Anosmia (pronounced /ænˈɒzmiə/) is a lack of functioning olfaction, or in other words, an inability to perceive odors. Anosmia may be temporary but traumatic anosmia can be permanent. Anosmia is due to an inflammation of the nasal mucosa; blockage of nasal passages or a destruction of one temporal lobe. It can be caused by chronic meningitis and neurosyphilis that would increase intracranial pressure over a long period of time, and in some cases by ciliopathy including ciliopathy due to primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome, Afzelius’ syndrome or Siewert’s syndrome). Many patients may experience unilateral anosmia, often as a result of minor head trauma. This type of anosmia is normally only detected if both of the nostrils are tested separately. Using this method of testing each nostril separately will often show a reduced or even completely absent sense of smell in either one nostril or both, something which is often not revealed if both nostrils are simultaneously tested.
A related term, hyposmia, refers to a decreased ability to smell, while hyperosmia refers to an increased ability to smell. Some people may be anosmic for one particular odor. This is known as
Brushfield spots are small white or grayish/brown spots on the periphery of the iris in the human eye due to aggregation of connective tissue, a normal iris element. The spots are named after the physician, Thomas Brushfield, who first described them in his 1924 M.D. thesis.
These spots are normal in children (Kunkmann-Wolffian bodies) but are also a feature of the chromosomal disorder Down syndrome. They occur in 35–78% of newborn infants with Down syndrome. They are much more likely to occur in children with Down syndrome of the Caucasian race than children of Asian heritage.
They are focal areas of stromal hyperplasia, surrounded by relative hypoplasia and are more common in patients with lightly pigmented irises.
Dementia (taken from Latin, originally meaning "madness", from de- "without" + ment, the root of mens "mind") is a serious loss of global cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it can occur before the age of 65, in which case it is termed "early onset dementia".
Dementia is not a single disease, but rather a non-specific illness syndrome (i.e., set of signs and symptoms) in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving. It is normally required to be present for at least 6 months to be diagnosed; cognitive dysfunction that has been seen only over shorter times, in particular less than weeks, must be termed delirium. In all types of general cognitive dysfunction, higher mental functions are affected first in the process.
Especially in the later stages of the condition, affected persons may be disoriented in time (not knowing what day of the week, day of the month, or
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance.
A penile erection is the hydraulic effect of blood entering and being retained in sponge-like bodies within the penis. The process is often initiated as a result of sexual arousal, when signals are transmitted from the brain to nerves in the penis. Erectile dysfunction is indicated when an erection is difficult to produce. There are various circulatory causes, including alteration of the voltage-gated potassium channel, as in arsenic poisoning from drinking water. The most important organic causes are cardiovascular disease and diabetes, neurological problems (for example, trauma from prostatectomy surgery), hormonal insufficiencies (hypogonadism) and drug side effects.
Psychological impotence is where erection or penetration fails due to thoughts or feelings (psychological reasons) rather than physical impossibility; this is somewhat less frequent but often can be helped. Notably in psychological impotence, there is a strong response to placebo treatment. Erectile dysfunction, tied closely as it is about ideas of physical well
Hypothyroidism /ˌhaɪpɵˈθaɪərɔɪdɪzəm/ is a state in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.
Iodine deficiency is often cited as the most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide but it can be caused by many other factors. It can result from a lack of a thyroid gland or from iodine-131 treatment, and can also be associated with increased stress. Severe hypothyroidism in infants can result in cretinism.
A 2011 study concluded that about 8% of women over 50 and men over 65 in the UK suffer from an under-active thyroid and that as many as 100,000 of these people could benefit from treatment they are currently not receiving.
Hypothyroidism is often classified by association with the indicated organ dysfunction (see below):
Early hypothyroidism is often asymptomatic and can have very mild symptoms. Subclinical hypothyroidism is a state of normal thyroid hormone levels, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), with mild elevation of thyrotropin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). With higher TSH levels and low free T4 levels, symptoms become more readily apparent in clinical (or overt) hypothyroidism.
Hypothyroidism can be associated with the following
Pica ( /ˈpaɪkə/ PY-kə) is characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as clay, chalk, dirt, or sand. For these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate. There are different variations of pica, as it can be from a cultural tradition, acquired taste or a neurological mechanism such as an iron deficiency, or chemical imbalance. It can lead to intoxication in children which can result in an impairment in both physical and mental development. In addition, it can also lead to surgical emergencies due to an intestinal obstruction as well as more subtle symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies and parasitosis. Pica has been linked to mental disability and they often have psychotic comorbidity. Stressors such as maternal deprivation, family issues, parental neglect, pregnancy, poverty, and a disorganized family structure are strongly linked to pica.
Pica is more commonly seen in women and children, where it affects people of all ages in these subgroups. Particularly it is seen in pregnant women, small children, and those with developmental disabilities
Cheyne-Stokes respiration ( /ˈtʃeɪnˈstoʊks/) is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea. The pattern repeats, with each cycle usually taking 30 seconds to 2 minutes. It is an oscillation of ventilation between apnea and hyperpnea with a crescendo-diminuendo pattern, and is associated with changing serum partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing are the two regions on a spectrum of severity of oscillatory tidal volume. The distinction lies in what is observed at the trough of ventilation: Cheyne-Stokes respiration involves apnea (since apnea is a prominent feature in their original description) while periodic breathing involves hypopnea (abnormally small but not absent breaths).
These phenomena can occur during wakefulness or during sleep, where they are called the central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS).
It may be caused by damage to respiratory centers, or by physiological abnormalities in chronic heart failure, and is also seen in newborns with immature respiratory systems and
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. This is in contrast to diabetes mellitus type 1, in which there is an absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of islet cells in the pancreas. The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequent urination, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Obesity is thought to be the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease.
Type 2 diabetes is initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. If blood glucose levels are not adequately lowered by these measures, medications such as metformin or insulin may be needed. In those on insulin, there is typically the requirement to routinely check blood sugar levels.
Rates of diabetes have increased markedly over the last 50 years in parallel with obesity. As of 2010 there are approximately 285 million people with the
Gastric varices are dilated submucosal veins in the stomach, which can be a life-threatening cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. They are most commonly found in patients with portal hypertension, or elevated pressure in the portal vein system, which may be a complication of cirrhosis. Gastric varices may also be found in patients with thrombosis of the splenic vein, into which the short gastric veins which drain the fundus of the stomach flow. The latter may be a complication of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or other abdominal tumours.
Patients with bleeding gastric varices can present with bloody vomiting (hematemesis), dark, tarry stools (melena), or rectal bleeding. The bleeding may be brisk, and patients may soon develop shock. Treatment of gastric varices can include injection of the varices with cyanoacrylate glue, or a radiological procedure to decrease the pressure in the portal vein, termed transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt or TIPS. Treatment with intravenous octreotide is also useful to shunt blood flow away from the stomach's circulation. More aggressive treatment including splenectomy (or surgical removal of the spleen) or liver
Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. This requires the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood through the blood vessels. Blood pressure is summarised by two measurements, systolic and diastolic, which depend on whether the heart muscle is contracting (systole) or relaxed between beats (diastole). Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100-140mmHg systolic (top reading) and 60-90mmHg diastolic (bottom reading). High blood pressure is said to be present if it is persistently at or above 140/90 mmHg.
Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension; about 90–95% of cases are categorized as "primary hypertension" which means high blood pressure with no obvious underlying medical cause. The remaining 5–10% of cases (secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system.
Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attacks), heart failure, aneurysms of the arteries (e.g. aortic aneurysm),
A petechia ( /pɨˈtiːkiə/; plural petechiae /pɨˈtiːkɪ.iː/) is a small (1-2mm) red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels).
"Petechiae" refers to one of the three major classes of purpuric skin conditions. Purpuric eruptions are classified by size into three broad categories. Petechiae is generally used to refer to the smallest of the three classes of purpuric skin eruptions, those that measure less than 3 mm.
The most common cause of petechiae is through physical trauma such as a hard bout of coughing, vomiting or crying, which can result in facial petechiae, especially around the eyes. Petechiae in this instance are harmless and usually disappear within a few days. Petechiae may be a sign of thrombocytopenia (low platelet counts) when platelet function is inhibited (e.g., as a side effect of medications or during certain infections), or in clotting factor deficiencies. They may also occur when excessive pressure is applied to tissue (e.g., when a tourniquet is applied to an extremity or with excessive coughing or vomiting).
If unsure, petechiae should always be quickly investigated. They can be interpreted as vasculitis, an
Constipation (also known as costiveness or dyschezia) refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Constipation is a common cause of painful defecation. Severe constipation includes obstipation (failure to pass stools or gas) and fecal impaction (see also Bowel obstruction).
Constipation is common; in the general population incidence of constipation varies from 2 to 30%.
Constipation is a symptom with many causes. These causes are of two types: obstructed defecation and colonic slow transit (or hypomobility). About 50% of patients evaluated for constipation at tertiary referral hospitals have obstructed defecation. This type of constipation has mechanical and functional causes. Causes of colonic slow transit constipation include diet, hormones, side effects of medications, and heavy metal toxicity.
Treatments include changes in dietary habits, laxatives, enemas, biofeedback, and surgery. Because constipation is a symptom, not a disease, effective treatment of constipation may require first determining the cause.
The definition of constipation includes the following:
The Rome III criteria are widely used to diagnose chronic constipation, and are helpful in
In medicine, nail clubbing (also known as "Drumstick fingers," "Hippocratic fingers," and "Watch-glass nails") is a deformity of the fingers and fingernails that is associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs. Hippocrates was probably the first to document clubbing as a sign of disease, and the phenomenon is therefore occasionally called Hippocratic fingers.
Idiopathic clubbing can also occur, and in 60% of cases there is no associated underlying disease.
Clubbing develops in five steps:
Schamroth's test or Schamroth's window test (originally demonstrated by South African cardiologist Dr Leo Schamroth on himself is a popular test for clubbing. When the distal phalanges (bones nearest the fingertips) of corresponding fingers of opposite hands are directly opposed (place fingernails of same finger on opposite hands against each other, nail to nail), a small diamond-shaped "window" is normally apparent between the nailbeds. If this window is obliterated, the test is positive and clubbing is present.
When clubbing is encountered in patients, doctors will seek to identify its cause. They usually accomplish this by obtaining a medical history—particular attention
Neck pain (or cervicalgia) is a common problem, with two-thirds of the population having neck pain at some point in their lives.
Neck pain, although felt in the neck, can be caused by numerous other spinal problems. Neck pain may arise due to muscular tightness in both the neck and upper back, or pinching of the nerves emanating from the cervical vertebrae. Joint disruption in the neck creates pain, as does joint disruption in the upper back.
The head is supported by the lower neck and upper back, and it is these areas that commonly cause neck pain. The top three joints in the neck allow for most movement of your neck and head. The lower joints in the neck and those of the upper back create a supportive structure for your head to sit on. If this support system is affected adversely, then the muscles in the area will tighten, leading to neck pain.
Neck pain may also arise from many other physical and emotional health problems.
Neck pain may come from any of the structures in the neck including: vascular, nerve, airway, digestive, and musculature / skeletal or be referred from other areas of the body.
Major and severe causes of neck pain include:
The more common and lesser neck pain
Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones caused by defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate amounts of available phosphorus and calcium, or because of overactive resorption of calcium from the bone as a result of hyperparathyroidism (which causes hypercalcemia, in contrast to other aetiologies). Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, and because of this, use of the term osteomalacia is often restricted to the milder, adult form of the disease. It may show signs as diffuse body pains, muscle weakness, and fragility of the bones. The most common cause of the disease is a deficiency in vitamin D, which is normally obtained from the diet and/or from sunlight exposure.
Osteomalacia is a generalized bone condition in which there is inadequate mineralization of the bone. Many of the effects of the disease overlap with the more common osteoporosis, but the two diseases are significantly different. There are two main causes of osteomalacia: (1) insufficient calcium absorption from the intestine because of lack of dietary calcium or a deficiency of or resistance to the action of vitamin D; and (2) phosphate deficiency caused by increased renal losses.
Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly. Ventricular fibrillation is the most commonly identified arrythmia in cardiac arrest patients. While there is some activity, the lay person is usually unable to detect it by palpating (feeling) the major pulse points of the carotid and femoral arteries. Such an arrhythmia is only confirmed by electrocardiography. Ventricular fibrillation is a medical emergency that requires prompt Basic Life Support interventions. If this arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, it will likely degenerate further into asystole ("flatline"). This condition results in cardiogenic shock and cessation of effective blood circulation. As a consequence, sudden cardiac death (SCD) will result in a matter of minutes. If the patient is not revived after a sufficient period (within roughly 5 minutes at room temperature), the patient could sustain irreversible brain damage and possibly become brain dead due to the effects of cerebral hypoxia. On the other hand, death often occurs if normal sinus rhythm
Abdominal pain (or stomach ache) is a common symptom associated with transient disorders or serious disease. Diagnosing the cause of abdominal pain can be difficult, because many diseases can cause this symptom. Most frequently the cause is benign and/or self-limiting, but more serious causes may require urgent intervention.
Acute abdomen can be defined as severe, persistent abdominal pain of sudden onset that is likely to require surgical intervention to treat its cause. The pain may frequently be associated with nausea and vomiting, abdominal distention, fever and signs of shock. One of the most common conditions associated with acute abdominal pain is acute appendicitis.
Selected causes of acute abdomen
When a physician assesses a patient to determine the etiology and subsequent treatment for abdominal pain the patient's history of the presenting complaint and physical examination should derive a diagnosis in over 90% of cases.
It is important also for a physician to remember that abdominal pain can be caused by problems outside the abdomen, especially heart attacks and pneumonias which can occasionally present as abdominal pain.
Investigations that would aid diagnosis
Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting alcohol on a cut, and bumping the "funny bone." The International Association for the Study of Pain's widely used definition states: "Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage".
Pain motivates the individual to withdraw from damaging situations, to protect a damaged body part while it heals, and to avoid similar experiences in the future. Most pain resolves promptly once the painful stimulus is removed and the body has healed, but sometimes pain persists despite removal of the stimulus and apparent healing of the body; and sometimes pain arises in the absence of any detectable stimulus, damage or disease.
Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation in the United States. It is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and can significantly interfere with a person's quality of life and general functioning. Psychological factors such as social support, hypnotic suggestion, excitement, or distraction can significantly modulate pain's intensity or
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. It can occur unintentionally due to an underlying disease or can arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state.
Unintentional weight loss occurs in many diseases and conditions, including some very serious diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and a variety of other diseases.
Poor management of type 1 diabetes mellitus, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), leads to an excessive amount of glucose and an insufficient amount of insulin in the bloodstream. This triggers the release of triglycerides from adipose (fat) tissue and catabolism (breakdown) of amino acids in muscle tissue. This results in a loss of both fat and lean mass, leading to a significant reduction in total body weight. Untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus can produce weight loss. In addition to weight loss due to a reduction in fat and lean mass, fluid loss can be triggered by illnesses such as diabetes,
Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the large bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs that is usually caused by viruses or bacteria and may last several days or weeks. Characteristic symptoms include cough, sputum (phlegm) production, and shortness of breath and wheezing related to the obstruction of the inflamed airways. Diagnosis is by clinical examination and sometimes microbiological examination of the phlegm. Treatment for acute bronchitis is typically symptomatic. As viruses cause most cases of acute bronchitis, antibiotics should not be used unless microscopic examination of gram-stained sputum reveals large numbers of bacteria.
Acute bronchitis can be caused by contagious pathogens, most commonly viruses. Typical viruses include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza, and others. Bacteria are uncommon pathogens but may include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae.
Bronchitis may be indicated by an expectorating cough, shortness of breath (dyspnea), and wheezing. On occasion, chest pains, fever, and fatigue or malaise may also occur. In addition, bronchitis caused by
Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrhœa, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhoea method. Outside of the reproductive years there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause.
Amenorrhoea is a symptom with many potential causes. Primary amenorrhoea (menstruation cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems such as the congenital absence of the uterus, or failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells. Also, delay in pubertal development will lead to primary amenorrhoea. It is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 with no menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhoea (menstruation cycles ceasing) is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, from premature menopause or intrauterine scar formation. It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal
Genital warts (or Condylomata acuminata, venereal warts, anal warts and anogenital warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. Warts are the most easily recognized symptom of genital HPV infection, where types 6 and 11 are responsible for 90% of genital warts cases.
Although it is estimated that only a "small percentage" (between 1% and 5%) of those infected with genital HPV develop genital warts, those infected can still transmit the virus. Other types of HPV also cause cervical cancer and probably most anal cancers, however it is important to underline that the types of HPV that cause the overwhelming majority of genital warts are not the same as those that can potentially increase the risk of genital or anal cancer. HPV prevalence at any one time has been observed in some studies at 27% over all sexually active people, rising to 45% between the ages of 14 and 19.
Genital warts often occur in clusters and can be very tiny or can spread into large masses in the genital or penis area. In other cases they
Gowers' sign is a medical sign that indicates weakness of the proximal muscles, namely those of the lower limb. The sign describes a patient that has to use his hands and arms to "walk" up his own body from a squatting position due to lack of hip and thigh muscle strength.
It is named for William Richard Gowers.
Gowers' sign is classically seen in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but also presents itself in centronuclear myopathy, myotonic dystrophy and various other conditions associated with proximal muscle weakness. For this maneuver, the patient is placed on the floor away from any objects that could otherwise be used to pull oneself to a standing position. It is also used in testing paraplegia.
Infection is the invasion of a host organism's bodily tissues by disease-causing organisms, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infections are caused by microorganisms such as viruses, prions, bacteria, and viroids, and larger organisms like macroparasites and fungi.
Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. Pharmaceuticals can also help fight infections.
The branch of medicine that focuses on infections and pathogens is infectious disease medicine.
Infections are classified by the causative agent as well as the symptoms and medical signs produced.
Symptomatic infections are apparent, whereas an infection that is active, but does not produce noticeable symptoms, may be called inapparent, silent, or subclinical. An infection that is inactive or dormant is called a latent infection.
A short-term infection is an acute infection. A long-term infection is a chronic infection.
Primary and secondary infection may either refer to succeeding infections or different stages of one and the
Psychosis (from the Ancient Greek ψυχή "psyche", for mind/soul, and -ωσις "-osis", for abnormal condition or derangement) refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic. Psychosis is given to the more severe forms of psychiatric disorder, during which hallucinations and delusions and impaired insight may occur.
The term psychosis is very broad and can mean anything from relatively normal aberrant experiences through to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder. Moreover a wide variety of central nervous system diseases, from both external poisons and internal physiologic illness, can produce symptoms of psychosis. This led many professional to say that psychosis is not specific enough as a diagnostic term. Despite this, "psychosis" is generally given to noticeable deficits in normal behavior (negative signs) and more commonly to diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs (positive signs).
An excess in dopaminergic, and a deficit in glutamate(specifically NMDA)
Anxiety (also called angst or worry) is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. It is the displeasing feeling of fear and concern. The root meaning of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'; in either presence or absence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness, and dread. However, anxiety should not be confused with fear, it is more of a dreaded feeling about something which appears intimidating and can overcome an individual. Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to a stressor. It may help an individual to deal with a demanding situation by prompting them to cope with it. However, when anxiety becomes overwhelming, it may fall under the classification of an anxiety disorder.
Anxiety is a generalized mood that can occur without an identifiable triggering stimulus. As such, it is distinguished from fear, which is an appropriate cognitive and emotional response to a perceived threat. Additionally, fear is related to the specific behaviors of escape and avoidance, whereas anxiety is related to situations perceived as uncontrollable or unavoidable. Another view
Ascites (/əˈsaɪtiːz/ ə-SY-teez, from Greek askites, "baglike") is a gastroenterological term for an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. The medical condition is also known as peritoneal cavity fluid, peritoneal fluid excess, hydroperitoneum or more archaically as abdominal dropsy. Although most commonly due to cirrhosis, severe liver disease or metastatic cancer, its presence can portend other significant medical problems. Diagnosis of the cause is usually with blood tests, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen, and direct removal of the fluid by needle or paracentesis (which may also be therapeutic). Treatment may be with medication (diuretics), paracentesis, or other treatments directed at the cause.
Mild ascites is hard to notice, but severe ascites leads to abdominal distension. Patients with ascites generally will complain of progressive abdominal heaviness and pressure as well as shortness of breath due to mechanical impingement on the diaphragm.
Ascites is detected on physical examination of the abdomen by visible bulging of the flanks in the reclining patient ("flank bulging"), "shifting dullness" (difference in percussion note in the flanks that shifts when the
Cirrhosis ( /sɪˈroʊsɪs/) is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules (lumps that occur as a result of a process in which damaged tissue is regenerated), leading to loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism, hepatitis B and C, and fatty liver disease, but has many other possible causes. Some cases are idiopathic (i.e., of unknown cause).
Ascites (fluid retention in the abdominal cavity) is the most common complication of cirrhosis, and is associated with a poor quality of life, increased risk of infection, and a poor long-term outcome. Other potentially life-threatening complications are hepatic encephalopathy (confusion and coma) and bleeding from esophageal varices. Cirrhosis is generally irreversible, and treatment usually focuses on preventing progression and complications. In advanced stages of cirrhosis the only option is a liver transplant.
The word "cirrhosis" derives from Greek κιρρός [kirrhós] meaning yellowish, tawny (the orange-yellow colour of the diseased liver) + Eng. med. suff. -osis. While the clinical entity was known before, it was René
Cyanosis is the appearance of a blue or purple coloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface being low on oxygen. The onset of cyanosis is 5.0 g/dL of deoxyhemoglobin. The bluish color is more readily apparent in those with high hemoglobin counts than it is with those with anemia. Also the bluer color is more difficult to detect on deeply pigmented skin. When signs of cyanosis first appear, such as on the lips or fingers, intervention should be made within 3–5 minutes because a severe hypoxia or severe circulatory failure may have induced the cyanosis .
The name cyanosis, literally means "the blue disease" or "the blue condition". It is derived from the color cyan, which comes from kyanos, the Greek word for blue.
Cyanosis is defined as a bluish discoloration, especially of the skin and mucous membranes, due to excessive concentration of deoxyhemoglobin in the blood caused by deoxygenation.
Cyanosis is divided in to two main types: central (around the core and lips) and peripheral (only the extremities are affected). Cyanosis can occur in the fingers, including underneath the fingernails, as well as other extremities (called peripheral
Euphoria ( /juːˈfɔəriə/; from Ancient Greek εὐφορία, from εὖ eu, "well", and φέρω pherō, "to bear") (semantically opposite of dysphoria) is medically recognized as a mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness, excitement, and joy. Technically, euphoria is an affect, but the term is often colloquially used to define emotion as an intense state of transcendent happiness combined with an overwhelming sense of contentment. It has also been defined as an "affective state of exaggerated well-being or elation." The word derives from Greek εὐφορία, "power of enduring easily, fertility".
Euphoria is generally considered to be an exaggerated physical and psychological state, sometimes induced by the use of psychoactive drugs and not typically achieved during the normal course of human experience. However, some natural behaviors, such as activities resulting in orgasm, love, or the triumph of an athlete, can induce brief states of euphoria. Euphoria has also been cited during certain religious or spiritual rituals and meditation. Euphoria can also be the result of a psychological disorder. Such disorders include "bipolar
Insomnia, or sleeplessness, is an individual's reported sleeping difficulties. "Insomnia" is derived from the Latin word "Somnus", the name of the Roman god of sleep, with the incorporation of the prefix "in-" to add contradiction. While the term is sometimes used in sleep literature to describe a disorder demonstrated by polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep, insomnia is often defined as a positive response to either of two questions: "Do you experience difficulty sleeping?" or "Do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?"
Thus, insomnia is most often thought of as both a sign and a symptom that can accompany several sleep, medical, and psychiatric disorders characterized by a persistent difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep or sleep of poor quality. Insomnia is typically followed by functional impairment while awake. A definition of insomnia is, "difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep, associated with impairments of daytime functioning or marked distress for more than 1 month." Insomnia can occur at any age, but it is particularly common in the elderly. Insomnia can be short term (up to three weeks) or long term (above
Leukemia (American English) or leukaemia (British English) (from the Greek leukos λευκός "white", and haima αἷμα "blood") is a type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called "blasts". Leukemia is a broad term covering a spectrum of diseases. In turn, it is part of the even broader group of diseases affecting the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, which are all known as hematological neoplasms.
In 2000, approximately 256,000 children and adults around the world developed some form of leukemia, and 209,000 died from it. About 90% of all leukemias are diagnosed in adults.
Clinically and pathologically, leukemia is subdivided into a variety of large groups. The first division is between its acute and chronic forms:
Additionally, the diseases are subdivided according to which kind of blood cell is affected. This split divides leukemias into lymphoblastic or lymphocytic leukemias and myeloid or myelogenous leukemias:
Combining these two classifications provides a total of four main categories. Within each of these four main categories, there are typically several subcategories. Finally, some rarer types are
Rhinitis ( /raɪˈnaɪtɪs/) is a medical term for irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose. Common symptoms of rhinitis are a stuffy nose, runny nose, and post-nasal drip. The most common kind of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis, which is usually triggered by airborne allergens such as pollen and dander. Allergic rhinitis may cause additional symptoms, such as sneezing and nasal itching, coughing, headache, fatigue, malaise, and cognitive impairment. The allergens may also affect the eyes, causing watery, reddened or itchy eyes and puffiness around the eyes.
Rhinitis is very common. Allergic rhinitis is more common in some countries than others; in the United States, about 10%-30% of adults are affected annually.
In rhinitis, the inflammation of the mucous membrane is caused by viruses, bacteria, irritants or allergens. The inflammation results in the generation of large amounts of mucus, commonly producing a runny nose, as well as a stuffy nose and post-nasal drip. In the case of allergic rhinitis, the inflammation is caused by the degranulation of mast cells in the nose. When mast cells degranulate, they release histamine and other chemicals, starting an
Vision loss or visual loss is the absence of vision where it existed before, which can happen either acutely (i.e. abruptly) or chronically (i.e. over a long period of time).
Various scales have been developed to describe the extent of vision and vision loss based on visual acuity. Early editions of the World Health Organization's ICD described a simple distinction between "legally sighted" and "legally blind". The ICD-9 released in 1979 introduced the smallest continuous scale which consisted of three tiers: normal vision, low vision, and blindness.
Acute visual loss may be dramatic in presentation. It may be caused by media opacities, retinal disease, optic nerve disease, visual pathway disorders, or functional disorders, or it may be in fact an acute discovery of chronic visual loss.
Opacities of the clear refractive media of the eye such as the cornea, anterior chamber, lens, and vitreous humor may cause acute visual loss as manifested by blurry vision or reduced visual acuity. While pupillary reflexes may be affected, these conditions generally do not cause a relative afferent pupillary defect.
Causes of media opacity include corneal edema, hyphema, cataract and vitreous
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital
Hepatic encephalopathy (also known as portosystemic encephalopathy) is the occurrence of confusion, altered level of consciousness, and coma as a result of liver failure. In the advanced stages it is called hepatic coma or coma hepaticum. It may ultimately lead to death.
It is caused by accumulation in the bloodstream of toxic substances that are normally removed by the liver. The diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy requires the presence of impaired liver function and the exclusion of an alternative explanation for the symptoms. Blood tests (ammonia levels) may assist in the diagnosis. Attacks are often precipitated by an intercurrent problem, such as infection or constipation.
Hepatic encephalopathy is reversible with treatment. This relies on suppressing the production of the toxic substances in the intestine and is most commonly done with the laxative lactulose or with non-absorbable antibiotics. In addition, the treatment of any underlying condition may improve the symptoms. In particular settings, such as acute liver failure, the onset of encephalopathy may indicate the need for a liver transplant.
The mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy is difficult to detect clinically,
A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus (from the Latin ren, "kidney" and calculus, "pebble") is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine.
Urinary stones are typically classified by their location in the kidney (nephrolithiasis), ureter (ureterolithiasis), or bladder (cystolithiasis), or by their chemical composition (calcium-containing, struvite, uric acid, or other compounds). About 80% of those with kidney stones are men. Men most commonly experience their first episode between 30 and 40 years of age, while for women the age at first presentation is somewhat later.
Kidney stones typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size (usually at least 3 millimeters (0.12 in)) they can cause obstruction of the ureter. Ureteral obstruction causes postrenal azotemia and hydronephrosis (distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces), as well as spasm of the ureter. This leads to pain, most commonly felt in the flank (the area between the ribs and hip), lower abdomen, and groin (a condition called renal colic).
Necrosis (from the Greek νεκρός, "dead", νέκρωσις, "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing") is the premature death of cells in living tissue. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma. This is in contrast to Apoptosis, which is a naturally occurring cause of cellular death. While apoptosis often provides beneficial effects to the organism, necrosis is almost always detrimental and can be fatal.
Cells that die due to necrosis do not usually send the same chemical signals to the immune system that cells undergoing apoptosis do. This prevents nearby phagocytes from locating and engulfing the dead cells, leading to a build-up of dead tissue and cell debris at or near the site of the cell death. For this reason, it is often necessary to remove necrotic tissue surgically, a process known as debridement.
There are seven distinctive morphologic patterns of necrosis:
In the United States, only spider bites from the brown recluse spider (genus Loxosceles) have been proven to cause necrosis. Other spiders of the same genus, such as the Chilean recluse in South America, have similarly been shown to cause necrosis in other
Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart). A characteristic chest pain is often present.
The causes of pericarditis are varied, including viral infections of the pericardium, idiopathic causes, uremic pericarditis, bacterial infections of the pericardium (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis), post-infarct pericarditis (pericarditis due to heart attack), or Dressler's pericarditis.
Pericarditis can be classified according to the composition of the inflammatory exudate or in other words the composition of the fluid that accumulates around the heart.
Depending on the time of presentation and duration, pericarditis is divided into "acute" and "chronic" forms. Acute pericarditis is more common than chronic pericarditis, and can occur as a complication of infections, immunologic conditions, or even as a result of a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Chronic pericarditis however is less common, a form of which is constrictive pericarditis. The following is the clinical classification of acute vs. chronic:
Substernal or left precordial pleuritic chest pain with radiation to the trapezius ridge (the bottom portion of scapula on
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight loss or weight gain. It adversely affects the brain and cognitive function. Few studies have compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic partial sleep restriction. Complete absence of sleep over long periods is impossible for humans to achieve (unless they suffer from fatal familial insomnia); brief microsleeps cannot be avoided. Long-term total sleep deprivation has caused death in lab animals.
Generally, sleep deprivation may result in:
In 2005, a study of over 1400 participants showed that participants who habitually slept few hours were more likely to have associations with diabetes type 2. However, because this study was merely correlational, the direction of cause and effect between little sleep and diabetes is uncertain. The authors point to an earlier study which showed that experimental rather than habitual restriction of sleep resulted in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
Sleep deprivation can adversely affect the brain and cognitive function. A 2000 study, by
Xeroderma or xerodermia, derived from the Greek words for "dry skin," is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients and/or moisturizers. Xeroderma occurs most commonly on the scalp, lower legs, arms, the knuckles, the sides of the abdomen and thighs. Symptoms most associated with xeroderma are scaling (the visible peeling of the outer skin layer), itching and skin cracking.
Xeroderma is a very common condition. It happens more often in the winter where the cold air outside and the hot air inside creates a low relative humidity. This causes the skin to lose moisture and it may crack and peel. Bathing or hand washing too frequently, especially if one is using harsh soaps, may also contribute to xeroderma. Xeroderma can also be caused by a deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin D, systemic illness, severe sunburn, or some medication. Xeroderma can also be caused by choline inhibitors. Detergents like washing powder and washing up liquid can also cause xeroderma.
Since the development of Nivea Skin Creme by German pharmacists in the late 1800s, a huge array of topical skin moisturizers have been introduced on the worldwide
Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin (i.e. rash).
Dermatitis derives from Greek derma "skin" + -itis "inflammation".
There are several different types of dermatitis. The different kinds usually have in common an allergic reaction to specific allergens. The term may describe eczema, which is also called dermatitis eczema and eczematous dermatitis. An eczema diagnosis often implies atopic dermatitis (which is very common in children and teenagers) but, without proper context, may refer to any kind of dermatitis.
In some languages, dermatitis and eczema are synonyms, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one. The two conditions are often classified together.
Types of dermatitis are classified according to the cause of the condition.
Contact dermatitis is caused by an allergen or an irritating substance. Irritant contact dermatitis accounts for 80% of all cases of contact dermatitis.
Atopic dermatitis is very common worldwide and increasing in prevalence. It affects males and females equally and accounts for 10%–20% of all referrals to dermatologists. Individuals who live in urban areas with low humidity are more prone to develop this
Cardiac arrest, (also known as cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest) is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively. Medical personnel may refer to an unexpected cardiac arrest as a sudden cardiac arrest or SCA.
A cardiac arrest is different from (but may be caused by) a heart attack, where blood flow to the muscle of the heart is impaired.
Arrested blood circulation prevents delivery of oxygen to the body. Lack of oxygen to the brain causes loss of consciousness, which then results in abnormal or absent breathing. Brain injury is likely if cardiac arrest goes untreated for more than five minutes. For the best chance of survival and neurological recovery, immediate and decisive treatment is imperative.
Cardiac arrest is a medical emergency that, in certain situations, is potentially reversible if treated early. Unexpected cardiac arrest sometimes leads to death almost immediately; this is called sudden cardiac death (SCD). The treatment for cardiac arrest is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to provide circulatory support, followed by defibrillation if a shockable rhythm is present.
Cardiac arrest is classified into
Renal failure or kidney failure (formerly called renal insufficiency) describes a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter toxins and waste products from the blood. The two forms are acute (acute kidney injury) and chronic (chronic kidney disease); a number of other diseases or health problems may cause either form of renal failure to occur.
Renal failure is described as a decrease in glomerular filtration rate. Biochemically, renal failure is typically detected by an elevated serum creatinine level. Problems frequently encountered in kidney malfunction include abnormal fluid levels in the body, increased acid levels, abnormal levels of potassium, calcium, phosphate, and (in the longer term) anemia as well as delayed healing in broken bones. Depending on the cause, hematuria (blood loss in the urine) and proteinuria (protein loss in the urine) may occur. Long-term kidney problems have significant repercussions on other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease.
Renal failure can be divided into two categories: acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. The type of renal failure is determined by the trend in the serum creatinine. Other factors which may
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms. A condition might be asymptomatic if it fails to show the noticeable symptoms with which it is usually associated. Asymptomatic infections are also called subclinical infections. The term clinically silent is also used.
Knowing that a condition is asymptomatic is important because:
Asymptomatic conditions may not be discovered until the patient undergoes medical tests (X-rays or other investigations). Some people may remain asymptomatic for a remarkably long period of time; such as people with some forms of cancer. If a patient is asymptomatic, precautionary steps must be taken.
A patient's individual genetic makeup may delay or prevent the onset of symptoms.
These are conditions for which there is a sufficient number of documented individuals that are asymptomatic that it is clinically noted. For a complete list of asymptomatic infections see subclinical infection.
Osteophytes, commonly referred to as bone spurs, are bony projections that form along joint margins. They should not be confused with enthesophytes, which are bony projections which form at the attachment of a tendon or ligament.
Osteophytes form because of the increase in a damaged joint's surface area. This is most common from the onset of arthritis. Osteophytes usually limit joint movement and typically cause pain.
Osteophytes form naturally on the back of the spine as a person ages and are a sign of degeneration in the spine. In this case the spurs are not the source of back pains, but instead are the common symptom of a deeper problem. However, bone spurs on the spine can impinge on nerves that leave the spine for other parts of the body. This impingement can cause pain in both upper and lower limbs and a numbness or tingling sensations in the hands and feet because the nerves are supplying sensation to their dermatomes.
Spurs can also appear on the feet, either along toes or the heel, as well as on the hands. In extreme cases bone spurs have grown along a person's entire skeletal structure: along the knees, hips, shoulders, ribs, arms and ankles. Such cases are only exhibited
In medicine (gastroenterology), esophageal varices (or oesophageal varices) are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower third of the esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly due to cirrhosis; patients with esophageal varices have a strong tendency to develop bleeding.
Esophageal varices are diagnosed with endoscopy.
The majority of blood from the esophagus is drained via the esophageal veins, which carry deoxygenated blood from the esophagus to the azygos vein, which in turn drains directly into the superior vena cava. These veins have no part in the development of esophageal varices. The remaining blood from the esophagus is drained into the superficial veins lining the esophageal mucosa, which drain into the left gastric vein (coronary vein), which in turn drains directly into the portal vein. These superficial veins (normally only approximately 1mm in diameter) become distended up to 1–2 cm in diameter in association with portal hypertension.
Normal portal pressure is approximately 9 mmHg compared to an inferior vena cava pressure of 2-6 mmHg. This creates a normal pressure gradient of 3-7 mmHg. If the portal pressure rises above 12
Leukocoria (also leukokoria or white pupillary reflex) is an abnormal white reflection from the retina of the eye. Leukocoria resembles eyeshine, but leukocoria can occur in humans and other animals that lack eyeshine because their retina lacks a tapetum lucidum.
Leukocoria is a medical sign for a number of conditions, including Coats disease, congenital cataract, corneal scarring, melanoma of the ciliary body, Norrie disease, ocular toxocariasis, persistence of the tunica vasculosa lentis (PFV/PHPV), retinoblastoma, and retrolental fibroplasia.
Because of the potential life threatening nature of retinoblastoma, a cancer, that condition is usually considered in the evaluation of leukocoria.
On photographs taken using a flash, instead of the familiar red-eye effect leukocoria can cause a bright white reflection in an affected eye. Leukocoria may appear also in low indirect light, similar to eyeshine.
Leukocoria can be detected by a routine eye exam (see Ophthalmoscopy). For screening purposes, the red reflex test is used. In this test, when a light is shone briefly through the pupil, an orange red reflection is normal. A white reflection is leukocoria.
Mental retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. It has historically been defined as an Intelligence Quotient score under 70. Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environment. As a result, a person with a below-average intelligence quotient (BAIQ) may not be considered mentally retarded. Syndromic mental retardation is intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms. Non-syndromic mental retardation refers to intellectual deficits that appear without other abnormalities.
The terms used to describe this condition are subject to a process called the euphemism treadmill. This means that whatever term is chosen for this condition, it eventually becomes perceived as an insult. The terms mental retardation and mentally retarded were invented in the middle of the 20th century to replace the previous set of terms, which were deemed to have become offensive. By the end of the
Persistent truncus arteriosus (or Truncus arteriosus), also known as Common arterial trunk, is a rare form of congenital heart disease that presents at birth. In this condition, the embryological structure known as the truncus arteriosus fails to properly divide into the pulmonary trunk and aorta.
The most well-known classification was the fourfold system developed by Collett and Edwards in 1949. Collett/Edwards Types I, II, and III are distinguished by the branching pattern of the pulmonary arteries:
The "Type IV" proposed in 1949 is no longer considered a form of PTA by most modern sources.
Another well-known classification was defined by Van Praaghs in 1965.
Most of the time, this defect occurs spontaneously. Genetic disorders, and teratogens (viruses, metabolic imbalance, and industrial or pharmacological agents) have been associated as possible causes. Up to 50% (varies in studies) of cases are associated with chromosome 22q11 deletions (DiGeorge Syndrome). The neural crest, specifically a population known as the cardiac neural crest, directly contributes to the aorticopulmonary septum.
Microablation of the cardiac neural crest in developing chick embryos and genetic anomalies
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. Polysomnography is a test commonly ordered for some sleep disorders.
Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of issues, from teeth grinding (bruxism) to night terrors. When a person suffers from difficulty in sleeping with no obvious cause, it is referred to as insomnia. In addition, sleep disorders may also cause sufferers to sleep excessively, a condition known as hypersomnia. Management of sleep disturbances that are secondary to mental, medical, or substance abuse disorders should focus on the underlying conditions.
The most common sleep disorders include:
The following tests are used to diagnose insomnia.
Treatments for sleep disorders generally can be grouped into four categories:
None of these general approaches is sufficient for all patients with sleep disorders. Rather, the choice of a specific treatment depends on the patient's diagnosis, medical and psychiatric history, and preferences, as well as the expertise of the treating clinician. Often,
Telangiectasias ( /tɛlˌæn.dʒiː.ɛkˈteɪ.zi.ə/) or angioectasias are small dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, measuring between 0.5 and 1 millimeter in diameter. They can develop anywhere on the body but are commonly seen on the face around the nose, cheeks, and chin. They can also develop on the legs, specifically on the upper thigh, below the knee joint, and around the ankles. Many patients who suffer with spider veins seek out the assistance of physicians who specialize in vein care or peripheral vascular disease. These physicians are called phlebologists or interventional radiologists
Some telangiectasia are due to developmental abnormalities that can closely mimic the behaviour of benign vascular neoplasms. They may be composed of abnormal aggregations of arterioles, capillaries, or venules. Because telangiectasias are vascular lesions, they blanch when tested with diascopy.
The causes of telangiectasia can be divided into congenital and acquired factors.
Goldman states that "numerous inherited or congenital conditions display cutaneous telangiectasia". These include;
Telangiectasia in the legs is often related to the presence of venous
Osteoporosis ("porous bones", from Greek: οστούν/ostoun meaning "bone" and πόρος/poros meaning "pore") is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a bone mineral density of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass (average of young, healthy adults) as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; the term "established osteoporosis" includes the presence of a fragility fracture. The disease may be classified as primary type 1, primary type 2, or secondary. The form of osteoporosis most common in women after menopause is referred to as primary type 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis. Primary type 2 osteoporosis or senile osteoporosis occurs after age 75 and is seen in both females and males at a ratio of 2:1. Finally, secondary osteoporosis may arise at any age and affect men and women equally. This form results from chronic predisposing medical problems or disease, or prolonged use of medications such as glucocorticoids,
Aphasia ( /əˈfeɪʒə/ or /əˈfeɪziə/, from ancient Greek ἀφασία (ἄφατος, ἀ- + φημί), "speechlessness") is an impairment of language ability. This class of language disorder ranges from having difficulty remembering words to being completely unable to speak, read, or write.
Acute aphasia disorders usually develop quickly as a result of head injury or stroke, and progressive forms of aphasia develop slowly from a brain tumor, infection, or dementia. The area and extent of brain damage or atrophy will determine the type of aphasia and its symptoms. Aphasia types include expressive aphasia, receptive aphasia, conduction aphasia, anomic aphasia, global aphasia, primary progressive aphasias and many others (see Category:Aphasias). Medical evaluations for the disorder range from clinical screenings by a neurologist to extensive tests by a Speech-Language Pathologist.
Most acute aphasia patients can recover some or most skills by working with a Speech-Language Pathologist. This rehabilitation can take two or more years and is most effective when begun quickly. Only a small minority will recover without therapy, such as those suffering a mini-stroke. Improvement varies widely, depending on the
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) or less commonly vaginal bacteriosis is a disease of the vagina caused by bacteria. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), risk factors for BV include douching and having new or multiple sex partners, although it is unclear what role sexual activity plays in the development of BV. BV is caused by an imbalance of naturally occurring bacterial flora and is often confused with yeast infection (candidiasis) or infection with Trichomonas vaginalis (trichomoniasis), which are not caused by bacteria.
BV can be asymptomatic in almost half of affected women, however the most common symptom of BV is an abnormal homogeneous off-white vaginal discharge (especially after vaginal intercourse) that may be accompanied by an unpleasant (usually fishy) smell. This malodorous discharge coats the walls of the vagina, and is usually without significant irritation, pain, or erythema (redness), although mild itching can sometimes occur. By contrast, the normal vaginal discharge will vary in consistency and amount throughout the menstrual cycle and is at its clearest at ovulation - about 2 weeks before the period starts.
A healthy vagina normally
In physiology and medicine, dehydration (hypohydration) is defined as the excessive loss of body fluid, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes. It is literally the removal of water (Ancient Greek: ὕδωρ hýdōr) from an object; however, in physiological terms, it entails a deficiency of fluid within an organism. Dehydration of skin and mucous membranes can be called medical dryness.
There are three types of dehydration: hypotonic or hyponatremic (primarily a loss of electrolytes, sodium in particular), hypertonic or hypernatremic (primarily a loss of water), and isotonic or isonatremic (equal loss of water and electrolytes). In humans, the most commonly seen type of dehydration by far is isotonic (isonatraemic) dehydration which effectively equates with hypovolemia, but the distinction of isotonic from hypotonic or hypertonic dehydration may be important when treating people who become dehydrated. Physiologically, dehydration, despite the name, does not simply mean loss of water, as water and solutes (mainly sodium) are usually lost in roughly equal quantities to how they exist in blood plasma. In hypotonic dehydration, intravascular water shifts to the extravascular
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can have a negative effect on a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings, world view and physical well-being. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions and may contemplate or attempt suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may also be present.
Depressed mood is not necessarily a psychiatric disorder. It is a normal reaction to certain life events, a symptom of some medical conditions and a side effect of some medical treatments. Depressed mood is also a primary or associated feature of certain psychiatric syndromes such as clinical depression.
Life events and changes that may precipitate depressed mood include menopause, financial difficulties, job problems, relationship troubles, separation and bereavement.
Certain medications are known to cause depressed mood in a
Diarrhea (or diarrhoea) (from the Greek διάρροια, δια dia "through" + ρέω rheo "flow" meaning "flowing through") is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day. It is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second most common cause of infant deaths worldwide. The loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte disturbances such as potassium deficiency or other salt imbalances.
In 2009 diarrhea was estimated to have caused 1.1 million deaths in people aged 5 and over and 1.5 million deaths in children under the age of 5. Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with modest amounts of salts and zinc tablets are the treatment of choice and have been estimated to have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years. In cases where ORS is not available, homemade solutions are often used.
Diarrhea is defined by the World Health Organization as having three or more loose or liquid stools per day, or as having more stools than is normal for that person.
Secretory diarrhea means that there is an increase in the active secretion, or there is an inhibition of absorption. There is little to no structural damage. The most common
A gallop rhythm refers to a (usually abnormal) rhythm of the heart on auscultation. It includes three or four sounds, thus resembling the sounds of a gallop.
The normal heart rhythm contains two audible heart sounds called S1 and S2 that give the well-known "lub-dub" rhythm; they are caused by the closing of valves in the heart.
A gallop rhythm contains another sound, called S3 or S4, dependent upon where in the cycle this added sound comes.
It can also contain both of these sounds forming a quadruple gallop, and in situations of very fast heart rate can produce a summation gallop where S3 and S4 occur so close as to be indistinguishable.
Gallop rhythms may be heard in young or athletic people, but may also be a sign of serious cardiac problems like heart failure as well as pulmonary edema.
Jaundice (also known as icterus; from the Greek word ίκτερος, attributive adjective: icteric) is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid. Concentration of bilirubin in blood plasma does not normally exceed 1 mg/dL (>17µmol/L). A concentration higher than 1.8 mg/dL (>30µmol/L) leads to jaundice. The term jaundice comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow.
Jaundice is often seen in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. It may also indicate leptospirosis or obstruction of the biliary tract, for example by gallstones or pancreatic cancer, or less commonly be congenital in origin.
Yellow discoloration of the skin, especially on the palms and the soles, but not of the sclera and mucous membranes (i.e. oral cavity) is due to carotenemia—a harmless condition important to differentiate from jaundice.
The conjunctiva of the eye are one of the first tissues to change color as bilirubin levels rise in jaundice.
Lymphedema (lymphoedema in British English), also known as lymphatic obstruction, is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system. The lymphatic system returns the interstitial fluid to the thoracic duct and then to the bloodstream, where it is recirculated back to the tissues. Tissues with lymphedema are at risk of infection.
Symptoms may include severe fatigue, a heavy swollen limb or localized fluid accumulation in other body areas, including the head or neck, discoloration of the skin overlying the lymphedema, and eventually deformity (elephantiasis).
Lymphedema should not be confused with edema arising from venous insufficiency, which is not lymphedema. However, untreated venous insufficiency can progress into a combined venous/lymphatic disorder which is treated the same way as lymphedema.
Presented here is an extreme case of severe unilateral hereditary lymphedema which had been present for 25 years without treatment:
Lymphedema affects approximately 140 million people worldwide.
Lymphedema may be inherited (primary) or caused by injury to the lymphatic vessels (secondary). It is most frequently seen after lymph node
Nystagmus /nɪˈstæɡməs/ is a condition of voluntary or involuntary eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.
There are two key forms of nystagmus: pathological and physiological, with variations within each type. Nystagmus may be caused by congenital disorders, acquired or central nervous system disorders, toxicity, pharmaceutical drugs or alcohol. Previously considered untreatable, in recent years several pharmaceutical drugs have been identified for treatment of nystagmus. Nystagmus can also be a sign of vertigo.
Nystagmus is very noticeable but little recognized. Nystagmus can be clinically investigated by using a number of non-invasive standard tests. The simplest one is the caloric reflex test, in which one external auditory meatus is irrigated with warm or cold water or air. The temperature gradient provokes the stimulation of the horizontal semicircular canal and the consequent nystagmus.
The resulting movement of the eyes may be recorded and quantified by special devices called electronystagmograph (ENG), a form of electrooculography (an electrical method of measuring eye movements using external electrodes), or even
Sputum is mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways. It is usually used for microbiological investigations of respiratory infections.
The best sputum samples contain very little saliva, as this contaminates the sample with oral bacteria. This event is assessed by the clinical microbiologist by examining a Gram stain of the sputum. More than 25 squamous epithelial cells at low enlargement indicates salivary contamination.
When a sputum specimen is plated out, it is best to get the portion of the sample that most looks like pus onto the swab. If there is any blood in the sputum, this should also be on the swab.
Microbiological sputum samples are usually used to look for infections by Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Other pathogens can also be found.
Purulent Sputum contains pus, composed of white blood cells, cellular debris, dead tissue, serous fluid and viscous liquid (mucus). Mostly, it is yellow in color, as well as green. It is seen in cases of bronchiectasis, lung abscess, or advanced stage of bronchitis, acute upper respiratory tract infection (common cold, laryngitis).
Sputum can be:
Stunted growth is a reduced growth rate in human development. It is a primary manifestation of malnutrition in early childhood, including malnutrition during fetal development brought on by the malnourished mother. In developing countries, stunted growth is a common problem affecting a large percentage of children. Once established, stunting and its effects typically become permanent. Stunted children may never regain the height lost as a result of stunting, and most children will never gain the corresponding body weight. It also leads to premature death later in life because vital organs never fully develop during childhood.
Growth stunting is identified by comparing measurements of children's heights to the NCHS growth reference population: children who fall below the fifth percentile of the reference population in height for age are defined as stunted, regardless of the reason. As an indicator of nutritional status, comparisons of children's measurements with growth reference curves may be used differently for populations of children than for individual children. The fact that an individual child falls below the fifth percentile for height for age on a growth reference curve may
Vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by inflammatory destruction of blood vessels. Both arteries and veins are affected. Lymphangitis is sometimes considered a type of vasculitis. Vasculitis is primarily due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage.
Although both occur in vasculitis, inflammation of veins (phlebitis) or arteries (arteritis) on their own are separate entities.
There are many ways to classify vasculitis.
According to the size of the vessel affected, vasculitis can be classified into:
Some disorders have vasculitis as their main feature. The major types are given in the table below:
Takayasu's arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa and giant cell arteritis mainly involve arteries and are thus sometimes classed specifically under arteritis.
Furthermore, there are many conditions that have vasculitis as an accompanying or atypical symptom, including:
Possible symptoms include:
Treatments are generally directed toward stopping the inflammation and suppressing the immune system. Typically, cortisone-related medications, such as prednisone, are used. Additionally, other immune suppression drugs, such as
Velopharyngeal inadequacy (VPI) is a malfunction of a velopharyngeal mechanism.
The velopharyngeal mechanism is responsible for directing the transmission of sound energy and air pressure in both the oral cavity and the nasal cavity. When this mechanism is impaired in some way, the valve does not fully close, and a condition known as 'velopharyngeal inadequacy' can develop. VPI can either be congenital or acquired later in life.
Different terms can be used to describe this phenomenon in addition to “velopharyngeal inadequacy”. These terms and definitions are as follows:
Although the definitions are similar, the etiologies correlated with each term differ slightly; however, in the field of medical professionals these terms are typically used interchangeably. Velopharyngeal inadequacy is the generic term most often used to describe the functionality of the velopharyngeal valve.
A cleft palate is one of the most common causes of VPI. Cleft palate is an anatomical abnormality that occurs in utero and is present at birth. This malformation can affect the lip, the lip and palate, or the palate only. A cleft palate can affect the mobility of the velopharyngeal valve, thereby resulting in
Acanthosis nigricans is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin. It is usually found in body folds, such as the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin, umbilicus, forehead, and other areas.
It typically occurs in individuals younger than age 40, may be genetically inherited, and is associated with obesity or endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, acromegaly, polycystic ovary disease, insulin-resistant diabetes, or Cushing's disease.
The most common cause of acanthosis nigricans is insulin resistance, which leads to increased circulating insulin levels. Insulin spillover into the skin results in its abnormal increase in growth (hyperplasia of the skin). The condition most commonly associated with insulin resistance is type 2 diabetes mellitus, but is also a prominent feature of obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, Donohue syndrome, and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome. Acanthosis nigricans may also be seen with certain medications that lead to elevated insulin levels (e.g., glucocorticoids, niacin, insulin, oral contraceptives, and protease inhibitors).
In the context of a malignant disease, acanthosis nigricans is a
Acne vulgaris (cystic acne or simply acne) is a common human skin disease, characterized by areas of skin with seborrhea (scaly red skin), comedones (blackheads and whiteheads), papules (pinheads), pustules (pimples), nodules (large papules) and possibly scarring. Acne affects mostly skin with the densest population of sebaceous follicles; these areas include the face, the upper part of the chest, and the back. Severe acne is inflammatory, but acne can also manifest in noninflammatory forms. The lesions are caused by changes in pilosebaceous units, skin structures consisting of a hair follicle and its associated sebaceous gland, changes that require androgen stimulation.
Acne occurs most commonly during adolescence, and often continues into adulthood. In adolescence, acne is usually caused by an increase in testosterone, which accrues during puberty, regardless of sex. For most people, acne diminishes over time and tends to disappear — or at the very least decreases — by age 25. There is, however, no way to predict how long it will take to disappear entirely, and some individuals will carry this condition well into their thirties, forties, and beyond.
Some of the large nodules were
Bronchiectasis is a disease state defined by localized, irreversible dilation of part of the bronchial tree caused by destruction of the muscle and elastic tissue. It is classified as an obstructive lung disease, along with emphysema, bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. Involved bronchi are dilated, inflamed, and easily collapsible, resulting in airflow obstruction and impaired clearance of secretions. Bronchiectasis is associated with a wide range of disorders, but it usually results from bacterial infections, such as infections caused by the Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species, or Bordetella pertussis.
Some people with bronchiectasis may produce frequent green/yellow sputum (patients with bronchiectasis may produce 240ml (8 oz) of sputum daily). However, it is possible to have "dry bronchiectasis" in which there is no sputum production. Sputum production may also occur without coloration. People with bronchiectasis may have bad breath indicative of active infection. Frequent bronchial infections and breathlessness are two possible indicators of bronchiectasis.
The diagnosis of bronchiectasis is based on the review of clinical history and characteristic patterns in
Cardiac dysrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia and irregular heartbeat) is any of a large and heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is abnormal electrical activity in the heart. The heartbeat may be too fast or too slow, and may be regular or irregular. A heart beat that is too fast is called tachycardia and a heart beat that is too slow is called bradycardia.
Some arrhythmias are life-threatening medical emergencies that can result in cardiac arrest. In fact, cardiac arrythmias are one of the most common causes of death when travelling to a hospital. Others cause symptoms such as an abnormal awareness of heart beat (palpitations), and may be merely uncomfortable. These palpitations have also been known to be caused by atrial/ventricular fibrillation, wire faults, and other technical or mechanical issues in cardiac pacemakers/defibrillators. Still others may not be associated with any symptoms at all, but may predispose the patient to potentially life threatening stroke or embolism.
The term sinus arrhythmia refers to a normal phenomenon of mild acceleration and slowing of the heart rate that occurs with breathing in and out. It is usually quite pronounced in children,
Drooling (also known as driveling, dribbling, slobbering, or, in a medical context, ptyalism) is the flow of saliva outside the mouth. Drooling is generally caused by excess production of saliva, inability to retain saliva within the mouth, or problems with swallowing.
Some people with drooling problems are at increased risk of inhaling saliva, food, or fluids into the lungs. However, this is unlikely to cause harm, unless the body's normal reflex mechanisms (such as gagging and coughing) are also impaired.
Isolated drooling in infants and toddlers is normal and is unlikely to be a sign of either disease or complications. It may be associated with teething. Drooling in infants and young children may be exacerbated by upper respiratory infections and nasal allergies.
Drooling associated with fever or trouble swallowing may be a sign of a more serious disease including:
A sudden onset of drooling may indicate poisoning (especially by pesticides or mercury) or reaction to snake or insect venom or in some cases of a numbed mouth from either Orajel, or when going to the dentist office. Some medications can cause drooling as well such as the pain relieving orajel medication. Some
Flatulence is the expulsion through the rectum of a mixture of gases that are byproducts of the digestion process of mammals and other animals. The medical term for the mixture of gases is flatus, informally known as a fart, or simply (in American English) gas. The gases are expelled from the rectum in a process colloquially referred to as "passing gas", "breaking wind" or "farting". Flatus is brought to the rectum by the same peristaltic process which causes feces to descend from the large intestine. The noises commonly associated with flatulence are caused by the vibration of the anal sphincter, and occasionally by the closed buttocks.
Nitrogen, the main constituent of air, is the primary gas released during flatulence, along with carbon dioxide. The lesser component gases methane and hydrogen are flammable, and so flatus containing adequate amounts of these can be ignited. However, not all humans produce flatus that contains methane. For example, in one study of the feces of nine adults, only five of the samples contained archaea capable of producing methane. Similar results are found in samples of gas obtained from within the rectum.
The gas released during a flatus event
Glossitis is inflammation of the tongue. It causes the tongue to swell and change color. Finger-like projections on the surface of the tongue (papillae) may be lost, causing the tongue to appear smooth.
Glossitis usually responds well to treatment if the cause of inflammation is removed. The disorder may be painless, or it may cause tongue and mouth discomfort. In some cases, glossitis may result in severe tongue swelling that blocks the airway, a medical emergency that needs immediate attention.
A health care provider should be contacted if symptoms of glossitis persist for longer than 10 days, if tongue swelling is severe, or if breathing, speaking, chewing, or swallowing become difficult.
A painful tongue may be an indication of several underlying serious medical conditions and nearly always merits assessment by a physician or dental surgeon.
The goal of treatment is to reduce inflammation. Treatment usually does not require hospitalization unless tongue swelling is severe. Good oral hygiene is necessary, including thorough tooth brushing at least twice a day, and flossing at least daily. Corticosteroids such as prednisone may be given to reduce the inflammation of glossitis.
Murmurs are pathologic heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow that is, very sufficient to produce audible noise. Most murmurs can only be heard with the assistance of a stethoscope ("on auscultation").
A functional murmur or "physiologic murmur" is a heart murmur that is primarily due to physiologic conditions outside the heart, as opposed to structural defects in the heart itself. Functional murmurs are benign (an "innocent murmur").
Murmurs may also be the result of various problems, such as narrowing or leaking of valves, or the presence of abnormal passages through which blood flows in or near the heart. Such murmurs, known as pathologic murmurs, should be evaluated by an expert.
Heart murmurs are most frequently categorized by timing, into systolic heart murmurs and diastolic heart murmurs. However, continuous murmurs cannot be directly placed into either category.
Murmurs can be classified by seven different characteristics: timing, shape, location, radiation, intensity, pitch and quality.
The use of two simple mnemonics may help differentiate systolic and diastolic murmurs; PASS and PAID. Pulmonary and aortic stenoses are systolic while pulmonary
In medicine, ischemia, also spelled as ischaemia or ischæmia, (/ɪˈskiːmɪə/; from Greek language ισχαιμία, ischaimía; isch- root denoting a restriction or thinning or to make or grow thin/lean, haema blood) is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive). Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis or embolism).
Ischemic means having or showing symptoms of ischemia, while nonischemic means "not related to or showing signs of ischemia".
An inadequate flow of blood to a part of the body may be caused by any of the following:
Since oxygen is carried to tissues in the blood, insufficient blood supply causes tissue to become starved of oxygen. In the highly aerobic tissues of the heart and brain, irreversible damage to tissues can occur in as little as 3–4 minutes at body temperature. The kidneys are also quickly damaged by loss of blood flow. Tissues with slower metabolic rates may undergo irreversible
Leukocytosis is a white blood cell count (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood. It is frequently a sign of an inflammatory response, most commonly the result of infection, and is observed in certain parasitic infections. It may also occur after strenuous exercise, convulsions such as epilepsy, emotional stress, pregnancy and labour, anesthesia, and epinephrine administration.
There are five principal types of leukocytosis:
Acute exercise is one of the healthiest ways to create leukocytosis within hours. This increase in leukocytes (primarily neutrophils) is usually accompanied by a "left shift" in the ratio of immature to mature neutrophils. The increase in immature leukocytes increases due to proliferation and release of granulocyte and monocyte precursors in the bone marrow which is stimulated by several products of inflammation including C3a and G-CSF. Although it may indicate illness, leukocytosis is considered a laboratory finding instead of a separate disease. This classification is similar to that of fever, which is also a test result instead of a disease. "Right shift" in the ratio of immature to mature neutrophils is considered with reduced count or
Oral candidiasis (also known as "thrush") is an infection of yeast fungi of the genus Candida on the mucous membranes of the mouth. It is frequently caused by Candida albicans, or less commonly by Candida glabrata or Candida tropicalis. Oral thrush may refer to candidiasis in the mouths of babies, while if occurring in the mouth or throat of adults it may also be termed candidosis or moniliasis.
Signs and symptoms of oral infection by Candida species may not be immediately noticeable but can develop suddenly and may persist for a long time. The infection usually appears as thick white or cream-colored deposits on mucosal membranes such as the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, tonsils, and palate. The infected mucosa may appear inflamed (red and possibly slightly raised) and sometimes have a cottage cheese-like appearance. The lesions can be painful and will become tender and often bleed if rubbed or scraped. Cracking at the corners of the mouth, a cottony-like sensation inside the mouth, and even temporary loss of taste can occur.
In more severe cases, the infection can spread down the esophagus and cause difficulty swallowing - this is referred to as Esophageal candidiasis. Thrush does
Osteitis fibrosa cystica ( /ˌɒstiːˈaɪtɨs faɪˈbroʊsə ˈsɪstɨkə/), abbreviated OFC, and also known as osteitis fibrosa, osteodystrophia fibrosa, Von Recklinghausen's Disease of Bone, not to be confused with Von Recklinghausen's disease (neurofibromatosis type I). Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica is a skeletal disorder caused by a surplus of parathyroid hormone from over-active parathyroid glands. This surplus stimulates the activity of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone, in a process known as osteoclastic bone resorption. The over-activity of the parathyroid glands (hyperparathyroidism) can be triggered by parathyroid adenoma, hereditary factors, parathyroid carcinoma, or renal osteodystrophy. Osteoclastic bone resorption releases minerals, including calcium, from the bone into the bloodstream. In addition to elevated blood calcium levels, over-activity of this process results in a loss of bone mass, a weakening of the bones as their calcified supporting structures are replaced with fibrous tissue (peritrabecular fibrosis), and the formation of cyst-like brown tumors in and around the bone. The symptoms of the disease are the consequences of both the general softening of the bones and
Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a term for inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. This can lead to infertility. PID is a vague term and can refer to viral, fungal, parasitic, though most often bacterial infections. PID should be classified by affected organs, the stage of the infection, and the organism(s) causing it. Although an STI is often the cause, many other routes are possible, including lymphatic, postpartum, postabortal (either miscarriage or abortion) or intrauterine device (IUD) related, and hematogenous spread. Two thirds of patients with laparoscopic evidence of previous PID were not aware they had PID.
In the United States, more than 750,000 women are affected by PID each year, and the rate is highest with teenagers and first time mothers. PID causes over 100,000 women to become infertile in the US each year. N. gonorrhoea is isolated in 40–60% of women with acute salpingitis. C. trachomatis is estimated to be the cause in about 60% of cases of salpingitis, which may lead to PID. However, not all PID is caused solely by STIs; organisms that are
Peripheral neuropathy is damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of or trauma to the nerve or the side-effects of systemic illness.
The four cardinal patterns of peripheral neuropathy are polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex and autonomic neuropathy. The most common form is (symmetrical) peripheral polyneuropathy, which mainly affects the feet and legs. The form of neuropathy may be further broken down by cause, or the size of predominant fiber involvement, i.e., large fiber or small fiber peripheral neuropathy. Frequently the cause of a neuropathy cannot be identified and it is designated as being idiopathic.
Neuropathy may be associated with varying combinations of weakness, autonomic changes, and sensory changes. Loss of muscle bulk or fasciculations, a particular fine twitching of muscle, may be seen. Sensory symptoms encompass loss of sensation and "positive" phenomena including pain. Symptoms depend on the type of nerves affected (motor, sensory, or autonomic) and where the nerves are located in the body. One or more types of nerves may be affected. Common symptoms associated with damage to the motor nerve
Phlegm ( /ˈflɛm/; Greek: φλέγμα "inflammation, humour caused by heat") is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammalians. Its definition is limited to the mucus produced by the respiratory system, excluding that from the nasal passages, and particularly that which is expelled by coughing (sputum). Phlegm is in essence a water-based gel consisting of glycoproteins, immunoglobulins, lipids and other substances. Its composition varies depending on climate, genetics, and state of the immune system. Its color can vary from transparent to pale or dark yellow and green, from light to dark brown, and even to dark grey depending on the constituents.
Contrary to popular misconception and misuse, mucus and phlegm are not always the same.
Mucus is a normal protective layering around the airway, eye, nasal turbinate, and urogenital tract. Mucus is an adhesive viscoelastic gel produced in the airway by submucosal glands and goblet cells and is principally water. It also contains high-molecular weight mucous glycoproteins that form linear polymers.
It's more related to disease than is mucus. Phlegm is a secretion in the airway during disease and inflammation. Phlegm usually contains
In humans, a single transverse palmar crease is a single crease that extends across the palm of the hand, formed by the fusion of the two palmar creases (the heart line and the head line) that people typically have. Because it resembles the usual condition of non-human simians, it is also known as a simian crease or simian line, although these terms have widely fallen out of favor due to their pejorative connotation.
Single palmar creases are less common than two palmar creases, however 10% of the population have one palmar crease on one hand and 5% have one palmar crease on both hands. It is sometimes associated with Down's syndrome, though other physical symptoms would be manifest with this relatively rare syndrome.
Males are twice as likely as females to have this characteristic, and it tends to run in families. In its non-symptomatic form, it is more common among Asians and Native Americans than among other populations, and in some families there is a tendency to inherit the condition unilaterally, that is, on one hand only.
The presence of a single transverse palmar crease can be, but is not always, a symptom associated with abnormal medical conditions, such as fetal alcohol
Sinus tachycardia (also colloquially known as sinus tach or sinus tachy) is a heart rhythm with elevated rate of impulses originating from the sinoatrial node, defined as a rate greater than 100 beats/min (bpm) in an average adult. The normal heart rate in the average adult ranges from 60–100 beats/min. Note that the normal heart rate varies with age, with infants having normal heart rate of 110–150 bpm to the elderly, who have slower normals.
Sinus tachycardia is usually a response to normal physiological situations, such as exercise and an increased sympathetic tone with increased catecholamine release—stress, fright, flight, anger. Other causes include:
Tachycardia is often asymptomatic. If the heart rate is too high, cardiac output may fall due to the markedly reduced ventricular filling time. Rapid rates, though they may be compensating for ischemia elsewhere, increase myocardial oxygen demand and reduce coronary blood flow, thus precipitating an ischemic heart or valvular disease. Sinus tachycardia accompanying a myocardial infarction may be indicative of cardiogenic shock.
Usually apparent on the EKG, but if heart rate is above 140 bpm the P wave may be difficult to
Syncope ( /ˈsɪŋkəpi/ SING-kə-pee), the medical term for fainting, is precisely defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery, due to global cerebral hypoperfusion (low blood flow to the brain) that most often results from hypotension (low blood pressure).
Many forms of syncope are preceded by a prodromal state that often includes dizziness and loss of vision ("blackout") (temporary), loss of hearing (temporary), loss of pain and feeling (temporary), nausea and abdominal discomfort, weakness, sweating, a feeling of heat, palpitations and other phenomena, which, if they do not progress to loss of consciousness and postural tone are often denoted "presyncope". Abdominal discomfort prior to loss of consciousness may be indicative of seizure which should be considered different than syncope.
There are two broad categories of syncope, cardiogenic or reflex, which underlie most forms of syncope. Cardiogenic forms are more likely to produce serious morbidity or mortality and require prompt or even immediate treatment. Although cardiogenic syncope is much more common in older patients, an effort to rule
Thyroid nodules are lumps which commonly arise within an otherwise normal thyroid gland. They indicate a thyroid neoplasm, but only a small percentage of these are thyroid cancers.
Often these abnormal growths of thyroid tissue are located at the edge of the thyroid gland so they can be felt as a lump in the throat. When they are large or when they occur in very thin individuals, they can even sometimes be seen as a lump in the front of the neck.
Sometimes a thyroid nodule presents as a fluid-filled cavity (called a thyroid cyst). Often, solid components are mixed with the fluid. Thyroid cysts most commonly result from degenerating thyroid adenomas, which are benign, but they occasionally contain malignant solid components.
After a nodule is found during a physical examination, a referral to an endocrinologist, a thyroidologist or otolaryngologist may occur. Most commonly an ultrasound is performed to confirm the presence of a nodule, and assess the status of the whole gland. Measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone and anti-thyroid antibodies will help decide if there is a functional thyroid disease such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis present, a known cause of a benign nodular
Weight gain is an increase in body weight. This can be either an increase in muscle mass, fat deposits, or excess fluids such as water.
Muscle gain or weight gain can occur as a result of exercise or bodybuilding, in which muscle size is increased through strength training.
If enough weight is gained by way of increased body fat deposits, one may become overweight or fat, generally defined as having more body fat (adipose tissue) than is optimally healthy.
Weight gain has a latency period. The effect that eating has on weight gain can vary greatly depending on the following factors: energy (calorie) density of foods, exercise regimen, amount of water intake, amount of salt contained in the food, time of day eaten, age of individual, individual's country of origin, individual's overall stress level, and amount of water retention in ankles/feet. Typical latency periods vary from three days to two weeks after ingestion.
Being fat is a common condition, especially where food supplies are plentiful and lifestyles are sedentary. As much as 64% of the United States adult population is considered either overweight or obese, and this percentage has increased over the last four