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TV4 is a Swedish television network. It started broadcasting by satellite in 1990 and, since 1992, on the terrestrial network. In 1994, TV4 became the largest channel and remained so for a number of years. The two channels of Sveriges Television (SVT) lost more and more viewers for a couple of years. But after making schedule changes in 2001, SVT1 had practically the same numbers of viewers as TV4. Since 2004 the TV4 Group has been a fully active member of the European Broadcasting Union.
TV4 was launched on 15 September 1990. The channel invested in an extensive news organisation and Swedish drama series. The premiere suffered from technical faults and the drama series weren't popular with critics.
In 1991, two of the channels oldest entertainment programmes premiered: the Swedish version of Jeopardy! and the Saturday night bingo show Bingolotto. Bingolotto in particular became highly popular. This year also saw TV4 awarded a license to broadcast terrestrially.
Terrestrial broadcasts started on 2 March 1992. During this year, Nyhetsmorgon started and marked the introduction of weekday breakfast television in Sweden.
During the 1990s TV4 would broadcast several popular Friday night
House of Sweden is a building in Washington, D.C. which houses the diplomatic missions of the Kingdom of Sweden, the Principality of Liechtenstein, and the Republic of Iceland to the United States of America. The building is located at 2900 K Street N.W. in the Georgetown neighborhood.
Apart from the embassies, the building, which is owned by the National Property Board of Sweden, also houses representatives of Swedish commerce. Facilities includes a secretariat, exhibition space, 19 corporate apartments, and a high-tech business event center.
The building was designed by the Swedish architects Gert Wingårdh and Tomas Hansen, with VOA Associates in Washington DC as architect of record. It consists of five floors with a total surface of 7,500 m². The front of the building is made of glass. Construction began in August 2004 and was completed in the summer of 2006. The embassy moved into the building at the beginning of August 2006. Previously the embassy was housed in rented space, first at Watergate 600, and later at 1501 M Street NW.
The building was inaugurated on October 23, 2006, by King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and Queen Silvia. Also present at the inauguration were the
Swedish ( svenska (help·info)) is a North Germanic language, spoken by approximately 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along its coast and on the Åland islands. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Danish (see Classification). Along with the other North Germanic languages, Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It is currently the largest of the North Germanic languages by numbers of speakers.
Standard Swedish, used by most Swedish people, is the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well established by the beginning of the 20th century. While distinct regional varieties descended from the older rural dialects still exist, the spoken and written language is uniform and standardized. Some dialects differ considerably from the standard language in grammar and vocabulary and are not always mutually intelligible with Standard Swedish. These dialects are confined to rural areas and are spoken primarily by small numbers of people with low social mobility. Though not facing imminent
Stockholm (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈstɔkːˈhɔlm, ˈstɔkːˈɔlm, ˈstɔkːɔlm] ( listen to the second one)) is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 871,952 in the municipality (2010), 1.4 million in the urban area (2010), and over 2.1 million in the 6,519 km (2,517.00 sq mi) metropolitan area (2010). As of 2010, the Stockholm metropolitan area is home to approximately 22% of Sweden's population.
Founded no later than c. 1250, possibly as early as 1187, Stockholm has long been one of Sweden's cultural, media, political, and economic centres. Its strategic location on 14 islands on the coast in the south-east of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago, has been historically important. Stockholm has been nominated by GaWC as a global city, with a ranking of Beta+. In The 2008 Global Cities Index, Stockholm ranked 24th in the world, 10th in Europe, and first in Scandinavia. Stockholm is known for its beauty, its buildings and architecture, its abundant clean and open water, and its many parks. It is sometimes referred to as Venice of
A Prairie Home Companion is a live radio variety show created and hosted by Garrison Keillor. The show runs on Saturdays from 5 to 7 pm Central Time, and usually originates from the Fitzgerald Theater in Saint Paul, Minnesota, although it is frequently taken on the road. A Prairie Home Companion is known for its musical guests, especially folk and traditional musicians, tongue-in-cheek radio drama, and Keillor's storytelling segment, "News from Lake Wobegon".
It is produced by Prairie Home Productions and distributed by American Public Media, and is most often heard on public radio stations in the United States. The show has a long history, existing in a similar form as far back as 1974, and borrowing the name from a radio program in existence in 1969. It was named after the Prairie Home Cemetery in Moorhead, Minnesota, next to Concordia College.
The radio program inspired a 2006 film of the same name, written by Keillor, directed by Robert Altman and featuring Keillor, Lily Tomlin, Meryl Streep, Lindsay Lohan, Tommy Lee Jones, Kevin Kline, John C. Reilly, and Woody Harrelson.
The earliest radio program to have this name bears little resemblance to what is currently heard on
Investor AB is a Swedish investment company, founded in 1916 and still controlled by the Wallenberg family through their foundation asset management company FAM. The company owns a controlling stake in several large Swedish companies with smaller positions in a number of other firms. In 2006 it had a market value of 119 billion kronor (€13 billion, $16 billion). Currently Investor has a strong financial position and is almost debt free.
December 31, 2004
October 15, 2006
In 1916, new legislation made it more difficult for banks to own stocks in industrial companies on a long-term basis. Investor was formed as an investment part of Stockholms Enskilda Bank, at the time the largest instrument of power in the Wallenberg family.
Investor held shares in the following companies as of 31 December 2010:
Investor's other investments include:
The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation is a private foundation (Swedish: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse), founded in 1917 by a donation of SEK 20 million by the chairman of the Stockholms Enskilda Bank, Knut Agathon Wallenberg and his wife Alice.
The foundation is the largest one of the Wallenberg foundations, and one of the largest Swedish funders of research. As of 2012 the Foundation had disbursed approximately 1.2 Billion Kronor.
Census in Sweden was first established in 1749, annually presenting data for important demographic events in the 2500 parishes of the country. Taxation records and church book registration were important antecedents, as were the temporal events of wars, famines, and raging epidemics. During a period of recovery, Sweden went through political changes. Influenced by international political arithmetic and mercantilism, the establishment of Tabellverket was part of a plan to increase and rationalize the population. The existence of a medical organization and a central administrative system helped, but even more important were the networks that included most of the influential people. Thus, clergy who were responsible for the compilation of data played a key role.
Eli Heckscher stressed two aspects of population statistics in Sweden as important in the European context: time and quality. The establishment of Tabellverket in 1749 gave Sweden a head start with population statistics. Except for occasional national censuses, such as Iceland’s in 1703, no national population statistics existed for any European country at the beginning of the 18th century. England, France, and most other
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the region of northern Europe known in English as Scandinavia, particularly in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.
Little evidence remains in Scandinavia of the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, or the Iron Age except limited numbers of tools created from stone, bronze, and iron, some jewelry and ornaments, and stone burial cairns. One important collection that exists, however, is a widespread and rich collection of stone drawings known as petroglyphs.
As the ice receded, reindeer grazed on the flat lands of Denmark and southernmost Sweden. This was the land of the Ahrensburg culture, tribes who hunted over vast territories and lived in lavvus on the tundra. There was little forest in this region except for arctic white birch and rowan, but the taiga slowly appeared.
In the 7th millennium BC, when the reindeer and their hunters had moved for northern Scandinavia, forests had been established in the land. The Maglemosian culture lived in Denmark and southern Sweden. To the north, in Norway and most of southern Sweden, lived the Fosna-Hensbacka culture, who lived mostly along the edge of the forest. The northern hunter/gatherers followed the herds and
Swedish–American relations are the Transatlantic relations between Sweden and the United States.
Like many European powers, Sweden participated in the colonization of America that started in the 17th century. The first Swedish colony along the banks of the Delaware River was established in 1638 (see New Sweden).
Sweden was the first country not engaged in the American Revolutionary War to recognize the young American republic. The Swedish Count Axel von Fersen was a distinguished soldier during the war, serving as an interpreter between General Rochambeau and General Washington. In 1783 the United States' Ambassador to Paris, Benjamin Franklin, and the Swedish Ambassador, Count Gustaf Philip Creutz, signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce.
During the period between 1820–1930 approximately 1.3 million Swedes, a third of the country's population, emigrated to North America and most of them to the United States. Like the Irish diaspora it was sparked by poverty in Sweden, which was exacerbated during bad years. Only Britain (especially Ireland) and Norway had a higher emigration rate. Most of the Swedish emigrants settled in the central and Western United States. By 1910, Chicago had a
Saab AB is a Swedish aerospace and defence company, founded in 1937. From 1947 to 1990 it was the parent company of automobile manufacturer Saab Automobile, and between 1968 and 1995 the company was in a merger with commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania, known as Saab-Scania.
"Svenska Aeroplan AB (aktiebolag)" (Swedish for "Swedish Aeroplane Company Limited") (SAAB) was founded in 1937 in Trollhättan, with the merger of SAAB and Linköping based ASJA the headquarters moved to Linköping. The style "Saab" replaced "SAAB" around 1950.
Originally manufacturing aeroplanes, the company sought ways in which to diversify its business and in the late 1940s began manufacturing cars. The Saab Automobile division was based in Trollhättan. The first car was the Saab 92; full-scale production started December 12, 1949, based on the prototype Ursaab. The company soon developed a reputation for safe and reliable cars, with a notable competition history.
In the late 1950s Saab ventured into the computer market with Datasaab. The company was a result partly of the need to make a computer that would be small enough to mount in an aeroplane as navigational equipment. During the 1960s several computers
Sweden (/ˈswiːdən/ SWEE-dən; Swedish: Sverige [ˈsværjɛ] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige (help·info)), is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders Norway and Finland, and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Øresund.
At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the third largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of about 9.5 million. Sweden has a low population density of 21 inhabitants per square kilometre (54 /sq mi) with the population mostly concentrated to the southern half of the country. About 85% of the population live in urban areas. Sweden's capital city is Stockholm, which is also the largest city.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages. In the 17th century, the country expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire. The empire grew to be one of the great powers of Europe in the 17th and early 18th century. Most of the conquered territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries. The eastern half of Sweden, present-day Finland, was lost to Russia in
Statistics Sweden (Swedish: Statistiska centralbyrån, SCB) is the Swedish government agency responsible for producing official statistics regarding Sweden. National statistics in Sweden date back to 1686 when the parishes of the Church of Sweden were ordered to start keeping records on the population. SCB's predecessor, the Office of Tables (Tabellverket), was set up in 1749, and the current name was adopted in 1858.
As of 2008, the agency had approximately 1,400 employees. The offices of the agency are located in Stockholm and Örebro. Statistics Sweden publishes the Journal of Official Statistics.
The Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Swedish: Svenskt Näringsliv, literally Swedish Commerce) is a major interest organisation for business and industry in Sweden. It has 48 member associations representing close to 55.000 member companies with more than 1.5 million employees.
The current organisation is the result of a merger between the Swedish Employers Association (Svenska Arbetsgivareföreningen, SAF) and the Swedish National Federation of Industry (Sveriges Industriförbund) that was completed in March 2001.
Like its predecessors, the organisation is actively lobbying for pro-business interests. Tax cuts, especially the abolition of property and inheritance taxes, is a main priority. The organisation also promotes letting private enterprises take over the production of a larger part of services today mainly performed by the Swedish public sector, such as education and health services.
The organisation's 200 employees work in the Stockholm main office, 22 regional offices in Sweden and the EU Brussels regional office. The current CEO is former Bank of Sweden governor Urban Bäckström, while ICA CEO and president Kenneth Bengtsson serves as the chairman of the board.
The United States Ambassador to Sweden serves as the chief representative of the United States Foreign Service to the Kingdom of Sweden, and 1814 to 1905, also to Norway, which was politically aligned with Sweden. Since the 1930s, the ambassador is resident in the ambassadorial residence, Villa Åkerlund, of the United States Embassy in Diplomatstaden, Stockholm.
AB Volvo is a Swedish manufacturer of trucks, buses and construction equipment, and a former manufacturer of cars. Volvo also supplies marine and industrial drive systems, and financial services. Although Volvo was incorporated in 1915 as a subsidiary of AB SKF, a Swedish ball bearing manufacturer, the auto manufacturer considers itself officially founded on 14 April 1927, when the first car, the Volvo ÖV 4 series, affectionately known as "Jakob", rolled out of the factory in Hisingen, Gothenburg.
Volvo means "I roll" in Latin, conjugated from "volvere", in relation to ball bearing. The name Volvo was originally registered in May 1911 as a separate company within SKF AB and as a registered trademark with the intention to be used for a special series of ball bearing, but this idea was only used for a short period of time and SKF decided to use "SKF" as the trademark for all its bearing products.
In 1924, Assar Gabrielsson, a SKF Sales Manager, and Engineer Gustav Larson, the two founders, decided to start construction of a Swedish car. Their vision was to build cars that could withstand the rigors of Sweden's rough roads and cold temperatures. This has become a trademark feature of
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use; the former precedes or follows the value, the latter usually follows it, but especially in the past, it sometimes preceded the value. In English, the currency is sometimes referred to as the Swedish crown, since krona literally means crown in Swedish.
One krona is subdivided into 100 öre (singular and plural; when referring to the currency unit itself, however, the plural is ören). However, all öre coins have been discontinued as of 30 September 2010. Goods can still be priced in öre, but all sums are rounded to the nearest krona when paying with cash.
The introduction of the krona, which replaced at par the riksdaler, was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which came into effect in 1873 and lasted until World War I. The parties to the union were the Scandinavian countries, where the name was krona in Sweden and krone in Denmark and Norway, which in English literally means "crown". The three currencies were on the gold standard, with the krona/krone defined as ⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold.
After dissolution of
The Wallenberg family (known as The Wallenbergs or simply Wallenbergs) is a prominent Swedish banking family, renowned as bankers, industrialists, politicians, diplomats and philanthropists. The most famous of the Wallenbergs, Raoul Wallenberg, a diplomat, worked in Budapest, Hungary, during World War II to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. Between July and December 1944, he issued protective passports and housed Jews, saving tens of thousands of Jewish lives. The Wallenberg sphere, an international banking- and industry group under the control of Wallenberg family through the holding company Investor AB, based in Stockholm, Sweden, is today Europe's largest family-controlled business empire. In Sweden alone, the sphere was estimated to indirectly control about a third of the national GDP in 1990.
Oldest known ancestor of the Wallenberg family is Per Hansson (1670–1741), who in 1692 married Kerstin Jacobsdotter Schuut (1671–1752). Their son, Jakob Persson Wallberg (1699–1758) had two marriages. In his first marriage the children called themselves Wallberg, and in his second Wallenberg. Jakob Persson Wallberg (1699–1758) was the great-grandfather to André Oscar Wallenberg, who in 1856
The industrialization of Sweden began in earnest after 1870. By the late 19th century, the first multinational companies based on advanced technology had emerged.
During the early phase of World War I, in which Sweden remained neutral, the country benefited from increasing demand. However, with the German submarine war, Sweden was cut off from its markets, which lead to a severe economic downturn. Between the world wars, major Swedish exports were steel, ball-bearings, wood pulp, and matches. Prosperity following World War II provided the foundations for the social welfare policies characteristic of modern Sweden.
Foreign policy concerns in the 1930s centered on Soviet and German expansionism, which stimulated abortive efforts at Nordic defence co-operation.
The main line railways were of major importance for the development of the Swedish industry. The two first main line railways were the Southern, stretching from Stockholm to Malmö in the south, and the Western, to Gothenburg in the west. They were finished between 1860-1864. The Northern railway runs along the Baltic coast up to Boden in northern Sweden, and was finished in 1894. The Inland Railway runs through the central
The American Swedish Institute (ASI) is a non-profit educational and research organization and museum in the Phillips West neighborhood of Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. The organization is dedicated to the preservation and study of the historic role Sweden and Americans of Swedish heritage have played in US culture and history. Its programs include the Svea Club, Swedish language-teaching society and the Turnblad Mansion Museum which features exhibits and special events.
The American Swedish Institute is housed in a turn of the 19th to 20th century mansion that was built for Swedish immigrants Swan and Christina Turnblad. Swan Turnblad immigrated with his family to the United States in 1868 at the age of eight. His parents made the decision to leave their farm in the famine-ridden area of Småland, Sweden. The family settled in a Swedish community called Vasa in southern Minnesota where they joined relatives who had settled in the area earlier.
Swan Turnblad was not content to continue in the family farming tradition. In 1879, Turnblad left Vasa for Minneapolis where he lived the quintessential rags-to-riches American success story. After he moved to Minneapolis, Turnblad
Johan August Strindberg ( pronounced (help·info); 22 January 1849 – 14 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter. A prolific writer who often drew directly on his personal experience, Strindberg's career spanned four decades, during which time he wrote over 60 plays and more than 30 works of fiction, autobiography, history, cultural analysis, and politics. A bold experimenter and iconoclast throughout, he explored a wide range of dramatic methods and purposes, from naturalistic tragedy, monodrama, and history plays, to his anticipations of expressionist and surrealist dramatic techniques. From his earliest work, Strindberg developed forms of dramatic action, language, and visual composition so innovative that many were to become technically possible to stage only with the advent of film. He is considered the "father" of modern Swedish literature and his The Red Room (1879) has frequently been described as the first modern Swedish novel.
In Sweden Strindberg is both known as a novelist and a playwright, but in most other countries he is almost only known as a playwright.
The Royal Theatre rejected his first major play, Master Olof, in 1872; it was not
Modern Sweden started out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. In the 17th century Sweden expanded its territories to form the Swedish empire. Most of these conquered territories had to be given up during the 18th century. In the early 19th century Finland and the remaining territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost. After its last war in 1814, Sweden entered into a personal union with Norway which lasted until 1905. Since 1814, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.
Sweden, as well as the adjacent country Norway, has a high concentration of petroglyphs (hällristningar in Swedish) throughout the country, with the highest concentration in the province of Bohuslän. The earliest images can, however, be found in the province of Jämtland, dating from 5000 BC. They depict wild animals such as elk, reindeer, bears and seals. The period 2300–500 BC was the most intensive carving period, with carvings of agriculture, warfare, ships, domesticated animals, etc. Also, petroglyphs with themes of sexual nature have been found in Bohuslän;
SVT1 is the primary television station of the Swedish public service broadcaster Sveriges Television in Sweden.
The channel began broadcasting in 1956 and was known as Radiotjänst TV, A year later, it was renamed Sveriges Radio TV. In 1969, the second television station TV2 was launched and the existing channel became TV1. Both channels became a part of Sveriges Television (SVT) on 1 July 1979.
When SVT reorganised the two stations in 1987, TV1 would only broadcast programmes produced in Stockholm. In 1996, the channels were reorganised again and renamed SVT1 and SVT2. Another reorganisation took place in 2001 with the primary target of making SVT1 the most popular television channel in Sweden.
SVT's main entertainment shows, the most popular being Melodifestivalen, Så ska det låta and På spåret are broadcast on this channel. Since 2006, SVT1 has fallen behind to commercial rival, TV4 in terms of audience share (22.2% for TV4 as opposed to SVT1's 19%).
On weekdays, a typical broadcast day on SVT1 begins with the breakfast programme Gomorron Sverige (Good Morning Sweden) before the station hands over to the educational broadcasting company Utbildningsradion at 9:30am. SVT1 resumes
TV6 is an entertainment television channel broadcasting to Sweden (but also technically possible - albeit not strictly legally - to receive in the surrounding countries of Finland, Norway, Denmark, parts of Germany, Poland, Russia and the Baltic countries, through the Sirius satellite) and now most of Europe through the Thor 2 satellite. It is owned by Modern Times Group.
The channel has origins in the youth channel ZTV that started broadcasting in the early 1990s. In 2004, MTG started repositioning the channel by introducing sports broadcasts and other programming that mainly targeted men.
In February 2006, MTG received a license to broadcast a channel called TV6 in the terrestrial network. This channel would take over virtually all ZTV programming, except the music videos that ZTV showed during the day. TV6 launched in May 2006 and simultaneously replaced ZTV in most cable networks. When ZTV was rebranded as TV6, a new ZTV channel started that only showed music videos.
TV6 focuses on entertainment and occasional but high-profile sports broadcasts (like the UEFA Champions League), comedy, Sitcoms, action, science ficiton and reality programmes from the USA are popular fixtures.
Ernst Ingmar Bergman (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈɪŋmar ˈbærjman] ( listen); 14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer and producer for film, stage and television. Described by Woody Allen as "probably the greatest film artist, all things considered, since the invention of the motion picture camera," he is recognized as one of the most accomplished and influential film directors of all time.
He directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television, most of which he also wrote. He also directed over one hundred and seventy plays. Among his company of actors were Harriet Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar Björnstrand, Bibi Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in the landscape of Sweden. His major subjects were death, illness, faith, betrayal, and insanity.
Bergman was active for more than six decades. In 1976 his career was seriously threatened as the result of a botched criminal investigation for alleged income tax evasion. Outraged, Bergman suspended a number of pending productions, closed his studios, and went into self-imposed exile in Germany for eight years.
Ingmar Bergman was born in
New Sweden is a small unincorporated community in northeast Travis County, Texas, United States.
The community was established in 1873 and was known then as Knight's Ranch. The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Congregation was established on February 23,1876 and initially carried the name Manor until 1887 when it was renamed and took the name, New Sweden. With the establishment of the New Sweden Lutheran Church, the community became known as New Sweden. A cotton gin began operation at New Sweden in 1882, and a post office opened in 1887.
Sveriges Television AB (SVT, Pronunciation (help·info)), Sweden's Television, is a national television broadcaster based in Sweden, funded by a compulsory fee to be paid by all television owners. The Swedish public broadcasting system is in several respects modeled after the one used in the United Kingdom, and Sveriges Television shares many traits with its British counterpart, the BBC.
SVT is a public limited company and is owned by an independent foundation, Förvaltningsstiftelsen för Sveriges Radio AB. This foundation's members are politicians appointed by the government. It is funded through a special licensing fee, which is allocated by the Swedish Riksdag. SVTs regulatory framework is by Swedish law and has its board and chairman appointed by the Swedish government. It is now separate from, but was until 1979 part of, Sveriges Radio, which is the public radio broadcaster. Its status could be described as that of a quasi-autonomous non-government organization.
SVT maintained a monopoly in domestic terrestrial broadcasting from the start in 1956 until the privately held TV4 started broadcasting terrestrially in 1992. It is barred from accepting advertisements except in the
The economy of Sweden is a developed diverse economy, aided by timber, hydropower and iron ore. These constitute the resource base of an economy oriented toward foreign trade. The main industries include motor vehicles, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, industrial machines, precision equipments, chemical goods, home goods and appliances, forestry, iron and steel.
Because Sweden, as a neutral country, did not actively participate in World War II, it did not have to rebuild its economic base, banking system, and country as a whole, as many other European countries did. Sweden has achieved a high standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden has the second highest total tax revenue behind Denmark, as a share of the country's income. As of 2011, total tax revenue was 44.4% of GDP, down from 48.3% in 2006.
In the 19th century Sweden evolved from a largely agricultural economy into the beginnings of an industrialized, urbanized country. Poverty was still widespread in sections of the population. However, incomes were sufficiently high to finance emigration to distant places, prompting a large portion of the country to leave,
Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg; pronounced [jœtəˈbɔrj] ( listen)) is the second largest city in Sweden by population and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated on the west coast of Sweden, the city proper has a population of 522,259, with 549,839 in the urban area and total of 938,580 inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg is classified as a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of Gamma−.
The City of Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. It lies by the sea at the mouth of Göta Älv—the river running through the city—and is the largest seaport in the Nordic countries.
Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes both the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927. The city is a major centre in Sweden for sports and home to the IFK Göteborg, BK Häcken, GAIS and Örgryte IS association football teams as well as the Frölunda HC ice hockey team.
Gothenburg is served by Gothenburg-Landvetter Airport, located 30 km (18.64 mi) southeast of the city centre. It is the second largest airport in Sweden. The city is also served by Gothenburg City Airport, located 15 km (9.32 mi) from
During the Swedish immigration to the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries, about 1.3 million Swedes left Sweden for the United States. The main "pull" was the availability of low cost, high quality farm land in the upper Midwest (the area from Illinois to Montana), and high paying jobs in mechanical industries and factories in Chicago, Minneapolis, Worcester and many smaller cities. The American environment also provided low taxes and no established state church or monarchy. Push factors inside Sweden included population growth and crop failures. Most migration was of the chain form, with early settlers giving reports and recommendations (and travel money) to relatives and friends in Sweden.
Swedish migration peaked 1870-1900. By 1890 the U.S. census reported a Swedish-American population of nearly 800,000. Most immigrants became classic pioneers, clearing and cultivating the prairies of the Great Plains, while others remained in the cities, particularly Chicago. Single young women usually went straight from agricultural work in the Swedish countryside to jobs as housemaids. Many established Swedish Americans visited the old country in the later 19th century, their
Alfred Bernhard Nobel ([äl'fred bern'härd nōbel'] listen (help·info)) (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer. He was the inventor of dynamite. Nobel also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannon and other armaments. Nobel held 350 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. He used his fortune to posthumously institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic element nobelium was named after him. His name also survives in modern-day companies such as Dynamit Nobel and Akzo Nobel, which are descendants of the companies Nobel himself established.
Born in Stockholm, Alfred Nobel was the fourth son of Immanuel Nobel (1801–1872), an inventor and engineer, and Andriette Ahlsell Nobel (1805–1889). The couple married in 1827 and had eight children. The family was impoverished, and only Alfred and his three brothers survived past childhood. Through his father, Alfred Nobel was a descendant of the Swedish scientist Olaus Rudbeck (1630–1702), and in his turn the boy was interested in engineering, particularly explosives, learning the