Best Software used in a Nix Derivation of All Time
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nss-mdns is a plugin for the GNU Name Service Switch (NSS) functionality of the GNU C Library (glibc) providing host name resolution via Multicast DNS (aka Zeroconf, aka Apple Rendezvous, aka Apple Bonjour), effectively allowing name resolution by common Unix/Linux programs in the ad-hoc mDNS domain .local.
Wireless tools for Linux is a package of Linux commands (simple text-based utilities/tools) intended to support and facilitate the configuration of wireless devices using the Linux Wireless Extension. The Wireless tools for Linux and Linux Wireless Extension are maintained by Jean Tourrilhes and sponsored by Hewlett-Packard.
It is included with most operating system distributions built on the Linux kernel. In many Linux distributions, this package is included by default, or based on whether a wireless card is present. If it is not automatically installed by the distribution, it is usually easy to find in binary form.
Due to the relative complexity of requiring several separate commands for one task (e.g. iwlist and iwconfig to find and sync with a wireless access point), some recommend using frontends provided by GNOME and KDE, or an application called NetGo, to manipulate these settings.
ifrename allows to rename wireless network interfaces based on various static criteria to assign a consistent name to each interface.
By default, interface names are dynamic, and each network adapter is assigned the first available name (eth0, eth1...) while the order network interfaces are
Cron is the time-based job scheduler in Unix-like computer operating systems. cron enables users to schedule jobs (commands or shell scripts) to run periodically at certain times or dates. It is commonly used to automate system maintenance or administration, though its general-purpose nature means that it can be used for other purposes, such as connecting to the Internet and downloading email.
Cron is driven by a crontab (cron table) file, a configuration file that specifies shell commands to run periodically on a given schedule. The crontab files are stored where the lists of jobs and other instructions to the cron daemon are kept. Users can have their own individual crontab files and often there is a system wide crontab file (usually in /etc or a subdirectory of /etc) which only system administrators can edit.
Each line of a crontab file represents a job and is composed of a CRON expression, followed by a shell command to execute. Some implementations of cron, such as that in the popular 4th BSD edition written by Paul Vixie and included in many Linux distributions, add a sixth field to the format: an account username that the specified job will be run by (subject to user
procps is the package that has a bunch of small useful utilities that give information about processes using the /proc filesystem. The package includes the programs ps, top, vmstat, w, kill, free, slabtop, and skill.
sudo ( /ˈsuːduː/ or /ˈsuːdoʊ/) is a program for Unix-like computer operating systems that allows users to run programs with the security privileges of another user (normally the superuser, or root). Its name is a concatenation of the su command (which grants the user a shell of another user, normally the superuser) and "do", or take action.
Unlike the su command, users typically supply their own password to sudo rather than the root password. After authentication, and if the /etc/sudoers configuration file permits the user access, then the system will invoke the requested command.
The program was originally written by Bob Coggeshall and Cliff Spencer "around 1980" at the Department of Computer Science at SUNY/Buffalo. The current version is under active development and is maintained by OpenBSD developer Todd C. Miller and distributed under a BSD-style license.
In November 2009 Thomas Claburn, in response to fears that Microsoft had patented the sudo command, found the suspicions to be overblown. The claims were narrowly framed to a particular GUI, rather than to the sudo concept.
Unlike the su command, users typically supply their own password to sudo. After authentication, and if
The PCI Utilities are a collection of programs for inspecting and manipulating configuration of PCI devices, all based on a common portable library libpci which offers access to the PCI configuration space on a variety of operating systems.
cURL is a computer software project providing a library and command-line tool for transferring data using various protocols. The cURL project produces two products, libcurl and cURL. It was first released in 1997.
A free client-side URL transfer library, supporting FTP, FTPS, Gopher, HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, TFTP, Telnet, DICT, the file URI scheme, LDAP, LDAPS, IMAP, POP3, SMTP and RTSP. The library supports HTTPS certificates, HTTP POST, HTTP PUT, FTP uploading, Kerberos, HTTP form based upload, proxies, cookies, user-plus-password authentication, file transfer resume, and HTTP proxy tunneling.
The libcurl library is portable. It builds and works identically on several platforms, including Solaris, NetBSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Darwin, HPUX, IRIX, AIX, Tru64, Linux, UnixWare, HURD, Windows, Symbian, Amiga, OS/2, BeOS, Mac OS X, Ultrix, QNX, BlackBerry Tablet OS, OpenVMS, RISC OS, Novell NetWare, DOS and more.
The libcurl library is free, thread-safe, IPv6 compatible, and fast. Bindings in more than 40 languages are available for libcurl, including C/C++, Java, PHP and Python.
The libcurl library can support SSL/TLS through OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS, CyaSSL, QSSL, PolarSSL, axTLS. The
Init is the parent of all processes. Its primary role is to create processes from a script stored in the file /etc/inittab. This package also contains well known and used utilities like reboot, shutdown, killall, poweroff, tellinit, sulogin, wall, etc.
The `time' command runs another program, then displays information about the resources used by that program, collected by the system while the program was running. You can select which information is reported and the format in which it is shown, or have `time' save the information in a file instead of displaying it on the screen.
e2fsprogs (sometimes called the e2fs programs) is a set of utilities for maintaining the ext2, ext3 and ext4 file systems. Since those file systems are often the default for Linux distributions, it is commonly considered to be essential software.
Included with e2fsprogs are:
Many of these utilities are based on the libext2fs library.
Despite what its name might suggest, the e2fsprogs work not only with ext2 and ext3 but also with ext4. Although ext3's journaling capability can reduce the need to use e2fsck, it is sometimes still necessary to help protect from kernel bugs or bad hardware.
With ext4 the e2fsck runtime should come down considerably.
As the userspace companion for the ext2, ext3, and ext4 drivers in the Linux kernel, the e2fsprogs are most commonly used with GNU/Linux. However, they have been ported to other systems, such as FreeBSD and Darwin.
The Network Time Protocol daemon (ntpd) is an operating system daemon program that maintains the system time in synchronization with time servers using the Network Time Protocol (NTP).
The ntpd program is an operating system daemon that sets and maintains the system time in synchronization with Internet standard time servers. It is complete implementation of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) version 4, but retains compatibility with version 3, as defined by RFC 1305, and version 1 and 2, as defined by RFC 1059 and RFC 1119, respectively. ntpd performs most computations in 64-bit floating point arithmetic and uses 64-bit fixed point operations only when necessary to preserve the ultimate precision, about 232 picoseconds. While the ultimate precision is not achievable with ordinary workstations and networks of today, it may be required with future processors and networks.
xntpd is the Network Time Protocol version three daemon software. The "x" was added to the name because the branch of code that eventually became NTPv3 was "experimental". The name of the software was changed back to "ntpd" for version four because the NTP creator, Dave Mills, decided that something probably should
The module-init-tools (m-i-t) package provides many of the utilities needed by Linux systems for managing loadable Linux Kernel Modules. This includes depmod, insmod, rmmod, modprobe and tools like modinfo. You usually won't have to build and install this package for yourself because it's part of every major Linux distribution.
ncurses (new curses) is a programming library that provides an API which allows the programmer to write text-based user interfaces in a terminal-independent manner. It is a toolkit for developing "GUI-like" application software that runs under a terminal emulator. It also optimizes screen changes, in order to reduce the latency experienced when using remote shells.
The N in ncurses comes from the word new. This is because ncurses is a free software emulation (clone) of the System V Release 4.0 (SVr4) curses, which was itself an enhancement over the discontinued classic 4.4 BSD curses. The XSI Curses standard issued by X/Open is explicitly and closely modeled on System V.
The first curses library was developed at the University of California at Berkeley, for a BSD operating system, around 1980 to support a screen-oriented game. It originally used the termcap library, which was used in other programs, such as the vi editor.
The success of the BSD curses library prompted Bell Labs to release an enhanced curses library in their System III and System V Release 1 Unix systems. This library was more powerful and instead of using termcap, it used terminfo. However, due to AT&T policy
pwdutils is a collection of utilities to manage the passwd and shadow user information. The difference to the shadow suite is that these utilities can also modify the information stored in NIS, NIS+, or LDAP. PAM is used for user authentication and changing the pasword. It contains passwd, chage, chfn, chsh, and a daemon for changing the password on a remote machine over a secure SSL connection. The daemon also uses PAM so that it can change passwords independent of where they are stored.
less is a terminal pager program on Unix, Windows, and Unix-like systems used to view (but not change) the contents of a text file one screen at a time. It is similar to more, but has the extended capability of allowing both forward and backward navigation through the file. Unlike most Unix text editors/viewers, less does not need to read the entire file before starting, resulting in faster load times with large files.
Mark Nudelman initially wrote less during 1983-85, in the need of a version of more able to do backward scrolling of the displayed text. The name came from the joke of doing "backwards more." To help remember the difference between less and more, a common joke is to say, "less > more," implying that less has greater functionality than more. A similar saying is that "less is more, more or less". less is included in most Unix and Unix-like systems.
less can be invoked with options to change its behaviour, for example, the number of lines to display on the screen. A few options vary depending on the operating system. While less is displaying the file, various commands can be used to navigate through the file. These commands are based on those used by both more and vi.
The net-tools package contains a collection of programs that form the base set of the NET-3 networking distribution for the Linux operating system. It contains the important tools for controlling the network subsystem of the Linux kernel including arp, hostname, ifconfig, netstat, rarp and route.
bzip2 is a free and open source file compressor that uses the Burrows–Wheeler algorithm. It is developed and maintained by Julian Seward. Seward made the first public release of bzip2, version 0.15, in July 1996. The compressor's stability and popularity grew over the next several years, and Seward released version 1.0 in late 2000.
Like gzip, it is only a compressor for single files and not a full archiver.
bzip2 compresses most files more effectively than the older LZW (.Z) and Deflate (.zip and .gz) compression algorithms, but is considerably slower. LZMA is generally more space-efficient than bzip2 at the expense of slower compression speed, while having much faster decompression.
bzip2 compresses data in blocks of size between 100 and 900 kB and uses the Burrows–Wheeler transform to convert frequently-recurring character sequences into strings of identical letters. It then applies move-to-front transform and Huffman coding. bzip2's ancestor bzip used arithmetic coding instead of Huffman. The change was made because of a software patent restriction.
bzip2 performance is asymmetric, as decompression is relatively fast. Motivated by the large CPU time required for compression, a
The seccure toolset implements a selection of asymmetric algorithms based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). In particular it offers public key encryption / decryption, signature generation / verification and key establishment.
Sed (streams editor) isn't really a true text editor or text processor. Instead, it is used to filter text, i.e., it takes text input and performs some operation (or set of operations) on it and outputs the modified text. Sed is typically used for extracting part of a file using pattern matching or substituting multiple occurrences of a string within a file.
nano is a text editor for Unix-like computing systems or operating environments using a command line interface. It emulates the Pico text editor, part of the Pine email client, and also provides additional functionality. In contrast to Pico, nano is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). Released as free software by Chris Allegretta in 1999, today nano is part of the GNU Project.
nano was first created in 1999 with the name TIP (This isn't Pico), by Chris Allegretta. His motivation was to create a free software replacement for Pico, which was not distributed under a free software license. The name was changed to nano on January 10, 2000 to avoid a naming conflict with the existing Unix utility tip. The name comes from the system of SI prefixes, in which nano is 1000 times larger than pico. In February 2001, nano became a part of the GNU Project.
nano implements some features that Pico lacks, including colored text, regular expression search and replace, smooth scrolling, multiple buffers, rebindable key support, and (experimental) undoing and redoing of edit changes.
On August 11, 2003, Chris Allegretta officially handed the source code maintenance for nano to David
The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, needed for Unix-like operating systems. It is a combination of a number of earlier packages, including textutils, shellutils, and fileutils, along with some other miscellaneous utilities.
The GNU core utilities support long options as parameters to the commands, as well as (unless the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is set) the relaxed convention allowing options even after the regular arguments. Note that this environment variable enables a different functionality in BSD.
The GNU C Library, commonly known as glibc, is the GNU Project's implementation of the C standard library. Originally written by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU operating system, the library's development had been overseen by a committee since 2001, with Ulrich Drepper as the lead contributor and maintainer. In March 2012, the steering committee voted to disband itself, in favor of a community-driven development process, with Ryan Arnold, Maxim Kuvyrkov, Joseph Myers, Carlos O'Donell, and Alexandre Oliva as non-decision making project stewards.
Released under the GNU Lesser General Public License, glibc is free software.
glibc was initially written mostly by Roland McGrath, working for the Free Software Foundation (FSF) in the 1980s.
In February 1988, FSF described glibc as having nearly completed the functionality required by ANSI C. By 1992, it had the ANSI C-1989 and POSIX.1-1990 functions implemented and work was under way on POSIX.2.
In the early 1990s, the developers of the Linux kernel forked glibc. Their fork, called "Linux libc", was maintained separately for years and released versions 2 through 5.
When FSF released glibc 2.0 in January 1997, it had much
The Tar program provides the ability to create tar archives, as well as various other kinds of manipulation. For example, you can use Tar on previously created archives to extract files, to store additional files, or to update or list files which were already stored. Initially, tar archives were used to store files conveniently on magnetic tape. The name "Tar" comes from this use; it stands for tape archiver. Despite the utility's name, Tar can direct its output to available devices, files, or other programs (using pipes), it can even access remote devices or files (as archives).
OpenSSH (OpenBSD Secure Shell) is a set of computer programs providing encrypted communication sessions over a computer network using the SSH protocol. It was created as an open source alternative to the proprietary Secure Shell software suite offered by SSH Communications Security.
OpenSSH is developed as part of the security conscious OpenBSD project, which is led by Theo de Raadt. The project's development is funded via donations.
OpenSSH was created by the OpenBSD team as an alternative to the original SSH software by Tatu Ylönen, which is now proprietary software. Although source code is available for the original SSH, various restrictions are imposed on its use and distribution. The OpenSSH developers claim that it is more secure than the original, due to their policy of producing clean and audited code and because is released under the BSD license, the open source license to which the word open in the name refers.
OpenSSH first appeared in OpenBSD 2.6 and the first portable release was made in October 1999.
OpenSSH is developed as part of the OpenBSD operating system. Rather than including changes for other operating systems directly into OpenSSH, a separate
LVM is a logical volume manager for the Linux kernel; it manages disk drives and similar mass-storage devices. The term "volume" refers to a disk drive or partition thereof. It was originally written in 1998 by Heinz Mauelshagen, who based its design on that of the LVM in HP-UX.
The abbreviation "LVM" can also refer to the Logical Volume Management available in HP-UX, IBM AIX and OS/2 operating systems.
The installers for the Arch Linux, CrunchBang, CentOS, Debian, Fedora, Gentoo, Mandriva, MontaVista Linux, openSUSE, Pardus, Slackware, SLED, SLES, and Ubuntu distributions are LVM-aware and can install a bootable system with a root filesystem on a logical volume.
LVM is suitable for:
One can think of LVM as a thin software layer on top of the hard disks and partitions, which creates an illusion of continuity and ease-of-use for managing hard-drive replacement, repartitioning, and backup.
The LVM can:
The LVM will also work in a shared-storage cluster (where disks holding the PVs are shared between multiple host computers), but requires an additional daemon to propagate state changes between cluster nodes.
LVM does not:
LVM keeps a metadata header at the start of every physical
Bash is a Unix shell written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell (sh). Released in 1989, it has been distributed widely as the shell for the GNU operating system and as the default shell on Linux and Mac OS X. It has been ported to Microsoft Windows and distributed with Cygwin and MinGW, to DOS by the DJGPP project, to Novell NetWare and to Android via various terminal emulation applications.
Bash is a command processor, typically run in a text window, allowing the user to type commands which cause actions. Bash can also read commands from a file, called a script. Like all Unix shells, it supports filename wildcarding, piping, here documents, command substitution, variables and control structures for condition-testing and iteration. The keywords, syntax and other basic features of the language were all copied from sh. Other features, e.g., history, were copied from csh and ksh. Bash is a POSIX shell but with a number of extensions.
The name itself is an acronym, a pun, and a description. As an acronym, it stands for Bourne-again shell, referring to its objective as a free replacement for the Bourne shell. As a pun, it expressed that
The resolution of the entities defined in RFC 2307 is generally performed by a set of UNIX C library calls (such as getpwnam() to return the attributes of a user). The nss_ldap module provides the means for Solaris and Linux workstations to this information (such as users, hosts, and groups) from LDAP directories. The module is the reference implementation of RFC 2307, and has been studied by vendors such as Sun (who developed the original Name Service Switch interface).
strace is a debugging utility for Linux and some other Unix-like systems to monitor the system calls used by a program and all the signals it receives, similar to "truss" utility in other Unix systems. This is made possible by a kernel feature known as ptrace.
A similar utility is provided by Cygwin.
The most common usage is to start a program using strace, which prints a list of system calls made by the program. This is useful if the program continually crashes, or does not behave as expected; for example using strace may reveal that the program is attempting to access a file which does not exist or cannot be read.
An alternative application is to use the -p flag to attach to a running process. This is useful if a process has stopped responding, and might reveal, for example, that the process is blocking whilst attempting to make a network connection.
As strace only details system calls it cannot be used to detect as many problems as a code debugger such as GNU Debugger (gdb). It is, however, easier to use than a code debugger, and is an extremely useful tool for system administrators.
The following is an example of typical output of the strace command :
The above fragment is only
Perl is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.
Though Perl is not officially an acronym, there are various backronyms in usage, such as: Practical Extraction and Reporting Language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. The latest major stable revision is 5.16, released in May 2012. Perl 6 is a complete redesign of the language, announced in 2000 and still under active development as of 2012.
Perl borrows features from other programming languages including C, shell scripting (sh), AWK, and sed. The language provides powerful text processing facilities without the arbitrary data length limits of many contemporary Unix tools, facilitating easy manipulation of text files. Perl gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language, in part due to its parsing abilities.
In addition to CGI, Perl is used for graphics programming, system administration, network programming, finance, bioinformatics, and other applications. Perl is nicknamed "the Swiss Army chainsaw of scripting languages"
Avahi is a free zeroconf implementation, including a system for multicast DNS/DNS-SD service discovery. It is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).
Avahi allows programs to publish and discover services and hosts running on a local network with no specific configuration. For example, a user can plug their computer into a network and Avahi automatically finds printers to print to, files to look at and people to talk to, as well as advertising the network services running on the machine.
Avahi implements the Apple Zeroconf specification, mDNS, DNS-SD and RFC 3927/IPv4LL. Other implementations include Apple's Bonjour framework (the mDNSResponder component of which is licensed under the Apache License).
Avahi provides a set of language bindings (Python, Mono, etc.) and ships with most Linux and *BSD distributions. Because of its modularized architecture, major desktop components like GNOME's Virtual File System and the KDE input/output architecture already integrate Avahi.
The Avahi project was originally started due to Apple's Zeroconf implementation, Bonjour, being licensed with the GPL incompatible Apple Public Source License. Since then, parts of Bonjour have
ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser. ReiserFS is currently supported on Linux (without quota support). Introduced in version 2.4.1 of the Linux kernel, it was the first journaling file system to be included in the standard kernel. ReiserFS is the default file system on the Elive, Xandros, Linspire, GoboLinux, and Yoper Linux distributions. ReiserFS was the default file system in Novell's SUSE Linux Enterprise until Novell decided to move to ext3 on October 12, 2006 for future releases.
Namesys considered ReiserFS (now occasionally referred to as Reiser3) stable and feature-complete and, with the exception of security updates and critical bug fixes, ceased development on it to concentrate on its successor, Reiser4. Namesys went out of business in 2008 after Reiser was charged for the murder of his wife. However, volunteers continue to work on the open source project.
At the time of its introduction, ReiserFS offered features that had not been available in existing Linux file systems:
Compared with ext2 and ext3 in version 2.4 of the Linux kernel, when dealing with files under 4 KiB and with
Kernel and system logging daemonsThis package implements two system log daemons. The syslogd daemon is an enhanced version of the standard Berkeley utility program. This daemon is responsible for providing logging of messages received from programs and facilities on the local host as well as from remote hosts.The klogd daemon listens to kernel message sources and is responsible for prioritizing and processing operating system messages. The klogd daemon can run as a client of syslogd or optionally as a standalone program. Klogd can now be used to decode EIP addresses if it can determine a System.map file.
Netcat is a featured networking utility which reads and writes data across network connections, using the TCP/IP protocol. It is designed to be a reliable "back-end" tool that can be used directly or easily driven by other programs and scripts. At the same time, it is a feature-rich network debugging and exploration tool, since it can create almost any kind of connection you would need and has several interesting built-in capabilities.
udev is the device manager for the Linux kernel. Primarily, it manages device nodes in /dev. It is the successor of devfs and hotplug, which means that it handles the /dev directory and all user space actions when adding/removing devices, including firmware load.
udev was introduced in Linux 2.5.
The Linux kernel version 2.6.13 introduced or updated a new version of the uevent interface. A system using a new version of udev will not boot with kernels older than 2.6.13 unless udev is disabled and a traditional /dev directory is used for device access.
In April 2012, udev's source tree was merged into systemd.
Unlike traditional Unix systems, where the device nodes in the /dev directory have been a static set of files, the Linux udev device manager dynamically provides only the nodes for the devices actually present on a system. Although devfs used to provide similar functionality, advocates of udev cited a number of reasons for preferring its implementation over devfs:
udev is a generic kernel device manager. It runs as a daemon on a Linux system and listens (via netlink socket) to uevents the kernel sends out if a new device is initialized or a device is removed from the system.
mdadm is a Linux utility used to manage software RAID devices.
The name is derived from the md (multiple device) device nodes it administers or manages, and it replaced a previous utility mdctl. The original name was "Mirror Disk", but was changed as the functionality increased.
It is free software licensed under version 2 or later of the GNU General Public License - maintained and copyrighted to Neil Brown of SUSE.
mdadm can handle anything which presents to the kernel as a block device. This can encompass whole disks (/dev/sda) and partitions (/dev/sda1).
(Note that "RAID 10" is distinct from RAID "0+1", which consists of a top-level RAID-1 mirror composed of high-performance RAID-0 stripes directly across the physical hard disks. A single-drive failure in a RAID 10 configuration results in one of the lower-level mirrors entering degraded mode, but the top-level stripe performing normally (except for the performance hit). A single-drive failure in a RAID 0+1 configuration results in one of the lower-level stripes completely failing, and the top-level mirror entering degraded mode. Which of the two setups is preferable depends on the details of the application in question, such as
GNU GRUB (short for GNU GRand Unified Bootloader) is a boot loader package from the GNU Project. GRUB is the reference implementation of the Multiboot Specification, which provides a user the choice to boot one of multiple operating systems installed on a computer or select a specific kernel configuration available on a particular operating system's partitions.
GNU GRUB was developed from a package called the Grand Unified Bootloader (a play on Grand Unified Theory). It is predominantly used for Unix-like systems. The GNU operating system uses GNU GRUB as its boot loader, as do most Linux distributions. The Solaris operating system has used GRUB as its boot loader on x86 systems, starting with the Solaris 10 1/06 release.
GRUB was initially developed by Erich Boleyn as part of work on booting the operating system GNU/Hurd, developed by the Free Software Foundation. In 1999, Gordon Matzigkeit and Yoshinori K. Okuji made GRUB an official software package of the GNU Project and opened the development process to the public.
Users can dynamically configure the GRUB sub-system. GRUB loads its configuration at startup, allowing boot-time changes, such as selecting different kernels or
extremely simple MTA to get mail off the system to a mail hubA secure, effective and simple way of getting mail off a system to your mail hub. It contains no suid-binaries or other dangerous things - no mail spool to poke around in, and no daemons running in the background. Mail is simply forwarded to the configured mailhost. Extremely easy configuration.
gzip (GNU zip) is a popular data compression program written by Jean-loup Gailly for the GNU project. Mark Adler wrote the decompression part. We developed this program as a replacement for compress because of the Unisys and IBM patents covering the LZW algorithm used by compress. These patents made it impossible for us to use compress, and we needed a replacement. The superior compression ratio of gzip is just a bonus.
rsync is a software application and network protocol for Unix-like systems with ports to Windows that synchronizes files and directories from one location to another while minimizing data transfer by using delta encoding when appropriate. Quoting the official website: "rsync is a file transfer program for Unix systems. rsync uses the 'rsync algorithm' which provides a very fast method for bringing remote files into sync." An important feature of rsync not found in most similar programs/protocols is that the mirroring takes place with only one transmission in each direction. rsync can copy or display directory contents and copy files, optionally using compression and recursion.
In daemon mode, rsync listens on the default TCP port of 873, serving files in the native rsync protocol or via a remote shell such as RSH or SSH. In the latter case, the rsync client executable must be installed on the remote machine as well as on the local machine.
Released under the GNU General Public License version 3, rsync is free software. It is widely used.
Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras wrote the original rsync. Tridgell discusses the design, implementation and performance of rsync in chapters 3
Upstart is an event-based replacement for the traditional init daemon — the method by which several Unix-like computer operating systems perform tasks when the computer is started. It was written by Scott James Remnant, a former employee of Canonical Ltd.
The traditional init process is strictly synchronous, blocking future tasks until the current one has completed. Its tasks must also be defined in advance, and they only run when the init daemon changes state (such as when the machine is powered on or off). This leaves it unable to handle various tasks on a modern desktop computer elegantly, including:
Upstart's event-driven model allows it to respond to events asynchronously as they are generated.
Upstart operates asynchronously — as well as handling the starting of tasks and services during boot and stopping them during shutdown, it supervises them while the system is running.
Easy transition and perfect backwards compatibility with sysvinit were explicit design goals. As such, Upstart is able to run sysvinit scripts unmodified. In this way it differs from most other init replacements, which usually assume and require complete transition to run properly, and don't support a
util-linux (with lower case 'u') is a standard package of the Linux operating system. A fork, util-linux-ng—with ng meaning "next generation"—was created when development stalled, but as of January 2011 has been renamed back to util-linux, and is the official version of the package.
It includes the following utilities:
Utilities that used to be included, but are now removed: