This type links software to particular uses of software. For example, database software linked to named databases.
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An HTML form on a web page allows a user to enter data that is sent to a server for processing. Forms resemble paper or database forms because web users fill out the forms using checkboxes, radio buttons, or text fields. For example, forms can be used to enter shipping or credit card data to order a product, or can be used to retrieve search results from a search engine).
Forms are enclosed in the HTML form tag. This tag specifies the communication endpoint the data entered into the form should be submitted to, and the method of submitting it, GET or POST.
Forms can be made up of standard graphical user interface elements:
The sample image on the right shows all of these elements:
These basic elements provide most common graphical user interface (GUI) elements, but not all. For example, there are no equivalents to a combo box, tree view, or grid view.
Used for conservation project(s):Virginia Avian Heritage
Microsoft Excel is a commercial spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications. It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has almost completely replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office. The current versions are 2010 for Microsoft Windows and 2011 for Mac OS X.
Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display. It allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors for different perspectives (using pivot tables and the scenario manager). It has a programming aspect, Visual Basic for Applications, allowing
Used for conservation project(s):Northern Saw-whet Owl Surveys
Microsoft Word is a proprietary word processor designed by Microsoft. It was first released in 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems. Subsequent versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), the Apple Macintosh (1984), the AT&T Unix PC (1985), Atari ST (1986), SCO UNIX, OS/2, and Microsoft Windows (1989). It is a component of the Microsoft Office software system; it is also sold as a standalone product and included in Microsoft Works Suite. The current versions are Microsoft Office Word 2010 for Windows and Microsoft Office Word 2011 for Mac. (These versions differ.)
In 1981, Microsoft hired Charles Simonyi, the primary developer of Bravo, the first GUI word processor, which was developed at Xerox PARC. Simonyi started work on a word processor called Multi-Tool Word and soon hired Richard Brodie, a former Xerox intern, who became the primary software engineer.
Microsoft announced Multi-Tool Word for Xenix and MS-DOS in 1983. Its name was soon simplified to Microsoft Word. Free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 issue of PC World, making it the first program to be distributed
The Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.
Larry Ellison and his friends, former co-workers Bob Miner and Ed Oates, started the consultancy Software Development Laboratories (SDL) in 1977. SDL developed the original version of the Oracle software. The name Oracle comes from the code-name of a CIA-funded project Ellison had worked on while previously employed by Ampex.
An Oracle database system—identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID—comprises at least one instance of the application, along with data storage. An instance—identified persistently by an instantiation number (or activation id: SYS.V_$DATABASE.ACTIVATION#)—comprises a set of operating-system processes and memory-structures that interact with the storage. (Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor).) Oracle documentation can refer to an active database instance as a "shared memory realm".
Users of Oracle databases refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information
Database topic(s):USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd, of IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory. Most popular databases currently in use are based on the relational database model.
In 1974, IBM began developing System R, a research project to develop a prototype RDBMS. Its first commercial product was SQL/DS, released in 1981. However, the first commercially available RDBMS was Oracle, released in 1979 by Relational Software, now Oracle Corporation.
Database topic(s):Ornithological Information System
DiGIR is a protocol and a set of tools for linking a community of independent databases into a single, searchable “virtual” collection. The DiGIR protocol was developed by BRC Informatics in collaboration with the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at UC Berkeley and the California Academy of Sciences. DiGIR is currently a public open source project with an international team of contributers, including Centro de Referência em Informação Ambiental (CRIA), Brazil. DiGIR provides a uniform interface for managing XML-based search requests to a community of dissimilar data sources. Each institution in the DiGIR community implements an interface application called a DiGIR provider. The DiGIR provider hides the details of the underlying database and presents a uniform “virtual” view of the data to the network.
Used for conservation project(s):Population genetics of selected Appalachian species
Microsoft Access, also known as Microsoft Office Access, is a database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software-development tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office suite of applications, included in the Professional and higher editions or sold separately. On May 12, 2010, the current version of Microsoft Access 2010 was released by Microsoft in Office 2010; Microsoft Office Access 2007 was the prior version.
MS Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases.
Software developers and data architects can use Microsoft Access to develop application software, and "power users" can use it to build software applications. Like other Office applications, Access is supported by Visual Basic for Applications, an object-oriented programming language that can reference a variety of objects including DAO (Data Access Objects), ActiveX Data Objects, and many other ActiveX components. Visual objects used in forms and reports expose their methods and properties in the VBA
Used for conservation project(s):U.S. Nightjar Survey Network
STATISTICA is a statistics and analytics software package developed by StatSoft. STATISTICA provides data analysis, data management, data mining, and data visualization procedures. STATISTICA product categories include Enterprise (for use across a site or organization), Web-Based (for use with a server and web browser), Concurrent Network Desktop, and Single-User Desktop.
STATISTICA originally derives from a set of software packages and add-ons that were initially developed during the Mid 1980's by StatSoft. Following the 1986 release of CSS (Complete Statistical System) and the 1988 release of MacSS (Macintosh Statistical System), the first DOS version of STATISTICA (trademarked in capitals as STATISTICA) was released in 1991. In 1992, the Macintosh version of STATISTICA was released.
STATISTICA 5.0, was released in 1995 which automatically configured itself for new 32-bit Windows 95/NT or the older version of Windows (3.1) and featured a large number of new statistics and graphics procedures, a word-processor-style output editor of unlimited capacity (combining tables and graphs), and a built-in professional development environment that enabled the user to easily design new
Database topic(s):National Register Information System
xBase is the generic term for all programming languages that derive from the original dBASE (Ashton-Tate) programming language and database formats. These are sometimes informally known as dBASE "clones". While there was a non-commercial predecessor to the Ashton-Tate product (Vulcan written by Wayne Ratliff), most clones are based on Ashton-Tate's 1986 dBASE III+ release — scripts written in the dBASE III+ dialect are most likely to run on all the clones.
Ashton-Tate always maintained that everything relating to dBASE was proprietary, and as a result, filed lawsuits against several of the "clone" software vendors. One effect of this action was to cause the clone vendors to avoid using the term "dBASE": a trademark term held by Ashton-Tate. This gave rise to the creation of the generic term "xBase" meaning "dBASE or dBASE-like." A suggested name that narrowly failed was "*base" (pronounced "star base" and an homage to Vulcan and Star Trek), and some wanted it spelled "X-base" to further differentiate it from the trademark.
By 1987 there were an increasing number of "clone" software products that mimicked dBASE. Each of these products had its own unique set of supported language
Used for conservation project(s):U.S. Nightjar Survey Network
Esri's ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) for working with maps and geographic information. It is used for: creating and using maps; compiling geographic data; analyzing mapped information; sharing and discovering geographic information; using maps and geographic information in a range of applications; and managing geographic information in a database.
The system provides an infrastructure for making maps and geographic information available throughout an organization, across a community, and openly on the Web.
ArcGIS includes the following Windows desktop software:
There are also server-based ArcGIS products, as well as ArcGIS products for PDAs. Extensions can be purchased separately to increase the functionality of ArcGIS.
Prior to the ArcGIS suite, Esri had focused its software development on the command line Arc/INFO workstation program and several Graphical User Interface-based products such as the ArcView GIS 3.x desktop program. Other Esri products included MapObjects, a programming library for developers, and ArcSDE as a relational database management system. The various products had branched out into multiple source trees and did not integrate well with one
A graph database uses graph structures with nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store data. By definition, a graph database is any storage system that provides index-free adjacency. This means that every element contains a direct pointer to its adjacent element and no index lookups are necessary. General graph databases that can store any graph are distinct from specialized graph databases such as triplestores and network databases.
Graph databases are based on graph theory. Graph databases employ nodes, properties, and edges. Nodes are very similar in nature to the objects that object-oriented programmers will be familiar with.
Nodes represent entities such as people, businesses, accounts, or any other item you might want to keep track of.
Properties are pertinent information that relate to nodes. For instance, if "Wikipedia" were one of the nodes, one might have it tied to properties such as "website", "reference material", or "word that starts with the letter 'w'", depending on which aspects of "Wikipedia" are pertinent to the particular database.
Edges are the lines that connect nodes to nodes or nodes to properties and they represent the relationship between the two.