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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Software Genre of All Time

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    1
    Archive

    Archive

    • Software In Genre: Archivists' Toolkit
    An archive is a collection of historical records, or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of an organization. In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist. This means that archives (the places) are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings. A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science. When referring to historical records or the places they are kept, the plural form archives is chiefly used. The computing use of the term 'archive' should not be confused with the record-keeping meaning of the term. When records
    7.67
    6 votes
    2
    Screensaver

    Screensaver

    • Software In Genre: Magentic
    A screensaver is a type of computer program initially designed to prevent phosphor burn-in on CRT and plasma computer monitors by blanking the screen or filling it with moving images or patterns when the computer is not in use. Contemporary screensavers are used primarily for entertainment, security or to display system status information. Decades before the first computers utilizing this technology were invented, Robert A. Heinlein gave an example of how they might be used in his novel Stranger In A Strange Land (1961). Many modern television systems, media players and other entertainment systems have a form of screensaver integrated. Most simply display a logo moving around the screen. Before the advent of LCD screens, most computer screens were based on cathode ray tubes (CRTs). When the same image is displayed on a CRT screen for long periods of time, the properties of the exposed areas of phosphor coating on the inside of the screen gradually and permanently change, eventually leading to a darkened shadow or "ghost" image on the screen. Cathode ray televisions, oscilloscopes and other devices that use CRTs are all susceptible to phosphor burn-in, as are plasma displays to some
    7.50
    6 votes
    3
    Online banking

    Online banking

    • Software In Genre: Ripple monetary system
    Online banking (or Internet banking or E-banking) allows customers of a financial institution to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by the institution, which can be a retail or virtual bank, credit union or building society.It may include of any transactions related to online usage To access a financial institution's online banking facility, a customer having personal Internet access must register with the institution for the service, and set up some password (under various names) for customer verification. The password for online banking is normally not the same as for telephone banking. Financial institutions now routinely allocate customer numbers (also under various names), whether or not customers intend to access their online banking facility. Customer numbers are normally not the same as account numbers, because a number of accounts can be linked to the one customer number. The customer will link to the customer number any of those accounts which the customer controls, which may be cheque, savings, loan, credit card and other accounts. To access online banking, the customer would go to the financial institution's website, and enter the online banking
    8.40
    5 votes
    4
    Artificial life

    Artificial life

    • Software In Genre: Breve
    Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study and an associated art form which examine systems related to life, its processes, and its evolution through simulations using computer models, robotics, and biochemistry. The discipline was named by Christopher Langton, an American computer scientist, in 1986. There are three main kinds of alife, named for their approaches: soft, from software; hard, from hardware; and wet, from biochemistry. Artificial life imitates traditional biology by trying to recreate some aspects of biological phenomena. The term "artificial intelligence" is often used to specifically refer to soft alife. Artificial life studies the logic of living systems in artificial environments. The goal is to study the phenomena of living systems in order to come to an understanding of the complex information processing that defines such systems. Also sometimes included in the umbrella term Artificial Life are agent based systems which are used to study the emergent properties of societies of agents. While life is, by definition, alive, artificial life is generally referred to as being confined to a digital environment and existence. The modeling
    6.29
    7 votes
    5
    Electronic medical record

    Electronic medical record

    • Software In Genre: eClinicalWorks
    An electronic medical record (EMR) is a computerized medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital or physician's office. Electronic medical records tend to be a part of a local stand-alone health information system that allows storage, retrieval and modification of records. Paper-based records are still by far the most common method of recording patient information for most hospitals and practices in the U.S. The majority of doctors still find their ease of data entry and low cost hard to part with. However, as easy as they are for the doctor to record medical data at the point of care, they require a significant amount of storage space compared to digital records. In the US, most states require physical records be held for a minimum of seven years. The costs of storage media, such as paper and film, per unit of information differ dramatically from that of electronic storage media. When paper records are stored in different locations, collating them to a single location for review by a health care provider is time consuming and complicated, whereas the process can be simplified with electronic records. This is particularly true in the case of
    8.20
    5 votes
    6
    Molecular dynamics

    Molecular dynamics

    • Software In Genre: CHARMM
    Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation of physical movements of atoms and molecules. The atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a period of time, giving a view of the motion of the atoms. In the most common version, the trajectories of molecules and atoms are determined by numerically solving the Newton's equations of motion for a system of interacting particles, where forces between the particles and potential energy are defined by molecular mechanics force fields. The method was originally conceived within theoretical physics in the late 1950s and early 1960s , but is applied today mostly in materials science and the modeling of biomolecules. Because molecular systems consist of a vast number of particles, it is impossible to find the properties of such complex systems analytically; MD simulation circumvents this problem by using numerical methods. However, long MD simulations are mathematically ill-conditioned, generating cumulative errors in numerical integration that can be minimized with proper selection of algorithms and parameters, but not eliminated entirely. The results of molecular dynamics simulations may be used to determine macroscopic thermodynamic
    7.00
    6 votes
    7
    Information visualization

    Information visualization

    • Software In Genre: Prefuse
    Information visualization is the study of (interactive) visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition. The abstract data include both numerical and non-numerical data, such as text and geographic information. However, information visualization differs from scientific visualization: "it’s infovis [information visualization] when the spatial representation is chosen, and it’s scivis [scientific visualization] when the spatial representation is given". More definitions with references can be found at. The field of information visualization has emerged "from research in human-computer interaction, computer science, graphics, visual design, psychology, and business methods. It is increasingly applied as a critical component in scientific research, digital libraries, data mining, financial data analysis, market studies, manufacturing production control, and drug discovery". Information visualization presumes that "visual representations and interaction techniques take advantage of the human eye’s broad bandwidth pathway into the mind to allow users to see, explore, and understand large amounts of information at once. Information visualization focused on the
    7.80
    5 votes
    8
    Kernel

    Kernel

    • Software In Genre: KERNAL
    In computing, the kernel is the main component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. The kernel's responsibilities include managing the system's resources (the communication between hardware and software components). Usually, as a basic component of an operating system, a kernel can provide the lowest-level abstraction layer for the resources (especially processors and I/O devices) that application software must control to perform its function. It typically makes these facilities available to application processes through inter-process communication mechanisms and system calls. Operating system tasks are done differently by different kernels, depending on their design and implementation. While monolithic kernels execute all the operating system code in the same address space to increase the performance of the system, microkernels run most of the operating system services in user space as servers, aiming to improve maintainability and modularity of the operating system. A range of possibilities exists between these two extremes. The kernel's primary function is to manage the computer's
    7.80
    5 votes
    9
    Animation

    Animation

    • Software In Genre: Cyber Paint
    Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images to create an illusion of movement. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program, although there are other methods. This type of presentation is usually accomplished with a camera and a projector or a computer viewing screen which can rapidly cycle through images in a sequence. Animation can be made with either hand rendered art, computer generated imagery, or three-dimensional objects, e.g. puppets or clay figures, or a combination of techniques. The position of each object in any particular image relates to the position of that object in the previous and following images so that the objects each appear to fluidly move independently of one another. The viewing device displays these images in rapid succession, usually 24, 25 or 30 frames per second. From Latin animātiō, "the act of bringing to life"; from animō ("to animate" or "give life to") + -ātiō ("the act of"). Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the
    9.00
    4 votes
    10

    Digital Media Framework

    • Software In Genre: Helix project
    The Digital Media Framework is a set of technologies for creating, managing, and distributing digital media. International Business Machines Corporation, Adobe Systems, Apple Computer, Inc., and Cisco Systems, Inc. together developed the Framework to compete with Microsoft Corporation. The standards the Framework supports include the Java programming language, J2EE, ISMA, the Moving Picture Experts Group, Extensible Markup Language, the Open Mobile Alliance, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, and Linux.
    9.00
    4 votes
    11
    Massively multiplayer online game

    Massively multiplayer online game

    A massively multiplayer online game (also called MMO and MMOG) is a multiplayer video game which is capable of supporting hundreds or thousands of players simultaneously. By necessity, they are played on the Internet, and feature at least one persistent world. They are, however, not necessarily games played on personal computers. Most of the newer game consoles, including the PSP, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Nintendo DS, PS Vita and Wii can access the Internet and may therefore run MMO games. Additionally, mobile devices and smartphones based on such operating systems as Android, iOS and Windows Phone are seeing an increase in the number of MMO games available. MMOGs can enable players to cooperate and compete with each other on a large scale, and sometimes to interact meaningfully with people around the world. They include a variety of gameplay types, representing many video game genres. The most popular type of MMOG, and the sub-genre that pioneered the category, is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), which descended from university mainframe computer MUD and adventure games such as Rogue and Dungeon on the PDP-10. These games predate the commercial gaming
    5.71
    7 votes
    12
    Photography

    Photography

    • Software In Genre: Adobe Photoshop
    Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor. Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing. Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing (e.g. photolithography), art, and recreational purposes. On 1834, in Campinas, Brazil, Hercules Florence, a
    5.71
    7 votes
    13
    Web search engine

    Web search engine

    • Software In Genre: Yahoo! oneSearch
    A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). The information may be a specialist in web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler. During the early development of the web, there was a list of webservers edited by Tim Berners-Lee and hosted on the CERN webserver. One historical snapshot from 1992 remains. As more webservers went online the central list could not keep up. On the NCSA site new servers were announced under the title "What's New!" The very first tool used for searching on the Internet was Archie. The name stands for "archive" without the "v". It was created in 1990 by Alan Emtage, Bill Heelan and J. Peter Deutsch, computer science students at McGill University in Montreal. The program downloaded the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP
    5.57
    7 votes
    14

    Spreadsheet

    • Software In Genre: Microsoft Excel
    • Subgenres: Online spreadsheet
    A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application program for organization and analysis of information in tabular form. Spreadsheets developed as computerized simulations of paper accounting worksheets. The program operates on data represented as cells of an array, organized in rows and columns. Each cell of the array can contain either numeric or text data, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on the contents of other cells. The user of the spreadsheet can make changes in any stored value and observe the effects on calculated values. This makes the spreadsheet useful for "what-if" analysis since many cases can be rapidly investigated without tedious manual recalculation. Modern spreadsheet software can have multiple interacting sheets, and can display data either as text and numerals, or in graphical form. In addition to the fundamental operations of arithmetic and mathematical functions, modern spreadsheets provide built-in functions for common financial and statistical operations. Such calculations as net present value or standard deviation can be applied to tabular data with a pre-programmed function in a formula. Spreadsheet
    6.33
    6 votes
    15

    Educational software

    • Software In Genre: Gravit
    Educational software is computer software, the primary purpose of which is teaching or self-learning. The use of computer hardware and software in education and training dates to the early 1940s, when American researchers developed flight simulators which used analog computers to generate simulated onboard instrument data. One such system was the type19 synthetic radar trainer, built in 1943. From these early attempts in the WWII era through the mid 1970s, educational software was directly tied to the hardware, usually mainframe computers, on which it ran. Pioneering educational computer systems in this era included the PLATO system (1960), developed at the University of Illinois, and TICCIT (1969). In 1963, IBM had established a partnership with Stanford University's Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences (IMSSS), directed by Patrick Suppes, to develop the first comprehensive CAI elementary school curriculum which was implemented on a large scale in schools in both California and Mississippi. In 1967 Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC, now Pearson Education Technologies) was formed to market to schools the materials developed through the IBM partnership. Early
    7.20
    5 votes
    16
    File system

    File system

    • Software In Genre: ext3
    A file system (or filesystem) is a means to organize data expected to be retained after a program terminates by providing procedures to store, retrieve and update data as well as manage the available space on the device(s) which contain it. A file system organizes data in an efficient manner and is tuned to the specific characteristics of the device. A tight coupling usually exists between the operating system and the file system. Some file systems provide mechanisms to control access to the data and metadata. Ensuring reliability is a major responsibility of a file system. Some file systems allow multiple programs to update the same file at nearly the same time. File systems are used on data storage devices, such as hard disk drives, floppy disks, optical discs, or flash memory storage devices, to maintain the physical locations of the computer files. They may provide access to data on a file server by acting as clients for a network protocol (e.g. NFS, SMB, or 9P clients), or they may be virtual and exist only as an access method for virtual data (e.g. procfs). This is distinguished from a directory service and registry. File systems allocate space in a granular manner, usually
    7.20
    5 votes
    17

    Layout engine

    • Software In Genre: KHTML
    A web browser engine, (sometimes called layout engine or rendering engine), is a software component that takes marked up content (such as HTML, XML, image files, etc.) and formatting information (such as CSS, XSL, etc.) and displays the formatted content on the screen. It "paints" on the content area of a window, which is displayed on a monitor or a printer. A web browser engine is typically embedded in web browsers, e-mail clients, on-line help systems or other applications that require the displaying (and editing) of web content. Engines may wait for all data to be received before rendering a page, or may begin rendering before all data is received. This can result in pages changing as more data is received, such as images being filled in or a flash of unstyled content if rendering begins before formatting information is received. KDE's open-source KHTML engine is used in KDE's Konqueror web browser and was the basis for WebKit, the rendering engine in Apple's Safari and Google's Chrome web browsers, which is now the most widely used browser engine according to StatCounter. Gecko, the Mozilla project's open-source web browser engine, is used by a variety of products derived from
    7.20
    5 votes
    18

    Office suite

    • Software In Genre: OpenOffice.org
    In computing, an office suite, sometimes called an office software suite or productivity suite is a collection of productivity programs intended to be used by knowledge workers. The components are generally distributed together, have a consistent user interface and usually can interact with each other, sometimes in ways that the operating system would not normally allow. Existing office suites contain wide range of various components. Most typically, the base components include: Less common components of office suites include:
    7.20
    5 votes
    19

    Bioinformatics

    • Software In Genre: EMBOSS
    Bioinformatics /ˌbaɪ.oʊˌɪnfərˈmætɪks/ is a branch of biological science which deals with the study of methods for storing, retrieving and analyzing biological data, such as nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) and protein sequence, structure, function, pathways and genetic interactions. It generates new knowledge that is useful in such fields as drug design and development of new software tools to create that knowledge. Bioinformatics also deals with algorithms, databases and information systems, web technologies, artificial intelligence and soft computing, information and computation theory, structural biology, software engineering, data mining, image processing, modeling and simulation, discrete mathematics, control and system theory, circuit theory, and statistics. Commonly used software tools and technologies in this field include Java, XML, Perl, C, C++, Python, R, MySQL, SQL, CUDA, MATLAB, and Microsoft Excel. Building on the recognition of the importance of information transmission, accumulation and processing in biological systems, in 1978 Paulien Hogeweg, coined the term "Bioinformatics" to refer to the study of information processes in biotic systems. This definition placed
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    Digital image editing

    Digital image editing

    • Software In Genre: GIMP
    Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they be digital photographs, traditional analog photographs, or illustrations. Traditional analog image editing is known as photo retouching, using tools such as an airbrush to modify photographs, or editing illustrations with any traditional art medium. Graphic software programs, which can be broadly grouped into vector graphics editors, raster graphics editors, and 3d modelers, are the primary tools with which a user may manipulate, enhance, and transform images. Many image editing programs are also used to render or create computer art from scratch. Raster images are stored in a computer in the form of a grid of picture elements, or pixels. These pixels contain the image's color and brightness information. Image editors can change the pixels to enhance the image in many ways. The pixels can be changed as a group, or individually, by the sophisticated algorithms within the image editors. The domain of this article primarily refers to bitmap graphics editors, which are often used to alter photographs and other raster graphics. However, vector graphics software, such as Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW, Xara Designer
    8.25
    4 votes
    21

    Refactoring

    • Software In Genre: ReSharper
    Code refactoring is a "disciplined technique for restructuring an existing body of code, altering its internal structure without changing its external behavior", undertaken in order to improve some of the nonfunctional attributes of the software. Advantages include improved code readability and reduced complexity to improve the maintainability of the source code, as well as a more expressive internal architecture or object model to improve extensibility. Typically, refactoring is done by applying a series of standardised basic "micro-refactorings", each of which is a (usually) tiny change in a computer program's source code that either preserves the behaviour of the software or at least does not modify its conformance to functional requirements. Many development environments provide automated support for carrying out the mechanical aspects of these basic refactorings. Refactoring is usually motivated by noticing a code smell. For example the method at hand may be very long, or it may be a near duplicate of another nearby method. Once recognized, such problems can be addressed by refactoring the source code, or transforming it into a new form that behaves the same as before but that
    8.25
    4 votes
    22

    Terminal Services

    • Software In Genre: Rdesktop
    Remote Desktop Services in Windows Server 2008 R2, formerly known as Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008 and previous versions, is one of the components of Microsoft Windows (both server and client versions) that allows a user to access applications and data on a remote computer over a network, using the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). Terminal Services is Microsoft's implementation of thin-client terminal server computing, where Windows applications, or even the entire desktop of the computer running Terminal Services, are made accessible to a remote client machine. The client can either be a full-fledged computer, running any operating system as long as the terminal services protocol is supported, or a barebone machine powerful enough to support the protocol (such as Windows FLP). With terminal services, only the user interface of an application is presented at the client. Any input to it is redirected over the network to the server, where all application execution takes place. This is in contrast to appstreaming systems, like Microsoft Application Virtualization, in which the applications, while still stored on a centralized server, are streamed to the client on-demand and
    7.00
    5 votes
    23

    Web portal

    • Software In Genre: DotNetNuke Web Application Framework
    A web portal is a web site that brings information from diverse sources in a unified way. Usually, each information source gets its dedicated area on the page for displaying information (a portlet); often, the user can configure which ones to display. Apart from the standard search engines feature, web portals offer other services such as e-mail, news, stock prices, information, databases and entertainment. Portals provide a way for enterprises to provide a consistent look and feel with access control and procedures for multiple applications and databases, which otherwise would have been different entities altogether. Examples of public web portals are AOL, Excite, iGoogle, MSN, Netvibes, India.com and Yahoo!. In the late 1990s the web portal was a hot commodity. After the proliferation of web browsers in the late-1990s many companies tried to build or acquire a portal to have a piece of the Internet market. The web portal gained special attention because it was, for many users, the starting point of their web browser. Netscape became a part of America Online, the Walt Disney Company launched Go.com, IBM and others launched Prodigy, and Excite and @Home became a part of AT&T
    7.00
    5 votes
    24

    Widget toolkit

    • Software In Genre: InfoVis Toolkit
    In computing, a widget toolkit, widget library, or GUI toolkit is a set of widgets for use in designing applications with graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The toolkit itself is a piece of software which is usually built on the top of an operating system, windowing system, or window manager and provides programs with an application programming interface (API), allowing them to make use of widgets. Each widget facilitates a specific user-computer interaction, and appears as a visible part of the computer's GUI. Widget toolkits can be either native or cross platform. Widgets that are provided by a toolkit typically adhere to a unified design specification, including aesthetics, to lend a sense of overall cohesion among various parts of the application and between various applications within the GUI. Widget toolkits also contain software to assist in the creation of window managers, as windows themselves are considered widgets. Some widgets support interaction with the user, for example labels, buttons, and check boxes. Others act as containers that group the widgets added to them, for example windows, panels, and tabs. The graphical user interface of a program is commonly constructed
    7.00
    5 votes
    25

    Raster graphics editor

    • Software In Genre: Tux Paint
    A raster graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to paint and edit pictures interactively on the computer screen and save them in one of many popular “bitmap” or “raster” formats such as JPEG, PNG, GIF and TIFF. Usually an image viewer is preferred over a raster graphics editor for viewing images. Some editors specialize in the editing of photographs such as the popular Adobe Photoshop, while others are more geared to artist-created illustrations, like the Adobe Fireworks. Vector graphics editors are often contrasted with raster graphics editors, yet their capabilities complement each other. The technical difference between Vector and Raster editors stem from the difference between vector and raster images. Vector images are created mathematically (using formulas, as in geometry). Each element is created and manipulated numerically; essentially using Cartesian coordinates for the placement of key points, and then a mathematical algorithm to connect the dots and define the colors. Raster images include digital photos. A raster image is made up of pixels, and is generally more photo-realistic. This is the standard form for digital cameras; whether it be .raw format or
    9.33
    3 votes
    26

    Audio signal processing

    • Software In Genre: Acourate
    Audio signal processing, sometimes referred to as audio processing, is the intentional alteration of auditory signals, or sound, often through an audio effect or effects unit. As audio signals may be electronically represented in either digital or analog format, signal processing may occur in either domain. Analog processors operate directly on the electrical signal, while digital processors operate mathematically on the digital representation of that signal. Audio signals are sound waves—longitudinal waves which travel through air, consisting of compressions and rarefactions. These audio signals are measured in bels or in decibels. Audio processing was necessary for early radio broadcasting, as there were many problems with studio to transmitter links. "Analog" indicates something that is mathematically represented by a set of continuous values; for example, the analog clock uses constantly-moving hands on a physical clock face, where moving the hands directly alters the information that clock is providing. Thus, an analog signal is one represented by a continuous stream of data, in this case along an electrical circuit in the form of voltage, current or charge changes (compare
    8.00
    4 votes
    27
    Construction Estimating Software

    Construction Estimating Software

    Construction estimating software is computer software designed for contractors to estimate construction costs for a specific project. An estimator will typically use estimating software to estimate their bid price for a project, which will ultimately become part of a resulting construction contract. Some architects, engineers, construction managers, and others may also use estimating software to prepare cost estimates for purposes other than bidding. Construction contractors usually prepare bids or tenders to compete for a contract award for a project. To prepare the bid, first a cost estimate is prepared to determine the costs and then establish the price(s). This involves reviewing the project's plans and specifications to produce a take off or quantity survey, which is a listing all the materials and items of work required for a construction project by the construction documents. Together with prices for these components, the measured quantities are the basis for calculation of the direct cost. Indirect costs and profit are added to arrive at a total amount. Estimators used columnar sheets of paper to organize the take off and the estimate itself into rows of items and columns
    8.00
    4 votes
    28
    Extreme programming practices

    Extreme programming practices

    Extreme programming (XP) is an agile software development methodology used to implement software projects. This article details the practices used in this methodology. Extreme programming has 12 practices, grouped into four areas, derived from the best practices of software engineering. Pair programming means that all code is produced by two people programming on one task on one workstation. One programmer has control over the workstation and is thinking mostly about the coding in detail. The other programmer is more focused on the big picture, and is continually reviewing the code that is being produced by the first programmer. Programmers trade roles after minute to hour periods. The pairs are not fixed; programmers switch partners frequently, so that everyone knows what everyone is doing, and everybody remains familiar with the whole system, even the parts outside their skill set. This way, pair programming also can enhance team-wide communication. (This also goes hand-in-hand with the concept of Collective Ownership). The main planning process within extreme programming is called the Planning Game. The game is a meeting that occurs once per iteration, typically once a week. The
    6.80
    5 votes
    29

    Information extraction

    • Software In Genre: MALLET
    Information extraction (IE) is the task of automatically extracting structured information from unstructured and/or semi-structured machine-readable documents. In most of the cases this activity concerns processing human language texts by means of natural language processing (NLP). Recent activities in multimedia document processing like automatic annotation and content extraction out of images/audio/video could be seen as information extraction. Due to the difficulty of the problem, current approaches to IE focus on narrowly restricted domains. An example is the extraction from news wire reports of corporate mergers, such as denoted by the formal relation: from an online news sentence such as: A broad goal of IE is to allow computation to be done on the previously unstructured data. A more specific goal is to allow logical reasoning to draw inferences based on the logical content of the input data. Structured data is semantically well-defined data from a chosen target domain, interpreted with respect to category and context. Information extraction dates back to the late 1970s in the early days of NLP. An early commercial system from the mid 1980s was JASPER built for Reuters by
    6.80
    5 votes
    30

    Java Platform, Enterprise Edition

    • Software In Genre: WebSphere Application Server
    Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE is Oracle's enterprise Java computing platform. The platform provides an API and runtime environment for developing and running enterprise software, including network and web services, and other large-scale, multi-tiered, scalable, reliable, and secure network applications. Java EE extends the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE/J2SE), providing an API for object-relational mapping, distributed and multi-tier architectures, and web services. The platform incorporates a design based largely on modular components running on an application server. Software for Java EE is primarily developed in the Java programming language and uses XML for configuration. The platform was known as Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE until the name was changed to Java EE in version 5. The current version is called Java EE 6. Java EE is defined by its specification. As with other Java Community Process specifications, providers must meet certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as Java EE compliant. Java EE includes several API specifications, such as JDBC, RMI, e-mail, JMS, web services, XML, etc., and defines how to
    6.80
    5 votes
    31

    Ergodic literature

    • Software In Genre: ELIZA
    Ergodic literature is a term coined by Espen J. Aarseth in his book Cybertext—Perspectives on Ergodic Literature, and is derived from the Greek words ergon, meaning "work", and hodos, meaning "path". Aarseth's book contains the most commonly cited definition: In ergodic literature, nontrivial effort is required to allow the reader to traverse the text. If ergodic literature is to make sense as a concept, there must also be nonergodic literature, where the effort to traverse the text is trivial, with no extranoematic responsibilities placed on the reader except (for example) eye movement and the periodic or arbitrary turning of pages. Cybertext is a subcategory of ergodic literature that Aarseth defines as "texts that involve calculation in their production of scriptons" (Cybertext, page 75). The process of reading printed matter, in contrast, involves "trivial" extranoematic effort, that is, merely moving one's eyes along lines of text and turning pages. Thus, hypertext fiction of the simple node and link variety is ergodic literature but not cybertext. A non-trivial effort is required for the reader to traverse the text, as the reader must constantly select which link to follow,
    7.75
    4 votes
    32
    RDF

    RDF

    • Software In Genre: RDFScape
    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax formats. The RDF data model is similar to classic conceptual modeling approaches such as entity-relationship or class diagrams, as it is based upon the idea of making statements about resources (in particular Web resources) in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions. These expressions are known as triples in RDF terminology. The subject denotes the resource, and the predicate denotes traits or aspects of the resource and expresses a relationship between the subject and the object. For example, one way to represent the notion "The sky has the color blue" in RDF is as the triple: a subject denoting "the sky", a predicate denoting "has the color", and an object denoting "blue". Therefore RDF swaps object for subject that would be used in the classical notation of an Entity–attribute–value model within Object oriented design; object (sky), attribute (color) and value
    7.75
    4 votes
    33
    Vector graphics editor

    Vector graphics editor

    • Software In Genre: Inkscape
    A vector graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to compose and edit vector graphics images interactively on a computer (compare with MetaPost) and save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats, such as EPS, PDF, WMF, SVG, or VML. Vector editors are often contrasted with bitmap editors, and their capabilities complement each other. Vector editors are often better for page layout, typography, logos, sharp-edged artistic illustrations (e.g. cartoons, clip art, complex geometric patterns), technical illustrations, diagramming and flowcharting. Bitmap editors are more suitable for retouching, photo processing, photorealistic illustrations, collage, and illustrations drawn by hand with a pen tablet. Recent versions of bitmap editors such as GIMP and Adobe Photoshop support vector tools (e.g. editable paths), and vector editors such as CorelDRAW, Adobe Illustrator, Xara Photo & Graphic Designer, Macromedia FreeHand, Adobe Fireworks, Inkscape or SK1 are adopting raster effects that were once limited to bitmap editors (e.g. blurring). Some vector editors support animation, while others (e.g. Adobe Flash) are specifically geared towards producing animated
    7.75
    4 votes
    34
    Collaboration

    Collaboration

    • Software In Genre: Adobe Version Cue
    Collaboration is working together to achieve a goal. It is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals, (this is more than the intersection of common goals seen in co-operative ventures, but a deep, collective, determination to reach an identical objective) — for example, an intriguing endeavor that is creative in nature—by sharing knowledge, learning and building consensus. Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. In particular, teams that work collaboratively can obtain greater resources, recognition and reward when facing competition for finite resources. Collaboration is also present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration, though this is not a common case for using the word. Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of behavior and communication. These methods specifically aim to increase the success of teams as they engage in collaborative problem solving. Forms, rubrics, charts and graphs are useful in these situations to objectively document personal traits with the goal of improving
    7.50
    4 votes
    35

    Inter-process communication

    • Software In Genre: Plumber
    In computing, Inter-process communication (IPC) is a set of methods for the exchange of data among multiple threads in one or more processes. Processes may be running on one or more computers connected by a network. IPC methods are divided into methods for message passing, synchronization, shared memory, and remote procedure calls (RPC). The method of IPC used may vary based on the bandwidth and latency of communication between the threads, and the type of data being communicated. There are several reasons for providing an environment that allows process cooperation: IPC may also be referred to as inter-thread communication and inter-application communication. The combination of IPC with the address space concept is the foundation for address space independence/isolation. There are several APIs which may be used for IPC. A number of platform independent APIs include the following: The following are platform or programming language specific APIs:
    7.50
    4 votes
    36

    Retail software

    Retail software is computer software sold to end consumers, usually under restricted licenses. Until the 2000s with emergence of the Internet, retail software represented the vast majority of all end consumer software used and was referred to as shrinkware because software almost always ships in a shrinkwrapped box. An important historical event that led to the expansion of the market for retail software was the Open Letter to Hobbyists by Bill Gates in 1976. The most famous examples of retail software are the products offered on the IBM PC and clones in the 1980s and 90s, including famous programs like Lotus 123, Word Perfect and the various parts that make up Microsoft Office. Microsoft Windows is also shrinkware, but is most often pre-installed on the computer. The rise of the Internet and software licensing schemes has dramatically changed the retail software market. Users are capable of finding shareware, freeware and free software products or use Web services as easily as retail. Producers of proprietary software have shifted to providing much of their software and services via the Internet, including Google, Microsoft, Yahoo!, and Apple Inc.. Software is also becoming
    7.50
    4 votes
    37
    Wind power

    Wind power

    • Software In Genre: Windographer
    Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Offshore wind farms can harness more frequent and powerful winds than are available to land-based installations and have less visual impact on the landscape but construction costs are considerably higher. Small onshore wind facilities are used to provide electricity to isolated locations and utility companies increasingly buy surplus electricity produced by small domestic wind turbines. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land. Any effects on the environment are generally less problematic than those from other power sources. As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. As of 2010 wind energy was over 2.5% of total worldwide electrical capacity, growing at
    8.67
    3 votes
    38

    Internet Relay Chat

    • Software In Genre: Irssi
    Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a protocol for real-time Internet text messaging (chat) or synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. IRC was created in 1988. Client software is available for every major operating system that supports Internet access. As of April 2011, the top 100 IRC networks served more than half a million users at a time, with hundreds of thousands of channels operating on a total of roughly 1,500 servers out of roughly 3,200 servers worldwide. IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen in August 1988 to replace a program called MUT (MultiUser Talk) on a BBS called OuluBox in Finland. Oikarinen found inspiration in a chat system known as Bitnet Relay, which operated on the BITNET. IRC was used to report on the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt throughout a media blackout. It was previously used in a similar fashion during the Gulf War. Logs of these and other events are kept in the ibiblio archive. IRC is an open protocol that uses TCP and, optionally, TLS. An IRC server can connect to
    10.00
    2 votes
    39
    Data visualization

    Data visualization

    • Software In Genre: Wind rose
    Data visualization is the study of the visual representation of data, meaning "information that has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of information". According to Friedman (2008) the "main goal of data visualization is to communicate information clearly and effectively through graphical means. It doesn’t mean that data visualization needs to look boring to be functional or extremely sophisticated to look beautiful. To convey ideas effectively, both aesthetic form and functionality need to go hand in hand, providing insights into a rather sparse and complex data set by communicating its key-aspects in a more intuitive way. Yet designers often fail to achieve a balance between form and function, creating gorgeous data visualizations which fail to serve their main purpose — to communicate information". Indeed, Fernanda Viegas and Martin M. Wattenberg have suggested that an ideal visualization should not merely communicate clearly, but stimulate viewer engagement and attention Data visualization is closely related to information graphics, information visualization, scientific visualization, and statistical graphics. In the new
    7.25
    4 votes
    40

    Newsletter

    A newsletter is a regularly distributed publication generally about one main topic that is of interest to its subscribers. Newspapers and leaflets are types of newsletters. Additionally, newsletters delivered electronically via email (e-Newsletters) have gained rapid acceptance for the same reasons email in general has gained popularity over printed correspondence. Newsletters are given out at schools, to inform parents about things that happen in that school. Many newsletters are published by clubs, churches, societies, associations, and businesses, especially companies, to provide information of interest to their members, customers or employees. Some newsletters are created as money-making ventures and sold directly to subscribers. Sending newsletters to customers and prospects is a common marketing strategy, which can have benefits and drawbacks. General attributes of newsletters include news and upcoming events of the related organization, as well as contact information for general inquiries. Newsletters can be divided into two distinct types: printed on paper and in digital formats, which are usually distributed via the Internet. The digital formats vary from the simplest
    7.25
    4 votes
    41
    Videoconferencing

    Videoconferencing

    • Software In Genre: SightSpeed
    Videoconferencing is the conduct of a videoconference (also known as a video conference or videoteleconference) by a set of telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware. Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that it's designed to serve a conference or multiple locations rather than individuals. It is an intermediate form of videotelephony, first deployed commercially in the United States by AT&T during the early 1970s as part of their development of Picturephone technology. With the introduction of relatively low cost, high capacity broadband telecommunication services in the late 1990s, coupled with powerful computing processors and video compression techniques, videoconferencing usage has made significant inroads in business, education, medicine and media. Like all long distance communications technologies (such as phone and Internet), by reducing the need to travel to bring people together the technology also contributes to reductions in carbon emissions, thereby helping to reduce global
    7.25
    4 votes
    42
    ActionScript

    ActionScript

    • Software In Genre: Flare
    ActionScript is an object-oriented language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (now owned by Adobe Systems). It is a dialect of ECMAScript (meaning it is a superset of the syntax and semantics of the language more widely known as JavaScript), and is used primarily for the development of websites and software targeting the Adobe Flash Player platform, used on Web pages in the form of embedded SWF files. The language itself is open-source in that its specification is offered free of charge and both an open source compiler (as part of Adobe Flex) and open source virtual machine (Mozilla Tamarin) are available. ActionScript was initially designed for controlling simple 2D vector animations made in Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash). Initially focused on animation, early versions of Flash content offered few interactivity features and thus had very limited scripting capability. Later versions added functionality allowing for the creation of Web-based games and rich Internet applications with streaming media (such as video and audio). Today, ActionScript is suitable for use in some database applications, and in basic robotics, as with the Make Controller Kit. Flash MX 2004
    8.33
    3 votes
    43
    Gambling

    Gambling

    • Software In Genre: Webtopia Black Jack Counter
    Gambling is the wagering of money or something of material value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods. Typically, the outcome of the wager is evident within a short period. The term gaming in this context typically refers to instances in which the activity has been specifically permitted by law. The two words are not mutually exclusive; i.e., a “gaming” company offers (legal) “gambling” activities to the public and may be regulated by one of many gaming control boards, for example, the Nevada Gaming Control Board. However, this distinction is not universally observed in the English-speaking world. For instance, in the UK, the regulator of gambling activities is called the Gambling Commission (not the Gaming Commission). Also, the word gaming is frequently used to describe activities that do not involve wagering, especially online. Gambling is also a major international commercial activity, with the legal gambling market totaling an estimated $335 billion in 2009. In other forms, gambling can be conducted with materials which have a value, but aren't real money; for example,
    8.33
    3 votes
    44

    Online public access catalog

    • Software In Genre: blacklight
    An Online Public Access Catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply Library Catalog) is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Users search a library catalog principally to locate books and other material physically located at a library. Although a handful of experimental systems existed as early as the 1960s, the first large-scale online catalogs were developed at Ohio State University in 1975 and the Dallas Public Library in 1978. These and other early online catalog systems tended to closely reflect the card catalogs that they were intended to replace. Using a dedicated terminal or telnet client, users could search a handful of pre-coordinate indexes and browse the resulting display in much the same way they had previously navigated the card catalog. Throughout the 1980s, the number and sophistication of online catalogs grew. The first commercial systems appeared, and would by the end of the decade largely replace systems built by libraries themselves. Library catalogs began providing improved search mechanisms, including Boolean and keyword searching, as well as ancillary functions, such as the ability to place holds on items that had been
    8.33
    3 votes
    45
    Web analytics

    Web analytics

    • Software In Genre: activeCommerce
    Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. It is often done without the permission or knowledge of the user, in which case — particularly with third party cookies which can be shared between different web sites — it can be a breach of privacy. Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring web traffic but can be used as a tool for business and market research, and to assess and improve the effectiveness of a web site. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print or broadcast advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. There are two categories of web analytics; off-site and on-site web analytics. Off-site web analytics refers to web measurement and analysis regardless of whether you own or maintain a website. It includes the measurement of a website's potential audience
    8.33
    3 votes
    46

    Address book

    • Software In Genre: Windows Live Contacts
    An address book or a name and address book (NAB) is a book or a database used for storing entries called contacts. Each contact entry usually consists of a few standard fields (for example: first name, last name, company name, address, telephone number, e-mail address, fax number, mobile phone number). Most such systems store the details in alphabetical order of people's names, although in paper-based address books entries can easily end up out of order as the owner inserts details of more individuals or as people move. Many address books use small ring binders that allow adding, removing and shuffling of pages to make room. A related term that has entered the popular lexicon is little black book (or simply black book). Such books are used as dating guides, listing people who the owner has dated in the past or hopes to in the future, and details of their various relationships. More explicit variations are guides for sexual partners. It is unclear how prevalent this is in practice or when it originated, though such books have been mentioned in many pieces of popular culture. For example, the 1953 film version of Kiss Me, Kate features a musical scene in which Howard Keel's character
    6.20
    5 votes
    47

    Business software

    • Software In Genre: Time Matters
    Business software or business application is any software or set of computer programs that are used by business users to perform various business functions. These business applications are used to increase productivity, to measure productivity and to perform business functions accurately. Some business applications are interactive i.e. they have a graphical user interface or user interface and user can query/modify/input data and view results instantaneously. They can also run reports instantaneously. Some business applications run in batch mode i.e. they are set up to run based on a predetermined event/time and business user does not need to initiate them or monitor them. Some business applications are built in-house and some are bought from vendors (off the shelf software products). These Business Applications either are installed on desktops or on big servers. The term covers a large variation of users within the business environment, and can be categorized by using a small, medium and large matrix: Now, technologies that have previously only existed in peer-to-peer software applications, like Kazaa and Napster, are starting to feature within business applications. JXTA is an
    6.20
    5 votes
    48

    Data compression

    • Software In Genre: Gzip
    In computer science and information theory, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation. Compression can be either be lossy or lossless. Lossless compression reduces bits by identifying and eliminating statistical redundancy. No information is lost in lossless compression. Lossy compression reduces bits by identifying marginally important information and removing it. The process of reducing the size of a data file is popularly referred to as data compression, although its formal name is source coding (coding done at the source of the data, before it is stored or transmitted). Compression is useful because it helps reduce resources usage, such as data storage space or transmission capacity. Because compressed data must be decompressed to be used, this extra processing imposes computational or other costs through decompression, this situation is far from being a free lunch. Data compression is subject to a space-time complexity trade-off. For instance, a compression scheme for video may require expensive hardware for the video to be decompressed fast enough to be viewed as it is being
    9.50
    2 votes
    49

    Optical character recognition

    • Software In Genre: Nokia Multiscanner
    Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the mechanical or electronic conversion of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used as a form of data entry from some sort of original paper data source, whether documents, sales receipts, mail, or any number of printed records. It is a common method of digitizing printed texts so that they can be electronically searched, stored more compactly, displayed on-line, and used in machine processes such as machine translation, text-to-speech and text mining. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision. Early versions needed to be programmed with images of each character, and worked on one font at a time. "Intelligent" systems with a high degree of recognition accuracy for most fonts are now common. Some systems are capable of reproducing formatted output that closely approximates the original scanned page including images, columns and other non-textual components. Early optical character recognition could be traced to activity around two issues: expanding telegraphy and creating reading devices for the blind. In
    9.50
    2 votes
    50

    Web Ontology Language

    • Software In Genre: RDFScape
    The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies. The languages are characterised by formal semantics and RDF/XML-based serializations for the Semantic Web. OWL is endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and has attracted academic, medical and commercial interest. In October 2007, a new W3C working group was started to extend OWL with several new features as proposed in the OWL 1.1 member submission. W3C announced the new version of OWL on 27 October 2009. This new version, called OWL 2, soon found its way into semantic editors such as Protégé and semantic reasoners such as Pellet, RacerPro, FaCT++ and HermiT. The OWL family contains many species, serializations, syntaxes and specifications with similar names. OWL and OWL2 are used to refer to the 2004 and 2009 specifications, respectively. Full species names will be used, including specification version (for example, OWL2 EL). When referring more generally, OWL Family will be used. There is a long history of ontological development in philosophy and computer science. Since the 1990s, a number of research efforts have explored how the idea of knowledge representation
    5.33
    6 votes
    51

    Text editor

    • Software In Genre: Expensive Typewriter
    A text editor is a type of program used for editing plain text files. Text editors are often provided with operating systems or software development packages, and can be used to change configuration files and programming language source code. There are important differences between plain text files created by a text editor, and document files created by word processors such as Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, or OpenOffice.org. Word processors were developed to aid in formatting text for presentation on a printed page, while text editors treat text as data. When both formats are available, the user must select with care. Saving a plain text file in a word-processor format will add formatting information that could disturb the machine-readability of the text. Saving a word-processor document as a text file will lose formatting information. Before text editors existed, computer text was punched into punched cards with keypunch machines. The text was carried as a physical box of these thin cardboard cards, and read into a card-reader. Magnetic tape or disk "card-image" files created from such card decks often had no line-separation characters at all, commonly assuming fixed-length
    7.00
    4 votes
    52
    Window manager

    Window manager

    • Software In Genre: Wmii
    A window manager is system software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface. Most window managers are designed to help provide a desktop environment. They work in conjunction with the underlying graphical system that provides required functionality—support for graphics hardware, pointing devices, and a keyboard, and are often written and created using a widget toolkit. Few window managers are designed with a clear distinction between the windowing system and the window manager. Every graphical user interface based on a windows metaphor has some form of window management. In practice, the elements of this functionality vary greatly. Elements usually associated with window managers allow the user to open, close, minimize, maximize, move, resize, and keep track of running windows, including window decorators. Many window managers also come with various utilities and features: e.g. docks, task bars, program launchers, desktop icons, and wallpaper. On systems using the X window system, there is a clear distinction between the window manager and the windowing system. Strictly speaking, an X window manager does not
    7.00
    4 votes
    53
    Computer vision

    Computer vision

    • Software In Genre: OpenCV
    Computer vision is a field that includes methods for acquiring, processing, analyzing, and understanding images and, in general, high-dimensional data from the real world in order to produce numerical or symbolic information, e.g., in the forms of decisions. A theme in the development of this field has been to duplicate the abilities of human vision by electronically perceiving and understanding an image. This image understanding can be seen as the disentangling of symbolic information from image data using models constructed with the aid of geometry, physics, statistics, and learning theory. Computer vision has also been described as the enterprise of automating and integrating a wide range of processes and representations for vision perception. Applications range from tasks such as industrial machine vision systems which, say, inspect bottles speeding by on a production line, to research into artificial intelligence and computers or robots that can comprehend the world around them. The computer vision and machine vision fields have significant overlap. Computer vision covers the core technology of automated image analysis which is used in many fields. Machine vision usually
    6.00
    5 votes
    54
    Outliner

    Outliner

    • Software In Genre: More
    An outliner is a computer program that allows text to be organized into discrete sections that are related in a tree structure or hierarchy. Text may be collapsed into a node, or expanded and edited. Outliners are typically used for computer programming, collecting or organizing ideas, as personal information management or for project management. Mind Mappers and Wikis are related types of software. The principal attribute of outline editors is that they support or enforce the use of a hierarchy of their items. There are two basic types of outliners: one-pane or intrinsic, and two-pane or extrinsic, each with its strengths and weaknesses. A one-pane outliner is known as an intrinsic outliner because the text itself is organized into an outline format—individual sections (such as paragraphs) of text can be collapsed or expanded, while keeping others in view. Everything is displayed within a single area, hence the term one pane. One of the strengths of one-pane outliners is that, because the text itself is what is structured and because several nodes of text are visible at once, it is easy to edit across sections. The drawback is that, because the structure is not always visible,
    6.00
    5 votes
    55
    Email marketing software express

    Email marketing software express

    • Parent genre: Internet Marketing
    • Subgenres: Email marketing
    Email marketing software refers to a computer application which provides the ability to send bulk email to target audiences. The intent is usually to send newsletters or promotional materials to opt-in lists of subscribers, although the software can be used to send unsolicited email. The software typically includes a database that stores contact information, campaign statistics, and message history. The interface provides features necessary to run an email campaign, such as message sending, contact entry, contact importing, and reporting. Software packages range in price from free, to about five hundred US dollars. Some companies charge a monthly fee. There are also enterprise solutions that can cost thousands of dollars a month to manage large enterprises mass marketing email campaigns. Most email marketing software has features that assist the user in the process of organizing contacts, creating campaigns, and scheduling communication. In addition, the software usually provides features, such as an "unsubscribe check" that assist in complying with the CAN-SPAM law. Email marketing software can also provide tracking functions such as how many people have opened an email, how many
    8.00
    3 votes
    56

    Friend-to-friend

    • Software In Genre: Ripple monetary system
    A friend-to-friend (or F2F) computer network is a type of peer-to-peer network in which users only make direct connections with people they know. Passwords or digital signatures can be used for authentication. Unlike other kinds of private P2P, users in a friend-to-friend network cannot find out who else is participating beyond their own circle of friends, so F2F networks can grow in size without compromising their users' anonymity. Retroshare, WASTE, GNUnet, Freenet and OneSwarm are examples of software that can be used to build F2F networks, though RetroShare is the only one of these configured for friend-to-friend operation by default. Many F2F networks support indirect anonymous or pseudonymous communication between users who do not know or trust one another. For example, a node in a friend-to-friend overlay can automatically forward a file (or a request for a file) anonymously between two friends, without telling either of them the other's name or IP address. These friends can in turn automatically forward the same file (or request) to their own friends, and so on. Dan Bricklin coined the term "friend-to-friend network" in 2000.
    8.00
    3 votes
    57

    Charting application

    • Software In Genre: StatCVS
    A charting application is a computer program that is used to graphically create a graphical representation (a chart) based on some non-graphical data that is entered by a user, most often through a spreadsheet application, but also through a dedicated specific scientific application (such as through a symbolic mathematics computing system, or a proprietary data collection application), or using an online spreadsheet service. Charting applications often have capabilities to create charts of different types. They permit the user to add embellishments to the chart which are not always easily done if a chart is produced using conventional paper-and-pencil methods, such as changing colours, titles, labels, axes, and so on. Charting applications allow the capabilities of adding dynamically trendlines to graphical data and so on. Online spreadsheets such as EditGrid may even allow hosting a chart on the web and publishing it on a web page. There are several online charting services available, the most popular one being the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences NCES Chart. List of information graphics software
    6.75
    4 votes
    58
    Grid computing

    Grid computing

    • Software In Genre: Advanced Resource Connector
    Grid computing is the federation of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal. The grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files. What distinguishes grid computing from conventional high performance computing systems such as cluster computing is that grids tend to be more loosely coupled, heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed. Although a single grid can be dedicated to a particular application, commonly a grid is used for a variety of purposes. Grids are often constructed with general-purpose grid middleware software libraries. Grid size varies a considerable amount. Grids are a form of distributed computing whereby a “super virtual computer” is composed of many networked loosely coupled computers acting together to perform large tasks. For certain applications, “distributed” or “grid” computing, can be seen as a special type of parallel computing that relies on complete computers (with onboard CPUs, storage, power supplies, network interfaces, etc.) connected to a network (private, public or the Internet) by a conventional network interface, such as Ethernet. This is in
    6.75
    4 votes
    59

    Electronic commerce

    • Software In Genre: activeCommerce
    'Electronic commerce', commonly known as 'e-commerce' or 'e-comm', is the buying and selling of product or service over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at one point in the transaction's life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices and telephones as well. E-commerce can be divided into: Originally, electronic commerce was identified as the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically, using technology such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). These were both introduced in the late 1970s, allowing businesses to send commercial documents like purchase orders or invoices electronically. The growth and acceptance of credit cards, automated teller machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were also forms of electronic
    9.00
    2 votes
    60

    Knowledge Management System

    • Software In Genre: OntoWiki
    Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a (generally generated via or through to an IT based program/department or section) system for managing knowledge in organizations for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. It can comprise a part (neither necessary nor sufficient) of a Knowledge Management initiative. The idea of a KM system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization's documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions. For example a typical claim justifying the creation of a KM system might run something like this: an engineer could know the metallurgical composition of an alloy that reduces sound in gear systems. Sharing this information organization wide can lead to more effective engine design and it could also lead to ideas for new or improved equipment. A KM system could be any of the following: KMS systems deal with information (although Knowledge Management as a discipline may extend beyond the information centric aspect of any system) so they are a class of information system and may build on, or utilize other information sources. Distinguishing features of a KMS can include: A KMS offers
    9.00
    2 votes
    61

    Runtime

    • Software In Genre: Rhino
    In computer science, run time, run-time, runtime, or execution time is the time during which a program is running (executing), in contrast to other phases of a program's lifecycle such as compile time, link time, load time, etc. A run-time error is detected after or during the execution of a program, whereas a compile-time error is detected by the compiler before the program is ever executed. Type checking, storage allocation, code generation, and code optimization are typically done at compile time, but may be done at run time depending on the particular language and compiler. In certain cases, the execution of a program begins after a loader performed the necessary memory setup and linked the program with any dynamically linked libraries it needs. In some cases a language or implementation will have these tasks done by the language runtime instead, though this is unusual in mainstream languages on common consumer operating systems. Some program debugging can only be performed (or is more efficient or accurate) when performed at runtime. Logic errors and array bounds checking are examples. For this reason, some programming bugs are not discovered until the program is tested in a
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Website wireframe

    Website wireframe

    • Software In Genre: Adobe Proto
    A website wireframe, also known as a page schematic or screen blueprint, is a visual guide that represents the skeletal framework of a website. Wireframes are created by User Experience professionals called Interaction Designers. The interaction designers who have broad backgrounds in visual design, information architecture and user research, create wireframes for the purpose of arranging elements to best accomplish a particular purpose. The purpose is usually being informed by a business objective and a creative idea. The wireframe depicts the page layout or arrangement of the website’s content, including interface elements and navigational systems, and how they work together. The wireframe usually lacks typographic style, color, or graphics, since the main focus lies in functionality, behavior, and priority of content. In other words, it focuses on what a screen does, not what it looks like. Wireframes can be pencil drawings or sketches on a whiteboard, or they can be produced by means of a broad array of free or commercial software applications. The website wireframe connects the underlying conceptual structure, or information architecture, to the surface, or visual design of
    9.00
    2 votes
    63
    Authentication

    Authentication

    • Software In Genre: VidoopSecure
    Authentication (from Greek: αὐθεντικός; real or genuine, from αὐθέντης authentes; author) is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity. This might involve confirming the identity of a person or software program, tracing the origins of an artifact, or ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claims to be. In art, antiques, and anthropology, a common problem is verifying that a person has the said identity, or a given artifact was produced by a certain person or was produced in a certain place or period of history. There are three types of techniques for doing this. The first type of authentication is accepting proof of identity given by a credible person who has evidence on the said identity, or on the originator and the object under assessment as the originator's artifact respectively. The second type of authentication is comparing the attributes of the object itself to what is known about objects of that origin. For example, an art expert might look for similarities in the style of painting, check the location and form of a signature, or compare the object to an old photograph. An archaeologist might use carbon dating to verify the age
    7.67
    3 votes
    64
    Computer security

    Computer security

    • Software In Genre: OpenSSH
    Computer security is a branch of computer technology known as information security as applied to computers and computer networks. The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users. The term computer system security means the collective processes and mechanisms by which sensitive and valuable information and services are protected from publication, tampering or collapse by unauthorized activities or untrustworthy individuals and unplanned events respectively. The strategies and methodologies of computer security often differ from most other computer technologies because of its somewhat elusive objective of preventing unwanted computer behavior instead of enabling wanted computer behavior. The technologies of computer security are based on logic. As security is not necessarily the primary goal of most computer applications, designing a program with security in mind often imposes restrictions on that program's behavior. There are 4 approaches to security in computing, sometimes a combination of approaches is
    7.67
    3 votes
    65
    Creative Commons License

    Creative Commons License

    A Creative Commons license is one of several copyright licenses that allow the distribution of copyrighted works. A Creative Commons license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and even build upon a work that they have created. CC provides an author flexibility (for example, you might choose to allow only non-commercial uses of their own work) and protects the people who use or redistribute an authors work, so they don’t have to worry about copyright infringement, as long as they abide by the conditions the author has specified. There are several types of CC licenses. The licenses differ by several combinations that condition the terms of distribution. They were initially released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001. As of July 2011, Creative Commons licenses have been "ported" to over 50 different jurisdictions worldwide. No new ports are being started as preparations for version 4.0 of the license suite begin. The original set of licenses all grant the "baseline rights", such as the right to distribute the copyrighted work worldwide, without changes, at no charge. The details of each of these
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    Database management system

    Database management system

    • Software In Genre: MySQL
    • Subgenres: NoSQL
    A database management system (DBMS) is a software package with computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and use of a database. It allows organizations to conveniently develop databases for various applications. A database is an integrated collection of data records, files, and other objects. A DBMS allows different user application programs to concurrently access the same database. DBMSs may use a variety of database models, such as the relational model or object model, to conveniently describe and support applications. It typically supports query languages, which are in fact high-level programming languages, dedicated database languages that considerably simplify writing database application programs. Database languages also simplify the database organization as well as retrieving and presenting information from it. A DBMS provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency control, and recovering the database after failures and restoring it from backup files, as well as maintaining database security. Database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software.
    7.67
    3 votes
    67

    E-mail client

    • Software In Genre: Mozilla Thunderbird
    • Parent genre: E-mail
    An email client, email reader, or more formally mail user agent (MUA), is a computer program used to access and manage a user's email. The term can refer to any system capable of accessing the user's email mailbox, regardless of it being a mail user agent, a relaying server, or a human typing on a terminal. In addition, a web application that provides message management, composition, and reception functions is sometimes also considered an email client, but more commonly referred to as webmail. Popular locally installed email clients include Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotus Notes, Pegasus Mail, Mozilla's Thunderbird, KMail in the Kontact suite, Evolution and Apple Inc.'s Mail. Popular web-based email clients include: Gmail, Yahoo! Mail, mail.com, Lycos mail, and Hotmail. Like most client programs, an email client is only active when a user runs it. The most common arrangement is for an email user (the client) to make an arrangement with a remote Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) server for the receipt and storage of the client's emails. The MTA, using a suitable mail delivery agent (MDA), adds email messages to a client's storage as they arrive. The remote mail storage is referred to as the
    7.67
    3 votes
    68

    Federated database system

    • Software In Genre: Virtuoso Universal Server
    • Parent genre: Database management system
    A federated database system is a type of meta-database management system (DBMS), which transparently maps multiple autonomous database systems into a single federated database. The constituent databases are interconnected via a computer network and may be geographically decentralized. Since the constituent database systems remain autonomous, a federated database system is a contrastable alternative to the (sometimes daunting) task of merging several disparate databases. A federated database, or virtual database, is a composite of all constituent databases in a federated database system. There is no actual data integration in the constituent disparate databases as a result of data federation. McLeod and Heimbigner were among the first to define a federated database system, as one which "define[s] the architecture and interconnect[s] databases that minimize central authority yet support partial sharing and coordination among database systems". Through data abstraction, federated database systems can provide a uniform user interface, enabling users and clients to store and retrieve data in multiple noncontiguous databases with a single query -- even if the constituent databases are
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Instant messaging

    Instant messaging

    • Software In Genre: Trillian
    Instant messaging (IM) is a form of communication over the Internet, that offers quick transmission of text-based messages from sender to receiver. In push mode between two or more people using personal computers or other devices, along with shared clients, instant messaging basically offers real-time direct written language-based online chat. The user's text is conveyed over a network, such as the Internet. It may address point-to-point communications as well as multicast communications from one sender to many receivers. More advanced instant messaging allows enhanced modes of communication, such as live voice or video calling, video chat and inclusion of hyperlinks to media. Instant messaging falls under the term online chat, since it is also text-based, bi-directionally exchanged, and happens in real-time. IM is distinct from chat in that IM is based on clients that facilitate connections between specified known users (often using a contact list, buddy list, or friend list). Online 'chat' includes web-based applications that allow communication between (often directly addressed, but anonymous) users in a multi-user environment. Instant messaging is a set of communication
    7.67
    3 votes
    70

    Library

    • Software In Genre: erlang_twitter
    • Subgenres: Software framework
    In computer science, a library is a collection of nonvolatile resources used by programs on a computer, often to develop software. These may include configuration data, documentation, help data, message templates, pre-written code and subroutines, classes, values or type specifications. In IBM's OS/360 and its successors they are referred to as partitioned data sets. Libraries contain code and data that provide services to independent programs. This encourages the sharing and changing of code and data in a modular fashion, and eases the distribution of the code and data. Library files are not executable programs. They are either static libraries that are merged with an executable when the executable is being compiled and linked, making them "statically linked", or they are dynamic libraries that are loaded by a dynamic linker while the executable is running, making them "dynamically linked". The dynamic linker may also allow an application to explicitly request that a module be loaded and to obtain references to routines in the module; this can be used to implement plug-ins. Most compiled languages have a standard library although programmers can also create their own custom
    7.67
    3 votes
    71

    Middleware

    • Software In Genre: Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing
    Middleware in the context of distributed applications is software that provides services beyond those provided by the operating system to enable the various components of a distributed system to communicate and manage data. Middleware supports and simplifies complex distributed applications. It includes web servers, application servers, messaging and similar tools that support application development and delivery. Middleware is especially integral to modern information technology based on XML, SOAP, Web services, and service-oriented architecture. Middleware often enables interoperability between applications that run on different operating systems, by supplying services so the application can exchange data in a standards-based way. Middleware sits "in the middle" between application software that may be working on different operating systems. It is similar to the middle layer of a three-tier single system architecture, except that it is stretched across multiple systems or applications. Examples include EAI software, telecommunications software, transaction monitors, and messaging-and-queueing software. The distinction between operating system and middleware functionality is, to
    7.67
    3 votes
    72
    Project management

    Project management

    • Software In Genre: Basecamp
    Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary —and more ambitious— challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives. Until 1900 civil engineering projects were generally managed by creative architects,
    7.67
    3 votes
    73
    CAPTCHA

    CAPTCHA

    • Software In Genre: VidoopSecure
    A CAPTCHA ( /ˈkæp.tʃə/) is a type of challenge-response test used in computing as an attempt to ensure that the response is generated by a person. The process usually involves a computer asking a user to complete a simple test which the computer is able to grade. These tests are designed to be easy for a computer to generate, but difficult for a computer to solve, so that if a correct solution is received, it can be presumed to have been entered by a human. A common type of CAPTCHA requires the user to type letters or digits from a distorted image that appears on the screen, and such tests are commonly used to prevent unwanted internet bots from accessing websites. The term "CAPTCHA" was coined in 2000 by Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas J. Hopper, and John Langford (all of Carnegie Mellon University). It is an acronym based on the word "capture" and standing for "Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart". Carnegie Mellon University attempted to trademark the term, but the trademark application was abandoned on 21 April 2008. A CAPTCHA is sometimes described as a reverse Turing test, because it is administered by a machine and targeted at a
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Home theater PC

    Home theater PC

    • Software In Genre: Boxee
    • Subgenres: Media center
    A Home Theater PC (HTPC) or Media Center appliance is a convergence device that combines some or all the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, photo, music playback, and sometimes video recording functionality. Although computers with some of these capabilities were available from the late 1980s, the "Home Theater PC" term first appeared in mainstream press in 1996. In recent years, other types of consumer electronics, including gaming systems and dedicated media devices have crossed over to manage video and music content. The term "media center" also refers to specialized application software designed to run on standard personal computers. An HTPC and other convergence devices integrate components of a home theater into a unit co-located with a home entertainment system. An HTPC system typically has a remote control and the software interface normally has a 10-foot user interface design so that it can be comfortably viewed at typical television viewing distances. An HTPC can be purchased pre-configured with the required hardware and software needed to add video programming or music to the PC. Enthusiasts can also piece together a
    10.00
    1 votes
    75

    Interpreter

    • Software In Genre: SpiderMonkey
    In computer science, an interpreter normally means a computer program that executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming language. An interpreter may be a program that either Early versions of the Lisp programming language and Dartmouth BASIC would be examples of type 1. Perl, Python, MATLAB, and Ruby are examples of type 2, while UCSD Pascal is an example of type 3. Source programs are compiled ahead of time and stored as machine independent code, which is then linked at run-time and executed by an interpreter and/or compiler (for JIT systems). Some systems, such as Smalltalk, contemporary versions of BASIC, Java and others, may also combine 2 and 3. While interpreting and compiling are the two main means by which programming languages are implemented, these are not fully mutually exclusive categories, one of the reasons being that most interpreting systems also perform some translation work, just like compilers. The terms "interpreted language" or "compiled language" merely mean that the canonical implementation of that language is an interpreter or a compiler; a high level language is basically an abstraction which is (ideally) independent of particular
    10.00
    1 votes
    76

    Personal information manager

    • Software In Genre: Chandler
    A personal information manager (often referred to as a PIM tool or, more simply, a PIM) is a type of application software that functions as a personal organizer. The acronym PIM is now, more commonly, used in reference to personal information management as a field of study. As an information management tool, a PIM tool's purpose is to facilitate the recording, tracking, and management of certain types of "personal information". Personal information can include any of the following: Some PIM software products are capable of synchronizing data with another PIM tool over a computer network, including mobile ad-hoc networks, or MANETs. This feature usually does not allow for continuous, concurrent data updates, but rather enables point-in-time updating between different computers, including desktop computers, laptop computers, and personal digital assistants. Prior to the introduction of the term "PDA" by Apple in 1992, handheld personal organizers such as the Sharp Wizard and the Psion Organiser were also referred to as "PIMs". Personal Information manager technology has been heavily discussed in the past decade due to constant bouts of criticism and praise. These modern managing
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Programming language

    Programming language

    • Software In Genre: GeneXus
    A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, with many more being created every year. Most programming languages describe computation in an imperative style, i.e., as a sequence of commands, although some languages, such as those that support functional programming or logic programming, use alternative forms of description. The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard), while other languages, such as Perl 5 and earlier, have a dominant implementation that is used as a reference. A programming language is a notation
    10.00
    1 votes
    78

    Scripting language

    • Software In Genre: Freebase-python client library
    A scripting language or script language is a programming language that supports the writing of scripts, programs written for a software environment that automate the execution of tasks which could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator. Environments that can be automated through scripting include software applications, web pages within a web browser, the shells of operating systems, and several general purpose and domain-specific languages such as those for embedded systems. Scripts can be written and executed "on-the-fly", without explicit compile and link steps; they are typically created or modified by the person executing them. A scripting language is usually interpreted from source code or bytecode. By contrast, the software environment the scripts are written for is typically written in a compiled language and distributed in machine code form; the user may not have access to its source code, let alone be able to modify it. The spectrum of scripting languages ranges from very small and highly domain-specific languages to general-purpose programming languages. The term script is typically reserved for small programs (up to a few thousand lines of code). Early
    10.00
    1 votes
    79
    Vocaloid

    Vocaloid

    • Software In Genre: Hatsune Miku
    Vocaloid (ボーカロイド, Bōkaroido) is a singing synthesizer. Its signal processing part was developed through a joint research project led by Kenmochi Hideki at the Pompeu Fabra University in Spain in 2000 and originally was not intended to be a full commercial project. Backed by the Yamaha Corporation it developed the software into the commercial product "Vocaloid". The software enables users to synthesize singing by typing in lyrics and melody. It uses synthesizing technology with specially recorded vocals of voice actors or singers. To create a song, the user must input the melody and lyrics. A piano roll type interface is used to input the melody and the lyrics can be entered on each note. The software can change the stress of the pronunciations, add effects such as vibrato, or change the dynamics and tone of the voice. Each Vocaloid is sold as "a singer in a box" designed to act as a replacement for an actual singer. The software was originally only available in English and Japanese, but as of Vocaloid 3, Spanish, Chinese and Korean have been added. The software is intended for professional musicians as well as light computer music users and has so far sold on the idea that the only
    10.00
    1 votes
    80
    Music

    Music

    • Software In Genre: iTunes
    • Subgenres: Music notation software
    Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses"). The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. It may also be divided among "art music" and "folk music". There is also a strong connection between music and mathematics. Music may be played and heard live, may be part of a dramatic work or film, or may be recorded. To many people in many cultures, music is an important part of their way of life. Ancient Greek and
    6.50
    4 votes
    81
    Graphics software

    Graphics software

    • Software In Genre: Adobe Photoshop
    • Subgenres: 3D computer graphics software
    In computer graphics, graphics software or image editing software is a program or collection of programs that enable a person to manipulate visual images on a computer. Computer graphics can be classified into two distinct categories: raster graphics and vector graphics. Many graphics programs focus exclusively on either vector or raster graphics, but there are a few that combine them in interesting ways. It is simple to convert from vector graphics to raster graphics, but going the other way is harder. Some software attempts to do this. In addition to static graphics, there are animation and video editing software. Most graphics programs have the ability to import and export one or more graphics file formats. It also can export files to one or more files. Computer graphics also can be used by other editing software such as Adobe Photoshop, Pizap, Microsoft Publisher, Picasa and etc. Other software that can be used is animation software, video editor software such as Windows Movie Maker etc. The use of a swatch is a palette of active colours that are selected and rearranged by the preference of the user. A swatch may be used in a program or be part of the universal palette on an
    8.50
    2 votes
    82
    Machine translation

    Machine translation

    • Software In Genre: OpenLogos
    Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with computer-aided translation, machine-aided human translation MAHT and interactive translation) is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. On a basic level, MT performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another, but that alone usually cannot produce a good translation of a text, because recognition of whole phrases and their closest counterparts in the target language is needed. Solving this problem with corpus and statistical techniques is a rapidly growing field that is leading to better translations, handling differences in linguistic typology, translation of idioms, and the isolation of anomalies. Current machine translation software often allows for customization by domain or profession (such as weather reports), improving output by limiting the scope of allowable substitutions. This technique is particularly effective in domains where formal or formulaic language is used. It follows that machine translation of government and legal documents more readily
    8.50
    2 votes
    83
    Presentation

    Presentation

    • Software In Genre: OpenOffice.org Impress
    Presentation is the practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or learner. Presentations come in nearly as many forms as there are life situations. In the business world, there are sales presentations, informational and motivational presentations, first encounters, interviews, briefings, status reports, image-building, and training sessions. Although some think of presentations in a business meeting context, there are often occasions when that is not the case. For example, a Non Profit Organization presents the need for a capital fund-raising campaign to benefit the victims of a recent tragedy; a school district superintendent presents a program to parents about the introduction of foreign-language instruction in the elementary schools;an artist demonstrates decorative painting techniques to a group of interior designers; a horticulturist shows garden club members or homeowners how they might use native plants in the suburban landscape; a police officer addresses a neighborhood association about initiating a safety program. Presentations can also be categorized as vocational and avocational. In addition, they are expository or persuasive. And they can
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    Statistics

    Statistics

    • Software In Genre: ASReml
    Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. A statistician is someone who is particularly well versed in the ways of thinking necessary for the successful application of statistical analysis. Such people have often gained this experience through working in any of a wide number of fields. There is also a discipline called mathematical statistics that studies statistics mathematically. The word statistics, when referring to the scientific discipline, is singular, as in "Statistics is an art." This should not be confused with the word statistic, referring to a quantity (such as mean or median) calculated from a set of data, whose plural is statistics ("this statistic seems wrong" or "these statistics are misleading"). Some consider statistics to be a mathematical body of science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data, while others consider it a branch of mathematics concerned with collecting and interpreting data. Because of its empirical
    8.50
    2 votes
    85
    XML editor

    XML editor

    • Software In Genre: XMLSpy
    An XML editor is a markup language editor with added functionality to facilitate the editing of XML. This can be done using a plain text editor, with all the code visible, but XML editors have added facilities like tag completion and menus and buttons for tasks that are common in XML editing, based on data supplied with document type definition (DTD) or the XML tree. There are also graphical XML editors that hide the code in the background and present the content to the user in a more user-friendly format, approximating the rendered version or editing forms. This is helpful for situations where people who are not fluent in XML code need to enter information in XML based documents such as time sheets and expenditure reports. And even if the user is familiar with XML, use of such editors, which take care of syntax details, is often faster and more convenient. An XML editor goes beyond the syntax highlighting offered by many plaintext editors and generic source code editors, verifying the XML source based on an XML schema or XML DTD, and some can do it as the document is being edited in real time. Other features of an editor designed specifically for editing XML might include element
    8.50
    2 votes
    86
    Antivirus software

    Antivirus software

    • Software In Genre: Microsoft Anti-Virus
    Antivirus or anti-virus software is software used to prevent, detect and remove malware (of all descriptions), such as: computer viruses, adware, backdoors, malicious BHOs, dialers, fraudtools, hijackers, keyloggers, malicious LSPs, rootkits, spyware, trojan horses and worms. Computer security, including protection from social engineering techniques, is commonly offered in products and services of antivirus software companies. This page discusses the software used for the prevention and removal of malware threats, rather than computer security implemented by software methods. A variety of strategies are typically employed. Signature-based detection involves searching for known patterns of data within executable code. However, it is possible for a computer to be infected with new malware for which no signature is yet known. To counter such so-called zero-day threats, heuristics can be used. One type of heuristic approach, generic signatures, can identify new viruses or variants of existing viruses by looking for known malicious code, or slight variations of such code, in files. Some antivirus software can also predict what a file will do by running it in a sandbox and analyzing what
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Board game

    Board game

    • Software In Genre: Hikarunix
    A board game is a game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Games can be based on pure strategy, chance (e.g. rolling dice) or a mixture of the two, and usually have a goal which a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, and most current board games are still based on defeating opposing players in terms of counters, winning position or accrual of points (often expressed as in-game currency). There are many different types and styles of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, as with checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, as with Cluedo. Rules can range from the very simple, as in tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, as in Dungeons & Dragons (although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, helping to visualize the game scenario). The amount of time required to learn to play or master a game varies greatly from game to game. Learning time does not necessarily correlate with the number or complexity of rules; some games,
    7.33
    3 votes
    88

    Computer accessibility

    • Software In Genre: Django
    In human-computer interaction, computer accessibility (also known as Accessible computing) refers to the accessibility of a computer system to all people, regardless of disability or severity of impairment. It is largely a software concern; when software, hardware, or a combination of hardware and software, is used to enable use of a computer by a person with a disability or impairment, this is known as Assistive Technology. There are numerous types of impairment that impact computer use. These include: These impairments can present themselves with variable severity; they may be acquired from disease, trauma or may be congenital or degeneration in nature. Accessibility is often abbreviated a11y, where the number 11 refers to the number of letters omitted. This parallels the abbreviations of internationalization and localization as i18n and l10n respectively. People wishing to overcome an impairment in order to be able to use a computer comfortably and productively may need a "special needs assessment" by an assistive technology consultant (such as an occupational therapist or clinical scientist) to help them identify and configure appropriate assertive hardware and software. Where
    7.33
    3 votes
    89
    Multimedia

    Multimedia

    • Software In Genre: MPlayer
    Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which use only rudimentary computer display such as text-only, or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, or interactivity content forms. Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear active content progresses often without any navigational
    7.33
    3 votes
    90
    7.33
    3 votes
    91
    Unix-like

    Unix-like

    A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. There is no standard for defining the term, and some difference of opinion is possible as to the degree to which a given operating system is "Unix-like". The term can include free and open source operating systems inspired by Bell Labs' Unix or designed to emulate its features, commercial and proprietary work-alikes, and even versions based on the licensed UNIX source code (which may be sufficiently "Unix-like" to pass certification and bear the "UNIX" trademark). The Open Group owns the UNIX trademark and administers the Single UNIX Specification, with the "UNIX" name being used as a certification mark. They do not approve of the construction "Unix-like", and consider it a misuse of their trademark. Their guidelines require "UNIX" to be presented in uppercase or otherwise distinguished from the surrounding text, strongly encourage using it as a branding adjective for a generic word such as "system", and discourage its use in hyphenated phrases. Other
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    Voice over IP

    Voice over IP

    • Software In Genre: truphone
    Voice over IP (VoIP, or voice over Internet Protocol) commonly refers to the communication protocols, technologies, methodologies, and transmission techniques involved in the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, IP communications, and broadband phone. Internet telephony refers to communications services —voice, fax, SMS, and/or voice-messaging applications— that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The steps involved in originating a VoIP telephone call are signaling and media channel setup, digitization of the analog voice signal, encoding, packetization, and transmission as Internet Protocol (IP) packets over a packet-switched network. On the receiving side, similar steps (usually in the reverse order) such as reception of the IP packets, decoding of the packets and digital-to-analog conversion reproduce the original voice stream. Even though IP Telephony and VoIP are terms that are used interchangeably, they are
    7.33
    3 votes
    93

    Device driver

    • Software In Genre: Vidix
    • Subgenres: Printer driver
    In computing, a device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device. A driver typically communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device. Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware-dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface. A device driver simplifies programming by acting as translator between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems that use it. Programmers can write the higher-level application code independently of whatever specific hardware the end-user is using. Physical layers communicate with specific device instances. For example, a serial port needs to handle standard communication protocols such as XON/XOFF that are common for all serial port hardware. This would be managed by a serial port logical layer. However,
    6.25
    4 votes
    94
    Internet Relay Chat bot

    Internet Relay Chat bot

    • Software In Genre: BBot
    An IRC bot is a set of scripts or an independent program that connects to Internet Relay Chat as a client, and so appears to other IRC users as another user. An IRC bot differs from a regular client in that instead of providing interactive access to IRC for a human user, it performs automated functions. The historically oldest IRC bots were Bill Wisner's Bartender and Greg Lindahl's GM (Game Manager for the Hunt the Wumpus game). Over time, bots evolved to provide special services, such as managing channels on behalf of groups of users, maintaining access lists, and providing access to databases. Often, an IRC bot is deployed as a detached program running from a stable host. It sits on an IRC channel to keep it open and prevents malicious users from taking over the channel. It can be configured to give channel operator status to privileged users when they join the channel, and can provide a unified channel operator list. Many of these features require that the bot be a channel operator. Thus, most IRC bots are run from computers which have long uptimes (generally running a BSD derivative or Linux) and a fast, stable Internet connection. As IRC has become popular with many dial-up
    6.25
    4 votes
    95
    Dynamic Systems Development Method

    Dynamic Systems Development Method

    Dynamic systems development method (DSDM) is an agile project delivery framework, primarily used as a software development method. First released in 1994, DSDM originally sought to provide some discipline to the rapid application development (RAD) method. In 2007 DSDM became a generic approach to project management and solution delivery. DSDM is an iterative and incremental approach that embraces principles of Agile development, including continuous user/customer involvement. DSDM fixes cost, quality and time at the outset and uses the MoSCoW prioritisation of scope into musts, shoulds, coulds and won't haves to adjust the project deliverable to meet the stated time constraint. DSDM is one of a number of Agile methods for developing software and non-IT solutions, and it forms a part of the Agile Alliance. The most recent version of DSDM, launched in 2007, is called DSDM Atern. The name Atern is a shortening of Arctic Tern - a collaborative bird that can travel vast distances and epitomises many facets of the method which are natural ways of working e.g. prioritisation and collaboration. The previous version of DSDM (released in May 2003) which is still widely used and is still
    5.40
    5 votes
    96
    Enterprise resource planning

    Enterprise resource planning

    • Software In Genre: Stoq
    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems integrate internal and external management information across an entire organization, embracing finance/accounting, manufacturing, sales and service, customer relationship management, etc. ERP systems automate this activity with an integrated software application. The purpose of ERP is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. ERP systems can run on a variety of computer hardware and network configurations, typically employing a database as a repository for information. In 1990 Gartner Group first employed the acronym ERP as an extension of material requirements planning (MRP), later manufacturing resource planning and computer-integrated manufacturing. Without supplanting these terms, ERP came to represent a larger whole, reflecting the evolution of application integration beyond manufacturing. Not all ERP packages were developed from a manufacturing core. Vendors variously began with accounting, maintenance and human resources. By the mid–1990s ERP systems addressed all core functions of an enterprise. Beyond
    7.00
    3 votes
    97

    Enterprise server

    • Software In Genre: Flash Media Server
    A server computer is a computer, or series of computers, that link other computers or electronic devices together. They often provide essential services across a network, either to private users inside a large organization or to public users via the internet. For example, when you enter a query in a search engine, the query is sent from your computer over the internet to the servers that store all the relevant web pages. The results are sent back by the server to your computer. Many servers have dedicated functionality such as web servers, print servers, and database servers. Enterprise servers are servers that are used in a business context. Enterprise servers are ideally very fault tolerant, for even a short-term failure can cost more than purchasing and installing the system. For example, it may take only a few minutes of down time at a national stock exchange to justify the expense of entirely replacing the system with something more reliable. To increase reliability, most of the servers use memory with error detection and correction, redundant disks, redundant power supplies and so on. Such components are also frequently hot swappable, allowing to replace them on the running
    7.00
    3 votes
    98
    Relational database management system

    Relational database management system

    • Software In Genre: PostgreSQL
    • Parent genre: Database
    A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd, of IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory. Most popular databases currently in use are based on the relational database model. In 1974, IBM began developing System R, a research project to develop a prototype RDBMS. Its first commercial product was SQL/DS, released in 1981. However, the first commercially available RDBMS was Oracle, released in 1979 by Relational Software, now Oracle Corporation.
    7.00
    3 votes
    99
    Semantic Web-The Next Gen Web

    Semantic Web-The Next Gen Web

    • Software In Genre: DBpedia
    The Semantic Web is a collaborative movement led by the international standards body, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The standard promotes common data formats on the World Wide Web. By encouraging the inclusion of semantic content in web pages, the Semantic Web aims at converting the current web dominated by unstructured and semi-structured documents into a "web of data". The Semantic Web stack builds on the W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF). According to the W3C, "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries." The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web and director of the World Wide Web Consortium ("W3C"), which oversees the development of proposed Semantic Web standards. He defines the Semantic Web as "a web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by machines." While its critics have questioned its feasibility, proponents argue that applications in industry, biology and human sciences research have already proven the validity of the original concept. Scholars have explored the social potential of the semantic web in the
    7.00
    3 votes
    100

    Image viewer

    • Software In Genre: IrfanView
    An image viewer or image browser is a computer program that can display stored graphical image; it can often handle various graphics file formats. Such software usually renders the image according to properties of the display such as color depth, display resolution, and color profile. Although you may use a full-featured bitmap graphics editor (such as Photoshop or the GIMP or the StylePix) as an image viewer, these have many editing functionalities which are not needed for just viewing images, and therefore usually start rather slowly. Also, most viewers have functionalities that editors usually lack, such as stepping through all the images in a directory (possibly as a slideshow). Image viewers give maximal flexibility to the user by providing a direct view of the directory structure available on a hard disk. Most image viewers do not provide any kind of automatic organization of pictures and therefore the burden remains on the user to create and maintain their folder structure (using tag- or folder-based methods). However, some image viewers also have features for organizing images, especially an image database, and hence can also be used as image organizers. Some image viewers,
    5.20
    5 votes
    101
    Artificial intelligence

    Artificial intelligence

    • Software In Genre: ELIZA
    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines." AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. There are subfields which are focused on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is
    6.00
    4 votes
    102

    Component Object Model

    • Software In Genre: Outlook Express API
    Component Object Model (COM) is a binary-interface standard for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. It is used to enable interprocess communication and dynamic object creation in a large range of programming languages. The term COM is often used in the Microsoft software development industry as an umbrella term that encompasses the OLE, OLE Automation, ActiveX, COM+ and DCOM technologies. The essence of COM is a language-neutral way of implementing objects that can be used in environments different from the one in which they were created, even across machine boundaries. For well-authored components, COM allows reuse of objects with no knowledge of their internal implementation, as it forces component implementers to provide well-defined interfaces that are separate from the implementation. The different allocation semantics of languages are accommodated by making objects responsible for their own creation and destruction through reference-counting. Casting between different interfaces of an object is achieved through the QueryInterface() function. The preferred method of inheritance within COM is the creation of sub-objects to which method calls are delegated. COM
    6.00
    4 votes
    103

    Disassembler

    • Software In Genre: Interactive Disassembler
    A disassembler is a computer program that translates machine language into assembly language—the inverse operation to that of an assembler. A disassembler differs from a decompiler, which targets a high-level language rather than an assembly language. Disassembly, the output of a disassembler, is often formatted for human-readability rather than suitability for input to an assembler, making it principally a reverse-engineering tool. Assembly language source code generally permits the use of constants and programmer comments. These are usually removed from the assembled machine code by the assembler. If so, a disassembler operating on the machine code would produce disassembly lacking these constants and comments; the disassembled output becomes more difficult for a human to interpret than the original annotated source code. Some disassemblers make use of the symbolic debugging information present in object files such as ELF. The Interactive Disassembler allow the human user to make up mnemonic symbols for values or regions of code in an interactive session: human insight applied to the disassembly process often parallels human creativity in the code writing process. Disassembly is
    6.00
    4 votes
    104
    Geographic Information System

    Geographic Information System

    • Software In Genre: Quantum GIS
    Geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. A GIS can be thought of as a system—it digitally creates and "manipulates" spatial areas that may be jurisdictional, purpose, or application-oriented. Generally, a GIS is custom-designed for an organization. Hence, a GIS developed for an application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIS that has been developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries. In a general sense, the term describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information for informing decision making. GIS applications are
    6.00
    4 votes
    105

    Social bookmarking

    • Software In Genre: Ma.gnolia 2
    Social bookmarking is a method for Internet users to organize, store, manage and search for bookmarks of resources online. Many online bookmark management services have launched since 1996; Delicious, founded in 2003, popularized the terms "social bookmarking" and "tagging". Tagging is a significant feature of social bookmarking systems, enabling users to organize their bookmarks in flexible ways and develop shared vocabularies known as folksonomies. Unlike file sharing, social bookmarking does not save the resources themselves, merely bookmarks that reference them, i.e. a link to the bookmarked page. Descriptions may be added to these bookmarks in the form of metadata, so users may understand the content of the resource without first needing to download it for themselves. Such descriptions may be free text comments, votes in favour of or against its quality, or tags that collectively or collaboratively become a folksonomy. Folksonomy is also called social tagging, "the process by which many users add metadata in the form of keywords to shared content". In a social bookmarking system, users save links to web pages that they want to remember and/or share. These bookmarks are usually
    6.00
    4 votes
    106
    Virtual globe

    Virtual globe

    • Software In Genre: Google Earth
    A virtual globe is a 3D software model or representation of the Earth or another world. A virtual globe provides the user with the ability to freely move around in the virtual environment by changing the viewing angle and position. Compared to a conventional globe, virtual globes have the additional capability of representing many different views on the surface of the Earth. These views may be of geographical features, man-made features such as roads and buildings, or abstract representations of demographic quantities such as population. On November 20, 1997, Microsoft released a popular offline virtual globe in the form of Encarta Virtual Globe 98, followed by Cosmi's 3D World Atlas in 1999. The first widely publicized online virtual globes were NASA World Wind (released in mid-2004) and Google Earth (mid-2005). The latest 3D Virtual Globe release in 2011 is 3rd Planet. Virtual globes may be used for study or navigation (by connecting to a GPS device) and their design varies considerably according to their purpose. Those wishing to portray a visually accurate representation of the Earth often use satellite image servers and are capable not only of rotation but also zooming and
    6.00
    4 votes
    107

    Class driver

    In computing, a class driver is a type of hardware device driver that can operate a large number of different devices of a broadly similar type. Class drivers are very often used with USB based devices, which share the essential USB protocol in common, and devices with similar functionality can easily adopt common protocols. As another example, instead of having a separate driver for every kind of CD-ROM device, a class driver can operate a wide variety of CD-ROMs from different manufacturers. To accomplish this the manufacturers make their products compatible with a standardized protocol. In technical terms, a class driver is used as a base or ancestor class for specific drivers which need to have slightly different or extended functionality, but which can take advantage of the majority of the functionality provided by the class driver. This concept is a key aspect of object oriented programming, which when extended to drivers makes it much easier for hardware vendors to provide driver support for their products.
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Collaborative software

    Collaborative software

    • Software In Genre: Kontact
    Collaborative software (also referred to as groupware) is computer software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve goals. One of the earliest definitions of “collaborative software” is, "intentional group processes plus software to support them." (Peter and Trudy Johnson-Lenz ). The design intent of collaborative software (groupware) is to transform the way documents and rich media are shared to enable more effective team collaboration. Collaboration, with respect to information technology, seems to have several definitions. Some are defensible but others are so broad they lose meaningful application. Understanding the differences in human interactions is necessary to ensure that appropriate technologies are employed to meet interaction needs. Collaboration requires individuals working together in a coordinated fashion, towards a common goal. Accomplishing the goal is the primary purpose for bringing the team together. Collaborative software helps facilitate action-oriented teams working together over geographic distances by providing tools that aid communication, collaboration and the process of problem solving. Additionally, collaborative software may support
    8.00
    2 votes
    109

    Getty Images

    • Software In Genre: veeeb semantic editor
    Getty Images, Inc. is a stock photo agency, based in Seattle, Washington, United States. It is a supplier of stock images for business and consumers with an archive of 80 million still images and illustrations and more than 50,000 hours of stock film footage. It targets three markets—creative professionals (advertising and graphic design), the media (print and online publishing), and corporate (in-house design, marketing and communication departments). Getty has distribution offices around the world and capitalizes on the Internet and CD-ROM collections for distribution. As Getty has acquired other older photo agencies and archives, it has digitised their collections, enabling online distribution. Getty Images now operates a large commercial website which allows clients to search and browse for images, purchase usage rights and download images. Costs of images vary according to the chosen resolution and type of rights associated with each image. The company also offers custom photo services for corporate clients. In 1993, Mark Getty and Chief Executive Officer Jonathan Klein co-founded Getty Investments LLC. Mark Getty is the company's chairman. In September 1997, Getty
    8.00
    2 votes
    110

    Information management

    • Software In Genre: CintaNotes
    Information management (IM) is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences. This sometimes involves those who have a stake in, or a right to that information. Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information. Throughout the 1970s this was largely limited to files, file maintenance, and the life cycle management of paper-based files, other media and records. With the proliferation of information technology starting in the 1970s, the job of information management took on a new light, and also began to include the field of data maintenance. No longer was information management a simple job that could be performed by almost anyone. An understanding of the technology involved, and the theory behind it became necessary. As information storage shifted to electronic means, this became more and more difficult. By the late 1990s when information was regularly disseminated across computer networks and by other electronic means, network managers, in a sense, became information managers. Those individuals found themselves tasked with increasingly
    8.00
    2 votes
    111

    News client

    • Software In Genre: Mozilla Thunderbird
    A newsreader is an application program that reads articles on Usenet (a distributed discussion system, which groups its content into a hierarchy of subject-related newsgroups, each of which contains multiple threads or discussions). Newsreaders act as clients which connect to a news server, via the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP), to download articles and post new articles. In addition to text-based articles, Usenet is increasingly used to distribute binary files, generally in dedicated "binaries" newsgroups. The term news reader is sometimes (erroneously) used interchangeably with news aggregator. Newsreaders that help users to adhere to the established conventions of Usenet, known as netiquette, are evaluated by the Good Netkeeping Seal of Approval (GNKSA). There are several different types of newsreaders, depending on the type of service the user needs — whether intended primarily for discussion or for downloading files posted to the alt.binaries hierarchy. Although Usenet originally started as a text-based messaging system without any file attachment ability, many Usenet users today do not participate in Network News Transfer Protocol discussion groups, as was common
    8.00
    2 votes
    112
    Object-relational database

    Object-relational database

    • Software In Genre: PostgreSQL
    An object-relational database (ORD), or object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), is a database management system (DBMS) similar to a relational database, but with an object-oriented database model: objects, classes and inheritance are directly supported in database schemas and in the query language. In addition, just as with proper relational systems, it supports extension of the data model with custom data-types and methods. An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying. The basic goal for the Object-relational database is to bridge the gap between relational databases and the object-oriented modeling techniques used in
    8.00
    2 votes
    113

    Utility software

    • Software In Genre: Freebase Browser
    Utility software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. A single piece of utility software is usually called a software. Utility software usually focuses on how the computer infrastructure (including the computer hardware, operating system, application software and data storage) operates. Due to this focus, utilities are often rather technical and targeted at people with an advanced level of computer knowledge - in contrast to application software, which allows users to do things like creating text documents, playing games, listening to music or viewing websites.
    8.00
    2 votes
    114
    Visual programming language

    Visual programming language

    • Software In Genre: Ptolemy Project
    In computing, a visual programming language (VPL) is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. A VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax or secondary notation. For example, many VPLs (known as dataflow or diagrammatic programming) are based on the idea of "boxes and arrows", where boxes or other screen objects are treated as entities, connected by arrows, lines or arcs which represent relations. VPLs may be further classified, according to the type and extent of visual expression used, into icon-based languages, form-based languages, and diagram languages. Visual programming environments provide graphical or iconic elements which can be manipulated by users in an interactive way according to some specific spatial grammar for program construction. A visually transformed language is a non-visual language with a superimposed visual representation. Naturally visual languages have an inherent visual expression for which there is no obvious textual equivalent. Current developments try to integrate
    8.00
    2 votes
    115

    WordPress

    • Software In Genre: veeeb semantic editor
    WordPress is a free and open source blogging tool and a content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL. It has many features including a plug-in architecture and a template system. WordPress is used by over 16.7% of Alexa Internet's "top 1 million" websites and as of August 2011 manages 22% of all new websites. WordPress is currently the most popular blogging system in use on the Internet. It was first released on May 27, 2003, by founders Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little as a fork of b2/cafelog. As of December 2011, version 3.0 had been downloaded over 65 million times. WordPress has a web template system using a template processor. WordPress users may install and switch between themes. Themes allow users to change the look and functionality of a WordPress website or installation without altering the information content. Themes may be installed using the WordPress "Dashboard" administration tool or theme folders may be uploaded via FTP. The PHP and HTML code in themes can also be edited for more advanced customizations. One very popular feature of WordPress is its rich plugin architecture which allows users and developers to extend its abilities beyond the features that are
    8.00
    2 votes
    116

    Adobe Flash

    • Software In Genre: SWFUpload
    Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform used to add animation, video, and interactivity to web pages. Flash is frequently used for advertisements, games and flash animations for broadcast. More recently, it has been positioned as a tool for "Rich Internet Applications" ("RIAs"). Flash manipulates vector and raster graphics to provide animation of text, drawings, and still images. It supports bidirectional streaming of audio and video, and it can capture user input via mouse, keyboard, microphone, and camera. Flash contains an object-oriented language called ActionScript and supports automation via the JavaScript Flash language (JSFL). Flash content may be displayed on various computer systems and devices, using Adobe Flash Player, which is available free of charge for common web browsers, some mobile phones, and a few other electronic devices (using Flash Lite). Some users feel that Flash enriches their web experience, while others find the extensive use of Flash animation, particularly in advertising, intrusive and annoying. Flash has also been criticized for adversely affecting the usability of web pages. Flash originated with the application SmartSketch,
    9.00
    1 votes
    117

    Bug tracking system

    • Software In Genre: Bugzilla
    A bug tracking system is a software application that is designed to help quality assurance and programmers keep track of reported software bugs in their work. It may be regarded as a type of issue tracking system. Many bug tracking systems, such as those used by most open source software projects, allow users to enter bug reports directly. Other systems are used only internally in a company or organization doing software development. Typically bug tracking systems are integrated with other software project management applications. Having a bug tracking system is extremely valuable in software development, and they are used extensively by companies developing software products. Consistent use of a bug or issue tracking system is considered one of the "hallmarks of a good software team". A major component of a bug tracking system is a database that records facts about known bugs. Facts may include the time a bug was reported, its severity, the erroneous program behavior, and details on how to reproduce the bug; as well as the identity of the person who reported it and any programmers who may be working on fixing it. Typical bug tracking systems support the concept of the life cycle
    9.00
    1 votes
    118

    Distributed computing

    • Software In Genre: DREAM
    Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. The computers interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs. Distributed computing also refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. In distributed computing, a problem is divided into many tasks, each of which is solved by one or more computers. They communicate with each other by message passing. The word distributed in terms such as "distributed system", "distributed programming", and "distributed algorithm" originally referred to computer networks where individual computers were physically distributed within some geographical area. The terms are nowadays used in a much wider sense, even referring to autonomous processes that run on the same physical computer and interact with each other by message passing. While there is no single definition of a distributed system, the following defining
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Linux distribution

    Linux distribution

    • Software In Genre: Fedora Core
    A Linux distribution is a member of the family of Unix-like operating systems built on top of the Linux kernel. Such distributions (often called distros for short) are operating systems including a large collection of software applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, media players, and database applications. These operating systems consist of the Linux kernel and, usually, a set of libraries and utilities from the GNU Project, with graphics support from the X Window System. Distributions optimized for size may not contain X and tend to use more compact alternatives to the GNU utilities, such as BusyBox, uClibc, or dietlibc. There are currently over six hundred Linux distributions. Over three hundred of those are in active development, constantly being revised and improved. Because most of the kernel and supporting packages are free and open source software, Linux distributions have taken a wide variety of forms—from fully featured desktop, server, laptop, netbook, mobile phone, and tablet operating systems as well as minimal environments (typically for use in embedded systems or for booting from a floppy disk). Aside from certain custom software (such as installers and
    9.00
    1 votes
    120
    Macintosh

    Macintosh

    • Software In Genre: SoundEdit 16
    The Macintosh (/ˈmækɨntɒʃ/ MAK-in-tosh), or Mac, is a series of personal computers (PCs) designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced by Apple Inc.'s then-chairman Steve Jobs on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-line interface. The company continued to have success through the second half of the 1980s, primarily because the sales of the Apple II series remained strong even after the introduction of the Macintosh, only to see it dissipate in the 1990s as the personal computer market shifted toward the "Wintel" platform: IBM PC compatible machines running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. In 1998, Apple consolidated its multiple consumer-level desktop models into the iMac all-in-one. This proved to be a sales success and saw the Macintosh brand revitalized. Current Mac systems are mainly targeted at the home, education, and creative professional markets. These include the descendants of the original iMac, the entry-level Mac mini desktop model, the Mac Pro tower graphics workstation, and the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro laptops. The
    9.00
    1 votes
    121

    Non-linear editing system

    • Software In Genre: Kdenlive
    A non-linear editing system (NLE) is a video - (NLVE) or audio editing (NLAE) digital audio workstation (DAW) system which can perform non-destructive editing on the source material. It is named in contrast to 20th century methods of linear video editing and film editing. Non-linear editing is the most natural approach when all assets are available as files on video servers or hard disks rather than recordings on reels or tapes, while linear editing is related to the need to sequentially view a film or read a tape to edit it. When ingesting audio or video feeds, metadata are attached to the clip. Those metadata can be attached automatically (timecode, localization, take number, name of the clip) or manually (players names, characters, in Sports: red card, goal...). Non-linear editing enables direct access to any video frame in a digital video clip, without needing to play or scrub/shuttle through adjacent footage to reach it, as was necessary with historical video tape linear editing systems. It is now possible to access any frame by entering directly the timecode or the descriptive metadata. An editor can, for example at the end of the day in the Olympic Games, ask to retrieve all
    9.00
    1 votes
    122
    Parsing

    Parsing

    • Software In Genre: Hpricot
    In computer science and linguistics, parsing, or, more formally, syntactic analysis, is the process of analyzing a text, made of a sequence of tokens (for example, words), to determine its grammatical structure with respect to a given (more or less) formal grammar. Parsing can also be used as a linguistic term, for instance when discussing how phrases are divided up in garden path sentences. Parsing is also an earlier term for the diagramming of sentences of natural languages, and is still used for the diagramming of inflected languages, such as the Romance languages or Latin. The term parsing comes from Latin pars (ōrātiōnis), meaning part (of speech). Parsing is a common term used in psycholinguistics when describing language comprehension. In this context, parsing refers to the way that human beings, rather than computers, analyze a sentence or phrase (in spoken language or text) "in terms of grammatical constituents, identifying the parts of speech, syntactic relations, etc." This term is especially common when discussing what linguistic cues help speakers to parse garden-path sentences. In computing, a parser is one of the components in an interpreter or compiler that checks
    9.00
    1 votes
    123

    Port scanner

    A port scanner is a software application designed to probe a server or host for open ports. This is often used by administrators to verify security policies of their networks and by attackers to identify running services on a host with the view to compromise it. A port scan or portscan can be defined as an attack that sends client requests to a range of server port addresses on a host, with the goal of finding an active port and exploiting a known vulnerability of that service, although the majority of uses of a port scan are not attacks and are simple probes to determine services available on a remote machine. To portsweep is to scan multiple hosts for a specific listening port. The latter is typically used in searching for a specific service, for example, an SQL-based computer worm may portsweep looking for hosts listening on TCP port 1433. The design and operation of the Internet is based on the Internet Protocol Suite, commonly also called TCP/IP. In this system, hosts and host services are referenced using two components: an address and a port number. There are 65536 distinct and usable port numbers. Most services use a limited range of numbers. Some port scanners scan only
    9.00
    1 votes
    124
    Word processor

    Word processor

    • Software In Genre: OpenOffice.org Writer
    A word processor is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material. Word processor may also refer to a type of stand-alone office machine, popular in the 1970s and 1980s, combining the keyboard text-entry and printing functions of an electric typewriter with a dedicated processor (like a computer processor) for the editing of text. Although features and design varied between manufacturers and models, with new features added as technology advanced, word processors for several years usually featured a monochrome display and the ability to save documents on memory cards or diskettes. Later models introduced innovations such as spell-checking programs, increased formatting options, and dot-matrix printing. As the more versatile combination of a personal computer and separate printer became commonplace, most business-machine companies stopped manufacturing the word processor as a stand-alone office machine. As of 2009 there were only two U.S. companies, Classic and AlphaSmart, which still made stand-alone word processors. Many older machines, however, remain in use. Since 2009, Sentinel
    9.00
    1 votes
    125

    Database

    • Software In Genre: HAppS
    • Subgenres: Object database
    A database is an organized collection of data. The data is typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality (for example, the availability of rooms in hotels), in a way that supports processes requiring this information (for example, finding a hotel with vacancies). The term database is correctly applied to the data and their supporting data structures, and not to the database management system (DBMS). The database data collection with DBMS is called a database system. The term database system implies that the data is managed to some level of quality (measured in terms of accuracy, availability, usability, and resilience) and this in turn often implies the use of a general-purpose database management system (DBMS). A general-purpose DBMS is typically a complex software system that meets many usage requirements to properly maintain its databases which are often large and complex. The utilization of databases is now so widespread that virtually every technology and product relies on databases and DBMSs for its development and commercialization, or even may have DBMS software embedded in it. Also, organizations and companies, from small to large, depend heavily on databases
    6.67
    3 votes
    126

    Debugger

    • Software In Genre: Interactive Disassembler
    A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program). The code to be examined might alternatively be running on an instruction set simulator (ISS), a technique that allows great power in its ability to halt when specific conditions are encountered but which will typically be somewhat slower than executing the code directly on the appropriate (or the same) processor. Some debuggers offer two modes of operation—full or partial simulation—to limit this impact. A "crash" happens when the program cannot normally continue because of a programming bug. For example, the program might have tried to use an instruction not available on the current version of the CPU or attempted to access unavailable or protected memory. When the program "crashes" or reaches a preset condition, the debugger typically shows the location in the original code if it is a source-level debugger or symbolic debugger, commonly now seen in integrated development environments. If it is a low-level debugger or a machine-language debugger it shows the line in the disassembly (unless it also has online access to the original source code and can display the
    6.67
    3 votes
    127

    Framework

    • Software In Genre: XMLNuke
    Framework, launched in 1984, was the first office suite to run on the PC 8086 with DOS operating system. ValDocs, an even earlier integrated suite, actually comparable to the original Macintosh of 1984 and Apple Lisa of 1982 was produced by Epson, a complete integrated work station based on the previous Zilog Z80 processor and CP/M operating system with GUI and "WYSIWYG" typography on the monitor and printing. Framework offered all this however in the first all-in-one package to run on any PC platform. It was preceded by a few months by its close rival Lotus Symphony. Unlike other integrated products Framework was not created as "plug-in" modules with similar look and feel but as a single windowing workspace representing a desktop metaphor that could manage and outline "Frames" sharing a common underlying format. The initial release included about a dozen or so frame types (identified by a FRED function, @frametype). Frame types included containers which could be filled up with other frames, empty frames which could become other type of frames based on user input, formulas embedded in them or program output targeting them, word processor frames, flat-database frames and spreadsheet
    6.67
    3 votes
    128

    Internet security

    • Software In Genre: SafeSquid
    Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet, often involving browser security but also network security on a more general level as it applies to other applications or operating systems on a whole. Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the Internet. The Internet represents an insecure channel for exchanging information leading to a high risk of intrusion or fraud, such as phishing. Different methods have been used to protect the transfer of data, including encryption. TCP/IP can be made secure with the help of cryptographic methods and protocols that have been developed for securing communications on the Internet. These protocols include SSL and TLS for web traffic, PGP for email, and IPsec for the network layer security. This protocol is designed to protect communication in a secure manner using TCP/IP. It is a set of security extensions developed by IETF, and it provides security and authentication at the IP layer by using cryptography. To protect the content, the data is transformed using encryption techniques. There are two main types of transformation that form the basis of IPsec: the
    6.67
    3 votes
    129
    Plug-in

    Plug-in

    • Software In Genre: MDL Chime
    In computing, a plug-in (or plugin) is a set of software components that adds specific abilities to a larger software application. If supported, plug-ins enable customizing the functionality of an application. For example, plug-ins are commonly used in web browsers to play video, scan for viruses, and display new file types. Well-known plug-ins examples include Adobe Flash Player, QuickTime, and Java Applets. Add-on (or addon) in computing is often considered the general term comprising snap-ins, plug-ins, extensions, and themes for software applications. Applications support plug-ins for many reasons. Some of the main reasons include: Specific examples of applications and why they use plug-ins: As shown in the figure, the host application provides services which the plug-in can use, including a way for plug-ins to register themselves with the host application and a protocol for the exchange of data with plug-ins. Plug-ins depend on the services provided by the host application and do not usually work by themselves. Conversely, the host application operates independently of the plug-ins, making it possible for end-users to add and update plug-ins dynamically without needing to make
    6.67
    3 votes
    130

    Traditional game

    • Software In Genre: Hikarunix
    In computer and video games, a traditional game is a computer program adaptation of a non-computer game (such as a board game or card game). Board games and card games have been around for many years such as Go which is thought to have been around in ancient China more than 2,500 years ago, and although it is not known exactly when the game was invented. Backgammon is also thought to be one of the oldest two-player board game in the world. They are often ported to computer programs because of the ease of access and little need for set up time. They can be play on the internet or LAN between players helping them to become popular to play online. Traditional games can also be used as a way of gambling online, games like poker have gained significant popularity on the internet being playable on a number of websites. Most card and board games that have achieved wide spread popularity have been turned into a computer game including Monopoly, Yahtzee, Hearts, and Solitaire. Traditional games, especially card games, have become a mainstay of computer systems because they are relatively simple and run on most computers. Chess, Backgammon, Go, Solitaire and many other games have also been
    6.67
    3 votes
    131

    Vulnerability scanner

    A vulnerability scanner is a computer program designed to assess computers, computer systems, networks or applications for weaknesses. There are a number of types of vulnerability scanners available today, distinguished from one another by a focus on particular targets. While functionality varies between different types of vulnerability scanners, they share a common, core purpose of enumerating the vulnerabilities present in one or more targets. Vulnerability scanners are a core technology component of vulnerability management. Friendly types of vulnerability scanners: A vulnerability scanner can be used to conduct network reconnaissance, which is typically carried out by a remote attacker attempting to gain information or access to a network on which it is not authorized or allowed. Network reconnaissance is increasingly used to exploit network standards and automated communication methods. The aim is to determine what types of computers are present, along with additional information about those computers—such as the type and version of the operating system. This information can be analyzed for known or recently discovered vulnerabilities that can be exploited to gain access to
    6.67
    3 votes
    132

    Windowing system

    • Software In Genre: Quartz Compositor
    A windowing system (or window system) is a component of a graphical user interface (GUI), and more specifically of a desktop environment, which supports the implementation of window managers, and provides basic support for graphics hardware, pointing devices such as mice, and keyboards. The mouse cursor is also generally drawn by the windowing system. The term windowing system is sometimes used to refer to other elements of a graphical interface such as those belonging to window managers or even applications. While on some operating systems the distinction between applications, window managers, and their supporting technologies are blurred, strictly speaking, a windowing system does not include windows themselves. From a programmer's point of view, a windowing system implements graphical primitives such as rendering fonts or drawing a line on the screen, effectively providing an abstraction of the graphics hardware from higher level elements of the graphical interface like window managers. A windowing system enables the computer user to work with several programs at the same time. Each program runs in its own window, which is generally a rectangular area of the screen. Most
    6.67
    3 votes
    133

    Virtualization

    • Software In Genre: Win4Lin
    In computing, virtualization (or virtualisation) is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system (OS), storage device, or network resources. While a physical computer in the classical sense is clearly a complete and actual machine, both subjectively (from the user's point of view) and objectively (from the hardware system administrator's point of view), a virtual machine is subjectively a complete machine (or very close), but objectively merely a set of files and running programs on an actual, physical machine (which the user need not necessarily be aware of). Virtualization can be viewed as part of an overall trend in enterprise IT that includes autonomic computing, a scenario in which the IT environment will be able to manage itself based on perceived activity, and utility computing, in which computer processing power is seen as a utility that clients can pay for only as needed. The usual goal of virtualization is to centralize administrative tasks while improving scalability and overall hardware-resource utilization. With virtualization, several operating systems can be run in parallel on a single central
    5.75
    4 votes
    134

    Business intelligence

    • Software In Genre: InetSoft Style Report
    Business intelligence (BI) is defined as the ability for an organization to take all its capabilities and convert them into knowledge. This produces large amounts of information that can lead to the development of new opportunities. Identifying these opportunities, and implementing an effective strategy, can provide a competitive market advantage and long-term stability within the organization's industry. BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies are reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics. The goal of modern business intelligence deployments is to support better business decision-making. Thus a BI system can be called a decision support system (DSS). Although the term business intelligence is sometimes used as a synonym for competitive intelligence (because they both support decision making), BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes
    7.50
    2 votes
    135
    Celebrity

    Celebrity

    • Software In Genre: Entertainment Tonight
    A celebrity is a person who has a prominent profile and commands a great degree of public fascination and influence in day-to-day media. The term is synonymous with wealth (commonly denoted as a person with fame and fortune), implied with great popular appeal, prominence in a particular field, and is easily recognized by the general public. Various careers within the fields of sports and entertainment are commonly associated with celebrity status. These fields have produced prominent figures within these two industries. While people may gain celebrity status as a result of a successful career in a particular field (primarily in the areas pertaining towards sports and entertainment), in other cases, people become celebrities due to media attention for their extravagant lifestyle or wealth (as in the case of a socialite); for their connection to a famous person (as in the case of a relative of a famous person); or even for their misdeeds (as in the case of a well-known criminal). Celebrities may be known around the world (e.g., pop stars and film actors), within a specific country (e.g., a top Australian rugby player); or within a region (e.g., a local television news
    7.50
    2 votes
    136
    File manager

    File manager

    • Software In Genre: Konqueror
    A file manager or file browser is a computer program that provides a user interface to work with file systems. The most common operations performed on files or groups of files are: create, open, edit, view, print, play, rename, move, copy, delete, search/find, and modify file attributes, properties and file permissions. Files are typically displayed in a hierarchy. Some file managers contain features inspired by web browsers, including forward and back navigational buttons. Some file managers provide network connectivity via protocols, such as FTP, NFS, SMB or WebDAV. This is achieved by allowing the user to browse for a file server (connecting and accessing the server's file system like a local file system) or by providing its own full client implementations for file server protocols. A term that predates the usage of file manager is directory editor, which dates back at least to 1978. A directory editor was written for EXEC 8 at the University of Maryland, and was available to other users at that time. The term was used by other developers, including Jay Lepreau, who wrote the dired program in 1980, which ran on BSD. This was in turn inspired by an older program with the same
    7.50
    2 votes
    137
    HTTP File Server

    HTTP File Server

    • Software In Genre: Virtuoso Universal Server
    HTTP File Server, otherwise known as HFS, is a free web server specifically designed for publishing and sharing files. The complete feature set differs from other web servers; it lacks some common features, like CGI, or even ability to run as a Windows service, but includes, for example, counting file downloads. It is even advised against using it as an ordinary web server. Its foremost feature is its extreme ease of use even for ordinary home users; just launch one file and you're all set, no configuration or installation. HFS has received generally very positive reviews. HFS is a small HTTP file server, aimed at mostly sharing files for download. The official documentation describes HFS as: HFS (Http File Server) is file sharing software which allows you to send and receive files. You can limit this sharing to just a few friends, or be open to the whole world. HFS is different from classic file sharing because there is no network. HFS is a web server which uses web technology to be more compatible with today's Internet. Since it is actually a web server, your friends can download files as if they were downloading from a website using a web browser, such as Internet Explorer or
    7.50
    2 votes
    138

    Prototyping

    • Software In Genre: Adobe Proto
    Prototyping is the process of quickly putting together a working model (a prototype) in order to test various aspects of a design, illustrate ideas or features and gather early user feedback. Prototyping is often treated as an integral part of the system design process, where it is believed to reduce project risk and cost. Often one or more prototypes are made in a process of iterative and incremental development where each prototype is influenced by the performance of previous designs, in this way problems or deficiencies in design can be corrected. When the prototype is sufficiently refined and meets the functionality, robustness, manufacturability and other design goals, the product is ready for production. The prototyping model is a software development process that begins with requirements collection, followed by prototyping and user evaluation. Often the end users may not be able to provide a complete set of application objectives, detailed input, processing, or output requirements in the initial stage. After the user evaluation, another prototype will be built based on feedback from users, and again the cycle returns to customer evaluation. The cycle starts by listening to
    7.50
    2 votes
    139

    Social software

    • Software In Genre: IBM Lotus Connections
    Social software applications include communication tools and interactive tools often based on the Internet. Communication tools typically handle the capturing, storing and presentation of communication, usually written but increasingly including audio and video as well. Interactive tools handle mediated interactions between a pair or group of users. They focus on establishing and maintaining a connection among users, facilitating the mechanics of conversation and talk. An instant messaging application or client allows one to communicate with another person over a network in real time, in relative privacy. Popular, consumer-oriented clients include AOL Instant Messenger, Google speech, ICQ, Meebo, MSN Messenger, Pidgin (formerly maig), and Yahoo! Messenger. Instant messaging software designed for use in business includes IBM Lotus Sametime, XMPP and Microsoft Messenger. One can add friends to a contact or buddy list by entering the person's email address or messenger ID. If the person is online, their name will typically be listed as available for chat. Clicking on their name will activate a chat window with space to write to the other person, as well as read their reply. Internet
    7.50
    2 votes
    140

    Software Testing

    • Software In Genre: TOSCA Testsuite
    Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include, but are not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs (errors or other defects). Software testing can be stated as the process of validating and verifying that a computer program/application/product: Software testing, depending on the testing method employed, can be implemented at any time in the development process. Traditionally most of the test effort occurs after the requirements have been defined and the coding process has been completed, but in the Agile approaches most of the test effort is on-going. As such, the methodology of the test is governed by the chosen software development methodology. Different software development models will focus the test effort at different points in the development process. Newer development models, such as Agile, often employ test-driven development
    7.50
    2 votes
    141
    Television

    Television

    • Software In Genre: Miro
    Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome (black-and-white) or colored, with or without accompanying sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming, or television transmission. The etymology of the word has a mixed Latin and Greek origin, meaning "far sight": Greek tele (τῆλε), far, and Latin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person). Commercially available since the late 1920s, the television set has become commonplace in homes, businesses and institutions, particularly as a vehicle for advertising, a source of entertainment, and news. Since the 1950s, television has been the main medium for molding public opinion. Since the 1970s the availability of video cassettes, laserdiscs, DVDs and now Blu-ray Discs, have resulted in the television set frequently being used for viewing recorded as well as broadcast material. In recent years Internet television has seen the rise of television available via the Internet, e.g. iPlayer and Hulu. Although other forms such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) are in use, the most common usage of the
    7.50
    2 votes
    142
    Terminal emulator

    Terminal emulator

    • Software In Genre: GNU Screen
    A terminal emulator, terminal application, term, or tty for short, is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture. Though typically synonymous with a command line shell or text terminal, the term terminal covers all remote terminals, including graphical interfaces. A terminal emulator inside a graphical user interface is often called a terminal window. A terminal window allows the user access to a text terminal and all its applications such as command line interfaces (CLI) and text user interface applications. These may be running either on the same machine or on a different one via telnet, ssh, or dial-up. On Unix-like operating systems it is common to have one or more terminal windows connected to the local machine. Terminals usually support a set of escape sequences for controlling color, cursor position, etc. Examples include the family of terminal control sequence standards known as ECMA-48, ANSI X3.64 or ISO/IEC 6429. Early adopters of computer technology, such as banks, insurance companies, and governments, still make frequent use of terminal emulators. They typically have decades-old applications running on mainframe computers. The old
    7.50
    2 votes
    143
    Web browser

    Web browser

    • Software In Genre: Mozilla Firefox
    A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. A web browser can also be defined as an application software or program designed to enable users to access, retrieve and view documents and other resources on the Internet. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems. The major web browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari. The first web browser was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee. It was called WorldWideWeb (no spaces) and was later renamed Nexus. In 1993, browser software was further innovated by Marc Andreessen with the release of Mosaic (later Netscape), "the world's first popular browser", which made the World Wide Web system easy to use and more accessible to the average person. Andreesen's browser
    7.50
    2 votes
    144

    X86 virtualization

    • Software In Genre: VirtualBox
    In computing, x86 virtualization is the facility that allows multiple operating systems to simultaneously share x86 processor resources in a safe and efficient manner, a facility generically known as hardware virtualization. In the late 1990s x86 virtualization was achieved by complex software techniques which overcame the processor's lack of virtualization support and attained reasonable performance. In the mid 2000s, both Intel and AMD added hardware support to their processors making virtualization software simpler, and later hardware changes provided substantial speed improvements. The following discussion focuses only on virtualization of protected mode of the x86 architecture. In protected mode the Kernel runs at a higher privilege such as ring 0, and applications at a lower privilege such as ring 3. Similarly, a host OS must control the processor while the guest OS' are prevented from direct access to the hardware. One approach used in x86 software-based virtualization is called ring deprivileging, which involves running the guest OS at a ring higher than 0. Three techniques made virtualization of protected mode possible: These techniques incur some performance overhead due
    7.50
    2 votes
    145

    IRC services

    • Software In Genre: Q
    Internet Relay Chat services (usually called IRC services) is a name for a set of features implemented on many modern Internet Relay Chat networks. Services are automated bots with special status which are generally used to provide users with access with certain privileges and protection. They usually implement some sort of login system so that only people on the access control list can obtain these services. The most popular style of services use a number of fake clients whose names end in "Serv". The four below are nearly always seen in services of this style. Some others are also seen following this naming convention in some services packages including: Other commonly used services bots: The original NickServ was written by Armin Gruner at the Munich University of Technology in 1990. The original intention was to give out friendly warnings that somebody else already likes to use a specific nickname, since the IRC protocol has no built-in provision to protect electronic identities. NoteServ and MsgServ followed up soon after the introduction of NickServ, and had a similar job to today's MemoServ. It was considered okay behavior to simply /ignore NickServ's notices, but an
    6.33
    3 votes
    146

    Multi-paradigm programming language

    • Software In Genre: Objective Caml
    Programming languages can be grouped by the number and types of paradigms supported. A concise reference for the programming paradigms listed in this article.
    6.33
    3 votes
    147
    Web server

    Web server

    • Software In Genre: AOLserver
    Web server can refer to either the hardware (the computer) or the software (the computer application) that helps to deliver Web content that can be accessed through the Internet. The most common use of web servers is to host websites, but there are other uses such as gaming , data storage or running enterprise applications. The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages on the request to clients using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). This means delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be included by a document, such as images, style sheets and scripts. A user agent, commonly a web browser or web crawler, initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so. The resource is typically a real file on the server's secondary storage, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on how the web server is implemented. While the primary function is to serve content, a full implementation of HTTP also includes ways of receiving content from clients. This feature is used for submitting web forms, including uploading of
    6.33
    3 votes
    148
    Audio Engineer

    Audio Engineer

    • Software In Genre: Acourate
    An audio engineer, also called audio technician, audio technologist, recording engineer, sound engineer, sound operator, or sound technician, is a specialist in a skilled trade that deals with the use of machinery and equipment for the recording, mixing and reproduction of sounds. The field draws on many artistic and vocational areas, including electronics, acoustics, psychoacoustics, and music. An audio technician is proficient with different types of recording media, such as analog tape, digital multitrack recorders and workstations, and computer knowledge. With the advent of the digital age, it is becoming more and more important for the audio technician to be versed in the understanding of software and hardware integration from synchronization to analog to digital transfers. Audio engineering concerns the creative and practical aspects of sounds and music, in contrast with the formal engineering discipline known as acoustical engineering. Producer, engineer, mixer Phil Ek has described audio engineering as the "technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, the turning of pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an
    8.00
    1 votes
    149

    Computer algebra system

    • Software In Genre: SymPy
    A computer algebra system (CAS) is a software program that facilitates symbolic mathematics. The core functionality of a CAS is manipulation of mathematical expressions in symbolic form. The symbolic manipulations supported typically include: In the above, the word some indicates that the operation cannot always be performed. Many also include: Some include: Some computer algebra systems focus on a specific area of application; these are typically developed in academia and are free. They can be inefficient for numeric operations compared to numeric systems. The expressions manipulated by the CAS typically include polynomials in multiple variables; standard functions of expressions (sine, exponential, etc.); various special functions (Γ, ζ, erf, Bessel functions, etc.); arbitrary functions of expressions; optimization; derivatives, integrals, simplifications, sums, and products of expressions; truncated series with expressions as coefficients, matrices of expressions, and so on. Numeric domains supported typically include real, complex, interval, rational, and algebraic. Computer algebra systems began to appear in the 1960s, and evolved out of two quite different sources - the
    8.00
    1 votes
    150

    HTML editor

    • Software In Genre: WYMeditor
    An HTML editor is a software application for creating web pages. Although the HTML markup of a web page can be written with any text editor, specialized HTML editors can offer convenience and added functionality. For example, many HTML editors work not only with HTML, but also with related technologies such as CSS, XML and JavaScript or ECMAScript. In some cases they also manage communication with remote web servers via FTP and WebDAV, and version management systems such as CVS or Subversion. There are various forms of HTML editors: text, object and WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) editors. Text (source) editors intended for use with HTML usually provide syntax highlighting. Templates, toolbars and keyboard shortcuts may quickly insert common HTML elements and structures. Wizards, tooltip prompts and autocompletion may help with common tasks. Text HTML editors commonly include either built-in functions or integration with external tools for such tasks as source and version control, link-checking, code checking and validation, code cleanup and formatting, spell-checking, uploading by FTP or WebDAV, and structuring as a project. Text editors require user understanding of HTML
    8.00
    1 votes
    151
    Integrated development environment

    Integrated development environment

    • Software In Genre: Hackety Hack
    An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of a source code editor, build automation tools and a debugger. Some IDEs contain compiler, interpreter, or both, such as Microsoft Visual Studio and Eclipse; others do not, such as SharpDevelop and Lazarus. The boundary between an integrated development environment and other parts of the broader software development environment is not well-defined. Sometimes a version control system and various tools are integrated to simplify the construction of a GUI. Many modern IDEs also have a class browser, an object inspector, and a class hierarchy diagram, for use with object-oriented software development. IDEs are designed to maximize programmer productivity by providing tight-knit components with similar user interfaces. This should mean that the programmer has to do less mode switching versus using discrete development programs. However, because an IDE is a complicated piece of software by its very nature, this higher productivity only occurs after a lengthy learning process. Typically an IDE is dedicated
    8.00
    1 votes
    152

    RSS

    • Software In Genre: Mobile RSS Free
    RSS Rich Site Summary (originally RDF Site Summary, often dubbed Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format. An RSS document (which is called a "feed", "web feed", or "channel") includes full or summarized text, plus metadata such as publishing dates and authorship. RSS feeds benefit publishers by letting them syndicate content automatically. A standardized XML file format allows the information to be published once and viewed by many different programs. They benefit readers who want to subscribe to timely updates from favorite websites or to aggregate feeds from many sites into one place. RSS feeds can be read using software called an "RSS reader", "feed reader", or "aggregator", which can be web-based, desktop-based, or mobile-device-based. The user subscribes to a feed by entering into the reader the feed's URI or by clicking a feed icon in a web browser that initiates the subscription process. The RSS reader checks the user's subscribed feeds regularly for new work, downloads any updates that it finds, and provides a user interface to monitor
    8.00
    1 votes
    153
    Office

    Office

    • Software In Genre: OpenOffice.org Impress
    An office is generally a room or other area where people work, but may also denote a position within an organization with specific duties attached to it(see officer, office-holder, official); the latter is in fact an earlier usage, office as place originally referring to the location of one's duty. When used as an adjective, the term "office" may refer to business-related tasks. In legal writing, a company or organization has offices in any place that it has an official presence, even if that presence consists of, for example, a storage silo rather than an office. An office is an architectural and design phenomenon and a social phenomenon, whether it is a small office such as a bench in the corner of a small business of extremely small size (see small office/home office) through entire floors of buildings up to and including massive buildings dedicated entirely to one company. In modern terms an office usually refers to the location where white-collar workers are employed. The structure and shape of the office is impacted by both management thought as well as construction materials and may or may not have walls or barriers . The word stems from the Latin officium, and its
    5.25
    4 votes
    154

    Accounting software

    • Software In Genre: GnuCash
    Accounting software is application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and trial balance. It functions as an accounting information system. It may be developed in-house by the company or organization using it, may be purchased from a third party, or may be a combination of a third-party application software package with local modifications. It varies greatly in its complexity and cost. The market has been undergoing considerable consolidation since the mid 1990s, with many suppliers ceasing to trade or being bought by larger groups. Accounting software is typically composed of various modules, different sections dealing with particular areas of accounting. Among the most common are: Core Modules Non Core Modules (Different vendors will use different names for these modules) In many cases, implementation (i.e. the installation and configuration of the system at the client) can be a bigger consideration than the actual software chosen when it comes down to the total cost of ownership for the business. Most midmarket and larger applications are sold exclusively through resellers,
    7.00
    2 votes
    155
    Add-on

    Add-on

    • Software In Genre: Ubiquity
    Add-ons are installable enhancements to the Mozilla Foundation's projects, and projects based on them. Add-ons allow the user to add or augment application features, use themes to their liking, and handle new types of content. Extensions can be used to modify the behavior of existing features to the application or add entirely new features. Extensions are especially popular with Firefox, because Mozilla developers intend for the browser to be a fairly minimalistic application in order to reduce software bloat and bugs, while retaining a high degree of extensibility, so that individual users can add the features that they prefer. Some extensions are used to change the interface of the application. These are not to be confused with personas, which are a theme management feature. For example, several add-ons exist to change the color of the Firefox button, such as ColorizedButton. There is also an add-on which moves the menu bar to where the window title normally is on windows machines. Extensions are generally used to add functions to the application. Examples of functions which an extension might add include RSS readers, bookmark organizers, toolbars, website-specific client
    7.00
    2 votes
    156
    Bulk Email Marketing Software

    Bulk Email Marketing Software

    • Software In Genre: Bulk Email Marketing Software
    • Parent genre: Email Marketing
    • Subgenres: Email appending
    Bulk Email Marketing Software is an inevitable component in the e-marketing world. Build and manage email list. Create attractive emails using 100+ easy to use templates and save time.
    7.00
    2 votes
    157

    Desktop environment

    • Software In Genre: GNOME
    In graphical computing, a desktop environment (DE) commonly refers to a particular implementation of graphical user interface (GUI) derived from the desktop metaphor that is seen on most modern personal computers. These GUIs help the user in easily accessing, configuring and modifying many important and frequently accessed specific operating system (OS) features. The GUI usually does not afford access to all the many features found in an OS. Instead, the traditional command-line interface (CLI) is still used when full control over the OS is required in such cases. A desktop environment typically consists of icons, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers and desktop widgets (see Elements of graphical user interfaces and WIMP). A GUI might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features that make the desktop metaphor more complete. A desktop environment aims to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows. While the term desktop environment originally described a style of user interfaces following the desktop metaphor, it has also come to
    7.00
    2 votes
    158
    Puzzle

    Puzzle

    • Software In Genre: Hikarunix
    A puzzle is a problem or enigma that tests the ingenuity of the solver. In a basic puzzle, one is intended to put together pieces in a logical way in order to come up with the desired solution. Puzzles are often contrived as a form of entertainment, but they can also stem from serious mathematical or logistical problems — in such cases, their successful resolution can be a significant contribution to mathematical research. Solutions to puzzles may require recognizing patterns and creating a particular order. People with a high inductive reasoning aptitude may be better at solving these puzzles than others. Puzzles based on the process of inquiry and discovery to complete may be solved faster by those with good deduction skills. The first jigsaw puzzle was created around 1760, when John Spilsbury, a British engraver and mapmaker, mounted a map on a sheet of wood that he then sawed around each individual country. Spilsbury used the product to aid in teaching geography. After catching on with the wider public, this remained the primary use of jigsaw puzzles until about 1820. By the early 20th century, magazines and newspapers found that they could increase their daily subscriptions by
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    Web service

    Web service

    • Software In Genre: XML Interface for Network Services
    A Web service is a method of communication between two electronic devices over the World Wide Web. The W3C defines a "Web service" as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network". It has an interface described in a machine-processable format (specifically Web Services Description Language, known by the acronym WSDL). Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages, typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards." The W3C also states, "We can identify two major classes of Web services, REST-compliant Web services, in which the primary purpose of the service is to manipulate XML representations of Web resources using a uniform set of "stateless" operations; and arbitrary Web services, in which the service may expose an arbitrary set of operations." "Big Web services" use Extensible Markup Language (XML) messages that follow the SOAP standard and have been popular with the traditional enterprises. In such systems, there is often a machine-readable description of the operations offered by the service written in the Web
    7.00
    2 votes
    160
    Wiki software

    Wiki software

    • Software In Genre: MediaWiki
    Wiki software (also known as a wiki engine or wiki application) is collaborative software that runs a wiki, i.e., a website that allows users to create and collaboratively edit web pages via a web browser. A wiki system is usually a web application that runs on one or more web servers. The content, including all current and previous revisions, is usually stored in either a file system or a database. Wiki software was invented and first created by programmer Ward Cunningham in 1995. There are currently dozens of actively maintained wiki engines, in a variety of programming languages, including both open source and proprietary applications. The first wiki application, WikiWikiWeb, was created by American computer programmer Ward Cunningham in 1994 and launched on c2.com in 1995. "WikiWikiWeb" was also the name of the wiki that ran on the software, and in the first years of wikis' existence there was no great distinction made between the contents of wikis and the software they ran on, possibly because almost every wiki ran on its own customized software. The WikiWikiWeb software was later renamed "WikiBase". Over the next 10 years, many more wiki applications were written, in a
    7.00
    2 votes
    161

    Chatterbot

    • Software In Genre: A.L.I.C.E.
    A chatter robot, chatterbot, chatbot, or chat bot is a computer program designed to simulate an intelligent conversation with one or more human users via auditory or textual methods, primarily for engaging in small talk. The primary aim of such simulation has been to fool the user into thinking that the program's output has been produced by a human (the Turing test). Programs playing this role are sometimes referred to as Artificial Conversational Entities, talk bots or chatterboxes. In addition, however, chatterbots are often integrated into dialog systems for various practical purposes such as offline help, personalised service, or information acquisition. Some chatterbots use sophisticated natural language processing systems, but many simply scan for keywords within the input and pull a reply with the most matching keywords, or the most similar wording pattern, from a textual database. The term "ChatterBot" was originally coined by Michael Mauldin (Creator of the first Verbot, Julia) in 1994 to describe these conversational programs. In 1950, Alan Turing published his famous article "Computing Machinery and Intelligence", which proposed what is now called the Turing test as a
    6.00
    3 votes
    162
    Data analysis

    Data analysis

    • Software In Genre: Windographer
    Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains. Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes. Business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing on business information. In statistical applications, some people divide data analysis into descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA), and confirmatory data analysis (CDA). EDA focuses on discovering new features in the data and CDA on confirming or falsifying existing hypotheses. Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical or structural models for predictive forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured data.
    6.00
    3 votes
    163

    Download manager

    • Software In Genre: Download Accelerator Plus
    A download manager is a computer program dedicated to the task of downloading (and sometimes uploading) possibly unrelated stand-alone files from (and sometimes to) the Internet for storage. Some download managers can also be used to accelerate download speeds by downloading from multiple sources at once. Although web browsers may have download managers incorporated as a feature, they are differentiated by the fact that they do not prioritize accurate, complete and unbroken downloads of information. Download managers commonly include one or more of the following features: Download managers are useful for very active Internet users. For dial-up users, they can automatically dial the Internet Service Provider at night, when rates or tariffs are usually much lower, download the specified files, and hang-up. They can record which links the user clicks on during the day, and queue these files for later download. For broadband users, download managers can help download very large files by resuming broken downloads, by limiting the bandwidth used, so that other internet activities are not affected (slowed) and the server is not overloaded, or by automatically navigating a site and
    6.00
    3 votes
    164
    Natural language understanding

    Natural language understanding

    • Software In Genre: SHRDLU
    Natural language understanding is a subtopic of natural language processing in artificial intelligence that deals with machine reading comprehension. The process of disassembling and parsing input is more complex than the reverse process of assembling output in natural language generation because of the occurrence of unknown and unexpected features in the input and the need to determine the appropriate syntactic and semantic schemes to apply to it, factors which are pre-determined when outputting language. There is considerable commercial interest in the field because of its application to news-gathering, text categorization, voice-activation, archiving and large-scale content-analysis. The program STUDENT, written in 1964 by Daniel Bobrow for his PhD dissertation at MIT is one of the earliest known attempts at natural language understanding by a computer. Eight years after John McCarthy coined the term artificial intelligence, Bobrow's dissertation (titled Natural Language Input for a Computer Problem Solving System) showed how a computer can understand simple natural language input to solve algebra word problems. A year later, in 1965, Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT wrote ELIZA, an
    6.00
    3 votes
    165

    Network intrusion detection system

    • Software In Genre: Bro
    In computer security, a Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) is an intrusion detection system that attempts to discover unauthorized access to a computer network by analyzing traffic on the network for signs of malicious activity.
    6.00
    3 votes
    166

    Statistical package

    • Software In Genre: SPSS
    A statistical package is a suite of computer program that are specialised for statistical analysis. It enables people to obtain the results of standard statistical procedures and statistical significance tests, without requiring low-level numerical programming. Most statistical packages also provide facilities for data management.
    6.00
    3 votes
    167

    Web-based email

    • Software In Genre: SquirrelMail
    • Parent genre: E-mail
    The term Webmail (or Web-based email) is used to describe two things. One use of the word is to describe a Webmail client: an email client implemented as a web application accessed via a web browser. This article focuses on this use of the term. The other use of the word is to describe a Web-based email service: an email service offered through a web site (a webmail provider) such as Gmail, Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail and AOL Mail. Practically every webmail provider offers email access using a webmail client, and many of them also offer email access by a desktop email client using standard email protocols, while many internet service providers provide a webmail client as part of the email service included in their internet service package. As with any web application, webmail's main advantage over the use of a desktop email client is the ability to send and receive email anywhere from a web browser. Its main disadvantage is the need to be connected to the internet while using it (Gmail offers offline use of its webmail client through the installation of Gears.). There exist also other software tools to integrate parts of the webmail functionality into the OS (e.g. creating messages
    6.00
    3 votes
    168

    File archiver

    • Software In Genre: bsdcpio
    A file archiver is a computer program that combines a number of files together into one archive file, or a series of archive files, for easier transportation or storage. Many file archivers employ archive formats that provide lossless data compression to reduce the size of the archive which is often useful for transferring a large number of individual files over a high latency network like the Internet. The most basic archivers just take a list of files and concatenate their contents sequentially into the archive. In addition the archive must also contain some information about at least the names and lengths of the originals, so that proper reconstruction is possible. Most archivers also store metadata about a file that the operating system provides, such as timestamps, ownership and access control. The process of making an archive file is called archiving or packing. Reconstructing the original files from the archive is termed unarchiving, unpacking or extracting. Unlike integrated archival and compression tools like PKZIP, WinZip, and WinRAR, the Unix tools ar, tar, cpio (for "archiver", "tape archiver" and "copy in/out" respectively) act as archivers but not compressors. Users
    5.67
    3 votes
    169

    Machine learning

    • Software In Genre: RapidMiner
    Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is a scientific discipline concerned with the design and development of algorithms that take as input empirical data, such as that from sensors or databases, and yield patterns or predictions thought to be features of the underlying mechanism that generated the data. A learner can take advantage of examples (data) to capture characteristics of interest of their unknown underlying probability distribution. Data can be seen as instances of the possible relations between observed variables. A major focus of machine learning research is the design of algorithms that recognize complex patterns and make intelligent decisions based on input data. One fundamental difficulty is that the set of all possible behaviors given all possible inputs is too large to be included in the set of observed examples (training data). Hence the learner must generalize from the given examples in order to produce a useful output in new cases. In 1959, Arthur Samuel defined machine learning as a "Field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed". Tom M. Mitchell provided a widely quoted, more formal definition:
    5.67
    3 votes
    170
    Wardriving

    Wardriving

    • Software In Genre: NetStumbler
    Wardriving is the act of searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by a person in a moving vehicle, using a portable computer, smartphone or personal digital assistant (PDA). Software for wardriving is freely available on the Internet, notably NetStumbler, InSSIDer or Ekahau Heat Mapper for Windows; Kismet or SWScanner for Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonFly BSD, and Solaris; and KisMac for Macintosh. There are also homebrew wardriving applications for handheld game consoles that support Wi-fi, such as sniff_jazzbox/wardive for the Nintendo DS/Android, Road Dog for the Sony PSP, WiFi-Where for the iPhone, G-MoN, Wardrive, and Wigle Wifi for Android, and WlanPollution for Symbian NokiaS60 devices. There also exists a mode within Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops for the Sony PSP (wherein the player is able to find new comrades by searching for wireless access points) which can be used to wardrive. Treasure World for the DS is a commercial game in which gameplay wholly revolves around wardriving. Wardriving originated from wardialing, a method popularized by a character played by Matthew Broderick in the film WarGames, and named after that film. The term originates from a phone
    5.67
    3 votes
    171

    Computer software

    • Software In Genre: Ixi software
    • Subgenres: DVD authoring
    Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some reasons. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, executable
    6.50
    2 votes
    172

    Computer virus

    • Software In Genre: W32.Mytob.V@mm
    A computer virus is a computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. The term "virus" is also commonly, but erroneously, used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have a reproductive ability. Malware includes computer viruses, computer worms, Trojan horses, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware and other malicious or unwanted software, including true viruses. Viruses are sometimes confused with worms and Trojan horses, which are technically different. A worm can exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself automatically to other computers through networks, while a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but hides malicious functions. Worms and Trojan horses, like viruses, may harm a computer system's data or performance. Some viruses and other malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer user, but many are surreptitious or simply do nothing to call attention to themselves. Some viruses do nothing beyond reproducing themselves. An example of a virus which is not a malware, but is putatively benevolent, is Fred Cohen's theoretical compression virus. However,
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    File Transfer Protocol

    File Transfer Protocol

    • Software In Genre: FileZilla
    File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host or to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that hides (encrypts) the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS ("FTPS"). SSH File Transfer Protocol ("SFTP") is sometimes also used instead. The first FTP client applications were command-line applications developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems. Dozens of FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into hundreds of productivity applications, such as web page editors. The protocol is specified in RFC 959, which is summarized here. The
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    Firmware

    Firmware

    • Software In Genre: Rockbox
    In electronic systems and computing, firmware is the combination of persistent memory and program code and data stored in it. Typical examples of devices containing firmware are embedded systems (such as traffic lights, consumer appliances, and digital watches), computers, computer peripherals, mobile phones, and digital cameras. The firmware contained in these devices provides the control program for the device. Firmware is held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM, EPROM, or flash memory. Changing the firmware of a device may rarely or never be done during its economic lifetime; some firmware memory devices are permanently installed and cannot be changed after manufacture. Common reasons for updating firmware include fixing bugs or adding features to the device. This may require physically changing ROM integrated circuits, or reprogramming flash memory with a special procedure. Firmware such as the ROM BIOS of a personal computer may contain only elementary basic functions of a device and may only provide services to higher-level software. Firmware such as the program of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its
    6.50
    2 votes
    175

    Virtual world

    • Software In Genre: Second Life
    A virtual world is an online community that takes the form of a computer-based simulated environment through which users can interact with one another and use and create objects. The term has become largely synonymous with interactive 3D virtual environments, where the users take the form of avatars visible to others. These avatars usually appear as textual, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional representations, although other forms are possible (auditory and touch sensations for example). In general, virtual worlds allow for multiple users. The computer accesses a computer-simulated world and presents perceptual stimuli to the user, who in turn can manipulate elements of the modeled world and thus experience a degree of telepresence. Such modeled worlds and their rules may draw from the reality or fantasy worlds. Example rules are gravity, topography, locomotion, real-time actions, and communication. Communication between users can range from text, graphical icons, visual gesture, sound, and rarely, forms using touch, voice command, and balance senses. Massively multiplayer online games depict a wide range of worlds, including those based on fantasy, science fiction, the real
    6.50
    2 votes
    176
    Voxel

    Voxel

    • Software In Genre: PolyVox
    A voxel (volumetric pixel or Volumetric Picture Element) is a volume element, representing a value on a regular grid in three dimensional space. This is analogous to a pixel, which represents 2D image data in a bitmap (which is sometimes referred to as a pixmap). As with pixels in a bitmap, voxels themselves do not typically have their position (their coordinates) explicitly encoded along with their values. Instead, the position of a voxel is inferred based upon its position relative to other voxels (i.e., its position in the data structure that makes up a single volumetric image). In contrast to pixels and voxels, points and polygons are often explicitly represented by the coordinates of their vertices. A direct consequence of this difference is that polygons are able to efficiently represent simple 3D structures with lots of empty or homogeneously filled space, while voxels are good at representing regularly sampled spaces that are non-homogeneously filled. Voxels are frequently used in the visualization and analysis of medical and scientific data. Some volumetric displays use voxels to describe their resolution. For example, a display might be able to show 512×512×512 voxels. A
    6.50
    2 votes
    177
    Content management system

    Content management system

    • Software In Genre: TikiWiki
    A Content Management System (CMS) is a computer program that allows publishing, editing and modifying content on a web site as well as maintenance from a central interface. Such systems of content management provide procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment. These procedures can be manual steps or an automated cascade. The first Content Management system (CMS) was announced at the end of 1990s. This CMS was designed to simplify the complex task writing numerous versions of code and to make the website development process more flexible. CMS platforms allow users to centralize data editing, publishing and modification on a single back-end interface. Basically CMS(Content Management System) can be divided into two types: Proprietary CMS is a content management system in which the back end code is available only to the particular developer, so only the single Admin can edit or customize the webpage. Open source CMS is an open system that can be used by anyone to make any change by using any device. The core function of Content Management Systems is to present information on web sites. CMS features vary widely from system to system. Simple systems showcase a handful
    7.00
    1 votes
    178

    Customer Relationship Management

    • Software In Genre: Stoq
    Customer relationship management (CRM) is a widely implemented model for managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients, and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. The overall goals are to find, attract, and win new clients, service and retain those the company already has, entice former clients to return, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. Customer relationship management describes a company-wide business strategy including customer-interface departments as well as other departments. Measuring and valuing customer relationships is critical to implementing this strategy. A Customer Relationship Management system may be chosen because it is thought to provide the following advantages: Successful development, implementation, use and support of customer relationship management systems can provide a significant advantage to the user, but often there are obstacles that obstruct the user from using the system to its full potential. Instances of a CRM attempting to contain a large, complex group
    7.00
    1 votes
    179
    Data integration

    Data integration

    • Software In Genre: Yahoo! Pipes
    Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of these data. This process becomes significant in a variety of situations, which include both commercial (when two similar companies need to merge their databases) and scientific (combining research results from different bioinformatics repositories, for example) domains. Data integration appears with increasing frequency as the volume and the need to share existing data explodes. It has become the focus of extensive theoretical work, and numerous open problems remain unsolved. In management circles, people frequently refer to data integration as "Enterprise Information Integration" (EII). Issues with combining heterogeneous data sources under a single query interface have existed for some time. The rapid adoption of databases after the 1960s naturally led to the need to share or to merge existing repositories. This merging can take place at several levels in the database architecture. One popular solution is implemented based on data warehousing (see figure 1). The warehouse system extracts, transforms, and loads data from heterogeneous sources into a single common
    7.00
    1 votes
    180
    Educational assessment

    Educational assessment

    • Software In Genre: Skill evaluation lab
    Educational assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole. According to the Academic Exchange Quarterly: "Studies of a theoretical or empirical nature (including case studies, portfolio studies, exploratory, or experimental work) addressing the assessment of learner aptitude and preparation, motivation and learning styles, learning outcomes in achievement and satisfaction in different educational contexts are all welcome, as are studies addressing issues of measurable standards and benchmarks". The final purposes and assessment practices in education depends on the theoretical framework of the practitioners and researchers, their assumptions and beliefs about the nature of human mind, the origin of knowledge and the process of learning. According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary the word assessment comes from the root word assess which is defined as: Assessment in education is best described as an action "to determine the
    7.00
    1 votes
    181

    Portable Document Format

    • Software In Genre: doPDF
    Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to represent documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, graphics, and other information needed to display it. In 1991, Adobe Systems co-founder John Warnock outlined a system called "Camelot" that evolved into PDF. While Adobe Systems made the PDF specification available free of charge in 1993, PDF remained a proprietary format, controlled by Adobe, until it was officially released as an open standard on July 1, 2008, and published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 32000-1:2008. In 2008, Adobe published a Public Patent License to ISO 32000-1 granting royalty-free rights for all patents owned by Adobe that are necessary to make, use, sell and distribute PDF compliant implementations. PDF was developed in the early 1990s as a way to share documents, including text formatting and inline images, among computer users of disparate platforms who may not have access to mutually-compatible application software. It was among a number of competing formats
    7.00
    1 votes
    182

    Test automation

    • Software In Genre: Watir
    In software testing, test automation is the use of special software (separate from the software being tested) to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions. Commonly, test automation involves automating a manual process already in place that uses a formalized testing process. Although manual tests may find many defects in a software application, it is a laborious and time consuming process. In addition, it may not be effective in finding certain classes of defects. Test automation is the process of writing a computer program to do testing that would otherwise need to be done manually. Once tests have been automated, they can be run quickly and repeatedly. This is often the most cost effective method for software products that have a long maintenance life, because even minor patches over the lifetime of the application can cause features to break which were working at an earlier point in time. There are two general approaches to test automation: Test automation tools can be expensive, and are usually employed in combination with manual testing. Test
    7.00
    1 votes
    183
    Water quality

    Water quality

    • Software In Genre: Water Quality Exchange
    Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact and drinking water. In the setting of standards, agencies make political and technical/scientific decisions about how the water will be used. In the case of natural water bodies, they also make some reasonable estimate of pristine conditions. Different uses raise different concerns and therefore different standards are considered. Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental conditions. Environmental scientists work to understand how these systems function, which in turn helps to identify the sources and fates of contaminants. Environmental lawyers and policymakers work to define legislation with the intention that water is maintained at an appropriate quality for its identified use. The vast majority of surface water on the planet is
    7.00
    1 votes
    184
    Weather forecasting

    Weather forecasting

    • Software In Genre: AccuWeather.com WRT Widget
    Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a given location. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia, and formally since the nineteenth century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve. Once an all-human endeavor based mainly upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, and sky condition, weather forecasting now relies on computer-based models that take many atmospheric factors into account. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, teleconnections, knowledge of model performance, and knowledge of model biases. The chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, error involved in measuring the initial conditions, and an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes mean that forecasts become less accurate as the difference
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    HP QuickTest Professional

    HP QuickTest Professional

    • Software In Genre: Test automation
    HP QuickTest Professional software provides functional and regression test automation for software applications and environments. Part of the HP Quality Center tool suite, HP QuickTest Professional can be used for enterprise quality assurance. HP QuickTest Professional supports keyword and scripting interfaces and features a graphical user interface. It uses the Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript) scripting language to specify a test procedure, and to manipulate the objects and controls of the application under test. HP QuickTest Professional was originally written by Mercury Interactive. Mercury Interactive was subsequently acquired by Hewlett Packard (HP) in 2006. HP QuickTest Professional 11 is currently available from HP Software Division. HP QuickTest Professional is automated testing software designed for testing various software applications and environments. It performs functional and regression testing through a user interface such as a native GUI or web interface. It works by identifying the objects in the application user interface or a web page and performing desired operations (such as mouse clicks or keyboard events); it can also capture object properties like
    5.33
    3 votes
    186

    Natural language processing

    • Software In Genre: lingo
    Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages. As such, NLP is related to the area of human–computer interaction. Many challenges in NLP involve natural language understanding -- that is, enabling computers to derive meaning from human or natural language input. The history of NLP generally starts in the 1950s, although work can be found from earlier periods. In 1950, Alan Turing published his famous article "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" which proposed what is now called the Turing test as a criterion of intelligence. This criterion depends on the ability of a computer program to impersonate a human in a real-time written conversation with a human judge, sufficiently well that the judge is unable to distinguish reliably — on the basis of the conversational content alone — between the program and a real human. The Georgetown experiment in 1954 involved fully automatic translation of more than sixty Russian sentences into English. The authors claimed that within three or five years, machine translation would be a solved problem.
    5.33
    3 votes
    187
    Compiler

    Compiler

    • Software In Genre: GNU Compiler Collection
    A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program. The name "compiler" is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language or machine code). If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is known as a cross-compiler. A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is a decompiler. A program that translates between high-level languages is usually called a language translator, source to source translator, or language converter. A language rewriter is usually a program that translates the form of expressions without a change of language. A compiler is likely to perform many or all of the following operations: lexical analysis, preprocessing, parsing, semantic analysis (Syntax-directed
    6.00
    2 votes
    188

    Content-control software

    • Software In Genre: SafeSquid
    Content-control software, content filtering software, secure web gateways, censorware, and web filtering software are terms for software designed and optimized for controlling what content is permitted to a reader, especially when it is used to restrict material delivered over the Internet via the Web, e-mail, or other means. Content-control software determines what content will be available or perhaps more often what content will be blocked. The restrictions can be applied at various levels: a government can attempt to apply them nationwide (see Internet censorship), or they can, for example, be applied by an ISP to its clients, by an employer to its personnel, by a school to its students, by a library to its visitors, by a parent to a child's computer, or by an individual user to his or her own computer. The motive is often to prevent persons from viewing content which the computer's owner(s) or other authorities may consider objectionable; when imposed without the consent of the user, content control can constitute censorship. Some content-control software includes time control functions that empowers parents to set the amount of time that child may spend accessing the Internet
    6.00
    2 votes
    189
    Data mining

    Data mining

    • Software In Genre: Weka
    Data mining (the analysis step of the "Knowledge Discovery in Databases" process, or KDD), a field at the intersection of computer science and statistics, is the process that attempts to discover patterns in large data sets. It utilizes methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Aside from the raw analysis step, it involves database and data management aspects, data preprocessing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization, and online updating. The term is a buzzword, and is frequently misused to mean any form of large-scale data or information processing (collection, extraction, warehousing, analysis, and statistics) but is also generalized to any kind of computer decision support system, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, and business intelligence. In the proper use of the word, the key term is discovery, commonly defined as "detecting something
    6.00
    2 votes
    190

    Desktop publishing

    • Software In Genre: IBooks Author
    Desktop publishing software (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of printed materials using page layout on a personal computer. When used skillfully, desktop publishing software can produce printed literature with attractive layouts and typographic quality comparable to traditional typography and printing. This technology allows individuals, businesses, and other organizations to self-publish a wide range of printed matter—from menus and local newsletters to books, magazines, and newspapers—without the sometimes-prohibitive expense of commercial printing. Desktop publishing methods provides more control over design, layout, and typography than word processing does. However, word processing software has evolved to include some, though by no means all, capabilities previously available only with professional printing or desktop publishing. Desktop publishing began in 1983 with a program developed by James Bessen at a community newspaper in Philadelphia. That program, Type Processor One, ran on an PC using a graphics card for a WYSIWYG display and was offered commercially by Bestinfo in 1984. (Desktop typesetting, with only limited page makeup facilities, had arrived in 1978–9 with the
    6.00
    2 votes
    191

    OSGi

    • Software In Genre: Knopflerfish
    The OSGi framework (OSGi being an acroynm for "Open Services Gateway initiative") is a module system and service platform for the Java programming language that implements a complete and dynamic component model, something that as of 2012 does not exist in standalone Java/VM environments. Applications or components (coming in the form of bundles for deployment) can be remotely installed, started, stopped, updated, and uninstalled without requiring a reboot; management of Java packages/classes is specified in great detail. Application life cycle management (start, stop, install, etc.) is done via APIs that allow for remote downloading of management policies. The service registry allows bundles to detect the addition of new services, or the removal of services, and adapt accordingly. The OSGi specifications have moved beyond the original focus of service gateways, and are now used in applications ranging from mobile phones to the open source Eclipse IDE. Other application areas include automobiles, industrial automation, building automation, PDAs, grid computing, entertainment, fleet management and application servers. The OSGi Alliance (formerly known as the Open Services Gateway
    6.00
    2 votes
    192

    Representational State Transfer

    • Software In Genre: RESTstop
    REpresentational State Transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture for distributed systems such as the World Wide Web. REST has emerged as a predominant Web service design model. The term representational state transfer was introduced and defined in 2000 by Roy Fielding in his doctoral dissertation. Fielding is one of the principal authors of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) specification versions 1.0 and 1.1. Conforming to the REST constraints is generally referred to as being "RESTful". The REST architectural style was developed in parallel with HTTP/1.1, based on the existing design of HTTP/1.0. The largest implementation of a system conforming to the REST architectural style is the World Wide Web. REST exemplifies how the Web's architecture emerged by characterizing and constraining the macro-interactions of the four components of the Web, namely origin servers, gateways, proxies and clients, without imposing limitations on the individual participants. As such, REST essentially governs the proper behavior of participants. REST-style architectures consist of clients and servers. Clients initiate requests to servers; servers process requests and return appropriate
    6.00
    2 votes
    193

    Video game console emulator

    • Software In Genre: Dolphin
    A video game console emulator is a program that allows a personal computer or video game console (cross-console emulation) to emulate a different video game console's behavior. Emulators are most often used to play older video games on personal computers and video game consoles, but they are also used to play games translated into other languages or to modify (or hack) existing games. Emulators are also a useful tool in the development process of homebrewed demos and new games for older systems. By the mid-1990s personal computers had progressed to the point where it was technically feasible to replicate the behavior of some of the earliest consoles entirely through software, and the first unauthorized, non-commercial console emulators began to appear. These early programs were often incomplete, only partially emulating a given system, and often riddled with defects. Few manufacturers published technical specifications for their hardware, leaving it to programmers and developers to deduce the exact workings of a console through reverse engineering. Nintendo's consoles tended to be the most commonly studied, for example the most advanced early emulators reproduced the workings of
    6.00
    2 votes
    194

    Peer-to-peer

    • Software In Genre: Freenet
    A peer-to-peer (abbreviated to P2P) computer network is one in which each computer in the network can act as a client or server for the other computers in the network, allowing shared access to various resources such as files, peripherals, and sensors without the need for a central server. P2P networks can be set up within the home, a business, or over the Internet. Each network type requires all computers in the network to use the same or a compatible program to connect to each other and access files and other resources found on the other computer. P2P networks can be used for sharing content such as audio, video, data, or anything in digital format. P2P is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads among peers. Peers are equally privileged participants in the application. Each computer in the network is referred to as a node. The owner of each computer on a P2P network would set aside a portion of its resources - such as processing power, disk storage, or network bandwidth - to be made directly available to other network participant, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. With this model, peers are both suppliers and
    5.00
    3 votes
    195
    Social network

    Social network

    • Software In Genre: OpenLink Data Space
    A social network is a social structure made up of a set of actors (such as individuals or organizations) and the dyadic ties between these actors. The social network perspective provides a clear way of analyzing the structure of whole social entities. The study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, and examine network dynamics. Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology, statistics, and graph theory. Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations." Jacob Moreno is credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships. These approaches were mathematically formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of social networks became pervasive in the social and behavioral sciences by the 1980s. Social network analysis is now one of the major paradigms in contemporary sociology, and is also employed in a number of other social and formal sciences. Together with other complex networks, it forms
    5.00
    3 votes
    196
    Wiki

    Wiki

    • Software In Genre: PhpWiki
    A wiki (/ˈwɪkiː/ WIK-ee) is a website which allows its users to add, modify, or delete its content via a web browser usually using a simplified markup language or a rich-text editor. Wikis are powered by wiki software. Most are created collaboratively. Wikis serve many different purposes, such as knowledge management and notetaking. Wikis can be community websites and intranets, for example. Some permit control over different functions (levels of access). For example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may also be imposed for organizing content. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as "the simplest online database that could possibly work." "Wiki" (pronounced [ˈwiti] or [ˈviti]) is a Hawaiian word meaning "fast" or "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki enables communities to write documents collaboratively, using a simple markup language and a web browser. A single page in a wiki website is
    5.00
    3 votes
    197
    Business

    Business

    • Software In Genre: Fox Business
    A business (also known as enterprise or firm) is an organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and administered to earn profit to increase the wealth of their owners. Businesses may also be not-for-profit or state-owned. A business owned by multiple individuals may be referred to as a company, although that term also has a more precise meaning. The etymology of "business" relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole, doing commercially viable and profitable work. The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the singular usage to mean a particular organization; the generalized usage to refer to a particular market sector, "the music business" and compound forms such as agribusiness; and the broadest meaning, which encompasses all activity by the community of suppliers of goods and services. However, the exact definition of business, like much else in the philosophy of business, is a matter of debate and complexity of meanings. Although forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, several common
    5.50
    2 votes
    198
    Communication

    Communication

    • Software In Genre: AOL Instant Messenger
    Communication released in 2003, is the first solo album of Karl Bartos, featuring such songs as "I'm the Message", "Camera" and "Ultraviolet". Some editions of the CD comes in a special Burgopak -case, which is unusual in that the CD tray and booklet both emerge sliding out from opposite sides of the case and must be opened together. All songs written by Karl Bartos, expect where noted.
    5.50
    2 votes
    199

    Digital asset management system

    • Software In Genre: Fedora Repository
    digital asset management Digital asset management consists of management tasks and decisions directed as successfully meeting opportunities and threats in the dynamic business environments by effectively ingesting, annotating, cataloguing, storage, retrieving as well as the distribution of the company¬タルs digital assets in such a way that the overall objectives of the company, its clients and society will be achieved. Digital asset management is still a fast-growing market with rapid technical evolution, hence many different types of systems will be labeled as DAM systems although they are designed to address slightly different problems or were created for a specific industry. A variety of commercial systems for DAM are available and numerous groups are trying to establish standards for DAM. DAM systems generally support functions for ingesting, managing, searching, retrieving and archiving of asset. DAM systems may also include version control and asset format conversion capabilities (i.e. dynamically down-sizing a large, high-resolution image for display on a website). DAM systems are related to and can be considered a superset of content management system. DAM is a
    5.50
    2 votes
    200
    Cryptography

    Cryptography

    • Software In Genre: Pretty Good Privacy
    Cryptography (or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν, graphein, "writing", or -λογία, -logia, "study", respectively) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties (called adversaries). More generally, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that overcome the influence of adversaries and which are related to various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce. Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients, thereby precluding unwanted persons to do the same. Since World War I and the advent of the computer, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and
    6.00
    1 votes
    201

    First-person Shooter

    First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered on gun and projectile weapon-based combat through a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist. The first-person shooter shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn fall under the heading action game. From the genre's inception, advanced 3D or pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral. The first-person shooter has since been traced as far back as Maze War, development of which began in 1973, and 1974's Spasim. The genre coalesced with 1992's Wolfenstein 3D, which has been credited with creating the genre proper and the basic archetype upon which subsequent titles were based. One such title, and the progenitor of the genre's wider mainstream acceptance and popularity was Doom, released the following year and perhaps the most influential first-person shooter. 1998's Half-Life - along with its 2004 sequel Half-Life 2 - enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements. GoldenEye 007 (1997) was a first landmark first-person shooter for home consoles, with the Halo series heightening the console's
    6.00
    1 votes
    202

    Reverse engineering

    • Software In Genre: Spy Studio
    Reverse engineering is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device, object, or system through analysis of its structure, function, and operation. It often involves taking something (a mechanical device, electronic component, computer program, or biological, chemical, or organic matter) apart and analyzing its workings in detail to be used in maintenance, or to try to make a new device or program that does the same thing without using or simply duplicating (without understanding) the original. Reverse engineering has its origins in the analysis of hardware for commercial or military advantage. The purpose is to deduce design decisions from end products with little or no additional knowledge about the procedures involved in the original production. The same techniques are subsequently being researched for application to legacy software systems, not for industrial or defence ends, but rather to replace incorrect, incomplete, or otherwise unavailable documentation. Reasons for reverse engineering: As computer-aided design (CAD) has become more popular, reverse engineering has become a viable method to create a 3D virtual model of an existing physical part for
    6.00
    1 votes
    203

    Video on demand

    • Software In Genre: Miro
    Video on Demand (VOD) or Audio and Video on Demand (AVOD) are systems which allow users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content on demand. IPTV technology is often used to bring video on demand to televisions and personal computers. Television VOD systems either stream content through a set-top box, a computer or other device, allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder (also called a personal video recorder) or portable media player for viewing at any time. The majority of cable- and telco-based television providers offer both VOD streaming, including pay-per-view and free content, whereby a user buys or selects a movie or television program and it begins to play on the television set almost instantaneously, or downloading to a DVR rented from the provider, or downloaded onto a pc, for viewing in the future. Internet television, using the Internet, is an increasingly popular form of video on demand. Some airlines offer AVOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatbacks or armrests or offered via portable media players. Airline AVOD systems offer
    6.00
    1 votes
    204
    Voice chat

    Voice chat

    • Software In Genre: Google voice and video plugin
    Voice chat is a modern form of communication used on the Internet. The means of communicating with voice chat is through any of the messengers, mainly Skype, Yahoo! Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, or Windows Live Messenger. Voice chat has led to a significant increase in distant communications where two or more people from opposite ends of the world can talk almost free of cost. Many video games with online multiplayer allow players to communicate via voice chatting. In 2000, SegaNet released the first voicechat compatible browser on Dreamcast. Internet services such as YahooChat! worked on the Java compatible web browsers with the ability of voicechat with the microphone, although it was already available for use in its HTML servers. This browser web integration became in standard in future game consoles. Long-distance telephone Programs such as Dreamcall was already integrated within the browser. Other games such as Seaman and Alien Front Online included voicechat via the microphone. In 2001, Sony released the Network adapter for their PlayStation 2 video game console, which allowed voice chatting with a headset. In 2002, Microsoft launched the Xbox Live service, which supports
    6.00
    1 votes
    205

    Code review

    Code review is systematic examination (often known as peer review) of computer source code. It is intended to find and fix mistakes overlooked in the initial development phase, improving both the overall quality of software and the developers' skills. Reviews are done in various forms such as pair programming, informal walkthroughs, and formal inspections. Code reviews can often find and remove common vulnerabilities such as format string exploits, race conditions, memory leaks and buffer overflows, thereby improving software security. Online software repositories based on Subversion (with Redmine or Trac), Mercurial, Git or others allow groups of individuals to collaboratively review code. Additionally, specific tools for collaborative code review can facilitate the code review process. Automated code reviewing software lessens the task of reviewing large chunks of code on the developer by systematically checking source code for known vulnerabilities. A recent study by VDC Research reports that 17.6% of the embedded software engineers surveyed currently use automated tools for peer code review and 23.7% expect to use them within 2 years. Capers Jones' ongoing analysis of over
    5.00
    2 votes
    206
    Computer Aided Design

    Computer Aided Design

    • Software In Genre: Kicad
    Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided drafting (CAD) or computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), is the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. Computer-aided drafting describes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations. CAD software uses either vector based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space. CAD
    5.00
    2 votes
    207

    Emulator

    • Software In Genre: Fuse
    In computing, an emulator is hardware or software or both that duplicates (or emulates) the functions of a first computer system (the guest) in a different second computer system (the host), so that the emulated behavior closely resembles the behavior of the real system. This focus on exact reproduction of behavior is in contrast to some other forms of computer simulation, in which an abstract model of a system is being simulated. For example, a computer simulation of a hurricane or a chemical reaction is not emulation. Emulation refers to the ability of a computer program in an electronic device to emulate (imitate) another program or device. Many printers, for example, are designed to emulate Hewlett-Packard LaserJet printers because so much software is written for HP printers. If a non-HP printer emulates an HP printer, any software written for a real HP printer will also run in the non-HP printer emulation and produce equivalent printing. A hardware emulator is an emulator which takes the form of a hardware device. Examples include the DOS-compatible card installed in some old-world Macintoshes like Centris 610 or Performa 630 that allowed them to run PC programs and FPGA-based
    5.00
    2 votes
    208
    File sharing

    File sharing

    • Software In Genre: Audiogalaxy
    File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents, or electronic books. It may be implemented through a variety of ways. Common methods of storage, transmission and dispersion include manual sharing utilizing removable media, centralized servers on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents, and the use of distributed peer-to-peer networking. Users can use software that connects in to a peer-to-peer network to search for shared files on the computers of other users (i.e. peers) connected to the network. Files of interest can then be downloaded directly from other users on the network. Typically, large files are broken down into smaller chunks, which may be obtained from multiple peers and then reassembled by the downloader. This is done while the peer is simultaneously uploading the chunks it already has to other peers. Files were first exchanged on removable media. Computers were able to access remote files using filesystem mounting, bulletin board systems (1978), Usenet (1979), and FTP servers (1985). Internet Relay Chat (1988) and Hotline
    5.00
    2 votes
    209

    Medical software

    • Software In Genre: FreeMED
    In computers, medical software is a significant branch of software engineering and many medical devices that monitor or control patients are predominantly controlled by software. Medical devices are frequently regulated and must comply with local and regional laws, including the Medical Devices Directive for devices in the European Union (EU). In the United States (US), as of the mid-1980s, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has increased its involvement in reviewing the development of medical device software, due to patient overdoses caused by coding errors in a radiation therapy device (Therac-25). The FDA is now focused on regulatory oversight in the medical device software development process and system-level testing. Between 1995 and 2005, IEC 62304 became the benchmark standard for the development of medical software in both the EU and the US. Medical Software could be classified simply into the following groups, depending on its use. This is called utilitarian classification by Harry Gouvas 1988, but sometimes there are overlaps: Examples: A program that monitors and shows the heart rate, blood pressure and blood oxygen, a monitor, is the built-in diagnostic software,
    5.00
    2 votes
    210
    Object database

    Object database

    • Software In Genre: Iris
    • Parent genre: Database
    An object database (also object-oriented database management system) is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming. Object databases are different from relational databases and belongs together to the broader database management system. Object databases have been considered since the early 1980s and 1990s. Object databases' main usage is in object oriented areas. When database capabilities are combined with object-oriented programming language capabilities, the result is an object-oriented database management system (OODBMS). OODBMS allow object-oriented programmers to develop the product, store them as objects, and replicate or modify existing objects to make new objects within the OODBMS. Because the database is integrated with the programming language, the programmer can maintain consistency within one environment, in that both the OODBMS and the programming language will use the same model of representation. Relational DBMS projects, by way of contrast, maintain a clearer division between the database model and the application. As the usage of web-based technology increases with the
    5.00
    2 votes
    211

    Operating system

    • Software In Genre: Linux kernel
    An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows and z/OS, share roots in UNIX. Early computers were built to perform a
    5.00
    2 votes
    212

    Rich Internet application

    • Software In Genre: Adobe Flex
    • Subgenres: Java applet
    A Rich Internet Application (RIA) is a Web application that has many of the characteristics of desktop application software, typically delivered by way of a site-specific browser, a browser plug-in, an independent sandbox, extensive use of JavaScript, or a virtual machine. Adobe Flash, JavaFX, and Microsoft Silverlight are currently the three most common platforms, with desktop browser penetration rates around 96%, 76%, and 66% respectively (as of August 2011). Google trends shows (as September 12) that plugins based frameworks are in the process of being replaced by HTML5/JavaScript based alternatives. Google Trends from January 2004 to August 2012 shows the following numbers Java applet 4.20, HTML5 3.70, GWT 2.10, ExtJs 1.36, Silverlight 1.70, Adobe Flex 1.00, JavaFX 0.5, Vaadin 0.12 . Users generally need to install a software framework using the computer's operating system before launching the application, which typically downloads, updates, verifies and executes the RIA. This is the main differentiator from HTML5/JavaScript-based alternatives like Ajax that use built-in browser functionality to implement comparable interfaces. As can be seen on the List of rich Internet
    5.00
    2 votes
    213

    Video editing software

    • Software In Genre: Kdenlive
    • Parent genre: Graphics software
    Video editing software is application software which handles the post-production video editing of digital video sequences on a computer non-linear editing system (NLE). It has replaced traditional flatbed celluloid film editing tools and analogue video tape-to-tape online editing machines. NLE software is typically based on a timeline interface paradigm where sections of moving image video recordings, known as clips, are laid out in sequence and played back. The NLE offers a range of tools for trimming, splicing, cutting and arranging clips across the timeline. As digital NLE systems have advanced their toolset, their role has expanded and most consumer and professional NLE systems alike now include a host of features for colour manipulation, titling and visual effects, as well as tools for editing and mixing audio in conjunction with the image. Once a project is complete, the NLE system can then be used to export to movie in a variety of formats in context which may range from broadcast tape formats to compressed formats for the Internet, DVD and mobile devices.
    5.00
    2 votes
    214
    Wind farm

    Wind farm

    • Software In Genre: OpenWind
    A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm may also be located offshore. Many of the largest operational onshore wind farms are located in the USA and China. The Gansu Wind Farm in China has over 5,000 MW installed with a goal of 20,000 MW by 2020. China has several other "wind power bases" of similar size. The Alta Wind Energy Center in California is the largest onshore wind farm outside of China, with a capacity of 1020 MW of power. As of February 2012, the Walney Wind Farm in United Kingdom is the largest offshore wind farm in the world at 367 MW, followed by Thanet Offshore Wind Project (300 MW), also in the UK. There are many large wind farms under construction and these include Anholt Offshore Wind Farm (400 MW), BARD Offshore 1 (400 MW), Clyde Wind Farm (350 MW), Greater Gabbard wind farm (500 MW), Lincs Wind Farm (270 MW), London Array (1000 MW), Lower Snake River Wind Project (343 MW), Macarthur Wind
    5.00
    2 votes
    215

    Platform

    • Software In Genre: Java
    A computing platform includes a hardware architecture and a software framework (including application frameworks), where the combination allows software, particularly application software, to run. Typical platforms include a computer's architecture, operating system, programming languages and related user interface (run-time system libraries or graphical user interface). A platform is a crucial element in software development. A platform might be simply defined as a place to launch software. The platform provider offers the software developer an undertaking that logic code will run consistently as long as the platform is running on top of other platforms. Logic code includes bytecode, source code, and machine code. It actually means execution of the program is not restricted by the type of operating system provided. It has mostly replaced the machine-independent languages. Some software platforms emulate entire hardware platforms - as in systems virtualization. The umbrella-term .NET applies to a wide set of products and technologies from Microsoft. Most have in common a dependence on the Microsoft .NET Framework, and the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). The Java platform runs
    4.00
    3 votes
    216
    Internet forum

    Internet forum

    • Software In Genre: PhpBB
    An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms in that messages are at least temporarily archived. Also, depending on the access level of a user or the forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderator before it becomes visible. Forums have a specific set of jargon associated with them; e.g. a single conversation is called a "thread". A discussion forum is hierarchical or tree-like in structure: a forum can contain a number of subforums, each of which may have several topics. Within a forum's topic, each new discussion started is called a thread, and can be replied to by as many people as so wish. Depending on the forum's settings, users can be anonymous or have to register with the forum and then subsequently log in in order to post messages. On most forums, users do not have to log in to read existing messages. The modern forum originated from bulletin boards, and are a technological evolution of the dialup bulletin board system. From a technological standpoint, forums or boards are web applications managing user-generated content. Early
    4.50
    2 votes
    217

    Printer driver

    • Parent genre: Device driver
    In computers, a printer driver or a print processor is a piece of software that converts the data to be printed to the form specific to a printer. The purpose of printer drivers is to allow applications to do printing without being aware of the technical details of each printer model. Printer drivers should not be confused with print spoolers, that queue print jobs and send them successively to a printer. On UNIX systems and other systems which use the Common Unix Printing System, such as Mac OS X, printer drivers are typically implemented as filters. They are usually named the front end of the printing system, while the printer spoolers constitute the back end. Backends are also used to determine the available devices. On startup, each backend is asked for a list of devices it supports, and any information that is available. MS-DOS (or compatible) has support for virtual ports "PRN" and "LPTx" (for parallel printers, where x is a number starting from 1) to refer to any supported printers. Users can for example use the command "COPY file1 LPT1" to print the content of file file1 to the printer on the first parallel port. However, this method of printing is mainly for generic text
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    218

    Revision control

    • Software In Genre: Microsoft Visual SourceSafe
    Revision control, also known as version control and source control (and an aspect of software configuration management), is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information. Changes are usually identified by a number or letter code, termed the "revision number", "revision level", or simply "revision". For example, an initial set of files is "revision 1". When the first change is made, the resulting set is "revision 2", and so on. Each revision is associated with a timestamp and the person making the change. Revisions can be compared, restored, and with some types of files, merged. The need for a logical way to organize and control revisions has existed for almost as long as writing has existed, but revision control became much more important, and complicated, when the era of computing began. The numbering of book editions and of specification revisions are examples that date back to the print-only era. Today, the most capable (as well as complex) revision control systems are those used in software development, where a team of people may change the same files. Version control systems (VCS) most commonly run as
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    219
    Search engine

    Search engine

    • Software In Genre: Powerset
    • Subgenres: Distributed search engine
    A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. The search results are usually presented in a list and are commonly called hits. Search engines help to minimize the time required to find information and the amount of information which must be consulted, akin to other techniques for managing information overload. The most public, visible form of a search engine is a Web search engine which searches for information on the World Wide Web. Search engines provide an interface to a group of items that enables users to specify criteria about an item of interest and have the engine find the matching items. The criteria are referred to as a search query. In the case of text search engines, the search query is typically expressed as a set of words that identify the desired concept that one or more documents may contain. There are several styles of search query syntax that vary in strictness. It can also switch names within the search engines from previous sites. Whereas some text search engines require users to enter two or three words separated by white space, other search engines may enable users to specify entire documents,
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    220

    Windows Mobile

    • Software In Genre: ThumbCal
    Windows Mobile is a family of mobile operating system developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs. Windows Mobile is the predecessor of Windows Phone. In February 2010, Microsoft announced Windows Phone to supersede Windows Mobile, with the new operating system incompatible with Windows Mobile devices and software. As a result, Windows Mobile has been discontinued. The final version of Windows Mobile, released after the announcement of Windows Phone, was 6.5.5. Microsoft has stated that the Windows Phone operating system is incompatible with devices designed for Windows Mobile as "Windows Mobile 6.x devices do not meet Windows Phone hardware requirements designed to ensure a consistent user and developer experience", and software designed for Windows Mobile is incompatible with the new operating system. Most versions of Windows Mobile have a set of standard features such as multitasking and the ability to navigate a file system similar to that of Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows NT, with support for many of the same file types. Much like its desktop counterpart it comes bundled with a set of applications to perform basic tasks. Internet Explorer Mobile is the default
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    221
    Email marketing

    Email marketing

    • Software In Genre: Email marketing software express
    • Parent genre: Email marketing software express
    Email marketing is directly marketing a commercial message to a group of people using email. In its broadest sense, every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered email marketing. It usually involves using email to send ads, request business, or solicit sales or donations, and is meant to build loyalty, trust, or brand awareness. Email marketing can be done to either cold lists or current customer database.
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    222
    Game engine

    Game engine

    • Software In Genre: SCUMM
    • Subgenres: Chess engine
    A game engine is a system designed for the creation and development of video games. The leading game engines provide a software framework that developers use to create games for video game consoles and personal computers. The core functionality typically provided by a game engine includes a rendering engine (“renderer”) for 2D or 3D graphics, a physics engine or collision detection (and collision response), sound, scripting, animation, artificial intelligence, networking, streaming, memory management, threading, localization support, and a scene graph. The process of game development is often economized, in large part, by reusing/adapting the same game engine to create different games, or to make it easier to "port" games to multiple platforms. Game engines provide a suite of visual development tools in addition to reusable software components. These tools are generally provided in an integrated development environment to enable simplified, rapid development of games in a data-driven manner. Game engine developers attempt to "pre-invent the wheel" by developing robust software suites which include many elements a game developer may need to build a game. Most game engine suites
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    223
    Multiplayer game

    Multiplayer game

    • Software In Genre: Hikarunix
    A multiplayer video game is one which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time. Unlike most other games, computer and video games are often single-player activities that put the player against preprogrammed challenges and/or AI-controlled opponents, which often lack the flexibility and ingenuity of regular human thinking. Multiplayer components allow players to enjoy interaction with other individuals, be it in the form of partnership, competition or rivalry, and provide them with a form of social communication that is almost always missing in single-player oriented games. In a variety of different multiplayer game types, players may individually compete against two or more human contestants, work cooperatively with a human partner(s) in order to achieve a common goal, supervise activities of other players, or engage in a game type that incorporates any possible combination of the above. Examples of better-known multiplayer gametypes include deathmatch and team deathmatch, MMORPG-associated forms of PvP and Team PvE, capture the flag, domination (competition over control of resources), co-op, and various objective-based modes, often expressed in
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    224
    3D computer graphics software

    3D computer graphics software

    • Software In Genre: 3D Studio Max
    • Parent genre: Graphics software
    3D computer graphics software refers to programs used to create 3D computer-generated imagery. This article covers only some of the software used. 3D modelers allow users to create and alter models via their 3D mesh. Users can add, subtract, stretch and otherwise change the mesh to their desire. Models can be viewed from a variety of angles, usually simultaneously. Models can be rotated and the view can be zoomed in and out. 3D modelers can export their models to files, which can then be imported into other applications as long as the metadata is compatible. Many modelers allow importers and exporters to be plugged-in, so they can read and write data in the native formats of other applications. Most 3D modelers contain a number of related features, such as ray tracers and other rendering alternatives and texture mapping facilities. Some also contain features that support or allow animation of models. Some may be able to generate full-motion video of a series of rendered scenes (i.e. animation).
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    225

    Application server

    • Software In Genre: HAppS
    An application server is a server that provides software applications with services such as security, data services, transaction support, load balancing, and management of large distributed systems. The term is often used for web servers that support the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, however its use isn't restricted to Java. The Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE defines the core set of API and features of Java Application Servers which came about as a result of the Java Community Process. This definition of an application server is very specific; its specifications are formal documents and application servers must meet their requirements and tested in order to be Java EE certified. Commercial, non open-source, Java application servers have been dominated by WebLogic Application Server by Oracle and WebSphere Application Server from IBM. Open source application servers include JOnAS from Object Web, JBoss AS from JBoss (division of Red Hat), Geronimo from Apache, TomEE from Apache, Resin Java Application Server from Caucho Technology, Blazix from Desiderata Software, Enhydra Server from Enhydra.org, and GlassFish from Oracle. Microsoft positions their middle-tier
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    226

    City-building game

    City-building games are a genre of strategy video game where players act as the overall planner and leader of a city, looking down on it from above, and being responsible for its growth and management. Players choose building placement and city management features such as salaries and work priorities, and the city develops accordingly. City-building games such as SimCity or Cities XL are considered a type of construction and management simulation. The city-building game genre was established in 1989 with SimCity, which emphasized continuous building rather than a set victory condition. Players followed personal preferences in design and growth. Indicators of success were maintaining positive budget balance and citizen satisfaction. Subsequent SimCity titles such as SimCity 4 soon followed when high sales of the game demonstrated its popularity. The first sim game, Utopia (1982) developed for the Mattel Intellivision console system, covered many of these same elements, but was limited by the primitive screen resolutions of its era. Unlike the thousands of individual spaces possible a few years later in SimCity, each island in Utopia held only a dozen or so "buildable" spaces for
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    227

    Compatibility layer

    • Software In Genre: Wine
    In software engineering, a compatibility layer is an interface that allows binaries for a legacy or foreign system to run on a host system. This translates system calls for the foreign system into native system calls for the host system. With some libraries for the foreign system, this will often be sufficient to run foreign binaries on the host system. A hardware compatibility layer consists of tools that allow hardware emulation. Examples include: A compatibility layer avoids both the complexity and the speed penalty of full hardware emulation. Some programs may even run faster than the original, e.g. some Linux applications running on FreeBSD's Linux compatibility layer may or may not perform better than the same applications on Red Hat Linux, and benchmarks are occasionally run on Wine to compare it to Windows NT-based operating systems. Even on similar systems, the details of implementing a compatibility layer can be quite intricate and troublesome; a good example is the IRIX binary compatibility layer in the MIPS architecture version of NetBSD. A compatibility layer requires the host system's CPU to be (upwardly) compatible to that of the foreign system. Thus, for example, an
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    228

    Concurrent Versions System

    • Software In Genre: OpenCVS
    The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is a client-server free software revision control system in the field of software development. Version control system software keeps track of all work and all changes in a set of files, and allows several developers (potentially widely separated in space and time) to collaborate. Dick Grune developed CVS as a series of shell scripts in July 1986. There was a similar system available earlier in the mid-'70s developed by John Humbert. In addition to commercial software developers, CVS has become popular with the open source software world and is released under the GNU General Public License. There is regular development to add features and fix bugs, regular builds and test results. The product is mature: new releases are not produced until there are requests for new features or bug reports. CVS uses a client–server architecture: a server stores the current version(s) of a project and its history, and clients connect to the server in order to "check out" a complete copy of the project, work on this copy and then later "check in" their changes. Typically, the client and server connect over a LAN or
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    229
    E-mail

    E-mail

    • Software In Genre: Mail
    • Subgenres: Web-based email
    Electronic mail, also known as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. Historically, the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission. As a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. An Internet email message consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header, and the message body. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an originator's email
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    230

    Electronic calendar

    • Software In Genre: iCal
    Calendaring software is software that minimally provides users with an electronic version of a calendar. Additionally, the software may provide an appointment book, address book, and/or contact list. These tools are an extension of many of the features provided by time management software such as desk accessory packages and computer office automation systems. Calendaring is a standard feature of many PDAs, EDAs, and smartphones. The software may be a local package designed for individual use (e.g. Lightning extension for Mozilla Thunderbird, Microsoft Outlook without Exchange Server, or Windows Calendar) or may be a networked package that allows for the sharing of information between users (e.g. Mozilla Sunbird, Windows Live Calendar, Google Calendar, or Microsoft Outlook with Exchange Server). Calendaring software will contain one or more of the following features:
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    231
    Expert system

    Expert system

    • Software In Genre: Dendral
    In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, like an expert, and not by following the procedure of a developer as is the case in conventional programming. The first expert systems were created in the 1970s and then proliferated in the 1980s. Expert systems were among the first truly successful forms of AI software. An expert system has a unique structure, different from traditional programs. It is divided into two parts, one fixed, independent of the expert system: the inference engine, and one variable: the knowledge base. To run an expert system, the engine reasons about the knowledge base like a human. In the 80s a third part appeared: a dialog interface to communicate with users. This ability to conduct a conversation with users was later called "conversational". Expert systems were introduced by researchers in the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project, including the "father of expert systems" with the Dendral and Mycin systems. Principal contributors to the technology were Bruce Buchanan, Edward Shortliffe,
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    232
    Intelligent agent

    Intelligent agent

    • Software In Genre: Superhumanoid
    In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is rational). Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. They may be very simple or very complex: a reflex machine such as a thermostat is an intelligent agent, as is a human being, as is a community of human beings working together towards a goal. Intelligent agents are often described schematically as an abstract functional system similar to a computer program. For this reason, intelligent agents are sometimes called abstract intelligent agents (AIA) to distinguish them from their real world implementations as computer systems, biological systems, or organizations. Some definitions of intelligent agents emphasize their autonomy, and so prefer the term autonomous intelligent agents. Still others (notably Russell & Norvig (2003)) considered goal-directed behavior as the essence of intelligence and so prefer a term borrowed from economics, "rational agent". Intelligent agents in artificial intelligence are closely related
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    233
    Java applet

    Java applet

    • Parent genre: Rich Internet application
    A Java applet is an applet delivered to users in the form of Java bytecode. Java applets can run in a Web browser using a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), or in Sun's AppletViewer, a stand-alone tool for testing applets. Java applets were introduced in the first version of the Java language in 1995, and are written in programming languages that compile to Java bytecode, usually in Java, but also in other languages such as Jython, JRuby, or Eiffel (via SmartEiffel). Java applets run at very fast speeds comparable to, but generally slower than, other compiled languages such as C++, but until approximately 2011 many times faster than JavaScript. In addition they can use 3D hardware acceleration that is available from Java. This makes applets well suited for non-trivial, computation intensive visualizations. As browsers have gained support for native hardware accelerated graphics in the form of Canvas and WebGL, as well as Just in Time compiled JavaScript, the speed difference has become less noticeable. Since Java's bytecode is cross-platform or platform independent, Java applets can be executed by browsers for many platforms, including Microsoft Windows, Unix, Mac OS and Linux. It is also
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    234

    Java Virtual Machine

    • Software In Genre: IKVM.NET
    A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that can execute Java bytecode. It is the code execution component of the Java software platform. Sun Microsystems has stated that there are over 5.5 billion JVM-enabled devices. A Java virtual machine is a program which executes certain other programs, namely those containing Java bytecode instructions. JVMs are most often implemented to run on an existing operating system, but can also be implemented to run directly on hardware. A JVM provides an environment in which Java bytecode can be executed, enabling such features as automated exception handling, which provides root-cause debugging information for every software error (exception), independent of the source code. A JVM is distributed along with a set of standard class libraries that implement the Java application programming interface (API). These libraries, bundled together with the JVM, form the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). JVMs are available for many hardware and software platforms. The use of the same bytecode for all JVMs on all platforms allows Java to be described as a write once, run anywhere programming language, versus write once, compile anywhere, which
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    235

    Malware scanner

    A malware scanner is a program, akin to virus scanners, which detects malicious software in a computer's RAM or hard drive. Many home computers are, usually without their knowledge, host to several malicious programs. These malware programs can consist of keyloggers, spam relays, spyware and adware. Often these programs do not offer any benefit to the user, and are harmful in that they can cause computer crashes, slow down the computer, and use up computer resources. In a growing trend, websites are being infected by malware in an attempt to infect their visitor's home computers. An example of such an infection is a drive-by download infection. A single website getting infected can lead to thousands or tens of thousands of visitors getting infected. It is often said that Linux is unable to get malware or viruses, but this is not true. A virus can and has been made to work itself into the inner workings of Linux.
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    236
    Mathematics

    Mathematics

    • Software In Genre: DEDiscover
    Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and others; it has no generally accepted definition. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. When those mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. Rigorous arguments first
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    237
    Media center

    Media center

    • Software In Genre: ITheater
    • Parent genre: Home theater PC
    Media center is a class of software that plays and organizes multimedia files usually on a dedicated audio-visual hardware like a home theater PC or other hardware that has a computer like modern TV's and digital video recorders (DVR).
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    238

    Media player

    • Software In Genre: Adobe Media Player
    Media player is a term typically used to describe computer software for playing back multimedia files. While many media players can play both audio and video, others focus only on one media type or the other. Such players are known as either audio players or video players and often have a user interface tailored for the specific media type. Media players often display icons known from physical devices such as tape recorders and CD players. Examples of these icons are (play), (pause), and (stop). Many media players, especially those designed to play music, display available songs in a format known as a media library, which allows the user to organize their music by categories such as artist, album, genre, year, and rating. Examples of media players that include media libraries are Amarok, Banshee, Clementine, iTunes, Rhythmbox, Winamp, and Windows Media Player. Microsoft Windows comes with Windows Media Player pre-installed. Mac OS X comes pre-loaded with QuickTime Player and iTunes. Linux distributions come pre-loaded with various media players, including Amarok, Audacious, Banshee, MPlayer, Rhythmbox, Totem, VLC, and xine.
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    239

    Object-relational mapping

    • Software In Genre: TopLink
    Object-relational mapping (ORM, O/RM, and O/R mapping) in computer software is a programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems in object-oriented programming languages. This creates, in effect, a "virtual object database" that can be used from within the programming language. There are both free and commercial packages available that perform object-relational mapping, although some programmers opt to create their own ORM tools. Data management tasks in object-oriented (OO) programming are typically implemented by manipulating objects that are almost always non-scalar values. For example, consider an address book entry that represents a single person along with zero or more phone numbers and zero or more addresses. This could be modeled in an object-oriented implementation by a "Person object" with attributes/fields to hold each data item that the entry comprises: the person's name, a list of phone numbers, and a list of addresses. The list of phone numbers would itself contain "PhoneNumber objects" and so on. The address book entry is treated as a single object by the programming language (it can be referenced by a single variable containing a pointer
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    240

    On-the-fly encryption

    • Software In Genre: Scramdisk
    On-the-fly encryption (OTFE), also known as Real-time Encryption, is a method used by some encryption programs, for example, disk encryption software. "On-the-fly" refers to the fact that the files are accessible immediately after the key is provided, and the entire volume is typically mounted as if it were a physical drive, making the files just as accessible as any unencrypted ones. To be transparent to the end user, on-the-fly encryption usually requires the use of device drivers to enable the encryption process. Although administrator access rights are normally required to install such drivers, encrypted volumes can typically be used by normal users without these rights. On-the-fly encryption also means that data is automatically encrypted or decrypted right before it is loaded or saved, without any user intervention. No data stored on an encrypted volume can be read (decrypted) without using the correct password/keyfile(s) or correct encryption keys. The entire file system within the volume is encrypted (including file names, folder names, file contents, free space, meta data, etc.). In general, every method in which data is transparently encrypted on write and decrypted on
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    241
    Package management system

    Package management system

    • Software In Genre: Apt:foo
    In software, a package management system, also called package manager, is a collection of software tools to automate the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing software packages for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner. It typically maintains a database of software dependencies and version information to prevent software mismatches and missing prerequisites. Packages are distributions of software, applications and data. Packages also contain metadata, such as the software's name, description of its purpose, version number, vendor, checksum, and a list of dependencies necessary for the software to run properly. Upon installation, metadata is stored in a local package database. Package management systems are designed to save organizations time and money through remote administration and software distribution technology that eliminate the need for manual installs and updates. This can be particularly useful for large enterprises whose operating systems are based on Linux and other Unix-like systems, typically consisting of hundreds or even thousands of distinct software packages; in the former case, a package management system is a convenience, in
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    242
    Productivity

    Productivity

    • Software In Genre: OpenOffice.org Impress
    Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity is a ratio of production output to what is required to produce it (inputs). The measure of productivity is defined as a total output per one unit of a total input. These definitions are short but too general and insufficient to make the phenomenon productivity understandable. A more detailed theory of productivity is needed, which explains the phenomenon productivity and makes it comprehensible. In order to obtain a measurable form of productivity, operationalization of the concept is necessary. In explaining and operationalizing a set of production models are used. A production model is a numerical expression of the production process that is based on production data, i.e. measured data in the form of prices and quantities of inputs and outputs. It is advisable to examine any phenomenon whatsoever only after defining the entity the phenomenon under review forms part of. Hence, productivity cannot be examined as a phenomenon independently but it is necessary to identify the entity it belongs to. Such an entity is defined as production process. The benefits of high productivity are manifold. At the national
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    243
    Proxy server

    Proxy server

    • Software In Genre: socat
    In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource available from a different server and the proxy server evaluates the request as a way to simplify and control their complexity. Today, most proxies are web proxies, facilitating access to content on the World Wide Web. A proxy server has a variety of potential purposes, including: Proxy server can be placed in the user's local computer or at various points between the user and the destination servers on the Internet. Forward proxies are proxies where the client server names the target server to connect to. Forward proxies are able to retrieve from a wide range of sources (in most cases anywhere on the Internet). The terms "forward proxy" and "forwarding proxy" are a general description of behavior (forwarding traffic) and thus ambiguous. Except for Reverse proxy, the types of proxies described in this article are more specialized sub-types of the general forward proxy concept. An open
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    244
    Radio

    Radio

    • Software In Genre: Fox News Radio
    Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic radiation of a frequency significantly below that of visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz. These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. The etymology of "radio" or "radiotelegraphy" reveals that it was called "wireless telegraphy," which was shortened to "wireless" in Britain. The prefix radio- in the sense of wireless transmission, was first recorded in the word radioconductor, a description provided by the French physicist Édouard Branly in 1897. It is based on the verb to radiate (in Latin "radius" means "spoke of a wheel, beam of light, ray"). The word "radio" also
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    245
    Simulation software

    Simulation software

    • Software In Genre: Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program
    Simulation software is based on the process of modeling a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. It is, essentially, a program that allows the user to observe an operation through simulation without actually performing that operation. Simulation software is used widely to design equipment so that the final product will be as close to design specs as possible without expensive in process modification. Simulation software with real-time response is often used in gaming, but it also has important industrial applications. When the penalty for improper operation is costly, such as airplane pilots, nuclear power plant operators, or chemical plant operators, a mock up of the actual control panel is connected to a real-time simulation of the physical response, giving valuable training experience without fear of a disastrous outcome. Advanced computer programs can simulate weather conditions, electronic circuits, chemical reactions, mechatronics, heat pumps, feedback control systems, atomic reactions, even biological processes. In theory, any phenomena that can be reduced to mathematical data and equations can be simulated on a computer. Simulation can be difficult because
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    246

    Software framework

    • Software In Genre: CubicWeb
    • Parent genre: Library
    In computer programming, a software framework is an abstraction in which software providing generic functionality can be selectively changed by user code, thus providing application specific software. A software framework is a universal, reusable software platform used to develop applications, products and solutions. Software frameworks include support programs, compilers, code libraries, an application programming interface (API) and tool sets that bring together all the different components to enable development of a project or solution. Frameworks contain key distinguishing features that separate them from normal libraries: The designers of software frameworks aim to facilitate software development by allowing designers and programmers to devote their time to meeting software requirements rather than dealing with the more standard low-level details of providing a working system, thereby reducing overall development time. For example, a team using a web application framework to develop a banking web-site can focus on writing code particular to banking rather than the mechanics of request handling and state management. Frameworks often add to the size of programs, a phenomenon
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    247

    Turn-based strategy

    A turn-based strategy (TBS) game is a strategy game (usually some type of wargame, especially a strategic-level wargame) where players take turns when playing. This is distinguished from real time strategy where all players play simultaneously. Turn-based tactical gameplay is characterized by the expectation of players to complete their tasks using just the combat forces provided to them, and usually by the provision of a realistic (or at least believable) representation of military tactics and operations. Tactical role-playing games are a part of this genre. Examples include The Battle for Wesnoth, Poxnora, Silent Storm, Steel Panthers: World at War!, King's Bounty, Great Big War Game, Nintendo Wars, UniWar, uTanks, and Sid Meier's Civilization series. After a period of converting board and historic TBS games to computer games, companies began basing computer turn-based strategy games on completely original properties or concepts. The presence of a computer to calculate and arbitrate allows game complexity which is not feasible in a traditional board game. Some well known turn-based strategy games are Sid Meier's Civilization series, Heroes of Might and Magic series, Panzer
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    248

    Video

    • Software In Genre: Miro
    Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. Video technology was first developed for cathode ray tube (CRT) television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing the first practical video tape recorder (VTR). In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the camera's electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic video tape. Video recorders sold for $50,000 in 1956, and videotape cost $300 per one-hour reel. However, prices steadily dropped over the years; in 1971, Sony began selling videocassette recorder (VCR) tapes to the public. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape and tape equipment plummeted. Later advances in computer technology allowed computers to capture, store, edit and transmit video clips. Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second (frame/s) for old mechanical
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    249
    Web application

    Web application

    • Software In Genre: Appointments Online
    • Subgenres: Online spreadsheet
    A web application is an application that is accessed by users over a network such as the Internet or an intranet. The term may also mean a computer software application that is coded in a browser-supported programming language (such as JavaScript, combined with a browser-rendered markup language like HTML) and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable. Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of web browsers, and the convenience of using a web browser as a client, sometimes called a thin client. The ability to update and maintain web applications without distributing and installing software on potentially thousands of client computers is a key reason for their popularity, as is the inherent support for cross-platform compatibility. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, online auctions, wikis and many other functions. In earlier computing models, e.g. in client-server, the load for the application was shared between code on the server and code installed on each client locally. In other words, an application had its own client program which served as its user interface and had to be separately installed on each user's
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    Widget engine

    Widget engine

    • Software In Genre: Plasma
    In computer software, a widget engine is a software service available to users for running and displaying applets on a graphical user interface, such as that of the desktop. The widget model in widget engines is attractive because of ease of development. Most of these widgets can be created with a few images and about 10 to several hundred lines of XML/JavaScript/VBScript source code. A single host software system, such as a web browser, runs all the loaded widgets. This allows several desktop widgets to be built sharing resources and code. The term widget engine is not to be confused with that of a widget toolkit. Toolkits are used by GUI programmers, who combine several widgets to form a single application. A widget in a toolkit provides a single, low level interaction, and is prepared to communicate with other widgets in the toolkit. On the other hand, widget engines such as desktop widgets and web widgets are intended for end users. Desktop and web widgets are stand-alone, task-oriented applications which can be composed of several related interactions on its own. Each widget serves only a purpose that is usually addressed by the effort of one GUI widget in a full-scale
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