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Best Short Non-fiction of All Time

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    6.71
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    Federalist No. 23

    Federalist No. 23

    Federalist No. 23 (Federalist Number 23) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-third of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 18, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. One of the more significant essays in the series, No. 23 attempts to justify the increased strength of the federal government under the proposed United States Constitution, compared to the then-active Articles of Confederation. It is titled, "The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union." Critics of the Constitution, particularly the Anti-Federalists who opposed the expansion of federal power, brought many counterarguments against Hamilton's position. Though they failed to carry the day, as the Constitution was indeed ratified, their concern about the federal government being too powerful motivated the Bill of Rights, particularly the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. In the first 22 Federalist Papers, Publius argued for the importance of the Union and that the Articles of Confederation were insufficient to preserve the Union. Federalist No. 23 begins a series of
    8.80
    5 votes
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    4 votes
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    Federalist No. 62

    Federalist No. 62

    Federalist No. 62 is an essay by James Madison, the sixty-second of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 27, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the first of two essays by Madison detailing, and seeking to justify, the organization of the United States Senate. It is titled, "The Senate." 5 key considerations are brought up in the introductory paragraph, of which only 3 & a part of the 4th are discussed in #62 (thoughts on this subject completed on #63): 1. The qualifications of senators (thirty years of age or older/citizen for 9 years). 2. The appointment of Senators by the State legislatures (later changed to direct popular vote by the 17th amendment). 3. The equality of representation in the Senate. 4. The number of senators (this essay contains only partial portion of Madison's points on this issue, the rest of his thoughts are completed in #63) Full Text: http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa62.htm
    7.00
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    9.25
    4 votes
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    9.00
    4 votes
    7
    6.67
    6 votes
    8
    Old compound finds new life in molecular imaging studies

    Old compound finds new life in molecular imaging studies

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Until recently two of the popular tools molecular biologists had at their disposal for watching molecules within cells both fell short of ideal. This situation was irking postdoctoral fellows Thomas Wehrman, PhD, and Georges von Degenfeld, PhD, who hoped to harness the best of both techniques...
    7.60
    5 votes
    9
    Federalist No. 57

    Federalist No. 57

    Federalist No. 57 is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-seventh of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 19, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many." Madison advocates the election of "men who possess most wisdom to discern, and ... pursue, the common good of the society." According to the essay, the representatives will be true to their constituents for the following reasons: 1) the people chose these distinguished men to uphold their engagements, so the representatives have an obligation to stand by their words. 2) The representatives sense a mark of honor and gratitude feel at least the tiniest affection to these constituents. 3) Selfish motives of the human nature bind the representative to his constituents because the delegates hope to seek advancement from his followers rather than the government. 4) Also, frequent elections remind the representatives that they are dependent on the constituents for their loyalty and support. Therefore, the representatives are compelled to remain faithful to their
    8.75
    4 votes
    10
    To Walk a Lifetime in Michael Jackson's Moccasins

    To Walk a Lifetime in Michael Jackson's Moccasins

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    A popular memoir essay written by author and poet Aberjhani, "To Walk A Lifetime in Michael Jackson's Moccasins" was first published shortly after the singer's death in 2009. It has since been translated into a dozen or more different languages and stands as one of the most commented upon works about Jackson.
    8.75
    4 votes
    11
    Federalist No. 43

    Federalist No. 43

    Federalist No. 43 is an essay by James Madison, the forty-third of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 23, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This paper continues a theme begun by Madison in Federalist No. 42. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered." The Paper contains the only reference to the Copyright Clause in the Federalist Papers. In the brief discussion of the Clause, Madison states that "the utility of this power will scarcely be questioned." He also notes the Framer's intent for the federal government to have exclusive jurisdiction over patent and copyright law. Despite its perfunctory discussion of the Clause, the Paper remains one of the few sources describing the rationales and motivations for the language and intent of the Clause. The essay also references a desire that the national government be given exclusive jurisdiction over a new national capitol. and deals with the Treason Clause of the U.S. Constitution.
    7.40
    5 votes
    12
    Federalist No. 5

    Federalist No. 5

    Federalist No. 5 is an essay by John Jay, the fifth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 10, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is the last of four essays by Jay discussing the protection of the United States from dangerous foreign influence, especially military force. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence." In this paper, Jay argues that the American people can learn a lot from the troubles Great Britain had when it was divided up into individual states. When divided, envy and jealousy ran rampant. Try as you might to make each nation-state equal, eventually one will begin to grow more powerful than the others (assumed by Jay to be the north), they in turn will grow jealous and distrustful of each other. Alliances with different nations may be forged by different states, tearing America apart at the seams. A single nation would be 'joined in affection and free from all apprehension of different interests' and as such a much more formidable nation.
    7.40
    5 votes
    13
    Federalist No. 74

    Federalist No. 74

    Federalist No. 74 (Federalist Number 74) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the seventy-fourth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 25, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Its title is, "The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive", and it is the eighth in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch. In this paper, Hamilton justifies the President's status as the commander of the militia, as well as the President's power to grant pardons.
    7.40
    5 votes
    14
    Fluorescent probes may permit real-time monitoring of chemotherapy effectiveness against tumors

    Fluorescent probes may permit real-time monitoring of chemotherapy effectiveness against tumors

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Going out like a brilliant flame is one way to get attention. If physicians could watch tumor cells committing a form of programmed suicide called apoptosis, a desired effect of workhorse cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, they could more quickly pick the most effective treatment. Now scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found a way to do just that, by lighting up cells as they die.
    7.40
    5 votes
    15
    Federalist No. 79

    Federalist No. 79

    Federalist No. 79 (Federalist Number 79) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the seventy-ninth of the Federalist Papers. It was published in a book collection on May 28, 1788, but first appeared in a newspaper, where most readers would have seen it, on June 18 of that year. It appeared under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. The title is, "The Judiciary Continued", and it is the second in a series of six essays discussing the powers and limitations of the judicial branch. In Federalist No. 78, Hamilton argued that "permanence in office," as enshrined in lifelong appointments, was the most important guarantee of the independence of the judiciary. In No. 79 he states that the other main guarantee of that independence is the provision in the proposed Constitution of the United States for the financial independence of judges. Hamilton also argues that the ability of Congress to impeach judges provides protection against their misconduct despite their relative independence.
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    Savannah Talks Troy Anthony Davis Series

    Savannah Talks Troy Anthony Davis Series

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    The "Savannah Talks Troy Anthony Davis" article series began as part of the National African American Art Examiner column August 7, 2009. According to the author Aberjhani it was started because most of the commentaries being made on the case involving convicted Georgia death row inmate Troy A. Davis and the murdered policeman Mark MacPhail were coming from outside of Savannah, Georgia, even though the events took place in Savannah. The ongoing series has documented different facets of the different people involved, their families, public reactions, and legal and political developments.
    8.50
    4 votes
    18
    Federalist No. 48

    Federalist No. 48

    Federalist No. 48 is an essay by James Madison, the forty-eighth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 1, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This paper builds on Federalist No. 47. In that essay Madison argued for separation of powers; in this one he argues that the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government must not be totally divided. It is titled, "These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other." Federalist No. 48 argued that the branches of government can be connected, while remaining "separate and distinct". The argument of No. 48 is that, in order to practically maintain the branches as "separate and distinct", they must have "a constitutional control" over each other. The paper begins by asserting that "power is of an encroaching nature", i.e. those with power will attempt to control everything they can. It then asks how this tendency can be stopped, in order to preserve the "separate and distinct" quality of the branches of government. It then makes the claim that merely defining the boundaries of the branches is an
    7.20
    5 votes
    19
    Federalist No. 59

    Federalist No. 59

    Federalist No. 59 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the fifty-ninth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 22, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the first of three papers discussing the power of Congress over the election of its own members. It is titled, "Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members." The paper argues that leaving the exclusive power of regulating elections in the hands of state legislatures would leave the existence of the union entirely at their mercy.
    7.20
    5 votes
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    Federalist No. 80

    Federalist No. 80

    Federalist No. 80 (Federalist Number 80) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the eightieth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on June 21, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled "The Powers of the Judiciary," and it is the third in a series of six essays discussing the powers and limitations of the judicial branch. Publius begins this essay by describing five areas that the federal Judiciary ought to have jurisdiction over: First, cases which arise out of the laws of the United States; Second, cases which arise out of provisions of the proposed United States Constitution; Third, cases in with the United States is a party; Fourth, all cases that involve "the peace of the confederacy;" and Fifth, all cases that originate on the high seas. He then addresses each of these points in turn. As to the first set of cases, Publius explains that in a Union, there will necessarily be certain things that the States are prohibited from doing, such as the prohibition on coining money. Given this, he states that there must be some way for the federal government to enforce these prohibitions, and so it must be the
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    4 votes
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    The Passion-Driven Writer and the Digital-Age Literary Marketplace

    The Passion-Driven Writer and the Digital-Age Literary Marketplace

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    "The Passion-Driven Writer and the Digital-Age Literary Marketplace" is an essay-article that examines the modern author's dilemma of the need to make a certain amount of written works available to the reading public via the Internet for free in order to ensure exposure for, and the saleability of, other works published in book or magazine article formats. At the same time, the author takes an unusual look at contrasting motives for writing in the first place.
    8.00
    4 votes
    23
    Stem cell cures?

    Stem cell cures?

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Stem cells. We’ve heard they can cure Parkinson’s disease, patch damaged hearts, replace the pancreas, rewire the spinal cord, cure cancer and restore memories lost in the fog of Alzheimer’s disease.
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    6 votes
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    5 votes
    25
    Agilent Technologies Announces Winner of Third Annual Early Career Professor Award

    Agilent Technologies Announces Winner of Third Annual Early Career Professor Award

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) today announced the winner of the company's third annual Agilent Early Career Professor Award. Dr. Michael Jewett, assistant professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering in the McCormick School of Engineering at Northwestern University, will receive the prize, which provides an unrestricted research award of $50,000 per year for two years to Northwestern in Dr. Jewett's name.
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    4 votes
    26
    De Brevitate Vitae

    De Brevitate Vitae

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    De Brevitate Vitae (frequently referred to as On the Shortness of Life in English) is a moral essay written by Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoic philosopher, to his friend Paulinus. The philosopher brings up many Stoic principles on the nature of time, namely that men waste much of it in meaningless pursuits. According to the essay, nature gives man enough time to do what is really important and the individual must allot it properly. In general, time can be best used in the study of philosophy, according to Seneca.
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    Federalist No. 40

    Federalist No. 40

    Federalist No. 40 is an essay by James Madison, the fortieth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 18, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the last of four papers by Madison examining the authority of the constitutional convention that had produced the proposed United States Constitution. It is titled, "The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained."
    6.60
    5 votes
    29
    Federalist No. 60

    Federalist No. 60

    Federalist No. 60 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the sixtieth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 23, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the second of three papers discussing the power of Congress over the election of its own members. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members." In this paper, Hamilton addresses the concern that leaving the regulation of elections to the Union may favor only an elite, small class of people.
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    Researchers eye chip's potential as an artificial retina

    Researchers eye chip's potential as an artificial retina

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Researchers at the School of Medicine have developed a prototype for a new kind of implantable chip they believe could be adapted to serve as both a prosthetic retina for people who suffer from a common form of age-related blindness and as a drug-delivery system that could treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease.
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    4 votes
    32
    Harlem Renaissance Dialogues (part 5): The Need to Know and the Value of Legacy

    Harlem Renaissance Dialogues (part 5): The Need to Know and the Value of Legacy

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    This fifth part of the Harlen Renaissance Dialogues series features an interview conducted by former ESSENCE Magazine poetry editor Angela Kinamore with the co-authors of Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. It is especially notable for the discussion on why the Harlem Renaissance is a crucial resource for youth of the 21st century.
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    3 votes
    33
    Nietzsche contra Wagner

    Nietzsche contra Wagner

    "Nietzsche contra Wagner" is a critical essay by Friedrich Nietzsche, composed of recycled passages from his past works, written in his last year of lucidity (1888–1889). It was not published until 1895, six years after Nietzsche's mental collapse. In it Nietzsche describes why he parted ways with his one-time idol and friend, Richard Wagner. Nietzsche attacks Wagner's views in this short work, expressing disappointment and frustration in Wagner's life choices (such as his conversion to Christianity, perceived as a sign of weakness). Nietzsche evaluates Wagner's philosophy on tonality, music and art; he admires Wagner's power to emote and express himself, but largely disdains what Nietzsche calls his religious biases. The sections are as follows: Nietzsche explains that this book consists of selections from his previous writings. They show that he and Wagner are opposites. Nietzsche states that this book is for psychologists. He excludes Germans from his intended readers. Nietzsche admired Wagner's ability to express his own suffering and misery in short musical creations. He criticized Wagner's attempt to produce large works. Nietzsche’s objections to Wagner’s music were physical.
    8.67
    3 votes
    34
    Agilent, Stanford to Collaborate on Nanoscale Devices

    Agilent, Stanford to Collaborate on Nanoscale Devices

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    The research program will focus on fabrication and characterization of a new class of nanoscale devices using scanning probe microscope and atomic layer deposition technologies. The research will enable the rapid prototyping and characterization of nanoscale devices with breakthroughs in sub 10 nm scale for a wide range of applications. Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) announced it is collaborating with Stanford University in a research program designed to explore a new class of nanoscale devices using a combinations of the scanning probe microscope (SPM) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The research will enable the rapid prototyping and characterization of nanoscale devices with breakthroughs in sub 10 nm scale for a wide range of applications.
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    Federalist No. 3

    Federalist No. 3

    Federalist No. 3 is an essay by John Jay, the third of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 3, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the second of four essays by Jay on the utility of the Union in protecting Americans against foreign aggression and meddling. It is titled "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence." Jay had earlier acted as ambassador to Spain and Secretary for Foreign Affairs, leading to his focus on international relations. As a whole, the earliest Federalist Papers argued for the utility of the Union, stating that a strong national government was more desirable than a diverse group of weaker local governments without national leadership. In No. 3, Jay argues that a strong national government could better preserve peace. He states that a "united America" would be less likely to provoke other nations to attack. For instance, it would be better able to uphold the terms of an international treaty. Additionally, the United States would be less likely to engage in "direct and unlawful violence": whereas states immediately bordering foreign territories
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    5 votes
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    7.25
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    Federalist No. 20

    Federalist No. 20

    Federalist No. 20 is an essay by James Madison, the twentieth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 11, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. No. 20 addresses the failures of the Articles of Confederation to satisfactorily govern the United States; it is the last of six essays on this topic. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union." Parallels are drawn with the Dutch Republic system of Stadholdership
    7.25
    4 votes
    40
    Federalist No. 7

    Federalist No. 7

    Federalist No. 7 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the seventh of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 15, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Arguing for the importance of the Union to the well-being of Americans, Hamilton addresses a theme begun in Federalist No. 6: the danger of dissension among the states if they remain without a strong federal government. No. 7 is titled "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States."
    7.25
    4 votes
    41
    Federalist No. 71

    Federalist No. 71

    Federalist No. 71 (Federalist Number 71) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the seventy-first of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 18, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Its title is, "The Duration in Office of the Executive", and it is the fifth in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch. It was published in the New York Packet in an effort to convince the people of New York to ratify the new Constitution.
    7.25
    4 votes
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    7.25
    4 votes
    43
    Federalist No. 1

    Federalist No. 1

    Federalist No. 1 (Federalist Number 1) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton. It was published on October 27, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius. This paper provides the outline for the rest and argues for the inadequacy of the Articles of Confederation. Federalist No. 1 introduces a series of essays published in the Independent Journal, the New-York Packet and the Daily Advertiser as a response to Anti-Federalist opposition to the proposed US Constitution. After the Constitutional Convention of 1787 the new Constitution was sent to the various states for ratification in September 1787. Anti-Federalists essays condemning the document began to surface later that month, quickly followed by the Federalist efforts of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. The essay is highly critical of the government in place at the time, though, it does not take the form of a diatribe. Eloquently written, yet manifestly biased, Federalist No. 1 heaps praise upon the Constitution as an efficient system of government. Hamilton is quite aware of his own bias: You will, no doubt, at the same time, have collected from the general scope of them, that [these ideas] proceed from a source not unfriendly
    8.33
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    8.33
    3 votes
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    9.50
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    9.50
    2 votes
    47
    5.33
    6 votes
    48
    Federalist No. 33

    Federalist No. 33

    Federalist No. 33 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the thirty-third of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 2, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the fourth of seven essays by Hamilton on the then-controversial issue of taxation. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation." Hamilton notes that the Necessary and Proper Clause and the Supremacy Clause "have been the source of much virulent invective and petulant declamation against the proposed Constitution." He argues that the first clause is implicit in the constitution—if congress is granted a power, it must necessarily be able to draft laws that enable it to execute that power. Hamilton then applies this line of logic to the issue of taxation, stating that Congress must have the power to create legislation to collect taxes. He poses the question of why the clause should be included, if its power is implicit? He answers by saying that the clause is included "to guard against all cavilling refinements in those who might hereafter feel a disposition to curtail and evade the legitimate authorities of the
    6.00
    5 votes
    49
    An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language

    An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language

    An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language (London, 1668) is the best-remembered of the numerous works of John Wilkins, in which he expounds a new universal language, meant primarily to facilitate international communication among scholars, but envisioned for use by diplomats, travelers, and merchants as well. Unlike many universal language schemes, it was meant merely as an auxiliary to — not a replacement of — existing "natural" languages. One of the aims of the Essay was to provide a replacement for the Latin language, which had been the international language of scholars in Western Europe by then for 1000 years. Comenius and others interested in international languages had criticisms of the arbitrary features of Latin that made it harder to learn, and Wilkins also made such points. A scheme for a lingua franca based on numerical values had been published by John Pell (1630); and in his 1640 work Mercury or the Secret Messenger (1640) Wilkins had mentioned the possibility of developing a trade language. Seth Ward was author with Wilkins of Vindiciae academiarum (1654), a defence of the Commonwealth period of the Oxbridge university system against outsider
    8.00
    3 votes
    50
    8.00
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    51
    Federalist No. 51

    Federalist No. 51

    Federalist No. 51 is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-first of the Federalist Papers. It was published on Wednesday, February 6, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. One of the most famous of the Federalist Papers, No. 51 addresses means by which appropriate checks and balances can be created in government and also advocates a separation of powers within the national government. One of its most important ideas is the pithy and often quoted phrase, "Ambition must be made to counteract ambition." The Federalist Papers, as a foundation text of constitutional interpretation, are frequently cited by American jurists. Of all the essays, No. 51 is the fourth-most cited. The purpose of No. 51 is to "form a more correct judgment of the principles and structure of the government planned by the Constitutional Convention." In the paper, this is done by informing the reader of the safeguards created by the convention to maintain the separate branches of government, and to protect the rights of the people. Madison's key point is that the members of each department should be as little dependent as possible from the members of the
    8.00
    3 votes
    52
    The Philosophy of Composition

    The Philosophy of Composition

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    "The Philosophy of Composition" is an 1846 essay written by American writer Edgar Allan Poe that elucidates a theory about how good writers write when they write well. He concludes that length, "unity of effect" and a logical method are important considerations for good writing. He also makes the assertion that "the death... of a beautiful woman" is "unquestionably the most poetical topic in the world". Poe uses the composition of his own poem "The Raven" as an example. The essay first appeared in the April 1846 issue of Graham's Magazine. It is uncertain if it is an authentic portrayal of Poe's own method. Generally, the essay introduces three of Poe's theories regarding literature. The author recounts this idealized process by which he says he wrote his most famous poem, "The Raven" to illustrate the theory, which is in deliberate contrast to the "spontaneous creation" explanation put forth, for example, by Coleridge as an explanation for his poem Kubla Khan. Poe's explanation of the process of writing is so rigidly logical, however, that some have suggested the essay was meant as a satire or hoax. The three central elements of Poe's philosophy of composition are: Poe believed
    8.00
    3 votes
    53
    6.75
    4 votes
    54
    As Egypt Howls and History Tweets

    As Egypt Howls and History Tweets

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    "As Egypt Howls and History Tweets" is a literary-journalism styled editorial on the political and social protests that took place in Egypt and was written as the protests developed at the end of January 2011.
    6.75
    4 votes
    55
    Federalist No. 8

    Federalist No. 8

    Federalist No. 8 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the eighth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 20, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. In it, Hamilton argues for the utility of the Union to the well-being of Americans, specifically addressing the negative consequences if the Union were to collapse and conflict arise between the states. It is titled, "Consequences of Hostilities Between the States." If the states do not unify into a single nation there will be a perpetual cycle of conflict between neighboring states. Their alliances or dis-unions create circumstances similar to European nations, where the cycle of aggression between neighboring nations creates the need for domestic armies and fortifications. Additionally, if not unified populous states, motivated by greed might plunder weaker states for their resources. The motivation for a union is safety, being aware though that no matter how great the nation's commitment to liberty freedoms are compromised in order to achieve protection. The physical damage of armed conflict compels nations to implement a military deterrent and in doing so an
    6.75
    4 votes
    56
    6.75
    4 votes
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    Basilikon Doron

    Basilikon Doron

    The Basilikon Doron is a treatise on government written by King James VI of Scotland, later King James I of England, in 1599. Basilikon Doron (Βασιλικὸν Δῶρον) in the Greek language means royal gift. It was written in the form of a private and confidential letter to the King's eldest son, Henry, Duke of Rothesay, born 1594. After Henry’s death in 1612, James gave it to his second son, Charles, born 1600, later King Charles I. Seven copies of it were printed in Edinburgh in 1599, and it was republished in London in 1603, when it sold in the thousands. This document is separated into three books, serving as general guidelines to follow to be an efficient monarch. The first describes a king’s duty towards God as a Christian, the second focuses on the roles and responsibilities in office and the third concerns proper behaviour in the daily lifestyle. As the first part is concerned with being a good Christian, James VI and I of Scotland and England instructed his son to love and respect God as well as to fear Him. Furthermore, it is essential to closely study the Scripture (the Bible) and especially specific books in both the Old and New Testaments. Lastly, he must pray often and always
    9.00
    2 votes
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    Federalist No. 31

    Federalist No. 31

    Federalist No. 31 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the thirty-first of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 1, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the second of seven essays by Hamilton on the then-controversial issue of taxation. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation." Hamilton argues that a government must possess all the powers necessary for achieving its objectives. It must have the means to secure an end. One of these means is the power of taxation. Hamilton argues that the great body of representatives will seek to prevent abuse of this power and usurpation of the state governments' abilities to collect taxes.
    9.00
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    60
    Outbreak

    Outbreak

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    How a band of student volunteers and a campus physician with a carnation in his lapel helped confine the tragedy of the 1903 typhoid epidemic.
    9.00
    2 votes
    61
    Report on 2011 International Year Part 7: Photography of The African Continuum

    Report on 2011 International Year Part 7: Photography of The African Continuum

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    This is the seventh installment of the 2011 Report on the International Year for People of African Descent series by Aberjhani. This article departs from the previous installments in the series in that it focuses on photography exhibitions commemorating the 2011 International Year. Particular emphasis is placed on “The African Continuum: Celebrating Diversity, Recognizing Contributions of People of African Descent”, exhibition and the “WoMen in Africa - No Color One Color" exhibition, the latter featuring the work of Ludovico Maria Gilberti.
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Federalist No. 13

    Federalist No. 13

    Federalist No. 13 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the thirteenth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 28, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government." This essay focuses on the view that a Union would be more economically sound than separate States. Publius explains that rather than having many separate governments to support, a Union would have only one national government to support. He describes this as being both simpler and more economical. The essay further explains that in order to defend themselves, separate States would have to work together, but their support of one another would be disjointed. Only a fully united government would provide the best defense for all the States and be able to support military establishments and necessary civil servants. The Avalon Project, Yale University Library of Congress
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    Federalist No. 53

    Federalist No. 53

    Federalist No. 53 is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-third of the Federalist Papers. It was published in the New York Packet on February 12, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This essay is the second of two examining the structure of the United States House of Representatives under the proposed United States Constitution. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives." Anti-federalists had argued that one-year House terms would be more "democratic" or "representative" than longer terms. Defending the two-year terms adopted in the Constitution, Madison argues that Representatives in the House will need some knowledge of national affairs (how things work in the different states), as well as some minimal knowledge of foreign affairs. Because experience in the House counts here, two-year terms are appropriate. Madison also argued that one-year House terms would increase the amount of election fraud in the election of Representatives. His reasoning was that it takes a while for election fraud to come to light. If the elections were annual, a representative could buy an election and serve most
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    Federalist No. 69

    Federalist No. 69

    Federalist No. 69 (Federalist Number 69) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the sixty-ninth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 14, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. The title is, "The Real Character of the Executive", and is the third in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch. This paper describes some of the legal powers of the President of the United States. To assuage fears that the head of the executive branch will hold excessive power under the Constitution, Hamilton compares and contrasts the President's powers to those of the King of Great Britain. He explains that while both share similarities, the powers held by the former are undoubtedly inferior to the latter. Specifically, Hamilton "explained that the president's authority 'would be nominally the same with that of the King of Great Britain, but in substance much inferior to it. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces, as first general and admiral of the confederacy; while that of the British king extends to the declaring of war,
    7.67
    3 votes
    65
    New design lets mini-microscope observe cells in vivo

    New design lets mini-microscope observe cells in vivo

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Two eyes are better than one. Or more precisely, two lines of sight are better than one. That's the word from researchers at the School of Medicine, who have applied this adage to the design of a tiny microscope that is about the size of an M&M...
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    Nominations sought for freshman award

    Nominations sought for freshman award

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Acting President John Etchemendy is asking faculty and staff to nominate outstanding members of the current freshman class for the President's Awards for Academic Excellence in the Freshman Year.
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Report on 2011 International Year Part 2

    Report on 2011 International Year Part 2

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    The "Report on 2011 International Year Part 2: The French Quest of Patrick Lozes" is the second installment in the "Black History Month Enhanced by International Year for People of African Descent" series first presented on Examiner.com.
    7.67
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    69
    Try this at home: Designing virtual musical instruments

    Try this at home: Designing virtual musical instruments

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    A piano you can strum. A flute you can pluck. A violin you can drum. Such unique musical instruments soon may become reality ­ virtual reality ­ thanks to Staccato Systems, a new startup company begun by a group of researchers, based on technology they helped develop at Stanford.
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    Federalist No. 45

    Federalist No. 45

    Federalist No. 45: "The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered", is an essay by James Madison. It is the forty-fifth of the Federalist Papers, and was published on January 26, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius. Madison argues that the strength of the federal government under the proposed United States Constitution does not pose a danger to the individual states, a major concern of the Anti-Federalists. Madison writes that the new Constitution does not in principle enlarge the powers of the Federal government, but merely renders that government more effective in carrying out its existing duties: Central to administering these powers, Madison argues, is the power to tax. Further, he states that this power has precedent in the Articles of Confederation: Madison also argues that the National Government is indeed subservient to the State Governments, yet the Federalist structure serves as a method of disguising this truth. Madison argues that the National Government must rely on the states to pass amendments, and the states themselves can propose and pass amendments at their choosing. The idea that the reach of the federal government would be
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    72
    Federalist No. 49

    Federalist No. 49

    Federalist No. 49 is an essay by James Madison, the forty-ninth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 2, 1788 under the pseudonym "Publius", the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention." In this essay, Publius confronts directly some of the ideas raised by Thomas Jefferson in his Notes on the State of Virginia. Jefferson's provision in question reads: "whenever any two of the three branches of government shall concur in opinion, each by the voices of two thirds of their whole number, that a convention is necessary for altering the Constitution, or correcting breaches of it, a convention shall be called for the purpose." Publius begins by agreeing that there is logic to the idea of allowing the people to appeal through the use of a convention, but then explains that it would be unworkable and contradictory to the proposed Constitution. Publius explains that allowing the proposed conventions would allow the "public passions" to disturb the "public tranquility." He explains that it would suggest a "defect"
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    73
    Notes on the State of Southern Poetry, Etc.,: Crossings (Part 2)

    Notes on the State of Southern Poetry, Etc.,: Crossings (Part 2)

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    The second part of Blakely's extended study of the impact of Flannery O'Connor's literary vision celebrates the publication of SHENANDOAH Literary Magazine's 60th Anniversary issue published in tribute to O'Connor. The author expands her scope to include perspectives from a wide range of contemporary authors as well.
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    74
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    75
    A Poem for a Poet

    A Poem for a Poet

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    "A Poem for a Poet" by Aberjhani is the titled used by the Connect Savannah Entertainment News Magazine for a poem and personal essay published in its January 11, 2011 edition. The actual title of the poem is "A Poet is a Clinton D. Powell" and the original title of the essay combined with the poem was "Clinton D. Powell and Savannah's Eternal Literary Flame." They were presented as a tribute to the deceased poet Clinton D. Powell, who died of natural causes just after the New Year 2011. The outpouring of public acknowledgments and celebrations of Powell's life throughout Savannah, Georgia, has been described as exceptional.
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    Federalist No. 28

    Federalist No. 28

    Federalist No. 28 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-eighth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 26, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the last of three essays discussing the threat to the common good stemming from excessive restraint on legislative authority. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered."
    6.50
    4 votes
    78
    Federalist No. 54

    Federalist No. 54

    Federalist No. 54 is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-fourth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 12, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This paper discusses the way in which the seats in the United States House of Representatives are apportioned among the states. It is titled, "The Apportionment of Members Among the States." The essay was erroneously attributed to John Jay in Alexander Hamilton's enumeration of the authors of the various Federalist Papers. The chief concern of the article is the representation of slaves in relation to taxation and representation. This federalist paper states that slaves are property as well as people, therefore requiring some representation. This representation is decided to be 3/5 of a person. http://www.votesmart.org/reference/fedlist/fed54.htm
    6.50
    4 votes
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    The New Black

    The New Black

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Diann Blakely is one of America's most influential poets, editors, and literary critics. Her article "The New Black" is a powerful commentary on race as it impacts the recognition of accomplished African-American authors. It also includes an actual listing of such authors whom she believes worthy of showcasing as "The New Black," or contemporary group of literary artists whose collective impact has proven similar to that of Harlem Renaissance authors and poets. Blakely views the increasing prominence of these authors as a particularly significant event because by her professional estimate it represents the third such time in less than a century that such a boom of celebrated black literature has occurred.
    6.50
    4 votes
    80
    The Philosophy of Furniture

    The Philosophy of Furniture

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    "The Philosophy of Furniture" is an essay written by American author Edgar Allan Poe published in 1840. An unusual work by Poe, whose more typical works include horror tales like "The Tell-Tale Heart," the essay is essentially Poe's theories on interior decorating. Poe begins by suggesting that the English are the "supreme" examples of internal decoration, above the Italians, French, Chinese, Scotch, Dutch, Spanish and Russians. "Yankees," he says, "are preposterous." He blames this American failing on a lack of aristocracy by blood, having instead "an aristocracy of dollars." Because of that, decoration in America has become a "mere parade of costly appurtenances" to create an "impression of the beautiful." He contrasts this with England, where wealth is not the loftiest ambition to constitute "nobility." As a result, Poe says, "there could be nothing more directly offensive to the eye of an artist than the interior of what is termed the United States... a well-furnished apartment." Because decorating rooms is a form of art, it should be judged similarly to any other work of art. The elements of a room should work well together, just as in a painting. Poe begins giving his advice,
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    4 votes
    81
    Anti-Machiavel

    Anti-Machiavel

    Anti-Machiavel is an 18th century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, consisting of a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal of The Prince, the 16th century book by Niccolò Machiavelli, and Machiavellianism in general. It was first published in September 1740, a few months after Frederick became king. The work was produced at a turning point in Frederick's life, after his turbulent and rebellious youth, and immediately before his assumption of the throne of Prussia. Frederick had, of course, read Machiavelli long before; it is not exactly clear what drew his attention to this subject in the late 1730s, although his affiliation with Voltaire and his impending change in rank most certainly contributed to the project. It is known from letters to Voltaire that Frederick began to ruminate on the project early in 1738; his draft of the brief work was completed by the end of 1739. At this point, Voltaire took over. Living in the Vieille Cour, the Prussian residence in The Hague, and working with a local printer named Van Duren, Voltaire revised the text extensively — so much so, in fact, that the printer decided to publish, in addition to Voltaire's revised edition,
    8.50
    2 votes
    82
    Federalist No. 55

    Federalist No. 55

    Federalist No. 55 is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-fifth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 13, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. In this paper, Madison examines the size of the United States House of Representatives. It is titled, "The Total Number of the House of Representatives." The paper discusses critics' objections to the relatively small size of the House of Representatives (sixty-five members). Madison notes that the size of the House will increase as population increases. In addition, he states that the small size does not put the public liberty in danger because of the checks and balances relationship the House of Representatives has with the state legislatures, as well as the fact every member is voted in by the people every two years.
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    2 votes
    83
    Hamlet and His Problems

    Hamlet and His Problems

    Hamlet and His Problems is an essay written by T.S. Eliot in 1919 that offers a critical reading of Hamlet. The essay first appeared in Eliot's The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism in 1920. It was later reprinted by Faber & Faber in 1932 in Selected Essays, 1917-1932. Eliot's critique gained attention partly due to his claim that Hamlet is "most certainly an artistic failure." Eliot also popularized the concept of the objective correlative — a mechanism used to evoke emotion in an audience — in the essay. The essay is also an example of Eliot's use of what became known as new criticism. Eliot begins the essay by stating that the primary problem of Hamlet is actually the play itself, with its main character being only a secondary issue. Eliot goes on to note that play enjoys critical success because the character of Hamlet appeals to a particular kind of creatively minded critic. According to Eliot, a creative-minded individual who directs his energy toward criticism projects his own character onto Hamlet. As a result, the critic becomes biased in favor of and fixated on the character. Eliot accuses Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge of this, stating
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
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    Tips on Face Painting

    Tips on Face Painting

    15 Top Tips Found in Lilly Walters book for face painters, Face Painting Tips and DesignsEven if you don’t get paid, can be a terrific professional quality to your work. All of following are covered in greater detail in this book.
    1.       Use cosmetic paints, products specific to be used on faces and skin. “Safe and non-toxic” evidently means you can eat it, not put it on your skin. Get face paints approved by the FDA.
    2.       Most face paints need water before you can use them. They are very hard, then feel like butter when you get them loosened up. You need to use enough water so they have a creamy feel to them.
    3.       Use only cosmetic grade glitters, those found in the make-up section of the store.
    4.       Get a variety of cosmetic sponges and paint brushes, from #2 to at least 3/4 inch wide. Those little brushes that come with the inexpensive face painting kits are useless. The bigger brushes  and sponges will put the paint on fast and easily. At a minimum you will use: 2 sponges (one for black), a wide brush, a medium round brush (size 3 or 4), and a tiny detailing brush.
     5.       Bring hair bands to pull their hair away from the face when you paint. Remember where the bangs went and plan your design around that.
    6.       Use fresh, clean rinse water.
    7.       Bring a roll of paper towels. Remember, if the brush is too wet, the paint will run.  Use the paper towels to pull the water out of the brush.
    8.       Keep unscented high quality baby wipes at your table. You can also use these to clean those faces that are dirty.
    9.       After each child, clean your hands so you don't spread germs. You can use antibacterial wipes, or gel.
    10.   If you are new to face painting, avoid the eyes and the lips. These areas are the most delicate, prone to infection and allergies. You can create great designs, and not touch these spots.
    11.   Put the back ground on first, then finish with the outlines and details.
    12.   Have cheat sheets, photos or sketches of what you want to create. Put about 6 ideas up where people can see them and choose what they want before they get to your work area.
    13.   Always obtain the parents consent before you do face painting or any type of work on children
    14.   Make sure to bring a mirror, so they can see your finished work.
    15.   If you plan to do this,  buy liability insurance.

    Taken from Lilly Walters Books on Face Painting, www.funfacepainting.com
    8.50
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    88
    Events Books Highlight Flannery O'Connor Legacy (part 1) St. Patrick's Day

    Events Books Highlight Flannery O'Connor Legacy (part 1) St. Patrick's Day

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    This extended introduction to a four-part article series reports on events in 2011 focused on the life and work of American author Flannery O'Connor. The events include the publication of a novel about the author, a conference, and a literary competition. The series continues with an essay-review on the biography of O'Connor by author Brad Gooch.
    7.33
    3 votes
    89
    Federalist No. 63

    Federalist No. 63

    Federalist No. 63 is an essay by James Madison, the sixty-third of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 1, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Continuing what Madison began in Federalist No. 62, it is the second of two essays detailing and justifying the organization of the United States Senate. No. 63 is titled, "The Senate Continued." This essay is the last of Madison's contributions to the series. In this paper, Madison lays out more reasons for the necessity of the Senate. He argues that the Senate, a strong and the most stable member of the government, is needed to ensure lasting relations with foreign nations. He also notes that because Senators are elected to six-year terms, they will have sufficient time to be responsible for their actions. The Senate can also serve as a check on the people since, although during most times their will is just, they too are "subject to the [periodic] infection of violent passions." Madison also gives examples of past long-lived republics, all of which had a Senate. They, however, had senates elected for life, which, if followed, could threaten the liberty of the people.
    7.33
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    90
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    92
    Green eggs and I-HUM? Senate bids adieu to chair Rosemary Knight

    Green eggs and I-HUM? Senate bids adieu to chair Rosemary Knight

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    In addition to a testimonial to outgoing chair Rosemary Knight, the senate heard presentations from Philip A. Pizzo, MD, dean of the Stanford School of Medicine; Professor Emeritus David B. Abernethy, chair of the Stanford Emeriti Council; and Professor Tom Wasow, Stanford's former delegate to the Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletics.
    6.25
    4 votes
    93
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    94
    Federalist No. 18

    Federalist No. 18

    Federalist No. 18 is an essay by James Madison, the eighteenth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 7, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. No. 18 addresses the failures of the Articles of Confederation to satisfactorily govern the United States; it is the fourth of six essays on this topic. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union."
    7.00
    3 votes
    95
    Federalist No. 38

    Federalist No. 38

    Federalist No. 38 is an essay by James Madison, the thirty-eighth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 12, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Madison continues his topic from Federalist No. 37, the political questions examined by the constitutional convention. The essay is titled, "The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed." The essay notably underlines the progress made against slavery in the new Constitution: "It is a matter both of wonder and regret, that those who raise so many objections against the new Constitution should never call to mind the defects of that which is to be exchanged for it. It is not necessary that the former should be perfect; it is sufficient that the latter is more imperfect...Is the importation of slaves permitted by the new Constitution for twenty years? By the old it is permitted forever."
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    Federalist No. 41

    Federalist No. 41

    Federalist No. 41 is an essay by James Madison, the forty-first of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 19, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This essay begins a long consideration, lasting for the rest of the series, of the specific structure of the proposed Constitution. It is titled, "General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution." The essay discusses the two various major issues found in the Constitution. The most important issue examines how much power did the people want to submit unto the government, and secondly, the structure of the new government.
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    97
    Federalist No. 76

    Federalist No. 76

    Federalist No. 76 (Federalist Number 76) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the seventy-sixth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on April 1, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. The title is, "The Appointing Power of the Executive", and is the tenth in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch. Publius begins this essay by quoting the Appointments Clause of the proposed United States Constitution. Publius then states that "it is not easy to conceive a plan better calculated than this" and explains why he believes that is so. He explains that the power of appointment can only be modified in one of three ways: vested in a single man, in a "select assembly of a moderate number," or in a single man with concurrence by an assembly. First, he explains that such power vested in a single man would make him sway to personal inclinations and attachments. Thus, this was not the best option. Second, he explains that power vested in an assembly would make the group prone to compromise, where one's personal inclination for one appointment would lead him to compromise on another in the
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    100
    Stanford engineers discover neural rhythms drive physical movement

    Stanford engineers discover neural rhythms drive physical movement

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Neuroscientists had once believed that the neurons that control movement send specific external information such as distance, direction and velocity to the muscles of the body. In a surprising new finding, however, researchers at Stanford University have proposed a new model that says motor neurons instead send basic rhythmic patterns down the spine to drive movement.
    7.00
    3 votes
    101
    The Lonely Man of Faith

    The Lonely Man of Faith

    The Lonely Man of Faith is a philosophical essay written by Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, published in a newly revised edition in 2011 by Koren Publishers Jerusalem. In The Lonely Man of Faith Soloveitchik reads the first two chapters of Genesis as offering two images of Adam which are, in many ways, at odds with one another. The first Adam, or "majestic man," employs his creative faculties in order to master his environment as mandated by God; the second image of Adam is a distinctly different "covenantal man" who surrenders himself to the will of God. Soloveitchik describes how the man of faith must integrates both of these ideas as he seeks to follow God's will. In the first chapter, Adam I is created together with Eve and they are given the mandate to subdue nature, master the cosmos, and transform the world "into a domain for their power and sovereignty." Adam I is majestic man who approaches the world and relationships—even with the divine—in functional, pragmatic terms. Adam I, created in the image of God, fulfills this apparently "secular" mandate by conquering the universe, imposing his knowledge, technology, and cultural institutions upon the world. The human capacity for
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    3 votes
    102
    Federalist No. 29

    Federalist No. 29

    Federalist No. 29 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-ninth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 9, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled "Concerning the Militia." Unlike the rest of the Federalist Papers, which were published more or less in order, No. 29 did not appear until after Federalist No. 36. Hamilton states that a federally regulated militia will be more uniform and beneficial to the "public defense" of Americans. He argues that an excessively regulated militia can harm a nation's work force, as not everyone can leave their profession to go through military exercises. Thus, a smaller, but still well-regulated militia, is the answer. This force will be further complemented by the "people at large," who can "stand ready with arms to defend their rights and those of their fellow-citizens." In the end, Hamilton concludes that the militia, as it is constituted directly of the people and managed by the states, is not a danger to liberty when called upon by federal authority. http://thomas.loc.gov/home/histdox/fed_29.html
    5.20
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    103
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    104
    President Barack Obama and the Message Beyond the Photograph

    President Barack Obama and the Message Beyond the Photograph

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    “President Barack Obama and the Message Beyond the Photograph” is an examination of several aspects of the current and transitional world leadership presented in a decidedly twenty-first century mode. Written by African-American author Aberjhani, the work takes a look at trends in world leadership as influenced by United States President Obama, by the culture of social networks, and by increasing calls for more democratically-styled governments in the Middle East. Central to the work’s subtly provocative argument is an extensive quote by leadership theorist Warren Bennis combined with an analysis of White House photographer Pete Souza’s historic photograph of the U.S. president gathered with his national defense team on May 1, 2011.
    6.00
    4 votes
    105
    A Sketch of the Past

    A Sketch of the Past

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    A Sketch of the Past is an autobiographical essay written by Virginia Woolf in 1939. It was written as a break from writing her biography of Roger Fry, English artist and critic, and fellow member of The Bloomsbury Group. It was later edited and posthumously published by Leonard Woolf and now can be found in Moments of Being, a collection of her autobiographical writing.
    8.00
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    106
    Black History Month: What Would Du Bois Do Today?

    Black History Month: What Would Du Bois Do Today?

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    An article that examines the U.N.-declared "2011 International Year for People of African Descent" within the context of the historic Pan African Congresses initiated by W.E.B. DuBois and others in the early half of the twentieth century.
    8.00
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    107
    Federalist No. 50

    Federalist No. 50

    Federalist No. 50 is an essay by James Madison, the fiftieth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 5, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "Periodic Appeals to the People Considered."
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    108
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    110
    Federalist No. 17

    Federalist No. 17

    Federalist No. 17 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the seventeenth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 5, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. No. 17 addresses the failures of the Articles of Confederation to satisfactorily govern the United States; it is the third of six essays on this topic. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union." Federalist No. 17 specifically regards the possible encroachment of the federal government on the powers of the state governments. Hamilton argues that because states are given the most direct power over their citizens, namely the ability to administer criminal and civil justice, they remain "the most attractive source of popular obedience and attachment." According to Hamilton this power contributes more than any other circumstance to impressing upon the minds of the people affection, esteem and reverence towards the government [of the state]." Furthermore Hamilton says human nature makes it so they are more closely attached to things they are geographically near, hence a person is more attached to
    9.00
    1 votes
    111
    Federalist No. 19

    Federalist No. 19

    Federalist No. 19 is an essay by James Madison, the nineteenth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 8, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. No. 19 addresses the failures of the Articles of Confederation to satisfactorily govern the United States; it is the fifth of six essays on this topic. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union."
    9.00
    1 votes
    112
    Federalist No. 42

    Federalist No. 42

    Federalist No. 42 (Federalist Number 42) is an essay by James Madison, and the forty-second of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 22, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Federalist No. 42 continues a theme that was started in Federalist No. 41; it is titled, "The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered". Here, Madison contends that the grant of specific powers to the federal government actually operates to limit the power of the federal government to act with respect to the states. In Federalist No. 41, Madison had delineated six classes of power granted to the federal government: Madison returns in Federalist No. 42 to classes two and three. The Federalist No. 78 (which deals with judicial powers, including the power of judicial review) recently passed No. 42 (which focuses on non-military congressional powers, including the power to regulate interstate commerce) as the paper that has found its way most often into written opinions of the justices. (Thirty-seven opinions cite No. 78; 34 opinions cite No. 42.)78.
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    Federalist No. 9

    Federalist No. 9

    Federalist No. 9 (Federalist Number 9) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the ninth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 21, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Federalist No. 9 is titled, "The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection." The same subject is continued in the subsequent paper by James Madison, Federalist No. 10. A major aspect of Federalist No. 9 is Hamilton's response to the common Anti-Federalist argument based on the theories of Montesquieu, who wrote famously in his The Spirit of the Laws that "it is natural to a republic to have only a small territory, otherwise it cannot long subsist." The Anti-Federalist took his arguments to mean that the federal Union was bound to fail. Hamilton responded that if Montesquieu were taken literally, then since he was thinking of dimensions far smaller even than those of the states, the Americans would have to split themselves into "an infinity of little, jealous, clashing tumultuous commonwealths." More seriously, Hamilton contends that the confederated federal system described in the proposed Constitution would not suffer as
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    Light-absorbing nanowires may make better solar panels

    Light-absorbing nanowires may make better solar panels

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    A collaboration of Stanford engineers has built upon work by German physicist Gustav Mie to potentially improve a means of harvesting energy from the sun. In the work by Brongersma's team, the germanium nanowires were as thin as 10 nanometers in radius (1 nanometer is a billionth of a meter). They were grown by Joon-Shik Park, a visiting researcher from the Korea Electronics Technology Institute in the group of materials science and engineering Professor Bruce Clemens. Brongersma doctoral student Linyou Cao, the lead author on the paper and main driver of the research, hooked the germanium wires up electrically and showed that in the presence of visible and infrared light they act like wispy antennas, capturing particularly resonant wavelengths of the light and bouncing them around inside the wire. Because the resonant light bounces around for a while, it has a larger chance to be absorbed in the semiconducting material. When it is absorbed, it excites electrical charges in the material that can be measured as an electrical current from the wire. In a solar panel, that current is the electricity the panel generates.
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    Multidisciplinary team develops devices to restore vision

    Multidisciplinary team develops devices to restore vision

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    An interdisciplinary team of experts is working to reverse the effects of age-related macular degeneration -- the leading cause of blindness among Americans over age 65. The researchers plan to use eye tissue transplants for patients who still have some vision and prosthetic chips for those who have lost all vision.
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    116
    National Cancer Institute funds new nanotechnology center

    National Cancer Institute funds new nanotechnology center

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    On Feb. 27, 2006 the NCI announced that it has allotted roughly $20 million over five years to a center to be led by professor of radiology and bioengineering Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, MD, PhD, who directs the Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford. Associate professor of materials science and of electrical engineering Shan Wang, PhD, will be working closely with him on this grant.
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    New solar energy conversion process discovered by Stanford engineers could revamp solar power production

    New solar energy conversion process discovered by Stanford engineers could revamp solar power production

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    A new process that simultaneously combines the light and heat of solar radiation to generate electricity could offer more than double the efficiency of existing solar cell technology, say the Stanford engineers who discovered it and proved that it works. The process, called "photon enhanced thermionic emission," or PETE, could reduce the costs of solar energy production enough for it to compete with oil as an energy source.
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    Stanford-Berkeley group gets $25 million for advanced solar research

    Stanford-Berkeley group gets $25 million for advanced solar research

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    A joint solar research effort managed by Stanford and the University of California-Berkeley has won $25 million in funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative. The work is aimed at helping the solar power industry overcome technical barriers and reduce the cost of solar installations...
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    119
    Entrepreneur Jim Clark to donate $150 million to Stanford to fund biomedical engineering initiative

    Entrepreneur Jim Clark to donate $150 million to Stanford to fund biomedical engineering initiative

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Jim Clark, the entrepreneur who founded Silicon Graphics, Netscape, Healtheon and myCFO, will donate $150 million to Stanford University to jump-start a bold cross-disciplinary initiative in biomedical engineering and sciences, President Gerhard Casper announced Tuesday. The contribution, the largest single gift in Stanford's history since the founding grant and among the largest ever in higher education, will be instrumental in building the James H. Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Sciences. It also will provide equipment for the facility, endow positions for faculty who will participate in the new effort and fund graduate student fellowships.
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    Federalist No. 12

    Federalist No. 12

    Federalist No. 12 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twelfth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 27, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue." In Federalist 12, Hamilton argues that the formation of the union will lead to greater wealth for the states. The government, by establishing currency, would encourage industry and all Americans would enjoy the benefits. Hamilton continues by arguing that there is no rivalry between commerce and agriculture - rather each benefits when the other prospers. Taxes should be levied on commerce and the union will be much more efficient than the states at collecting revenue. In fact, the article predicts that revenue will triple with the new federal government administering tax collection. The states have been unable to establish an adequate way to collect taxes. Hamilton claims that direct taxation is not a reality for the new government. Instead, taxes should be levied on imposts and excises, mainly on imports. Hamilton also points out that if the federal government administers tax collection instead of
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    Federalist No. 27

    Federalist No. 27

    Federalist No. 27 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-seventh of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 25, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the second of three essays discussing the threat to the common good stemming from excessive restraint on legislative authority. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered." Hamilton argues that the combined forces of many states, under the direction of one federal government, will provide a much greater show of force and be more apt to discourage rebellion. He reasons that confederacies are more prone to violence and war, and that extending the authority of the federal government to the citizen, rather than the state, is the only way to have power.
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    Federalist No. 4

    Federalist No. 4

    Federalist No. 4 is an essay by John Jay, the fourth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 7, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is the third of four essays by Jay discussing the protection of the United States from dangerous foreign influence, especially military force. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence." Jay argues that a singular government speaking for all states would serve as a greater deterrent to military interference by foreign nations than a system of government where each state is given complete control over its affairs. John Jay believes that one Union would react better than many states with their own governments. For example, with one body speaking for the nation there would be no arguments over troop placements or treaties. Furthermore a singular army and navy appears a much less inviting target to invaders than the individual army of a one state by itself. Suppose if this one state were to be attacked, who's to say whether the other states would respond? With a single government that problem would be avoided.
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    Grant for pediatric medical device development

    Grant for pediatric medical device development

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has awarded $1 million to a collaborative effort between SRI International and the medical school to support commercial development of pediatric medical devices. The grant to the MISTRAL Collaborative, or Multidisciplinary Initiative for Surgical Technology Research Advanced Laboratory, will help to identify and capitalize on opportunities for new medical devices specific to newborn intensive care. Other focus areas will include surgical tools and catheter-related products.
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    Paradigm Dancing: An Introduction

    Paradigm Dancing: An Introduction

    • Mode Of Writing: Introduction
    Inauguration article for the PARADIGM DANCING blog hosted on the PEN American Center website. Described within the text as: "...a dance of notions, perspectives, and interpretations moving in out of days gone by and days yet to come, it will spin both forward and sideways at varying tempos."
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    126
    Scientists slow speed of light to crawl; research had Stanford underpinnings

    Scientists slow speed of light to crawl; research had Stanford underpinnings

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Last week's report that physicists had managed to slow the speed of light to a crawl was the result to two lines of research with strong Stanford connections. The speed of light in vacuum is 186,000 miles per second. Scientists have long known that the speed of light slows down slightly when it travels through various transparent media. But scientists reported in last week's issue of the journal Nature that they had slowed light down to a speed of only 38 miles per hour...
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    Federalist No. 32

    Federalist No. 32

    Federalist No. 32 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the thirty-second of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 2, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the third of seven essays by Hamilton on the then-controversial issue of taxation. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation." The Federalist Papers, as a foundation text of constitutional interpretation, are frequently cited by American jurists. Of all the essays, No. 32 is the fifth-most frequently cited.
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    Federalist No. 36

    Federalist No. 36

    Federalist No. 36 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the thirty-sixth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 8, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the last of seven essays by Hamilton on the then-controversial issue of taxation. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation." Hamilton details the government's need for a body of tax collectors knowledgeable of every district, so as to establish a value to be taxed. He claims that this will be accomplished by using the same tax collectors as the state governments do. Hamilton argues for the right of poll taxes. http://thomas.loc.gov/home/histdox/fed_36.html
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    Federalist No. 24

    Federalist No. 24

    Federalist No. 24 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-fourth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 19, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered." The essay begins by describing one criticism that Publius has confronted regarding "the creation and direction of the national forces." The criticism is "that proper provision has not been made against the existence of standing armies in times of peace." Publius explains that a stranger to the plan for a new Union might understand it as requiring that standing armies be kept in times of peace, or that the Executive has unlimited power to direct the troops without any deference to the Legislature. But according to Publius, neither is true, but instead the power over the national forces lies solely within the Legislature because it consists of representatives of the people. The Legislative power over the national forces is further limited because a specific provision "forbids the appropriation of money for the support of an army for any period longer than two years." The essay then
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    Federalist No. 67

    Federalist No. 67

    Federalist No. 67 (Federalist Number 67) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the sixty-seventh of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 11, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This essay's title is "The Executive Department", and it begins a series of eleven discussing the powers and limitations of that branch. In this paper, Hamilton draws a distinction between the constitutionally limited executive powers of the president and the far more extensive powers of a monarch as a ruler. He also chastises opponents of the Constitution who believe the President is granted excessive power by being allowed to fill vacancies in the Senate. Hamilton points out this power is limited in scope as the President's appointments expire at the end of the Senate's next session, and permanent appointments are left to the state legislatures.
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    Mysterious snippets of DNA withstand eons of evolution

    Mysterious snippets of DNA withstand eons of evolution

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Small stretches of seemingly useless DNA harbor a big secret, say researchers at the School of Medicine. There's one problem: We don't know what it is. Although individual laboratory animals appear to live happily when these genetic ciphers are deleted, these snippets have been highly conserved throughout evolution...
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    Stanford students follow Venus across the sun

    Stanford students follow Venus across the sun

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Whether with a high-tech hydrogen alpha telescope, or a simple cardboard tube and a pinhole aperture, or just some heavily filtered shades, members the Stanford community witnessed a rare transit of Venus across the sun on Tuesday, June 5, 2012. University Photographer Linda Cicero captured the excitement.
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    Self-Reliance

    Self-Reliance

    Self-Reliance is an essay written by American Transcendentalist philosopher and essayist, Ralph Waldo Emerson. It contains the most thorough statement of one of Emerson's recurrent themes, the need for each individual to avoid conformity and false consistency, and follow his or her own instincts and ideas. It is the source of one of Emerson's most famous quotations: "A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds" (often misquoted by omission of the word "foolish"). The first hint of the philosophy that would become Self-Reliance was presented by Emerson as part of a sermon in September 1830 a month after his first marriage. His wife Ellen was sick with tuberculosis and, as Emerson's biographer Robert D. Richardson wrote, "Immortality had never been stronger or more desperately needed!" She died at the age of 19 on February 8, 1831. From 1836 into 1837, Emerson presented a series of lectures on the philosophy of history at Boston's Masonic Temple. These lectures were never published separately but many of his thoughts in these were later used in "Self-Reliance" and several other essays. Later lectures by Emerson led to public censure of his radical views, the staunch
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    Federalist No. 14

    Federalist No. 14

    Federalist No. 14 is an essay by James Madison, the fourteenth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 30, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It addresses a major objection of the Anti-Federalists to the proposed United States Constitution: that the sheer size of the United States would make it impossible to govern justly as a single country. Madison touched on this issue in Federalist No. 10 and returns to it in this essay. No. 14 is titled, "Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered."
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    Federalist No. 22

    Federalist No. 22

    Federalist No. 22 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-second of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 14, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This essay continues with a theme started in Federalist No. 21. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation." The power to regulate commerce is one of the strongest reasons to switch from the Articles of Confederation to a stronger "federal superintendence." The lack of a centralized federal government to regulate commerce has acted as a bar against the "formation of beneficial treaties with foreign powers" and has also led to dissatisfaction between the states. Several states have attempted to create concert "prohibitions, restrictions, and exclusions, to influence the conduct of that kingdom in this particular" area. However, "arising from the lack of a general authority, and from clashing and dissimilar views in the states" has frustrated every experiment of the kind, and will continue to hinder the true growth that could be realized under a federal system. Aside from the regulation of commerce, the power to raise
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    Federalist No. 37

    Federalist No. 37

    Federalist No. 37 is an essay by James Madison, the thirty-seventh of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 11, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This paper discusses some of the political questions raised at the constitutional convention. It is titled, "Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government." In federalist paper no. 37, Madison pointed out the difficulties that loomed over the Convention. One such problem was the question of the authority of the state versus the liberty of the people. He wrote, "Energy in government is essential to that security against external and internal danger and to that prompt and salutary execution of the law, which enter into the very definition of good government. Stability in government is essential to national character. . . On comparing, however, these valuable ingredients with the vital principles of liberty, we must perceive at once the difficulty of mingling them in their due proportions." He pointed out other issues that faced the convention, such as the division of powers between the central government and the States, the
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    Federalist No. 44

    Federalist No. 44

    Federalist No. 44 is an essay by James Madison, the forty-fourth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 25, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This essay addresses the Constitution's limitation of the power of individual states, something strongly decried by the Anti-Federalists, who sought a greater degree of sovereignty for the states. It is titled, "Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States." In this essay, Madison justifies many parts of the Constitution, specifically those sections which limit the powers of the states, give Congress full authority to execute its powers and establish the Constitution as the supreme law of the land. His discussion begins with article 1, section 10 (which limits the powers of individual states), wherein he justifies the outlawing of state sponsored privateering as consistent with not allowing states to conduct their own foreign policy, which could lead to great mischief. He then expounds upon why states should not be allowed to mint their own currencies or issue paper money, saying that multiple currencies would cause confusion and discrepancies, hurt citizens
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    Federalist No. 64

    Federalist No. 64

    Federalist No. 64 is an essay by John Jay, the sixty-fourth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 5, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "The Powers of the Senate." This theme was continued in Federalist No. 65, but that essay was written by Alexander Hamilton; No. 64 is the last of Jay's five contributions to the series. The paper addresses critics' oppositions towards the concurrent power of the President and the Senate to make and approve treaties.
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    Federalist No. 77

    Federalist No. 77

    Federalist No. 77 (Federalist Number 77) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the seventy-seventh of the Federalist Papers. It was published on April 2, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. The title is, "The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered", and it is the last in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch. In this paper, Hamilton discusses the power of the Senate to approve a president's appointments. http://www.foundingfathers.info/federalistpapers/fed77.htm
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    Maelzel's Chess Player

    Maelzel's Chess Player

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    "Maelzel's Chess Player" (1836) is an essay by Edgar Allan Poe exposing a fraudulent automaton chess player called The Turk, which had become famous in Europe and the United States and toured widely. The fake automaton was invented by Wolfgang von Kempelen in 1769 and was brought to the U.S. in 1825 by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel after von Kempelen's death. Although it is the most famous essay on the Turk, many of Poe's hypotheses were incorrect. He also may or may not have been aware of earlier articles written in the Baltimore Gazette where two youths were reported to have seen chess player William Schlumberger climbing out of the machine. He did, however, borrow heavily from David Brewster's Letters on Natural Magic. Other essays and article had been written and published prior to Poe's in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Boston - cities in which Poe had lived or visited before writing his essay. Poe's essay was originally published in the April 1836 issue of the Southern Literary Messenger. Poe's essay asserts that Maelzel's troupe of automata had made at least one previous visit to Richmond, Virginia "some years ago", at which time they were exhibited "in the house now occupied by M.
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    Professors preach 10 commandments of team teaching

    Professors preach 10 commandments of team teaching

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Joshua Landy, associate professor of French and Italian, and Lanier Anderson, associate professor of philosophy, might easily have been rivals, said Michele Marincovich, director of the Center for Teaching and Learning, as she introduced Landy and Anderson's presentation at the Center's "Award-Winning Teachers on Teaching" lecture series on Feb. 23. The professors, both "rising stars in the humanities firmament," each arrived at Stanford in 1996, and both have been awarded the university's top teaching award, the Gores Award, as well as a Dean's Award for Distinguished Teaching, she said. Both also have published in leading journals and have been awarded fellowships at the Stanford Humanities Center, she added.
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    Researchers explore two new ways to reverse blindness

    Researchers explore two new ways to reverse blindness

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    An interdisciplinary team of experts is working to reverse the effects of age-related macular degeneration -- the leading cause of blindness among Americans over age 65. The researchers plan to use eye tissue transplants for patients who still have some vision and prosthetic chips for those who have lost all vision.
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    Agilent Technologies Announces Winner of Second Annual Early Career Professor Award

    Agilent Technologies Announces Winner of Second Annual Early Career Professor Award

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE:A) today announced the winner of the second annual Agilent Early Career Professor Award. Dr. Michelle Chang, assistant professor of chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, has been selected to receive the prize, which provides an unrestricted research award of $50,000 per year for two years to UC Berkeley in support of Professor Chang's research.
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    Discourse on the Arts and Sciences

    Discourse on the Arts and Sciences

    A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences (1750), more commonly known as Discourse on the Sciences and Arts (French: Discours sur les sciences et les arts), is an essay by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau which argued that the arts and sciences corrupt human morality. It was Rousseau's first successful published philosophical work, and it was the first expression of his influential views about nature vs. society, to which he would dedicate the rest of his intellectual life. This work is considered one of his most important works. Rousseau wrote Discourse in response to an advertisement that appeared in a 1749 issue of Mercure de France, in which the Academy of Dijon set a prize for an essay responding to the question: "Has the restoration of the sciences and the arts contributed to refining moral character?" According to Rousseau, "Within an instant of reading this [advertisement], I saw another universe and became another man." Rousseau found the idea to which he would passionately dedicate the rest of his intellectual life: the destructive influence of civilization on human beings. Rousseau went on to win first prize in the contest in July 1750 and—in an
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    New technique for controlling protein activity could lead to cancer therapies

    New technique for controlling protein activity could lead to cancer therapies

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Medical school investigators have found a way to quickly and reversibly fine-tune the activity of individual proteins in cells and living mammals, providing a powerful new lab tool for identifying different proteins' functions more precisely than ever before. It also could help to speed the development of therapies in which cancer-fighting proteins are selectively delivered to tumors.
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    The Myth of Sisyphus

    The Myth of Sisyphus

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    The Myth of Sisyphus is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. It comprises about 120 pages and was published originally in 1942 in French as Le Mythe de Sisyphe; the English translation by Justin O'Brien followed in 1955. In the essay, Camus introduces his philosophy of the absurd: man's futile search for meaning, unity, and clarity in the face of an unintelligible world devoid of God and eternal truths or values. Does the realization of the absurd require suicide? Camus answers: "No. It requires revolt." He then outlines several approaches to the absurd life. The final chapter compares the absurdity of man's life with the situation of Sisyphus, a figure of Greek mythology who was condemned to repeat forever the same meaningless task of pushing a boulder up a mountain, only to see it roll down again. The essay concludes, "The struggle itself [...] is enough to fill a man's heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy." The work can be seen in relation to other absurdist works by Camus: the novel The Stranger (1942), the plays The Misunderstanding (1942) and Caligula, and especially the essay The Rebel (1951). The essay is dedicated to Pascal Pia and is organized in four chapters and one
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    A Few Words on Secret Writing

    A Few Words on Secret Writing

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    "A Few Words on Secret Writing" (1841) is an essay on cryptography by American author and poet Edgar Allan Poe. Following the publication of his short story "The Gold-Bug", where the plot involves deciphering a secret message, public interest grew in how secret messages may be composed and decoded. Poe held a "cryptographic challenge" in Alexander's Weekly Messenger starting in Dec. 1839, where he invited readers to submit ciphers which he would then solve and publish in the newspaper. The essay "A Few Words on Secret Writing", published in Graham's Magazine in 1841, outlined Poe's view on ciphers and deciphering. In the article, Poe claimed to have solved about a hundred legitimate ciphers submitted by his readers, all except for two, which, finally solved in 2000, may suggest that Poe, not a reader, was the author of the remaining two coded messages.
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    Thoughts on Government

    Thoughts on Government

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    Thoughts on Government, or in full Thoughts on Government, Applicable to the Present State of the American Colonies, was written by John Adams during the spring of 1776 in response to a resolution of the North Carolina Provincial Congress which requested Adams's suggestions on the establishment of a new government and the drafting of a constitution. Adams says that "Politics is the Science of human Happiness -and the Felicity of Societies depends on the Constitutions of Government under which they live." Many of the ideas put forth in Adams's essay were adopted in December 1776 by the framers of North Carolina's first constitution. The document is notable in that Adams sketches out the three branches of American government: the executive, judicial, and legislative branches, all with a system of checks and balances. Furthermore, in response to Common Sense by Thomas Paine, Adams rejects the idea of a single legislative body, fearing it may become tyrannical or self-serving (as in the case of Holland at the time). Thus, Adams also conceives the idea of two legislative bodies that will serve as checks on each other's power.
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    What is Enlightenment?

    What is Enlightenment?

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    "Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?" (German: "Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?") is a 1784 essay by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. In the December 1784 publication of the Berlinische Monatsschrift (Berlin Monthly), edited by Friedrich Gedike and Johann Erich Biester, Kant replied to the question posed a year earlier by the Reverend Johann Friedrich Zöllner, who was also an official in the Prussian government. Zöllner's question was addressed to a broad intellectual public, in reply to Biester's essay entitled: "Proposal, not to engage the clergy any longer when marriages are conducted" (April 1783) and a number of leading intellectuals replied with essays, of which Kant's is the most famous and has had the most impact. Kant's opening paragraph of the essay is a much-cited definition of a lack of Enlightenment as people's inability to think for themselves due not to their lack of intellect, but lack of courage. Kant's essay also addressed the causes of a lack of enlightenment and the preconditions necessary to make it possible for people to enlighten themselves. He held it necessary that all church and state paternalism be abolished and people be given the
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    Civil Disobedience

    Civil Disobedience

    Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849. In it, Thoreau argues that individuals should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that they have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice. Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican–American War. In 1848, Thoreau gave lectures at the Concord Lyceum entitled "The Rights and Duties of the Individual in relation to Government." This formed the basis for his essay, which was first published under the title Resistance to Civil Government in 1849 in an anthology called Æsthetic Papers. The latter title distinguished Thoreau's program from that of the "non-resistants" (anarcho-pacifists) who were expressing similar views. Resistance also served as part of Thoreau's metaphor comparing the government to a machine: when the machine was producing injustice, it was the duty of conscientious citizens to be "a counter friction" (i.e., a resistance) "to stop the machine." In 1866, four years after Thoreau's death, the essay
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    The Approaching 100th Anniversary of the Harlem Renaissance (part 2)

    The Approaching 100th Anniversary of the Harlem Renaissance (part 2)

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    This second part of an extended article discussing the significance of the forthcoming 100th anniversary of the Harlem Renaissance takes a look at the place that studies of renaissance now command in classrooms around the world. It also presents reflections on the groundbreaking Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance (Facts On File) that has helped maintain strong interest in the subject in the early 21st century.
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    Federalist No. 16

    Federalist No. 16

    Federalist No. 16 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the sixteenth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 4, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. No. 16 addresses the failures of the Articles of Confederation to satisfactorily govern the United States; it is the second of six essays on this topic. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union."
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    4 votes
    166
    Federalist No. 26

    Federalist No. 26

    Federalist No. 26 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-sixth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 22, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the first of three essays discussing the threat to the common good stemming from excessive restraint on legislative authority. It is titled, "The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered." Publius outlines the fallacy of restricting the government's power to control the military. He reasons that restricting the size of standing armies is necessary for a people's government to function, but preventing standing armies altogether is outright foolish. He argues that the new system would require the Congress to consider the necessity of standing armies every two years. He states that the majority of laws meant to prevent standing armies are vague and ineffective.
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    Federalist No. 30

    Federalist No. 30

    Federalist No. 30 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the thirtieth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 28, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the first of seven essays by Hamilton on the then-controversial issue of taxation. It is titled, "Concerning the General Power of Taxation." Hamilton details that taxes are extremely important to our government. The power to collect taxes deemed necessary is crucial for the government, and few deny that. Hamilton then details the differences between internal and external taxes. He argues that the federal government needs a power of taxation equal to its necessities, both present and future. External taxes alone cannot provide enough revenue for a government as extensive as the one proposed, especially in a time of war.
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    Stanford advances vastly expand versatility of optogenetics brain-research technique

    Stanford advances vastly expand versatility of optogenetics brain-research technique

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Recently, brain researchers have gained a powerful new way to troubleshoot neural circuits associated with depression, Parkinson’s disease and other conditions in small animals such as rats. They use an optogenetics technology, invented at Stanford University, that precisely turns select brain cells on or off with flashes of light. Although useful, the optogenetics tool set has been limited.
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    Tiny molecular probe 'paints' cancer cells in living animals

    Tiny molecular probe 'paints' cancer cells in living animals

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Medical school researchers have developed a molecular probe that sets aglow tumor cells within living animals. Their goal is to use the probe to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other diseases. The probe's main ingredient is a molecule that labels active proteases—protein-destroying enzymes—that run amok in cancerous cells. The molecule is normally invisible to the eye but carries a fluorescent tag that lights up when it binds to the protease. The tag beams out near-infrared light that is detectable with a special camera. The use of the imaging technique in mice is described in a study published in the Sept. 9 online issue of Nature Chemical Biology.
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    Cancer detected earlier, faster with new imaging

    Cancer detected earlier, faster with new imaging

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Doctors may one day be able to detect early stages of colon cancer without a biopsy, using a technique from researchers at the School of Medicine. The imaging technology is one of many new ways of detecting cancers in the body in real time, said Christopher Contag, PhD, associate professor of pediatrics and of microbiology and of immunology, who led the study. Contag hopes it might be one of the first used routinely for early detection of cancer...
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    Das Judenthum in der Musik

    Das Judenthum in der Musik

    Das Judenthum in der Musik (German: "Jewishness in Music", but normally translated Judaism in Music; spelled after its first publications as ‘Judentum’ ) is an essay by Richard Wagner which attacks Jews in general and the composers Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn in particular. It was published under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (NZM) of Leipzig in September 1850 and was reissued in a greatly expanded version under Wagner’s name in 1869. It is regarded by many as an important landmark in the history of German antisemitism. The first version of the article appeared in the NZM under the pseudonym of K. Freigedank ("K. Freethought"). In an April 1851 letter to Franz Liszt, Wagner gave the excuse that he used a pseudonym "to prevent the question being dragged down by the Jews to a purely personal level". At the time Wagner was living in exile in Zurich, on the run after his role in the 1849 revolution in Dresden. His article followed a series of essays in the NZM by his disciple Theodor Uhlig, attacking the music of Meyerbeer’s opera Le prophète. Wagner was particularly enraged by the success of Le prophète in Paris, all the more so because he had earlier been
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    172
    Federalist No. 39

    Federalist No. 39

    Federalist No. 39 is an essay by James Madison. It is the thirty-ninth of the Federalist Papers, entitled "The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles." Like all the Federalist Papers, it was published under the pseudonym Publius. It was published on January 18, 1788. In No. 39, Madison attempts to describe the nature of the United States government as proposed by the Constitution. Rather than a strictly national or federal constitution, Publius argues, the government will be a hybrid of both. Initially, he states that past as well as contemporary history provides no examples of a true republic, despite the history of the Roman Republic among others, and that the republicanism in itself which is being attempted by America in the proposed constitution is a totally new idea. Then he begins by redefining the term "republic," stating three principles that must be present for a true republic to exist: The consent of the people can be given either directly, as when citizens vote directly for members of the House of Representatives, or indirectly, as when the state legislatures elect U.S. Senators. During the time of the founding, Senators were not directly elected by the people,
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    173
    Federalist No. 75

    Federalist No. 75

    Federalist No. 75 (Federalist Number 75) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and seventy-fifth in the series of Federalist Papers. It was published on March 26, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Its title is, "The Treaty Making Power of the Executive", and it is the seventh in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch. In this paper, Hamilton discusses the reasons for the concurrent power of the Senate and Executive branch to make treaties.
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    Federalist No. 83

    Federalist No. 83

    Federalist No. 83 (Federalist Number 83) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the eighty-third of the Federalist Papers. It was published on July 5, 9, and 12, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. The title is, "The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury", and is the last in a series of six essays discussing the powers and limitations of the judicial branch.
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    175
    Looking at the World through Michael Jackson's Left Eye (Part 1)

    Looking at the World through Michael Jackson's Left Eye (Part 1)

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    "Looking at the World through Michael Jackson's Left Eye" is a four-part article series by Aberjhani, author of a number of essays on Jackson that have been described as "counter journalism" and considered important to discussions regarding the great entertainer's life and legacy. Aberjhani is also co-author of Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance and author of The River of Winged Dreams, which features poems presented in tribute to Michael Jackson's life.
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    176
    2012 Cuthbertson, Dinkelspiel, Gores awards honor faculty, students and staff

    2012 Cuthbertson, Dinkelspiel, Gores awards honor faculty, students and staff

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Nine members of the Stanford University community will be recognized at Commencement with Cuthbertson, Dinkelspiel and Gores awards. The awards honor individuals for exceptional contributions to Stanford, for distinctive contributions to undergraduate education and for excellence in teaching. Three professors, three staff members, two undergraduate students and one PhD candidate will receive the awards on Sunday, June 17, at the Commencement ceremony.
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    Music synthesis approaches sound quality of real instruments

    Music synthesis approaches sound quality of real instruments

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Imagine an electronic instrument that is small and portable, and can faithfully reproduce the crisp notes of a Steinway piano, the sweet sound of a Stradivarius violin or the brilliant tone of a trumpet. This is John M. Chowning's vision of the future of musical instruments, a future that the Stanford music professor and his fellow researchers at the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) have played a pivotal role in bringing to the threshold of reality.
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    Prepared text of Tara Gu's address

    Prepared text of Tara Gu's address

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Following is the prepared text of the 2012 Baccalaureate student speech by Tara Gu, senior graduating with a major in public policy and a minor in human biology.
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    Dancing to the Paradigm Rhythms of Change in Action

    Dancing to the Paradigm Rhythms of Change in Action

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    An article on the nature of historical change as seen in different contexts. Contrasts the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with the imprisonment of Ethiopian journalist Eskinder Nega.
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    190
    Federalist No. 35

    Federalist No. 35

    Federalist No. 35 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the thirty-fifth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 5, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This is the sixth of seven essays by Hamilton on the controversial issue of taxation. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation." In this essay, Hamilton argues that if the federal government's powers of taxation were confined to certain objects, it would place strain on those objects, especially in times of great need. This, he says, is dangerous to the economy as well as the government's source of revenue. In the interest of revenue itself, the government would be prevented from exceeding limits on articles, as it would destroy the market for that article. He later argues against a proposal that there should be a representative from each class of the economy. He says that the economy is far too interconnected to necessitate such a system. Hamilton proposes that there are two evils that would result from the certain confinement of taxation in the Union - one being the oppression of particular types of industry and the
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    Federalist No. 66

    Federalist No. 66

    Federalist No. 66 (Federalist Number 66) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the sixty-sixth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 8, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. The title is, "Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered". In this paper, Hamilton addresses specific objections to the power of the Senate to try impeachment cases, a discussion that is continued from the previous paper.
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    The Approaching 100th Anniversary of the Harlem Renaissance (part 1)

    The Approaching 100th Anniversary of the Harlem Renaissance (part 1)

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    This article-essay presented by a well-known historian of the Harlem Renaissance considers the future landmark anniversary of the great cultural and political movement that spanned both the Jazz Age and the Great Depression to produce the United States' first generation of widely recognized authors, artists, musicians, and political leaders. In addition to addressing the importance of the 100th anniversary of the event, the article explores questions of its actual origins and how it has taken on different forms from one decade to another. .
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    Tough Love from Author Enablers Helps Get the Writing Job Done

    Tough Love from Author Enablers Helps Get the Writing Job Done

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    A review of "Write That Book Already!", by authors Sam Barry and Kathi Kamen Goldmark, that presents a balanced account of the volume's humorous and no-nonsense qualities. Popular reviewer Aberjhani hints at crediting the book with inspiration for a forthcoming work of his own.
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    196
    Barack Obama Extends Historical Legacy "Astride the Promise of Change"

    Barack Obama Extends Historical Legacy "Astride the Promise of Change"

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    In this two-part essay article, the National African-American Art Examiner reported on the historical passage of the Health Reform Law while placing it within the context of contributions made by African Africans throughout history to the people of the United States in general. The second part of the article employed the poem, “Astride the Promise of Change,” by American author Iris Formey Dawson, as a commentary on the Obama administration and political platform.
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    Federalist No. 58

    Federalist No. 58

    Federalist No. 58 is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-eighth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 20, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This paper examines the ability of the United States House of Representatives to grow with the population of the United States. It is titled, "Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered." The main topic of discussion in Federalist Paper number 58 is the apportionment of the representatives for each state. Constitutionally, the number of Senators per state is two, no matter the size population. The number of House Representatives, however, is solely based on population (30,000 per representative). The smaller states, Madison says, are complaining for they fear they will not justly be represented on account of their having fewer representatives in the House than larger states. Madison addresses their complaints by pointing out that they actually have the advantage when it comes to Senators. He points out the ridiculous, illogical, and passionate claims of both the complaining larger and smaller states.
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    Federalist No. 73

    Federalist No. 73

    Federalist No. 73 (Federalist Number 73) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the seventy-third of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 21, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Its title is, "The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power", and it is the seventh in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch. This paper discusses and justifies the Executive branch's powers over the Legislature, namely, the Legislature's lack of power to increase or decrease the salary of the President during his/her term, and the Executive Veto.
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    Federalist No. 78

    Federalist No. 78

    Federalist No. 78 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the seventy-eighth of the Federalist Papers. Like all of the Federalist Papers, it was published under the pseudonym Publius. The essay was published May 28, 1788 and first appeared in a newspaper, where most contemporary readers would have seen it, on June 14 of the same year. It was written to explicate and justify the structure of the judiciary under the proposed Constitution of the United States; it is the first of six essays by Hamilton on this issue. In particular, it addresses concerns by the Anti-Federalists over the scope and power of the federal judiciary, which would have comprised unelected, politically insulated judges that would be appointed for life. Federalist No. 78 is titled, "The Judiciary Department." The Federalist Papers, as a foundation text of constitutional interpretation, are frequently cited by American jurists. Of all the essays, No. 78 is the most cited by the justices of the United States Supreme Court. In Federalist No. 78, Hamilton says that the Judiciary branch of the proposed government would be the weakest of the three because it had "no influence over either the sword or the purse, ...It may
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    200
    Light shone within brains of mice reveals secrets of sleep-wake cycle

    Light shone within brains of mice reveals secrets of sleep-wake cycle

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    By flickering a special light inside the brains of sleeping mice to wake them up, Stanford researchers have shown that they can induce behavior in a living mammal by directly controlling specific neural cells. In so doing, they have answered fundamental questions about the process of waking up. The research was published online this week in the journal Nature.
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    What Death of Osama Bin Laden Indicates About Barack Obama's Leadership

    What Death of Osama Bin Laden Indicates About Barack Obama's Leadership

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Part report and part essay on the implications of the death of al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. The report provides an account of how news of Bin Laden's death was communicated to the public and moves into a discussion of how it may or may not impact political critics' public characterizations of U.S. President Barack Obama.
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    Federalist No. 2

    Federalist No. 2

    Federalist No. 2 is an essay by John Jay, the second of the Federalist Papers. It was published on October 31, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. No. 2 is the first of four papers by Jay discussing the protection of the United States from dangerous foreign influence, especially military force. It is titled, "Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence." The American War of Independence had been a difficult conflict for the American forces, and despite the eventual victory it was clear that the new country was not on a level, militarily, with European nations, especially Britain and France, which were the two European powers exercising major influence along the North Atlantic coastline. There was significant concern among Americans that one of the European powers would attempt to return the United States to colonial status or otherwise limit American sovereignty. In Federalist No. 2, Jay strove to demonstrate that a strong Union of the American states would provide the best opportunity for defense. Jay begins by noting that his paper is in response to politicians who have lately rejected the previously
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    Federalist No. 10

    Federalist No. 10

    Federalist No. 10 (Federalist Number 10) is an essay written by James Madison and the tenth of the Federalist Papers, a series arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. It was published on November 22, 1787, under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. The essay is the most famous of the Federalist Papers, along with Federalist No. 51, also by Madison, and is among the most highly regarded of all American political writings. No. 10 addresses the question of how to guard against "factions", or groups of citizens, with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community. Madison argued that a strong, big republic would be a better guard against those dangers than smaller republics—for instance, the individual states. Opponents of the Constitution offered counterarguments to his position, which were substantially derived from the commentary of Montesquieu on this subject. Federalist No. 10 continues a theme begun in Federalist No. 9; it is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection". The whole series is cited by
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    Federalist No. 52

    Federalist No. 52

    Federalist No. 52, an essay by James Madison, is the fifty-second of the Federalist Papers. It was published in the New York Packet on February 8, 1788, with the pseudonym Publius, under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This essay is the first of two examining the structure of the United States House of Representatives under the proposed United States Constitution. It is titled "The House of Representatives." The essay is largely concerned with qualifications of representatives and the frequency of their election. The Federalists argued that annual elections would not afford representatives enough time to learn about their office. They proposed biennial elections to allow representatives to gain experience without remaining in office for too long. The essay also makes reference to the right to vote as laid down in the Constitution, stating: The definition of the right of suffrage is very justly regarded as a fundamental article of republican government. It was incumbent on the convention, therefore, to define and establish this right in the Constitution. To have left it open for the occasional regulation of the Congress, would have been improper for the reason just
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    Federalist No. 6

    Federalist No. 6

    Federalist No. 6 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the sixth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 14, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Arguing for the importance of the Union to the well-being of Americans, Hamilton addresses a theme continued in Federalist No. 7: the danger of dissension among the states if they remain without a strong federal government. No. 6 is titled "Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States." In Federalist No. 6, Hamilton enumerates different instances of hostility among nations, and suggests that should the States remain separate, such hostilities will befall them as well. However, mutual commercial interest will bring the States together and keep them in a peaceful accord. He concludes that nations that exist as neighbors will be natural enemies of one another, unless brought together in a confederate republic with a constitution which will promote harmony through commercial interests rather than competition.
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    Federalist No. 85

    Federalist No. 85

    Federalist No. 85 (Federalist Number 85) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the eighty-fifth and last of the United States Federalist Papers. It was published on August 13 and 16, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. The title is, "Concluding Remarks."
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    The Rationale of Verse

    The Rationale of Verse

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    "The Rationale of Verse", an essay by Edgar Allan Poe, outlines his theory of poetry. It was finished published in two installments in Oct. and Nov. issues of the the Southern Literary Messenger in 1848.

    An earlier form of this essay was originally published as "Notes Upon English Verse" in the March 1843 issues of James R. Lowell's short-lived magazine The Pioneer.

    The essay begins with the following:

    "The word 'Verse' is here used not in its strict or primitive sense, but as the term most convenient for expressing generally and without pedantry all that is involved in the consideration of rhythm, rhyme, metre, and versification."
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    Federalist No. 11

    Federalist No. 11

    Federalist No. 11 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the eleventh of the Federalist Papers. It was published on November 23, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy." The essay begins with Publius admitting that the "adventurous spirit" of America has already made the European countries uneasy about engaging in trade. Publius explains that continued uneasiness will deprive the States of "active commerce." Publius then posits that a Union would counteract that problem by making prohibitory regulations that are uniform throughout the states, thus requiring foreign countries to negotiate with the Union as a whole and bid against each other for trading rights. Publius then moves to discuss the importance of establishing a federal navy. This would increase the Union's ability to gain access and control the trade opportunities of the West Indies, thus allowing the Union to set prices and control all European trade in the Americas, putting the Union in a commanding position over foreign trade. This "active commerce" in controlling trade, as opposed
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    Slavery in Massachusetts

    Slavery in Massachusetts

    "Slavery in Massachusetts" is an 1854 essay by Henry David Thoreau based on a speech he gave at an anti-slavery rally at Framingham, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1854, after the re-enslavement in Boston, Massachusetts of fugitive slave Anthony Burns.
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    The United States of Lyncherdom

    The United States of Lyncherdom

    The United States of Lyncherdom was an essay by Mark Twain written in 1901. He was prompted to do so after the lynching of Will Godley, his grandfather French Godley, and Eugene Carter (aka Barrett). They were accused in the rape and murder of Gazelle Wild (or Casselle Wilds) on August 19, 1901 in Pierce City, Missouri, located in Twain's home state. It blames lynching in the United States on the herd mentality that prevails among Americans. Twain decided that the country was not ready for the essay, and shelved it. A redacted version was finally published in 1923, when Twain's literary executor, Albert Bigelow Paine, slipped it into a posthumous collection, Europe and Elsewhere. Twain discusses law enforcement officials who stopped lynchings. One was Sheriff Joseph Merrill of Carroll County, Georgia and the other was Thomas Beloat of Gibson County, Indiana .
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    Federalist No. 21

    Federalist No. 21

    Federalist No. 21 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-first of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 12, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It is titled, "Other Defects of the Present Confederation." In Federalist No. 21 Alexander Hamilton focuses on the three main imperfections of government under the Articles of Confederation, and how the Constitution will rectify these problems. First, Hamilton observes that the current government has no power to enforce laws and also lacks a mutual guarantee of state rights. Under the Articles, a faction could easily take control of a state and the government would not be able to do anything about it. Then, Hamilton comments on the inefficiency of the confederation's current method of collecting taxes by quotas, and denounces it as a method by which the states may be broken apart. According to Hamilton, however, these problems are easily rectifiable, and the Constitution will fix all of them if it is approved.
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    Agilent Technologies Announces Winner of Early Career Professor Award

    Agilent Technologies Announces Winner of Early Career Professor Award

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Agilent Technologies Inc. today announced the winner of the company's first-ever Agilent Early Career Professor Award. Dr. Boris Murmann, assistant professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, has been selected to receive the prize, which provides an unrestricted research award of $50,000 per year for two years to Stanford in Professor Murmann's name.
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    Black History Month Enhanced by International Year for People of African Descent

    Black History Month Enhanced by International Year for People of African Descent

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    "Black History Month Enhanced by International Year for People of African Descent" was introduced in January 2011 as the beginning of year-long series of reports on responses to the United Nation's resolution proclaiming the year 2011 as the International Year for People of African Descent. The series launched as part of the African-American Art Examiner Column.
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    Countdown of 10 Great Moments in 2010 Part 2 Beyonce and Jay-Z

    Countdown of 10 Great Moments in 2010 Part 2 Beyonce and Jay-Z

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Essay article included in the second annual series entitled Countdown of 10 Great Moments in African-American History 2010. After the introductory article, this was the second in the 2010 series and placed the famous married couple singer Beyonc'e and husband entertainer/entrepreneur Jay-Z at number 10 on the countdown list.
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    Federalist No. 15

    Federalist No. 15

    Federalist No. 15 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the fifteenth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 1, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. No. 15 addresses the failures of the Articles of Confederation to satisfactorily govern the United States; it is the first of six essays on this topic. It is titled, "The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union." Federalist No. 15 warns citizens that the states are on the brink of national humiliation. There is impending anarchy between the states and borrowing and lending policies are causing turmoil. Publius says that the states must make a firm stand for their tranquility, dignity and reputation by creating a new government with a more energetic executive. Publius points out that under the Articles of Confederation, the national government does not have the power or authority to issue sanctions over individuals. The national government cannot enforce its laws because the states cannot be thrown in jail and without an army, the national government cannot enforce taxes on states "government implies the power of making laws. It is
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    Federalist No. 25

    Federalist No. 25

    Federalist No. 25 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton, the twenty-fifth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on December 21, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. It continues the discussion begun in Federalist No. 24. No. 25 is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered." Still considering the criticism of maintaining the national forces from Federalist No. 24, Publius now turns to the criticism that the States should provide for the national forces, rather than the Union as has been proposed. Publius states that this would undermine the purpose of creating a Union, because it would rely on the individual members to support the Union's common defense. He claims that this would be "oppressive to some States, dangerous to all, and baneful to the Confederacy." In explaining the danger, Publius demonstrates that the territories of foreign nations surround the entirety of the Union, making the danger common to all the States. If one state in particular (Publius uses New York as an example) was attacked, it would be forced to provide all of its defense with no guarantee
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    Federalist No. 46

    Federalist No. 46

    Federalist No. 46 is an essay by James Madison, the forty-sixth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on January 29, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. This essay examines the relative strength of the state and federal governments under the proposed United States Constitution. It is titled, "The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared." Madison stresses that the federal and state governments are two totally different agencies. He articulates that they are separate yet can collaborate, and that the power lies in the people. The natural attachment of the people will always be to the governments of their respective states, so the federal government must be, in a sense, extraordinarily congenial to the people. In an effort to further dissuade fears over a national military force, Madison indicates that, at any point, the maximum force that can be brought to bear by the government to enforce its mandates is but a small fraction of the might of an armed citizenry: Let a regular army, fully equal to the resources of the country, be formed; and let it be entirely at the devotion of the federal government;
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    Federalist No. 56

    Federalist No. 56

    Federalist No. 56 is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-sixth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on February 16, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Continuing from Federalist No. 55, this paper discusses the size of the United States House of Representatives. It is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives." In this paper, Madison addresses the criticism that the House of Representatives is too small to sufficiently understand the varied interests of all its constituents.
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    Federalist No. 65

    Federalist No. 65

    Federalist No. 65 (Federalist Number 65) is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the sixty-fifth of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 7, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published. Titled, "The Powers of the Senate Continued", it carries on a theme begun by John Jay in Federalist No. 64. This paper discusses the power of the Senate to try impeachment cases.
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    Federalist No. 72

    Federalist No. 72

    Federalist No. 72 is an essay by Alexander Hamilton and the seventy-second of the Federalist Papers. It was published on March 19, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius. The paper discusses executive re-eligibility and is the sixth in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers the Executive branch. In Federalist No. 72, Alexander Hamilton argues that re-eligibility is essential to executive power. He believed that the Presidency must attract the most ambitious individuals and re-eligibility ensured that they would not attempt to extend their term in office unconstitutionally.
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    Gambhir receives $10 million grant from Ivy Foundation

    Gambhir receives $10 million grant from Ivy Foundation

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    SANJIV “SAM” GAMBHIR, professor and chair of radiology, has received a five-year, $10 million grant from the Ben and Catherine Ivy Foundation to develop new molecular-imaging agents for a variety of scanning technologies in order to image, at the molecular level, brain tumors of the variety known as glioblastoma multiforme.
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    Human family tree drawn by gene sequencing effort

    Human family tree drawn by gene sequencing effort

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Stanford researchers have created the highest resolution map of human genetic diversity to date, providing insight into how groups of people throughout the world are related and adding weight to previous theories that traced human origins to Africa.
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    If it worked in Troy, then why not with cancer?

    If it worked in Troy, then why not with cancer?

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Another seemingly impenetrable wall has succumbed to the Trojan horse strategy. This time, instead of the ramparts of Troy and a wooden steed filled with soldiers, it's the wall of the blood vessel that is breached by an immune cell carrying tumor-killing viral particles.
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    Nick Melosh and Zhi-Xun Shen awarded $1.8 million from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

    Nick Melosh and Zhi-Xun Shen awarded $1.8 million from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    It has been quite a month for Stanford’s NICK MELOSH and ZHI-XUN SHEN. Melosh, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering, and Shen, the Paul Pigott Professor in Physical Sciences and chief scientist at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, are part of a team that has discovered PETE, a solar energy conversion process that shows promise in significantly reducing the cost of solar energy production.
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    Regarding Rituals, Elegies, and This New Year 2011

    Regarding Rituals, Elegies, and This New Year 2011

    • Mode Of Writing: Essay
    Article by Aberjhani on a series of tragic events that seem to have characterized the beginning of the year 2011. The article contrasts the normal joy of having literary work published with sobering reality of modern-day violence.
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    Savannah Talks Troy Anthony Davis No. 14: Death Order Signed

    Savannah Talks Troy Anthony Davis No. 14: Death Order Signed

    • Mode Of Writing: Article
    Fourteenth installment of the "Savannah Talks Troy Anthony Davis" journalism series focuses on announcement of execution date for Georgia death-row prisoner Davis. Includes reactions from community members impacted by the case that has drawn international attention for two decades.
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    The Great Lawsuit

    The Great Lawsuit

    Woman in the Nineteenth Century is a book by American journalist, editor, and women's rights advocate Margaret Fuller. Originally published in July 1843 in The Dial magazine as "The Great Lawsuit. Man versus Men. Woman versus Women", it was later expanded and republished in book form in 1845. The basis for Fuller’s essay is the idea that man will rightfully inherit the earth when he becomes an elevated being, understanding of divine love. There have been periods in time when the world was more awake to this love, but people are sleeping now; however, everyone has the power to become enlightened. Man cannot now find perfection because he is still burdened with selfish desires, but Fuller is optimistic and says that we are on the verge of a new awakening. She claims that in the past man, like Orpheus for Eurydice, has always called out for woman, but soon will come the time when women will call for men, when they will be equals and share divine love. America has been hindered from reaching equality because it inherited depravity from Europe, hence its treatment of Native and African Americans. Fuller quotes the ancient Medes on how all people are equal and bound to each other; those
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