A ship class is a model or design standard for vessels.
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Project 971 Щука-Б (Shchuka-B, 'Shchuka' meaning pike, NATO reporting name "Akula"), is a nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) first deployed by the Soviet Navy in 1986. The class is also known under the name Bars (eng. snow leopard). There are four sub-classes or flights of Shchuka, consisting of the original seven "Akula I" submarines which were commissioned between 1984 and 1990, six "Improved Akula" submarines commissioned between 1991 and 2009, one "Akula II" submarine commissioned in 1995 and one Akula III commissioned in 2001. The Russians call all of the submarines Schuka-B, regardless of modifications.
The name Akula (Акула meaning "shark" in Russian) is the Soviet designation of the ballistic missile submarine class designated by NATO as the Typhoon class submarine. The name Akula was used as the NATO designation of the Projekt 971 because the first of the class was the K-284 christened Akula.
The Akula incorporates a double hull system composed of an inner pressure hull and an outer "light" hull. This allows more freedom in the design of the exterior hull shape, resulting in a submarine with more reserve buoyancy than its western analogs. This design requires more
The Suffren class was a class of four heavy cruisers built for the French Navy in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
The four ships of the class were:
Media related to Suffren class cruisers at Wikimedia Commons
A full-rigged ship or fully rigged ship is a sailing vessel with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged. A full-rigged ship is said to have a ship rig, and is also known as ship-rigged.
Sometimes such a vessel will merely be called a ship in 18th to early 19th century and earlier usage, to distinguish it from other vessels such as schooners, barques, barquentines, brigs, et cetera. Alternatively, a full-rigged ship may be referred to by its function instead, as in collier or frigate, rather than being called a ship. In many languages the word frigate or frigate rig refers to a full-rigged ship.
The masts of a full-rigged ship, from bow to stern, are:
There is no standard name for a fifth mast on a ship-rigged vessel (though this may be called the spanker mast on a barque, schooner or barquentine). Only one five-masted full-rigged ship (the Flying P-Liner Preussen) had ever been built until recent years, when a few modern five-masted cruise sailing ships have been launched. Even a fourth mast is relatively rare for full-rigged ships. Ships with five and more masts are not normally fully rigged and their masts may be numbered rather than named in extreme cases.
If the masts
The British Royal Navy's pre-dreadnought Admiral class battleships of the 1880s followed the pattern of the Devastation class in having the main armament on centre-line mounts with the superstructure in between. This pattern was followed by most following British designs until HMS Dreadnought in 1906. They were known as the Admiral-class because they were all named after British admirals, such as Admiral George Anson.
Collingwood was commissioned at Portsmouth on 1 July 1887 for Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee Military Review, and was paid off into Reserve in August. She was posted to the Mediterranean, where she served from November 1889–March 1897. She was coastguard ship at Bantry from March 1897–June 1903, when she paid off into the reserve, where she remained until sold.
Rodney was commissioned on June 20, 1888 into the Home Fleet. She was held in reserve until July 1889, and after taking part in manoevres until September she served with the Channel Fleet until May 1894. She was then posted to the Mediterranean, remaining there until 1897. Thereafter she was coastguard ship at Queensferry until February 1901. She remained in reserve until being sold in 1909.
Howe was delivered
The Albacora class is diesel-electric attack submarine (SSK) developed for the Portuguese Navy based on the French Daphné class submarine.
In 1964, the Portuguese government ordered the construction of four of this class at the Dubigeòn-Normándie Shipyard to create the 4th submarine flotilla.
With the first submarine commissioned on October 1, 1967, the Portuguese Navy started to have a submarine able to operate in both coastal and oceanic zones, especially in the Portuguese exclusive economic zone.
The last Albacora class submarine in service, the Barracuda, made its final mission in 2010. The class is to be replaced by two Type 214/209PN submarines.
Media related to Albacora class submarines at Wikimedia Commons
The Draug class was the first multi-vessel class of destroyers built for the Royal Norwegian Navy, the first destroyer to be built for the RNoN being the Valkyrjen, commissioned 17 May 1896. As the single Valkyrjen was not enough to fulfil the need for destroyers, the Draug class was ordered and built in the years 1908-1913. Draug was the lead ship, commissioned in 1910, followed by Troll in 1912 and Garm in 1913. Garm was also the first turbine engined vessel in Norway. Equipped with two Germania steam turbines, she consumed enormous amounts of coal.
They were fast vessels for their day, reaching speeds of up to 26.5 knots. The Draug class vessels carried six quick-firing guns to combat enemy torpedo boats, as well as three trainable torpedo tubes to attack larger vessels.
The class was named after the Draugr - a sinister, malevolent being of Nordic origin and often connected with mariners and the sea.
All three ships were kept in commission until the Second World War, although they were mothballed years before 1939.
As war became imminent, the three ships were returned to active service, Troll and Garm on 28 August, Draug on 5 September 1939. As all three ships were in poor
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Light aircraft carrier
Ships in class:HMS Theseus
The 1942 Design Light Fleet Carrier, commonly referred to as the British Light Fleet Carrier, was a light aircraft carrier design created by the Royal Navy during World War II, and used by eight naval forces between 1944 and 2001. They were designed and constructed by civilian shipyards to serve as an intermediate step between the expensive, full-size fleet aircraft carriers and the less expensive but limited-capability escort carriers.
Sixteen Light Fleet carriers were ordered, and all were laid down to the Colossus class design during 1942 and 1943. However, only eight were completed to this design; of these, four entered service before the end of the war, and none saw front line operations. Two more were fitted with maintenance and repair facilities instead of aircraft catapults and arresting gear, and entered service as aircraft maintenance carriers. The final six were modified during construction to handle larger and faster aircraft, and were redesignated the Majestic class. These six ships were still under construction at the end of the war, and work was suspended; five were eventually completed (the last commissioning in 1961), but the sixth was dismantled for spare parts
The Lafayette class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the Ethan Allen class of fleet ballistic missile submarine, slightly larger and generally improved. This class, together with the George Washington, Ethan Allen, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin classes, comprised the "41 for Freedom."
The first eight submarines initially deployed with the Polaris A-2 missile, later being refitted with the longer ranged Polaris A-3, with USS Daniel Webster (SSBN-626) having the A-3 missile from the start. In the mid-1970s they were upgraded to carry the Poseidon C3 missile.
Unlike the similar James Madison and Benjamin Franklin classes, none of the Lafayette class submarines were refitted with Trident missiles. They were decommissioned between 1986 and 1992, with one (Daniel Webster) remaining in use as a Moored Training Ship.
Submarines of the Lafayette class:
The Edgar-class was a nine-ship class of protected cruiser built around 1891 for the Royal Navy.
Crescent and Royal Arthur were built to a slightly modified design with a raised forecastle and a pair of 6 inch guns replacing the forward 9.2 inch gun, and are sometimes considered a separate class. The Edgar-class are noted for being the first ships fitted with anti torpedo bulges, when four ships of the class had a refit in 1914.
The following table gives the build details and purchase cost of the members of the Edgar class. Standard British practice at that time was for these costs to exclude armament and stores. (There are unexplained discrepancies between the costs quoted in different issues of Brassey's Naval Annual; this is illustrated by the table in the notes.)
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Aircraft carrier
Ships in class:USS Coral Sea
The Midway class aircraft carrier was one of the longest-living carrier designs in history. First commissioned in late 1945, the lead ship of the class, USS Midway, was not decommissioned until 1992, shortly after service in Operation Desert Storm in 1991.
The CVB-41 class vessels (then unnamed) were originally conceived in 1940 as a design study to determine the effect of including an armored flight deck on a carrier the size of the Essex class. The resulting calculations showed that the effect would be disastrous for air group size - the resulting ship would have a maximum air group of 45, compared to 90–100 for the standard Essex class fleet carriers. As a result, the concept went to finding a larger carrier that could support both deck armor and a sufficiently large air group. Unlike the Royal Navy's aircraft carriers, for which the armored deck was part of the ship structure, the Midway class retained their "strength deck" at the hangar deck level and the armored flight deck was part of the superstructure. The weight-savings needed to armor the flight deck were achieved by removing the planned cruiser-caliber battery of 8-inch (203 mm) guns and reducing the 5-inch antiaircraft
The Type XVII U-boats were small coastal submarines which used Hellmuth Walter's high test peroxide propulsion system, which offered a combination of air-independent propulsion and high submerged speeds.
In the early 1930s Hellmuth Walter had designed a small, high-speed submarine with a streamlined form propelled by high test peroxide and in 1939 he was awarded a contract to build an experimental vessel, the 80 ton V-80, which achieved an underwater speed of 28.1 kn (52.0 km/h; 32.3 mph) during trials in 1940. In November 1940 Admirals Erich Raeder and Werner Fuchs (head of the Kriegsmarine's Construction Office) witnessed a demonstration of the V-80; Raeder was impressed, but Fuchs was slow to approve further tests.
Following the success of the V-80's trials, Walter contacted Karl Dönitz in January 1942, who enthusiastically embraced the idea and requested that these submarines be developed as quickly as possible. An initial order was placed in summer 1942 for four Type XVIIA development submarines.
Of these, U-792 and U-793, designated Wa 201, were built by Blohm & Voss, commissioned in October 1943, and achieved 20.25 kn (37.50 km/h; 23.30 mph) submerged. The other pair of Type
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Supercarrier
Ships in class:USS Forrestal
The Forrestal-class aircraft carriers were a four-ship class designed and built for the United States Navy in the 1950s. It was the first class of so-called supercarriers, combining high tonnage, deck-edge elevators and an angled deck. The first ship was commissioned in 1955, the last decommissioned in 1998.
The Forrestal class was the first completed class of "supercarriers" of the Navy, so called because of their then-extraordinarily high tonnage (75,000 tons, 25% larger than the post-World War II-era Midway class), full integration of the angled deck (Forrestal and Saratoga were laid down as axial deck carriers and converted to angled deck ships while under construction; Ranger and Independence were laid down as angled deck ships and had various minor improvements compared to the first two), a very large island and most importantly their extremely strong air wing (80–100 jet aircraft, compared to 65–75 for the Midway class and fewer than 50 for the Essex class). Compared to the Midway class, the Forrestals were 100 feet (30 m) longer and nearly 20 feet (6 m) wider abeam, resulting in a far more stable and comfortable aircraft platform even in very rough weather. When
The Karel Doorman class is a class of eight multi-purpose frigates of the Royal Netherlands Navy. The class is also known as the "Multi-purpose" or M class.
The ships are named after famous Dutch naval officers, the lead ship being named after Karel Doorman.
These multi-purpose frigates can be used in the anti-submarine, anti-aircraft or surface combat roles. Their armament reflects that.
Their primary surface armament consists of two quad launchers for the RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile, which has a range of 120 kilometres. Backing this up is a 76 mm Oto Melara gun, which has both anti-ship and anti-air capabilities.
Air defence is provided by the Sea Sparrow vertical launch system, which uses semi-active radar to find its target and has a range of 14 km. 16 VLS cells are mounted on the port external bulkhead of the hangar. A Goalkeeper system provides close-range air defence. It fires 30 mm rounds and can fire up to 4,000 rounds per minute, with a range of 200 metres to 3 km.
For anti submarine warfare, each ship is equipped with two twin torpedo launchers, firing Mark 46 torpedoes; and carries one Westland Lynx helicopter. The helicopter is also armed with 2 Mk 46 torpedoes,
The Leander class was a class of eight light cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the early 1930s that saw service in World War II. They were named after mythological figures, and all ships were commissioned between 1933 and 1936. The three ships of the second group were sold to the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) before World War II and renamed after Australian cities.
The Leander class was influenced by the York-class heavy cruiser, and was an attempt to better provide for the role of commerce protection. The 7,000-7,200 ton Leanders were armed with eight BL 6 in (152 mm) Mk XXIII guns in twin turrets, two forward and two aft. Their secondary armament consisted of four QF 4 in (102 mm) Mark V guns, which were later replaced by twin mountings for eight guns (the later QF 4 inch Mk XVI naval gun). Their anti-aircraft weaponry consisted of twelve 0.5-inch (13 mm) Vickers machine guns in three quadruple mounts. They also shipped a bank of four 21-inch (530 mm) torpedo tubes on each beam and provision was made in the design for carriage of two catapult-launched Fairey Seafox aircraft.
Speed was 32 knots (59 km/h), and 845 tons of armour was provided. The first five vessels did not contain
The Type 051 destroyer (NATO code name Luda class) missile destroyer was the first surface warfare oriented vessel ever designed and built in China, and the first Chinese ship to be fitted with an integrated combat direction system. It was based on the Soviet Neustrashimy class destroyer design, with some design influences from the Kotlin class destroyer design.
In the late 1960s, China began testing its long-range rockets for the Chinese space program, as well as the ICBM program. The People's Liberation Army Navy operated only four ex-Soviet Gnevny class destroyers (Anshan class in PLAN service) at the time, which were unsuitable for long-range ocean recovery missions. The 701 institute was instructed to develop China's first indigenous guided missile destroyer, modelled after the Soviet Kotlin class. The design was approved in 1967, and construction of the first Type 051 Luda class destroyer began in 1968.
A total of 16 Type 051 destroyers were built between 1968 and 1991. 10 remain in service today. Major refit for ships of this class began in 1990s, replacing the old HY-1/HY-2 with YJ-83 (C-803) missile, and manual guns with automatic guns. For air-defense, an 8-cell HQ-7
The Queen Elizabeth-class battleships were a class of five super-dreadnoughts of the Royal Navy commissioned in 1915–16. The lead ship was named after Elizabeth I of England. These battleships were superior in firepower, protection and speed to their Royal Navy predecessors of the Iron Duke-class as well as preceding German classes such as the König-class, although the corresponding Bayern-class ships were competitive except for being 2 knots (3.7 km/h) slower. As such, the Queen Elizabeths are generally considered the first fast battleships.
The Queen Elizabeths were the first battleships to be armed with 15-inch (381 mm) guns, and were described in the 1919 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships as "the most successful type of capital ship yet designed." They saw much service in both world wars. Barham was lost to U-boat attack in 1941, but the others survived the war and were scrapped in the late 1940s.
Following the success of the 13.5-inch (340 mm) 45 caliber gun, the Admiralty decided to develop a 15-inch (381 mm)/42 gun to equip the battleships of the 1912 construction programme. The move to the larger gun was accelerated by one or two years by the intervention of Winston
The Valiant class were a class of nuclear-powered fleet submarines in service with the Royal Navy from the mid 1960s until 1994. They were the first fully British nuclear fleet submarine; the earlier HMS Dreadnought used an American nuclear reactor. There were only two boats in the class, the first, Valiant (the nameship) commissioned in 1966 three years after Dreadnought, and Warspite the following year. Both were built by Vickers at Barrow-in-Furness.
The class were based on Dreadnought, but were enlarged by 20 feet (6 m) and had a dived displacement of 4,900 tons compared to 4,000 tons. Improvements made since the original Dreadnought meant that they ran significantly quieter under main power, and also had a Paxman diesel-electric generator that could be used for silent running. In most other respects (outside the power plant), the Valiants were identical to Dreadnought.
According to former head of the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors R.J. Daniel, when US Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, widely regarded as the father of the nuclear submarine, initially learned of the proposed rafting system for the Valiant class he was dismissive of the concept, with the result that the Royal Navy
The Kara is a class of Cold War era Soviet warships designated guided missile cruisers by NATO. The Soviet designation is Project 1134B Berkut B - Беркут Б (Golden Eagle) and the Soviet mission description is "large anti-submarine warfare ship" (BPK) and not "cruiser".
These ships were enlarged versions of the Kresta II class, with gas turbine engines replacing the steam turbines. These ships were fitted as flagships with improved command, control and communications facilities. These are dedicated ASW ships with significant anti-aircraft capability including both SA-N-3 and SA-N-4 surface to air missiles.
The Specifications for the class were issued in 1964 with the design being finalised in the late 1960s. The gas turbine engine was chosen instead of steam for greater efficiency, quietness and because the main Soviet gas turbine plant had a long association with the Nikolayev shipyards.
The cruiser Azov was constructed as a trials ship for the SA-N-6 missile system and was also fitted with the associated Top Dome Radar. During the cold war she was confined to the Black Sea.
These ships were built by the 61 Kommunar Shipyard at Mykolaiv (Nikolayev) on the Black Sea.
The Astute-class is the latest class of nuclear-powered Fleet submarines in service with the Royal Navy. The class sets a new standard for the Royal Navy in terms of weapons load, communication facilities and stealth. The boats are being constructed by BAE Systems Submarine Solutions at Barrow-in-Furness. Seven boats will be constructed. The first of class, Astute, was launched in 2007 and commissioned in 2010, and the second, Ambush, was launched on 6 January 2011, and successfully completed its initial dive test on 30 September 2011.
The Royal Navy has changed its submarine-employment strategy from the Cold War emphasis on anti-submarine warfare to the concept of "Maritime Contributions to Joint Operations."
Approval for studies to define the "Batch 2 Trafalgar class" (what would become the Astute class) was given in June 1991. In July 1994 risk reduction studies were authorised in parallel with the formal bid phase of the project.
On 17 March 1997, the Ministry of Defence announced that it would place a £2 billion order for three submarines and that they would be called the Astute class. On 26 March 1997 the contract was signed with GEC-Marconi for the first three boats:
The Clemson class was a series of 156 destroyers which served with the United States Navy from after World War I through World War II.
The Clemson-class ships were commissioned by the United States Navy from 1919 to 1922, built by Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company, New York Shipbuilding Corporation, William Cramp and Sons, Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Norfolk Naval Shipyard and Bath Iron Works, some quite rapidly. The Clemson class was a minor redesign of the Wickes class, and was the last pre-World War II class of flush-decker destroyers to be built for the United States. Until the Fletcher-class destroyer, the Clemsons were the most numerous class of destroyers commissioned in the United States Navy, and were known colloquially as "four-stackers" or "four-pipers."
As finally built, the Clemson class would be a fairly straightforward expansion of the Wickes-class destroyers. While the Wickes class had given good service there was a desire to build a class more tailored towards the anti-submarine role, and as such several design studies were completed mainly about designing the class with better range. These designs included a reduction in
The A69 type Avisos are small warships mainly designed for coastal anti-submarine defence, but are also available for high sea escort missions (notably in support missions with the FOST). Built on a simple and robust design, they have an economical and reliable propulsion system which allows them to be used for overseas presence missions. The A69 design was based in the project of the João Coutinho class corvettes of the Portuguese Navy.
A total of 17 ships of this class were built and named after the heroes of the Second World War. Eight of these ships have since been decommissioned and six of them were sold to the Turkish Navy where they were redesignated as the B Class corvette.
The nine ships remaining in French service will have their heavy weapons removed and be reclassified as oceanic patrol ships. They will replace the P400 class patrol vessels in this role .
The Argentine Navy also operates three D'Estienne D'Orves-class ships, locally known as the Drummond Class. The first two ships were originally ordered by the South African Navy, but due to UN sanctions against South Africa, they were not delivered and were bought by the Argentine Navy in 1978. The third ship of the
The Alvand class (also called the Saam class frigate or the Vosper Mk 5 type) comprise four Iranian light patrol frigates. Only three are currently in service. However, 35 years later Iran decided to build a modified version of these fast light frigates in its own shipyards. In many ways, this design of offensive warship, halfway between a corvette and light frigate, could be more correctly classed as the first effective greenwater fast attack craft. The origins of the class lie in the last years of the United Kingdom's and Royal Navy's extensive involvement and policing East of Suez. In the 1960s, Britain was engaged in a full scale retreat from empire and by 1964-66 was giving up its last significant colonial territories in Africa and South East Asia. The RN and RAF had been stressed and operating with skill, in particular to maintain the pretense of sustainable aircraft carrier capability to hold and control Indonesia's threat to Malaysia and Borneo during years of Confrontation with Indonesia from 1963-66. Britain could no longer bear the cost of global commitments, and the USA, feeling the economic strain of the Vietnam War quagmire, was reluctant to move too many of its own
The Frederick Funston-class attack transport was a class of US Navy attack transports. They saw service in World War II and later in the Korean War.
Attack transports were a special type of transport ship designed to transport troops and their equipment over long distances to hostile shores, and then execute an amphibious invasion at the destination, using an array of smaller integral assault boats. Like all attack transports, the Frederick Funston-class was generously armed with antiaircraft weaponry to protect itself and its vulnerable cargo of troops from air attack in the battle zone.
The class derives its name from US Army General Frederick Funston, a veteran of the Philippine-American War and Medal of Honor recipient. The two ships of the Frederick Funston class were based on the Maritime Commission's ubiquitous Type C3 hull (specifically Type C3-S-A1). They began their service lives as transport ships for the US Army, but after several months of service in this role they were acquired by the US Navy and reclassified attack transports. It is not known whether they underwent any modifications for their new role.
There is no mention of cargo space in the DANFS entries, so it is
The Danton class was a class of French battleships built between 1907–1911, which served in World War I. The six ships in the class were all pre-dreadnought battleships, the last of their kind produced in the French Navy.
With minor individual variations, the Danton-class ships had a bow-to-stern length of 480 feet and a displacement of 18,400 tons. Their main batteries were four 12-inch guns.
These ships were unusual in that they combined turbine propulsion machinery with a pre-dreadnought armament. They were designed by L'Homme for the 1906 programme and were a considerable advance on previous French ships. They were however overshadowed by HMS Dreadnought which was completed before they were laid down.
The six Danton-class ships served together in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1914 to 1919. They formed the bulk of the French Navy's First Squadron under the command of Vice-Admiral Paul Chocheprat.
Media related to Danton class battleships at Wikimedia Commons
The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of frigates named after the American Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie. Also known as the Perry or FFG-7 class, the warships were designed in the United States in the mid-1970s as general-purpose escort vessels inexpensive enough to be bought in large quantities to replace World War II-era destroyers and 1960s-era Knox (FF-1052) class frigates. Intended to protect amphibious landing forces, supply and replenishment groups, and merchant convoys from submarines, they also later were part of battleship-centric surface action groups and aircraft carrier battle groups/strike groups. Fifty-five ships were built in the United States: 51 for the United States Navy and four for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). In addition, eight were built in the Republic of China (Taiwan), six in Spain, and two in Australia for their navies. Former U.S. Navy warships of this class have been sold or donated to the navies of Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, Pakistan, and Turkey.
The ships were designed by the Bath Iron Works shipyard in Maine in partnership with the New York-based naval architects Gibbs & Cox.
The Oliver Hazard
The Sumter-class attack transport was a class of attack transport built for service with the US Navy in World War II.
Like all attack transports, the purpose of the Sumter's was to transport troops and their equipment to foreign shores in order to execute amphibious invasions using an array of smaller assault boats integral to the attack transport itself. Like all the attack transports, the Sumter-class was heavily armed with antiaircraft weaponry to protect itself and its cargo of troops from air attack in the battle zone.
The Sumter class ships were based upon the US Maritime Commission's Type C2 merchant ship hull - specifically, the C2-S-E1 type. The class consisted of only four ships - three of them laid down in April 1942, not long after the US entry into the war, and the remaining ship laid down almost a year later, in March 1943. All four ships were built by the Gulf Shipbuilding Corporation, at Chickasaw, Alabama.
The first three ships in the class were originally intended to be plain transports, but on 1 February 1943 they, along with numerous other transports then in service or still on the slipways, were redesignated as attack transports. This entailed fitting extra
The Kresta II Class, Soviet Designation Project 1134A, Berkut A (Golden Eagle) were Soviet guided missile cruisers of the Cold War. The ships entered service in the late 1960s and were rapidly decommissioned after the end of the Cold War
These ships were an Anti-Submarine derivative of the Kresta I class cruiser. These ships had a new anti-submarine missile (SS-N-14), new Surface to Air Missiles (SA-N-3) and advanced sonar. All ships were built by Zhdanov yard, Leningrad.
Conway's states that the first three ships were to have been armed with the SS-N-9 anti ship missile but Soviet naval doctrine changed with greater emphasis on anti-submarine warfare. The surface to air missiles comprised more advanced SA-N-3 missiles with two twin launchers. New 3D search radar and new fire control radars were also fitted. 4 30mm CIWS guns were also fitted for improved anti-missile defence. A more advanced sonar led to the bow being more sharply raked. The machinery suite comprised two TV-12 steam turbines with high pressure boilers, identical to the Kresta I class.
Gardiner, Robert (ed.). Conway's all the World's Fighting Ships 1947-1995. London: Conway Maritime.
The Kashin class destroyers were a group of guided missile destroyers built for the Soviet Navy in the 1960s and early 1970s. Their Soviet designation was Project 61. As of 2007, one ship is in service with the Russian Navy, and five modified ships are in service with the Indian Navy as Rajput-class destroyers.
In the USSR they were officially classified as "guard ships" (storozhevoi korabl - SKR), then "large ASW ships" (BPK) or "large missile ships" (BRK), but in the rest of world they are commonly regarded as missile destroyers due to their size and armament. They were the first Soviet purpose-built anti-air warfare ships and the first to carry an ASW helicopter.
The design specification was approved in 1957; the first ship was laid down in 1959 and commissioned in 1962. Much new equipment was developed for these ships, including surface-to-air missiles, radars and gas turbine engines. The gas turbines were arranged in two separate spaces and could be removed via the funnels for servicing. These were also the first Soviet ships designed to be closed down for nuclear fallout and had an operations room deep inside the ship rather than a large bridge.
Six ships were modernised in
The Oberon class was a 27-boat class of British-built diesel-electric submarines based on the successful British Porpoise-class submarine.
Thirteen were constructed for the Royal Navy, while another fourteen were built and exported to other countries' navies: six to the Royal Australian Navy, three to the Royal Canadian Navy with an additional two British submarines later transferred, three to the Brazilian Navy, and two to the Chilean Navy.
As of 2006, at least fourteen Oberons are confirmed to have survived in some form: Seven as museum boats or tourist attractions, two preserved in partial form as monuments, while five are to be converted into museum boats, or are otherwise awaiting disposal.
The 295.2 feet (90.0 m) long Oberon class was based heavily on the preceding Porpoise class of submarines, which were in service from 1956 to 1988. Changes from the Porpoise design were primarily to improve the strength and stealth of the submarine. Instead of UXW steel, the hull was built from QT28 steel, which was easier to fabricate and stronger, allowing the submarine to dive deeper. Glass-reinforced plastic was used in construction of the casing.
Electronics, sonar, and radar systems
The British L class submarine were originally planned under the emergency war programme as an improved version of the British E class submarine. The scale of change allowed the L class to become a separate class.
The armament was increased when the 21-inch torpedoes came into service. The Group 3 boats had two QF 4-inch guns fore and aft of the lengthened conning tower. Also, 76 tons of fuel oil was carried in external wing tanks for the first time in British submarines. Several of the Group 1 boats were configured as minelayers including L11 and L12. In the Group 2 boats, L14, L17 and L24 to L27 were built as minelayers carrying 16 mines but without the two beam torpedo tubes.
The introduction of the L class came too late to contribute significantly in World War I. L2 was accidentally depth-charged by three American destroyers in early 1918. L12 torpedoed the German submarine UB-90. L10 torpedoed the German destroyer S33 in October 1918 but was sunk by accompanying destroyers.
L55 was sunk in 1919 during the British naval intervention in the Russian civil war by Bolshevik Russian destroyers. She was salvaged by the Russians and was re-commissioned by the Russians with her original
The I-201-class submarines (伊二〇一型潜水艦, I-Nihyakuichi-gata sensuikan) were submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. These submarines were of advanced design, built for high underwater speed, and were known as Submarine High speed-Large type (潜高大型, Sen Taka-Dai gata) or Submarine-High speed type (潜高型, Sen Taka gata). They were one of the fastest submarine class built during World War II, second only to Walter Type XVII closed-cycle powered submarines.
Twenty-three units were ordered from the Kure Navy Yard under the 1943 construction program. Due to the deteriorating war situation, only eight boats were laid down, and only three, numbered I-201, I-202 and I-203, were completed before the end of the war. None of them saw operational use.
In 1938 the Imperial Japanese Navy constructed an experimental high-speed submarine for evaluation purposes, which was designated Vessel Number 71 (第71号艦) for security purposes. Based on previous experience with high-speed, short-range midget submarines, Number 71 displaced only 230 tons surfaced with a length of 140 ft (43 m). She could attain a submerged speed of over 21 kn (39 km/h; 24 mph), making her the fastest submarine of
The British E class submarines started out as improved versions of the British D class submarine. All of the first group and some of the second group were completed before the outbreak of World War I.
The group 1 boats of the E class cost £101,900 per hull but the price eventually increased when the second group entered service to £105,700 per hull.
As submarine technology improved, the E class went through several modifications to install the new improvements which were all installed by the time the final group was under construction.
The class served in the North Sea and the Baltic and Turkish operations while some served with Russian ships in Russian coastal waters before being scuttled to avoid capture by the communists who were gradually taking control of Russia.
The E class served with the Royal Navy throughout World War I as the backbone of the submarine fleet and were eventually replaced by the British L class submarine. All the E class submarines were withdrawn from service by 1922.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a merchant ship designed for the bulk transport of oil. There are two basic types of oil tankers: the crude tanker and the product tanker. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction to refineries. Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed to move petrochemicals from refineries to points near consuming markets.
Oil tankers are often classified by their size as well as their occupation. The size classes range from inland or coastal tankers of a few thousand metric tons of deadweight (DWT) to the mammoth ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs) of 550,000 DWT. Tankers move approximately 2,000,000,000 metric tons (2.2×10 short tons) of oil every year. Second only to pipelines in terms of efficiency, the average cost of oil transport by tanker amounts to only two or three United States cents per 1 US gallon (3.8 L).
Some specialized types of oil tankers have evolved. One of these is the naval replenishment oiler, a tanker which can fuel a moving vessel. Combination ore-bulk-oil carriers and permanently moored floating storage units are two other variations on the standard oil tanker
Seawolf is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines (SSN) in service with the United States Navy. The class was the intended successor to the Los Angeles class, ordered at the end of the Cold War in 1989. At one time, an intended fleet of 29 submarines was to be built over a ten-year period, later reduced to twelve submarines. The end of the Cold War and budget constraints led to the cancellation in 1995 of any further additions to the fleet, leaving the Seawolf class limited to just three boats. This, in turn, led to the design of the smaller Virginia class.
The Seawolf design was intended to combat the threat of large numbers of advanced Soviet ballistic missile submarines such as the Typhoon class and attack submarines such as the Akula class in a deep ocean environment. Seawolf class hulls are constructed from HY-100 steel, which is stronger than the HY-80 steel employed in previous classes, in order to withstand water pressure at greater depths. The exact diving depth of this class of boats is classified; most reputable sources vary from 1,600–2,000 feet as a likely test depth, and from 2,400–3,200 feet for collapse depth. These figures are consistent with their
The Sierra I class (NATO reporting name) or Project 945 (Барракуда/Barrakuda) nuclear submarine was the Soviet Union's successor class to the partly successful Project 705 Lira (Alfa) class submarine. The Sierra class has a light and strong titanium pressure hull which enables the class to dive to greater depths, reduce the level of radiated noise and increase resistance to torpedo attacks.
The Sierra II class (NATO reporting name) or Project 945A (Кондор/Kondor) nuclear submarine was a successor to the Sierra I with improved quieting and sonar.
The first hull, Karp, was laid down in May 1982 at the Gorky shipyard and was launched in August 1983 before being transferred to Severodvinsk for fitting out. It was laid up in 1987. The next hull to be built was the Kostroma, which was launched in July 1986 and was commissioned in September 1987. K-276 Kostroma was put into a drydock after its February 11, 1992 collision with USS Baton Rouge (SSN-689). The submarine was repaired on 29 June 1992 and was renamed Krab, but in 1996 its original name was returned and it is still in service with the Russian Northern fleet. The Sierra I class was also fitted with a releasable escape pod for the
The Type 039 submarine (NATO code name Song class) is a class of diesel-electric submarines of the People's Liberation Army Navy. The class is the first to be fully developed within China and also the first Chinese submarine to use the modern teardrop hull shape.
The People's Republic of China's first submarine design was the locally-produced derivative of the Romeo class submarines provided to China by the Soviet Union. Large numbers of these were built, but their obsolete design, derived from World War II submarine technology, led China to develop a wholly new class on its own, resulting in the Type 039.
Designed for attacking both other submarines and surface ships with torpedoes, the submarine uses a modern teardrop-shape hull for underwater performance. The hull incorporates four rudders and is propelled by a single propeller. For quieter operation, the engine was mounted with shock absorbers and the hull is plated in rubber tiles for sound deadening. Development was not without problems, as a lengthy testing period for the first vessel (320) attests. Problems with noise levels and underwater performance led to revisions in the design and only a single boat was ever built to
The AM (A Modified) type submarine was a large seaplane-carrying submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy, with a hangar space for 2 aircraft. These giant submarines were originally of the A2 type, meant to act as command boats for groups of submarines, but their design was revised after construction started so that they could carry a second aircraft. Seven units were ordered, but only two (I-13 and I-14) were completed, while construction of two more was abandoned in March 1945, with construction of the remaining three submarines never started. The seaplanes were to be the Aichi M6A1, bomber carrying 800 kg bombs.
The range and speed of these submarines was remarkable (21,000 nmi at 16 knots), but their underwater performance was compromised, making them easy targets. I-13 was sunk on 16 July 1945 by the destroyer escort USS Lawrence C. Taylor and aircraft action from escort carrier USS Anzio about 550 nautical miles (1,019 km) east of Yokosuka. I-14 surrendered at sea at the end of the war, and was scuttled off Oahu in 1946. In 2009 researchers at the Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory found I-14 at a depth of about 2,600 feet (790 m).
The Yūshio was a Japanese diesel-electric submarine class operated by the JMSDF. It was a second generation submarine, a development of the Uzushio class submarine, incorporating a teardrop hull, with a resulting increase in underwater performance on the Uzushio class submarine. Ten were built under the fourth defense plan in 1975 fiscal year. A training submarine, Yukishio, was retired on March 7, 2008. All warships were retired on the completion of the Harushio class submarine.
The Agosta class submarines are French diesel attack submarines (SSKs) used by Spain, Pakistan and formerly by France. The French Navy grouped this model of submarine in their most capable class as an océanique, meaning "ocean-going." A modernised version built for Pakistan, the Agosta 90B, has a crew of 36 plus 5 officers and can be equipped with the MESMA air-independent propulsion (AIP) system.
built by Arsenal de Cherbourg
built by Cartagena dockyard
Two Agosta-class submarines originally destined for the South African Navy were cancelled following the implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 418 in 1977. Built by AC Dubigeon, they were eventually sold to the Pakistan Navy.
The Agosta 90B, also known as the Khalid-class, is a modernised design built for the Pakistan Navy. Various modifications give lower acoustic signature, lower diving depth, improved battery range and performance. Greater automation also allows the crew to be reduced from 54 to 36. The submarine can be armed with up to 16 torpedoes and SM39 Exocet anti-ship missiles. The SM39 was test-fired from a Khalid-class submarine in 2001.
The Vanguard class are the Royal Navy's nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II missiles. The class was introduced in 1994 as part of the UK government's Trident nuclear weapons programme.
The class includes four boats: Vanguard, Victorious, Vigilant and Vengeance. They were built at Barrow-in-Furness by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering between 1986 and 1999. All four boats are based at HM Naval Base Clyde (HMS Neptune), 40 km (25 mi) west of Glasgow, Scotland.
Since the decommissioning of the Royal Air Force WE.177 free-fall nuclear bombs in 1998, the four Vanguard submarines are the sole platforms for the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons.
Since the late 1960s, the UK had operated four Resolution class submarines armed with US-built Polaris missiles under the terms of the 1963 Polaris Sales Agreement.
On 10 July 1980, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wrote to US President Carter to request the supply of Trident I (C4) missiles on a similar basis for the United Kingdom's next generation ballistic missile submarines. However in 1982 Thatcher wrote to US President Reagan to request the UK be allowed to procure the improved Trident II (D5)
The Brahmaputra class frigates (Type 16A or Project 16A) are guided-missile frigates of the Indian Navy, designed and built in India. They are an enhancement of the Godavari class, with a displacement of 3850 tons and a length of 126 metres. Although of similar hull and dimension, internally, the Brahmaputra and Godavari classes have different configurations, armaments and capabilities. 3 ships of this class serve in the Indian Navy.
The class and the lead ship, INS Brahmaputra, are named after the River Brahmaputra. Subsequent ships of the class, INS Betwa and INS Beas are also named for Indian rivers.
In 1986, the Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs (CCPA) decided to diversify India's warship building capability, and start an alternate production line to the Godavari class frigates that were built at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in Bombay. 3 additional Godavari class frigates were to be built at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) in Calcutta. After a transfer of technology from MDL to GRSE, production was to start in 1988, with deliveries between 1993 and 1996.
However, as the production was about to commence, the Indian Navy's requirements were revised, which led to
The Imperatritsa Mariya-class (Russian: Императрица Мария) battleships were the first dreadnoughts built for the Black Sea Fleet of the Imperial Russian Navy. All three ships were built in Nikolayev during World War I; two of the ships were built by the Rossud Dockyard and the third was built by the Associated Factories and Shipyards of Nikolayev (Russian: ONZiV). Two ships were delivered in 1915 and saw some combat against ex-German warships that had been 'gifted' to the Ottoman Empire, but the third was not completed until 1917 and saw no combat due to the disorder in the navy after the February Revolution earlier that year.
Imperatritsa Mariya was sunk by a magazine explosion in Sevastopol harbor in 1916. Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya, having been renamed Svobodnaya Rossiya in 1917, was scuttled in Novorossiysk harbor in 1918 to prevent her from being turned over to the Germans as required by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The crew of Volia, as Imperator Aleksander III had been renamed in 1917, voted to turn her over to the Germans. They were only able to make one training cruise before they had to turn her over the victorious Allies in 1918 as part of the armistice terms. The
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Light aircraft carrier
The Independence class aircraft carriers were a class of light carriers built for the United States Navy that served during World War II.
This class were a result of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's interest in Navy shipbuilding plans. In August 1941, with war looming, he noted that no new fleet aircraft carriers were expected before 1944 and proposed to quickly convert some of the many cruisers then under construction. Studies of cruiser-size aircraft carriers had shown their serious limitations, with the General Board of the United States Navy replying that such a conversion showed too many compromises to be effective on Oct 13th 1941. The President ordered another study on Oct 25th and BuShips replying that the cruiser conversion would result in a lesser capability but would be available sooner. The crisis following the December 1941 Pearl Harbor attack demonstrated the urgent need for more carriers as soon as possible. The Navy responded by greatly accelerating construction of the big Essex class aircraft carriers and, in January 1942, reordering a Cleveland class light cruiser as an aircraft carrier.
Plans developed for this conversion showed much more promise than expected.
The Scorpène class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarine jointly developed by the French DCN and the Spanish company Navantia and now by DCNS. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP).
The Chilean Navy ordered two Scorpène, which replaced two Oberon class submarines retired by the Chilean Navy. Orders of two by the Royal Malaysian Navy and six by the Indian Navy are linked to charges of corruption investigated. All Indian boats will be built in India at Mazagon Dock Limited, and the last two are to be fitted with the indigenous AIP module. For the follow on requirement of six submarines, DCNS plans to offer a larger version of the submarine to the Indian navy. In 2008, the Brazilian Navy ordered four Scorpènes.
The Chilean Scorpène class O'Higgins and Carrera were completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. In 2009, the Royal Malaysian Navy commissioned Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tun Abdul Razak.
The Scorpène class of ships has four subtypes: the CM-2000 conventional diesel-electric version, the AM-2000 AIP derivative, the downsized CA-2000 coastal submarine and the enlarged S-BR for the Brazilian Navy without AIP.
Crater-class cargo ship is a category of freighter that was constructed for use by the United States Navy during World War II under Maritime Commission EC2-S-C1 type.
The class was named for the lead ship of its type, USS Crater (AK-70). There were a total of 62 ships of this class built, the largest count of U.S. Navy cargo ship classes.
The ships were propelled by a reciprocating steam engine using a single screw with a power of 1,950 hp (1,454 kW) shaft.
The Gangut-class battleships were the first dreadnoughts begun for the Imperial Russian Navy before World War I. They had a convoluted design history involving several British companies, evolving requirements, an international design competition, and foreign protests. Four ships were ordered in 1909; two were named after victorious battles of Peter the Great in the Great Northern War and the other two were named after battles in the Crimean War. Three ships of the class used names of pre-dreadnought battleships of the Petropavlovsk-class lost in the Russo-Japanese War. Construction was delayed by financing problems until the Duma formally authorized the ships in 1911. They were delivered from December 1914 through January 1915, although they still needed work on the turrets and fire-control systems until mid-1915. Their role was to defend the mouth of the Gulf of Finland against the Germans, who never tried to enter, so the ships spent their time training and providing cover for minelaying operations. Their crews participated in the general mutiny of the Baltic Fleet after the February Revolution in 1917, and joined the Bolsheviks the following year. The Russians were forced to
The Project 1135 Burevestnik (Storm Petrel) class were a series of frigates built for the Soviet Navy. These ships are commonly known by their NATO reporting name of Krivak and are divided into Krivak-I, Krivak-II (both navy), and Krivak-III (coast guard) classes.
These ships were designed as a successor to the Riga class. The design started in the late 1950s and matured as an anti-submarine ship in the 1960s. A total of 40 ships were built, 32 ships for the Soviet Navy (Russian Navy) and 8 modified ships of Nerey (Krivak III) subclass for the KGB Maritime Border Guard. Currently 7 of Nerey subclass are in FSB Coast Guard and one is part of Ukrainian Navy.
The ship's unique features—the bow missile box, the stack and the angled mast, earned it a rap-like nickname among U. S. sailors that comes from their foreign ship silhouette identification training — "Hot dog pack, Smokestack, Guns in Back — Krivak."
How many ships remain in active duty is uncertain. According to some sources Russia has four units in service and the Ukrainian Navy one. Russian press listed three units operational in February 2008, one with the Baltic Fleet and two with the Black Sea Fleet (BSF).
The Indian Navy
The United States' S-class submarines, often simply called S-boats (sometimes "Sugar" boats, after the then contemporary Navy phonetic alphabet for "S"), were the first class of submarines built to a United States Navy design.
The United States Navy commissioned 51 S-Class submarines from 1920 to 1925. The first S-boat, USS S-1 (SS-105), was commissioned in 1918 and the last, USS S-51 (SS-162), in 1925. The S class is subdivided into four groups of different designs:
S-2 was a prototype built by Lake, and was not repeated.
S-1, S-2, and S-3 were prototypes built to the same specification: S-1 designed by Electric Boat (Elco), S-2 by Lake, and S-3 by the Bureau of Construction and Repair (later Bureau of Ships). The Lake boat was considered inferior. The Elco and BuC&R designs were put into production.
The first S-boat, S-1, was launched on 26 September 1918, by Bethlehem at Fore River, but not commissioned until 5 June 1920.
The S-boats were improvements over the O- and R-boats. They were substantially larger. Compared to the R-boats, Group I S-boats were 33 feet (10.1 m) longer, with 3 feet 3 inches (1.0 m) more beam, 2 feet 3 inches (0.7 m) more draft, and 60% greater
Ships in class:German battleship Schleswig-Holstein
The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine. The class comprised Deutschland, Hannover, Pommern, Schlesien, and Schleswig-Holstein. Built between 1903 and 1908, the ships closely resembled those of the preceding Braunschweig class, though they had stronger armor protection. They were made obsolete before they were even completed by the launch of the revolutionary Royal Navy battleship HMS Dreadnought in 1906. As a result, they were the last ships of that type built for the German Navy. They were followed by the Nassau-class battleships, Germany's first dreadnought battleships.
With the commissioning of the Deutschland class, the fleet had enough battleships to form two full battle squadrons; the fleet was then reorganized into the High Seas Fleet, which saw combat during World War I. Despite their obsolescence, all five of these ships were present at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916. In the confused night actions, Pommern was torpedoed and sunk. After the battle, the four surviving ships were removed from the front-line fleet and employed in secondary tasks. The Treaty of Versailles permitted Germany to
The United States Navy Gato class submarine formed the core of the submarine service that was largely responsible for the destruction of the Japanese merchant marine and a large portion of the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. Named after the first vessel of this design, USS Gato, the Gato class and its successors, the Balao and Tench classes, formed the majority of the United States Navy's WWII submarine fleet. Gato's name comes from a species of small catshark. Like most other U.S. Navy submarines of the period, the Gato class were given the names of marine creatures.
The Gato-class boats were considered to be "Fleet Submarines". The original rationale behind their design was that they were intended to operate as adjuncts to the main battle fleet. They were to scout out ahead of the fleet and report on the enemy fleet's composition, speed, and course, then they were to attack and whittle down the enemy in preparation for the main fleet action, a titanic gun battle between cruisers and battleships. This was an operational concept borne out of experience from World War I. In order to operate effectively in this role, a submarine had to have high surface speed, long range and
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Supercarrier
The Kitty Hawk-class supercarriers of the United States Navy were an incremental improvement on the Forrestal-class vessels. Four were built, all in the 1960s, Kitty Hawk (CV-63) (1961–2009), Constellation (CV-64) (1961–2003), America (CV-66) (1965–1996) and John F. Kennedy (CV-67) (1967–2007). All are now decommissioned.
The biggest differences from the Forrestals are greater length, and a different placement of elevators; two are forward of the island, one is aft of the island and another on the portside stern. The movement of the #4 elevator from the forward to the after end of the angle made it useful for aircraft movement, since the forward-end elevator was useless as it was in both the landing path and in the launch path of the #3 and #4 catapults.
Three different shipyards were used to construct the ships. Kitty Hawk was built at New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Constellation at New York Naval Shipyard, America and John F. Kennedy at Newport News Shipbuilding. John F. Kennedy is similar to the earlier units in flightdeck arrangement and propulsion, but has enough differences that she is often placed in her own class. Propulsion consisted of four Westinghouse geared
The River class was a class of six destroyer escorts (originally designated anti-submarine frigates) operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Plans to acquire four vessels, based on the British Type 12M (or Rothesay class) frigate, began in the 1950s. The first two vessels had some slight modifications to the design, while the next two underwent further changes. Two more ships were ordered in 1964, following the Melbourne-Voyager collision; these were based on the Type 12I (or Leander class) frigate.
By the 1990s, all six ships had left service. Two were sunk as part of tests, and a third was scutted as an artificial reef, while the other three ships were scrapped.
In August 1950, the Australian government announced plans to acquire a new class of anti-submarine warfare frigates, based on the British Type 12M (or Rothesay class) frigate design. Originally six were planned, with construction to be split between Cockatoo Island Dockyard in Sydney and Williamstown Naval Dockyard in Melbourne, but only four were approved. The first two ships, Parramatta and Yarra, were based directly on the Rothesay class, with changes to fire control system, air warning radar, and habitability to
The Project 633 class (known in the West by its NATO reporting name as the Romeo class) is a class of Soviet diesel-electric submarine, built in the 1950s. The origin of the Romeo class can be traced to the World War II German Type XXI Elektroboot U-boat. At the end of World War II, the Soviets obtained several Type XXIs, from which they were able to obtain certain key technologies. These technologies assisted in the design of the Zulu- and Whiskey-class. Further improvements on the design led to the Romeo class.
Only 20 of the Soviet Union's originally intended 560 were completed between October 1957 and the end of December 1961 because of the introduction of the nuclear submarine into the Soviet Navy.
By today's standards Romeo class submarines are considered obsolete, but still have some value as training and surveillance vessels.
Several navies operate or have operated Romeo class submarines:
Under the 1950 Sino-Soviet Friendship and Mutual Assistance Treaty, the Soviets passed to China (and later to North Korea) the documentation necessary to produce Romeo submarines in 1963. The Chinese variant is known as the Type 033 Romeo. A total of 84 Type 033 submarines were built in
The Slava class cruiser (Soviet designation Project 1164 Atlant) is a type of large, conventionally-powered warship, designed and constructed for the Soviet Navy and currently operated by the Russian Navy.
The design started in the late 1960s, based around use of the P-500 Bazalt missile, and was intended as a less expensive conventionally-powered alternative to the nuclear powered Kirov class battlecruiser. There was a long delay in this programme, while the problems with the Bazalt were resolved. These ships acted as flagships for numerous task forces. All ships were built at the 61 Kommunar yard, in Mykolaiv, Ukraine (Nikolaev). The class was a follow up to the Kara class cruiser, constructed at the same shipyard and appears to be built on a stretched version of Kara hull.
The Slava class was initially designated BLACKCOM 1 (Black Sea Combatant 1) and then designated the Krasina class for a short period until Slava was observed at sea. The SS-N-12 launchers are fixed facing forward at around 8° elevation with no reloads available. As there was nothing revolutionary about the design of the class western observers felt they were created as a hedge against the failure of the more
The Tang class submarines were a product of the Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program (GUPPY), which incorporated German U-boat technology into the United States Navy's submarine design. They comprised the state of the art in post-World War II conventionally-powered submarine design; a design that was incorporated into and replaced by the nuclear-powered submarines of the 1950s and beyond.
One of the first innovations incorporated into the Tang's was the General Motors 16-338 lightweight, compact, high-speed "pancake" engine. Very different from the classic diesel engines that nearly all preceding submarines used, which were laid out with a horizontal crankshaft and two rows of eight cylinders each, this new engine had a vertical crankshaft, and the cylinders were arranged radially like an aircraft engine. Four of these 13½-foot-tall (4.1 m), 4-foot-wide (1.2 m), eight-ton engines could be installed in a single engine room, thus deleting an entire compartment from the submarine's design.
The torpedo tubes were also redesigned. The six forward tubes now used a slug of water behind the torpedo to push it out, rather than the pulse of air used in previous designs. Because this
The Almirante Padilla Class Frigate is a group of frigates operated by the Colombian Navy. The designation of this class is Type FS 1500 and there are 4 ships in service. The ships were built by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) in Kiel, Germany. Two similar ships operates as the Kasturi class frigates in the Malaysian Navy.
The Almirante Padilla Class is powered by a CODAD propulsion system, provided by four MTU diesels driving two shafts and developing 23,400 hp driving two Controllable Pitch propellers. This gives a maximum speed of 28 knots, and a range of 7,000 nm at 14 knots.
The Almirante Padilla Class does not have a hangar facility, and thus does not have an embarked helicopter. The landing platform aft is suitable for an Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm MBB Bo 105 CBS-5 or the Eurocopter AS-555-SN Fennec for over-the-horizon targeting.
January 2012, Thales Group delivers the first upgraded Almirante Padilla class frigate to the Colombian Navy.
Equipment upgrades include:
Media related to Almirante Padilla class frigate at Wikimedia Commons
The Rajput class guided-missile destroyers built for the Indian Navy are modified versions of Soviet Kashin class destroyers. They are also known as Kashin-II class. The ships were built in the former Soviet Union after considerable Indian design modifications to the Kashin design. These included the replacement of the helicopter pad in the original design with a flight elevator, as well as major changes to the electronics and combat systems. Five units were built for export to India in the 1980s. All units are currently attached to the Eastern Naval Command.
Rajput class destroyers were the first ships in the Indian Navy to deploy the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile systems. The systems were deployed during a mid-life refit of the ships. The missile system has 8 missiles with bow mounted launchers.
INS Ranvijay was deployed with updated vertical launchers for the BrahMos missile.
The Indian Navy is planning to upgrade the propulsion of the Rajput class ships with indigenously developed Kaveri Marine Gas Turbine (KMGT) engine, The Gas Turbine Research Establishment of DRDO has been developing this engine which is currently in testing phase.
The Rajput class inherit their
The Delta class (Project 667B "Murena", Project 667BD "Murena-M", Project 667BDR "Kalmar", Project 667BDRM "Delfin") are a common name of four types of submarines which formed the backbone of the Soviet and Russian strategic submarine fleet since its introduction in 1973. They carry nuclear ballistic missiles of the R-29 Vysota family, with the Delta I, II, III and IV carrying the R-29 (NATO reporting name: SS-N-8 'Sawfly'), R-29D (SS-N-8 'Sawfly'), R-29R (SS-N-18 'Stingray') and R-29RM (SS-N-23 'Skiff') respectively. The Delta I carried 12 missiles, the Delta II was a "stretched" Delta I that could carry 16 missiles; the Delta III and IV carry 16 missiles with multiple warheads and have improved electronics and noise reduction.
The R-27 Zyb missile carried by the Project 667s of the late 1960s had a range of just 2,500–3,000 km (1,600–1,900 mi), so the earlier subs were forced to patrol close to the North American coast, whereas the Deltas could launch the >7,700 km (4,780 mi)-range R-29s from the relative safety of the Arctic Ocean. In turn the Deltas were superseded by the larger Typhoon class submarines. The early Deltas remained in service until 1990s with treaties such as
The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a naval diesel-electric submarine that is made in Russia. The original version of the vessels were designated Project 877 Paltus (Halibut) in Russia. There is also a more advanced version, designated as Improved Kilo in the west, and Project 636 Varshavyanka in Russia.
The Kilo class was to have been succeeded by the Lada class. In November 2011 the Russian Navy announced that the Lada class will not enter service because trials with the lead boat of the new class, Sankt Peterburg (B-585) had shown major deficiencies. Construction of two further boats has been suspended.
The boats are mainly intended for anti-shipping and anti-submarine operations in relatively shallow waters. Original Project 877 boats are equipped with Rubikon MGK-400 sonar system (with NATO reporting name Shark Gill), which includes a mine detection and avoidance sonar MG-519 Arfa (with NATO reporting name Mouse Roar). Newer Project 636 boats are equipped with improved MGK-400EM, with MG-519 Afra also upgraded to MG-519EM. The improved sonar systems have reduced the number of operators needed by sharing the same console via automation.
Anechoic tiles are fitted on
The Paulding-class destroyers were a modification of the Smith-class. The newer class burned oil rather than coal, lightening the ships and making them faster.
These ships served in the United States Navy, some were later transferred to the United States Coast Guard, while the rest were sold for scrap.
Generally 21 ships, hull numbers 22 through 42, are considered Pauldings. However, some rate the hull numbers 32 through 42 as the Monaghan class. Others break hulls 24-28, 30, 31, 33 and 36 as Roe class, with hulls 32, 35, and 38-42 as Monaghan class. Curiously, Jane′s Fighting Ships of World War I refers to hulls 22-42 as the 21 [ships of the] Drayton-class, going on to say "Unofficially known as ′Flivver Type′"; the book includes Paulding in the class listing, but not as the class leader.
Hulls 24-27 and 30-31 were modified from the four-stack design to have three stacks.
The Paulding class derives its name from the lead ship of the series, USS Paulding (DD-22), named after Rear Admiral Hiram Paulding (1797-1878). The ships were all commissioned between 1910 and 1912, and were active throughout World War I.
Media related to Paulding class destroyers at Wikimedia Commons
The Renown class comprised a pair of battlecruisers built during the First World War for the Royal Navy. They were originally laid down as improved versions of the Revenge-class battleships. Their construction was suspended on the outbreak of war on the grounds they would not be ready in a timely manner. Admiral Lord Fisher, upon becoming First Sea Lord, gained approval to restart their construction as battlecruisers that could be built and enter service quickly. The Director of Naval Construction (DNC), Eustace Tennyson-D'Eyncourt, quickly produced an entirely new design to meet Admiral Lord Fisher's requirements and the builders agreed to deliver the ships in 15 months. They did not quite meet that ambitious goal, but they were delivered a few months after the Battle of Jutland in 1916. They were the world's largest and fastest capital ships upon completion.
Repulse was the only ship of her class to see combat in the First World War when she participated in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in 1917. Both ships were reconstructed twice between the wars; the 1920s reconstruction increased their armour protection and made lesser improvements, while the 1930s reconstruction was
The Tambor class submarine was a United States Navy submarine design, used primarily during World War II. It was the USN's first practical fleet submarine and formed the core of the United States Pacific submarine fleet at the time of the US entry into World War II.
Early U.S. submarine designs of World War I assigned to escort shipping revealed that they had minimal ability to deter an aggressive threat. Despite the fact that German U-boats proved beyond a doubt that no navy could be a world sea power without submarines, the role played by U.S. submarines in the defense of the Pacific would have to be rethought, or else flat out discarded, by Navy planners.
Following the armistice, and after testing the capabilities of German design, the U.S. Navy began to see the potential for extended offensive submarine operations. Submarine operations with the fleet required boats each with a large cruising radius and a relatively high speed so that they could intercept and stay with their prey. The huge advancement in American technology required to fill that role with "a new all-purpose fleet submarine" also became apparent.
After the fiasco of submarine design experienced in the late 1920s,
The Type 41 or Leopard class were a class of anti-aircraft defence frigates built for the Royal Navy (4 ships) and Indian Navy (3 ships) in the 1950s. These ships were designed to provide anti-aircraft escorts to convoys, as a result they were not built for fleet speeds and made only 24 knots (44 km/h). They shared a common hull and machinery with the Type 61 or Salisbury class aircraft direction vessels. An intended anti-submarine version, the Type 11 class (see Type system of the Royal Navy), was cancelled due to the low top speed being insufficient to combat contemporary adversaries, and was replaced by the turbine powered Type 12. HMS Jaguar and HMS Lynx were sold to the Bangladesh Navy in 1978 and 1982 respectively, and were still in service in 2007.
The Leopard class was also fitted with an early type of hydraulic stabiliser system consisting of two fins that could be extended outside of the main hull to port and starbord, from a compartment between the two engine rooms. Gyro controlled with a relatively simple control system, they proved very effective in use. During testing every 3 months at sea, the ship could be easily driven into a 20°+ roll from the manual control on
The Plunger class was an early class of United States Navy submarines, used primarily as training vessels for the newly formed "silent service" to familiarize navy personnel with the performance and operations of such craft. Most of these "A-class" submarines ended up being stationed in the Philippines, an American possession, prior to the outbreak of World War I. In some instances, this class of submarines is referred to as the Adder-class submarine, as USS Adder was the first boat of the class to be completed.
The Plunger-class submarines were built at the beginning of the twentieth century largely as experimental vessels. This class of submarines was built at two different locations on both coasts of the United States. All seven boats were renamed to A-type designations (A-1 through A-7) on 17 November 1911. They were given corresponding alphanumeric hull numbers on 17 July 1920, after all but Grampus (SS-4) and Pike (SS-6) had been decommissioned. All of the Plunger-class ships were decommissioned by 1921 and used as targets.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
The Tariq class frigates are ex-Royal Navy Type 21 frigates acquired by the Pakistan Navy from the United Kingdom in 1993-94. Although the Royal Navy classified these ships as frigates, they are classed as destroyers by the Pakistan Navy.
They were bought in order to replace the Garcia class and Brooke class frigates which, due to the Pressler Amendment, Pakistan had to return to the United States at the end of their five-year lease.
The Pakistanis have tested a Camcopter S-100 helicopter Unmanned aerial vehicles from a Type 21 helideck.
The Littorio class, also known as the Vittorio Veneto class, was a class of battleship of the Regia Marina, the Italian navy. The class was composed of four ships: Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Roma, and Impero. Only the first three ships of the class were completed, however. Built between 1934 and 1942, they were the most modern battleships used by Italy during World War II. The Littorio class ships were developed in response to the French Dunkerque-class battleships, and were armed with 381-millimeter (15.0 in) guns and had a top speed of 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). The design was considered by the Spanish Navy, but the outbreak of World War II interrupted construction plans.
The first two ships, Littorio and Vittorio Veneto, were operational by the early months of Italy's participation in World War II. They formed the backbone of the Italian fleet, and conducted several sorties into the Mediterranean to intercept British convoys, though without any notable success. The two ships were repeatedly torpedoed throughout their careers: Littorio was hit by a torpedo during the attack on Taranto in November 1940 and again in June 1942 and Vittorio Veneto was torpedoed during the Battle of
A schooner ( /ˈskuːnər/) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts with the forward mast being no taller than the rear masts.
Such vessels were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century (but may not have been called that at the time - see etymology, below). The development of the schooner is connected with that of the Bermuda sloop. In Bermuda, countless vessels of otherwise identical description were built with between one and three masts, carrying Gaff or Bermuda rig. Although Bermudians generally describe all as sloops (see the Bermuda Sloop Foundation´s Spirit of Bermuda), purists elsewhere limit that term to single-masted vessels, those with more than one mast being historically described as Ballyhoo schooners. Schooners were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, and were more widely used in the United States than in any other country.
Two-masted schooners were and are most common. They were popular in trades that required speed and windward ability, such as slaving, privateering, and blockade running. They were also traditional fishing boats, used for offshore fishing. They were favoured
The Trafalgar class is a class of nuclear-powered fleet submarines in service with the Royal Navy. They are a direct follow on from the Swiftsure class and were, until the introduction of the Astute class, the Royal Navy's most advanced nuclear fleet submarines.
With five boats in commission and two retired, they form the core of the Royal Navy's nuclear powered ‘hunter-killer’ submarine force. HMS Torbay, Trenchant, Talent, and Triumph have been fitted with the Sonar 2076 system, which the Royal Navy describes as the most advanced sonar in service with any navy in the world.
Submarines from the class have seen service in a wide range of locations, and have fired missiles at targets in Afghanistan, Iraq and Libya.
The first Trafalgar-class submarine, HMS Trafalgar, was ordered on 7 April 1977 and completed in 1983.
Turbulent was ordered on 28 July 1978; Tireless on 5 July 1979; Torbay on 26 June 1981; Trenchant on 22 March 1983; Talent on 10 September 1984; and finally Triumph on 3 July 1986.
In 1993 Triumph sailed to Australia, covering a distance of 41,000 miles (66,000 km) whilst submerged and without any forward support. This marked the longest solo deployment by any British
The Royal Navy's Victoria class (or Sans Pareil class) battleships of the 1880s was the first class which used triple expansion steam engines, previous battleships having used compound engines.
There were only two ships in this class. The lead ship, HMS Victoria, was sunk in an accidental collision with another Royal Navy battleship in the Mediterranean with the loss of half of her crew. Her sister, HMS Sans Pareil survived until scrapped in April 1907.
This class was intended to be an improved version of HMS Conqueror, and it was originally called the new Conquerors.
The original intention had been to fit 13.5 inch (343 mm), 67-ton guns in place of the Conquerors 12 inch (305 mm) guns in the single forward turret but late during the design it was decided to enlarge them to take the 16.25 inch (413 mm), 110-ton gun. Similar guns had been supplied by the manufacturer, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., to the Italian Regia Marina and fitted in the Andrea Doria and the 1,800 pound (816 kg) projectile could penetrate any thickness of armour afloat at that time. At a period when naval supremacy of the Mediterranean was seen as a crucial part of British policy, the Victoria
The Virginia class (or SSN-774 class) is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines (SSN) in service with the United States Navy. The submarines are designed for a broad spectrum of open-ocean and littoral missions. They were conceived as a less expensive alternative to the Seawolf class attack submarines, designed during the Cold War era, and they are planned to replace the older of the Los Angeles-class submarines, twenty of which have already been decommissioned (from a total of 62 built).
The Virginia class incorporates several innovations not previously incorporated into other submarine classes.
Instead of a traditional periscope, the class utilizes a pair of AN/BVS-1 telescoping photonics masts located outside the pressure hull. Each mast contains high-resolution cameras, along with light-intensification and infrared sensors, an infrared laser rangefinder, and an integrated Electronic Support Measures (ESM) array. Signals from the masts' sensors are transmitted through fiber optic data lines through signal processors to the control center. Visual feeds from the masts are displayed on LCD interfaces in the command center.
In contrast to a traditional bladed-propellor,
The Type 041 submarine (NATO code name Yuan class) is a class of diesel-electric submarine in China's People's Liberation Army Navy. This class was first launched at Wuhan Shipyard and is the successor of the Type 039. The Chinese type is 039A, based on the Type 039 but ultimately having very little resemblance to it. So the western media call it Type 041 in early reports.
The Type 041 inherits the tail design of the Type 039 (NATO codename: Song class) with four diving planes and a single large shaft. The teardrop shaped hull and large sail suggest heavy Kilo influence. The teardrop shape also suggests a pressurized double hull design inherited from the Kilo. A pair of foreplanes are positioned in the middle of the sail. The submarine is equipped with indigenously developed cabin-raft (shock absorbers) system that helped to reduce noise level by over 35dB. Additionally, the submarine is covered with rubber anti-sonar protection tiles to reduce the risk of detection. A new improved "A" variant was also launched.
The Type 041 has six 533 mm torpedo tubes. These can be used to launch indigenous as well as Russian-made torpedoes. The general designer of the torpedo and missile
The Akatsuki class destroyer (暁型駆逐艦, Akatsuki-gata kuchikukan) was a class of four destroyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Almost identical in appearance to the previous Fubuki class, they are regarded as a sub-class by many authors, partly because the Imperial Japanese Navy itself kept the improvements made a secret, and did not officially designate these four destroyers as a separate class. This class of destroyer should not be confused with the much earlier Akatsuki class of the Russo-Japanese War period.
After a number of years of operational experience with the Fubuki-class, the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff issued requirements for four additional Special Type destroyers (特型, Tokugata) destroyers, with a maximum speed of 39 knots, range of 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h), and armed with Type 8 torpedoes. These destroyers were intended to operate with the new series of fast and powerful new cruisers also under consideration as part of a program intended to give the Imperial Japanese Navy a qualitative edge with the world's most modern ships. The new vessels were built from 1931-1933.
The Akatsuki vessels had larger boilers and a narrower fore
The County class was a class of heavy cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the years between the First and Second World Wars. They were the first post-war cruiser construction for the Royal Navy and were designed within the limits of the Washington Naval Conference of 1922. Such ships, with a limit of 10,000 tons standard displacement and 8-inch calibre main guns may be referred to as "treaty cruisers" (the term "heavy cruiser" was not defined until the London Naval Treaty of 1930).
The thirteen Counties were built in three distinct sub-classes : the Kent, London and Norfolk classes. They were the only 10,000-ton 8-inch gun, or "A", cruisers that the Royal Navy built. The Counties are remembered for their distinctive three-funnel layout and service in all the major naval theatres of World War II.
In an attempt to extract more ships from the treaty limits, the navy planned to construct 8,250-ton "B" ships; six of which could be built in place of five Counties. The extra ship that this afforded was an attractive proposition for a navy that had the immense peacetime commitments of empire. In the event, peacetime economies and politics intervened and only two B-type cruisers were
The Haven class of hospital ships was built for the United States Navy (USN) during World War II. Haven-class ships also served in the Korean War and the Vietnam War. They were among the first ships to be able to receive casualties directly by helicopter and were the first fully air conditioned ships in the USN.
The first ship was laid down in July 1943, while the last was launched in August 1944. In that span the United States produced 6 Haven-class hospital ships. The class was based upon the Maritime Commission’s Type C4 ship (as C4-S-B2 design).
The last Haven class ship was struck from the Naval Vessel Register in 1989. One ship sank in a collision in 1950; four others have been scrapped. Only one Haven-class ship,the ex-USS Sanctuary (AH-17), is still afloat as of 2007.
The Oyashio is a class of Japanese diesel-electric submarine operated by the JMSDF. The submarines entered service in the late 1990s. The submarines are larger than the earlier Harushio class submarines, to provide space for a flank sonar array.
There are a total of 11 boats in the class - the last boat was commissioned in 2008. Oyashio, Michishio, and Kuroshio share names with WWII destroyers Takashio share name with a third set of Yugumo class destroyers, of which were never built.
The Balao class was a successful design of United States Navy submarine used during World War II, and with 122 units built, the largest class of submarines in the United States Navy. An improvement on the earlier Gato class, the boats had slight internal differences. The most significant improvement was the use of thicker, higher yield strength steel in the pressure hull skins and frames, which increased their test depth to 400 feet (120 m). Tang actually achieved a depth of 612 ft (187 m) during a test dive, and exceeded that test depth when taking on water in the forward torpedo room while evading a destroyer.
The propulsion of the Balao-class submarines was generally similar to that of the preceding Gato-class. Like their predecessors, they were true diesel-electric submarines: their four diesel engines powered electrical generators, and electric motors drove the shafts. There was no direct connection between the main engines and the shafts.
Balao-class submarines received main engines from one of two manufacturers. Fairbanks-Morse supplied Model 38D8⅛ opposed piston engines, and General Motors' Cleveland Diesel division supplied Model 16-248 and 16-278A V16 engines. Earlier
The Kalev Class consisted of two mine laying submarines built for the Estonian Navy.
The newly independent Republic of Estonia followed the Finnish naval armament program and the common top secret defense cooperation in acquiring submarines. Unlike the German designed Finnish subs, Estonia opted for British built submarines. Both boats of the class Kalev and the Lembit were built by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness, in the United Kingdom.
The two subs were delivered in 1936. After the Soviet annexation of Estonia in 1940 the Estonian Navy was integrated into the Soviet Baltic Fleet. The Kalev class submarines were commissioned into the Soviet Navy on September 18, 1940. Kalev was sunk outside Hanko, Finland in 1941, but Lembit continued a successful campaign against Swedish iron ore transports to Germany. Lembit was decommissioned in 1979. She is now preserved as a museum ship at the Estonian Maritime Museum Lennusadam (Seaplane harbour/Hydroplane port), Tallinn.
Main article: EML Lembit.
The Gwanggaeto the Great class destroyers (Hangul: 광개토대왕급 구축함), often called KD-I class, are destroyers, but are classified by some as frigates, operated by the Republic of Korea Navy. It was the first phase of ROKN's KDX program, in moving the ROK Navy from a coastal defence force to a blue-water navy.
The KDX-I was designed to replace the old destroyers in the ROKN that was transferred from the US Navy in the 1950s and 1960s. It was thought to be a major turning point for the ROKN in that the launching of the first KDX-I meant that ROKN finally had a capability to project power far from it shores. After the launching of the ship there was a massive boom in South Korean international participation against piracy and military operations other than war.
The primary weapon deployed by Gwanggaeto the Great class vessels is the Super Lynx helicopter, which acts in concert with shipboard sensors to seek out and destroy submarines at long distances from the ships. The Gwanggaeto-class also carries a close-in anti-submarine weapon in the form of the Mark 46 torpedoes, launched from triple torpedo tubes in launcher compartments either side of the forward end of the helicopter hangar. A
Originally intended as sister ships of the preceding Fusō class, the Ise-class battleships (伊勢型戦艦, Ise-gata senkan) of the Imperial Japanese Navy were considered sufficiently different to warrant separate classification.
Among the differences were a shorter foredeck, a more closely grouped secondary armament (with the majority of the forward guns set further astern than in the Fusōs), a different arrangement of the primary turrets (though the cumbersome six-twin arrangement was retained), more closely spaced funnels and uptakes, and eventually rear flightdecks.
Like most if not all battleships of their era, they retained the soon-to-be outmoded casemated secondary armament, the forward guns of which often proved useless in any kind of seaway, and like all Japanese warships of the period, these vessels still relied on mixed (i.e. coal and oil) firing for their boilers.
They were reconstructed in the 1930s, receiving improved powerplants, armor, fire control, and internal protection. Nonetheless, during World War II, like their cousins of the Fusō class, the Ises took part in no significant action, due to their age and slow speed. Being largely surplus to the Imperial Japanese Navy's
The Odin class submarine (or "O class") was a class of nine submarines developed and built for the Royal Navy in the 1920s. The prototype Oberon was followed by two ships originally ordered for the Royal Australian Navy, but transferred to the RN in 1931 because of the poor economic situation in Australia, and six modified boats ordered for the RN. Three modified ships were built for the Chilean Navy as the Capitan O'Brien-class submarines in 1929.
They were built to replace the ageing L-class submarines which did not have adequate endurance in the Pacific. These boats were theoretically able to dive to 500 feet, though none were formally tested beyond 300 feet. Armament consisted of eight 21-inch torpedo tubes (6 bow, 2 stern) and one 4-inch gun. The boats were of a saddle tank type with fuel carried in riveted external tanks. These external tanks proved vulnerable to leaking after depth charge damage betraying the position of the submarine. These boats were the first British submarines fitted with Asdic and VLF radio which could be used at periscope depth.
Oxley class submarines :
Odin class submarines:
Media related to Odin class submarines at Wikimedia Commons
The Type 45 destroyer, also known as the D or Daring class, is a class of air defence destroyers built for the United Kingdom's Royal Navy. The Daring class were built to replace the Type 42 destroyers, the last of which is due to be decommissioned by 2013. The first ship in the Daring class, HMS Daring, was launched on 1 February 2006 and commissioned on 23 July 2009. The ships are now built by BAE Systems Surface Ships. The first three ships were assembled by BAE Systems Surface Fleet Solutions from partially prefabricated "blocks" built at different shipyards.
The UK originally sought to procure air defence ships as part of the eight-nation NFR-90 project and later the Horizon Common New Generation Frigate programme with France and Italy. The Type 45s take advantage of some Horizon development work and utilise the Sea Viper missile system (the SAMPSON radar variant of the Principal Anti-Air Missile System). In 2009, delivery of the ships' Aster missiles was delayed due to a failure during testing. A subsequent investigation revealed a manufacturing fault with a single batch of missiles and delivery of the Aster 30 is back on schedule.
In an "intensive attack" a single Type 45
The Dunkerque class battleship was a type of warship constructed for the French Navy in the 1930s.
The Dunkerques were designed to counter the German Deutschland class pocket battleships. Their main armament was two quadruple 330 mm turrets forward, with a 225 mm (8.9 in) thick armored belt. They were smaller, with a 26,500- to 27,300-ton standard displacement and a smaller main artillery caliber, than the battleships authorized by the Washington Naval Treaty, but their speed was 7 knots higher than all the battleships built from 1920 to 1937. When they were commissioned, only the last existing battlecruisers of the British Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy were their equals.
Given their characteristics, they were alternatively classified as fast battleships, small battleships, battlecruisers, and even as "ships of the line" (Fr. navires de ligne).
Two ships, Dunkerque and Strasbourg, were completed. Together they formed the 1ère Division de Ligne ("1st Division of the Line"), and saw service during the early years of the Second World War. While they never encountered the German pocket battleships they were designed to counter, they suffered the British attack of
The J class of submarines was a seven submarine class developed by the Royal Navy prior to the First World War in response to claims that Germany was developing submarines that were fast enough to operate alongside surface fleets. Six were completed during mid-1916, while a seventh entered service at the end of 1917.
Although larger and more powerful than previous British submarines, the J class could not keep up with surface vessels, and operated independently during the war. Between them, the submarines sank a U-boat, and heavily damaged two battleships, with the loss of J6 to friendly shelling.
Following the war, the six surviving submarines were gifted to the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). All six were paid off during the 1920s. Two were scuttled as breakwaters in Port Phillip Bay, and four were scuttled in the ship graveyard off Port Phillip heads.
Shortly before the First World War, incorrect reports reached the British fleet that the Germans were planning a class of fast submarines for operation with the fleet, and British efforts turned toward provision of similar vessels. The driving requirement would be a surface speed that matched the speed of the battlefleet. In order to
The Edsall class destroyer escorts were built primarily for ocean anti-submarine escort service during World War II. The lead ship, USS Edsall (DE-129) was commissioned on 10 April 1943 at Orange, Texas. The class was also known as the FMR type from their Fairbanks-Morse Reduction-geared diesel drive used in the submarines of the time. The FMR's substitution for a diesel-electric power plant was the essential difference from the predecessor Cannon ("DET") class. This was the only World War II DE class in which all the ships originally ordered were completed as United States Navy Destroyer Escorts. Destroyer escorts were regular companions escorting the vulnerable cargo ships. In late WWII plans were made to replace the 3" guns with 5" guns. But only USS Camp (DE 251) was refitted after a collision. In total all 85 were completed by three shipbuilding companies: Beth Staten Island (47), Consolidated Orange (18), and Houston (20). Most were en route to the Pacific theater when Japan surrendered. One of the ships participated in Operation Dragoon and two were attacked by guided missiles used by the Germans.
A total of 85 Edsall class destroyer escorts were built.
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Aircraft carrier
Ships in class:USS Kearsarge
The Essex class was a class of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy, which constituted the 20th century's most numerous class of capital ships with 24 vessels built in both "short-hull" and "long-hull" versions. Thirty-two were originally ordered; however as World War II wound down, six were canceled before construction, and two were canceled after construction had begun. The Essex-class carriers were the backbone of the U.S. Navy's combat strength during World War II from mid-1943 on, and along with the addition of the three Midway-class carriers just after the war continued to be the heart of U.S. Naval strength until the supercarriers began to come into the fleet in numbers during the 1960s and 1970s.
The preceding Yorktown class aircraft carriers and the designers' list of trade offs and limitations forced by arms control treaty obligations formed the formative basis from which the Essex class was developed — a design formulation sparked into being when the Japanese and Italians repudiated the limitations proposed in the 1936 revision of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1925 (as updated in October 1930 in the London Naval Treaty) — in effect providing a free pass for all
The F-class submarines were a group of four submarines designed for the United States Navy by Electric Boat in 1909.
They were similar to the C-class and D-class submarines built by Electric Boat. Slightly longer than the D-class, four boats were built. They were single-hulled boats with circular sections laid along the longitudinal axis. Overall length was 142 ft-6 in (43.4 m) and the beam was 15 ft-5 in (4.7 m). The E-class and the F-class submarines were the first from Electric Boat to have bow planes.
The hull contained three compartments:
The two diesel engines were connected to a common shaft. The shaft turned motors that could be used as generators for charging the batteries. The battery was an array of cells in rubber-lined, open-topped, steel jars.
The Loss of the USS F-1
The Grampus-class submarines were a group of minelaying submarines built for the Royal Navy in the late 1930s. These boats are sometimes referred to as the Porpoise class from the single prototype, HMS Porpoise built in 1932. Five boats to a modified design were built between 1936 and 1938. The ships were all named after marine mammals.
The mines were stored in a special "gallery" with a conveyor belt built into the outer casing as pioneered by the converted M-class submarine HMS M3. These boats were of a saddle tank type.
They were used extensively in the Mediterranean, particularly to supply the besieged island of Malta in a service nicknamed the "magic carpet".
Only one, HMS Rorqual, survived the war.
Media related to Grampus class submarine at Wikimedia Commons
Sindhughosh class submarines are Indian variants of the Kilo class diesel-electric submarines in active service with the Indian Navy. Their names are in Sanskrit, but in their Roman-alphabet forms sometimes a final short -a is dropped.
The Sindhughosh submarines, designated 877EKM, were designed as part of Project 877, and built under a contract between Rosvooruzhenie and the Ministry of Defence (India).
The submarines have a displacement of 3,000 tonnes, a maximum diving depth of 300 meters, top speed of 18 knots, and are able to operate solo for 45 days with a crew of 53. The final unit was the first to be equipped with the 3M-54 Klub (SS-N-27) antiship cruise missiles with a range of 220 km.
January 10, 2008 - The INS Sindhughosh collided with cargo ship MV Leeds Castle. The submarine is reported to have sustained superficial damage to its conning tower. As a result, the submarine was out of service for a month. The cargo ship was in restricted shallow waters.
February 26, 2010. A fire on board INS Sindhurakshak killed one sailor and injured two others. The fire was due to a defective battery.
INS Sindhuvijay has been upgraded with the hydro acoustical USHUS complex and the
The Vale class was a class of five Rendel (or "flat-iron") gunboats built for the Royal Norwegian Navy between 1874 and 1878. Small, nimble vessels, they were armed with a single large calibre muzzle-loading gun for offensive purposes and several small, quick firing guns for self defence.
Shortly before the First World War, the five vessels were rebuilt as minelayers. During this rebuild, the heavy muzzle-loading gun was replaced with a more modern 12 cm breech-loader, and on Nor and Vidar one of the 37 mm guns was replaced with a more potent 47 mm gun. Since the heavy gun and ammunition was removed, these diminutive vessels could carry a useful number of mines.
All vessels were kept in service until the German invasion in 1940 and with the exception of Uller, which was sunk by the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service after capture by the Germans, they all spent the remainder of the war in German hands.
After the Second World War the vessels were returned to the Royal Norwegian Navy, and scrapped over the course of the next few years.
The Alta class minesweeper is a ship class of minesweepers operated by the Royal Norwegian Navy. An almost identical class of minehunters is known as the Oksøy class.
The Alta class was built by Kvaerner Mandal during 1996 and 1997, while the related Oksøy class was built in 1994 and 1995. A total of 9 vessels were built, 5 minesweepers and 4 minehunters. HNoMS Orkla was completely destroyed in a fire, and HNoMS Oksøy was damaged when it ran aground in 2005. The pair, along with HNoMS Glomma, are no longer in active service. The catamaran hull is built in a fibre-reinforced plastic sandwich of very low magnetic signature.
Two large fans located on each side create an air cushion between the two hulls and a front and aft rubber skirt, lifting the vessel, giving small drag and a high cruise speed, as well as low susceptibility to the shock of exploding mines since only a small portion of the hull is actually exposed in the water. Propulsion by water jet, again one in each hull, gives a low acoustic signature. A degaussing system gives the vessels extremely low electromagnetic signature.
The Benjamin Franklin class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the James Madison class of fleet ballistic missile submarine. Having quieter machinery and other improvements, they are considered a separate class. A subset of this class is the re-engineered 640 class starting with USS George C. Marshall (SSBN-654). The Benjamin Franklin class, together with the George Washington, Ethan Allen, Lafayette, and James Madison classes, comprise the "41 for Freedom."
The Benjamin Franklin-class submarines were built with the Polaris A-3 ballistic missile, and later converted to carry the Poseidon C-3. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, selected units were further modified to carry Trident-I (C-4) ballistic missiles.
Two submarines of this class were converted for delivery of special warfare units ashore. In the early 1990s, to make room for the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines within the limits set by the SALT II strategic arms limitation treaty, the ballistic missile tubes of USS Kamehameha (SSBN-642) and USS James K. Polk (SSBN-645) were disabled. Those boats were redesignated special operations attack submarines and given attack submarine (SSN) hull numbers.
The S-class submarines of the Royal Navy were originally designed and built during the modernisation of the submarine force in the early 1930s to meet the need for smaller boats to patrol the restricted waters of the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea replacing the British H class submarines. Due to major naval construction of the Royal Navy during the Second World War, however, the S class became the largest single group of submarines ever built for the Royal Navy; a total of 62 were constructed over a period of 15 years, with fifty of the "improved" S-class launched between 1940 and 1945.
The submarines operated in the waters around the United Kingdom and in the Mediterranean, and later in the Far East after being fitted with extra tankage.
After the war S class boats continued to serve in the Royal Navy until the 1960s. The last operational boat in the Royal Navy was HMS Sea Devil, launched in 1945 and scrapped in February 1966.
Several S-class submarines were sold on or lent to other navies:
A modified version was ordered by the Turkish navy in 1939 as the Oruc Reis class submarine.
Of the twelve S-boats that were in service in 1939, only three survived to see the end of World
The Floréal class is a type of light "surveillance frigates" designed for the needs of the French Navy after the end of the Cold War, ordered in 1989. They use construction standards of commercial ships. The ships are named after months of the Republican Calendar.
After the end of the Cold War, it was felt that the risks of a large-scale military confrontation had all but disappeared. The Marine Nationale had to face new missions, while its escort avisos from the 80s were ageing, and also badly adapted to low-risk zones.
The concept of "sentry frigate" emerged from the will of the French government to protect its Exclusive Economic Zone (12 million km²), as defined in the Montego Bay treaties. Another need was to address matters of humanitarian aid, diplomacy, or naval law enforcement. To address these missions, an onboard helicopter is clearly the optimal solution, provide versatile, swift and long-range capabilities to deliver support, ferry or rescue.
These constraints defined the need for a ship which would be small; extremely stable to allow use of a heavy helicopter in all weather; small crew, while retaining capacities to accommodate navy commandos; light armament; economic
The Freccia class destroyer was a class of destroyers built for the Regia Marina, the Italian Royal Navy, in the 1930s. It was basically an enlarged version of the earlier Turbine class destroyers. Four modified ships were built and delivered in 1933 for Greece.
The Greek Navy ordered four destroyers from Italy in 1929 to a modified design as the Kondouriotis class. The chief difference with the Italian ships was the substitution of four single 120 mm guns (Ansaldo Model 1926) for the twin turrets used in the Italian Navy ships.
The two surviving ships; Spetsai and Kondouriotis fought with the Free Greek Navy in the Eastern Meditarranean until late 1943 when they were laid in in Port Said, Egypt because these Italian built ships could not be maintained through lack of spare pars and because their crews were needed for new ships provided to the Free Greek Navy by Britain.
The Type 540 Gal Class submarine is a slightly modified variant of the German HDW Type 206 submarine class (which includes the distinctive dome, or bulge, in the front of the boat), modified for Israeli requirements. The Gal class submarines were built to Israeli specifications as the Vickers shipyards Type 540 at Barrow in Furness in the UK rather than Germany for political reasons. "Gal" (גל - Hebrew for "wave") was the name of the son of Abraham (Ivan) Dror, 3rd commander of the squadron and head of the project.
The Gal class of submarines were the first Israeli Navy submarines built to Israeli Navy specifications. Previous generations of submarines employed from 1958 by the navy were refurbished and upgraded boats of the British S class and T class submarines whose hull designs dated back to World War II.
Since entering service in the late-1970s, these small but agile and sophisticated submarines were continuously upgraded with newer systems to maintain their technological edge. In the late 1990s, the Gal submarines were replaced with the new, much larger Dolphin class submarines. The Gal boats were decommissioned in the early 2000s. One was scrapped and two were sent to HDW in
The Havmanden class was a class of six submarines built for the Royal Danish Navy from 1911 to 1914. Also later known as the A class, the boats were designed by the Austro-Hungarian firm Whitehead & Co. of Fiume. The first three submarines were built by the company, while the remaining three were constructed under license in Copenhagen.
The boats were just over 127 feet (39 m) long and their armament consisted of two 457 mm (18 in) bow torpedo tubes, later supplemented with an 8 mm (0.31 in) machine gun. The boats had a single shaft and were propelled by a Fiat or M.A.N. diesel engine on the surface and two electric motors while submerged.
Although there was at least one close call for the class leader Havmanden during World War I, none of the six boats was sunk in service. All six boats of the class remained active in the Royal Danish Navy from their time of construction until 1928, when the first two boats were stricken. The remaining boats were all stricken by 1932. The Havmanden class served as the basis for the Austro-Hungarian Navy's U-20-class submarines built during World War I.
After taking delivery of its first submarine—the problematic Dykkeren, built at La Spezia by
The Walrus-class submarine is the only submarine class currently in operation in the Royal Netherlands Navy. They have been in service since 1990 and are all named after sea mammals.
The Walrus-class submarines are unusual in that instead of a cross-shaped assembly of stern diving planes and rudders, they mount four combined rudders and diving planes in an "X" configuration. This tail configuration was first tested in 1960 on the United States Navy's USS Albacore (AGSS-569), but has since been used only by the Walrus class, all Swedish Navy submarines since the Sjöormen class, the Royal Australian Navy's Collins class and the German Type 212A.
The submarines were in high demand by NATO during the Cold War since they combined a highly skilled crew with a very silent boat. At that time the majority of NATO submarines were either Nuclear or Brown water subs. After the cold war, the subs have been tasked for many intelligence gathering operations (still classified) in the Yugoslavian region, Iraq and Caribbean.
In 2007, the cabinet approved an upgrade of the four operational vessels and recruitment of additional crew to improve overall operational availability. The upgrades are
The Benson class was a class of 30 destroyers of the U.S. Navy built 1939–1943.
It was named after William Shepherd Benson, a graduate of the Naval Academy in 1877. He commanded the USS Albany, USS Missouri, USS Utah, and the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Benson was appointed first Chief of Naval Operations in 1915 and then served as CNO until he retired 25 September 1919. He died in Washington, D.C., 20 May 1932.
The Benson class was designed as an improved version of the Sims class with two stacks and a new machinery arrangement that featured alternating boiler and engine rooms designed to give the ships a better chance at surviving torpedo damage. Their scantlings, or framing dimensions, were increased to carry the weight of the new machinery. This increased the ship's displacement by about sixty tons. The Benson-class destroyer was the backbone of the pre-war Neutrality Patrols and brought the action to the enemy by participating in every major campaign of the war.
The Gleaves-class destroyers were built to nearly the same design and were virtually identical to the Benson-class. The only visible difference between Benson and Gleaves was the shape of the stacks (the Bensons were
The Borei class (Russian: Борей; sometimes transliterated as Borey, also known as the Dolgorukiy class after the name of the lead vessel, the Yuriy Dolgorukiy) is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine produced by Russia and operated by the Russian Navy. The class is intended to replace the Delta III, Delta IV and Typhoon classes now in Russian Navy service. The class is named after Boreas, the North wind.
Work on the first unit of the Borei class (officially designated "Project 935") started in 1996. A new submarine-launched ballistic missile was developed in parallel, called the R-39UTTH "Bark". However, the work on this missile was abandoned, and a new missile called the Bulava was designed. The submarine needed to be redesigned to accommodate the new missile, and the project name was changed to Project 955. The vessels are being built at the Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise (Sevmash) in Severodvinsk, and were designed by the Rubin Marine Equipment Design Bureau (Rubin). Because of the repeated failures during Bulava test launches, some experts have suggested that the Borei submarine could instead be armed with R-29RMU Sineva missiles. The Sineva is already in
The Durance class is a series of multi-product replenishment oilers, originally designed and built for service in the French Navy. Besides the five ships built for the French Navy, a sixth was built for the Royal Australian Navy, while the lead ship of the class currently serves with the Argentine Navy.
Five ships of the class were built for the French Navy:
In French service, the ships are dubbed Bâtiment de commandement et ravitailleur (BCR, "command and replenishment ship"): in addition to their role as a fleet tanker, than can harbour an entire general staff and supervise naval operations. Admiral Indian (Ocean), the French Navy's command for the Indian Ocean region ALINDIEN, was permanently stationed aboard such a ship until 2010.
Durance has been sold to the Argentine Navy; the remaining four vessels are still in service as of 2008. Three ships of the class (Marne, Somme, and Var) are fitted out as flagships and can embark an admiral and his staff. In October 2009, Somme repelled an attack by Somali pirates
A single ship of the class was built, in Australia, for the Royal Australian Navy:
The leading ship of the class was sold to the Argentine Navy in 1999; she serves under
The Evarts class destroyer escorts were destroyer escorts launched in the United States in 1942–1944. They served in World War II as convoy escorts and anti-submarine warfare ships. They were also known as the GMT or "short hull" DE class, with GMT standing for General Motors Tandem Diesel drive.
The lead ship was USS Evarts (DE-5), launched on 7 December 1942. The first ship to be completed was commissioned on 20 January 1943 at the Boston Navy Yard; it was delivered to the Royal Navy under the Lend-Lease provisions and became HMS Bayntun. Evarts-class ships were driven by diesel-electric power with four diesel engines mounted in tandem with electric drives. The ships were prefabricated at various factories in the United States and the units brought together in the shipyards, where they were welded together on the slipways. The original design specified eight engines for 24 knots but other priority programs forced the use of only four with a consequent shortening of the hull.
In all, 105 Evarts-class ships were ordered with 8 later being cancelled. The United States Navy commissioned 65 while 32 Evarts-class ships were delivered to the Royal Navy. They were classed as frigates and
A frigate ( /ˈfrɪɡɨt/) is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
In the 17th century, the term was used for any warship built for speed and maneuverability, the description often used being "frigate-built". These could be warships carrying their principal battery of carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks (with further smaller carriage-mounted guns usually carried on the forecastle and quarterdeck of the vessel). The term was generally used for ships too small to stand in the line of battle, although early line-of-battle ships were frequently referred to as frigates when they were built for speed.
In the 18th century, the term referred to ships which were usually as long as a ship-of-the-line and were square-rigged on all three masts (full rigged), but were faster and with lighter armament, used for patrolling and escort. In the definition adopted by the British Admiralty, they were rated ships of at least 28 guns, carrying their principal armament upon a single continuous deck—the upper deck, while ships-of-the-line possessed two or more continuous decks bearing batteries of guns.
The Kolkata class (Project 15A) are a class of guided-missile destroyers being constructed for the Indian Navy. Three ships of the class are being built at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL). The first vessel is expected to join the fleet in 2012. Four more ships are planned under Project 15B, and construction was approved by India's Defence Acquisition Council in February 2009.
These are the largest warships ever constructed at Mazagon, the oldest Indian naval dockyard. The concept and function for Project 15A was framed by the Navy's Directorate of Naval Design, while the detailed design was developed by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL). Three vessels of the Kolkata class are under construction at MDL.
Aimed at improving the country's naval capabilities, the Project 15 ships will incorporate enhanced stealth features and land-attack capabilities. Project 15 A was conceived as a follow-on of the earlier Delhi class destroyers and has major advances in its weapons and sensors ans is propelled by four Zarya reversible gas turbines. There was a delay in construction due to defaults by Ukraine in delivering the propellers and shafts and the contract was later awarded to Russia.
The two Trafalgar-class battleships of the British Royal Navy were late-nineteenth-century ironclad warships. Both were named after naval battles won by the British during the Napoleonic wars under the command of Admiral Nelson.
Laid down in 1886, they were designed by William Henry White to be improved versions of the Admiral and Victoria classes, having a greater displacement to allow for improved protection. However they sacrificed a full armoured belt for greater thickness amidships in a partial belt.
They were originally intended to have a secondary armament of eight 5 inch guns but this was changed to six quick-firing 4.7 inch guns for use against attacking torpedo boats, which led to a weight increase of 60 tons, partly due to the increased amount of ammunition carried. This was one of the changes which led to the vessels being 600 tons overweight, causing an increase in draught of a foot.
The Trafalgars were the penultimate low-freeboard battleships built for the Royal Navy. This design had been favoured for several years because it reduced the size of the target that the ships presented to enemy guns in battle, and because the smaller hull area allowed thicker armour.
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Escort aircraft carrier
Ships in class:USS Kadashan Bay
The Casablanca class escort aircraft carriers are the most numerous class of aircraft carriers ever built. Fifty were laid down, launched and commissioned within the space of less than two years - 3 November 1942 through to 8 July 1944. These were nearly one third of the 151 carriers built in the United States during the war. Despite their numbers, and the preservation of more famous and larger carriers as museums, none of these modest ships survived until today. Five were lost to enemy action during World War II and the remainder were scrapped.
The first class to be designed from keel up as an escort carrier, the Casablanca class had a larger and more useful hangar deck than previous conversions. It also had a larger flight deck than the Bogue class. Unlike larger carriers which had extensive armor, protection was limited to splinter plating.
Casablanca class carriers were built by Kaiser Company, Inc.'s Shipbuilding Division, Vancouver Yard on the Columbia River in Vancouver, Washington. The Vancouver yard was expressly built in 1942 to construct Liberty Ships, but exigencies of war soon saw the yard building LST landing craft and then Escort Aircraft Carriers all before the end
The Cheng Kung class frigates are based upon the U.S. Oliver Hazard Perry class and are currently serving in the Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy (ROCN). The frigates were produced under license by China Shipbuilding Corporation in Kaohsiung, Taiwan throughout the 1990s as part of the "Kuang Hua 1" Patrol Frigate, Guided project and served as the mainstay of the ROCN's theater air defense prior to the ROCN's acquisition of Keelung (Kidd) class destroyers in 2005.
In order to control new weapon systems on the frigate, which Mk 92 can't integrate at the time, a second CDS, H930 MCS was installed in order to control the 8 HF-2 (or four HF-2 and four HF-3 on certain ships) and the two Bofors 40mm/L70 guns. But Mk 92's Harpoon mode was deleted due to US government refused to sell Harpoon to Taiwan at the time. Also deleted were some of Mk 92's ASW modes, plus refusing to sell SQR-19 Towed Array sonar system.
Originally only two lead ships were going to be built to this standard, the rest of the six ships in the class were going to be built under ACS (Advance Combat System) project with a lighter AEGIS (that later became SPY-1F), 48-64 cell Mark 41 Vertical Launch System and other
The Gopher State-class crane ships of the United States Navy are a class of auxiliary vessels. The lead ship of the class is named in honor of the state of Minnesota.
All three vessels of the class were former Sea Witch-class container ships built at the Bath Iron Works for American Export Lines. After AEL was acquired by Farrell Lines in 1978, the ships sailed for a few years before being returned to the Maritime Administration (MARAD). They were converted to naval service as crane ships in the mid-1980s.
The Gridley-class destroyers were a class of four 1500-ton destroyers in the United States Navy.
The initial two ships were laid down on June 3, 1935 and commissioned in 1937. The second two were laid down in March 1936 and commissioned in 1938.
Based on the Mahan-class destroyer, they had the same hull but had only a single stack and mounted sixteen torpedo tubes. Their powerplants were also a significant upgrade from the Mahan class and made the highest speed ever recorded for a USN destroyer.
Media related to Gridley class destroyers at Wikimedia Commons
The Type 052C destroyer (NATO code name Luyang II class, or Lanzhou class after the lead ship) is a class of destroyer built by the People's Republic of China. It features an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar system with four statically-mounted antennas for 360-degree coverage. The radar is used in conjunction with vertically launched HHQ-9 long-range air defence missiles. The Type 052C was the first warship in the People's Liberation Army Navy to have true long-range fleet air defence capability.
The design for the Type 052C was approved in September 2001. The chief designer was believed to be Zhu Yingfu (朱英富), the director of the 701st Research Institute of the 7th Academy of China Shipbuilding Heavy Industrial Group; Pan Jingfu (潘镜芙), the designer for the previous three classes, had retired prior to the approval.
Two ships, Lanzhou (170) and Haikou (171) were constructed by Jiangnan Shipyard in Shanghai starting in 2002, and entering service by 2005. Production resumed at Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai toward the end of the decade, with two more launched by 2011.
The Type 052C used the same hull and propulsion as the preceding Type 052B destroyer, which had
The Type 052 Luhu-class was one of the first modern multi-role guided missile destroyers built by China. There are currently two units in active service with the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) with no plans of further construction of additional units.
Designed by the China Warship Design Institute (formerly the Seventh Academy of the Ministry of National Defense), the ships were built at Jiangnan Shipyard. No.112 Harbin was the first Luhu destroyer followed by No.113 Qingdao. The chief designer is academician Mr. Pan Jingfu (潘镜芙). The class is said to be the first indigenous Chinese warship design approaching modern standards, a significant improvement over the earlier Luda class. The Luhu made extensive use of foreign technologies that were accessible to the PRC prior to the Tiananmen Square incident of 1989. These included French-made radars and fire-control systems and the General Electric LM2500 gas turbine engines from the US, two of which power each ship.
Even with incorporation of Western technology, the chronic lack of adequate ship-borne air defense system have had great impact on the PLAN operations. Equipped with a small number of surface-to-air missiles with
The New York class battleship was the fifth series of two dreadnought battleships of the United States Navy. They served during World War I and World War II. The class represented the first use of the 14" naval gun by the U.S. Navy. The ships were designed in 1910, keels laid down in 1911, and launched in 1912.
During World War I, both New York-class battleships saw service in the Atlantic Ocean escorting Allied convoys. In the interwar period, both underwent overhauls which improved their anti-aircraft batteries, and they were active in the Pacific Ocean training naval personnel. During World War II both ships served in the Atlantic and Pacific, escorting Allied convoys to Europe, bombarding beachheads ahead of Allied amphibious assaults, and providing naval artillery support for US Army and Marine Corps personnel involved in ground operations. Decommissioned after World War II, the two ships of the class met different fates: New York was used as a target for atomic testing during Operation Crossroads and was ultimately sunk as a target, while Texas was donated to her namesake state for use as a museum ship.
"Battleship 1911", as the design that became the New York's was
The Rudderow class destroyer escorts were destroyer escorts launched in the United States in 1943 to 1945. Of this class, 22 were completed as destroyer escorts, and 50 were completed as Crosley-class high speed transport and were re-classified as High speed transport APDs. One ship was converted to an APD after completion. They served in World War II as convoy escorts and anti-submarine warfare ships.
The lead ship was USS Rudderow (DE-224) which was launched on 14 October 1943. The ships had General Electric steam turbo-electric drive engines. The ships were built at various shipyards in the United States, including the Philadelphia Navy Yard and Defoe Shipbuilding Company. They were very similar to the Buckley-class destroyer escort, having the same hull and machinery. The main differences were the Rudderows had two 5-inch guns and two twin-40 mm mounts, instead of the three 3-inch guns and one twin-40 mm or one quad-1.1 inch mount of the Buckleys. The class was also known as the TEV type from their Turbo-Electric drive and 5-inch (V) guns.
The final 180 of the class were canceled near the end of the war. After World War II, some of the surviving units of this class were
The Shchuka class submarines (Russian: Щука), also referred to as Shch or SC class submarines were a medium-sized class of Soviet submarines, built in large numbers and used during World War II. "Shchuka" is Russian for pike. Of this class, only two submarines (411 and 412) entered service after 1945, although they were launched before war.
On January 23, 1930, the USSR Revolutionary Military Council (Revvoensoviet) adapted a proposed submarine concept that were to "execute positioning service on closed theatres". Plans were made to construct up to 200 submarines in three main versions, the later ones would be larger and with longer range than the previous versions. However, due to the outbreak of World War II, only 88 submarines were commissioned. It was still to be the second most numerous submarine class of the Soviet Navy (only the M class were more numerous with 111 built). Seven ship construction yards were involved in the program - No. 189, 190, 194 in Leningrad, No. 112 in Gorky, No. 200 in Nikolaev and No. 202 in Vladivostok.
The name of the class was taken from the individual name of the first submarine Shch-301 "Shchuka". Their numbering depended on which Soviet fleet
The Type 42 or Sheffield class, are guided missile destroyers used by the British Royal Navy and the Argentine Navy. The first ship of the class was ordered in 1968 and launched in 1971. Two of the class (Sheffield and Coventry) were sunk in the Falklands War of 1982.
One ship remains active in the Royal Navy and one in the Argentinian Navy. The Royal Navy is replacing them with Type 45 destroyers.
The class was designed in the late 1960s to provide fleet area air-defence. In total fourteen vessels were constructed in three batches (only HMS Edinburgh remains in service in the Royal Navy). In addition, two ships were also built to the same specifications as the Batch 1 vessels for the Argentine Navy, one of which remains in service. Sheffield and Coventry were lost in the Falklands War to enemy action. (This was the first conflict when surface warships of the same design have been on opposite sides since the Second World War, when four ‹The template Sclass2 is being considered for deletion.› Flower-class corvettes built for France in 1939, were taken over by the Kriegsmarine in 1940).
When the Type 82 air-defence destroyers were cancelled along with the proposed CVA-01 carrier by
The Cachalot-class submarines were a pair of medium-sized submarines of the United States Navy built under the tonnage limits of the London Naval Treaty of 1930. They were originally given hull classification symbols V-8 and V-9 and so were known as "V-boats" even though they were unrelated to the other seven submarines (V-1 through V-7) constructed between World War I and World War II. Joseph W. Paige of the Navy's Bureau of Construction and Repair (BuC&R) developed the basic design, but the builder, Electric Boat, was responsible for detailed arrangement; this was fairly bold, since EB had not built any new submarines since finishing four obsolescent boats for Peru.
Although externally much like the later "fleet submarines," internally the Cachalots were quite different. Due to pressure from the Submarine Officers Conference, they featured full double hulls adapted from the Kaiserliche Marine's U-135, direct-drive diesel propulsion systems, a separate crew's mess (reinstated thanks to EB's rearrangement of the internal layout; Portsmouth would follow soon after), and considerable space around the conning tower within the large bridge fairwater (which was drastically cut down in
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Aircraft carrier
The Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers (also known as Project 1143.5, the Brezhnev class, or the Kreml class) has only one functional unit, Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov. The only other ship in her class, Varyag, was never commissioned by the Soviet Union or Russia or Ukraine. She was sold to the People's Republic of China, and later fitted for service with the Chinese navy.
While designated an aircraft carrier by the West, the design of the Kuznetsov class implies a mission different from that of western carriers. The term used by her builders to describe the Russian ships is tyazholiy avianesushchiy kreyser (TAKR or TAVKR) - “heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser” - intended to support and defend strategic missile-carrying submarines, surface ships, and maritime missile-carrying aircraft of the Russian fleet.
In its fleet defense role the Kuznetsov's P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 NATO reporting name: Shipwreck) anti-ship cruise missiles, 3K95 Kinzhal (Gauntlet) Surface-to-Air missiles, and Su-33 (Flanker-D) aircraft are its main weapons. The fixed-wing aircraft on Admiral Kuznetsov are intended for air superiority operations to protect a deployed task force. The
The Minotaur class was a three-ship class of armoured cruisers built around 1906 for the Royal Navy. They served during World War I, with all three being present at the Battle of Jutland, where Defence was sunk. The surviving ships were scrapped postwar.
The Minotaur class was the last of the first class armoured cruisers built for the Royal Navy. The Minotaurs carried fewer 9.2-inch guns than the earlier Warrior class, but the guns were mounted in twin centreline turrets, allowing the same four-gun broadside as the Warriors. The 7.5-inch armament was much heavier, with five single turrets mounted on each side.
Armour was reduced compared to the Warriors. Main deck armour was reduced from one inch to .75 inch. The upper belt, considered superfluous after the elimination of the main deck casemates, was eliminated. Janes fighting ships 1919 stated that they were not as popular in service as the preceding class, being considered to be over-gunned and under-armoured.
The following table gives the build details and purchase cost of the members of the Minotaur class. Whilst standard British practice at that time was for these costs to exclude armament and stores, for some reason the cost
The Ohio class is a class of nuclear-powered submarines used by the United States Navy. The Navy has 18 Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) and guided missile submarines (SSGN).
The Ohio class is named after the lead submarine of this class, USS Ohio. The 14 Trident II SSBNs together carry approximately fifty percent of the total US active inventory of strategic thermonuclear warheads. The exact number of warheads deployed in the oceans of the world varies in an unpredictable and classified manner, always at or below a maximum number set by various Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties. Although the Trident missiles have no pre-set targets when the submarines go on patrol, the warships, when required, are capable of quickly being assigned targets by using secure and constant radio communications links at sea, including very low frequency (VLF) systems.
Except for Henry M. Jackson, the Ohio-class submarines are named for States of the United States.
The Ohio-class submarines are the largest submarines ever built for the U.S. Navy. Two classes of Russian Navy submarines have larger total displacements: the Soviet-designed ‹The template Sclass2 is being considered for
The Redoutable class submarine is a ballistic missile submarine class of the French Marine Nationale. In French, the type is called Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur d'Engins (SNLE), literally "Missile-launching nuclear submarine". When commissioned, they constituted the strategic part of the naval component of the French nuclear triad, then called Force de frappe (the aircraft carriers Clemenceau and Foch constituting the tactical part).
The class entered active service in 1971 with Redoutable, six submarines were built in total. All decommissioned. The structural changes in Inflexible have seen it regarded as a different class from the early boats. The class has been superseded by the Triomphant class, firing the larger M45 missile (M51 from around 2010).
The first submarine, Redoutable, was ordered in 1963, built at Cherbourg, launched in 1967 and commissioned in 1971. Later submarines were very heavily upgraded from 1985 to fire the 2nd generation MIRV capable M4 missile - Tonnant was recommissioned in 1987; Indomptable in 1989; Terrible in 1990; and Foudroyant in 1993.
The Thresher/Permit-class was a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines (hull classification symbol SSN) in service with the United States Navy from the 1960s until 1994. They replaced the Skipjack class. They were used primarily in the 1960s and 1970s, until replaced by the Sturgeon and Los Angeles classes.
The Thresher/Permit class resulted from a study commissioned in 1956 by the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Admiral Arleigh Burke. In "Project Nobska," the Committee on Undersea Warfare of the United States National Academy of Sciences considered the lessons learned from various prototypes and experimental platforms.
The new class kept the proven S5W reactor plant from the immediately preceding Skipjack's, but were a radical change in many other ways. The Threshers had the large bow-mounted sonar and angled, amidships torpedo tubes pioneered by the Tullibee. Although it used the same HY-80 as the Skipjacks, the Threshers' pressure hulls were made using an improved process that extended test depth to 1,300 ft. The engineering spaces were also redesigned, with the turbines supported on "rafts" that were suspended from the hull on sound damping isolation mounts. Their
The AA-1 class was a class of three experimental submarines of the United States Navy, built toward the end of World War I, between 1916 and 1919. The design was not a success and none of the submarines saw active service. However, the lessons learned were applied to the design of the later V-boats.
In the early 1910s, only a dozen years after Holland inaugurated the Navy's undersea force, naval strategists had already begun to wish for submarines that could operate as long range reconnaissance vessels, in closer collaboration with the surface fleet than the Navy's existing classes, which had been designed primarily for coastal defense. These notional "fleet" submarines would necessarily be larger and better armed, but primarily, they would need a surface speed of some 21 knots (39 km/h) to be able to maneuver with the battleships and cruisers of the line.
In the summer of 1913, Electric Boat's chief naval architect, former naval constructor Lawrence Y. Spear, proposed two preliminary fleet-boat designs for consideration in the Navy's 1914 program. In the ensuing authorization of eight submarines, Congress specified that one should "be of a seagoing type to have a surface speed of
The Anshan-class destroyers were the People's Liberation Army Navy's (PLAN) first destroyers. They were ex-Soviet Gnevny-class destroyers purchased in the 1950s. The Chinese later added HY-2 anti-ship missiles and removed some of the torpedo tubes.
The Anshan's were withdrawn from active service by the 1990s, but retained as training and museum ships. The PLAN retains ownership through PLAN funded institutions.
After 1949 PLAN negotiated with Britain through HK to buy some second-hand ships and boats but the route is cut by Korean War.So they turned to USSR to buy 4 wornout destroyers with 17 tons of gold.
The Sturgeon class (colloquially in Navy circles, the 637 class) were a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines (SSN) in service with the United States Navy from the 1960s until 2004. They were the "work horses" of the submarine attack fleet throughout much of the Cold War. The boats were phased out in the 1990s and early 21st century, as their successors, the Los Angeles, followed by the Seawolf and Virginia class boats, entered service.
The Sturgeons were essentially lengthened and improved variants of the Thresher/Permit class that directly preceded them. The biggest difference was the much larger sail, which permitted the return of intelligence gathering masts to U.S. nuclear submarines. The fairwater planes mounted on the sail could rotate 90 degrees, allowing the submarine to surface through thin ice. Because the S5W reactor was used, the same as in the Skipjacks and Thresher/Permits, and the displacement was increased, the Sturgeons' top speed was 26 knots (48 km/h), 2 knots slower than the Thresher/Permits. The last nine Sturgeons were lengthened 10 feet (3 m) to provide more space for intelligence-gathering equipment and to facilitate the use of dry deck shelters.
The Assad class corvette were originally built for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, by Fincantieri in Italy. Six ships were ordered in 1981. They were completed just before Operation Desert Storm, and were never delivered because of the UN arms embargo. Four of the six ships were sold to the Malaysian Navy as Laksamana Class Corvettes in 1995. The two remaining ships were laid up in La Spezia from 1990, but in 2005 it was announced they would be delivered to the New Iraqi Navy. The deal, however was later cancelled due to the condition of the ships upon inspection. Libyan Navy operated 4 craft but their fate is unknown. The Al Tadjier is believed to have been destroyed by US Navy aircraft. The other ships that served with the Libyan navy were the Al tougour, Al Kalij and the Al Hudud. All the ships entered service between 1977 and 1979. All the remaining ships were scrapped in 1993.
The Bismarck class was a pair of battleships built for the German Kriegsmarine shortly before the outbreak of World War II. The ships were the largest warships built for the German Navy. Bismarck was laid down in July 1936 and completed in September 1940, while her sister Tirpitz's keel was laid in October 1936 and work finished in February 1941. The two ships were broadly similar to the World War I-era Bayern class, in that they mounted a similar main battery and were protected by a similar armour arrangement.
Both ships had short service careers. Bismarck conducted only one operation, Operation Rheinübung, a sortie into the North Atlantic to raid supply convoys sent from North America to Great Britain. During the operation, she destroyed the British battlecruiser HMS Hood and damaged the new battleship Prince of Wales in the Battle of the Denmark Strait. Bismarck was defeated and sunk in a final engagement after a three-day chase by the Royal Navy. Disagreements over the cause of the sinking persist with chiefly British sources claiming responsibility for the sinking of the ship. Evidence reviewed by Robert Ballard and James Cameron, however, indicates the exact cause of her loss
The Kaiten (Japanese: 回天, literal translation: "Return to the sky", commonly rendered as: "The turn toward heaven", "The Heaven Shaker" or "Change the World") were manned torpedos and suicide craft, used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.
Towards the end of 1943 the Japanese command in response to unfavorable progress in the war heard suggestions for various suicide craft. These suggestions were initially rejected but later deemed necessary. Various suicide mission vehicles were developed in the Japanese Special Attack Units.
For the naval department this meant kamikaze planes, shinyo suicide boats, kaiten submarines and fukuryu suicide divers or human mines. The kamikazes were somewhat successful, and the second most successful of these were the kaitens.
Research on the first kaitens began in February 1944, followed on July 25 of the same year by the first prototype. By August 1, an order for 100 units had been placed.
The very first kaiten was nothing much more than a Type 93 torpedo engine compartment attached to a cylinder that would become the pilot's chamber and trimming ballast in place of the warhead and other electronics and hydraulics. The
The Kilauea class ammunition ship is a class of eight United States Navy cargo vessels designed for underway replenishment of naval warships. The ships were constructed 1968–72 and were initially commissioned naval ships, carrying a crew of naval personnel. At various dates 1980–96 these ships were decommissioned and transferred to the Military Sealift Command for civilian operation. They will eventually all be replaced by the Lewis and Clark-class dry cargo ships. The lead ship of the class, Kilauea, was commissioned on 10 August 1968, and the last, the Kiska, on 16 December 1972.
The Richelieu class battleships were the last and largest battleships of the French Navy, staying in service into the 1960s. They still remain to this day the largest warships ever built by France. Designed in the 1930s to counter the threat of the Italian Vittorio Veneto class battleships, the Richelieu class were essentially scaled-up versions of the preceding Dunkerque class, featuring a main battery of eight 380 mm (15.0 in) guns in two quadruple turrets in forward superfiring positions.
Four Richelieu class ships, of three different subclasses, were designed over the course of three naval construction programs, in 1935, 1936, and 1938; only three were laid down. Only the first two units, the Richelieu and the Jean Bart, were ever completed. They saw service during World War II, first under Vichy control in Dakar (1940) and Casablanca (1942), then under the Allies' control, the Richelieu participating in British Home Fleet and Eastern Fleet operations and supporting the French forces' return to Indochina in late 1945. The Jean Bart was not completed until the 1950s, and took part in the operations off Port Said (Egypt) during the Suez Crisis in 1956. The Richelieu was scrapped
The X class was a World War II midget submarine class built for the Royal Navy during 1943–44.
Known individually as X-Craft, the vessels were designed to be towed to their intended area of operations by a full-size 'mother' submarine - (usually one of the T class or S class) - with a passage crew on board, the operational crew being transferred from the towing submarine to the X-Craft by dinghy when the operational area was reached, the passage crew returning with the dinghy to the towing submarine. Once the attack was over, the X-Craft would rendezvous with the towing submarine and then be towed home. Range was limited primarily by the endurance and determination of their crews, but was thought to be up to 14 days in the craft or 1,500 miles (2,400 km) distance after suitable training. Actual range of the X-Craft itself was 500 nmi (930 km) surfaced and 82 nmi (152 km) at 2 knots (3.7 km/h) submerged.
The craft was about 51 feet (15.5 m) long, 5.5 feet (1.68 m) in maximum diameter and displaced 27 tons surfaced and 30 tons submerged. Propulsion was by a 4-cylinder Gardner 42 hp diesel engine, converted from a type used in London buses, and a 30 hp electric motor, giving a maximum
The Hunt class minesweeper was a class of minesweeping sloop built between 1916 and 1919 for the Royal Navy. They were built in two discrete groups, the earlier Belvoir group designed by the Ailsa Shipbuilding Company and the subsequent (and slightly larger) Aberdare group designed by the Admiralty. They were classed as Fleet Minesweeping Sloops, that is ships intended to clear open water. The Belvoir group were named after British fox hunts. Those of the Aberdare group were originally named after coastal towns, watering places and fishing ports, some of which happened to be hunts by coincidence. However, all were soon renamed after inland locations to prevent confusion caused by the misunderstanding of signals and orders.
These ships had twin screws and had forced-draught coal burning boilers, that is they burned pulverised coal in an artificially augmented airstream. One consequence of this was that they produced a lot of smoke, so much so that they were more usually referred to as Smokey Joes. Another was that if they were fed anything other than the Welsh Steam Coal they were designed for then the fuel consumption was enormous - one ship was bunkered with soft brown Natal coal
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Submarine aircraft carrier
Ships in class:Japanese submarine I-401
The Sen Toku I-400-class (伊四〇〇型潜水艦, I-yonhyaku-gata Sensuikan) Imperial Japanese Navy submarines were the largest submarines of World War II and remained the largest ever built until the construction of nuclear ballistic missile submarines in the 1960s. They were submarine aircraft carriers able to carry three Aichi M6A Seiran aircraft underwater to their destinations. They were designed to surface, launch their planes, then quickly dive again before they were discovered. They also carried torpedoes for close-range combat.
The I-400-class was designed with the range to travel anywhere in the world and return. A fleet of 18 boats was planned in 1942, and work started on the first in January 1943 at the Kure, Hiroshima arsenal. Within a year the plan was scaled back to five, of which only three (I-400 at Kure, and I-401 and I-402 at Sasebo) were completed.
The I-400 class submarine was the brainchild of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet. Shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, he conceived the idea of taking the war to the United States mainland by making aerial attacks against cities along the US western and eastern
The Type 051B Luhai-class is a class of destroyer built by the People's Republic of China. It consists of only one ship, No.167 Shenzhen. When Shenzhen was commissioned into the People's Liberation Army Navy in 1998, it was then, the largest surface combatant that China had ever built. It resembles in many ways an enlarged version of the Luhu-class destroyer, and is one of the first PLAN ships with a slope-sided hull to reduce radar signature.
Shenzhen was laid down by Dalian Shipyard in Northeastern China in May 1996. The Shenzhen made the switch from the Luhu-class' Diesel-Gas-Turbines to Gas Turbine engines. Some sources claim that the ship is powered by 2 Ukrainian AM50 Gas Turbine Engines while others claim that the ship may be powered by two indigenous steam turbine engines. The Luhai-class is 2,000 tons larger than the Type 052 destroyer, Luhu-class. The launch was in 1997 although official revelation of the ship's existence did not come until the year following its commissioning. The chief designer of this class is academic, Mr. Pan Jingfu (潘镜芙), who is also the designer of the predecessor and follow-up of this class of ship.
Analysts speculated that the ship would be
The Nevada class battleships were the United States Navy's first battleship design equipped with triple gun turrets (the Colorado class would be the last to carry twin turrets, armed with dual-mounted 16-inch guns), as well as introducing the "all or nothing" armor scheme in American capital ship design, in which protection of vital areas was optimized against heavy caliber guns, leaving other parts of the ship essentially unprotected. The Nevadas also represented the advance to all fuel oil propulsion. Taken together, the Nevada class represented a considerable evolution in battleship design and, in being designed specifically to fight at extreme gunnery ranges, was actually well ahead of its time. They would be followed by the Pennsylvania class battleships.
The Nevadas were the first Standard type battleships produced by the U.S. Navy Along with the Pennsylvania, New Mexico, Tennessee and Colorado classes, the standard type offered a battle line of vessels homogeneous in long-range gunnery, speed, tactical radius and damage control. While the Nevadas were built with what was then considered heavy armor protection, a possible design flaw over time became a lack of substantial
The United States Navy Salmon-class submarines were an important developmental step in the design of the "Fleet Submarine" concept during the 1930's. An incremental improvement over the previous Porpoise-class, these rugged and dependable boats provided yeoman service during World War II, along with their immediate successors, the similar Sargo-class.
Authorized under the Fiscal Year 1936 provision of the Vinson-Trammel Act, two distinct, but very similar, designs were developed, to be built by three different constructors. The Electric Boat Company of Groton, Connecticut designed and built Salmon, Seal, and Skipjack (SS-182 to 184). The Navy's lead submarine design entity, the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard of Kittery, Maine submitted a design for the Government group, which became Snapper and Stingray (SS-185 & 186). Using the Portsmouth plans and acting as a follow yard, the Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California built Sturgeon (SS-187). The two designs differed in minor details such as the locations of the access hatches for the forward engine room and crew's quarters, the shape of the horizontal conning tower cylinder, and, most significantly, the closure of the main
The Tucker class of destroyers was a ship class of six ships designed by and built for the United States Navy shortly before the United States entered World War I. The Tucker class was the fourth of five classes of destroyers that were known as the "thousand tonners", because they were the first U.S. destroyers over 1,000 long tons (1,016 t) displacement.
The design of what became the Tucker class was the result of compromises between the General Board of the United States Navy and the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Construction and Repair. The General Board, tasked with creating an integrated battle fleet, wanted a larger ship that could serve in a scouting role and proposed a ship larger than the unique British destroyer HMS Swift of 1907, and more than twice the displacement of any previous U.S. destroyer. Input from Construction and Repair resulted in a design that was an incremental development of the O'Brien class, which itself was similar to the first of the thousand tonners, the Cassin class (which displaced about a third more than the preceding Paulding class).
The ships were built by four private American shipyards—Bath Iron Works, Fore River Shipbuilding Company, New York
The Yuanwang-class (远望; meaning "Long View") are used for tracking and support of satellite and intercontinental ballistic missiles by the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The detailed specifications of the ships are not released by the PLAN. They are thought to have a displacement tonnage of around 21,000 tons when fully loaded, with a crew of about 470 and a length of about 190 meters (620 ft). Their propulsion is from one Sulzer Ltd. diesel engine, with a top speed of 20 knots (37 km/h).
The class was first proposed by Premier Zhou Enlai in 1965, and the idea was personally approved by Mao Zedong in 1968. The first two ships of the class, Yuanwang 1 and Yuanwang 2 were built at the Jiangnan Shipyard in Shanghai and put to sea on 31 August 1977 and 1 September 1978 respectively. The general designer of this class is Mr. Xu Xueyan (许学彦, 1924- ). For the first time, this gave the PRC the ability to track launches and satellites that were not over their territory.
The first survey mission of the two ships was during May 1980. After being used for tracking of the launches of indigenously developed communications satellites, Yuanwang 1 and
The Amphion class (also known as the "A" class and Acheron class) of diesel-electric submarines were ordered by the British Admiralty in 1943, upon the realisation that the new Pacific theatre of war following the attack on Pearl Harbor needed a new type of submarine. They were originally designed to replace the S-class and T-class submarines, which were too slow and unable to dive deep enough to be suited to Pacific waters during World War II. They were an enlargement of the T class, arranged for fast, simple construction and to utilize much of the materials and equipment set aside for the T boats. They had a high, flared bow for excellent sea performance and had effective air conditioning, essential for Far East submarine operations. They were operated by a crew of between 60 and 68.
Originally, 46 submarines were ordered, but only 18 were launched (10 by Vickers-Armstrong in Barrow-in-Furness) and 16 commissioned, the other 2 hulls being used for crush testing. The class was designed for quick construction, using an entirely welded hull which could be fabricated in sections, a technique new to Britain but standard for German U-boats. Each submarine took about 8 months from
The Barbel class of submarines, the last diesel-electric propelled attack submarines built by the United States Navy, incorporated numerous, radical engineering improvements over previous classes. They were the first production warships built with the teardrop-shape hull first tested on Albacore (SS-569), and the first to use an "attack center" within the hull rather than a conning tower in the sail. This class of submarine became part of the United States Navy's fleet in 1958 and was taken out of service between 1988 and 1990, leaving the Navy with an entirely nuclear-powered submarine fleet.
The Barbel class' design is considered to be very effective. The Zwaardvis class submarine of the Netherlands and the Hai Lung class submarine of the Republic of China (built and sold by the Netherlands) were based on the Barbel class design.
A clipper was a very fast sailing ship of the 19th century that had three or more masts and a square rig. They were generally narrow for their length, could carry limited bulk freight, small by later 19th century standards, and had a large total sail area. Clipper ships were mostly made in British and American shipyards, though France, the Netherlands and other nations also produced some. Clippers sailed all over the world, primarily on the trade routes between the United Kingdom and its colonies in the east, in trans-Atlantic trade, and the New York-to-San Francisco route round Cape Horn during the California Gold Rush. Dutch clippers were built beginning in 1850s for the tea trade and passenger service to Java.
The boom years of the Clipper Ship Era began in 1843 as a result of the growing demand for a more rapid delivery of tea from China. It continued under the stimulating influence of the discovery of gold in California and Australia in 1848 and 1851, and ended with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.
The term "clipper" most likely derives from the verb "clip", which in former times meant, among other things, to run or fly swiftly. Dryden, the English poet, used the word
The Condottieri class was a sequence of five, different, light cruiser classes of the Regia Marina (Italian Navy), although these classes show a clear line of evolution. They were built before World War II to gain predominance in the Mediterranean Sea. The ships were named after military commanders (condottieri) of Italian history.
Each class is known after the first ship of the group:
Duca d'Aosta class:
Duca degli Abruzzi class:
The first group, the four Di Giussanos, were built for speed, with virtually no armour and a large power plant - equivalent to that of the heavier Trento class. The two Cadornas retained the main characteristics, with minor changes.
Major changes were introduced for the next pair, the Montecuccolis. Heavier ships, with significantly better protection, and uprated power-plants to maintain the required high speed. The two Duca d'Aostas continued the trend, thickening the armour and increasing the power plant again.
The final pair, the Duca degli Abruzzis completed the transition, sacrificing a little speed for further armour and extra guns for main and secondary batteries.
The Ethan Allen class of fleet ballistic missile submarine was an evolutionary development from the George Washington class. The Ethan Allen, together with the George Washington, Lafayette, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin classes comprise the "41 for Freedom."
Rather than being designed as Skipjack class attack submarines with a missile compartment added, the Ethan Allens were designed from scratch as Fleet Balistic Missile (FBM) submarines carrying the Polaris A-2 missile. In the early and mid-1970s, they were upgraded to Polaris A3s. Because they could not be modified to carry the larger diameter Poseidon missile, in the early 1980s they were refitted as SSNs (attack submarines) — fire control systems were removed and the missile tubes were filled with concrete. Two were further converted to carry SEALs, accommodating 67 troops each. The Ethan Allen class submarines were decommissioned between 1983 and 1992. All have now been broken up.
Submarines of the Ethan Allen class:
In the Tom Clancy novel Hunt for Red October the Ethan Allen (by now old and ready to be broken up), is detonated near the Red October in order to convince the Soviets that the fictional Typhoon had been
The Gleaves-class destroyers were a class of 66 destroyers of the United States Navy built 1938–1942, and designed by Gibbs & Cox. The first ship of the class was the USS Gleaves (DD-423). The U.S. Navy customarily names a class of ships after the first ship of the class; hence the Gleaves class. They were the production destroyer of the US Navy when it entered World War Two.
They were virtually identical in appearance to the Benson-class destroyers (DD-421), distinguishable only by the shape of their stacks— the Gleaves class had round stacks, and the Benson class had flat-sided stacks. Thus, the two classes were often collectively referred to as the BENSON/GLEAVES class.
Initially they were known as the Livermore- class destroyers because the design was standardized with USS Livermore (DD-429), after a requested design change — increasing temperature from 700 °F to 825 °F for follow-on ships from Gibbs & Cox.
"Gleaves emerged as the class leader for all the Gibbs & Cox-designed ships, which also included all sixteen FY 1939 and 1940 ships (DDs 429–444), as Bethlehem’s follow-on bid to build more [Benson- class] ships with its own machinery was rejected."
An article at the
The Harushio is a Japanese diesel-electric submarine class operated by the JMSDF. The design is an evolution from the Yūshio class being slightly larger and with better noise reduction. The Asashio, has been modified to test Air-independent propulsion (AIP).
Natsushio, Hayashio, Arashio and Asashio are all named after World War II destroyers.
The Skipjack class was a class of United States Navy nuclear submarines. This class was named after its lead ship, the USS Skipjack. This new class introduced the teardrop hull and the S5W reactor to U.S. nuclear submarines. The Skipjacks were the fastest U.S. nuclear submarines until the Los Angeles-class submarines.
The Skipjack's design was based on the successful Barbel-class submarines that were based on the USS Albacore design. The design of the Skipjacks was very different from the Skate-class submarines that preceded the Skipjacks. Unlike the Skates, this new design was maximized for underwater speed by shaping the hull like a blimp. This required that the single screw was aft of the rudders and dive planes. This so called "body-of-revolution hull" reduced her surface sea-keeping, but was essential for underwater performance. Skipjack's hull was also a single hull design, where the pressure hull and outer hull are the same for most of the length of the ship.
The bow planes were moved to the massive sail to cut down on flow-induced noise near the bow sonar array. This design feature would be repeated on all U.S. nuclear submarines until the improved Los Angeles-class
The Voyager class refers to a design of post-Panamax cruise ships owned and operated by Royal Caribbean International cruiselines. The Voyager class ships were built at Kvaerner Masa Yard’s (now STX Finland Cruise Oy) facility in Turku, Finland. The ships have a diesel-electric powertrain. They are powered by six Wärtsilä Vasa 46 diesel engines, giving a total output of 75,600 kW. The generated electric power drives three 14 MW ABB Azipod azimuth thrusters (two steerable and one fixed).
The Voyager Class began their careers sailing the Caribbean. The introduction of newer ships in the class along with Freedom class cruise ships allowed them to be used at Cape Liberty Cruise Port in New Jersey.
Navigator of the Seas are journeys directly to Europe. Adventure of the Seas is based in Malaga during the summer. Mariner of the Seas is currently cruising Central America from Galveston, Texas.
The Buckley class destroyer escorts were 102 destroyer escorts launched in the United States in 1943 - 1944. They served in World War II as convoy escorts and anti-submarine warfare ships. The lead ship was USS Buckley (DE-51) which was launched on 9 January 1943. The ships had General Electric steam turbo electric drive engines. The ships were prefabricated at various factories in the United States, and the units brought together in the shipyards, where they were welded together on the slipways.
The Buckley was the second class of destroyer escort, succeeding the Evarts. One of the main design differences was that the hull was significantly lengthened on the Buckley; this long-hull design proved so successful that it was used for all further destroyer escort classes. The class was also known as the TE type, from Turbo Electric drive. The TE was replaced with a diesel-electric plant to yield the design of the successor Cannon ("DET") class.
A total of 154 were ordered with 6 being completed as High speed transport APDs. A further 37 were later converted after completion while 46 of the Buckleys were delivered to the Royal Navy under the Lend-Lease agreement. They were classed as
The Captain class was a designation given to 78 frigates of the Royal Navy, constructed in the United States of America, launched in 1942–1943 and delivered to the United Kingdom under the provisions of the Lend-Lease agreement (under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and 1945), they were drawn from two sub-classes of the American destroyer escort (originally British destroyer escort) classification: 32 from the Evarts sub-class and 46 from the Buckley sub-class. Upon reaching the UK the ships were substantially modified by the Royal Navy, making them distinct from the US Navy destroyer escort ships.
Captain-class frigates acted in the roles of convoy escorts, anti-submarine warfare vessels, coastal forces control frigates and headquarters ships for the Normandy landings. During the course of World War II this class participated in the sinking of at least 34 German submarines and a number of other hostile craft with 15 of the 78 Captain-class frigates being either sunk or written-off as a constructive total loss.
In the post-war period, all of the surviving Captain-class frigates except one (HMS
The two British Devastation-class battleships of the 1870s were the first class of ocean-going capital ship that did not carry sails, and the first which mounted the entire main armament on top of the hull rather than inside it. For the first fifteen years of their lives, they were the most powerful warships in the world.
The genesis of the design was a request by the First Lord of the Admiralty Hugh Childers to the head of ship design at the Admiralty, Edward Reed in early 1869 for a large breastwork monitor which could steam from Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland to Halifax in Canada. At a meeting shortly afterwards of the Admiralty board it was agreed that the ship should have two 12-inch (305 mm) guns firing 600-pound (270 kg) shells mounted in each of two turrets protected by 14 inches (360 mm) of armour, which would each have a 280 degree field of fire. The ship would be protected by a 12-inch (300 mm) thick armour belt around the waterline.
A very low freeboard of 4 feet 6 inches (1.4 m) was agreed since the ship was now intended for coastal service in waters around the United Kingdom or service in the relatively calm Mediterranean. Twin steam engines and twin screws were
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Light aircraft carrier
Ships in class:HMS Furious
The Courageous class, sometimes called the Glorious class, was the first multi-ship class of aircraft carriers to serve with the Royal Navy. The three ships—Furious, Courageous and Glorious—were originally laid down as "large light cruisers" (battlecruisers) to be used in the Baltic Project during the First World War. While very fast, their minimal armour and few guns limited their long-term utility in the post-war Royal Navy and they were laid up after the war. They were considered capital ships by the terms of the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty and were included in the total amount of tonnage allowed to the Royal Navy. Rather than scrap them, the Navy decided to convert them to aircraft carriers as permitted under the Treaty.
Furious, already partially converted during the war, began her reconstruction in 1921, before the Treaty came into effect. She was given a three-quarters-length flight deck. In attempt to minimize air turbulence she was given no superstructure or "island". This was not entirely satisfactory and a small island was added in 1939. Another problem was that she lacked a standard funnel; instead, her boiler uptakes ran along the sides of the ship and exhausted out
The Gotland class submarines of the Swedish Navy are modern diesel-electric submarines, which were designed and built by the Kockums shipyard in Sweden. They are the first submarines in the world to feature a Stirling engine air-independent propulsion (AIP) system, which extends their underwater endurance from a few days to weeks. This capability had previously only been available with nuclear powered submarines.
As of 2008, the Gotland-class attack submarine is one of the most modern submarines of the Swedish Navy in service, mainly designed for submarine missions such as anti-ship/anti-submarine warfare, collecting of intelligence (communications intelligence (COMINT), electronic signals intelligence (ELINT)), forward surveillance, special operations and mine-laying tasks.
On the water surface, the submarine is powered by two sets of MTU engines. While submerged, the Kockums-built Stirling engine Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system is used to drive a 75 kilowatts (101 shp) generator for either propulsion or charging the batteries. A Stirling engine is particularly well suited for a submarine because the engine is near silent and can use the surrounding sea water as a heat
The Lupo class is a class of frigates built by Cantieri Navali Riuniti (CNR) for the Italian Navy. Designed as multipurpose warships with emphasis on anti-surface warfare (ASuW), they have enjoyed some success in the export market, being acquired by the navies of Peru and Venezuela. A small run of a slightly updated version is known as the Soldati class.
In the early 1970s, the Marina Militare faced an increased Soviet naval presence in the Mediterranean Sea which constituted a threat to its sea lines of communication as well as to its extensive coastline. To parry this menace, Italy started a naval expansion program which included frigates focused on ASuW (Lupo class) and on ASW (Maestrale class).
For the first part of the requirement, CNR presented a design for a 2,500-ton frigate with a high speed and a heavy weapons load. The ship employed a CODOG propulsion plant to achieve 35 knots, making it one of the fastest warships at the time. Armament included 8 SSMs, 8 SAMs, several gun systems, 2 triple torpedo tubes and an ASW helicopter, which was equivalent to that carried by larger warships. To save weight, Lupo-class frigates are highly automated, allowing a crew of around 200.
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Aircraft carrier
The Nimitz-class supercarriers are a class of ten nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in service with the United States Navy. The lead ship of the class is named for World War II Pacific fleet commander Chester W. Nimitz, who was the Navy's last fleet admiral. With an overall length of 1,092 ft (333 m) and full-load displacements of over 100,000 long tons, they are the largest capital ships in the world. Instead of the gas turbines or diesel-electric systems used for propulsion on many modern warships, the carriers use two A4W pressurized water reactors which drive four propeller shafts and can produce a maximum speed of over 30 knots (56 km/h) and maximum power of around 260,000 shp (190 MW). As a result of the use of nuclear power, the ships are capable of operating for over 20 years without refueling and are predicted to have a service life of over 50 years. They are categorized as nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and are numbered with consecutive hull numbers between CVN-68 and CVN-77.
All ten carriers were constructed by Newport News Shipbuilding Company in Virginia. USS Nimitz, the lead ship of the class, was commissioned on 3 May 1975, and USS George H.W. Bush, the tenth and
The Project 941 or Akula, Russian "Акула" ("Shark") class submarine (NATO reporting name: Typhoon) is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. With a submerged displacement of 48,000 tons, the Typhoons are the largest class of submarine ever built, large enough to accommodate decent living facilities for the crew when submerged for months on end. The source of the NATO reporting name remains unclear, although it is often claimed to be related to the use of the word "Typhoon" ("Тайфун") by Leonid Brezhnev in a 1974 speech while describing a new type of nuclear ballistic missile submarine. Soviet doctrine for these vessels was to patrol under the Arctic ice cap and surface to launch SLBMs, avoiding the need to transit the GIUK gap and remaining safe from the enemy attack submarines and anti-submarine forces. Technically, Typhoons were also able to successfully deploy their long-range nuclear missiles while moored at their docks. The Russian Navy canceled its Typhoon modernization program in March 2012, stating that modernizing one Typhoon would be as expensive as building two new Borei-class submarines. With the announcement that
The Type B1 submarine (also known as the I-15 series) were the most numerous submarine class of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. In total 20 were built, starting with I-15, which gave the series their alternative name.
These submarines were fast, had a very long range, and carried a single seaplane, located in a hangar in front of the conning tower, and launched by a catapult. Late in the war, some of the submarines had their aircraft hangar removed, to replace it with a 14 cm gun. In 1944, the I-36 and I-37 were modified so that they could carry four Kaiten manned torpedoes, with I-36 later being further modified to carry six.
The series was rather successful, especially at the beginning of the war.
Altogether the Type B submarines (B1, B2, and B3 combined) are credited with sinking 56 merchant ships for a total of 372,730 tonnes, about 35% of all merchant shipping sunk by Japanese submarines during the war.
All B1 type submarines were lost during the conflict, except for I-36, which was scuttled off Gotō Islands by the US Navy on 1 April 1946.
For the later A classes, see Amphion class submarine and Astute class submarine
The A class was the Royal Navy's first class of British-designed submarines. Thirteen were built by Vickers at Barrow-in-Furness between 1902 and 1905 as an improvement on the US Plunger class. While there was considerable variation amongst the boats of the class, they were around 100 ft (30 m) long and displaced around 200 tons when submerged. All of the class were propelled underwater by battery-powered electric motors and on the surface by shaft-drive Wolseley petrol engines of 400 bhp (A1), 450 bhp (A2-4) or 600 bhp (A5-12). A13 had an experimental 500 bhp (370 kW) Vickers diesel plant, which proved unreliable.
Armament was two 18 inch (45 cm) torpedo tubes with four torpedoes, except for A-1 which had 1 tube and 3 torpedoes.
The first, A1 (ordered as Holland No. 6), was launched in July 1902, the last, A13, in April 1905.
A1 was sunk off Portsmouth on March 18, 1904, in collision with the liner Berwick Castle, but raised and put back into service before finally being sunk as a naval gunnery target in 1911, followed in 1912 by A3. A7 was lost in Whitsand Bay in 1914 after diving into mud. A13 was
The Type IX U-boat was designed by Germany in 1935 and 1936 as a large ocean-going submarine for sustained operations far from the home support facilities. Type IX boats were briefly used for patrols off the eastern United States in an attempt to disrupt the stream of troops and supplies bound for Europe. The extended range came at the cost of longer dive times and decreased maneuverability, which is why the smaller Type VII was produced in greater numbers and used for the bulk of operations. It was derived from the Type IA, and appeared in various sub-types.
Type IXs had six torpedo tubes, four at the bow and two at the stern. They carried six reloads internally and had five external torpedo containers (three at the stern and two at the bow) which stored ten additional torpedoes. The total of 22 torpedoes allowed U-boat commanders to follow a convoy and strike night after night. As mine-layers they could carry 44 TMA or 66 TMB mines, but many of the IXC boats were not fitted for mine operations.
Secondary armament was provided by one large Utof 105/45 gun with about 110 rounds. Anti-aircraft armament differed throughout the war. They had two periscopes in the tower. Types IXA and
The Vision class is a term Royal Caribbean International uses to refer to six of its cruise ships. Although called a "class" by Royal Caribbean, actually it consists of two pairs of sister ships and another pair of sister ships that was later split up into two different ships by a lengthening of one of the ships. They are not identical to each other and as such do not constitute a class by the actual definition of the term. In fact, the Vision class is named after the last ship built, and formerly the largest ship in its class.
Two of the ships were built at Kvaerner Masa-Yards, Helsinki New Shipyard, Finland, while the others were built at Chantiers de l'Atlantique, St. Nazaire, France (both shipyards are now a part of STX Europe).
Built in 1995 and in 1996 by Chantiers l'Atlantique, approximately 70,000 gross tons.
Built in 1996 by Kvaerner Masa-Yards, approximately 74,000 gross tons. It originally had a sister ship, Enchantment of the Seas built in 1997 but its length was modified in 2005.
Built in 1997 and in 1998 by Chantiers l'Atlantique, approximately 78,000 gross tons.
Built in 1997 by Kvaerner Masa-Yards. Originally 74,000 gross tons when built. Lengthened by 73 feet in
Ships in class:Italian battleship Leonardo da Vinci
The Conte di Cavour class was a battleship class of the Regia Marina in World War I and World War II.
This class was the second group of dreadnoughts in the Regia Marina. The ships were designed by Admiral Edoardo Masdea.
The main armament consisted of 13 305mm guns in five turrets. Three triple turrets were installed in A,Q and Y positions and two twin turrets were installed in B and X positions. The guns were an Armstrong Whitworth design. The machinery was a four shaft direct drive turbine arrangement with either 12 Babcock or 24 Bleychnyden type (Cesare) coal and oil mixed fired boilers
The class was composed of three ships, all laid down in 1910 and completed in 1914-15:
Media related to Conte di Cavour class battleship at Wikimedia Commons
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Escort aircraft carrier
Ships in class:HMS Nabob
The Bogue class were a group of escort carriers built in the United States for service with the U.S. Navy and (under lend-lease) the Royal Navy during World War II.
The ships operated by the Royal Navy were renamed and grouped as the Attacker class and the Ruler class; the latter all having names of "Ruler"s.
The Bogue-class escort carriers were based on the Maritime Commission's Type C3 cargo ship hull. Most were built by the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation, but some of the early examples were produced by Ingalls Shipbuilding of Pascagoula, Mississippi and by the Western Pipe and Steel Company of San Francisco, California. They all were named for sounds, and were equipped with derricks for retrieving seaplanes.
Most of the ships of the class were transferred to the Royal Navy under the provisions of the Lend-Lease program; they were given new names for their RN service and returned to the U.S. Navy after the war. The first group to be transferred were known by the RN as the Attacker-class; in their place replacements were constructed with the same names for the American fleet. A second group of ships were built and sent almost in its entirety to the Royal Navy, known as
The Kanin class destroyers were warships of the Soviet Navy during the Cold War. The Soviet designation was Project 57A Gnevny (not to be confused with the World War 2 era Project 7). These ships were the first Soviet guided missile destroyers and were initially designated Project 57bis (or 57b) and known to NATO as the Krupny class. Their primary mission was anti-surface warfare using the SS-N-1 anti-ship missile
The hull was scaled up from the Kotlin class (project 56) destroyers, and the machinery was the same as those ships, except that remote control stations were installed and electrical generating capacity was increased. The superstructure was made of steel rather than the aluminium/ magnesum alloy of the Kotlin class ships and accommodation was significantly improved
There were two missile launchers at each end, 12 reload missiles were carried. They had limited self-defence weaponry and their main weapon, the SSN-1 was soon obsolescent.
The limitations of the SS-N-1 Missile were clear by 1965 and the Soviet navy decided to convert the ships to a more general purpose / ASW role. The ships were called the Kanin Class by NATO. According to Conway's the modernisation proved
The Mackerel class submarines were a pair of experimental prototype submarines built just prior to the World War II. The two submarines were similar in size and capability to the S class submarines built at the end of World War I, and had been ordered to test the feasibility of using mass production techniques to build submarines. Once it became apparent that there would be sufficient production of the more capable Gato class submarines, interest in the design waned and no additional ones were ordered with submarine production standardized during the war on the Gato class and its successors the Balao and Tench class submarines.
The MEKO 360 is a class of five destroyers built in Germany for the Argentine and Nigerian Navies. The 360 was the first ship of the MEKO family of vessels built by Blohm und Voss.
A single vessel of the MEKO 360H1 variant was produced for the Nigerian Navy. Called the Aradu, it is one of the largest vessels of that navy.
Four vessels of a second variant, the MEKO 360H2, were constructed for Argentina. They were locally named the Almirante Brown class, and currently serve as the main strength in their Navy.
Although considered by its builders to be a frigate, the Almirante Brown vessels have been classed in Argentina (and in Jane's Fighting Ships) as destroyers.
The Oasis class (formerly known as Project Genesis) is a class of Royal Caribbean International cruise ships that are the world's largest passenger ships. Two ships were ordered in February 2006, named Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas. Oasis of the Seas was completed and delivered on October 28, 2009, while Allure of the Seas was completed in October 2010, and began her maiden voyage from Florida in December 2010.
The displacement—the actual mass—is estimated at approximately 100,000 metric tons, slightly less than that of an American Nimitz-class aircraft carrier.
To keep the ship stable without increasing the draft excessively, the designers created a wide hull. About 30 feet (9 m) of the ship sits beneath the water, a small percentage of the ship's overall height. Wide, shallow ships such as this tend to be "snappy", meaning that they can snap back upright after a wave has passed, which can be uncomfortable. This effect, however, is mitigated by the vessel's large size. The cruise ship's officers were pleased with the ship's stability and performance during the transatlantic crossing, when the vessel, in order to allow finishing work to go on, slowed and changed course
Tench-class submarines were a type of submarine built for the United States Navy (USN) between 1944 and 1951. They were an evolutionary improvement over the Gato and Balao classes, only about 35 to 40 tons larger, but more strongly built and with a slightly improved internal layout. Further improvements were made beginning with SS-435, which are sometimes referred to as Corsair class.
Initial plans called for 146 to be built, but 115 were cancelled in 1944 and 1945 when it became apparent that they would not be needed to defeat Japan. The remaining 31 were commissioned between October 1944 (Tench) and February 1951 (Grenadier).
One Tench (ex-Cutlass was transferred from the USN to the Republic of China Navy as Hai Shih. Two went to Italy as the Gianfranco Gazzana-Priaroggia class. USS Argonaut (SS-475) was sold to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1968, renamed HMCS Rainbow, and decommissioned in 1974.
Some of the class were updated through the GUPPY (The Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program). The difference is noticeable by the level foredeck and the rounded bow.
Three Tench Class submarines are on display for the general public.
Media related to Tench class submarines at
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts. During the Age of Sail, brigs were seen as fast and maneuverable and were used as both naval warships and merchant vessels. They were especially popular in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Brigs fell out of use with the arrival of the steam ship because they required a relatively large crew for their small size and were difficult to sail into the wind. They are not to be confused with a brigantine which has different rigging. In the narrow technical field of sailing rigs, a brig is distinct from a three-masted ship by virtue of only having two masts.
In sailing, a full-rigged brig is a vessel with two square rigged masts (fore and main). The main mast of a brig is the aft one. To improve manoeuvrability, the mainmast carries a small (gaff rigged) fore-and-aft sail.
Brig sails are named after the masts to which they are attached: the mainsail; above that the main topsail; above that the main topgallant sail; and occasionally a very small sail, called the royal, is above that. Behind the main sail there is a small fore-and-aft sail called the spanker or boom mainsail (it is somewhat similar to the main sail of a schooner). On
The Hunt class was a class of escort destroyer of the Royal Navy. The first vessels were ordered early in 1939, and the class saw extensive service in World War II, particularly on the British East Coast and Mediterranean convoys. They were named after British fox hunts. The contemporary Hunt class of GRP hulled mine countermeasure vessels maintain the Hunt names lineage in the Royal Navy.
The Royal Navy had identified the need for two types of destroyer; larger vessels with heavy gun and torpedo armaments for fleet work and another type for escort duties. Although old fleet destroyers could be allocated to escort work as new construction replaced them, they were unsuitable for the task. Fleet destroyers were designed for speed and their machinery was inefficient at convoy speeds, reducing their range. Their shape made them poor sea boats at low speed, also exacerbated by additional equipment on the superstructure. Modifications were needed to ease these problems.
The escort vessels forsook the heavy armament and some of the speed of the fleet type to reduce unit cost and better suit mass production and the conditions. This new "fast escort vessel" was later classified as an
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Aircraft carrier
Ships in class:USS Enterprise
The Yorktown class was a class of three aircraft carriers built by the U.S. and completed shortly before World War II. They bore the brunt of early action in that war, and the sole survivor of the class became the most decorated ship in the history of the U.S. Navy.
The lessons learned from operations with the large converted battlecruiser Lexington class in comparison with the smaller purpose-built Ranger had taught the Navy that large carriers were more flexible in operational terms and were more survivable than smaller ones. As the result of this experience, the U.S. Navy built Yorktown (CV-5) and Enterprise (CV-6), commissioned in 1937 and 1938 respectively. These were fast and versatile carriers able to carry and operate over 80 warplanes which was almost as many as the much larger Lexington class.
With the addition of the 14,700 ton USS Wasp (CV-7), a scaled down version of the class, the U.S. Navy used up its full 135,000 ton Washington Naval Treaty limit of aircraft carrier tonnage. The abandonment of the arms limitation treaties system in 1937 allowed the US to begin building more carriers, and the first of this new carrier program was Hornet (CV-8), another of the class,
The Scharnhorst class were the first capital ships, alternatively referred to as battlecruisers or battleships, built for the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) after World War I. The class comprised two vessels: the lead ship Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. Scharnhorst was launched first, and so she is considered to be the lead ship by some sources; however, they are also referred to as the Gneisenau class in some other sources, as Gneisenau was the first to be laid down and commissioned. They marked the beginning of German naval rearmament after the Treaty of Versailles. The ships were armed with nine 28 cm (11 in) SK C/34 guns in three triple turrets, though there were plans to replace these weapons with six 38 cm (15 in) SK C/34 guns in twin turrets.
The two ships were laid down in 1935, launched in late 1936, and commissioned into the German fleet by early 1939. Scharnhorst and Gneisenau operated together for much of the early portion of World War II, including sorties into the Atlantic to raid British merchant shipping. The two ships participated in Operation Weserübung, the German invasion of Norway. During operations off Norway, the two ships engaged the battlecruiser HMS Renown and
The König class was a group of four battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine on the eve of World War I. The class was composed of König, Grosser Kurfürst, Markgraf, and Kronprinz. The most powerful warships of the German High Seas Fleet at the outbreak of war in 1914, the class operated as a unit throughout World War I—the V Division of the III Battle Squadron. The ships took part in a number of fleet operations during the war, including the Battle of Jutland, where they acted as the vanguard of the German line. They survived the war and were interned at Scapa Flow in November 1918. All four ships were scuttled on 21 June 1919 when Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter ordered the sinking of the entire High Seas Fleet.
The Königs were an improvement over the preceding Kaiser class; one of the primary changes being in the disposition of the main gun battery. The Kaiser class ships mounted ten 30.5 cm (12 in) SK L/50 guns in five twin turrets; one turret was mounted fore, two aft in a superfiring arrangement, and the other two as wing turrets in a zig-zag "echelon" configuration amidships. For the König class, the use of main-gun wing turrets was abandoned. Instead, a second
The Leipzig class was a class of light cruisers of the German Kriegsmarine, consisting of two ships named after German cities, Leipzig and Nürnberg.
The Leipzig class, an improved K class cruiser, was the last class of light cruisers built by Germany. Contrary to the practice used in the K class, the Leipzig class designers opted to mount the gun turrets on the center-line again.
The second ship of the class, Nürnberg, was slightly modified and different from the original design. The Nürnberg, which became the Russian Admiral Makarov, continued to soldier on for years to come (NHC).
After the war the Leipzig, in fairly bad condition, served as an accommodation hulk for the German Mine Sweeping Administration.
The Skate-class submarines were the United States Navy's first production run of nuclear powered submarines. They were an evolution of the Tang class in everything but their propulsion plants, which were based on the experimental USS Nautilus. The four Skate class boats re-introduced stern torpedo tubes. Although among the smallest nuclear powered attack submarines ever built, the Skate class served for several decades, with the last being decommissioned in 1989. USS Skate was the first submarine to surface at the North Pole, on March 17, 1959.
Skate and Sargo were built with the S3W reactor, Swordfish and Seadragon also had the S3W reactor in the S4W reactor plant (same machinery in an alternate arrangement).
The Takao class (高雄型) was a class of four heavy cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy launched between May 1930 and April 1931.
They were an evolution from the preceding Myoko class, with heavier torpedo armamanent and had an almost battleship-like, large bridge structure.
Their main gun armament was ten 8-inch (203 mm) guns in twin mounts and they were also armed with sixteen 24 inch torpedoes (carrying more than the Myokos or Mogamis), making the Takaos the most heavily armed cruisers of the IJN. The only flaw was that they were considered top-heavy and thus prone to capsizing, while Turret #3 had a poor firing arc. These two problems were rectified in the follow-up Mogamis; nonetheless the Takaos were considered the best cruisers that the IJN ever built.
Four ships of the class were launched. All served in World War II and all of them were sunk or disabled as a result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944.
The 6,500-ton Type 092 Daqingyu (United States Department of Defense designation Xia-class, Chinese designation 09-II) submarine was the first ballistic missile-carrying, nuclear-powered submarine class (SSBN) deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy, and the first SSBN designed and built in Asia. She was designed by Peng Shilu (彭士禄) and Huang Xuhua (黄旭华), and derived from the Han-Class SSNs, with an extended hull to accommodate twelve missile tubes.
The first Changzheng 6 (# 406) of its class was laid down in 1978 at Huludao 120 miles North-East of Beijing; she was completed in 1981. She then spent 6 years being fitted out and conducting tests with its 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3) missiles, becoming active in 1987. Later, the submarine went through numerous upgrades in incremental step, including using Type H/SQ2-262B sonar manufactured by No. 613 Factory replacing the original Type 604 sonar on board.
A second hull is thought to have been completed in 1982, however this is debatable. There is little information regarding the history of this ship if in fact it actually existed. It is suggested, though not confirmed, that this second Type 092 was lost in an accident in 1985.
The Type 61 Salisbury class were a class of British aircraft direction (or radar picket) frigates built for the Royal Navy. They were related to the Type 41 Leopard class frigates, but with reduced armament to make way for more aircraft direction equipment.
Three further ships of the class were planned. Two of these were cancelled under the 1957 Defence Review, and the third (Coventry) was suspended. It was hoped to order Coventry in 1961, but in the event it was decided to order a Leander class frigate that became HMS Penelope.
Originally built as Cleveland-class light cruisers (CL) in the United States Navy during World War II, in 1957 three ships were re-designated as Galveston-class guided missile light cruisers (CLG) and fitted with the Talos long-range surface-to-air missile system. During the two year refit, the aft superstructure was completely replaced and all aft guns were removed to make room for the twin-arm Talos launcher and a 46-missile storage magazine. Three large masts were also installed in order to hold a variety of radars, missile guidance, and communications systems. Little Rock and Oklahoma City were simultaneously converted into fleet flagships, which involved removing two forward dual 5-inch (127 mm) and one triple 6-inch (152 mm) turrets, and replacing them with a massively rebuilt and expanded forward superstructure. Galveston, in the non-flagship configuration, retained the Cleveland-class's standard forward weapons: three dual 5-inch (127 mm) and two triple 6-inch (152 mm) turrets.
A similar pattern was followed in converting three other Cleveland-class ships (Providence, Springfield, and Topeka) to operate the Terrier surface-to-air missile system, creating the
The Hotel class is the general NATO classification for a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine that was originally put into service by the Soviet Union around 1959. The Soviet designation was Project 658.
Development of the submarine, designed to carry the D-2 launch system and R-13 missiles, was approved on 26 August 1956. Work on the design began in September 1956, the technical project was completed in the first quarter of 1957.
The duties of the chief designer of Project 658 were originally assigned to the chief engineer of OKB-18, P.Z. Golosovskiy. In February 1958 project management was transferred to I.V. Mikhaylov, who in October 1958 had replaced S.N. Kovalev. The deputy of the chief designer was from the outset I.D. Spasskiy.
The Hotel design was based on the Project 627 November class, the first Soviet nuclear submarines, modified by adding the missile compartment from the Golf class submarines. Additionally, the Hotels had small horizontal hydroplanes for better maneuverability, and more reliable electro-hydraulic command control surfaces for high-speed underwater operations with reduced noise.
The D-2 launch system on the Hotels placed three R-13 missiles
The Kobben class or Type 207 is a version of the German Type 205 submarine customized for use by the Royal Norwegian Navy.
Along with the rest of the Royal Norwegian Navy, the submarine fleet was to be modernized according to the Fleet plan of 1960. After the war, Norway needed a navy more suited for coastal operations rather than large, seagoing vessels. This made the choice of a new type of submarines rather slim, not many NATO submarines being suited for this type of operations. A German Type 201 submarine was lent to the RNoN for evaluation and adaptation. The result was the Type 207, of which 15 vessels were delivered to Norway in the period 1964 – 67. All Kobben class submarines were built by Rheinstahl Nordseewerke GmbH in Emden. During 1985 – 93, six boats were lengthened by 2 m (6 ft 7 in) and modernized, most notably with new sonar equipment.
During that period, four others were sold to the Royal Danish Navy (known there as the Tumleren class), three operational (modernized) and one for spare parts. HDMS Sælen (S323) served in the 2003 invasion of Iraq from May 2002 until June 2003.
In 2001, the Kobben class was completely phased out in Norwegian service, now replaced by
The B-class was a class of 11 submarines, built by Vickers in Barrow-in-Furness for the Royal Navy, and launched in 1904–06. One boat was sunk by a collision in 1912, but the remainder served in World War I. Three boats protected the transfer of the British Expeditionary Force to France in 1914, but were soon relegated to local defence and training duties. Six submarines were in the Mediterranean when the war began and were quickly sent to the Dardanelles to prevent a breakout by the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben and the light cruiser SMS Breslau into the Eastern Mediterranean. B11 ventured into the Dardanelles in December 1914 and sank the elderly Turkish ironclad Mesudiye.
The arrival of more modern submarines to blockade the Dardanelles made the B-class boats redundant and they were mostly withdrawn to Malta in 1915. They were transferred to Venice after Italy entered the war, where B10 became the first submarine to be sunk by air attack in 1916. The B-class submarines were transferred back to Malta in late 1916 as they were no longer deemed suitable for combat. In mid-1917 they were converted to surface patrol boats and sent to patrol the Otranto Barrage. They proved to be
The O'Brien class of destroyers was a class of six ships designed by and built for the United States Navy shortly before the United States entered World War I. The O'Brien class was the third of five classes of destroyers that were known as the "thousand tonners", because they were the first U.S. destroyers over 1,000 long tons (1,016 t) displacement.
The design of what became the O'Brien class was the result of discussions between the General Board of the United States Navy and the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Ordnance. What resulted was a design that was an incremental development of the Aylwin class, which itself was similar to the first of the thousand tonners, the Cassin class (which displaced about a third more than the preceding Paulding class). The key difference in the O'Brien class was the increase in torpedo size, going up to 21 inches (533 mm) from the preceding classes' 18-inch (457 mm) torpedoes.
The ships had a median displacement of 1,050 long tons (1,070 t), were just over 305 feet (93 m) in length, and had a beam of about 31 feet (9.4 m). All of the ships had two direct-drive steam turbines and a combination of other engines for cruising at speeds less than 15 knots
The 1. class torpedo boat was a designation in the Scandinavian countries for a type of fast steam ships on more than 80 tons .
The Royal Norwegian Navy had ten torpedo boats built from 1892. 6 of which were still active at the German invation of Norway in 1940.
HNoMS Lyn of an earlier class later known as the 2. class torpedo boats
The British C class submarines were the last class of petrol engined submarines of the Royal Navy and marked the end of the development of the Holland-class in the Royal Navy. Thirty-eight were constructed between 1905 and 1910 and they served through World War I.
With limited endurance and only a ten percent reserve of buoyancy over their surface displacement, they were poor surface vessels, but their spindle shaped hull made for good underwater performance compared to their contemporaries.
Three had been sent to Hong Kong in 1911 and during the war the remainder were mainly used for coastal defence, based at the east coast ports of Leith, Harwich, Hartlepool, Grimsby and Dover, some operating with Q ships which were decoying U-boats. The technique was for a trawler to tow the submarine and communicate with it by telephone. When a U-boat surfaced to attack the trawler with its deck gun, the British submarine would slip its tow and attempt to torpedo the U-boat.
C3, the first boat commissioned, was employed during the Zeebrugge raid on 23 April 1918. Packed with explosives it was blown up in an attempt to destroy a viaduct, for which her commander Lieutenant Richard Sandford was
The Caldwell Class of destroyers served in the United States Navy near the end of World War I. Two were deleted during the 1930s, but four survived to serve throughout World War II, three of these in service with the Royal Navy under the Lend-Lease Agreement.
The six Caldwell Class torpedo-boat destroyers were authorised by Congress under the Act of 3 March 1915, "to have a speed of not less than thirty knots per hour [sic] and to cost, exclusive or armor and armament, not to exceed $925,000.00 each ...Provided, that three of said torpedo-boats herein authorised shall be built on the Pacific Coast."
Built from 1916 to 1918, the six ships of the Caldwell class were the first of 279 ordered (6 of which were cancelled) to a flush-decked design to remove the forecastle break weakness of the preceding Tucker class. The forward sheer of the Caldwell class was improved to keep "A" mount from being constantly washed out. The class had beam torpedo tubes and wing mounts, both flaws in design also found in the numerous Wickes-class and Clemson-class vessels which followed them. There were differences in appearance; Caldwell, Craven and Manley were built with four "stacks" (funnels), while
Four destroyers in the United States Navy formed the Cassin-class. All served as convoy escorts during World War I. The Cassins were the first of six "second-generation" 1000-ton four-stack destroyer classes that were front-line ships of the Navy until the 1930s.
They were the first to carry the new 4 inch (102 mm) gun. The number of torpedo tubes were doubled from the four carried by the Paulding-class to eight. The additional armament significantly increased their tonnage to over 1,000 tons and decreased their speed to less than thirty knots (56 km/h).
The Aylwin-class was built concurrently, and those four ships are often considered to be Cassins.
Media related to Cassin class destroyers at Wikimedia Commons
The Daphné class was a type of diesel-electric patrol submarines built in France between 1958 and 1970 for the French Navy and for export.
These ships were enlarged versions of the Aréthuse class submarines. Eleven were used by France. Boats of this design were sold to several other countries: Pakistan (3), Portugal (4), South Africa (3) and Spain (4). However, two (Euridice 1970 and Minerve 1968) sank accidentally and brought sales to an end. The cause was eventually considered to have been a faulty snorkel design. The submarines were scrapped in the 1990s and Portugal sold one of its boats to Pakistan. PNS Hangor sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani war. Pakistan has now retired the submarine and is replacing it with the French Agosta and Agosta-90B, for which France has given Pakistan transfer of technology & licence to export to other friendly countries.
Media related to Daphné class submarine at Wikimedia Commons
The Formidable class multi-role stealth frigates are the latest surface platforms to enter into service with the Republic of Singapore Navy, and are multi-mission derivatives of the French Navy’s La Fayette class frigate. The frigates are key information nodes and fighting units, and are described as "by far the most advanced surface combatants in Southeast Asia." The six ships form the 185 Squadron of the RSN.
The search for a replacement for the aging Sea Wolf class missile gunboats, which entered into service in 1972, started in the mid-1990s. The United States, Sweden and France participated in the bid for the contract. In March 2000, the Singapore Ministry of Defence awarded the contract to DCNS for the design and construction of six frigates. A key feature of the contract was the technology transfer arrangement. Under the arrangement, DCNS was to design and build the first frigate in its Lorient yard in France while the remaining five frigates were to be built locally by Singapore Technologies (ST) Marine at its Benoi yard in Singapore. Subsequent maintenance and mid-life retrofit will be done by ST Marine.
Construction of the Formidable began in late 2002, when the keel was
The 4,500/5,500-ton Type 091 (US Department of Defense designation Han-class, Chinese designation 09-I) was the first nuclear-powered submarine (SSN) class deployed by the People's Liberation Army Navy. The first Chief Designer of the submarine was an engineer and scientist of nuclear propulsion engineering Mr. Peng Shilu (彭士禄), then in 1983 succeeded by Mr. Huang Xuhua (黄旭华). The first submarine in the class was commissioned in 1974 and the fifth and final boat of the class was commissioned in 1990. The Han-Class is the among the first generation of nuclear-powered submarines in the People's Liberation Army Navy.
The Han-Class were developed with a backdrop of factional violence and witch-hunts for enemy agents. The Han-Class is well known for having a noisy reactor and poor radiation shielding. This causes health hazards for her crew as nuclear radiation levels are higher than they should be aboard the submarine. The submarine is also inhibited by an inability to launch missiles while submerged. This creates a tactical disadvantage against opponents that have well-developed anti-submarine warfare systems.
The Han-class have gone through major upgrades and numerous refits since
The Iron Duke-class was a group of four dreadnought battleships built for the British Royal Navy before the First World War. The class comprised four ships: Iron Duke, Marlborough, Benbow, and Emperor of India. Launched from October 1912 to November 1913, this was the third class of Royal Navy super-dreadnoughts. The ships were essentially repeats of the King George V class battleships; they retained the same ten 13.5 inch (34.3 cm) guns in five twin gun turrets on the centreline. However, the Iron Dukes had improved armour and a more powerful secondary armament of 6-inch weapons instead of the 4-inch mounted on the earlier ships.
The four ships were the most advanced battleships in the Royal Navy at the outbreak of the First World War, though they were soon surpassed by the five ships of the Queen Elizabeth class. They all saw extensive service during the war with the Grand Fleet, where Iron Duke acted as the flagship for the fleet commander, Admiral John Jellicoe. Three of the ships, Iron Duke, Benbow, and Marlborough, were present at the Battle of Jutland; the Emperor of India missed the battle by being in dock for periodic refit. The four Iron Duke-class battleships saw limited
The Type 054 (NATO Codename Jiangkai I) frigate is a Chinese multi-role warship that entered service with the People's Liberation Army Navy in the mid-2000s. They superseded the Type 053H3 frigates. Two ships, 525 Ma'anshan, and 526 Wenzhou, were completed before production switched to the improved Type 054A frigate.
The Type 054 has a stealthy hull design with sloped surfaces, radar absorbent materials, and a reduced superstructure clutter.
The main anti-ship armament were YJ-83 sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missiles in two four-cell launchers. It retained the HQ-7 SAM, an improved version of the French Crotale, from the preceding Type 053H3; the HQ-7 had a ready-to-fire 8-cell launcher, with 16 stored in the automatic reloader. Short range defence was improved with four AK-630 CIWS turrets. A 100 mm main gun, also based on a French design, was mounted.
Both ships were powered by four CODAD Type 16 PA6 STC marine diesel engines designed by SEMT Pielstick, each generating 6,330 hp. Licenses for the engines were sold to China in April 2002, where they were built by the Shaanxi Diesel Engine Factory. Other reports claimed each ship was powered by two (or four) Type 16 PA STC and two
The Sampson-class destroyers served in the United States Navy during World War I. Commissioned in 1916 and 1917, the class was a slight modification of the O'Brien-class and Tucker-class. They had 12 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes.
Most of the ships of the Sampson class served in World War I along with service in the United States Coast Guard as part of the Rum Patrol. While the other ships of the Sampson class were retired and scrapped in the 1930s, the USS Allen survived into the 1940s and served through World War II before being decommissioned and scrapped.
Media related to Sampson class destroyers at Wikimedia Commons
The Skorpionen class monitors were a class of three monitors employed in the Royal Norwegian Navy. The ships were Skorpionen, Mjølner and Thrudvang. The ships were built from 1865 to 1869. The last ship was scrapped in 1918.
The Ula class is a Norwegian submarine type which was assembled in Germany in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The class, consisting of 6 vessels, is currently the only submarine type in service with the Royal Norwegian Navy.
The ordering of a new Norwegian submersible design stemmed from a 1972 decision to modernize the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) submarine flotilla, which then consisted of the aging Kobben class submarines.
The construction of the vessels was an international project. The combat systems were made in Norway by Kongsberg, the attack sonar is German and the flank sonars French. The hull sections were produced in Norway, and then assembled in Germany by Thyssen Nordseewerke, Emden. In Germany, the design is known as the U-Boot-Klasse 210.
When commissioned Ulas were the first Norwegian submarines with bedding for the entire crew and a shower.
The Ula class submarines are among the most silent and maneuverable submarines in the world. This, in combination with the relatively small size, makes them difficult to detect from surface vessels and ideal for operations in coastal areas. The Ula class submarines are regarded as both the most effective and cost-effective
The Admiral Hipper-class was a group of five heavy cruisers built by the German Kriegsmarine in the mid 1930s. The class comprised Admiral Hipper, the lead ship, Blücher, Prinz Eugen, Seydlitz, and Lützow. Only the first three ships of the class were completed to see action during World War II. Work on Seydlitz stopped when she was approximately 95 percent complete; it was decided to convert her into an aircraft carrier, but this was not completed either. Lützow was sold incomplete to the Soviet Union in 1940.
Admiral Hipper and Blücher took part in Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Norway in April 1940. Blücher was sunk by Norwegian coastal defenses outside Oslo while Admiral Hipper led the attack on Trondheim. She then conducted sorties into the Atlantic to attack Allied merchant shipping. In 1942, she was deployed to northern Norway to attack shipping to the Soviet Union, culminating in the Battle of the Barents Sea in December 1942, where she was damaged by British cruisers. Prinz Eugen saw her first action during Operation Rheinübung with the battleship Bismarck. She eventually returned to Germany during the Channel Dash in 1942, after which she too went to Norway. After
The Courbet class battleships were the first dreadnoughts built for the French Navy before World War I. The class comprised four ships: Courbet, France, Jean Bart, and Paris. All four ships were deployed to the Mediterranean Sea for the entirety of World War I, spending most of their time escorting French troop convoys from North Africa and covering the Otranto Barrage. An Anglo-French fleet led by Courbet succeeded in sinking the Austro-Hungarian protected cruiser Zenta on 16 August 1914. Jean Bart was torpedoed in the bow by U-12 on 21 December 1914, but she was able to steam to Malta for repairs.
France sank after striking a rock in Quiberon Bay in 1922. Between the wars the surviving ships were modernised several times, but they were not rebuilt thoroughly enough to prevent them from becoming obsolete in comparison to modern German or Italian battleships. They were relegated to training duties during the 1930s. Courbet and Paris escaped to Portsmouth where they became depot and accommodation ships after the French armistice in 1940. Jean Bart was demilitarised, renamed Océan, and became a school hulk in Toulon. She was captured there on 27 November 1942, although she was not
The three Duguay-Trouin class light cruisers were built for France in the early 1920s.
The fate of these three ships after the French surrender illustrates the dichotomy within the French armed forces at the time: one ship was interned, then joined the Free French, another twice resisted Allied bombardment and was destroyed, and the third was disarmed at a French colonial port and subsequently sunk.
The design of this class was the result of a protracted process that had started in mid-1919, with the Italians as likely adversaries. A detailed design (Project 171) had been completed by the end of 1919, but there were significant reservations within the Navy and the Chief of the General Staff withdrew them in February 1920. While discussion continued, there were opportunities to compare with newly-commissioned cruisers of other navies. The foreign designs were indeed superior, particularly armament.
At the end of 1920, after having examined copies of the plans for the U.S. Omaha class, four designs had been drafted. All four used hulls based on the Omahas, with eight newly-designed 155 mm and four 75 mm Anti-Aircraft guns and twelve torpedo tubes. The differences lay in the
The Duke of Edinburgh-class was a class of six armoured cruisers built around 1905 for the British Royal Navy. The later four ships were armed differently, and are sometimes considered as a separate class, the Warrior-class.
They were the first ships to come from the new Director of Naval Construction, Philip Watts.
The main armament of six 9.2 inch guns was distributed in two centreline turrets (one fore and one aft with wide angles of fire) and four turrets disposed in the corners about the funnels. The secondary was 5 single gun 6-inch barbettes either side. The remainder was some twenty 3-pounder guns concentrated around the masts – 10 fore and 10 aft.
The Warriors replaced the 6 inch barbettes with four 7.5 inch gun turrets on the same deck as the centre main armament.
Natal blew up in December 1915 due to an internal explosion. Warrior, Duke of Edinburgh and Black Prince were at the Battle of Jutland having joined the 1st Cruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet. Black Prince and Warrior were lost at Jutland. Cochrane and Achilles were in the 2nd Cruiser Squadron. Achilles was undergoing refit and missed Jutland. Cochrane ran aground in the River Mersey in November 1918 and was
The Farragut-class destroyers were a class of eight 1,365-ton destroyers in the United States Navy.
Following provisions of the London Naval Treaty of 1930, the ships were laid down between 1932 and completed by 1935. After more than 14 years since the last of the Clemson-class was commissioned, the Farraguts were commissioned in 1934 and 1935.
These ships were slightly larger than their predecessors, faster and had only two stacks, versus the earlier four. They were the first of six classes of 1,500-ton destroyers built in the 1930s to modernize the United States Navy, and all saw extensive front-line service during World War II.
The list of desired improvements from the earlier Wickes class destroyer and Clemson class destroyer were both long and comprehensive. Both classes had the pointed sterns that dug into the water greatly increasing turning diameter. This was addressed with the flat stern design on the Farragut class. The previous classes were flush deck designs, while providing good hull strength proved to be wet in high seas. This was addressed with the raised forecastle employed on the Farragut class. Cruising range on both the Wickes and Clemson classes had been a
The Foxtrot class was the NATO reporting name of a class of diesel-electric patrol submarines that were built in the Soviet Union. The Soviet designation of this class was Project 641.
The Foxtrot class was designed to replace the earlier Zulu class, which suffered from structural weaknesses and harmonic vibration problems that limited its operational depth and submerged speed. The first Foxtrot was laid down in 1957 and commissioned in 1958 and the last was completed in 1983. A total of 58 were built for the Soviet Navy at the Sudomekh division of the Admiralty Shipyard (now Admiralty Wharves), St. Petersburg. Additional hulls were built for other countries.
The Foxtrot class was comparable in performance and armament to most contemporary designs. However, its three screws made it noisier than most Western designs. Moreover, the Foxtrot class was one of the last designs introduced before the adoption of the teardrop hull, which offered much better underwater performance. The Foxtrot class was completely obsolete by the time the last submarine was launched. The Russian Navy retired its last Foxtrots between 1995 and 2000, units were scrapped and disposed of for museum purposes. A
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Aircraft carrier
Ships in class:HMS Ark Royal
The Invincible class is a class of light aircraft carrier operated by the Royal Navy. Three ships were constructed, HMS Invincible, HMS Illustrious and HMS Ark Royal. The vessels were built as aviation-capable anti-submarine warfare (ASW) platforms to counter the Cold War North Atlantic Soviet submarine threat, and initially embarked Sea Harrier aircraft and Sea King HAS.1 anti-submarine helicopters. With the cancellation of CVA-01, the three ships became the replacements for the Audacious and Centaur classes, and the Royal Navy's sole class of aircraft carrier.
Invincible was decommissioned in 2005 and put in reserve in a low state of readiness. She was sold to a Turkish scrapyard in February 2011, and left Portsmouth under tow on 24 March 2011. Pursuant to the Strategic Defence and Security Review, 2010, Ark Royal followed, decommissioning on 13 March 2011. This leaves Illustrious as the sole remaining operational ship, serving as a helicopter carrier since 2011. After Invincible was decommissioned in 2005, and with the retiring of Illustrious expected in 2014, Royal Navy aircraft carrier usage will cease. It will only restart with the commissioning of one ship of the
The Project 651, known in the West by its NATO reporting name Juliett class, was a class of Soviet diesel-electric submarines armed with cruise missiles. They were designed in the late 1950s to provide the Soviet Navy with a nuclear strike capability against targets along the east coast of the United States and enemy combatants (aircraft carriers). The head of the design team was Abram Samuilovich Kassatsier. They carried four nuclear-capable cruise missiles with a range of ~300 miles, which could be launched while the submarine was surfaced and moving less than four knots (7 km/h). Once surfaced, the first missile could be launched in about five minutes; subsequent missiles would follow within about ten seconds each. Initially, the missiles were the inertially-guided P-5 (NATO reporting name SS-N-3 Shaddock). When submarine-launched ballistic missiles rendered the P-5s obsolescent, they were replaced with the P-6 (also NATO reporting name SS-N-3 Shaddock, though a very different missile) designed to attack aircraft carriers. A special 10 m target guidance radar was built into the forward edge of the sail structure, which opened by rotating. One boat was eventually fitted with the
PT boats were a variety of torpedo-armed fast attack craft used by the United States Navy in World War II to attack larger surface ships. "PT" is the US hull classification symbol for "Patrol Torpedo". The PT boat squadrons were nicknamed "the mosquito fleet". The Japanese called them "Devil Boats".
The original pre–World War I torpedo boats were designed with "displacement" hulls. They displaced up to 300 tons and the top speed was 25 to 27 kn (29 to 31 mph; 46 to 50 km/h). The PT boats used in World War II were built using the planing-type hull form developed for racing boats. They were much smaller (30–75 tons) and faster (35–40 knots). Both types were designed to strike at larger warships with torpedoes, using relatively high speed to get close, and small size to avoid being spotted and hit by gunfire. They were much less expensive than large warships. PT boats were much faster, smaller, and cheaper than conventional (displacement hull) vessels.
During World War II, American PT boats engaged enemy destroyers and numerous other surface craft, ranging from small boats to large supply ships. PT boats also operated as gunboats against enemy small craft, such as armored barges used
The River class, or Thames class were a class of submarines built for the Royal Navy.
They were the last attempt by the Admiralty to produce "Fleet Submarines" that is submarines fast enough to operate as part of a fleet which at the time meant being able to manage somewhere around 20 knots (37 km/h) while surfaced. The previous attempts had been the steam powered K class submarines and the large 12-inch (305 mm) gunned M class submarines. The 'M' class were 'K' class hulls re-engined with diesels and modified to take a single 12-inch naval gun directly forward of the conning tower.
A design was drawn up in the late 1920s and three vessels were built by Vickers in Barrow, Thames in 1932, Severn and Clyde in 1935. The latter were a little larger than Thames. Initially 20 were planned but changes in thinking and cost limited the building to just the three.
The design compromised on diving depth to keep weight down and speed up. They had a safe diving depth of some 300 feet (90 m) compared to the Odin class before them which had managed 500 feet (150 m). They were powered by two diesel engines delivering 8,000 bhp. Two Ricardo engines drove generators that supercharged the diesels up
Elli-class vessels are a group of frigates operated by the Hellenic Navy. The ships are of Dutch origin. The first two ships (the Elli and the Limnos), which had lengthened hangars and different armament were built specifically for the Hellenic Navy. The remaining ships are ex-Royal Netherlands Navy S-frigates of the Kortenaer-class transferred to the Hellenic Navy in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The Elli (F-450), for which the class is named, is itself named after two famous Greek cruisers, one of which was sunk during World War II. There is a midlife modernization programme for six of the ten Greek ships.The program is in progress at HSY and will be completed in 2009. The Kountouriotis (F-462) and the Adrias (F-459) have been modernized. The other four ships are the Navarinon (F-461), the Limnos (F-451), the Elli (F-450), and the Aegaeon (F-460). The main modernization works to be performed are the following:
Bouboulina (F-463) decommissioned due to financial cuts. It will be used as a source for spare parts.
The Fletcher class were a class of destroyers built by the United States during World War II. The class was designed in 1939 as a result of dissatisfaction with the earlier destroyer leader types. Some went on to serve during the Korean War and into the Vietnam War.
The United States Navy commissioned 175 Fletcher-class destroyers between 1942 and 1944, more than any other destroyer class, and the Fletcher design was generally regarded as highly successful. The Fletcher class had a design speed of 38 knots, armed with five 5" guns in single mounts and carrying 10 21" torpedo in twin quintuple centerline mounts. The Allen M. Sumner- and Gearing classes were Fletcher derivatives.
The long-range Fletcher-class ships would participate in battles in every aspect that could be asked of a destroyer, from anti-submarine warfare and anti-aircraft warfare to surface actions. They could cover the vast distances required by fleet actions in the Pacific. In fact, they served almost exclusively in the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War II, during which they accounted for 29 Imperial Japanese Navy submarines sunk. In a massive effort, the Fletcher-class ships were built by shipyards
The Majestic class was a class of pre-dreadnought battleships, built under the Spencer Programme (named after the First Lord of the Admiralty, John Poyntz Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer) of 8 December 1893, that sought to counter the growing naval strength of France and the Russian Empire. With nine units commissioned, they were the largest class of battleships in history in terms of the number of member ships. This class was designed by Sir William White.
When the lead ship, Majestic, was launched in 1895, at 421 ft (128 m) long and with a full-load displacement of 16,000 tons, she was the largest battleship ever built at the time. The Majestics were considered good seaboats with an easy roll and good steamers, although they suffered from high fuel consumption. They began life as coal-burners, but HMS Mars in 1905–1906 became the first battleship converted to oil-burning, and the rest were similarly converted by 1907–1908. The class was the last to have side-by-side funnels, with successor battleship classes having funnels in a line.
Except for Caesar, Hannibal, and Illustrious, they had a new design in which the bridge was mounted around the base of the foremast behind the conning
The Resolution class was a class of four nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) built for the Royal Navy as part of the UK Polaris programme. Each submarine was armed with up to 16 UGM-27 Polaris A-3 nuclear missiles.
The class included Resolution, Repulse, Renown and Revenge. They were built by Vickers Armstrong in Barrow-in-Furness and Cammell Laird in Birkenhead between 1964 and 1968. All four boats were based at HM Naval Base Clyde (HMS Neptune), 40 km (25 mi) west of Glasgow, Scotland.
The Resolution class was the launch platform for the United Kingdom's strategic nuclear deterrent from the late 1960s until 1994, when it was replaced by the Vanguard class submarine carrying the Trident II.
During the 1950s and early 1960s, the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent was based on the RAF's V-bombers. But in the early 1960s developments in radar and surface-to-air missiles made it clear that bombers were becoming vulnerable, and would be unlikely to penetrate Soviet airspace. Free-fall nuclear weapons would no longer be a credible deterrent.
To address this problem, in May 1960 the British Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan arranged a deal with US President Eisenhower to equip the
Ships in class:Russian destroyer Admiral Panteleyev
The Udaloy I class are a series of anti-submarine destroyers built for the Soviet Navy, eight of which are currently in service with the Russian Navy. The Russian designation is Project 1155 Fregat (Frigate bird). Twelve ships were built between 1980 and 1991, while a thirteenth ship built to a modified design as the Udaloy II class followed in 1999. It complements the Sovremenny class destroyer in Anti-aircraft warfare and Anti-surface warfare operations.
The Project 1155 dates to the 1970s when it was concluded that it was too costly to build large-displacement, multi-role combatants. The concept of a specialized surface ship was developed by Soviet designers. Two different types of warships were laid down which were designed by the Severnoye Design Bureau: Project 956 destroyer and Project 1155 large anti-submarine ship. The Udaloy class are generally considered the Soviet equivalent of the American Spruance class destroyers. There are variations in SAM and air search radar among units of the class. Based on the Krivak class, the emphasis on ASW left these ships with limited anti-surface and anti-air capabilities.
Following Udaloy's commissioning, designers began developing an
Ships in class:German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee
The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe ("armored ships"), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the Reichsmarine officially in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. The class, which comprised the ships Deutschland, Admiral Scheer, and Admiral Graf Spee, were all stated to displace 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) in accordance with the Treaty, though they actually displaced 10,600 to 12,340 long tons (10,800 to 12,540 t) at standard displacement. Despite violating the weight limitation, the design for the ships incorporated several radical innovations to save weight. They were the first major warship to use welding and all-diesel propulsion. Due to their heavy armament of six 28 cm (11 in) guns, the British began referring to the vessels as "pocket battleships". The Deutschland class ships were initially classified as Panzerschiffe or "armored ships", but the Kriegsmarine reclassified them as heavy cruisers in February 1940.
The three ships were built between 1929 and 1936 by the Deutsche Werke and Reichsmarinewerft in Kiel and Wilhelmshaven, respectively. They saw heavy service with the German Navy. All three vessels served on
The Talwar class is a new class of frigates designed and built by Russia for the Indian Navy. The Talwar class guided missile frigates, also known as the Type 1135.6, are modified Krivak III class frigates from Russia. The Talwar Class has a displacement of 4,000 tons and speed of 30 knots and is capable of accomplishing a wide variety of missions, primarily, finding and eliminating enemy submarines and large surface ships.
Due to the use of stealth technologies and a special hull design, the resulting frigate features reduced radar cross section (RCS) as well as electromagnetic, acoustic and infrared signatures. Equipped with Russian-made sensors and weapon systems, the Talwar class frigates are modern ships with balanced capabilities, capable of countering modern Western naval assets. The Talwar class is an Indo-Russian joint production. Ships of this class have quite a few systems of Indian origin and manufacture, including their anti-submarine sensor (sonar) suite and complete communication equipment.
On 17 November 1997, Russia and India signed a $1 billion contract, for three Krivak III class multi-purpose frigates. The Indian Navy wanted to fill the gap created by the
The Type 093 (NATO reporting name: Shang, Chinese designation: 09-III) is a nuclear powered attack submarine class deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy. These boats are expected to replace the older Type 091 (NATO: Han class) SSNs currently in service. The Type 093 will be armed with various torpedoes and anti-ship missiles.
The lead boat in this class was launched in 2002. Construction of the Type 093 submarines is being conducted at the Bohai Shipyard in Huludao. Six to eight boats are expected to be built. The improved Type 093G variant has also been launched.
China’s new generation nuclear submarine program can be dated back to the early 1980s, when the PLA Navy issued the requirement for a new nuclear attack submarine (SSN) as the successor to its first-generation Type 091 (NATO codename: Han class) nuclear attack submarine. The submarine development program, codenamed Type 093, was officially approved by the PLA leadership in July 1983. However, the development program only made very limited progress in its early stage due to enormous technical difficulties, especially the nuclear reactor and onboard weapon systems.
Rumors were that the original Type 093
The Type 206 is a class of diesel-electric submarines (U-boats) developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW). Its design is based on the preceding Type 205 submarine class. These small and agile submarines were built during the Cold War to operate in the shallow Baltic Sea and attack Warsaw Pact shipping if the war turned hot. The pressure hulls were built out of non-magnetic steel to counter the threat of magnetic naval mines and make detection with MAD sensors more difficult. The low emission profile allowed the submarines in exercises to intrude even into well protected opposing forces such as carrier formations with their screen.
Ten Type 205 submarines were constructed between 1962 and 1968 with hulls constructed of a new non-magnetic steel. The early boats, however, suffered from cracking due to stress corrosion and an urgent programme was initiated to develop a new steel which overcame these problems, which received much publicity at the time. The new high-strength, non-magnetic, austenitic steel has greater elasticity and good dynamic strength, and has proved very satisfactory in service, thoroughly overcoming the doubts that were raised by those early problems, although
The Soviet Union/Russian Navy Project 705 (Лира/Lira, "Lyre") was a class of hunter/killer nuclear powered submarines. The class is also known by the NATO reporting name of Alfa. They were the fastest class of military submarines built, with only the prototype K-222 (NATO "Papa" class) exceeding them in submerged speed.
The Lira was a unique design among submarines; it used a powerful lead cooled fast reactor as a power source, which greatly reduced the size of the reactor compared to conventional designs, thus reducing the overall size of the submarine, and allowing for very high speeds. However, it also meant that the reactor had a short lifetime and had to be kept warm when it was not being used. As a result, the Liras were used as interceptors, mostly kept in port ready for a high-speed dash into the North Atlantic.
The initial design work led by M.G. Rusanov began in May 1960 at the Malakhit Design Bureau in Leningrad. It was highly innovative in order to meet demanding requirements: sufficient speed to successfully pursue any ship; the ability to avoid anti-submarine weapons and to ensure success in underwater combat; low detectability, in particular to airborne MAD arrays,
The Collins class is a class of six Australian-built diesel-electric submarines operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The Collins class takes its name from Australian Vice Admiral John Augustine Collins; all six submarines are named after significant RAN personnel who distinguished themselves in action during World War II. The boats were the first submarines to be constructed in Australia, prompting widespread improvements in Australian industry.
Planning for a new class to replace the RAN's Oberon-class submarines began in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Proposals were received from seven companies; two were selected for a funded study to determine the winning design, which was announced in mid-1987. The submarines, an enlarged version of Swedish shipbuilder Kockums' Västergötland class and originally referred to as the Type 471, were constructed between 1990 and 2003 in South Australia by the Australian Submarine Corporation (ASC).
The submarines have been the subject of incidents and technical problems since the design phase, including accusations of foul play and bias during the design selection, improper handling of design changes during construction, major capability
The Königsberg class was a class of light cruisers of the German Reichsmarine and Kriegsmarine, consisting of three ships named after German cities: Königsberg, Karlsruhe, Köln. It's also referred to as K class, as all three ships' names began with that letter.
The class was designed in the 1920s, adhering to the 6,000 ton limit for cruisers imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. To stay within this limit, 85% of the ships' joints were welded instead of bolted. This led to problems, as the welding did not withstand the stress of long sea journeys as well as had been hoped. One unit had to interrupt a cruise to undergo significant repairs at San Diego. In addition, the ships suffered major stability problems that, along with the structural ones, led to their being confined to the home waters of the North Sea and Baltic during World War II and precluded their use as commerce raiders.
The main battery was grouped in three triple-turrets, one forward and two aft. This unconventional placement was because the K class were designed as scouting cruisers with the intention that they would "hit and run." This allowed two thirds of their firepower to be directed astern at pursuing
The Aréthuse class were submarines built for the French Navy in the 1950s. They were designed as hunter killer submarines for anti-submarine warfare and were referred to as Sous-marins de Chasse by the Marine Nationale. These submarines had advanced sensors and were very quiet. They were influenced by the World War II German Type XXIII U-boat. They were always based in the Mediterranean.
The Daphné class submarines are an enlarged version built for the French, Pakistani, Portuguese, Spanish and South African Navies
All of the boats were built by the Arsenal de Cherbourg
The Devonshire class was a class of six armoured cruisers of the British Royal Navy, launched in 1903–1904 at a cost of around £850,000 each.
The ships were designed for commerce protection, and the design was similar to the Monmouth class except that the twin 6 inch (152 mm) turrets and the forward double casemates were replaced by four 7.5 inch (190 mm) single turrets in a diamond arrangement. The 7.5 inch gun was introduced because the all - 6 inch gun armament of the Monmouth class was no longer adequate to deal with the latest likely commerce raiding threats.
All ships of the class served in World War I. Argyll was wrecked, and Hampshire was sunk by a naval mine. The four survivors were disposed of soon after the end of the war.
The following table gives the build details and purchase cost of the members of the Devonshire class. Standard British practice at that time was for these costs to exclude armament and stores. The 1905 edition costs were compiled before the ships were complete.
*** = cost published by Brassey before the ship was complete. i.e. The total cost may have been more than this.
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Aircraft carrier
Ships in class:Soviet aircraft carrier Kiev
The Kiev class carriers (also known as Project 1143 or as the Krechyet (Gyrfalcon) class) were the first class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers built in the Soviet Union.
First laid down in 1970 the Kiev class was partially based on a design for a full-deck carrier proposed in Project Orel. Originally the Soviet Navy wanted a supercarrier similar to the American Kitty Hawk class. However, the smaller Kiev class design was chosen because it was considered to be more cost effective.
Unlike American or British carriers, the Kiev class is a combination of a cruiser and a carrier. In the Soviet Navy this class of ships was specifically designated as a heavy aviation cruiser rather than just an aircraft carrier. Although the ships were designed with an island superstructure to starboard, with a 2/3 length angled flight deck, the foredeck was taken up with the heavy missile armament. The intended mission of the Kiev class was support for strategic missile submarines, other surface ships and naval aviation; it was capable of engaging in anti-aircraft, anti-submarine and surface warfare.
A total of four Kiev class carriers were built and commissioned, serving in the Soviet and then Russian
The Borodino class was a class of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy around the end of the 19th century. Their design was based on that of the French-built Tsesarevich, but modified to use Russian equipment. The first four ships were finished after the start of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 and among the ships ordered to sail from the Baltic Sea to the Far East to relieve the Pacific Squadron besieged by the Japanese in Port Arthur. Three of these ships were sunk and one was captured by the Imperial Japanese Navy at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. The fifth and final ship, Slava, was not completed in time to participate in the war and served with the Baltic Fleet through World War I. She spent most of the war defending the Gulf of Riga and was badly damaged by German dreadnoughts during the Battle of Moon Sound in 1917. This damage forced the ship to scuttle herself because she had taken on too much water and could not pass through the shallow channel that connected the Gulf of Riga with the Baltic. The wreck was scrapped during the 1930s by the Estonians.
The Borodino-class battleships were the most numerous class of battleships ever built by
The Holland-class were the first submarines built for the Royal Navy. They were built by Vickers, Barrow-in-Furness. The first three were designed by John Philip Holland. The Hollands were built under licence from the Holland Torpedo Boat Company/Electric Boat Company during the years 1901 to 1903. The Admiralty of the Royal Navy hoped to keep the Holland-class a secret and very few senior officers even knew of their existence. This led to the myth of the Royal Navy not taking any interest in submarines. On the contrary, the Royal Navy thought the submarine could become a potential weapon, but it had been Admiralty policy in the 19th Century to avoid encouraging revolutionary weapons.
The Royal Navy officially rejected the idea of adopting submarines and believed that the best way to discourage development of a new class of weapon was not to provide any funding for research. However, it kept a watchful eye on others developments.
Captain Henry Jackson, British naval attaché in Paris, had been instructed to report on submarine developments which had been underway in France for several years. In 1898 he witnessed trials of the privately developed Le Goubet, a small 11 ton submersible
Originally built as Cleveland-class light cruisers (CL) in the United States Navy during World War II, in 1957 three ships were re-designated as Providence-class guided missile light cruisers (CLG) and fitted with the Terrier surface-to-air missile system. During the two year refit, the aft superstructure was completely replaced and all aft guns were removed to make room for the twin-arm Terrier launcher and a 120 missile storage magazine. Three large masts were also installed in order to hold a variety of radars, missile guidance, and communications systems. Providence and Springfield were simultaneously converted into fleet flagships, which involved removing two forward dual 5-inch (127 mm) and one triple 6-inch (152 mm) turrets, and replacing them with a massively rebuilt and expanded forward superstructure. Topeka, in the non-flagship configuration, retained the Cleveland-class's standard forward weapons: three dual 5-inch (127 mm) and two triple 6-inch (152 mm) turrets.
A similar pattern was followed in converting three other Cleveland-class ships (Galveston, Little Rock, and Oklahoma City) to operate the Talos surface-to-air missile system, creating the Galveston class.
The Sovremenny class destroyer is the principal anti-surface warship of the Russian Navy. Soviet designation for the class was Project 956 Sarych (Buzzard).
Its primary role is to attack enemy warships while also providing sea and air defense for warships and transports under escort. It complements the Udaloy-class destroyers in anti-submarine operations.
The project began in the late 1960s when it was becoming obvious in the Soviet Navy that naval guns still had an important role particularly in support of amphibious landings, but existing gun cruisers and destroyers were showing their age. A new design was started, employing a new 130 mm automatic gun turret. Single- and twin mounts were developed, and the twin mount chosen for its superior rate of fire. In 1971 a go-ahead was given for the Severnaya design bureau to design "a ship capable of supporting amphibious landings". At the same time, the US Navy was constructing new large Spruance class multirole destroyers. To respond to this new threat, Project 956 was updated with new air defence suite and new, powerful 3M80 anti-ship missiles. Although the Soviet Navy had largely moved to gas turbine propulsion for its new warships,
The Tribal class, or Afridi class, were a class of destroyers built for the Royal Navy, Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Australian Navy that saw service in World War II. Originally conceived as a failed design for a light fleet cruiser, the Tribals evolved into fast, powerful destroyers, with greater emphasis on guns over torpedoes than previous destroyers, in response to new designs by Japan, Italy, and Germany. The Tribals were well admired by their crews and the public when they were in service due to their power, often becoming symbols of prestige while in service.
As some of the Royal Navy's most modern and powerful escort ships, the Tribal class served with distinction in nearly all theatres of World War II. Only a handful of Royal Navy Tribals survived the war, all of which were subsequently scrapped from hard use, while Commonwealth Tribals continued to serve into the Cold War, serving with distinction in the Korean War. Only one Tribal survives to this day: HMCS Haida, which is now a museum ship in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada.
From 1926, all Royal Navy destroyers had descended from a common lineage based upon the prototypes Amazon and Ambuscade. During the interwar
The R-class submarines were a class of United States Navy double hull submarines active from 1918 until 1945. The R-boats R-21 to R-27, built by Lake Torpedo Boat, slightly smaller and faster than the others, are sometimes regarded (by DANFS for instance) as a separate class ("R-21 class") from R-1 to R-20 built by Fore River Shipyard and Union Iron Works ("R-1 class"). Unlike double hull Lake's boats, these single-hull submarines were very similar to the preceding O class, with the addition of 21-inch torpedo tubes and a fixed rather than retractable gun mount. Lake boats had their diving planes more conventionally positioned fore and aft, but they retained the characteristic wide stern and 18-inch torpedo tubes.
Electric Boat built four boats for the Peruvian Navy (R-1 to R-4). These were built after World War I using material assembled for cancelled S-class submarines. They were refitted in 1935–36 and 1955–56, renamed Islay, Casma, Pacocha, and Arica in 1957, and discarded in 1960.
The Upholder/Victoria-class submarines, also known as the Type 2400 (due to their displacement of 2,400 tonnes), are diesel-electric Fleet submarines designed in the UK in the late 1970s to supplement the Royal Navy's nuclear submarine force. They were decommissioned with the end of the Cold War after a short length of service in the Royal Navy. In 1998, Canada purchased the submarines and a suite of trainers from the Royal Navy to replace the decommissioned Oberon class of submarines.
The Royal Navy was going to follow the Oberons with nuclear powered boats but there was still a role for diesel powered boats, as demonstrated by activities during the Falklands War, and they could be built faster than nuclear submarines. The only yard building nuclear submarines was Vickers at Barrow-in-Furness and it was occupied with the Vanguard class ballistic missile submarines. Accordingly to provide the Royal Navy with a diesel boat for the Greenland-Iceland-UK Gap, Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd developed the Upholder class from the 1970s onwards.
The design was based on their private scheme for a 2400 tonne submarine for export sales. This was combined with lessons learnt from the
The Victor class is the NATO reporting name for a type of nuclear-powered submarine that was originally put into service by the Soviet Union around 1967. In the USSR, they were produced as Project 671. Victor-class subs featured a teardrop shape, which allowed them to travel at high speed. These vessels were primarily designed to protect Soviet surface fleets and to attack American ballistic missile submarines.
Victor I - Soviet designation Project 671 Yorsh (Ruffe) - was the initial type that entered service in 1967; 16 were produced. Each had 6 tubes for launching Type 53 torpedoes and SS-N-15 cruise missiles and mines could also be released. Subs had a capacity of 24 tube-launched weapons or 48 mines (a combination would require less of each). They were 92.5m long. All disposed
Victor II - Soviet Designation Project 671RT Syomga (Atlantic Salmon)- entered service in 1972; 7 were produced in the 1970s. These were originally designated Uniform class by NATO. They had similar armament to Victor I. The Soviet Union discovered through its spy network that Americans could easily track Victor II-class subs and subsequently halted production of this type to design the Victor III class.
The California class cruisers were a set of two of nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers operated by the United States Navy between 1974 and 1998. Other than their nuclear power supply and lack of helicopter hangars, ships of the California class were comparable to other guided missile cruisers of their era, such as the Belknap class. The class was built as a follow-up to the nuclear-powered Long Beach, Bainbridge, and Truxtun classes. Like all of the nuclear cruisers, which could steam for years between refuelings, the California class was designed in part to provide high endurance escort for the navy's nuclear aircraft carriers, which were often limited in range due to their conventionally powered escorts continuously needing to be refueled.
The USS California (CGN-36) was the fourth nuclear powered cruiser in the U.S. Navy; the previous three were the USS Long Beach (CGN-9), USS Bainbridge (CGN-25) and USS Truxtun (CGN-35). The second California class cruiser, USS South Carolina (CGN-37), was the fifth nuclear-powered cruiser in the United States Navy. Other than the four ships of the Soviet Navy's Kirov class, which were actually built with a combination of nuclear and
Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin class destroyers (Hangul: 충무공 이순신급 구축함) are multipurpose destroyers of the Republic of Korea Navy. The lead ship of this class, ROKS Chungmugong Yi Sunshin, was launched in May 2002 and commissioned in December 2003. Chungmugong Yi Sun-shin class destroyers were the second class of ships to be produced in the Republic of Korea Navy's destroyer mass-production program named Korean Destroyer eXperimental, which paved the way for the navy to become a blue-water navy. Six ships were launched by Hyundai Heavy Industries and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering in four years.
The ship has a 32-cell strike-length Mk 41 VLS for SM-2 Block IIIA area-air defence missiles, one 21-round RAM inner-layer defence missile launcher, one 30 mm Goalkeeper close-in weapon system, one Mk 45 Mod 4 127 mm gun, eight Harpoon anti-ship missiles and two triple 324 mm anti-submarine torpedo tubes.
Electronics suite includes one Raytheon AN/SPS-49(V)5 2D long-range radar (LRR), one Thales Nederland MW08 3D target indication radar (TIR), two Thales Nederland STIR240 fire-control radars with OT-134A Continuous Wave Illumination (CWI) transmitters, an SLQ-200(V)K SONATA electronic
The Des Moines class cruisers were a group of U.S. Navy heavy cruisers, commissioned in 1948–1949. They were the last of the all-gun heavy cruisers, exceeded in size in the American navy only by the Alaska-class cruisers.
Derived from the Baltimore-class heavy cruisers, they were larger, had an improved machinery layout, and carried a new design of auto-loading, rapid-fire 8"/55 gun (the Mk16). The improved Mk16 guns of the main battery were the first auto-loading 8" guns fielded by the US Navy, and allowed a much higher rate of fire than earlier designs, capable of sustaining 12 shots per minute per barrel, or about twice that of the Mk12s found on the Baltimore class. The auto-loading mechanism could function at any elevation, giving even these large-caliber guns some anti-aircraft ability. While the secondary battery of six twin 5"/38 Mk12 DP guns was essentially unchanged from the preceding Oregon City and Baltimore class cruisers, the Des Moines class carried a stronger battery of small-caliber anti-aircraft guns, including 12 twin 3-inch/50 Mk27 and later Mk33 guns, superior to the earlier ships' quad-mounted 40mm Bofors.
Twelve ships of the class were programmed, but only
The Type 800 Dolphin-class is a diesel-electric submarine developed and constructed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW), Germany for the Israeli Navy. It is based on the export-only German 209-class submarines, but greatly modified and enlarged, and is thus not designated as a member of the 209 family. The Dolphin-class boats are the most expensive single vehicle in the Israel Defense Forces and are considered among the most sophisticated and capable conventionally-powered submarines in the world. The Dolphin-class replaced the aging Gal-class submarines, which had served in the Israeli navy since the late 1970s. Each Dolphin-class submarine is capable of carrying a combined total of up to 16 torpedoes and SLCMs. The cruise missiles are believed to have a range of 1,500 km (930 mi) and may be equipped with conventional warheads or, some believe, a 200kg nuclear warhead. The latter, if true, would provide Israel with an offshore second strike capability.
The first two (Dolphin and Leviathan) were fully donated by Germany and the third (Tekumah) was paid for halfway by Israel. During the first Gulf War, German firms were accused of helping Iraq with its chemical weapons program,
The Type 052B or Guangzhou class destroyer (NATO reporting name: Luyang I class) is a class of multirole missile destroyers built by the People's Republic of China. Two ships have been built, with Guangzhou (168) and Wuhan (169) both being commissioned into the PLAN in July 2004. This class features a stealthy hull and significantly improved air defence systems, an area that had been a major weakness on previous ships designed by China. These ships represent a major improvement over older generation vessels and reflects the PLAN's need for more modern destroyer designs.
The Type 052B (Guangzhou class) multirole missile destroyer was the first Chinese-built warship capable of area air defence. The Type 052B is built with considerable Russian technology including the Russian-made 9M38 Buk-M1-2 (NATO codename: SA-N-12 Grizzly) air defence missile system, an extremely effective air defence system with a range of 38 km. Most military analysts expect the Guangzhou class to be similar to the Russian Sovremenny class destroyer in terms of general performance. The chief designer of this class is the academician Mr. Pan Jingfu (潘镜芙), who is also the designer of the previous two classes.
The Hobart class is a ship class of three air warfare destroyers (AWDs) being built for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Planning for a class to replace the Adelaide class frigates and restore the capability last exhibited by the Perth class destroyers began by 2000, initially under acquisition project SEA 1400, which was redesignated SEA 4000. Although the designation "Air Warfare Destroyer" is used to describe ships dedicated to the defence of a naval force (plus assets ashore) from aircraft and missile attack, the planned Australian destroyers would also be able to operate in anti-surface, anti-submarine, and naval gunfire support roles.
Planning for the Australian Air Warfare Destroyer (as the class was known until 2006) continued through the mid-2000s, with the selection of the Aegis combat system as the intended combat system and ASC as the primary shipbuilder in 2005. In late 2005, the AWD Alliance was formed as a consortium of the Defence Material Organisation, ASC, and Raytheon. Between 2005 and 2007, Gibbs & Cox's Evolved Arleigh Burke class destroyer and Navantia's Álvaro de Bazán class frigate competed for selection as the AWD design. Although the Arleigh Burke design
The Java class was a class of light cruisers of the Royal Netherlands Navy, named after the island of Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Originally, three ships were planned: HNLMS Java, HNLMS Sumatra, and HNLMS Celebes. Celebes was intended to be the flagship of the naval commander in the Dutch East Indies, and therefore she was slightly bigger than the other two ships. However, the contract was cancelled with 30 tons of material already prepared (A new ship, HNLMS de Ruyter was later built to fill that place).
The class was designed by the Germaniawerft in Kiel, but constructed in the Netherlands. They were designed to counter the Japanese reconnaissance cruisers of the Chikuma class of 1912, and to 1913 standards they were big, fast and heavily armed with 10 x 150 mm (5.9 inch) guns. However, these were not turret-mounted, and by the time the cruisers were finally launched after all the delays caused by the upheaval of World War I (Sumatra in 1920, Java in 1921), they had already become out-dated.
Nonetheless, both Sumatra and Java were still active at the outbreak of World War II.
Designed in 1913 built in the Schelde naval shipyards and launched on 9 August 1921,
Kotlin class destroyers were Cold War era ships built for the Soviet Navy. The Russian name for this class was Project 56 Spokoinyy (Спокойный, "tranquil"). 27 ships were built between 1955 and 1958; they were all decommissioned in the late 1980s. The Kildin class is based on the design of the Kotlins. The Chinese Luda class, which is based on the Neustrashimy class, also borrows some design concepts from the Kotlin class.
This design was a smaller version of the Neustrashimy class destroyer which was seen as being too large and expensive for economic series production, as well as too slow. Detailed design changes eliminated some of the problems seen during trials of the Neustrashimyy. A production run of 100 ships was planned but this was curtailed because of the advent of the guided missile. 32 were ordered, but four ships were completed as Kildin class (Project 56E/EM), the last vessel was canceled.
11 ships (Project 56PLO, Kotlin Mod.) were modified for enhanced ASW capabilities by adding rocket depth charge launchers.
In 1962, the Soviet Navy installed the navalized version of the S-125 Neva, the SA-N-1 'Goa', to a Project 56K Kotlin SAM class destroyer, the Bravyi (also
Ship type (ex: oil tanker, destroyer):Aircraft carrier
The Lexington class aircraft carriers were the first operational aircraft carriers in the United States Navy. (USS Langley was a strictly developmental ship.) There were two ships in the class: USS Lexington (CV-2) and USS Saratoga (CV-3).
The Lexington-class carriers were constructed on hulls originally laid down as battlecruisers after World War I. But under the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, all U.S. battleship and battlecruiser construction was cancelled. However, the Treaty allowed two of the unfinished ships to be converted to carriers.
They proved extremely successful as carriers, supporting wide-scale operations. Experience with the Lexington class convinced the Navy of the value of large carriers. The Lexington class carriers were the largest aircraft carriers in the fleet until the Midway-class carriers were completed. The class served in World War II, seeing action in many battles. Though Lexington was lost in the first carrier battle (Coral Sea), Saratoga served to the end of the war.
The Lexington-class were originally designed as battlecruisers, with heavy guns, high speed, and moderate armor protection. The Navy laid down six ships of the class from 1916 to 1919.
The Los Angeles-class, sometimes called the LA-class or the 688-class, is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines that forms the backbone of the U.S. Navy's submarine force. With 42 submarines of this class on active duty and 20 retired from service, the Los Angeles class has more nuclear submarines in it than any other class in the world. The Los Angeles class was preceded by the Sturgeon class and followed by the Seawolf. Except for USS Hyman G. Rickover (SSN-709), all submarines of this class are named after American cities and a few towns (e.g. Key West, Florida and Greeneville, Tennessee). This system of naming broke a long-standing tradition in the U.S. Navy of naming attack submarines for creatures of the ocean (e.g. USS Nautilus (SSN-571)).
The final 23 boats of the Los Angeles class were designed and built to be quieter than their predecessors and also to carry more-advanced sensor and weapons systems. These advanced boats were also designed for operating beneath the polar icecap. Their diving planes were placed at their bows rather than on their sails, and they have stronger sails for penetrating thick ice.
According to the U.S. Department of Defense, the top
The Monmouth-class was a ten-ship class of 10,000 ton armoured cruisers built around 1901 to 1903 for the Royal Navy and designed specifically for commerce protection. The ships were also referred to as County-class cruisers as they carried the names of British counties.
Expected only to fight light cruisers and armed merchant ships, they were armed with fourteen 6-inch guns at a time when most British armoured cruisers also carried at least a pair of 9.2 inch guns: Four of the guns were mounted in two twin turrets at a good height, the remaining ten were installed in hull-mounted casemates, 5 on each side. The lower casemate guns were just a few feet above water, making them impossible to use in heavy seas. Sir John Fisher commented that "Sir William White designed the County class but forgot the guns.". On the other hand, they were relatively fast ships for their time.
The following table gives the build details and purchase cost of the members of the Monmouth class. Standard British practice at that time was for these costs to exclude armament and stores. The compilers of The Naval Annual revised costs quoted for British ships between the 1905 and 1906 editions. The reasons for
The Nilgiri class frigates are updated versions of the Leander class, designed and built for the Indian Navy by Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai. Six ships were built between 1972-81. Vessels of the class formed the 14th Frigate Squadron. The lead ship INS Nilgiri was the first major warship to be built in India in collaboration with Yarrow Shipbuilders of the United Kingdom
The class and its lead ship, INS Nilgiri are named for the Nilgiri Hills. Subsequent ships in the class are also named for hill ranges of India.
When the Brirish refused to provide license production of the radar suite the Indian Navy tied up with Signaal of the Netherlands to license build in India a similar radar search, tracking and fire control suite which went into the latter five ships. Improved versions of the Signaal search radar continues to be fitted in later classes of Indian Navy ships. The last two INS Vindhyagiri and INS Taragiri were modified significantly with the addition of a Seaking ASW helicopter, a collapsibile Canadian hangar, ILAS 324 mm triple torpedo tubes and a Bofors ASW twin barrel mortar in the foc'sle. This re-design was done indigenously by the Indian Navy and gave it much needed
The Omaha-class cruisers were a class of light cruisers built for the United States Navy. The oldest class of cruiser still in service with the Navy at the outbreak of World War II, the Omaha class was an immediate post-World War I design.
Maneuvers conducted in January 1915 made it clear that the US Atlantic Fleet lacked the fast cruisers that were necessary to give information of the position of the enemy as well as to deny the enemy information of the fleet's own position and to screen friendly forces. Built to scout for a fleet of battleships, they featured a high speed (35 knots) for cooperation with destroyers, and 6-inch (152 mm) guns to fend off any destroyers the enemy might send against them. Displacing 7,050 tons, they were just over 555 feet long.
The Omaha class was designed specifically in response to the British Centaur-class cruisers. Although from a modern viewpoint, a conflict between the US and Great Britain seems implausible, US Navy planners during this time and up to the mid-1930s considered Britain to be a formidable rival for power in the Atlantic, and the possibility of armed conflict between the two countries plausible enough to merit appropriate planning
The Project 949 (Granit) and Project 949A (Antey) Soviet Navy/Russian Navy cruise missile submarines (NATO reporting names: Oscar-I and Oscar-II respectively).
Project 949 submarines were the largest cruise missile submarines in service, until the Ohio-class SSGN cruise missile submarine converted from SSBN and returned to service on October 15, 2007. They are the fourth largest class of submarines in terms of displacement and length. Only the Typhoon class Soviet/Russian submarines, the American Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines and the Russian Borei class submarines are larger.
The first submarine of the Project 949 was laid down in the mid 1970s and was commissioned in 1980. In 1982 an updated and larger version (Project 949A) replaced the earlier version. In total thirteen submarines were constructed. In the financial problems that followed the fall of the Soviet Union the Oscar class was prioritized by the Russian navy and when many older submarines classes were retired the Oscar class remained active in both the Northern and Pacific fleets. In 2011, five submarines are currently active with several more in reserve or waiting for repairs.
Two Project 949 Granit
The Pelorus class cruiser was a "third-class" protected cruiser class of eleven Royal Navy warships designed by Sir William White (Director of Naval Construction 1885 – 1902), based on the earlier Pearl class cruisers. They were ordered in 1893 under the Spencer Program, and laid down 1896–1900. The first, HMS Pelorus, was commissioned in 1896.
In an era of naval innovation, the class was almost outdated before they were launched. They were fitted with a variety of different boilers as a trial but most were not particularly satisfactory; so HMS Pandora was scrapped in 1913, HMS Perseus and HMS Prometheus in 1914. They had all been condemned in 1904 but had been reprieved. The remainder were to be scrapped in 1915, but were kept in service through the First World War. HMS Pegasus was sunk in combat in 1914, the rest were scrapped between 1919 and 1922 (except for HMS Pioneer). HMS Pactolus and HMS Pomone had Blechynden boilers which were particularly unreliable, they were removed from active service several years before others in the class.
Admiral Cresswell, the 1st Naval Member of the Australian Naval Board described Psyche and Pyramus in 1914 as "the unspeakably useless P.
The Porter-class destroyers were a class of eight 1,850-ton destroyers in the United States Navy.
The first four ships were laid down in 1933 by New York Shipbuilding and the next four in 1934 at Bethlehem Steel Corporation in Quincy, Massachusetts. All were commissioned in 1936 except the Winslow, which was commissioned in 1937.
They were built in response to the large destroyers that the Japanese Navy was building at the time, and were initially leaders of destroyer flotillas. They were originally built with eight Mk 12 5 inch/38 caliber (127 mm) guns in four Mark 22 Single Purpose (surface action only) twin mounts. This proved to be top heavy, and planes were becoming a greater threat, so during the war, mounts 51 and 54 were replaced with Dual Purpose (surface action and air action) twin mounts, and more smaller anti-aircraft guns were installed. In some ships, mount 52 was replaced by a quad 40 mm mount, and mount 53 became a single 5 in/38 (127/38 mm) Dual Purpose mount. Additional 40 mm guns were added amidships.
The larger Destroyer Leader type had been under active consideration since 1921. Indeed the General Board recommended the construction of five of the type in that
The Quebec-class submarine was the NATO reporting name of the Soviet Project 615 submarine class, a small coastal attack submarine of the late 1950s.
Prior to WWII, work on closed cycle diesel engines was carried out by S.A. Basilevskiy, who developed a powerplant codenamed REDO. The exhaust gases from the diesel engine were compressed and the carbon dioxide extracted and dumped overboard, before the purified gases were mixed with stored oxygen and fed back into the engine. A prototype of this powerplant was installed in the experimental submarine M-401, laid down at Gorky on 28 November 1939 and launched on 31 May 1941.
The M-401 made 74 cruises in the Caspian sea including 68 dives and 360 nmi (670 km; 410 mi) of submerged running on its closed-cycle plant. Further work was temporarily suspended due to the war but was resumed after hostilities ended, at Leningrad.
The data obtained from trials of the M-401 formed a basis for the design of the Project 615 Quebec class.
Quebec-class submarines were fitted with two regular diesel engines and a third, closed-cycle diesel engine, which used liquid oxygen (LOX) to provide air-independent propulsion while the submarine was
The River-class (re-designated in 1913 as the E-class) destroyer was a class of torpedo boat destroyer built for the Royal Navy at the turn of the 20th century, and which saw extensive service in World War I. The class introduced new features to destroyer design, placing a greater emphasis on seakeeping and endurance and less on a high maximum speed in good weather. All the ships were named after British rivers, and as such were the first Royal Navy destroyer class to be named systematically (see the article naming conventions for destroyers of the Royal Navy for more details).
The concept for the River class began in December 1900, with a request from John de Robeck, then the senior destroyer officer in the Mediterranean Fleet, for a new class of destroyer with a longer range than the existing "30-knotter" and "27-knotter" types. Robeck's specification called for a range of 1650nm at a sustained speed of 18 knots; the "30-knotter" could only make 1400nm at its cruising speed of 13 knots.
Robeck also called for various modifications to destroyer design to help ships make more seaworthy, in particular keeping up their speed in adverse weather conditions. The most noticeable change
The Sargo-class submarines were the first US submarines to be sent into action after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, starting war patrols the day after the attack. They were built between 1937 and 1939.
The Sargo-class submarine USS Swordfish (SS-193) had the distinction of being the first US Navy vessel to sink a Japanese ship in World War II.
The Sargo class was very active during the war, sinking 73 ships, including a Japanese submarine.
USS Sailfish (SS-192) of this class sank the aircraft carrier Chuyo, which was carrying 21 survivors from the submarine USS Sculpin (SS-191); only one of these prisoners survived the sinking. Sculpin had been one of the ships assisting in the rescue of 33 men when USS Squalus (SS-192) sank during a test dive in 1939; Squalus was refloated and recommissioned as USS Sailfish.
After the Second World War, boats of this class were moved into a training role before being scrapped. USS Searaven (SS-196) was used in the Bikini Atoll atomic weapon tests in 1946. There was negligible damage so she was later expended as a target. USS Sailfish was also due to become a target in the same atomic weapon tests but she was scrapped instead in 1948.
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside guns to bear. Since these engagements were almost invariably won by the heaviest ships carrying the most powerful guns, the natural progression was to build sailing vessels that were the largest and most powerful of their time.
From the end of the 1840s, the introduction of steam power brought less dependence on the wind in battle and led to the construction of screw-driven but wooden-hulled ships of the line; a number of pure sail-driven ships were converted to this propulsion mechanism. However, the introduction of the ironclad frigate in about 1859 led swiftly to the decline of the steam-assisted ships of the line, though the ironclad warship became the ancestor of the 20th-century battleship, whose very designation is itself a contraction of the phrase "line-of-battle ship."
The origin of the ship of the line can be found in the carrack first built by the Portuguese and similar great ships built by Britain and other
The St. Louis class light cruisers were a pair of warships that served in the US Navy during World War II. The class was a slight modification of the seven-ship Brooklyn class that immediately preceded them, incorporating new higher pressure boilers and a new boiler arrangement, as well as improved AA armament. They were the first US cruisers to be armed with twin five-inch (127 mm) 38-caliber guns. They could be distinguished visually from the Brooklyns by the placement of the after deckhouse, immediately abaft the second funnel, and by the twin 5" mounts.
Both ships were commissioned in 1939, and were active in the Pacific in World War II. Helena was sunk in 1943 during the Battle of Kula Gulf. St. Louis was seriously damaged twice, but survived the war and was transferred to the Brazilian navy in 1951, where she served until 1976.
The F67 type is a class of large high-sea (Blue water) Destroyers of the French Navy specialised in anti-submarine warfare. They have anti-air and anti-surface capabilities.
Between 1994 and 1996, the Tourville and the De Grasse were refitted with the modern SLASM anti-submarine system, an active Very Low Frequency (VLF) sonar.
The ships are an enlarged version of the F65 class frigate Aconit. They have two shaft steam turbine machinery and a double hangar for two Lynx helicopters. They were the first ships fitted with the marine version of the Crotale surface to air missile system. A Malafon anti submarine missile system was fitted when the ships were built but this was removed during refits in the late 1980s.
Optimized for anti-submarine warfare, and carrying towed as well as hull-mounted sonar arrays, the Tourvilles were typically placed in the destroyer category of warship and carry destroyer pennant numbers. Similar in many regards to the unmodified Spruance class destroyers, they carried a similar combination of sensors, naval guns, anti-ship and anti-submarine weapons, aircraft and surface-to-air missiles. Additionally, they were well-regarded for their seakeeping, serving
The Wave class tankers are Royal Fleet Auxiliary "Fast Fleet Tankers" tasked with providing fuel, food, fresh water, ammunition and other supplies to Royal Navy vessels around the world. There are two ships in the class, RFA Wave Knight and RFA Wave Ruler. The ships were ordered to replace the ageing Ol-class tankers RFA Olna and RFA Olwen. The two vessels have seen service in a number of locations, including anti-drug and hurricane relief operations in the Caribbean, anti-piracy activities around the Horn of Africa and deterrent patrols in the South Atlantic.
A contract was placed for the vessels in 1997 with Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd (Marconi Marine VSEL). Construction of Wave Knight began in 1998 at VSEL's Barrow-in-Furness yard and the ship was launched in 2000. With the acquisition of Marconi Electronic Systems and its Marconi Marine subsidiary in 1999 British Aerospace became BAE Systems. BAE now owns VSEL in Barrow and the Yarrow and Govan shipyards on the Clyde. BAE transferred the construction of Wave Ruler to Govan in 2000 and the vessel was launched in 2001. Both vessels were commissioned in 2003.
The ships have the capability to supply fuel and other
The Yankee class is the NATO classification for a type of nuclear-powered submarine that was constructed by the Soviet Union from 1968 onward. 34 units were produced under Project 667A Navaga (after the fish) and Project 667AU Nalim ("burbot"). 24 were built at Severodvinsk for the Northern Fleet while the remaining 10 built in Komsomolsk-na-Amurye for the Pacific Fleet. Two Northern Fleet units were transferred to the Pacific. The lead unit K-137 Leninets, receiving its honorific name 11 April 1970, two and one half years after being commissioned.
The Yankee-class nuclear submarines were the first class of Soviet ballistic missile submarines (BMS) to have thermonuclear firepower comparable with that of their American and British Polaris submarine counterparts. The Yankee-class BMS were quieter in the ocean than were their Hotel-class predecessors, and the Yankee-class had better streamlining that improved their underwater performance. The Yankee-class BMS were actually quite similar to the Polaris submrines of the U.S. Navy and the Royal Navy. These boats were all armed with 16 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) with multiple nuclear warheads as nuclear deterrents during