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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Scholarly work of All Time

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    1
    7.22
    9 votes
    2
    Stanley: The Robot that Won  the DARPA Grand Challenge

    Stanley: The Robot that Won the DARPA Grand Challenge

    This article describes the robot Stanley, which won the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge. Stanley was developed for high-speed desert driving without manual intervention. The robot’s software system relied predominately on state-of-the-art artificial intelligence technologies, such as machine learning and probabilistic reasoning. This paper describes the major components of this architecture, and discusses the results of the Grand Challenge race. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    9.00
    6 votes
    3

    North American Waterfowl Management Plan: A Strategy for Cooperation

    The North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) is an international plan to conserve waterfowl and migratory birds in North America. It was established in 1986 by Canada and the United States, and expanded to include Mexico in 1994. In the United States, it was authorized by the North American Wetlands Conservation Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-233), and is administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service, with USDA agencies participating as appropriate. Projects of this plan are "international in scope, but implemented at regional levels". Critical to the populations of migratory birds, wetlands in Canada and the United States had disappeared as a result of development since the days of early European settlement in both countries. By 1985, at least 53 percent of wetlands in the contiguous United States and a minimum of 29 percent of wetlands in Canada had been destroyed. This led to plummeting populations of waterfowl, which reached "record lows" in 1985. In 1986, the Canadian and U.S. governments signed the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, through their representatives: Tom McMillan, the Minister of the Environment for Canada, and Donald Hodel, the Secretary of the Interior
    9.80
    5 votes
    4
    8.17
    6 votes
    5

    La Guardia Committee

    The La Guardia Committee was the first in depth study into the effects of smoking marijuana in the United States. An earlier study, the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, was conducted by the colonial authorities in British India in 1893-94. It systematically contradicted claims made by the U.S. Treasury Department that smoking marijuana results in insanity, deteriorates physical and mental health, assists in criminal behavior and juvenile delinquency, is physically addictive, and is a "gateway" drug to more dangerous drugs. The report was prepared by the New York Academy of Medicine, on behalf of a commission appointed in 1939 by New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia who was a strong opponent of the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act. Released in 1944, the report infuriated Harry Anslinger who was campaigning against marijuana and he condemned it as unscientific. Anslinger went on an offensive against what he saw as a "degenerate Hollywood" that was promoting marijuana use. After high profile arrests of actors like Robert Mitchum, Hollywood gave Anslinger full control over the script of any film that mentioned marijuana. After more than five years of research the members of the committee drew up a
    8.40
    5 votes
    6
    8.40
    5 votes
    7
    8.20
    5 votes
    8
    7.00
    6 votes
    9

    Algorithmic version for Szemerédi regularity partition

    A Simple Algorithm for Constructing Szemerédi's Regularity Partition is a paper by Alan M. Frieze and Ravi Kannan giving an algorithmic version of the Szemerédi regularity lemma to find an ε-regular partition of a given graph. The formal statement of Szemerédi's regularity lemma requires some definitions. Let G be a graph. The density d(X,Y) of a pair of disjoint vertex sets X, Y is defined as d(X,Y)=|E(X,Y)|/|X||Y| where E(X,Y) denotes the set of edges having one end vertex in X and one in Y. For ε>0, a pair of vertex sets X and Y is called ε-regular, if for all subsets A⊆X and B⊆Y satisfying |A| ≥ε |X| and |B| ≥ ε |Y|, we have |d(X,Y)-d(A,B)| ≤ ε. A partition of the vertex set of G into k sets, V1,...,Vk, is called an equitable partition if for all , ||Vi|-|Vj||≤1. An equitable partition is an -regular partition, if for all but at most pairs (i,j) the pair is -regular. Now we are ready to state the regularity lemma. Regularity lemma. For every and positive integer there exist integers and such that if is a graph with at least vertices, there exists an integer in the range ≤ ≤ and an -regular partition of the vertex set of into sets. It is a common variant in the
    8.00
    5 votes
    10

    Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an environmental study of historical mining in the Animas River watershed upstream of the town of Silverton, southwestern Colorado, using the watershed approach. Results of the study are being used by State and Federal agencies and by the local watershed stakeholders group to plan and implement cleanup. The watershed approach is based on the premise that contaminated sites that have the most profound effect on water and ecosystem quality within a watershed can be identified, characterized, and ranked for cleanup. The process helps land managers evaluate risk and focus remediation efforts on these sites.For further information visit the project website: URL: http://amli.usgs.gov/
    8.00
    5 votes
    11
    7.80
    5 votes
    12

    Human Chauvinism

    Human Chauvinism is a review by Richard Dawkins of Stephen Jay Gould's book Full House: The Spread of Excellence From Plato to Darwin.
    7.60
    5 votes
    13
    Paradigm Dancing

    Paradigm Dancing

    • Works cited: Burn This Book
    PARADIGM DANCING is the the American author Aberjhani's official PEN International and PEN American Center blog. In the tradition of PEN itself, the blog features articles and essays addressing both literary and human rights issues. It is distinguished, however, by a strong focus as well on the life and philosophy of PEN Club founder and Nobel Laureate John Galsworthy.
    7.60
    5 votes
    14

    Patuxent Bird Identification Infocenter Version 97.1

    This page is a composite of the efforts of many people who have donated photographs, songs, and other information. The photographs, videos and songs are used with permission of the authors. They have provided permission for viewing images and playing the sound files in conjunction with use of this website, but permission must be obtained for other uses of the files. Please do not copy photographs, videos or songs without their permission! Contact information is valid at time of posting.

    Please cite this page as:Gough, G.A., Sauer, J.R., Iliff, M. Patuxent Bird Identification Infocenter. 1998. Version 97.1. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD. http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/id/framlst/infocenter.html
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    7.40
    5 votes
    16
    8.50
    4 votes
    17
    8.50
    4 votes
    18

    Necessary conjunction

    "Necessary conjunction: three marriages that shapes the Age of Reform, 1890-1930" is a PhD in history dissertation by Eric Rauchway.
    6.33
    6 votes
    19

    A Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy for Georgia

    In December 2002 the Wildlife Resources Division (WRD) of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (DNR) began a process to develop a comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy. Through the Wildlife Conservation and Reinvestment Program, WRD made a commitment to develop and begin implementation of this comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy (CWCS) by October 1, 2005. Funding for this planning effort came from a federal grant to WRD through the State Wildlife Grant program; matching funds were provided through Georgia’s Nongame Wildlife Conservation Fund. The goal of the strategy is to conserve Georgia’s animals, plants, and natural habitats through proactive measures emphasizing voluntary and incentive-based programs on private lands, habitat restoration and management by public agencies and private conservation organizations, rare species survey and recovery efforts, and environmental education and public outreach activities.
    7.20
    5 votes
    20
    7.20
    5 votes
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    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    8.00
    4 votes
    23

    Evolution and phylogeny of old world deer

    • Works cited: The origin and function of bizarre structures: antler size and skull size in the Irish Elk, Megaloceros giganteus
    Evolution and phylogeny of old world deer is a journal article by Christian Pitra, Joerns Fickel, Erik Meijaard and Colin Groves.
    7.75
    4 votes
    24
    7.75
    4 votes
    25

    Pollination syndromes and floral specialization

    • Works cited: Evolution and the triumph of homology, or why history matters
    Pollination syndromes and floral specialization is a journal article by Charles B. Fenster, W. Scott Armbruster, Paul Wilson, Michele R. Dudash, and James D. Thomson.
    7.75
    4 votes
    26
    7.75
    4 votes
    27

    Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle: Myth and Metaphor in the Discovery of Geological Time

    • Works cited: Is uniformitarianism necessary?
    Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle is a history of geology by Stephen Jay Gould offering a historical account of the conceptualization of Deep Time and uniformitarianism using the works of Thomas Burnet, James Hutton, and Charles Lyell. Gould ranks the development of the concept "deep time," which involved deliberately rejecting the biblical description of earth's past for nearly incomprehensible eons, with the revolutions associated with Copernicus and Darwin. To illustrate this, Gould picked three major figures in the history of geology, one traditional villain (Thomas Burnet) and two traditional heroes (James Hutton and Charles Lyell). Standard textbook accounts of the achievements of these three figures have long provided what Gould describes as a "self-serving mythology." These flimsy "cardboard" accounts vaunt the superiority of empiricism and inductivism over the scientific nemesis of religious bigotry. This legend as perpetuated by geology textbooks over the last century claims that geology remained in the service of the Mosaic story of creation so long as armchair geological theorists refused to place fieldwork ahead of scriptural authority. Thomas Burnet was just such an
    7.75
    4 votes
    28
    7.75
    4 votes
    29
    6.60
    5 votes
    30
    7.50
    4 votes
    31
    7.50
    4 votes
    32

    Epigrams on Programming

    Epigrams on Programming is an article by Alan Perlis published in 1982, for ACM's SIGPLAN journal. They are a series of short, programming language neutral, humorous statements about computers and programming, which are widely quoted. It first appeared in SIGPLAN Notices 17(9), September 1982.
    8.67
    3 votes
    33
    8.67
    3 votes
    34

    The North American Banders' Study Guide

    The purpose of this Banders' Study Guide is to provide for all banders in North America the basic information to safely and productively conduct bird banding. This publication is an integral part of several other publications, including a Trainer's Guide, and taxon-specific manuals for landbirds, hummingbirds, shorebirds, raptors, waterfowl, seabirds, and perhaps other groups.
    8.67
    3 votes
    35
    8.67
    3 votes
    36
    Who's really sharing: Effects of social and expert status on knowledge exchange within groups

    Who's really sharing: Effects of social and expert status on knowledge exchange within groups

    This study investigated the effects of social status and perceived expertise on the emphasis of unique and shared knowledge within functionally heterogeneous groups. While perceived expertise did not increase the individual's emphasis of their own unique knowledge, perceived experts were more likely than nonexperts to emphasize shared knowledge and other member's unique knowledge contributions. Additionally, socially isolated members participated more in discussions and emphasized more of their unique knowledge than did socially connected members. While unique knowledge contributions increased the positive perception of social isolates, similar unique knowledge contributions decreased the positive perception of socially connected members. Finally, socially connected group members gave greater attention to the unique knowledge contributions of the socially isolated member than to the contributions of their socially connected other, but more favorably evaluated members to whom they were more favorably connected than those to whom they were not. We discuss the implications of our findings for managing knowledge exchange within diverse groups.
    8.67
    3 votes
    37
    10.00
    2 votes
    38
    Institutional convergence and the diffusion of university-versus firm-origin technologies

    Institutional convergence and the diffusion of university-versus firm-origin technologies

    Recent research on innovation and entrepreneurship has emphasized inter‐organizational knowledge flows and has offered special attention to the role of universities in these knowledge networks. But, most studies have neither measured actual knowledge flows, instead relying on patents and/or alliances to serve as proxies, nor provided adequate theoretical justifications or empirical evidence for how and why knowledge diffusion processes of universities might differ from those of firms. To address these issues, I compare diffusion mechanisms and patterns for select university‐ versus firm‐origin technologies in biotechnology and digital audio. I draw upon a database that I constructed of more than 10,000 publications and patents, along with 220 interviews and several hundred pages of archival materials. The results highlight the central role of inter‐personal – over inter‐organizational – networks in enabling the diffusion of knowledge and in shaping how individual researchers in each organizational context respond to the competing demands of public science and private science.
    10.00
    2 votes
    39
    10.00
    2 votes
    40
    ABC News Angry Voter Poll, April 1992

    ABC News Angry Voter Poll, April 1992

    In addition to providing an ongoing evaluation of the Bush presidency and the 1992 presidential candidates and campaign, this survey addressed areas of potential discontent among the nation's voters. Respondents were asked to describe their feelings about the way the federal government worked, to express their approval of term limits for members of Congress and to indicate whether they agreed with a series of statements such as "It won't really make much of a difference who's elected this year," and "People like me don't have any say about what government does." Respondents also rated their level of confidence in the ability of government to solve problems and indicated whether their confidence level reflected the difficulty of the problems or the incompetency of the government. Respondents were also asked whether the elected leaders in Washington were really interested in solving the nation's biggest problems, whether the overall level of ethics and honesty in politics had fallen during the past ten years, and whether they thought that government was run by a few big interests looking out for themselves. In addition, respondents were queried on whether they thought that the current system of government needed drastic changes, or that the system itself was good but the people in government were not doing their jobs well enough. Background information on respondents includes political alignment, voter registration status, education, age, Hispanic origin, race, and sex.
    6.40
    5 votes
    41

    Where is the Progress?

    Where is the Progress? is Luis Mateus Rocha's review of Stephen Jay Gould's book Full House: The Spread of Excellence From Plato to Darwin.
    6.40
    5 votes
    42
    7.25
    4 votes
    43
    8.33
    3 votes
    44
    8.33
    3 votes
    45
    6.20
    5 votes
    46

    Sudden Death: Northern Hemisphere

    The killing of seabirds in longline fisheries is a global problem from which the U.S. is not immune. In the North Pacific, U.S.-based and other longliners kill tens of thousands of seabirds each year. There are more than 2,500 vessels in the Alaskan longline fleet landing $300 million worth of fish annually and in excess of 140 vessels in Hawaii. In total, these fisheries set more than 210 million hooks each year in total.
    9.50
    2 votes
    47
    9.50
    2 votes
    48
    7.00
    4 votes
    49

    Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest

    The Guide is the result of many years of field and office work, of collection, analysis and interpretation of data about the Forest. The objectives were to:
    (1) develop an upland forest vegetation classification based on relatively stable plant communities (associations);
    (2) collect adequate data to characterize the physical attributes of each plant association, including soils, slope, aspect, microrelief and landform;
    (3) determine and present estimates of site productivity for each association; and,
    (4) document the effects of disturbance where possible, and make management recommendations for each association.

    Lillybridge, T.R.; Kovalchik, B.L.; Williams, C.K.; Smith, B.G. 1995. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-359. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 335 p. In cooperation with: Pacific Northwest Region, Wenatchee National Forest
    7.00
    4 votes
    50
    6.00
    5 votes
    51

    Birding and DNA: species for the new millenium

    Reviews some of the species concepts most relevant to avian studies, and attempts to show how and why this change has happened, and its consequences for taxonomy and species limits. Examples are given in the form of ‘case studies’, and include Carrion/Hooded Crows Corvus corone/cornix, Green-winged/Eurasian Teals Anas carolinensis/crecca and Phylloscopus warblers.
    8.00
    3 votes
    52
    8.00
    3 votes
    53
    National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), 1994-2002

    National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), 1994-2002

    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-1995 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with three in-home interviews, the most recent in 2001-2002, when the sample was aged 18-26. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood.
    8.00
    3 votes
    54
    Paradigm Dancing: An Introduction

    Paradigm Dancing: An Introduction

    • Works cited: Five tales
    Inauguration article for the PARADIGM DANCING blog hosted on the PEN American Center website. Described within the text as: "...a dance of notions, perspectives, and interpretations moving in out of days gone by and days yet to come, it will spin both forward and sideways at varying tempos."
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    8.00
    3 votes
    56

    The State of the Birds

    Birds are a priceless part of America’s heritage. They are beautiful, they are economically important—and they reflect the health of our environment. This State of the Birds report reveals troubling declines of bird populations during the past 40 years—a warning signal of the failing health of our ecosystems. At the same time, we see heartening evidence that strategic land management and conservation action can reverse declines of birds. This report calls attention to the collective efforts needed to protect nature’s resources for the benefit of people and wildlife.
    8.00
    3 votes
    57
    The Mobile Robot RHINO

    The Mobile Robot RHINO

    RHINO was the University of Bonn's entry in the 1994 AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition. RHINO is a mobile robot designed for indoor navigation and manipulation tasks. The general scientific goal of the RHINO project is the development and the analysis of autonomous and complex learning systems. This paper briefly describes the major components of the RHINO control software as they were exhibited at the competition. It also sketches the basic philosophy of the RHINO architecture and discusses some of the lessons that we learned during the competition.
    5.17
    6 votes
    58

    Act for Songbirds

    This report is prepared to help the general public, conservation organizations, and elected officials understand the NMBCA’s purpose, goals, and successes, and the need for continuing the program at an increased funding level to improve the conservation of Neotropical migratory birds.

    Unfortunately, current NMBCA funding levels can only provide grants to one-third of qualifying applications. A significant increase in funding for the NMBCA is needed to support the growing conservation needs of Neotropical migratory birds and their habitats.
    6.75
    4 votes
    59
    6.75
    4 votes
    60
    6.75
    4 votes
    61

    Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Fish and Wildlife: A Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) Bibliography

    Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Fish and Wildlife is one in a multi-volume set developed by the Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). This bibliography is a guide to recent scientific literature covering effects of agricultural conservation practices on fish and wildlife. The citations  provide information on how conservation programs and practices designed to improve fish and wildlife habitat, as well as those intended for other purposes, e.g., water quality improvement, affect various aquatic and terrestrial fauna.
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Information processing in traditional, hybrid, and virtual teams: From nascent knowledge to trransactive memory

    Information processing in traditional, hybrid, and virtual teams: From nascent knowledge to trransactive memory

    Virtual teams are increasingly common in organizations, yet explicit theory and research on virtual team processes and outcomes is relatively rare. In this chapter, we first place virtual teams in context and provide a two dimensional framework for understanding the range of virtualness. We then build from foundations of diversity, psychological safety, social identity, conflict, and transactive memory to provide a coherent model of traditional, hybrid, and virtual team outcomes. Fourteen propositions are derived from these foundations - covering knowledge availability, sharing, refinement, and storage. Teams whose members are separated by geographical or temporal distance can have considerable positive outcomes for organizations, if they are effectively managed and supported.
    9.00
    2 votes
    63

    South Carolina Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy 2005 - 2010

    In response to a congressional mandate, the SC DNR has concluded a major planning effort to identify the challenges facing the state’s diverse wildlife species and devise strategies to conserve those species and their habitats. Known as South Carolina’s Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy, the result is a guide to conserving the 1,240 species of fish and wildlife that have immediate conservation needs or are key indicators of the diversity and health of the state’s wildlife. Without attention, many of these species could become endangered or disappear altogether. The Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy emphasizes a cooperative, proactive approach to conservation, inviting local governments, businesses and conservation-minded organizations and individuals to join in the task of maintaining the fish and wildlife resources that are so important in our lives.
    9.00
    2 votes
    64
    9.00
    2 votes
    65
    5.80
    5 votes
    66

    ArcView Spatial Analyst Tutorial: Analysis of Ecological Land Units

    This document published by The Nature Conservancy Conservation Science Support - GIS, Eastern Resource Office describes methods for predicting location and extent of a particular ecological community by taking the underlying abiotic ecological features, land cover data, and existing community distribution information to predict the potential extent of a particular land community type.
    7.67
    3 votes
    67

    Birds of Conservation Concern 2002

    The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of all migratory nongame birds that, without additional conservation actions, are likely to become candidates for listing under the Endangered Species Act of 1973.” Birds of Conservation Concern 2002 (BCC 2002) is the most recent effort to carry out this mandate. The overall goal of this report is to accurately identify the migratory and non-migratory bird species (beyond those already designated as Federally threatened or endangered) that represent our highest conservation priorities and draw attention to species in need of conservation action. The geographic scope of this endeavor is the United States in its entirety, including island "territories" in the Pacific and Caribbean. It is more comprehensive than previous versions. BCC 2002 encompasses three distinct geographic scales–North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI) Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs), USFWS Regions, and National–and is primarily derived from assessment scores from three major bird conservation plans: Partners in Flight, the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan, and the North American Waterbird Conservation Plan.
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    7.67
    3 votes
    70
    Characterization of mouse clonogenic magakaryocyte

    Characterization of mouse clonogenic magakaryocyte

    Although it has been shown that unfractionated bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells, common myeloid progenitors, and bipotent megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors can give rise to megakaryocyte colonies in culture, monopotent megakaryocyte-committed progenitors (MKP) have never been prospectively isolated from the bone marrow of adult mice. Here, we use a monoclonal antibody to the megakaryocyte-associated surface protein, CD9, to purify MKPs from the c-kit+Sca-1−IL7Rα−Thy1.1−Lin− fraction of adult C57BL/Ka-Thy1.1 bone marrow. The CD9+ fraction contained a subset of CD41+FcγRloCD34+CD38+ cells that represent ≈0.01% of the total nucleated bone marrow cells. They give rise mainly to colony-forming unit–megakaryocytes and occasionally burst-forming unit–megakaryocytes, with a plating efficiency >60% at the single-cell level. In vivo, MKPs do not have spleen colony-forming activity nor do they contribute to long-term multilineage hematopoiesis; they give rise only to platelets for ≈3 weeks. Common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors can differentiate into MKPs after 72 h in stromal cultures, indicating that MKPs are downstream of these two progenitors. These isolatable MKPs will be very useful for further studies of megakaryopoiesis as well as the elucidation of their gene expression patterns...
    10.00
    1 votes
    71
    10.00
    1 votes
    72

    Fish Men Discover a 2,200 year old Greek Ship

    Cousteau's use of the Calypso, a former US Navy ship became a trademark for his explorations. The ship was found in 1952 by Cousteau just off Grand Congloué, a rocky island about 15km from Marseilles. His report set standards for Marine Archaeology for years to come.
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    10.00
    1 votes
    76

    Strategic Habitat Conservation: Final Report of the National Ecological Assessment Team

    To encourage and expand the use of Strategic Habitat Conservation (SHC), this publication addresses the change in our approach to conservation, including emerging methods, organizational capacity, and how best to recruit, prepare, and maintain an effective workforce. The authors recommend the FWS’s Directorate and USGS’s Executive Leadership Team take immediate steps to endorse and implement the SHC framework. By doing so, the FWS, with strong assistance from USGS, will become more efficient and effective at conserving priority habitats; will take actions that are increasingly based on scientific findings and adaptive management; and, ultimately, stakeholders and partners will find the bureaus more credible and accountable.
    10.00
    1 votes
    77

    Symbolic Exploitation and the Social Dialectic of Desire

    Utilizing the work of Thorstein Veblen, I argue that the interrogation of `symbolic exploitation' should be of pressing concern to sociologists who hope to end economic exploitation. Contesting economic exploitation must begin with the destruction of traditional sovereign action patterns of desire that ensnare agents. Such a work of destruction must simultaneously be a work of construction, the construction of counter-hegemonic cultures of solidarity that reject the normative systems of status distribution associated with pecuniary capitalism. With this self-recognition on the part of the laboring classes, the end of economic exploitation becomes both palpable and possible.
    10.00
    1 votes
    78
    10.00
    1 votes
    79
    10.00
    1 votes
    80

    Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start

    This report describes the mapping of wildlife habitats and landscapes sensitive to wind developments. Some of these categories of land are sufficiently sensitive to merit the exclusion of wind energy development, while other categories would permit wind energy development if certain best practices are implemented. By overlaying the various sensitive land types, a picture emerges showing where wind power development should be avoided (marked in red on the maps), where it could proceed with caution (mapped in yellow), and the areas lacking land use conflicts where it should be encouraged (marked in green).

    **The common "Technical report" type needs to be added to this topic. That type is currently in development (20081202).
    10.00
    1 votes
    81

    Applying Ecological Knowledge to Landuse Decisions

    In this volume the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research synthesizes the knowledge and experience of several of its collaborative research networks on terrestrial ecosystems, forests, grasslands, agriculture and river margins, and explores how this may be used to guide decisions on landuse.
    6.50
    4 votes
    82
    6.50
    4 votes
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    6.50
    4 votes
    84
    8.50
    2 votes
    85
    8.50
    2 votes
    86
    What differences make a difference? The promise and reality of diverse teams in organizations

    What differences make a difference? The promise and reality of diverse teams in organizations

    As the workplace has become increasingly diverse, there has been a tension between the promise and the reality of diversity in team process and performance. The optimistic view holds that diversity will lead to an increase in the variety of perspectives and approaches brought to a problem and to opportunities for knowledge sharing, and hence lead to greater creativity and quality of team performance. However, the preponderance of the evidence favors a more pessimistic view: that diversity creates social divisions, which in turn create negative performance outcomes for the group.
    8.50
    2 votes
    87

    American Woodcock Habitat Best Management Practices for the Central Appalachian Mountains Region

    This Technical Note summarizes work by the Appalachian Mountains Woodcock Initiative to develop a regional system of demonstration areas, and to monitor the response of woodcock to habitat treatment in the Appalachian Mountains Region of Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, West Virginia, western portions of Maryland and Virginias. Information contained within applies to these states but may be applicable elsewhere.
    7.33
    3 votes
    88

    Expanding the Vision: 1998 Update North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    • Acknowledged people: Charles Baxter
    The 1986 North American Waterfowl Management Plan launched a new era in wildlife conservation, setting out a blueprint for developing public–private partnerships to conserve natural resources. Today, thousands of partners in our three nations have established a continental conservation legacy, one that is based on sound science and a landscape approach. Building on this foundation, the 1998 Update, Expanding the Vision, envisions a North America where the needs of waterfowl—and indeed all wild species— are considered, as citizens participate in making decisions about the use of landscapes. We enthusiastically endorse this concept and encourage leadership by Plan partners in implementing this vision well into the next century.
    7.33
    3 votes
    89
    7.33
    3 votes
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    7.33
    3 votes
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    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    6.25
    4 votes
    93

    The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds

    The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds - their distribution and abundance (ISBN 0-85661-091-7) is an ornithological atlas published for the European Bird Census Council by T & A D Poyser in 1997. Its editors were Ward J. M. Hagemeijer and Michael J. Blair. The atlas was the first to present grid-square distribution maps for all breeding birds at a Europe-wide level. The bulk of the book is in English, although it also contains introductions in thirteen other European languages. The atlas presents the results of the European Bird Census Council's European Ornithological Atlas project, the fieldwork for which was carried out between 1985 and 1988. The book has cxli + 903 pages. Its Foreword (by Karel H Voous) and Preface (by Goetz Rheinwald and Jeremy Greenwood) are followed by an English introduction and shorter introductions in Czech, German, Spanish, French, Finnish, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, Polish, Russian and Swedish; indexes of bird names, in the same languages, are also included, at the end of the book. The introductions are followed by sections detailing the history of the European Ornithological Atlas project and the Evolution and History of the
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    94

    Two Cultures

    Two Cultures is Howard A. Doughty's review of Stephen Jay Gould's books The Lying Stones of Marrakech, Dinosaur in a Haystack: Reflections in Natural History and Leonardo's Mountain of Clams and the Diet of Worms.
    6.25
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    95
    Visualizing Gene Expression in Living Mammals Using a Bioluminescent Reporter

    Visualizing Gene Expression in Living Mammals Using a Bioluminescent Reporter

    Control of gene expression often involves an interwoven set of regulatory processes. As information regarding regulatory pathways may be lost in ex vivo analyses, we used bioluminescence to monitor gene expression in living mammals. Viral promoters fused to firefly luciferase as transgenes in mice allowed external monitoring of gene expression both superficially and in deep tissues. In vivo bioluminescence was detectable using either intensified or cooled charge-coupled device cameras, and could be detected following both topical and systemic delivery of substrate. In vivo control of the promoter from the human immunodeficiency virus was demonstrated. As a model for DNA-based therapies and vaccines, in vivo transfection of a luciferase expression vector (SV-40 promoter and enhancer controlling expression) was detected. We conclude that gene regulation, DNA delivery and expression can now be noninvasively monitored in living mammals using a luciferase reporter. Thus, real-time, noninvasive study of gene expression in living animal models for human development and disease is possible.
    6.25
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    96

    Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report

    The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report, completed in 1894, was a British study of marijuana usage in India. 2 March 1893, the British House of Commons was concerned with the effects of hemp drugs in the province of Bengal, India. The Government of India convened a seven-member commission to look into these questions, commencing their study on 3 July 1893. Lord Kimberley suggested modifying the scope of the investigation to be expanded to include all of India. The report the Commission produced was at least 3,281 pages long, with testimony from almost 1,200 "doctors, coolies, yogis, fakirs, heads of lunatic asylums, bhang peasants, tax gatherers, smugglers, army officers, hemp dealers, ganja palace operators and the clergy." The President of the commission was Mr. W. Mackworth Young, and other members include H.T. Ommanney, A.H.L. Fraser, Surgeon-Major C.J.H. Warden, Raja Soshi Sikhareshwar Roy, Kanwar Harnam Singh, and Lala Nihal Chand. Serving as secretary was Mr. H.J. McIntosh. This extensively well-prepared and thorough report summarized the Effects (potentially negative) of Marijuana in a chapter dedicated to that. Here is the end of that chapter: "Conclusions The Commission
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    97
    Basic Principles of Stereophonic Sound

    Basic Principles of Stereophonic Sound

    Stereophonic sound has become of vital importance to industry. The subject has been studied for many years, but the published material is scattered. This paper summarizes the fundamental theory underlying stereophonic sound so far as it has been published, and gives examples of how the theory is employed in representative practical situations. Fundamental differences between ordinary binaural listening and stereophony are pointed out, as well as similarities. It is shown that much qualitative but little quantitative information has been reported. Factors which aid some stereophonic effects are shown to be detrimental to others, and methods of minimizing the undesirable conditions are suggested. Applications to recording are discussed.
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    102

    SharePoint in extranets

    • Works cited: SharePoint usability: It's all about workflow
    Collaboration is one of the main reasons why organizations install SharePoint. But is it the best solution for working with external partners and experts?
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    103
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    105
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    106
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    107

    Forested plant associations of the Colville National Forest

    Author: Williams, Clinton K.; Kelley, Brian F.; Smith, Bradley G.; Lillybridge, Terry R. Date: 1996 Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-360. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. In cooperation with: Pacific Northwest Region, Colville National Forest. 405 p Station ID: GTR-PNW-360 Description: A classification of forest vegetation is presented for the Colville National Forest in northeastern Washington State. It is based on potential vegetation with the plant association as the basic unit. The classification is based on a sample of approximately 229 intensive plots and 282 reconnaissance plots distributed across the forest from 1980 to 1983. The hierarchical classification includes 5 forest tree series and 39 plant associations or community types. Diagnostic keys are presented for each tree series and plant association or community type. Descriptions include information about plant association or community species composition, occurrences, distribution, environment, soils, forest productivity, management implications and relations to other vegetation classifications. Background information is also presented on the ecology, geology, soils, climate, and fire history of the Colville National Forest.
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    110

    Morphological Channeling by Structural Constraint: Convergence in Styles of Dwarfing and Gigantism in Cerion, with a Description of Two New Fossil Species and a Report on the Discovery of the Largest Cerion

    • Works cited: An evolutionary microcosm: Pleistocene and Recent history of the land snail P. (Poecilozonites) in Bermuda
    Morphological Channeling by Structural Constraint: Convergence in Styles of Dwarfing and Gigantism in Cerion, with a Description of Two New Fossil Species and a Report on the Discovery of the Largest Cerion is a journal article by Stephen Jay Gould.
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    111

    North Carolina Wildlife Action Plan

    The Wildlife Action Plan is a comprehensive management tool developed by the N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission to help conserve and enhance the state’s full array of fish and wildlife and their habitats. Crafted by our state leaders in research, conservation and education, the Wildlife Action Plan identifies diverse management strategies, research studies and conservation efforts to ensure that all of our wildlife resources have a healthy place to call home.
    8.00
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    112

    Partners in Flight Monitoring Needs Assessment Summary

    • Works cited: The Northeast Bird Monitoring Handbook: Ten Steps to Successful Bird Conservation through Improved Monitoring
    Monitoring needs were identified through the PIF Needs Assessment at the 2008 International Partners In Flight Conference, and additional resources were evaluated for this document,including High Priority Needs for Range-wide Monitoring of North American Landbirds (Dunn et al. 2005), Opportunities for Improving Avian Monitoring (US NABCI 2007), A Framework for Coordinated Bird Monitoring in the Northeast (NECBM Partnership 2007), and The Northeast Bird Monitoring Handbook: 10 Steps to Successful Bird Conservation through Improved Monitoring (Lambert et al. 2008).
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    116

    Birding in the United States: A Demographic and Economic Analysis

    • Acknowledged people: Richard Aiken
    Addendum to the 2006 National Survey on Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Associated Recreation. This report identifies who birders are in the United States, where they live, how avid they are, and what kinds of birds they watch. In addition to demographic information, this report also provides an economic measure of birding. The authors estimate how much birders spend on their hobby and the economic impact of these expenditures.
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    119

    Guidelines for assigning species rank

    Developments in several fields of study (including bio-acoustics and the analysis of DNA) together with reappraisals of the nature of species have impacted significantly on avian taxonomy. The BOU’s Taxonomic Subcommittee has developed guidelines for the application of species limits to sympatric, parapatric, allopatric and hybridizing taxa. These are published here to assist researchers understand the rationale behind the committee’s taxonomic recommendations relating to the British List.
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    121

    Range-wide Streaked Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris strigata) Assessment and Preliminary Conservation Strategy

    The goal of this report is not to duplicate the efforts of others but to provide a range-wide review of the current wintering and breeding range, list of habitat requirements and estimates of wintering and breeding population numbers. In addition, we identify population threats, recommendations for addressing these threats and we present a preliminary conservation strategy. Because others have attempted to reconstruct this subspecies historic wintering and breeding ranges and to describe its life history (Rogers 2000, Beauchesne and Cooper 2003, Stinson 2005), we spend little effort on these topics. The management recommendations and conservation strategy presented here are initial thoughts and need critical review, revision and development. If the subspecies is listed as Endangered in Washington as recommended, a recovery strategy will be developed for the State. Canada is currently writing a recovery plan. In addition to these efforts, we strongly recommend developing a range-wide conservation plan (including a metapopulation model) and establishing a range-wide (Oregon, Washington, British Columbia) working group to develop recovery strategies and facilitate recovery actions.
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    Summary and Analysis of the U.S. Government Bat Banding Program

    This report is a summary of the Bat Banding Program (BBP) administered, coordinated, and maintained by the U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey in the Department of Agriculture and its successor, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Department of the Interior from 1932 to 1972. Bands were issued and copies of the permanent records were maintained at the Bird and Mammal Laboratories, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., during the active parts of the program (1932–72). Following various agency transfers within the Department of the Interior, the files and documentation for this program are currently maintained in the same location, but under the USGS, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Biological Survey Unit at the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
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    127

    Was uns nicht zum Menschen Macht Pädagogische Kritik eines biotechnischen Menschenbildes

    Der Mensch wird zum Menschen durch Erziehung meint im Kern, das seine Entwicklung von schon Entwickelten begleitet werden muss. Auch ohne Erziehung mag der Mensch seine Kräfte in Erfahrung bringen und auch irgendwie in Bezug zur Welt setzen, aber die dialektische Bewegung hin zur Selbstbestimmung, das Aufheben der doppelten Fremdbestimmung - das bleibt ihm verwährt. Nun ist es aber genau diese Selbstbestimmung, die Menschsein auszeichnet und darüber hinaus über den Selbstentwurf Selbsterkenntnis ermöglicht. Dies ist ein Prozess, es wird zeitlebens nicht abgeschlossen werden, weil der Mensch im Unterschied zu einem Genom, das ausschließlich dinghaft ist, unabgeschlossen, ein offenes Wesen ist. Aber auch dieses Offensein will erfahren werden. Der Versuch, es zu schließen, der Versuch, den Menschen zu verstehen, indem man sein Erbgut entschlüsselt, ihn zu verbessern, indem man seine Gene verändert, zeugt aus pädagogischer Sicht lediglich vom Verkennen dessen, was den Menschen zum Menschen macht.
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    A Status Assessement of the Eastern Subspecies of Bewick's Wren (Thyromanes bewickii bewickii and Thyromanes bewickii altus)

    This document is a compilation of biological data and a description of past, present, and likely future threats to the easternmost two subspecies of Bewick's Wren, Thryomanes bewickii bewickii and Thryomanes bewickii altus. It does not represent a decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on whether these taxa should be designated as candidate taxa for listing as threatened or endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act. That decision will be made by the Service after reviewing this document; other relevant biological and threat data not included herein; and all relevant laws, regulations, and policies. The result of the decision will be posted on the Service's Region 4 Web site (refer to: http://southeast.fWs.gov/es/candidate.htm). If designated as candidate taxa, the taxa will subsequently be added to the Service's candidate species list that is periodically published in the Federal Register and posted on the World Wide Web (refer to: http://endangered.fWs.gov/wildlife.html). Even if these taxa do not warrant candidate status it should benefit from the conservation recommendations that are contained in this document.
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    The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance

    "The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance" is a scientific paper by R.A. Fisher which was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1918, (volume 52, pages 399–433). In it, Fisher puts forward a genetic model that shows that continuous variation amongst characters could be the result of Mendelian inheritance. The paper also contains the first use of the statistical term variance. Mendelian genetics was rediscovered in 1900. However, there were differences of opinion as to the variation that natural selection acted upon. The biometric school, led by Karl Pearson followed Darwin's idea that small differences were important for evolution. The Mendelian school, led by William Bateson, however thought that Mendel's work gave an evolutionary mechanism with large differences. Joan Box, Fisher's biographer and daughter states in her book that Fisher, then a student, had resolved this problem in 1911. Fisher had originally submitted his paper (then entitled "The correlation to be expected between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance") to the Royal Society, to be published in the Transactions of the
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    Vegetation Classification and Mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site

    Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/079

    Stephanie J. Perles1, Gregory S. Podniesinski1, Ephraim A. Zimmerman1, Elizabeth Eastman 2, and Lesley A.Sneddons3

    1 Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, 208 Airport Drive, Middletown, PA 17057

    2 Center for Earth Observation, North Carolina State University, 5112 Jordan Hall, Box 7106, Raleigh, NC 27695

    3 NatureServe, 11 Avenue de Lafayette, 5th Floor, Boston, MA 02111

    March 2007

    U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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    Air Power for Peace

    A description of the US strategy for air supremacy following WW2, by Henry H Arnold, then "Commanding General of the United States Army Air Forces"
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    139
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    140

    Innovative Land Use Planning Techniques: A Handbook for Sustainable Development

    To address the need for guidance and technical assistance on Innovative Land Use Controls authorized by RSA 674:21, DES and its partners, the NH Association of Regional Planning Commissions, the NH Office of Energy and Planning, and the NH Local Government Center, produced the Innovative Land Use Planning Techniques: A Handbook for Sustainable Development. This Innovative Land Use handbook includes sections dealing with development density, environmental characteristics, and site level design. Each of the 23 chapters includes model ordinances and regulations for use by municipalities interested in implementing the innovative land use techniques.
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    Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction

    Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction

    Severe behavioural deficits in psychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia have been hypothesized to arise from elevations in the cellular balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) within neural microcircuitry. This hypothesis could unify diverse streams of pathophysiological and genetic evidence, but has not been susceptible to direct testing. Here we design and use several novel optogenetic tools to causally investigate the cellular E/I balance hypothesis in freely moving mammals, and explore the associated circuit physiology. Elevation, but not reduction, of cellular E/I balance within the mouse medial prefrontal cortex was found to elicit a profound impairment in cellular information processing, associated with specific behavioural impairments and increased high-frequency power in the 30–80 Hz range, which have both been observed in clinical conditions in humans. Consistent with the E/I balance hypothesis, compensatory elevation of inhibitory cell excitability partially rescued social deficits caused by E/I balance elevation. These results provide support for the elevated cellular E/I balance hypothesis of severe neuropsychiatric disease-related symptoms.
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    143

    Availability and Seasonal Use of Diurnal Roosts by Raphinesque's Big-Eared Bat and Southeastern Myotis in Bottomland Hardwoods of Mississippi

    • Acknowledged people: Jeanne C. Jones
    Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) and southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) are listed as species of concern in Mississippi. They use bottomland hardwood forests for roosting habitat; however, much of these forests in Mississippi have been lost or degraded. I seek to characterize availability and evaluate use of diurnal tree roosts for these presumably rare bats. Approximately 1,250 ha of bottomland hardwood forest on Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge were surveyed. I measured characteristics of 622 cavity trees. Analyses revealed that these bats most often used cavities of large diameter trees (≥70 cm DBH). Rafinesque’s big-eared bat and southeastern myotis roosted commonly in baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), and American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis). This research will be used to provide guidance for management plans to conserve these bats and their habitat.
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    144

    Colonial origins of comparative development

    "The colonial origins of comparative development" is a famous academic article written by Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson and published in American Economic Review in 2001. It is considered a seminal contribution to development economics through its use of European settler mortality as an instrumental variable of institutional development in former colonies. The theory proposed in the article is that Europeans only set up growth-inducing institutions in areas where the disease environment was favourable, so that they could settle. In areas with unfavourable disease environment to Europeans, such as central Africa, they instead set up extractive institutions which persist to the present day and explain much of the variation in income across countries, it is claimed.
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    147

    End-user developers: A critical asset

    • Works cited: Semantic Web in action: Reuters OpenCalais service
    Using new software tools on the desktop and in the Internet cloud, end-user developers are helping organizations create and sustain competitive advantage. But they require support and guidance.
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    148

    Information ecology

    In this book, author Tom Davenport applies the now-fashionable concept of business ecology to the field of knowledge management. Based on the concept of interacting biological systems, business ecology is concerned with the interaction of a business, its customers and suppliers, and the business environment.
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    149

    Kentucky's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy

    The Kentucky Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy (CWCS, also referred to as the “Plan”) was developed in order to identify and conserve Kentucky’s Species of Greatest Conservation Need and to comply with the requirements of the congressionally authorized State and Tribal Wildlife Grants (STWG) Program.  This document represents a proactive plan for sustaining the diversity of species and habitats found in Kentucky.  The Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources (KDFWR) acted as the lead agency in this effort but many partners provided crucial input.  The general public was also invited to participate and provide input.  This is not KDFWR’s plan, but rather a plan for Kentucky’s Species of Greatest Conservation Need, as well as for all interested Kentuckians.
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    151

    White-throated Sparrow Response to forest harvesting in north-central Alberta: Results not so clear-cut?

    The use of density to measure a species’ responses to habitat change remains prevalent despite warnings that relying on such parameters can be misleading. We evaluated whether density was a useful surrogate of habitat quality for the White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), an apparent habitat generalist, in a recently logged landscape near Calling Lake, Alberta, Canada. We detected significant differences in the territory density of birds among three distinct habitat types: interior forest, forest edges, and recent (4- to 6-yr-old) clear-cuts. However, the observed patterns in territory density were not consistent with several indices of habitat quality. We found a consistent and marked gradient for indices such as nesting success (based on a reproductive index), pairing success, and the proportion of territories that successfully fledged young between interior forest sites and clear-cuts. Edge habitats, in which high relative density offset lower reproductive success, represented moderate-quality habitat for this species. Our results suggest that the continued use of density alone, without some measure of habitat quality, is insufficient if not misleading when evaluating response to habitat change. Our results have important implications for understanding the population dynamics of this species, which is often overlooked in population-level studies yet continues to experience long-term population declines over large portions of its breeding range.
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    152
    Harlem Renaissance Dialogues (part 5): The Need to Know and the Value of Legacy

    Harlem Renaissance Dialogues (part 5): The Need to Know and the Value of Legacy

    • Acknowledged people: Oscar Micheaux
    • Works cited: African Voices A Soulful Collection of Art and Literature
    This fifth part of the Harlen Renaissance Dialogues series features an interview conducted by former ESSENCE Magazine poetry editor Angela Kinamore with the co-authors of Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. It is especially notable for the discussion on why the Harlem Renaissance is a crucial resource for youth of the 21st century.
    5.25
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    Auditory Perspective - Physical Factors

    Auditory Perspective - Physical Factors

    In 1964, Paul Klipsch reprinted this paper. Here is his introduction – I cannot say it better: The following paper is a reprint of one of the most important papers in the field of audio. Fundamentals do not change. The laws of physics endure. In reprinting the Symposium, the fundamentals are restated. One is tempted to editorialize on a paper that is thirty years old [now seventy years! – jm], but to do so would inject what the editor thinks the authors meant. Rather, in this case, the reader may at least read what the author said. But to yield just a little to the temptation one may suggest judging any “major breakthrough” in the light of these fundamentals. To preserve references, page numbers from the original printing have been preserved. It is intended to reprint other papers, and readers are invited to submit suggestions for reprinting of papers which, like this one, are truly milestones in the art. Paul W. Klipsch 30 April, 1964 Our thanks to Mike Durff for loaning us the Klipsch reprint, which I have scanned and present here as a “searchable image”. John G. (Jay) McKnight, Chair AES Historical Committee 2002 Dec 23
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    155

    Birds of Conservation Concern 2008

    The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of all migratory nongame birds that, without additional conservation actions, are likely to become candidates for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973.” Birds of Conservation Concern 2008 (BCC 2008) is the most recent effort to carry out this mandate. The overall goal of this report is to accurately identify the migratory and non-migratory bird species (beyond those already designated as federally threatened or endangered) that represent our highest conservation priorities. The geographic scope of this endeavor is the United States in its entirety, including island "territories" in the Pacific and Caribbean. BCC 2008 encompasses three distinct geographic scales—North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI) Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs), USFWS Regions, and National—and is primarily derived from assessment scores from three major bird conservation plans: the Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan, the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan, and the North American Waterbird Conservation Plan.

    Bird species considered for inclusion on lists in this report include nongame birds, gamebirds without hunting seasons, subsistence-hunted nongame birds in Alaska; and Endangered Species Act candidate, proposed endangered or threatened, and recently delisted species. Assessment scores from all three bird conservation plans are based on several factors, including population trends, threats, distribution, abundance, and relative density. These assessment scores serve as the foundation on which we built the BCC 2008 lists. Although the different bird conservation plans use somewhat different methods for determining the highest priority species, the scores from each represent true conservation priorities for each of the three species groups (landbirds, shorebirds, and waterbirds). We therefore view the conservation priorities within each plan as approximately equivalent. After creating BCR lists, we developed specific criteria for including species on USFWS Region and National lists. The various BCR lists contain 10 to 53 species, USFWS Region lists contain 27 to 78 species, and the National list contains 147 species. On average, priority species make up about 10 to 15 percent of the native bird species in any given geographic unit.

    While all of the bird species included in BCC 2008 are priorities for conservation action, this list makes no finding with regard to whether they warrant consideration for ESA listing. Our goal is to prevent or remove the need for additional ESA bird listings by implementing proactive management and conservation actions. We recommend that these lists be consulted in accordance with Executive Order 13186, “Responsibilities of Federal Agencies to Protect Migratory Birds.” This report should also be used to develop research, monitoring, and management initiatives. BCC 2008 is intended to stimulate coordinated and collaborative proactive conservation actions among Federal, State, Tribal, and private partners. We hope that, by focusing attention on these highest-priority species, this report will promote greater study and protection of the habitats and ecological communities upon which these species depend, thereby contributing to healthy avian populations and communities.
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    The ABC Tower Kill Report

    There are over 77,000 communications towers in the US, which provide nationwide coverage for cellular telephone, television and radio, paging, messaging, wireless data and other industries. Nearly 50,000 of these towers are required by the Federal Communications Commission to be lit, either because they are over 199 ft. tall, are in the immediate vicinity of an airport, or are situated along major highway travel routes. About 5,000 new towers are currently being built each year but this rate is expected to increase with developing cellular telephone and digital television networks. Bird kills caused by towers, their guy wires and related structures have been documented for over 50 years but there has been insufficient investigation of the extent of tower kills and which species have been affected. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) estimates that four to five million birds are killed annually at such towers, although this could be as many as 40 million. However only a cumulative impacts study will answer that question. This report analyzes 149 documents describing tower kills, 47 of which provide data on both the numbers and species of birds killed at selected towers. No such analysis has been done before.
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    Culture, representation, and the Puerto Rican queer diaspora

    Culture, representation, and the Puerto Rican queer diaspora

    This study analyzes cultural productions including literature, theater, performance, dance, film, photography, clothing, and parades, which present the varying phenomena that comprise lesbian and gay Diasporic Puerto Rican experience. Comparison of texts and productions located in the place of origin (Puerto Rico) with those of the place of destination or birth (the United States) as well as analysis of the question of circular migration serves to illustrate the effects of discrimination, strategies of resistance and cultural regeneration, and the differences in experience between first- and second-generation migrant individuals. In Chapter I, I explore the confluence of a general phenomenon of queer experience (nomadology) and see its links to gay migration, particularly to expulsion from the community of origin, as shown in Luis Rafael Sanchez's short story "Jum!" I also analyze a series of texts by authors such as Rene Marques, Magali Garcia Ramis, and Antonio Martorell, which show both involvement in and resistance to this expulsion. In Chapter II, I focus on the experience of Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. as shown in the work of Manuel Ramos Otero. His writings document a series of stages of this experience, which include initial alienation and anonymous wandering, partial integration into the established New York gay world, and finally, an approximation to the Puerto Rican community of that city and to the wider history of Puerto Rican migration. In Chapter III, I study the role of immigrant theater, performance and dance in New York City, focusing on the work of the Arthur Aviles Typical Theater Company. Arthur Aviles and Elizabeth Marrero's productions are characterized by their explorations of the experience of lesbian and gay Nuyorican subjects. Their relationship to Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican culture is noticeably different than that explored in the initial chapters. Finally, in Chapter IV, I look into the use of T-shirts with the Puerto Rican flag by gay and lesbian activists at the Puerto Rican Day Parade in N.Y.C., and meditate on the possibilities of their incorporation or resistance to what is broadly defined as the Puerto Rican Cultural Nation.
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    165

    On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude

    "Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse" (usual English translation: "On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude") is a seminal 10-page paper by Bernhard Riemann published in the November 1859 edition of the Monatsberichte der Königlich Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. This paper studies the prime-counting function using analytic methods. Although it is the only paper Riemann ever published on number theory, it contains ideas which influenced thousands of researchers during the late 19th century and up to the present day. The paper consists primarily of definitions, heuristic arguments, sketches of proofs, and the application of powerful analytic methods; all of these have become essential concepts and tools of modern analytic number theory. The paper was so influential that the notation s = σ + it is used to denote a complex number while discussing the zeta function (see below) instead of the usual z = x + iy. (The notation s = σ + it was begun by Edmund Landau in 1903.) Among the new definitions, ideas, and notation introduced: Among the proofs and sketches of proofs: Among the conjectures made: New methods and techniques used in
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    166
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    Information technology as a jealous mistress: Competition for knowledge between individuals and organizations

    Information technology may play the role of a jealous mistress when it comes to the relationship between individual and organizational knowledge creation. Information technology can facilitate the dissemination of knowledge across the organization – even to the point of making virtual groups a viable alternative to face-to-face work. However, unless managed, the combination of information technology and virtual work may serve to change the distribution of tacit versus explicit knowledge within the organization. While greater access to explicit knowledge may be of short term benefit to the organization, the long term effect could be a marginalization of individually held knowledge, and perhaps, less overall knowledge creation in extreme cases. This paper advances theory and informs practice by illustrating the relationships between individual and organizational knowledge across the range of contexts enabled by information technologies.
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    United States Shorebird Conservation Plan

    The United States Shorebird Conservation Plan is a partnership effort of state and federal agencies, non-governmental conservation organizations, academic institutions, and individuals from across the country committed to restoring and maintaining stable and self-sustaining populations of shorebirds in the U.S. and throughout the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan presents the major conclusions and recommendations of the technical and regional working groups that contributed to the development of a coordinated national initiative for shorebird conservation. Many of the details pertaining to the development of specific goals and objectives are presented in the accompanying technical reports, which are part of the Plan and are listed at the end of this document. These additional reports should be consulted whenever greater detail is required. This document is intended to provide an overview of the current status of shorebirds, the conservation challenges facing them, current opportunities for integrated conservation, broad goals for the conservation of shorebird species and subspecies, and specific programs necessary to meet the overall vision of restoring stable and self-sustaining populations of all shorebirds.
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    Diverse groups and information sharing: The effect of congruent ties

    Diverse groups and information sharing: The effect of congruent ties

    The impact of congruence between social and knowledge ties on performance in diverse groups was examined. Congruence occurs when group members who are socially tied share the same information and a stranger has any unique information. Incongruence occurs when group members who are socially tied possess different information, and one of them shares information with a stranger. In Experiment 1, three-person groups with congruent social and knowledge ties utilized information more effectively, reported more effective group processes, and outperformed groups with incongruent ties. Experiment 2, which involved four-person groups, examined the role of congruence in groups with either a single minority information holder or two equal-sized subgroups. Congruent groups again outperformed incongruent groups, but this was only true when groups had a minority information holder. There was no difference in the performance of congruent and incongruent groups that had equal-sized subgroups. The implications of these findings for analyses of group composition and decision-making are discussed.
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    High-efficiency channelrhodopsins for fast neuronal stimulation at low light levels

    High-efficiency channelrhodopsins for fast neuronal stimulation at low light levels

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has become an indispensable tool in neuroscience, allowing precise induction of action potentials with short light pulses. A limiting factor for many optophysiological experiments is the relatively small photocurrent induced by ChR2. We screened a large number of ChR2 point mutants and discovered a dramatic increase in photocurrent amplitude after threonine-to-cysteine substitution at position 159. When we tested the T159C mutant in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, action potentials could be induced at very low light intensities, where currently available channelrhodopsins were unable to drive spiking. Biophysical characterization revealed that the kinetics of most ChR2 variants slows down considerably at depolarized membrane potentials. We show that the recently published E123T substitution abolishes this voltage sensitivity and speeds up channel kinetics. When we combined T159C with E123T, the resulting double mutant delivered fast photocurrents with large amplitudes and increased the precision of single action potential induction over a broad range of frequencies, suggesting it may become the standard for light-controlled activation of neurons.
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    A Field Guide to Web Technology

    This publication was started through Southeast Partners in Flight to provide an introduction to some potentially useful and (hopefully) persistent web tools for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of bird conservation. It is a compilation of short documents, written for a broad audience of biologists, researchers, and managers, consisting of one page descriptions of various web tools and their potential uses for bird conservation.
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    The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

    • Works cited: Evolution and the triumph of homology, or why history matters
    The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (2002) is a technical book on macroevolutionary theory by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, published only two months before his death. The volume is divided into two parts. The first is a historical study and exegesis of classical evolutionary thought, drawing extensively upon primary documents. The second is a constructive critique of contemporary Darwinian theory, and presents a case for a hierarchical interpretation of biological evolution based largely on the author's theory of punctuated equilibrium. According to Gould, classical Darwinism encompasses three essential core commitments. These are: agency, efficacy, and scope. Agency is the unit upon which natural selection acts. For Darwin, this fundamental unit was the organism. Efficacy encompasses the power of natural selection—over all other forces—in shaping evolution at ecological scales. (Auxiliary forces include sexual selection, as well as historical, structural, and developmental constraints.) Scope is the degree to which natural selection can be extrapolated to explain biological diversity at the macroevolutionary level, including the evolution of higher taxonomic
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    The Complexity of Songs

    "The Complexity of Songs" was a journal article published by computer scientist Donald Knuth in 1977, as an in-joke about computational complexity theory. The article capitalizes on the tendency of popular songs to evolve from long and content-rich ballads to highly repetitive texts with little or no meaningful content. The article notes how some songs can reach a complexity level, for a song of length N words, as formula: O(log N). The gist of the article is repeated, below, maintaining the wit of the key concepts. Knuth writes, with a grain of truth, that "our ancient ancestors invented the concept of refrain" to reduce the space complexity of songs, which becomes crucial when a large number of songs is to be committed to one's memory. Knuth's Lemma 1 states that if N is the length of a song, then the refrain decreases the song complexity to cN, where the factor c
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    An integrated approach to mapping forest conditions in the southern Appalachians (North Carolina)

    An Integrated Approach to Mapping Forest Conditions in the Southern Appalachians (North Carolina)
    Weimin Xi (Knowledge Engineering Lab, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, xi@tamu.edu), Lei Wang (Dept of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803), Andrew G. Birt (Knowledge Engineering Lab), Maria D. Tchakerian (Knowledge Engineering Lab), Robert N. Coulson (Knowledge Engineering Lab), Kier D. Klepzig (U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station, 2500 Shreveport Hwy, Pineville, LA 71360)
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    Algorithms for Aligning and Clustering Genomic Sequences that Contain Duplications

    Genomes of advanced organisms contain numerous repeated sequences, including gene clusters, tandem repeats, interspersed repeats, and segmental duplications. Among these, gene clusters are the class most frequently of functional importance. algorithmic processing of regions containing these clusters remains challenging in practice, and its lack of clean solutions has been a big obstacle in sequence analysis in bioinformatics. This thesis includes new methodologies for solving two sets of problems in processing the sequences of gene-cluster regions, particularly methods to properly align gene-cluster regions of multiple species.Similar sequences sharing the same evolutionary origin are homologous. homologous sequences that differ by speciation are orthologous. One set of problems deals with aligning all and only orthologous sequences in a gene-cluster region, between two or more species. A two-way orthologous-sequence identification tool is developed to produce orthologous pairwise alignments. The results are evaluated based on the phylogenetic inference of gene sequences. High specificity is achieved without much loss of sensitivity. Two approaches are designed to create orthologous multi-species alignments. One uses a chosen species to guide the alignment process, and it has been successfully applied genome-wide. The other solves a more di�cult formulation of the problem, where all species are treated equally. Its computational dificulty is discussed, and some initial experiments are reported.Another set of methods deals with the construction of all homologous groups within a single genome. Each homologous group is expected to contain precisely the genomic intervals that are homologous to each other. A mixture of algorithmic and heuristic procedures is designed to maintain a balance between the completeness and purity of each group. We verify the accuracy and e�ciency of these methodologies.
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    Get ready for end-user development

    • Works cited: Data journalism: Metadata emerges from understudy to starring role
    End user developers -- professionals who modify or create software to be more productive in their primary job roles -- have become too numerous and too important to ignore. What should we be doing to increase their productivity and leverage their contributions?
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    A short history of MADS-box genes in plants

    • Works cited: Ontogeny and phylogeny—revisited and reunited
    A short history of MADS-box genes in plants is a journal article by Günter Theissen, Annette Becker, Alexandra Di Rosa, Akira Kanno, Jan T. Kim, Thomas Münster, Kai-Uwe Winter and Heinz Saedler.
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    Perceptual Display Hierarchies for Visualization

    The advent of computers with high processing power has led to the generation of large, multidimensional collections of data with increasing size and dimensionality . This has led to a critical need for ways to manage, explore and analyze large, multidimensional information spaces. Visualization lends itself well to the challenge of exploring and analyzing these datasets by managing and presenting information in a visual form to facilitate rapid, effective, and meaningful analysis of data by harnessing the strengths of the human visual system. Most visualization techniques are based on the assumption that the display device has sufficient resolution, and that our visual acuity is adequate for completing the analysis tasks. However, this may not be true, particularly for specialized display devices (e.g., PDAs or large-format projection walls). Our goal is to: (1)?determine the amount of information a particular display environment can encode; (2)?design visualizations that maximize the information they represent relative to this upper-limit; and (3)?dynamically update a visualization when the display environment changes to continue to maintain high levels of information content. A collection of controlled psychophysical experiments were designed, executed, and analyzed to identify thresholds for display resolution and visual acuity for four visual features: hue, luminance, size, and orientation...
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    A bird’s eye view: a guide to managing and protecting your land for neotropical migratory birds in the upper Mississippi River blufflands

    • Acknowledged people: Bruce Ehresman
    This 52-page booklet describes the specific needs of "Iowa's jungle birds" - the Neotropical migratory birds that nest in the United States, Canada and southern Mexico and then migrate thousands of miles to winter in the tropical climates of southern Mexico, Central and South America and the Caribbean. These birds face habitat pressures on two continents, and Iowa's habitat is important to their survival.
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    Atlantic Flyway Mute Swan Management Plan 2003-2013

    Mute swans are highly invasive of wetland habitats, impact native species of fish and wildlife, damage commercial agricultural crops, and pose a threat to human health and safety. As such, they cause serious nuisance problems and property damage, including economic loss. Because of their consumption of large quantities of submerged aquatic vegetation and their aggressive behavior, mute swan compete directly with many other water birds and fisheries for critical habitats. Due to their strong territorial defense, some pairs will vigorously defend nest and brood sites from intrusion by other wildlife and have attacked humans, causing serious harm. They do provide some aesthetic value for public enjoyment. But, as populations of mute swans have grown in various states and expanded into new areas, there is a need to coordinate management actions among state/provincial and Federal wildlife agencies to reduce numbers to desirable levels.  The goal of this management plan is TO REDUCE MUTE SWAN POPULATIONS IN THE ATLANTIC FLYWAY TO LEVELS THAT WILL MINIMIZE NEGATIVE ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS TO WETLAND HABITATS AND NATIVE MIGRATORY WATERFOWL AND TO PREVENT FURTHER RANGE EXPANSION INTO UNOCCUPIED AREAS
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    Birds and Climate Change Ecological Disruption in Motion

    Amid mounting concerns over accelerating global climate change, Audubon looked to the birds to determine if and how these sensitive creatures might be responding to changes here in the continental U.S. Birders have long reported surprising sightings of species far north of expected ranges. But are the reports significant? If so, are they connected to documented changes in our climate? Analyses of four decades of Christmas Bird Count data provide some answers. The results confirm what bird lovers have long suspected. Findings summarized in the pages that follow offer a look at forty years of change, a peek at what the future likely holds in one part of our nation, and an urgent message of warning from the birds—a message we would be wise to heed.
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    Flying Around the North Atlantic

    Description of the Lindburgh's trip around the North Atlantic beginning in July 1933, with extensive photos of Greenland, Faroes, the Azores, Cape Verde and others, in a Lockheed Sirius monoplane. The journey ended in December 1933
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    North American Waterbird Conservation Plan, Version 1

    This document, Version 1 of the North American Waterbird Conservation Plan, provides an overarching continental framework and guide for conserving waterbirds. It sets forth goals and priorities for waterbirds in all habitats from the Canadian Arctic to Panama, from Bermuda through the U.S. Pacific Islands, at nesting sites, during annual migrations, and during nonbreeding periods. It advocates continent-wide monitoring; provides an impetus for regional conservation planning; proposes national, state, provincial and other local conservation planning and action; and gives a larger context for local habitat protection. Taken together, it is hoped that these activities will assure healthy populations and habitats for the waterbirds of the Americas.

    Recommended citation
    James A. Kushlan, Melanie J. Steinkamp, Katharine C. Parsons, Jack Capp, Martin Acosta Cruz, Malcolm Coulter, Ian Davidson, Loney Dickson, Naomi Edelson, Richard Elliot, R. Michael Erwin, Scott Hatch, Stephen Kress, Robert Milko, Steve Miller, Kyra Mills, Richard Paul, Roberto Phillips, Jorge E. Saliva, Bill Sydeman, John Trapp, Jennifer Wheeler, and Kent Wohl. 2002. Waterbird Conservation for the Americas: The North American Waterbird Conservation Plan, Version 1. Waterbird Conservation for the Americas. Washington, DC, U.S.A.
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    The North Carolina Gap Analysis Project: Final Report

    The goal of the NC-GAP project was to assess the distribution and conservation status of biodiversity in the state under existing land ownership and management regimes. The specific objectives were to: 1)  Map the land cover of North Carolina 2)  Map the predicted distributions of terrestrial vertebrates that use habitat in the state during the breeding season 3)  Map the network of conservation lands in the state (land management stewardship) 4)  Assess the conservation status of both the terrestrial vertebrates and the natural vegetative communities of the state 5)  Provide that information to natural resource agencies so they can use it in their conservation planning efforts
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