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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Satellite of All Time

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    1

    Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope

    The Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope, better known simply as MOST, is Canada's first and (as of 2011) only space telescope. It is also the smallest space telescope in orbit (for which its creators nicknamed it the “Humble Space Telescope”, in reference to one of the largest, the Hubble). MOST is the first spacecraft dedicated to the study of asteroseismology. It was also the first Canadian science satellite launched since ISIS II, 32 years previously. As its name suggests, its primary mission is to monitor variations in star light, which it does by observing a single target for a long period of time (up to 60 days). Larger space telescopes cannot afford to remain focused on a single target for so long due to the demand for their resources. At 53 kg (117 pounds) 65 cm (26 in) wide and tall and 30 cm (12 in) deep, it is the size and weight of a small chest or an extra-large suitcase filled with electronics. This places it in the microsatellite category. MOST was developed as a joint effort of the Canadian Space Agency, Dynacon Enterprises Limited, the Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, and the University of
    8.29
    7 votes
    2
    TacSat-2

    TacSat-2

    TacSat-2 (also known as JWS-D1 or RoadRunner) is an experimental satellite built by the USAF's Air Force Research Laboratory with an operational life expected to be not more than one year as part of the 'Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration' program. The TacSat series of experimental spacecraft are designed to allow military commanders on a battlefield to request and obtain imagery and other data from a satellite as it passes overhead. Collected data will be delivered to field commanders in minutes rather than hours or days. The sensor on TacSat-2 can collect color images sharp enough to distinguish ground objects as small as 1 meter in diameter. TacSat-2 was launched on 16 December 2006 from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport using an Orbital Sciences Minotaur launch vehicle. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport is a commercial space launch facility located on the Delmarva Peninsula 5 miles (8.0 km) west of Chincoteague, Virginia. Satellites in the TacSat series were planned to use commercial or available launchers, and largely off-the-shelf components, in order to reduce costs. The space platform was built by MicroSat Systems of Littleton, Colorado. The core avionics of the
    7.50
    6 votes
    3
    Project 921-2

    Project 921-2

    Tiangong (Chinese: 天宫; pinyin: Tiāngōng; literally "Heavenly Palace") is a space station program of the People's Republic of China, with the goal of creating a third generation space station, comparable to Mir. This program is autonomous and unconnected to any other international space-active countries. The program began in 1992 as Project 921-2. As of March 2011, China is moving forward on a large multiphase construction program that will lead to a large space station around 2020. China launched its first space laboratory, Tiangong 1, on September 29, 2011. Following Tiangong 1, a more advanced space laboratory complete with cargo ship, dubbed Tiangong 2, will be built. Tiangong 3 will continue to develop these technologies. The project will culminate with a large orbital station, which will consist of a 20-ton core module, 2 smaller research modules, and cargo transport craft. It will support three astronauts for long-term habitation and is scheduled to be completed just as the International Space Station is currently scheduled to be retired. In 1999, Project 921-2 was finally given official authorization. Two versions of the station were studied: an 8-metric ton "space
    7.33
    6 votes
    4
    IKONOS

    IKONOS

    • Launch Site: Vandenberg Air Force Base
    • Orbit type: Sun-synchronous orbit
    IKONOS is a commercial earth observation satellite, and was the first to collect publicly available high-resolution imagery at 1- and 4-meter resolution. It offers multispectral (MS) and panchromatic (PAN) imagery. The IKONOS launch was called by John E. Pike “one of the most significant developments in the history of the space age”. IKONOS imagery began being sold on January 1, 2000. It derived its name from the Greek term eikōn for image. IKONOS was originated under the Lockheed Martin Corporation as the Commercial Remote Sensing System (CRSS) satellite. On April 1994 Lockheed was granted one of the first licenses from the U.S. Department of Commerce for commercial satellite high-resolution imagery. On October 25, 1995 partner company Space Imaging received a license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to transmit telemetry from the satellite in the eight-gigahertz Earth Exploration Satellite Services band. Prior to launch, Space Imaging changed the name of the satellite to IKONOS. IKONOS comes from the Greek word for "image". Two satellites were originally planned for operation. The launch of IKONOS-1 in 1999 failed when the payload fairing of the Athena rocket
    8.20
    5 votes
    5
    7.00
    6 votes
    6
    7.80
    5 votes
    7
    Mariner 9

    Mariner 9

    Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) is a NASA space orbiter that helped in the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program. Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet — only narrowly beating Soviet Mars 2 and Mars 3, which both arrived within a month. After months of dust-storms it managed to send back clear pictures of the surface. Mariner 9 returned 7329 images over the course of its mission, which concluded in October 1972. Mariner 9 was designed to continue the atmospheric studies begun by Mariner 6 and 7, and to map over 70% of the Martian surface from the lowest altitude (1,500 kilometers (930 mi) and at the highest resolutions (from 1 kilometer per pixel to 100 meters per pixel) of any Mars mission up to that point. An infrared radiometer was included to detect heat sources in search of evidence of volcanic activity. It was to study temporal changes in the Martian atmosphere and surface. Mars' two moons were also to be analyzed. Mariner 9 more than met its objectives. Mariner 9 was the first spacecraft to
    9.00
    4 votes
    8
    Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite

    Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite

    ACRIMSAT is the acronym for Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite. It is a dedicated satellite and instrument that is one of the 21 primary observational components of NASA's Earth Observing System program. ACRIMSAT was launched on 20 December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base as the secondary payload on a Taurus rocket along with KOMPSAT and placed into a high inclination, 700 km. sun-synchronous orbit from which the ACRIM3 instrument monitors the total solar irradiance (TSI). The ACRIM3 instrument has made state of the art measurements of the TSI since the start of its Science Mission in April 2000. It extends the TSI measurement database begun by earlier ACRIM instruments on the NASA Solar Maximum Mission (ACRIM1: 1980-1989) and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (ACRIM2: 1991-2001). Richard C. Willson is the principal investigator for the experiment and leads the ACRIM3 Science Team. Willson designed the active cavity radiometer type of sensor used by self-calibrating satellite TSI monitoring experiments today. The implementation of the ACRIM3 instrument was a collaboration between Willson, JPL/ACRIMSAT Project Manager Ronald Zenone and ACRIM3 Instrument
    7.60
    5 votes
    9

    Dong Fang Hong 02

    Dongfanghong II was a primary television satellite used by China during the later part of the 20th century. It was developed at the Chinese Academy of Space Technology and had a design life 4.5 years. The first satellite in this group was launched into a geosynchronous orbit on April 8, 1984. Broadcasts from these satellites were able to cover all of China and some neighboring regions. Three satellites orbited in geosynchronous orbits at 87.5, 110.5, and 98 degrees east. A fourth satellite failed to achieve a stable orbit due to a problem with the third stage. The satellite was cylindrical with a height of 8.5 m (28 ft), a diameter of 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in) and weighed 441 kilograms (972 lb). The Dongfanghong II A satellite used a parabolic communications antenna mounted to the top of the satellite for broadcast purposes. The antenna could be rotated to keep it aligned with the earth. Twenty-thousand solar cells were mounted to the satellite to provide power. This was China's first successful use of photovoltaic technology. Dongfanghong I
    7.60
    5 votes
    10

    JAWSAT

    The Joint Air Force-Weber State University Satellite is an American military mini-satellite launched aboard a Minotaur rocket on January 27, 2000 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. After its own launch, JAWSAT deployed four microsatellites: FalconSAT, OCSE, OPAL, and ASUSat. JAWSAT also carried NASA's Plasma Experiment Satellite Test (PEST).
    6.50
    6 votes
    11
    7.40
    5 votes
    12

    Arirang-2

    Arirang-2, also known as KOMPSAT-2, is a South Korean multipurpose satellite. It was launched from Plesetsk, Russia at 4:05 PM KST on 28 July 2006. It began to transmit signals at 11 PM the same day. Like the earlier Arirang-1 satellite, it takes its name from the popular Korean folk song Arirang. Its launch was the culmination of a project begun in 1999. Arirang-2 orbits at a height of 685 kilometers, circling the Earth 14 times per day, and is expected to maintain that orbit for 3 years. It weighs 765 kilograms. The satellite carries a high-powered digital camera which can distinguish to a 1-meter resolution, allowing the identification of individual vehicles on the ground. Among other purposes, this will allow the South Korean intelligence service to observe North Korean military activities. Prior to the launch of this satellite, the South Koreans had been largely dependent upon surveillance information provided by the United States. South Korea started the KOMPSAT programme in 1995 to nurture its national Earth-imaging industry and supply services for remote-sensing applications. The South Korean KOMPSAT-2 Earth-imaging satellite was developed by KARI (Korea Aerospace Research
    8.50
    4 votes
    13
    8.50
    4 votes
    14
    Explorer 49

    Explorer 49

    Explorer 49 (also called RAE-B) was a 328 kilogram satellite launched on June 10, 1973 for longwave radio astronomy research. It had four 230-meter long X-shaped antenna elements, which made it one of the largest spacecraft ever built. This mission was the second of a pair of Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites, Explorer 38 or RAE-A being the first. Explorer 49 was placed into lunar orbit to provide radio astronomical measurements of the planets, the sun, and the galaxy over the frequency range of 25 kHz to 13.1 MHz. Since the spacecraft's design used gravity gradient booms, the lumpy lunar gravity field made for some interesting problems for the mission scientists. Explorer 49 was launched after the termination of the Apollo program, and although it did not examine the Moon directly, it became the last American lunar mission until the launch of Clementine spacecraft in 1994.
    8.50
    4 votes
    15
    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) is a satellite that observes the time structure of astronomical X-ray sources, named after Bruno Rossi. The RXTE has three instruments—the Proportional Counter Array, the High-Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE), and the All Sky Monitor. The RXTE observes X-rays from black holes, neutron stars, X-ray pulsars and X-ray bursts. It was funded as part of the Explorer program, and is sometimes also called Explorer 69. RXTE was launched from Cape Canaveral on 30 December 1995 on a Delta rocket, has an International Designator of 1995-074A and a mass of 3200 kg. Observations from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer have been used as evidence for the existence of the frame-dragging effect predicted by the theory of general relativity. RXTE results have, as of late 2007, been used in more than 1400 scientific papers. In January 2006 it was announced that Rossi had been used to locate a candidate intermediate-mass black hole named M82 X-1. In February 2006 data from RXTE was used to prove that the diffuse background X-ray glow in our galaxy comes from innumerable, previously undetected white dwarfs and from other stars' coronae. In April 2008 RXTE data
    8.50
    4 votes
    16
    6.33
    6 votes
    17

    AMSAT-OSCAR 7

    AO-7 (aka AMSAT-OSCAR 7) is the second Phase 2 amateur radio satellite launched into Low Earth Orbit on 15 November 1974. It remained operational until a battery failure in 1981. On 21 June 2002 the satellite was heard again on its 2 meter beacon (145.9775 MHz CW) after 21 years of silence, and 27 years in space. AMSAT reported AO-7 still semi-operational on 6 April 2006, with reliable power only from its solar panels; the report stated the cause of the outage was a short circuit in a battery and the restoration of service was due to its becoming an open circuit. The satellite eclipses on every orbit during the northern summer and autumn; the rest of the year it is in continuous sunlight and alternates between transmission modes A and B. AO-7 demonstrated several uses of new technologies and operations The uplink frequency predates the WARC 1979 allocation of 435-438 MHz by the ITU for the Amateur Satellite Service which places the uplink in the 70cm weak signal segment. Additionally, the IARU bandplan has the 432.1 MHz range (which is used for mode B uplink) marked for "weak signal" in all three Regions. As of May 2012, contacts with AO-7 are reported daily.
    7.20
    5 votes
    18

    CFESat

    CFESat, the Cibola Flight Experiment Satellite, examines radio spectra for ionospheric and lightning studies, using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). As well as science observation, the mission aims to show use of reconfigurable FPGAs to work in the radiation environment of low Earth orbit. The satellite payloads were built by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the bus was built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. CFESat was launched from Cape Canaveral on 8 March 2007, alongside Orbital Express, MidSTAR-1 and FalconSAT-3.
    8.25
    4 votes
    19
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    Skylab

    Skylab

    • Launch Vehicle: Saturn INT-21
    • Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39
    Skylab was a space station launched and operated by NASA (the space agency of the United States) and was the U.S.'s first space station. Skylab orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, and included a workshop, a solar observatory, and other systems. It was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V rocket, with a mass of 169,950 pounds (77 t). Three manned missions to the station, conducted between 1973 and 1974 using the Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) atop the smaller Saturn IB, each delivered a three-astronaut crew. On the third mission, an additional Apollo / Saturn IB stood by, ready for launch if needed to rescue the crew in orbit. Skylab included an Apollo Telescope Mount (a multi-spectral solar observatory), Multiple Docking Adapter with two docking ports, Airlock Module with EVA hatches, and the Orbital Workshop, the main habitable volume of the station. Power came from solar arrays, as well as fuel cells in the docked Apollo CSM. The rear of the station included a large waste tank, propellant tanks for maneuvering jets, and a heat radiator. The station was damaged at launch when the micrometeoroid shield separated from the station and tore away, depriving the station of
    8.25
    4 votes
    21

    Snap-1 nanosatellite

    SNAP-1 is a British nanosatellite orbiting in Low Earth Orbit. The satellite was built at the Surrey Space Centre by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). It was launched in June 2000 on a Cosmos-3M rocket from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia. SNAP-1 was launched to demonstrate the successful assembly of a satellite using small readily available parts to be able to act as a robotic camera enabling images to be sent of the outside of other orbiting spacecrafts. The main component of Snap-1 is its Machine Vision System (MVS) including several CMOS sensors.
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    8.25
    4 votes
    23
    Uhuru

    Uhuru

    Uhuru was the first satellite launched specifically for the purpose of X-ray astronomy. It was also known as the X-ray Explorer Satellite, SAS-A (for "Small Astronomy Satellite" A, being first of the three-spacecraft SAS series), SAS 1, or Explorer 42. The observatory was launched on 12 December 1970 into an initial orbit of about 560 km apogee, 520 km perigee, 3 degrees inclination, with a period of 96 minutes. The mission ended in March 1973. Uhuru was a scanning mission, with a spin period of ~12 minutes. It performed the first comprehensive survey of the entire sky for X-ray sources, with a sensitivity of about 0.001 times the intensity of the Crab nebula. The main objectives of the mission were: The payload consisted of two sets of proportional counters, each with ~0.084 m effective area. The counters were sensitive with more than 10% efficiency to X-ray photons in the ~2-20 keV range. The lower energy limit was determined by the attenuation of the beryllium windows of the counter plus a thin thermal shroud that was needed to maintain temperature stability of the spacecraft. The upper energy limit was determined by the transmission properties of the counter filling gas.
    8.25
    4 votes
    24

    UoSAT-12 satellite

    UoSAT-12 is a British satellite in Low Earth Orbit. It is the twelfth satellite in the University of Surrey series and was designed and built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). It was launched into orbit in April 1999 on board the Dnepr rocket from Baikonur. UoSAT-12 was an experimental mission used to demonstrate and test a number of new technologies. Imaging cameras and a high-speed 1 Mbit/s S-band downlink (the MERLION experiment) were tested. An Internet Protocol stack was uploaded to the satellite, allowing experiments in extending the Internet to space to be made by NASA Goddard as part of its Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) effort. These now-proven technologies were later adopted by SSTL in the design of its Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellites.
    8.25
    4 votes
    25
    7.00
    5 votes
    26
    Cosmos 557

    Cosmos 557

    Kosmos 557 (Russian: Космос 557 meaning Cosmos 557) was the designation given to DOS-3, the third space station in the Salyut program. It was originally intended to be launched as Salyut-3, but due to its failure to achieve orbit on May 11, 1973, three days before the launch of Skylab, it was renamed Kosmos-557. Due to errors in the flight control system while out of the range of ground control, the station fired its attitude thrusters until it consumed all of its attitude control fuel and became uncontrollable before rising its orbit to the desired altitude. Since the spacecraft was already in orbit and had been registered by Western radar, the Soviets disguised the launch as "Kosmos 557" and quietly allowed it to reenter Earth's atmosphere and burn up a week later. It was revealed to have been a Salyut station only much later.
    7.00
    5 votes
    27
    Dong Fang Hong I

    Dong Fang Hong I

    Dongfanghong I (Red East 1) (simplified Chinese: 东方红一号; traditional Chinese: 東方紅一號; pinyin: Dōngfānghóng Yīhào), also known as China 1, was the People's Republic of China's first space satellite, launched successfully on April 24, 1970 (after one failed attempt on November 16, 1969) as part of the PRC's Dongfanghong space satellite program. At 173 kg (380 lb), it was heavier than the first satellites of other countries. The satellite carried a radio transmitter. It broadcast the song of the same name, Dōngfānghóng or "The East Is Red", which lasted for 26 days while in orbit. It was developed under the direction of Qian Xuesen (Tsien Hsue-shen), dean at the Chinese Academy of Space Technology. At the time, a total of five identical satellites were created. The first satellite launched successfully. The academy formulated a "Three-Satellite Plan" consisting of Dongfanghong I, re-entry satellites, and geosynchronous orbit communications satellites. Sun Jia-Dong was responsible for the Dongfanghong I technology. In 1967, Dang Hongxin chose a copper antenna membrane that resolved the difficulties of broadcasting on an ultra-short wave antenna between 100°C and −100°C. Engineers
    7.00
    5 votes
    28
    9.33
    3 votes
    29
    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a space exploration mission scheduled for launch in early 2013. To carry out the mission NASA will send a robotic spacecraft into orbit around the Moon, and use instruments aboard the spacecraft to study the Moon's atmosphere and dust in the Moon's vicinity. Instruments will include a dust detector, a neutral mass spectrometer, an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer, and recently announced, a laser communications (lasercomm) terminal. LADEE was announced during the presentation of NASA's FY09 budget in February 2008. It will be launched aboard a Minotaur V from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport. LADEE is a strategic mission that will address three major science goals: LADEE is scheduled for launch in May 2013 out of the Wallops Flight Facility on a Minotaur V carrier rocket. The LADEE propulsion system will consist of an orbit control system (OCS) and a reaction control system (RCS). The OCS will provide velocity control along the +Z axis for large velocity adjustments. The RCS will provide three-axis attitude control during burns of the OCS system, and will also provide momentum dumps for the reaction wheels which are
    8.00
    4 votes
    30

    Nilesat 102

    Nilesat 102 is an Egyptian owned geosynchronous communications satellite that was launched by an Ariane 44LP rocket from Kourou, French Guiana on August 17, 2000 at 23:16 UTC by the European Space Agency. It was manufactured by the European company Matra Marconi Space (Astrium), and started official broadcasting in 12 September 2000 with an Expected Life Time of 15 years. At launch the spacecraft weighed 1,827 kg (fully fuelled). Nilesat 102 is operated by The Egyptian satellite Co. Nilesat that was established in 1996 with the purpose of operating Egyptian satellites and their associated ground control station and uplinking facilities. It is parked at the geostationary orbital position of 7° West together with its sister Satellite Nilesat 101 and carries 12 Ku band 100 W high power wide beam transponders of 33 MHz bandwidth to provide digital communications and terrestrial Direct to Home ((DTH)) TV, radio broadcasting, multimedia and data services for countries in the Arab World and South Europe. The two satellites carry approximately 280 TV channels covering all the Middle East countries; from Iran in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, and from south Europe in the north
    8.00
    4 votes
    31
    Salyut 1

    Salyut 1

    Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Russian: Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971. More stations followed in the Salyut programme, and heritage of that space station program is still in use on the ISS. It was launched unmanned using a Proton-K rocket. The first crew launched later in the Soyuz 10 mission, but they ran into troubles while docking and were unable to enter the station; the Soyuz 10 mission was aborted and the crew returned safely to Earth. Its second crew launched in Soyuz 11 and remained on board for 23 days. This was the first time in the history of spaceflight that a space station had been manned, and a new record in time spent in space. This success was however overshadowed when the crew was killed during reentry, as a pressure-equalization valve in the Soyuz 11 reentry capsule had opened prematurely, causing the crew to suffocate. After this accident, missions were suspended while the Soyuz spacecraft was redesigned. The station was intentionally destroyed by de-orbiting it after six months in orbit, because it ran out of fuel before a redesigned Soyuz spacecraft could be launched to it. At
    8.00
    4 votes
    32
    8.00
    4 votes
    33
    6.00
    6 votes
    34

    Galaxy 26

    Galaxy 26 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300 line. Galaxy 26 was formerly known as Intelsat Americas 6 and Telstar 6. It was launched aboard a Proton-K/DM3 from Baykonur LC81. It spent most of its operational life at the 93° W longitude orbital slot, serving the North American market. Clients included ABC, CBS, CNN and FOX. Galaxy 26 had its share of problems since its February 15, 1999 launch. It had lost a backup command and control receiver, the back up computer, and had completely shut off twice. On June 29, 2008, Galaxy 26 had a power failure in one of its solar panels. It lost 15 kilowatts out of a possible 37 kilowatt capacity, which is very important for charging the batteries. Also, there were multiple transponder failures. Several cable television networks immediately took action to move their feeds to backup satellites in order to keep themselves on air in the event of total failure. Fox News moved operations to Galaxy 16 Transponders 7, 9, and 11, and to AMC 5 Transponder 4K Slot F according to a Fox News internal email. Within a week, CBS had moved all main feeds to Galaxy 25, and all secondary
    6.80
    5 votes
    35

    GIOVE

    GIOVE, or Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element, is the name for each satellite in a series being built for the European Space Agency (ESA) to test technology in orbit for the Galileo positioning system. Giove is the Italian word for "Jupiter". The name was chosen as a tribute to Galileo Galilei, who discovered the first four natural satellites of Jupiter, and later discovered that they could be used as a universal clock to obtain the longitude of a point on the Earth's surface. The GIOVE satellites are exploited by the GIOVE Mission (GIOVE-M) segment in the frame of the risk mitigation for the In Orbit Validation (IOV) of the Galileo positioning system. These validation satellites were previously known as the Galileo System Testbed (GSTB) version 2 (GSTB-V2). In 2004 the Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 (GSTB-V1) project validated the on-ground algorithms for Orbit Determination and Time Synchronization (OD&TS). This project, led by ESA and European Satellite Navigation Industries, has provided industry with fundamental knowledge to develop the mission segment of the Galileo positioning system. GIOVE satellites are transmitting multifrequency ranging signals equivalent to the
    6.80
    5 votes
    36
    GEOTAIL

    GEOTAIL

    GEOTAIL is a satellite observing the Earth's magnetosphere. It was developed by Japan's ISAS in association with United State's NASA, and was launched by a Delta II rocket on July 24, 1992. From the GEOTAIL website (listed below): "The GEOTAIL satellite was launched on July 24, 1992, by a Delta II launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA. The primary purpose of this mission is to study the structure and dynamics of the tail region of the magnetosphere with a comprehensive set of scientific instruments. For this purpose, the orbit has been designed to cover the magnetotail over a wide range of distances: 8 Re to 210 Re from the earth. This orbit also allows us to study the boundary region of the magnetosphere as it skims the magnetopause at perigees. In the first two years the double lunar swing-by technique was used to keep apogees in the distant magnetotail. The apogee was lowered down to 50 Re in mid November 1994 and then to 30 Re in February 1995 in order to study substorm processes in the near-Earth tail region. The present orbit is 9 Re x 30 Re with inclination of -7° to the ecliptic plane." Geotail instruments studied electric fields, magnetic fields, plasmas,
    7.75
    4 votes
    37
    LAGEOS

    LAGEOS

    LAGEOS, or Laser Geodynamics Satellites, are a series of scientific research satellites designed to provide an orbiting laser ranging benchmark for geodynamical studies of the Earth. Each satellite is a high density passive laser reflector in a very stable medium Earth orbit (MEO). The spacecraft are aluminum-covered brass spheres with a diameter of 60 cm and masses of 400 and 411 kg, covered with 426 cube-corner retroreflectors, giving them the appearance of giant golf balls. They have no on-board sensors or electronics, and are not attitude-controlled. They orbit at an altitude of 5,900 kilometres (3,700 mi), well above low earth orbit and well below geostationary orbit at orbital inclinations of 109.8 and 52.6 degrees. Measurements are made by transmitting pulsed laser beams from Earth ground stations to the satellites. The laser beams then return to Earth after hitting the reflecting surfaces; the travel times are precisely measured, permitting ground stations in different parts of the Earth to measure their separations to better than one inch in thousands of miles. The LAGEOS satellites make it possible to determine positions of points on the Earth with extremely high accuracy
    7.75
    4 votes
    38
    Mars Global Surveyor

    Mars Global Surveyor

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was a US spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. It began the United States's return to Mars after a 10-year absence. It completed its primary mission in January 2001 and was in its third extended mission phase when, on 2 November 2006, the spacecraft failed to respond to messages and commands. A faint signal was detected three days later which indicated that it had gone into safe mode. Attempts to recontact the spacecraft and resolve the problem failed, and NASA officially ended the mission in January 2007. The Surveyor spacecraft, fabricated at the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, is a rectangular-shaped box with wing-like projections (solar panels) extending from opposite sides. When fully loaded with propellant at the time of launch, the spacecraft weighed 1,060 kg (2,337 lb). Most of Surveyor's mass lies in the box-shaped module occupying the center portion of the spacecraft. This center module is made of two smaller rectangular modules stacked on top of each other, one of which is called the equipment module and holds the spacecraft's electronics, science instruments, and the 1750A
    6.60
    5 votes
    39

    Palapa-D

    • Launch Vehicle: Long March 3B
    • Launch Site: Xichang Satellite Launch Center
    • Orbit type: Geostationary orbit
    Palapa-D, also known as Palapa D1, is an Indonesian geostationary communications satellite which is operated by Indosat. It was built by Thales Alenia Space, based on the Spacebus-4000B3 satellite bus, and carries thirty five G/H band and five J band transponders (US IEEE C and Ku bands respectively). It is intended to be positioned in geostationary orbit at a longitude of 113° East, where it will replace the Palapa C2 satellite. Indosat ordered Palapa-D from Thales Alenia Space in 2007. The satellite was built without using American components, and was therefore not restricted by US International Traffic in Arms Regulations, which allowed the China Great Wall Industry Corporation to be selected as a launch service provider. A Long March 3B rocket, flying from Launch Area 2 at the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre was used to launch Palapa-D. A problem with the third stage of its carrier rocket left it in an incorrect orbit, which was subsequently corrected using the spacecraft's onboard propulsion system. After launch, Palapa-D was to have separated from its carrier rocket into a geosynchronous transfer orbit, however one of its two identical upper-stage engines failed to deliver
    6.60
    5 votes
    40
    Envisat

    Envisat

    Envisat ("Environmental Satellite") is an inoperative Earth-observing satellite still in orbit. It was launched on 1 March 2002 aboard an Ariane 5 from the Guyana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guyana, into a Sun synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 790 km (490 mi) (± 10 km (6.2 mi)). It orbits the Earth in about 101 minutes with a repeat cycle of 35 days. After losing contact with the satellite on 8 April 2012, ESA formally announced the end of Envisat's mission on 9 May 2012. This European Space Agency (ESA) satellite is the most advanced environmental spacecraft ever built and the largest civilian Earth observation satellite put into space. Envisat was an Earth observation satellite. Its objective was to service the continuity of European Remote-Sensing Satellite missions, providing additional observational parameters to improve environmental studies. In working towards the global and regional objectives of the mission, numerous scientific disciplines currently use the data acquired from the different sensors on the satellite, to study such things as atmospheric chemistry, ozone depletion, biological oceanography, ocean temperature and colour, wind waves, hydrology
    5.67
    6 votes
    41

    LARES

    LARES (acronym for Laser Relativity Satellite) (COSPAR ID 2012-006A) is an Italian Space Agency scientific satellite launched from the ESA Guiana Space Centre of Kourou, French Guiana, by the maiden flight of the European launch vehicle Vega on 13 February 2012. The satellite, completely passive, is made of tungsten alloy and houses 92 cube corner retroreflectors that are used to track the satellite via laser from stations on Earth. LARES's body has a diameter of about 36.4 centimetres (14 in) and weighs about 400 kilograms (882 lb). LARES was inserted in an orbit with 1,450 kilometres (901 mi) of perigee, an inclination of 69.5 degrees and reduced eccentricity. The satellite is tracked by the International Laser Ranging Service stations. The main scientific target of the LARES mission is the measurement of the Lense–Thirring effect, also known as frame-dragging, with an accuracy of about 1%, according to its proponent. The reliability of such an estimate is controversial. The LARES satellite may also be used for measurements in the fields of geodynamics and satellite geodesy.
    7.50
    4 votes
    42
    Salyut 5

    Salyut 5

    Salyut 5 (Russian: Салют-5 meaning Salute 5), also known as OPS-3, was a Soviet space station. Launched in 1976 as part of the Salyut programme, it was the third and last Almaz space station to be launched for the Soviet military. Two Soyuz missions visited the station, each manned by two cosmonauts. A third Soyuz mission attempted to visit the station, but failed to dock, whilst a fourth mission was planned but never launched. Salyut 5 was launched at 18:04:00 UTC on 22 June 1976. The launch took place from Site 81/23 the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, and used a three-stage Proton-K 8K82K carrier rocket with the serial number 290-02. Upon reaching orbit, Salyut 5 was assigned the International Designator 1976-057A, whilst the North American Aerospace Defense Command gave it the Satellite Catalog Number 08911. Salyut 5 was an Almaz spacecraft, the last of three to be launched as space stations after Salyut 2 and Salyut 3. Like its predecessors, it was 14.55 metres (47.7 ft) long, with a maximum diameter of 4.15 metres (13.6 ft). It had a habitable interior volume of 100 cubic metres (3,500 cu ft), and a mass at launch of 1,900 kilograms (4,200 lb).
    7.50
    4 votes
    43
    Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer

    Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer

    The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite was launched in July 1992 into a low earth orbit at an altitude of 520 by 670 km and 82 degrees inclination. The satellite far exceeded its expected three-year lifetime. It has primarily operated in a three-axis stabilized mode but has also been spun for limited periods. The satellite carries four instruments designed to measure the radiation environment of the Earth's magnetosphere. SAMPEX was an international collaboration between NASA of the United States and Germany. It was part of the Small Explorer program started in 1989 SAMPEX science mission ended on June 30, 2004. SAMPEX collaborators included:
    7.50
    4 votes
    44

    Aprilicus

    APRILICUS refers to a series of four United States reconnaissance satellites launched between 1978 and 1980. Also known as AFD-0104-08 , the satellites were developed with the participation of the Air Force. The Aprilicus project is credited as being the first American satellite Joint Venture between the USA, Australia and Norway tasked for COMINT. The satellites weighed 700 kg and were launched from Redstone 3C rockets into near-geosynchronous orbits from Woomera Weapons Range. They carried large parabolic reflecting dishes, estimated at 10m in diameter. The Aprilicus satellites were eventually replaced with the next generation of COMINT satellites, the Vortex/Chalet series. The program remains classified and protected under UMBRA - AFD.
    8.67
    3 votes
    45

    Intelsat 1R

    Intelsat 1R (formerly PAS-1R) is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 50° W longitude, serving the Americas market.
    8.67
    3 votes
    46
    Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is a NASA mission under the Living With a Star program. The probes were launched on August 30, 2012 to help study the dynamic regions of space known as the Van Allen Radiation Belts that surround Earth. Understanding the radiation belt environment and its variability has important practical applications in the areas of spacecraft operations, spacecraft system design, mission planning and astronaut safety. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center manages the overall Living With a Star program of which RBSP is a project, along with Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The Applied Physics Laboratory is responsible for the overall implementation and instrument management for RBSP. The primary mission is scheduled to last 2 years, with expendables expected to last for 4 years. The spacecraft will also work in close collaboration with the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), which can measure particles that break out of the belts and make it all the way to Earth's atmosphere. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission is part of NASA’s Living With a Star program, which is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt. The Johns
    8.67
    3 votes
    47

    Trailblazer

    Trailblazer was a technology demonstration satellite, which was to have been operated by the United States Air Force and the Missile Defense Agency. It was selected for launch under a "Jumpstart" contract, to demonstrate responsiveness, with the final payload being chosen less than a month ahead of the scheduled launch date, and was launched as the primary payload of the third Falcon 1, which failed just over two minutes after launch on 3 August 2008. Two previous Falcon 1 launches also failed to reach orbit, but the fourth succeeded although it only carried a dummy payload. It was originally built for a cancelled MDA project, and was based on a SpaceDev MMB-100 satellite bus. It was launched from Omelek Island, at 03:34 GMT. Several other payloads were to be launched aboard the same rocket, including two CubeSats for NASA, and a space burial payload for Celestis, which would have remained attached to the rocket in low Earth orbit.
    6.40
    5 votes
    48
    Kepler Spacecraft

    Kepler Spacecraft

    • Launch Vehicle: Delta II
    • Launch Site: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 17
    Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars. The spacecraft, named in honor of the 17th-century German astronomer Johannes Kepler, was launched in March 2009 and has been active for 3 years, 7 months and 11 days as of 18 October 2012. The Kepler mission is "specifically designed to survey a portion of our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover dozens of Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone and determine how many of the billions of stars in our galaxy have such planets." Kepler's only instrument is a photometer that continually monitors the brightness of over 145,000 main sequence stars in a fixed field of view. This data is transmitted to Earth, then analyzed to detect periodic dimming caused by extrasolar planets that cross in front of their host star. Kepler is a project under NASA's Discovery Program of relatively low-cost, focused science missions. Construction and initial operation were managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Ball Aerospace responsible for developing the Kepler flight system. The Ames Research Center is responsible for the ground system development, mission operations (from
    7.25
    4 votes
    49

    Astra 1G

    • Launch Vehicle: Proton D1-e
    • Launch Site: Baikonur Cosmodrome
    • Orbit type: Geostationary orbit
    9.50
    2 votes
    50

    Genesis-1

    • Launch Vehicle: Dnepr launch vehicle
    • Launch Site: Dombarovsky
    Genesis I is an experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace and launched in 2006. It was the first module to be sent into orbit by the company, and is testing various systems, materials and techniques related to determining the viability of long-term inflatable space structures. Such structures, including this module and others built by Bigelow Aerospace, are based on the NASA TransHab design, which provides increased interior volume at a reduced launch diameter and potentially reduced mass compared to traditional rigid structures. Genesis I was launched on 12 July 2006 at 14:53:30 UTC aboard an ISC Kosmotras Dnepr rocket, launched from Dombarovskiy missile base near Yasniy, Russia. Spacecraft control was transferred to Bigelow Aerospace at 15:08 UTC after a successful orbital insertion. Designed as a one-third scale model of the full size BA 330, when in orbit the main body of the craft measures 4.4 metres (14.4 ft) long and 2.54 metres (8.3 ft) in diameter, with an interior habitable volume of 11.5 cubic metres (406.1 cu ft). As part of the expandable design, however, the module launched with a diameter of only 1.6 metres (5.2 ft),
    9.50
    2 votes
    51

    ISIS

    ISIS I and II (International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies) were the third and fourth satellites that were launched in a series of Canadian satellites sent up to study the ionosphere. After the success of Canada's Alouette 1, Canada and the United States decided to jointly launch three more satellites which they called the ISIS program. The first of the three was named Alouette 2 (after originally being named ISIS-X). As was the case for the Alouette satellites, RCA Victor of Montreal was the prime contractor for both ISIS I and II. There was a final satellite scheduled for construction, but when the government's focus shifted towards communications satellites, it was cancelled in 1969. ISIS I was launched at 6h46 UTC on January 30, 1969 by a Delta rocket at the Western test range at Vandenberg AFB in California. Canada stopped using ISIS I on March 13, 1984 but Japan was authorized to keep on using it and did so until 1990. Unlike the Alouette satellites the ISIS had complex navigational equipment and a tape recorder to record some experiments when they were out of communications range and play back the results when the satellites came over Canada again. Some other
    9.50
    2 votes
    52
    SCISAT-1

    SCISAT-1

    SCISAT-1 is a Canadian satellite designed to make observations of the Earth's atmosphere. Its main instruments are an optical Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the ACE-FTS Instrument, and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer, MAESTRO. These devices record spectra of the Sun, as sunlight passes through the Earth's atmosphere, making analyses of the chemical elements of the atmosphere possible. SCISAT is a relatively small satellite weighing 150 kg (~330 pounds). It is partly drum shaped with a diameter of about five feet and a depth of about five feet. The Canadian Space Agency coordinated its design, launch and use. The main contractors were Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg, Manitoba and ABB Bomem inc. of Quebec City, Quebec. SCISAT passes through the Earth's shadow 15 times per day, profiting from the occultation of the Sun to make a spectrographic analysis of the structure and chemistry of those parts of the upper atmosphere that are too high to be reached by balloons and airplanes and too low to be visited by orbiting satellites. This kind of analysis can help understand the depletion of the ozone layer and other upper atmosphere phenomena. SCISAT was placed in low Earth orbit,
    9.50
    2 votes
    53

    FASat-Alfa

    FASat-Alfa was to become the first Chilean satellite, and was constructed under a Technology Transfer Program between the Chilean Air Force (FACH) and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) of the United Kingdom. The primary goal of the Program was to obtain for Chile the basic scientific and technological experience required to continue with more advanced steps. The purposes of the FASat-Alfa mission are to create a group of engineers with aerospace experience, to have the first Chilean satellite in orbit, and to install and operate the Mission Control Station (ECM-Santiago) in Chile. There were two satellites: FASat-Alfa and FASat-Bravo. The Alfa satellite was launched on 31 August 1995 on TSYCLON from Plesesk. Its orbit was intended to be 682 x 651 km, inclined at 82.53 degrees; however, the spacecraft failed to separate from the failed Ukrainian satellite it was attached to. The Bravo satellite was launched on 10 July 1998, on TSYCLON from Baikonur. Its intended orbit was 682 x 651 km, inclined at 82.53 degrees. It was to operate 13,000 orbits until 2002.
    7.00
    4 votes
    54
    Jason 1

    Jason 1

    Jason-1 is a satellite oceanography mission to monitor global ocean circulation, study the ties between the ocean and the atmosphere, improve global climate forecasts and predictions, and monitor events such as El Niño and ocean eddies. It is the successor to the TOPEX/Poseidon mission, which measured ocean surface topography from 1992 through 2005. Like its predecessor, Jason-1 is a joint project between the NASA (United States) and CNES (France) space agencies. Jason-1's successor, the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite, was launched in June 2008. These satellites provide a unique global view of the oceans that is impossible to acquire using traditional ship-based sampling. Jason-1 was built by Thales Alenia Space using a Proteus platform, under a contract from CNES, as well as the main Jason-1 instrument, the Poseidon-2 altimeter (successor to the Poseidon altimeter on-board TOPEX/Poseidon) Jason-1 was designed to measure climate change through very precise millimeter-per-year measurements of global sea level changes. As did TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 uses an altimeter to measure the hills and valleys of the ocean's surface. These measurements of sea surface
    7.00
    4 votes
    55
    NextSat

    NextSat

    • Launch Vehicle: Atlas V
    • Launch Site: Marshall Space Flight Center
    Satellite to be serviced by ASTRO as part of the Orbital Express program.
    7.00
    4 votes
    56
    6.00
    5 votes
    57
    8.00
    3 votes
    58
    8.00
    3 votes
    59

    Astra 4A

    Astra 4A is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES at the Astra 5°E orbital slot providing digital television and radio broadcasts, data, and interactive services to Nordic countries, eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa in the 11.70 GHz-12.75 GHz range of the Ku band and 18.8 GHz-21.75 GHz range of the Ka band. The satellite was launched in November 2007 as Sirius 4 by SES Sirius. At that time, SES owned a 75% shareholding in SES Sirius, which was increased to 90% in 2008 and to 100% in March 2010. In June 2010, the affiliate company was renamed SES Astra (then a subsidiary company of SES) and the Sirius 4 satellite was renamed Astra 4A. Astra 4A provides three Ku band broadcast beams - the Nordic beam to Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, the European beam to Eastern European and Baltic countries including Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia and Ukraine, and the African beam to sub-Saharan Africa. Reception is possible on dishes as small as 60 cm from all three beams, with reception from the European beam across Europe and from the African beam across sub-Saharan across Africa with dishes of 90 cm-120 cm. The satellite
    8.00
    3 votes
    60

    Orlets-1

    Orlets-1 or Don (GRAU index 17F12) is a Russian (previously Soviet) reconnaissance satellite. Orlets-1 was made after it was concluded that the Yantar-2K satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack, and drew on features of an existing draft project designated Yantar-6K. It has a wide-spectrum panoramic camera, carries 8 film return capsules and has a design life of 60 days, After its mission has ended, the satellite is detonated in its orbit. Orlets-1 is being launched by the Soyuz-U or Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle. An improved version of Orlets-1 exists, called Orlets-2.
    8.00
    3 votes
    61
    6.75
    4 votes
    62

    Libertad 1

    Libertad 1 (English: Freedom 1) is a single CubeSat built by the Space Program of the Sergio Arboleda University in the South American country of Colombia. It was launched aboard a Dnepr rocket on April 17, 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan and became the first Colombian satellite to orbit the Earth. It used a telemetric payload to keep it in communication with the University. It was expected to have a 50 day lifespan, however news reports two years after it was launched stated the satellite was still working and sending information, passing over Colombia twice a day.
    6.75
    4 votes
    63
    AGILE

    AGILE

    AGILE (Astro‐rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero) is an X-ray and Gamma ray astronomical satellite of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). AGILE mission is aimed to the observation of the Gamma-Ray sources in the universe. The AGILE’s instrumentation combines a gamma-ray imager (GRID) (sensitive in the energy range 30 MeV-50 GeV), a hard X-ray imager and monitor: Super- AGILE (sensitive in the range 18-60 KeV), a calorimeter (sensitive in the range 350 KeV-100 MeV) (MCAL), and an anticoincidence system (AC), based on plastic scintillator. AGILE was successfully launched on 2007, April 23 from the Indian base of Sriharikota and was inserted in an equatorial orbit with low particle background. SuperAGILE (SA) is an imaging instrument based on a set of four independent silicon strip detectors, equipped with one-dimensional coded mask, SA is designed to detect X-Ray signals from known sources and also burst like signals providing long-term monitoring in terms of flux and spectral features. Also MCAL can effectively detect high-energy radiation bursts in its energy band. Some of the AGILE detected transient events are associated to positions not consistent with a known source in the sky
    9.00
    2 votes
    64
    Salyut 3

    Salyut 3

    Salyut 3 (Russian: Салют-3; English: Salute 3; also known as OPS-2 or Almaz 2) was a Soviet space station launched on June 25, 1974. It was the second Almaz military space station, and the first such station to be launched successfully. It was included in the Salyut program to disguise its true military nature. Due to the military nature of the station, the Soviet Union was reluctant to release information about its design, and about the missions relating to the station. It attained an altitude of 219 to 270 km on launch and NASA reported its final orbital altitude was 268 to 272 km. Only one of the three intended crews successfully boarded and manned the station, brought by Soyuz 14; Soyuz 15 attempted to bring a second crew but failed to dock. Although little official information has been released about the station, several sources report that it contained multiple Earth-observation cameras, as well as an on-board gun. The station was deorbited, and re-entered the atmosphere on January 24, 1975. The next space station launched by the Soviet Union was the civilian station Salyut 4; the next military station was Salyut 5, which was the final Almaz space station. The first space
    9.00
    2 votes
    65
    Aryabhata

    Aryabhata

    Aryabhata was India's first satellite, named after the great Indian astronomer of the same name. It was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975 from Kapustin Yar using a Cosmos-3M launch vehicle. It was built by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to gain experience in building and operating a satellite in space. The 96.3 minute orbit had an apogee of 619  km and a perigee of 563  km, at an inclination of 50.7 degrees. It was built to conduct experiments in X-ray astronomy, aeronomics, and solar physics. The spacecraft was a 26-sided polygon 1.4 m in diameter. All faces (except the top and bottom) were covered with solar cells. A power failure halted experiments after 4 days in orbit. All signals from the spacecraft were lost after 5 days of operation. The satellite reentered the Earth's atmosphere on 11 February 1992. The satellite's image appeared on the reverse of Indian 2 rupee banknotes between 1976 and 1997 (Pick catalog and one rupee note number: P-79a-m).
    7.67
    3 votes
    66

    Astra 1B

    • Launch Site: Centre Spatial Guyanais
    Astra 1B was the second of the Astra communications satellites launched and operated by SES (Société Européenne des Satellites). It was bought during its construction from GE Americom, and was launched to add extra capacity to the satellite television services from 19.2° east, serving Germany, the UK and Republic of Ireland. It was believed to have been launched in a faulty condition, and suffered a thruster failure early in its life, causing minor drift, meaning that it became permanently difficult to obtain a steady lock on the satellite. This was most notable on analogue transmissions where the picture would move from clear to carrying sparklies and back again. Along with Astra 1C, Astra 1B was to be replaced in 2002 with Astra 1K, which failed to launch successfully, and as a result it continued to serve a longer life than expected, only falling from use when digital television on Astra 2A removed the majority of UK and Ireland targeted channels from 19.2° east. From 2005, SES claimed that the satellite was in use for VSAT services, however no transponders were powered, and the satellite drifted to around 19.5° east. One transponder was reactivated in October 2005, but was
    7.67
    3 votes
    67

    CSS Skywalker

    The CSS Skywalker (Commercial Space Station Skywalker) was a concept for the first space hotel by Bigelow Aerospace. The Skywalker was designed to be composed of multiple Nautilus habitat modules, which would be inflated and connected upon reaching orbit. An MDPB (Multi-Directional Propulsion Module) propulsion module would allow the Skywalker to be moved into interplanetary or lunar trajectories.
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Mir

    Mir

    Mir (Russian: Мир, IPA: [ˈmʲir]; lit. Peace or World) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, at first by the Soviet Union and then by Russia. Assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996, Mir was the first modular space station and had a greater mass than that of any previous spacecraft, holding the record for the largest artificial satellite orbiting the Earth until its deorbit on 21 March 2001 (a record now surpassed by the International Space Station). Mir served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and spacecraft systems in order to develop technologies required for the permanent occupation of space. The station was the first consistently inhabited long-term research station in space and was operated by a series of long-duration crews. The Mir programme held the record for the longest uninterrupted human presence in space, at 3,644 days, until 23 October 2010 (when it was surpassed by the ISS), and it currently holds the record for the longest single human spaceflight, of Valeri Polyakov, at 437 days 18 hours. Mir was occupied for a total of twelve and a
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Solar Dynamics Observatory

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is a NASA mission which will observe the Sun for over five years. Launched on February 11, 2010, the observatory is part of the Living With a Star (LWS) program. The goal of the LWS program is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun–Earth system that directly affect life and society. SDO's goal is to understand the Sun's influence on Earth and near-Earth space by studying the solar atmosphere on small scales of space and time and in many wavelengths simultaneously. SDO will investigate how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is converted and released into the heliosphere and geospace in the form of solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. The SDO spacecraft was assembled and tested at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and launched on February 11, 2010, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The primary mission is scheduled to last five years and three months, with expendables expected to last for ten years. Some consider SDO to be a follow-on mission to the Solar and
    7.67
    3 votes
    70
    7.67
    3 votes
    71
    Terra

    Terra

    • Launch Site: Vandenberg Air Force Base
    Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth. It is the flagship of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The name "Terra" comes from the Latin word for Earth. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on December 18, 1999, aboard an Atlas IIAS vehicle and began collecting data on February 24, 2000. Terra carries a payload of five remote sensors designed to monitor the state of Earth's environment and ongoing changes in its climate system: Data from the satellite helps scientists better understand the spread of pollution around the globe. Studies have used instruments on Terra to examine trends in global carbon monoxide and aerosol pollution. The data collected by Terra will ultimately become a new, 15-year global data set.
    7.67
    3 votes
    72
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Deep Space 1

    Deep Space 1

    Deep Space 1 (DS1) is a spacecraft of the NASA New Millennium Program dedicated to testing a payload of advanced, high risk technologies. Launched on 24 October 1998, the Deep Space mission carried out a flyby of asteroid 9969 Braille, which was selected as the mission's science target. Its mission was extended twice to include an encounter with Comet Borrelly and further engineering testing. Problems during its initial stages and with its star tracker led to repeated changes in mission configuration. While the flyby of the asteroid was a partial success, the encounter with the comet retrieved valuable information. Three of twelve technologies on board had to work within a few minutes of separation from the carrier rocket for the mission to continue. The Deep Space series was continued by the Deep Space 2 probes, which were launched in January 1999 on Mars Polar Lander and were intended to strike the surface of Mars. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft to use ion powered rocketry, in contrast to the traditional chemical powered rockets. The Autonav system, developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes images of known bright asteroids. The asteroids in the inner Solar
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Mars Climate Orbiter

    Mars Climate Orbiter

    The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor '98 Orbiter) was a 338 kilogram (750 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on December 11, 1998 to study the Martian climate, atmosphere, surface changes and to act as the communications relay in the Mars Surveyor '98 program, for Mars Polar Lander. However, on September 23, 1999, communication with the spacecraft was lost as the spacecraft went into orbital insertion, due to ground based computer software which produced output in Imperial units of pound-seconds (lbf×s) instead of the specified metric units of newton-seconds (N×s). The spacecraft encountered Mars at an improperly low altitude, causing it to incorrectly enter the upper atmosphere and disintegrate. After the loss of Mars Observer and the onset of the rising costs associated with the future International Space Station, NASA began seeking cheaper, smaller solutions to scientific interplanetary missions. In 1994, the Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology was established to set guidelines for future miniature spacecraft. The panel determined that the new line of miniature spacecraft should be under 1000 kilograms with highly focused instrumentation. In 1995, a new
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    6.50
    4 votes
    76
    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and Exploration of Mars from orbit. The US$720 million spacecraft was built by Lockheed Martin under the supervision of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The mission is managed by the JPL, at California Institute of Technology, La Canada Flintridge, California, for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. It was launched August 12, 2005, and attained Martian orbit on March 10, 2006. In November 2006, after five months of aerobraking, it entered its final science orbit and began its primary science phase. As MRO entered orbit it joined five other active spacecraft which were either in orbit or on the planet surface: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and two Mars Exploration Rovers; at the time a record for the most operational spacecraft in the immediate vicinity of Mars. MRO contains a host of scientific instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, and radar, which are used to analyze the landforms, stratigraphy, minerals, and ice of Mars. It paves the way for future spacecraft by monitoring Mars' daily weather and surface conditions, studying potential
    6.50
    4 votes
    77
    Stardust

    Stardust

    Stardust was a 300-kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on February 7, 1999. Its primary mission was to collect dust samples from the coma of comet Wild 2, as well as samples of cosmic dust, and return these to Earth for analysis. It was the first sample return mission of its kind. En route to Comet Wild 2, the craft also flew by and studied the asteroid 5535 Annefrank. The primary mission was successfully completed on January 15, 2006, when the sample return capsule returned to Earth. A mission extension codenamed NExT culminated in February 2011 with Stardust intercepting comet Tempel 1, a small Solar System body previously visited by Deep Impact in 2005. Stardust ceased operations in March 2011. Beginning in the 1980s, scientists began seeking a dedicated mission to study a comet. During the early 1990s, several missions to study comet Halley became the first successful missions to return close-up data. However, the US cometary mission, Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, was canceled for budgetary reasons. In the mid-1990s, further support was given to a cheaper, Discovery-class mission that would study comet Wild 2 in 2004. Stardust was competitively selected in the fall
    6.50
    4 votes
    78

    Technology Experiment Satellite

    Technology Experiment Satellite or (TES) is an experimental satellite to demonstrate and validate, in orbit, technologies that could be used in the future satellites of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). TES weighs 1108 kg and was successfully placed in 568 km sun synchronous orbit on October 22, 2001 using the PSLV-C3 version of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. PSLV-C3 also injected two more satellites: PROBA, a Belgian satellite and BIRD, a German satellite. The technologies demonstrated in TES are attitude and orbit control system, high torque reaction wheels, new reaction control system with optimized thrusters and a single propellant tank, light weight spacecraft structure, solid state recorder, X-band phased array antenna, improved satellite positioning system, miniaturized TTC and power system and, two-mirror-on-axis camera optics. The Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) has a pan chromatic camera for remote sensing. The camera is which is capable of producing images of 1 meter resolution. 1 m resolution means the camera is able to distinguish between two objects which are separated at least a meter. The launch of TES made India the second country in the world after
    6.50
    4 votes
    79
    8.50
    2 votes
    80
    8.50
    2 votes
    81
    Lacrosse

    Lacrosse

    Lacrosse or Onyx is a series of terrestrial radar imaging reconnaissance satellites operated by the United States National Reconnaissance Office. While not officially confirmed by the NRO or anybody in the U.S. government, for a long time, there was and is widespread evidence to confirm its existence, including one NASA website. In July 2008, the NRO itself declassified the existence of their SAR satellite constellation. According to former Director of Central Intelligence Admiral Stansfield Turner, Lacrosse had its origins in 1978 when a dispute between the Central Intelligence Agency and the U.S. Air Force as to whether a combined optical/radar reconnaissance satellite (the CIA proposal) or a radar-only one (the USAF proposal) should be developed was resolved in favor of the USAF. Lacrosse uses Synthetic Aperture Radar as its prime imaging instrument. It is able to see through cloud cover and also has some ability to penetrate soil, though there have been more powerful instruments deployed in space for this specific purpose. Early versions are believed to have used the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) to relay imagery to a ground station at White Sands, New
    8.50
    2 votes
    82
    8.50
    2 votes
    83
    7.33
    3 votes
    84
    Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite

    Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite

    The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) was an astronomical observatory launched on December 5, 1998 as part of the Small Explorer program within NASA. Investigators at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Goddard Space Flight Center designed the telescope and the spacecraft, respectively. The satellite examined microwaves from 487–556 GHz that originated in water molecules, molecular oxygen, atomic carbon, and carbon monoxide in space. This corresponds to wavelengths of about 0.54 to 0.61 millimeters (540 to 610 μm). SWAS made observations until July 21, 2004. In June 2005, the spacecraft was reactivated for a 3 month period (after a year of stand-by operation) in order to observe the effects of the Deep Impact probe's collision with comet P/Tempel 1. The main optic of SWAS is a 55 cm x 71 cm elliptical off-axis Cassegrain telescope, sending light into a pair of Schottky diode receivers. SWAS observed a unique area of the spectrum alternately described as submillimeter (for the wavelength of light seen), microwave, radio, and/or far infrared.
    7.33
    3 votes
    85

    ViaSat-1

    ViaSat-1 is a communications satellite owned by ViaSat. Launched October 19, 2011 aboard a Proton rocket, it is the world's highest capacity communications satellite with a total capacity in excess of 140 Gbit/s, more than all the satellites covering North America combined, at the time of its launch. ViaSat-1 is capable of two-way communications with small dish antennas at higher speeds and a lower cost-per-bit than any satellite before. The satellite will be positioned at 115.1 degrees West longitude, with 72 Ka-band spot beams; 63 over the U.S. (Eastern and Western states, Alaska and Hawaii), and nine over Canada. The Canadian beams are owned by satellite operator Telesat and will be used for the Xplornet broadband service to consumers in rural Canada. The US beams will provide fast Internet access called Exede, ViaSat's satellite Internet service. ViaSat-1 is part of a new satellite system architecture created by ViaSat Inc. The objective is to create a better satellite broadband user experience, making satellite competitive with DSL and wireless broadband alternatives for the first time.
    7.33
    3 votes
    86

    Intelsat 21

    • Launch Vehicle: Zenit 3
    Intelsat 21 is a new satellite under construction by Boeing Space Systems for the Intelsat Corp. It is scheduled for launch in third quarter of 2012, and will replace the Intelsat 9 satellite at 58° West Longitude.
    6.25
    4 votes
    87

    Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite

    Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a proposed space telescope by MIT for NASA's Small Explorer program. It was selected for development in the most recent Small Explorer phase A study round. The telescope would conduct a two year long all-sky survey program for exploring transiting exoplanets around nearby and bright stars. The satellite would be equipped with six (or nine) wide-angle telescopes and CCD detectors with a total size of 192 megapixels. The observation's data would be processed and stored for three months onboard, and it is planned to transmit only data of interest down to the Earth. The three month-long storing enables scientists to search within data if an unexpected, transient phenomena (for example a Gamma-ray Burst) is discovered. Google has provided seed money for the development of the telescopes' sensors and optical systems. The survey would focus the G and K spectral type stars brighter than 12 magnitudes, approximately 2 million of them would be studied, and the 1,000 closest M-type red dwarfs (within 30 parsecs). It is expected to discover 1,000 - 10,000 transiting exoplanets down to the size of the Earth and up to 2 months of period. The
    6.25
    4 votes
    88

    Intelsat 11

    Intelsat 11 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat planned to be located at 43° W longitude, serving the Americas market. Intelsat 11 is intended to replace Intelsat 3R which is nearing the end of its design life. It was built by Orbital Sciences Corporation, as part of its Star-2 Bus line. Intelsat 11 was formerly known as PAS-11. It was launched 2007-10-05 by an Ariane 5 GS. The clients for Intelsat 11 are expected to include the current clients for Intelsat 3R.
    7.00
    3 votes
    89

    Intelsat 3R

    Intelsat 3R (formerly PAS-3R) is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 43° W longitude, serving the Americas market.
    7.00
    3 votes
    90
    7.00
    3 votes
    91
    Landsat 2

    Landsat 2

    Landsat 2 is the second satellite of the Landsat program. The spacecraft originally carried a designation of ERTS-B (Earth Resource Technology Satellite B) but was renamed "Landsat 2" prior to its launch on January 22, 1975. Despite having a design life of one year, Landsat 2 operated for over seven years, finally ceasing operations on February 25, 1982. As in the case of its predecessor Landsat 1, the satellite's payload included two remote sensing instruments, the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) and the Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS). The specifications for these instruments were identical to those of the instruments carried on Landsat 1. (This was not the case for Landsat 3, which added a short-lived thermal band to the MSS instrument.) The data acquired by the MSS was considered more scientifically useful than the data returned from the RBV, which was rarely used and considered only for engineering evaluation purposes.
    7.00
    3 votes
    92
    Spacecom

    Spacecom

    Spacecom, or Space Communication (Hebrew: חלל תקשורת‎), is a communications satellite operator in the Middle East, European Union and North America headquartered in the city of Ramat Gan, Israel. Spacecom operates two satellites at orbital position 4° West – AMOS 2 and AMOS 3 – as well as other AMOS satellites. Spacecom was established in 1993 with a defined goal of marketing AMOS 1, a newly built communication satellite manufactured by Israel Aerospace Industries. In 2003 Spacecom launched its second satellite, AMOS 2, owned entirely by the company. In 2008 AMOS 3 satellite was launched to replace AMOS 1 and to increase coverage and traffic abilities. Until 2005, Spacecom was a private company controlled by four companies, including IAI and Eurocom Group. It went public on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange in 2005. Spacecom satellites provide coverage to most of the Middle East, East-Central Europe and an Atlantic bridge from those areas to North America. AMOS 4 will placed above East Asia and AMOS 5 over Africa to provide the company coverage in these fast growing markets. Former In orbit Upcoming
    7.00
    3 votes
    93
    Vanguard 1

    Vanguard 1

    Vanguard 1 (ID: 1958-Beta 2 ) was the fourth artificial Earth satellite launched and the first satellite to be solar powered. Although communication with it was lost in 1964, it remains the oldest manmade satellite still in orbit. It was designed to test the launch capabilities of a three-stage launch vehicle as a part of Project Vanguard, and the effects of the environment on a satellite and its systems in Earth orbit. It also was used to obtain geodetic measurements through orbit analysis. The spacecraft is a 1.47 kg (3.2 lb) aluminum sphere 165 mm (6.4 inches) in diameter. It contains a 10 mW, 108 MHz transmitter powered by a mercury battery and a 5 mW, 108.03 MHz transmitter that was powered by six solar cells mounted on the body of the satellite. Six short antennas protrude from the sphere. The transmitters were used primarily for engineering and tracking data, but were also used to determine the total electron content between the satellite and ground stations. Vanguard also carries two thermistors which measured the interior temperature over sixteen days in order to track the effectiveness of the thermal protection. A backup version of Vanguard 1 is on display at the Kansas
    7.00
    3 votes
    94
    XMM-Newton

    XMM-Newton

    The XMM-Newton (X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission - Newton) is an orbiting X-ray observatory launched by ESA in December 1999 on a Ariane 5 rocket. It is named in honor of Sir Isaac Newton. Originally known as the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission it was placed in a very eccentric 48 hour elliptical orbit at 40°; at its apogee it is nearly 114,000 kilometres (71,000 mi) from Earth, while the perigee is only 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) The satellite weighs 3,800 kilograms (8,400 lb), is 10 metres (33 ft) long and 16 metres (52 ft) in span with its solar arrays deployed. It holds three X-ray telescopes, developed by Media Lario of Italy, each of which contains 58 Wolter-type concentric mirrors. The combined collecting area is 4,300 cm². The three European Photon Imaging Cameras (EPIC) are sensitive over the energy range 0.2 keV to 12 keV. Other instruments onboard are two reflection grating spectrometers which are sensitive below ~2 keV, and a 30 centimetres (12 in) diameter Ritchey-Chretien optical/UV telescope. The mission was proposed in 1984 and approved in 1985; a project team was formed in 1993 and development work began in 1996. The satellite was constructed and tested from
    7.00
    3 votes
    95

    Astra 1E

    Astra 1E is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES, and launched in 1995 to the Astra 19.2°E orbital slot to provide digital television and radio for DTH across Europe. Astra 1E was the first Astra satellite to be dedicated to digital TV broadcasting and it carried many of the first digital TV channels from networks broadcasting to France, Germany, and other European countries in the 1990s. The satellite originally provided two broadcast beams, of horizontal and vertical polarisation, for FSS (10.70-10.95 GHz) and for BSS (11.70-12.10 GHz) frequency bands. The FSS beams provide footprints that cover essentially the same area of Europe – northern, central and eastern Europe, including Spain and northern Italy – while the BSS horizontal beam excludes Spain and extends further east, and the BSS vertical beam includes Spain and more of southern Italy but does not extend so far east. Within the footprints, TV signals are usually received with a 60–80 cm dish. In October 2007, following the successful deployment of Astra 1L at 19.2°E, Astra 1E was moved to Astra’s new DTH orbital position, 23.5°E where it provided capacity for the transmission of new
    6.00
    4 votes
    96

    AMOS 1

    • Launch Vehicle: Ariane 4
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelsat_24
    8.00
    2 votes
    97
    8.00
    2 votes
    98

    Clementine

    Clémentine is a small satellite built by Alcatel Space (now Thales) for the French DGA, ostensibly "to study the Earth's radio-electrical environment from space." It is a successor to the Cerise satellite.
    8.00
    2 votes
    99

    Eurobird 1

    • Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5
    • Launch Site: Guiana Space Center
    Eutelsat 28A (formerly Eurobird 1) is a Eutelsat operated Eurobird satellite, used primarily for digital television. It is located at 28.5° east in the Clarke Belt, just within the range of most satellite dishes pointed at SES' Astra 1N, 2A, 2B and 2D at 28.2° east. It was launched in March 2001, and after a short period testing at 33°E, joined Eutelsat 2F4 at 28.5°E. Its name changed on 1 March 2012 from Eurobird 1 to Eutelsat 28A. The satellite has three beams, one fixed, covering almost all of Europe as well as north-western Africa, although carrying only United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland targeted channels, and two steerable - the first, "S1", co-focused with the fixed beam but with a Europe-only footprint, and a second, "S2", aimed to central Europe. This beam features many transponders with low symbol rates, used for satellite news gathering. Once stationed at 28.5°E, the satellite was promoted as providing satellite coverage for all of Europe, and featured both analogue and digital television and radio services serving Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and other countries. Many of the services it carried had previously been on Kopernikus 2 which had operated at
    8.00
    2 votes
    100

    KazSat

    KazSat 1 (Kazakh: ҚазСат), the first Kazakh space satellite, was launched on June 18, 2006 by Proton-K rocket (made by Khrunichev Space Center). It contains 12 Ku-band transponders (each 72 MHz). It is a communications satellite occupying geosynchronous orbit approximately 36 000 km above the Earth. It was produced by cooperation of Khrunichev Space Center and Thales Alenia Space. The control of the KazSat was lost primary at July 2008 and completely at Oct 2008. The second Kazakh space satellite was launched in July 2011 by Proton rocket. This satellite was constructed by Krunichev for the Spacecraft and Thales Alenia Space for the Payload. Thales Alenia Space is also the provider of KazSat 1 and KazSat 3 payloads.
    8.00
    2 votes
    101

    NigComSat-1

    NigComSat-1 was a Nigerian communication satellite. The initial contract to build the satellite was signed in 2004. It became the first African geosynchronous communication satellite, when it was launched at 16:01 GMT on 13 May 2007, aboard a Chinese Long March 3B carrier rocket, from the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre in China. The spacecraft was operated by NigComSat Nigerian Communication Satellite Ltd. On November 11, 2008, NigComSat-1 failed in orbit after running out of power due to an anomaly in its solar array. The satellite, which is the third Nigerian satellite to be placed into orbit, was launched into a geosynchronous transfer orbit and subsequently it was successfully inserted into a geosynchronous orbit, positioned at 42.5E. It had a launch mass of 5,150 kg, and had an expected service life of 15 years. It was based on the Chinese DFH-4 satellite bus, and carries a variety of transponders: It design was to provide coverage to many parts of Africa, and the Ka-band transponders would also cover Italy. NigcomSat-1 represented a milestone for China’s satellite export business. For the first time the China Great Wall Industry Corporation provided all aspects of in-orbit
    8.00
    2 votes
    102
    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    • Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle Discovery
    • Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39
    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was a NASA-operated orbital observatory whose mission was to study the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly the protective ozone layer. The 5,900-kilogram (13,000 lb) satellite was deployed from Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-48 mission on 15 September 1991. It entered Earth's orbit at an operational altitude of 600 kilometres (370 mi), with an orbital inclination of 57 degrees. The original mission duration was to be only three years, but was extended several times. When the mission finally ended in June 2005 due to funding cuts, 14 years after the satellite's launch, six of its ten instruments were still operational. A final orbit-lowering burn was performed in early December 2005 to prepare the satellite for deorbit. On 26 October 2010, the International Space Station performed a debris-avoidance maneuver in response to a conjunction with UARS. The decommissioned satellite re-entered Earth's atmosphere on 24 September 2011. Considerable media attention surrounded the event, largely due to NASA's predictions that substantial parts of the satellite might reach the ground, potentially endangering inhabited areas. However, the
    8.00
    2 votes
    103
    9.00
    1 votes
    104
    9.00
    1 votes
    105
    9.00
    1 votes
    106

    Galaxy 28

    Galaxy 28 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 89° W longitude, serving the North American market. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300 line. Galaxy 28 was formerly known as Intelsat Americas 8 and Telstar 8. This satellite provides services in the C-band, Ku band, and Ka band. Current clients for Galaxy 28 include HughesNet, Hearst Corporation, Mobile Universe, ABC, and CBS.
    9.00
    1 votes
    107

    Saudi-OSCAR 50

    The Saudi-OSCAR 50 is a Saudi amateur radio satellite which was launched on December 12th, 2002 by the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. This satellite launched after a series of other amateur satellites, only this operational now. SO-50 carries several experiments, including a mode J FM amateur repeater experiment operating on 145.850 MHz uplink and 436.795 MHz downlink. The repeater is available to amateurs worldwide as power permits, using a 67.0 Hertz PL tone on the uplink, for on-demand activation. SO-50 also has a 10 minute timer that must be armed before use. Thus, first transmit an initial carrier with a PL tone of 74.4 to arm the timer. The repeater consists of a miniature VHF receiver with sensitivity of -124dBm, having an IF bandwidth of 15 kHz. The receive antenna is a 1/4 wave vertical mounted in the top corner of the spacecraft. The receive audio is filtered and conditioned then gated in the control electronics prior to feeding it to the 250 mW UHF transmitter. The downlink antenna is a 1/4 wave mounted in the bottom corner of the spacecraft and canted at 45 degrees inward.
    9.00
    1 votes
    108
    Vanguard 2

    Vanguard 2

    Vanguard 2 or Vanguard II is an earth-orbiting satellite launched February 17, 1959 aboard a Vanguard SLV 4 rocket as part of the United States Navy's Project Vanguard. The satellite was designed to measure cloud-cover distribution over the daylight portion of its orbit, for a period of 19 days, and to provide information on the density of the atmosphere for the lifetime of its orbit (~300 years). As of April 4, 2012, Vanguard 2 was still in orbit. The spacecraft is a magnesium sphere 20 in (50.8 cm) in diameter. It contained two optical telescopes with two photocells. The sphere was internally gold-plated, and externally covered with an aluminum deposit coated with silicon oxide of sufficient thickness to provide thermal control for the instrumentation. Radio communication was provided by a 1 W, 108.03 MHz telemetry transmitter and a 10 mW, 108 MHz beacon transmitter that sent a continuous signal for tracking purposes. A command receiver was used to activate a tape recorder that relayed telescope experiment data to the telemetry transmitter. The power supply for the instrumentation was provided by mercury batteries. Because of its symmetrical shape, Vanguard 2 was selected by the
    9.00
    1 votes
    109
    6.67
    3 votes
    110

    Alouette 2

    Alouette 2 was a Canadian research satellite launched at 04:48 UTC on November 29, 1965 by a Thor Agena rocket with Explorer 31 from the Western test range at Vandenberg AFB in California. It was (like its predecessor Alouette 1, and Explorer 31) designed to explore the ionosphere. The name "Alouette" came from the French for "skylark" and from the title of a popular French-Canadian folk song. Alouette 2 was also known as ISIS-X since it was the first in a series of ISIS satellites: International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies. The next one was called ISIS-I. The Alouette 2 was built up from the identical backup satellite to Alouette 1. It had many more experiments and more sophisticated support systems than the earlier satellite. It lasted for 10 years, being terminated on August 1, 1975. RCA Victor of Montreal was the prime contractor.
    6.67
    3 votes
    111

    Anik F1

    Anik F1 is a Canadian geosynchronous communications satellite that was launched on November 21 2000 by an Ariane 44 rocket from the European Space Agency Guiana space center at Kourou. Anik is an Inuit word that means "little brother". At the moment of its launch it was the most powerful communications satellite ever built. It has an advanced xenon Ion thruster propulsion system and its communication "footprint" covers Central America as well as North America. It was launched by Telesat, a Canadian communications company. The primary customers are the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Star Choice, CHUM Limited and Canadian Satellite Communications Inc.Telesat is a subsidiary of BCE: Bell Canada Enterprise Inc.
    6.67
    3 votes
    112

    Eutelsat 36B

    Eutelsat 36B (formerly Eutelsat W7) is a communications satellite in the W Series operated by Eutelsat. It is co-located with Eutelsat's 36A satellite at 36°E. It was launched on November 23, 2009 14:19 GMT, by a Proton rocket. Manufactured by Thales Alenia Space in its Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, based on a Spacebus 4000C4 platform, it features up to 74 Ku band transponders (12 kW), a weight of about 5.5 tons, and has a lifetime of about 15 years (up to 2024). 36B is one of the most powerful spacecraft in the fleet of Eutelsat. The craft can be configured to have up to 70 Ku band transponders during its 15-year mission. Digital broadcasting and direct-to-home video services will be beamed to customers in Russia and sub-Saharan Africa using 36B. The new satellite replaced all the capacity on the SESAT 1 (now Eutelsat 16C) platform, which was redeployed to 16°E after nearly 10 years of operations at 36°E. 36B's communications payload is connected to five downlink beams for Europe, Russia, Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia.
    6.67
    3 votes
    113

    PoSAT-1

    PoSAT-1, the first Portuguese satellite, was launched into orbit on September 26, 1993, on the 59th flight of the Ariane 4 rocket. The launch took place in the Kourou Space Centre, French Guiana. About 20 minutes and 35 seconds after launch, at an altitude of 807 km, PoSAT-1 separated itself from the rocket. The PoSAT-1 weighs about 50 kg and belongs to the class of micro-satellites, which are between 10 and 100 kg. The entire project was developed by a consortium of universities and companies in Portugal and was built at the University of Surrey, UK. The total cost was around €5 Million, about €3 Million paid by the Portuguese Government and €2 Million by the Portuguese companies involved (Po-SAT consortium: INETI, EFACEC, ALCATEL, MARCONI, OGMA, IST, UBI e CEDINTEC). The responsible for the project was Fernando Carvalho Rodrigues, known as the father of the first Portuguese satellite. The mission was called Flight 59, which launched several satellites: PoSAT-1 from Portugal, EyeSat and ItamSat from Italy, KitSat-B from South Korea, HealthSat (an international medical satellite) and Stella and SPOT-3 from France, the latter one a super satellite for photography recognition. The
    6.67
    3 votes
    114

    Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer

    The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) is an ESA satellite that was launched on March 17, 2009. It is a satellite carrying a highly sensitive gravity gradiometer which detects fine density differences in the crust and oceans of the Earth. GOCE data will have many uses, probing hazardous volcanic regions and bringing new insight into ocean behaviour. The latter, in particular, is a major driver for the mission. By combining the gravity data with information about sea surface height gathered by other satellite altimeters, scientists will be able to track the direction and speed of geostrophic ocean currents. The low orbit and high accuracy of the system will greatly improve the known accuracy and spatial resolution of the geoid (the theoretical surface of equal gravitational potential on the Earth). The satellite's arrow shape and fins help keep the GOCE stable as it flies through the wisps of air still present at an altitude of 260 km. In addition, an ion propulsion system continuously compensates for the deceleration of air-drag without the vibration of a conventional chemically-powered rocket engine, thus restoring the path of the craft as closely as
    5.75
    4 votes
    115
    5.75
    4 votes
    116
    Spitzer Space Telescope

    Spitzer Space Telescope

    • Launch Site: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
    The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is an infrared space observatory launched in 2003. It is the fourth and final of the NASA Great Observatories program. The planned mission period was to be 2.5 years with a pre-launch expectation that the mission could extend to five or slightly more years until the onboard liquid helium supply was exhausted. This occurred on 15 May 2009. Without liquid helium to cool the telescope to the very cold temperatures needed to operate, most instruments are no longer usable. However, the two shortest wavelength modules of the IRAC camera are still operable with the same sensitivity as before the cryogen was exhausted, and will continue to be used in the Spitzer Warm Mission. In keeping with NASA tradition, the telescope was renamed after successful demonstration of operation, on December 18, 2003. Unlike most telescopes which are named after famous deceased astronomers by a board of scientists, the name for SIRTF was obtained from a contest open to the general public. The contest led to the telescope being named in honor of Lyman Spitzer, one of the 20th century's great scientists. Though he was not
    5.75
    4 votes
    117
    7.50
    2 votes
    118

    APPLE

    • Launch Vehicle: Ariane
    • Launch Site: Centre Spatial Guyanais
    The Ariane Passenger PayLoad Experiment (APPLE), was an experimental communication satellite with a C-Band transponder launched by Indian Space Research Organisation satellite on June 19, 1981 by Ariane, a launch vehicle of the European Space Agency (ESA) from Centre Spatial Guyanais near Kourou in French Guiana. It was India's first three-axis stabilised experimental Geostationary communication satellite. On July 16, 1981, the satellite was positioned at 102° E longitude. The 350 kg satellite served as testbed of the Indian telecommunications space relay infrastructure despite the failure of one solar panel to deploy. It was used in several communication experiments including relay of TV programmes and radio networking. It was a cylindrical spacecraft measuring 1.2 meters in diameter and 1.2 meter high. Its payload consisted of two 6/4 GHz transponders connected to a 0.9 meter diameter parabolic antenna. It went out of service on September 19, 1983.
    7.50
    2 votes
    119

    EgyptSat 1

    • Launch Vehicle: Dnepr launch vehicle
    EgyptSat 1 is Egypt's first Earth remote-sounding satellite. This satellite was jointly built by Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences together with the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Ukraine and was launched on board a Dnepr rocket on 17 April 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. The effort was spearheaded by Dr. Aly Sadek, chairman of the Egyptian Council for Space Science and Technology Research. It in many ways was considered a huge step for the Egyptians since it marked the first time they opted for technology transfer during the manufacturing the satellite rather than simply purchasing one (as in case of the Nilesat satellites). On 23 October 2010, the National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences announced that control and communication with the satellite had been lost since July 2010. Egyptsat 1 is considered a miniaturized satellite weighing 100 kg and is carrying two devices:
    7.50
    2 votes
    120

    FedSat

    FedSat (Australia's 'Federation Satellite') is an Australian scientific research satellite launched from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan by a NASDA H-IIA launch vehicle in December 2002 (NASDA is now merged with JAXA). The satellite was developed by the Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems, a cooperative made up of several universities, commercial organisations and government bodies. The ground station is at the Institute for Telecommunications Research, part of the University of South Australia, near Adelaide. Since 2005 it was operated by the Australian Department of Defence. The satellite had five given below payloads: The satellite platform, comprising the structural/thermal components, power system, attitude control system, onboard computer and groundlink, was originally developed in the UK by Space Innovations Limited. It was later completed along with integration of payloads in Canberra, Australia. The spacecraft's battery failed in May 2007 and the mission has been terminated after 18 months.
    7.50
    2 votes
    121
    Gaia probe

    Gaia probe

    Gaia (originally an acronym for Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics) is a European Space Agency (ESA) space mission in astrometry to be launched in August 2013. Successor to the Hipparcos mission, it is part of ESA's Horizon 2000 Plus long-term scientific program. The mission aims to compile a catalogue of approximately 1 billion stars, or roughly 1% of stars in the Milky Way. It will monitor each of its target stars about 70 times to a magnitude 20 over a period of 5 years. Its objectives comprise: Gaia will create an extremely precise three-dimensional map of stars throughout our Milky Way galaxy and beyond, and map their motions which encode the origin and subsequent evolution of the Milky Way. The spectrophotometric measurements will provide the detailed physical properties of each star observed, characterising their luminosity, effective temperature, gravity and elemental composition. This massive stellar census will provide the basic observational data to tackle a wide range of important problems related to the origin, structure, and evolutionary history of our Galaxy. Large numbers of quasars, galaxies, extrasolar planets and Solar System bodies will be
    7.50
    2 votes
    122

    Intelsat 14

    Intelsat 14 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 45° West longitude, serving the Americas, Europe, and African markets. Intelsat 14 replaced Intelsat 1R which was at the end of its design life. It was built by Space Systems Loral, as part of its LS-1300 line. Intelsat 14 has a C-band and Ku band payload, each of which is further divided to provide service to 2 each coverage areas. The C-band payload has a Americas beam which covers the southern part of the United States, all of Mexico, Central America, and all of South America. A second C-band beam provides coverage for Western Europe and Africa. The Ku band payload also has an Americas beam which covers the Alabama, Georgia and Florida, all of the Caribbean, Central America and all of South America except Brazil. The Ku band US/Europe/Africa beam covers the southern eastern United States, Western Europe, and the northern western African countries. Intelsat 14 also carries an experimental IP router payload that can be connected to several of the C and Ku band channels. This experimental payload is known as IRIS (Internet Routing in Space) demonstration. Intelsat 14 was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force
    7.50
    2 votes
    123
    Juno

    Juno

    Juno is a NASA New Frontiers mission to the planet Jupiter. Juno was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on August 5, 2011. The spacecraft is to be placed in a polar orbit to study the planet's composition, gravity field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere. Juno will also search for clues about how Jupiter formed, including whether the planet has a rocky core, the amount of water present within the deep atmosphere, and how the planet's mass is distributed. It will also study Jupiter's deep winds, which can reach speeds of 600 kilometers per hour (370 mph). The spacecraft's name comes from Greco-Roman mythology. The god Jupiter drew a veil of clouds around himself to hide his mischief, but his wife, the goddess Juno, was able to peer through the clouds and see Jupiter's true nature. Juno requires a five-year cruise to Jupiter, arriving around July 4, 2016. The spacecraft will travel roughly over a total distance of 2.8 billion kilometers (18.7 AU; 1.74 billion miles). The spacecraft will orbit Jupiter 33 times during one Earth year. Juno's trajectory will use a gravity assist speed boost from Earth, accomplished through an Earth flyby two years (October 2013) after
    7.50
    2 votes
    124
    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon on a low 50 km polar mapping orbit. The LRO mission is a precursor to future manned missions to the Moon by NASA. To this end a detailed mapping program will identify safe landing sites, locate potential resources on the Moon, characterize the radiation environment, and demonstrate new technology. The probe will make a 3-D map of the Moon's surface and has provided some of the first images of Apollo equipment left on the Moon. The first images from LRO were published on 2 July 2009, showing a region in the lunar highlands south of Mare Nubium (Sea of Clouds). Launched on 18 June 2009, in conjunction with the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), as the vanguard of NASA's Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, this is the first United States mission to the Moon in over ten years. LRO and LCROSS are the first missions launched as part of the United States's Vision for Space Exploration program. The total cost of the mission is reported as US$583 million, of which $504 million pertains to the main LRO probe and $79 million to the LCROSS satellite. Developed at NASA's Goddard
    7.50
    2 votes
    125

    TopSat

    TopSat (Tactical Operational Satellite) is a British Earth observation satellite, currently in Low Earth Orbit. The nanosatellite was launched in October 2005 alongside the Beijing-1 Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellite by a Cosmos rocket from Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. TopSat carries out imaging with a ground resolution of 2.5 m. Much smaller and cheaper than other imaging satellites of similar high resolution, TopSat has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of providing images on demand to portable ground stations, such as that which might be deployed by the military or another disaster relief organisation. TopSat was built in the United Kingdom by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd, QinetiQ and The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory under the British National Space Centre Mosaic programme. The engineering model of TopSat now lives in the space gallery of London's Science Museum. TopSat won the 2006 Popular Science "Best of What's New" Grand Award in the Aviation and Space category.
    7.50
    2 votes
    126
    USA-231

    USA-231

    USA-231, formerly ORS-1 (Operationally Responsive Space) is an American reconnaissance satellite which was launched in 2011 from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia by a Minotaur I launch vehicle. It is the first operational satellite of the Operationally Responsive Space Office. It is equipped with a Senior Year Electro-Optical Reconnaissance System (SYERS) 2A. ORS-1 satellite is designed to provide orbital space imagery of Southwest Asia and to enhance battlespace awareness to operational field commanders. The ORS-1 will undergo a 30-day trial and adjustment check before the ORS Office turns over it operations to USAF’s 1st Space Operations Squadron at Schriever AFB, Colorado. SYERS 2 is a optical and infrared camera with a 40 cm aperature and a field of view larger than 2 degree. It uses Time Delay and Integration CCD sensors to compensate for ground motion, resulting in a resolution of 1m (NIIRS 4) from a nominal 300 km orbit. SYERS 2 is supplied by the Goodrich Corporation. SYERS previous version has also been used with the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft.
    7.50
    2 votes
    127
    Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer

    Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer

    The Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on board a Pegasus XL rocket on August 21, 1996. One in the series of NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) spacecraft, FAST was designed to observe and measure the plasma physics of the auroral phenomena which occur around both poles of the Earth. It is operated by the University of California, Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory. The explorer was launched few days before the launch of the Interball aurora probe, whose objective was to study the aurora processes in conjunction with another probe located in the magnetotail. FAST supported the THEMIS mission in 2008 and 2009. Normal operations ended on May 1st 2009. After that, some limited operations and engineering tests continued.
    5.50
    4 votes
    128
    ANDE

    ANDE

    The Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) is an experiment using two spherical satellites to measure the effects of atmospheric drag on spacecraft. ANDE is part of the Space Test Program of the United States Department of Defense, and was deployed in September 2006 from the Space Shuttle Discovery. The two spacecraft used for the ANDE mission are the Mock ANDE Active (MAA) sphere and the Fence Calibration (FCAL) sphere. These microsatellites, developed by the Naval Research Laboratory, will measure drag through the use of precision orbit determination. Ground based lasers will be used to track the orbits of the sphere to with a couple centimeters of accuracy. Perturbations caused by density gradients and winds will be backed out from these measurements. The two ANDE satellites are nearly perfect spheres; this was done to make the drag on the satellites independent of their orientation, and because the drag coefficient, optical cross-sections, and radar cross sections of spheres are well understood. Each spherical micro satellite was constructed using the novel technique of centrifugal casting. This manufacturing technique was advantageous due to its low cost and its ability
    6.33
    3 votes
    129

    Astra 5A

    Astra 5A is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES at the Astra 31.5°E orbital slot. Launched in 1997 to the 5°E position by NSAB (later SES Sirius, and now a non-autonomous part of SES) as Sirius 2, operation of the satellite was transferred to SES in April 2008 and the craft renamed and moved to 31.5°E to open up a new orbital position for the company for the development of markets in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Astra 5A is co-located with Astra 1D, moved in November 2007 from the Astra 23.5°E orbital position. The Astra 5A satellite provides two broadcast beams, of horizontal and vertical polarisation, across two footprints, called the CEE (Central and Eastern European) beam and the PE (pan-European) beam. The CEE beam provides reception on a 60 cm dish from Poland to northern Turkey, and the Balkans to the Black Sea, while the PE beam extends 60 cm coverage from Tunisia to the Urals and from the Baltic states to Israel. Countries covered include Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Iran, Jordan, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Tunisia, Turkey, and Ukraine. On
    6.33
    3 votes
    130
    COBE

    COBE

    COBE is an architectural firm based in Copenhagen and Berlin. Founded by Danish architect Dan Stubbergaard and German architect Vanessa Miriam Carlow in 2005, the practice has beem particularly successful within the area of urban planning but also made a number of award-winning designs of buildings and urban spaces. The name of the practice is an acronym for the two cities in which it is based, COpenhagen and BErlin. COBE was founded in 2005 by Danish architect Dan Stubbergaard and German architect Vanessa Miriam Carlow. In 2006 the firm won the Golden Bear at the 10th International Architecture Exhibition of the Venice Biennale for the project CO-Ecolution which was made in collaboration with three other young Danish practices. In March 2009 the firm won the large international competition for a masterplan for the North Harbour area in Copenhagen. This success has been followed by a number of other wins in planning competitions, such as those of the North Campus area in Copenhagen (2011), the Central Station area in Aarhus and Lund Science Village in Lund, Sweden. The practice has also designed a number of buildings and urban spaces.
    6.33
    3 votes
    131

    Nilesat 101

    Nilesat 101 is an Egyptian owned geosynchronous communications satellite. Launched by an Ariane 4 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana on 28 April 1998 at 22:53:00 UTC by the European Space Agency, it was manufactured by the European company Matra Marconi Space (Astrium), and started official broadcasting on 31 May 1998 with an Expected Life Time of 15 years. At launch the spacecraft weighed 1,840 kg (fully fuelled). It is parked at the geostationary orbital position of 7° West together with its sister Satellite Nilesat 102 and carries 12 Ku band 100 W high power wide beam transponders of 33 MHz bandwidth to provide digital communications and terrestrial Direct to Home ((DTH)) TV, Radio Broadcasting, Multimedia and Data services for countries in North Africa, South Europe and Middle East. The two satellites carry approximately 280 TV channels covering all the Middle East countries; north from Southern Europe to Central Africa, south, and east from Iran to the Atlantic Ocean, west. Nilesat 101 is operated by The Egyptian satellite Co. Nilesat that was established in 1996 with the purpose of operating Egyptian satellites and their associated ground control station and uplinking
    6.33
    3 votes
    132

    Polar

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Polar Satellite was a NASA science spacecraft designed to study the polar magnetosphere and aurora. It was launched into orbit in February 1996, and continued operations until the program was terminated in April 2008. The spacecraft remains in orbit, though it is now inactive. Polar is the sister ship to GGS Wind. It was designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin, and launched at 06:23:59.997 EST on February 24, 1996 aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II 7925-10 rocket from launch pad 2W at Vandenberg Air Force Base in Lompoc, California, to study the polar magnetosphere. The spacecraft was placed into a highly elliptical orbit with apogee at 9 earth radii and perigee at 1.8 earth radii (geocentric), 86 degrees inclination, with a period of around 18 hours. The apogee was initially over the northern polar region, but has since been precessing south at about 16° per year. Sensors on the spacecraft gathered multi-wavelength imaging of the aurora, and measured the entry of plasma into the polar magnetosphere and the geomagnetic tail, the flow of plasma to and from the ionosphere, and the deposition of particle energy in the ionosphere and upper
    6.33
    3 votes
    133

    SRMSAT

    SRMSAT is an Indian technology demonstration and Earth Observation satellite which will be operated by the SRM Institute of Science and Technology. It is a nanosatellite which will be used to monitor Greenhouse gases in atmosphere. It is a 10.4-kilogram (23 lb) spacecraft, which measures 28 centimetres (11 in) in length by 28 centimetres (11 in) in height and width. Its development programme cost around 1.5 crore rupee. It has a design life of one year. SRMSAT's primary instrument is the Spectrometer, It also carries a GPS receiver to aid tracking, and is intended to demonstrate a microelectromechanical inertial measurement unit. SRMSAT was launched into low Earth orbit by a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle flying from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Oct-12-2011. For more information visit http://www.srmsat.in/
    6.33
    3 votes
    134

    Tele-X

    Tele-X was the first communications satellite serving the Nordic countries. It was launched with an Ariane 2 rocket from Kourou, French Guyana, on April 2, 1989. On January 16, 1998, its fuel was exhausted and it was moved into graveyard orbit. The project was managed and operated by the Swedish Space Corporation, but it was built by Aérospatiale and Saab Ericsson Space, based on the Spacebus 300 series. Some of the TV channels it broadcast was TV4 Sweden, Kanal 5 Sweden, NRK and Filmnet. In addition, it broadcast radio for TT, The Voice Danmark, Radio Sweden, Rix FM, Mix Megapol and NRJ. It was also used for Internet communication for universities in Eastern Europe.
    6.33
    3 votes
    135

    TSX-5

    TSX-5 (Tri-Service-Experiments mission 5), is a $85 million satellite successfully launched into orbit on June 7, 2000 from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Pegasus XL rocket. TSX-5 hosts two Department of Defense (DOD) payloads, STRV-2 (the Space Test Research Vehicle-2), sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, and CEASE (the Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor), sponsored by the Air Force's Phillips Geophysics Laboratory. TSX-5 is managed by the Space Technology Program (STP) at the Space and Missiles Centre, Test and Evaluation (SMC/TELS) at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. http://www.aero.org/publications/crosslink/summer2001/04.html http://www.spaceandtech.com/digest/flash-articles/flash2000-030.shtml http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/logs/2000/2000-030a_tsx-5_sumpub.shtml http://spaceflightnow.com/pegasus/tsx5/000606tsx5.html
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    8.00
    1 votes
    137
    CALIPSO

    CALIPSO

    CALIPSO is a joint NASA (USA) and CNES (France) environmental satellite, built in the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, which was launched atop a Delta II rocket on April 28, 2006. Its name stands for Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations. Passive and active remote sensing Instruments on board the CALIPSO satellite monitor aerosols and clouds 24 hours a day. CALIPSO is part of the "A Train", flying in formation with several other satellites (Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the French PARASOL). Three instruments: In February 2009, CALIPSO switched over to the redundant laser as scheduled. The primary laser achieved its mission goal of three years of successful operation, and the redundant laser has been performing beyond expectations. The CALIPSO mission was granted extended mission status in June 2009.
    8.00
    1 votes
    138
    8.00
    1 votes
    139
    GALEX

    GALEX

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) is an orbiting ultraviolet space telescope launched on April 28, 2003. A Pegasus rocket placed the craft into a nearly circular orbit at an altitude of 697 kilometres (433 mi) and an inclination to the Earth's equator of 29 degrees. The first observation was dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia and images the sky in the constellation Hercules, taken on May 21, 2003. This region was selected because it had been directly overhead the shuttle at the time of its last contact with the NASA Mission Control Center. NASA cut off financial support for operations of GALEX in early February 2011 as it was ranked lower than other projects which were seeking a limited supply of funding. The mission's life-cycle cost to NASA was $150.6 million. The California Institute of Technology negotiated to transfer control of GALEX and its associated ground control equipment to the California Institute of Technology in keeping with the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act. Under this Act, excess research equipment owned by the US government can be transferred to educational institutions and non-profit organizations . In May 2012, GALEX operations
    8.00
    1 votes
    140
    HALCA

    HALCA

    HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy), also known for its project name VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Programme), or the code name MUSES-B (for the second of the Mu Space Engineering Spacecraft series), is a Japanese 8 meter diameter radio telescope satellite which was used for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). It was the first such space-borne dedicated VLBI mission. It was placed in a highly elliptical orbit with an apogee altitude of 21,400 km and a perigee altitude of 560 km, with an orbital period of approximately 6.3 hours. This orbit allowed imaging of celestial radio sources by the satellite in conjunction with an array of ground-based radio telescopes, such that both good (u,v) plane coverage and very high resolution were obtained. Although designed to observe in three frequency bands: 1.6 GHz, 5.0 GHz, and 22 GHz, it was found that the sensitivity of the 22 GHz band had severely degraded after orbital deployment, probably caused by vibrational deformation of the dish shape at launch, thus limiting observations to the 1.6 GHz and 5.0 GHz bands. HALCA was launched in February 1997 from Kagoshima Space Center, and made its final VSOP
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    8.00
    1 votes
    142

    Brasilsat B1

    Brasilsat B1 is a Brazilian communications satellite launched on August 10, 1994, by an Ariane rocket model 44L at Kourou in French Guiana. It was constructed by the United States and Brazil and is classified as a second generation satellite. It is larger and more powerful than the previous generation of satellites. The Boeing Company contracted the acquisition of three satellites from Hughes Electronics Corporation. As part of the contract, Hughes would divide the work with Promon Engenharia SA of São Paulo. Brasilsat B1 and B2 were tested by the Institute of Space Research - INPE of São José dos Campos, Brasilsat B3 and B4 were tested in the Hughes laboratories. The contract also included renovation of sensor equipment and telemetry, provided by Guaratiba Center for Satellite Signaling, located in Rio de Janeiro, as well as automation and installation of security equipment in the Tanguá Control Station. In March 2007, Brasilsat B1 was moved from its former orbital position at 70.0ºW to 68.0ºW and replaced by Brasilsat B4. On June 2, 2008 Brasilsat B4 was moved from its new position to 84.0ºW and replaced at 70.0ºW by Star One C2. Brasilsat B3 is currently at 75.0ºW. Of the four
    5.25
    4 votes
    143

    Chinasat-9

    Chinasat 9, also known as Zhongxing 9 (中星九號) or ZX-9, is a Chinese communications satellite. It was launched from pad 2 at the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre on 9 June 2008, at 12:15 GMT, by a Long March 3B carrier rocket. It is based on the Spacebus 4000C2 satellite bus, and was constructed in France by Thales Alenia Space in its Cannes Mandelieu Space Center. It is one of several Chinasat spacecraft in orbit. It was launched to act as a relay satellite for the 2008 Olympic Games, and will subsequently be used for general communications. It is operated by the China Direct Broadcast Satellite Company on behalf of the China Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. Equipped with 22 NATO J-band (IEEE Ku band) transponders, it was placed in geosynchronous orbit at a longitude of 92.2° East.
    7.00
    2 votes
    144
    Corot

    Corot

    COROT (French: COnvection ROtation et Transits planétaires; English: COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits) is a space mission led by the French Space Agency (CNES) in conjunction with the European Space Agency (ESA) and other international partners. The mission's two objectives are to search for extrasolar planets with short orbital periods, particularly those of large terrestrial size, and to perform asteroseismology by measuring solar-like oscillations in stars. It was launched at 14:28:00 UTC on 27 December 2006, atop a Soyuz 2.1b carrier rocket, reporting first light on 18 January 2007. Subsequently, the probe started to collect science data on 2 February 2007. COROT is the first spacecraft dedicated to the detection of transiting extrasolar planets, opening the way for more advanced probes such as Kepler and possibly TESS and PLATO. It detected its first extrasolar planet, COROT-1b, in May 2007, just 3 months after the start of the observations. Mission flight operations were originally scheduled to end 2.5 years from launch but operations were extended to 2013. A new extension has been proposed to keep COROT in operation till 2015. The COROT optical design minimizes
    7.00
    2 votes
    145

    CRRES

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was launched on July 25, 1990 into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) for a nominal three-year mission to investigate fields, plasmas, and energetic particles inside the Earth's magnetosphere. As part of the CRRES program, the SPACERAD (Space Radiation Effects) project, managed by Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, investigated the radiation environment of the inner and outer radiation belts and measured radiation effects on state-of-the-art microelectronics devices. Other magnetospheric, ionospheric, and cosmic ray experiments were also included onboard CRRES and supported by NASA or the Office of Naval Research. The chemical release project was managed by NASA/MSFC and utilized the release of chemicals from onboard canisters at low altitudes near dawn and dusk perigee times and at high altitudes near local midnight. The chemical releases were monitored with optical and radar instrumentation by ground-based observers to measure the bulk properties and movement of the expanding clouds of photo-ionized plasma along field lines after the releases occurred. In order to study the magnetosphere at different local times during
    7.00
    2 votes
    146

    Galaxy 27

    Galaxy 27 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 129° W longitude, serving most of the North American market. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300 line. Galaxy 27 was formerly known as Intelsat Americas 7 and Telstar 7. Current clients for Galaxy 27 include StarBand and Talkstar Radio Network. This satellite experienced a several-day power failure in 2004 and returned to service with reduced capacity. By the end of May Galaxy 27 is redeployed at 45.1 East in order to expand Intelsat's services in Middle East and West Asia.
    7.00
    2 votes
    147
    7.00
    2 votes
    148
    Mars Observer

    Mars Observer

    The Mars Observer spacecraft, also known as the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter, was a 1,018-kilogram (2,244 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on September 25, 1992 to study the Martian surface, atmosphere, climate and magnetic field. During the interplanetary cruise phase, communication with the spacecraft was lost on August 21, 1993, 3 days prior to orbital insertion. Attempts to re-establish communication with the spacecraft were unsuccessful. In 1984, a high priority mission to Mars was set forth by the Solar System Exploration Committee. Then titled the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter, the Martian orbiter was planned to expand on the vast information already gathered by the Viking program. Preliminary mission goals expected the probe to provide planetary magnetic field data, detection of certain spectral line signatures of minerals on the surface, images of the surface at 1 meter/pixel and global elevation data. Mars Observer was originally planned to be launched in 1990 by a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The possibility for an expendable rocket to be used was also suggested, if the spacecraft would be designed to meet certain constraints. On March 12th, 1987, the
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    7.00
    2 votes
    150
    Prospero X-3

    Prospero X-3

    The Prospero satellite, also known as the X-3, was launched by the United Kingdom in 1971. It was designed to undertake a series of experiments to study the effects of space environment on communications satellites and remained operational until 1973, after which it was contacted annually for over twenty-five years. Although Prospero was the first (and, to date, only) British satellite to have been launched successfully by a British rocket, the first British satellite placed in orbit was Ariel 1, launched in April 1962 on an American rocket. Prospero has the COSPAR (NSSC ID) designation 1971-093A and the US Space Command satellite catalogue number 05580. Prospero was built by the Royal Aircraft Establishment in Farnborough. Initially called Puck, it was designed to conduct experiments to test the technologies necessary for communication satellites, such as solar cells, telemetry and power systems. It also carried a micrometeoroid detector, to measure the presence of very small particles. When the Ministry of Defence cancelled the Black Arrow programme, the development team decided to continue with the project, but renamed the satellite Prospero when it was announced it would be the
    7.00
    2 votes
    151

    RISAT-1

    Radar Imaging Satellite 1, or RISAT-1, is an Indian remote sensing satellite which was built and is operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The second RISAT satellite to be launched, it uses C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar for earth observation irrespective of the light and weather conditions of the area being imaged. The launch of RISAT-1 came several years after that of RISAT-2, which carried an Israeli-built x-band radar. The RISAT-2 mission was prioritised over RISAT-1 following the 2008 Mumbai attacks, resulting in RISAT-1 being delayed by several years. RISAT-1 had a mass at liftoff of 1,858 kilograms (4,100 lb), making it the heaviest earth observation satellite to be launched by India, and the heaviest satellite to be launched using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. has the capability to take images of Earth during day and night, as well as in cloudy conditions. The satellite is equipped with a 160 x 4 Mbps data handling system, 50 Newton-metre-second reaction wheels, and a phased array antenna with dual polarisation. Its synthetic aperture radar has a resolution of 3m-50m. It also supports a spotlight mode for prolonged focus on a given geographical area
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    Salyut 6

    Salyut 6

    Salyut 6 (Russian: Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme. Launched on 29 September 1977 by a Proton rocket, the station was the first of the 'second-generation' type of space station. Salyut 6 possessed several revolutionary advances over the earlier Soviet space stations, which it nevertheless resembled in overall design. These included the addition of a second docking port, a new main propulsion system and the station's primary scientific instrument, the BST-1M multispectral telescope. The addition of the second docking port made crew handovers and station resupply by unmanned Progress freighters possible for the first time, which in turn allowed the programme to evolve from short-duration station visits to long-duration expeditions, marking the beginning of the transition to multi-modular, long-term research stations in space. From 1977 until 1982, Salyut 6 was visited by five long- and eleven short-duration crews, including cosmonauts from Warsaw Pact countries as part of the Intercosmos programme. These crews were responsible for carrying out the primary missions of Salyut 6, including astronomy,
    7.00
    2 votes
    153

    Intelsat 2

    Intelsat 2 (formerly PAS-2) is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 169° E longitude, serving the Pacific Rim market.
    6.00
    3 votes
    154
    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) was an American spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight (10.6 kg/23 lb) wheeled robotic Mars rover named Sojourner. Launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II booster a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched, it landed on July 4, 1997 on Mars's Ares Vallis, in a region called Chryse Planitia in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. The lander then opened, exposing the rover which conducted many experiments on the Martian surface. The mission carried a series of scientific instruments to analyze the Martian atmosphere, climate, geology and the composition of its rocks and soil. It was the second project from NASA's Discovery Program, which promotes the use of low-cost spacecraft and frequent launches under the motto "cheaper, faster and better" promoted by the then administrator, Daniel Goldin. The mission was directed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology, responsible for NASA's Mars Exploration Program. The project manager was JPL's Tony Spear. This mission was
    6.00
    3 votes
    155
    Salyut 7

    Salyut 7

    Salyut 7 (Russian: Салют-7; English: Salute 7) (aka DOS-6) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991. It was first manned in May 1982 with two crew via Soyuz T-5, and last visited in June 1986, by Soyuz T-15. Various crew and modules were used over its lifetime, including a total of 12 manned and 15 unmanned launches. Supporting spacecraft included the Soyuz T, Progress, and TKS spacecraft. It was part of the Soviet Salyut programme, and launched on 19 April 1982 on a Proton rocket from Site 200/40 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in what was then the Soviet Union. Salyut 7 was part of the transition from "monolithic" to "modular" space stations, acting as a testbed for docking of additional modules and expanded station operations. It was also the tenth space station of any kind launched. Salyut 7 was the back-up vehicle for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities. With delays to the Mir programme it was decided to launch the back-up vehicle as Salyut 7. In orbit the station suffered a number of technical failures though it benefited from the improved payload capacity of the visiting Progress and Soyuz craft and the experience of its crews
    6.00
    3 votes
    156
    6.00
    3 votes
    157

    Astra 1N

    Astra 1N is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES, launched in 2011 to join Astra 2A, Astra 2B Astra 2D at the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot. Astra 1N is the fourth satellite to be built for Astra by Astrium and the 46th SES satellite in orbit, and entered commercial service at 28.2°E on 24 October 2011. The satellite was originally designed to provide digital television and radio broadcast services across Europe from the Astra 19.2°E position, in particular the German, French and Spanish markets, alongside the Astra 1KR, Astra 1L, and Astra 1M satellites already operating there. Astra 1N was instead temporarily positioned at 28.2°E to provide capacity for the UK and Republic of Ireland, including the Sky and Freesat DTH platforms, prior to the launch of Astra 2E and Astra 2F to this position in 2013 and 2012, respectively. All traffic on Astra 2D was transferred to Astra 1N in early 2012 (as of May 2012, Astra 2D remains co-located with Astra 1N at 28.2°E but is inactive). On September 28, 2012 Astra 2F was successfully launched from Kourou in French Guiana. The satellite is currently undergoing tests and being positioned at 28.2°E, before commercial
    5.00
    4 votes
    158
    MAVEN

    MAVEN

    Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) is a planned space exploration mission to send a space probe to orbit Mars and study its atmosphere. It will help determine what caused the Martian atmosphere —and water— to be lost to space, making the climate increasingly inhospitable for life. The mission was spawned by NASA's Mars Scout Program, which although discontinued in 2010, yielded Phoenix and MAVEN, as well as numerous missions studies. Mars Scout missions target a cost less than USD$485 million, not including launch service, which is approximately $187 million. On September 15, 2008 NASA announced that it had selected MAVEN to be the Mars Scout 2013 mission, a part of the Mars Scout Program. There was one other finalist and eight other proposals that were competing against MAVEN to be the Mars Scout 2013 mission. MAVEN will be launched in late 2013 and is planned to enter Mars orbit during the fall of 2014. MAVEN will enter into an elliptic orbit 90 to 3,870 miles above the planet's surface. The principal investigator for MAVEN is Bruce Jakosky of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Features on Mars resembling dry
    5.67
    3 votes
    159
    Vanguard 3

    Vanguard 3

    Vanguard 3 (international designation 1959 Eta 1) is a scientific satellite that was launched into Earth orbit by a Vanguard rocket on September 18, 1959, the third successful Vanguard launch out of eleven attempts. The satellite was launched from the Eastern Test Range into a geocentric orbit. The objectives of the flight were to measure the Earth's magnetic field, the solar X-ray radiation and its effects on the Earth's atmosphere, and the near-earth micrometeoroid environment. Instrumentation included a proton magnetometer, X-ray ionization chambers, and various micrometeoroid detectors. The spacecraft was a 50.8-cm-diameter magnesium sphere. The magnetometer was housed in a glass fiber phenolic resin conical tube attached to the sphere. Data transmission stopped on December 11, 1959, after 84 days of operation. The data obtained provided a comprehensive survey of the Earth's magnetic field over the area covered, defined the lower edge of the Van Allen radiation belt, and provided a count of micrometeoroid impacts. Vanguard 3 has an expected orbital lifetime of 300 years. This experiment had a proton precessional magnetometer to measure the Earth's magnetic field at altitudes
    5.67
    3 votes
    160
    6.50
    2 votes
    161

    Astra 2F

    Astra 2F is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES, launched in September 2012 to the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot. The satellite will provide free-to-air and encrypted direct-to-home (DTH) digital TV and satellite broadband services for Europe and Africa. Astra 2F is the first of three ‘second generation’ satellites for the 28.2°E position which will replace the first generation Astra 2A, Astra 2B craft currently there and it will be joined in orbit by Astra 2E and Astra 2G in 2013 and 2014, respectively Some parts of the construction of Astra 2F by Astrium in Stevenage, UK could be seen in the BBC2 documentary programme, How To Build… A Satellite broadcast on November 27, 2011. The Astra 28.2°E position was established in 1998 to provide digital TV, digital radio and multimedia services to the UK and Republic of Ireland, and Astra 2F’s primary mission is to continue this provision as replacement and follow-on capacity to the Astra 2A, Astra 2B, Astra 2D and Astra 1N satellites, delivering programming to almost 13 million satellite homes, over 3 million cable homes, and 700,000 IPTV homes in the UK and Ireland, in particular for channels from the major
    6.50
    2 votes
    162

    Fengyun 2D

    Fengyun 2-05, also known as Fengyun 2D is a Chinese weather satellite which was launched in 2006. It was the fourth satellite to be launched of the Fengyun 2 series, and the second operational spacecraft. It is part of the Fengyun programme. A Long March 3A carrier rocket was used to launch Fengyun 2-05, flying from Launch Area 2 at the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre. The launch took place at 00:53 UTC (08:53 CST) on 8 December 2006, with the carrier rocket placing the satellite into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. An FG-36 apogee motor was then used to raise the satellite into geosynchronous orbit. By 7 February 2007, it was in a orbit with a perigee of 35,787 kilometres (22,237 mi), and apogee of 35,788 kilometres (22,238 mi), and 2.4 degrees inclination. It is positioned at a longitude of 86.5 degrees east.
    6.50
    2 votes
    163
    Galaxy 25

    Galaxy 25

    Galaxy 25 (G-25) launched in 1997 (formerly known as Intelsat Americas 5 (IA-5) until February 15, 2007 when it was renamed as result of the merger between owner Intelsat and PanAmSat or Telstar 5) is a medium-powered communications satellite formerly in a geostationary orbit at 0°N 97°W / 0°N 97°W / 0; -97, above a point in the Pacific Ocean several hundred miles west of the Galapagos Islands. It was manufactured by Space Systems/Loral, part of its FS-1300 line, and is currently owned and operated by Intelsat. The satellite's main C-band transponder cluster covers the United States, southern Canada, and Mexico; its main Ku band transponder cluster covers the U.S., Mexico, and the northern Caribbean Sea. An additional C-band and a Ku band transponder pair targets the Hawaiian Islands. Galaxy 25 has a projected life of 12 years. It was replaced by Galaxy 19 (formerly IA-9) in late 2008. When it was last in service at 97 degrees west, Galaxy 25 transmitted both free-to-air (FTA) direct-to-home (DTH) broadcasting and encrypted subscription channels / services. The replacement satellite, Galaxy 19 was successfully launched on September 24, 2008. Galaxy 25 has been moved to a
    6.50
    2 votes
    164
    Galileo spacecraft

    Galileo spacecraft

    Galileo was an unmanned NASA spacecraft which studied the planet Jupiter and its moons. Named after the Renaissance astronomer Galileo Galilei, it was launched on October 18, 1989, by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, via gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. Despite suffering from antenna problems, Galileo conducted the first asteroid flyby near 951 Gaspra and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around the asteroid 243 Ida. It furthermore launched the first probe into Jupiter's atmosphere. The mission's total cost was estimated at approximately US$1.4 billion. The spacecraft measured the atmospheric composition of Jupiter and directly observed ammonia clouds, which seem to be created by an outflow from the lower depths of Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo also registered Io's volcanism and the plasma interactions between its and Jupiter's atmospheres. Other data gave support for the popular theory of a liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa. There were furthermore indications of similar liquid-saltwater layers under the surfaces of Ganymede and
    6.50
    2 votes
    165

    High Energy Transient Explorer

    The High Energy Transient Explorer (abbreviated HETE; also known as Explorer 79) was an American astronomical satellite with international participation (mainly Japan and France). The prime objective of HETE was to carry out the first multiwavelength study of gamma-ray bursts with UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray instruments mounted on a single, compact spacecraft. A unique feature of the HETE mission was its capability to localize GRBs with ~10 arc second accuracy in near real time aboard the spacecraft, and to transmit these positions directly to a network of receivers at existing ground-based observatories enabling rapid, sensitive follow-up studies in the radio, IR, and optical bands. The satellite bus for the first HETE was designed and built by AeroAstro, Inc. of Herndon, VA; the replacement satellite, HETE-2, was built by MIT based on the original HETE design. The first HETE was lost during the launch on Nov.4, 1996. The Pegasus rocket achieved a good orbit, but explosive bolts releasing HETE from another satellite (Argentina's SAC-B) and from its DPAF envelope failed to charge, dooming both satellites. A battery on the third stage of the rocket and responsible for these bolts
    6.50
    2 votes
    166

    Intelsat 8

    Intelsat 8 (formerly PAS-8) is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 166° E longitude, serving the Pacific market. On 13 August 2012 it was replaced with Intelsat 19.
    6.50
    2 votes
    167
    MUBLCOM

    MUBLCOM

    The Multiple Paths, Beyond-Line-of-Sight Communications (MUBLCOM) satellite, built for the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, was launched in May 1999 by a Pegasus rocket. Its mission was to demonstrate a capability to provide space-based digital voice and data communications to combat forces or commercial users that were previously considered out of range of standard radio communications systems. On April 15, 2005, the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) spacecraft collided with the MUBLCOM satellite while attempting to rendezvous with it.
    6.50
    2 votes
    168
    Sputnik 2

    Sputnik 2

    Sputnik 2 (Russian pronunciation: [ˈsputʲnʲək], Russian: Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or 'Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, Russian: Простейший Спутник 2 Elementary Satellite 2)), was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. Sputnik 2 was a 4-metre (13 foot) high cone-shaped capsule with a base diameter of 2 metres (6.6 feet). It contained several compartments for radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programming unit, a regeneration and temperature control system for the cabin, and scientific instruments. A separate sealed cabin contained the dog Laika. Engineering and biological data were transmitted using the Tral D telemetry system, which would transmit data to Earth for a 15 minute period during each orbit. Two photometers were on board for measuring solar radiation (ultraviolet and x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays. Sputnik 2 did not contain a television camera; TV images of dogs on Korabl-Sputnik 2 are commonly misidentified as Laika. Sputnik 2, known to Korolev's design bureau as""Prosteyshiy Sputnik-2" means "Simple Satellite 2," was launched into a 212 × 1660 km (132 × 1031 mi) orbit with a
    6.50
    2 votes
    169

    Galaxy 17

    Galaxy 17 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat to be located at 91° West longitude, serving the North American market. Galaxy 17 was intended to replace SBS 6. It was built by Alcatel Alenia Space (which is now Thales Alenia Space), in its Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, France. Galaxy 17 was launched by Arianespace from Kourou, French Guiana on an Ariane 5 rocket along with Astra 1L. It became operational at 74° West longitude in the geostationary orbit and replaced SBS-6 which was moved out of the geostationary orbit to a parking orbit in the Graveyard orbit. This took place on July 7, 2007. Galaxy 17 began its move to 91° West longitude when Horizons-2 was launched and placed in the 74° West longitude slot. Horizons-2 was originally slated to replace SBS-6 but the launch was delayed, possibly due to the delayed repairs of the Sea Launch vessel. Galaxy 17 is the first primarily European satellite to cover the U.S.. Built by a French/Italian manufacturer, it was launched on a French rocket from a French spaceport. Galaxy 17 became operational again in mid July, 2008, when it took over traffic of Galaxy 11. As Galaxy 11 has effectively been replaced, any references to
    7.00
    1 votes
    170

    PAS 1

    PAS-1 was a communications satellite owned by PanAmSat located at 45° W longitude, serving the Americas market.PAS 1 was also the first, privately owned, international telecommunication satellite. It was originally built for Contel as ASC 3, but purchased before launch..It was primarily used for the main Panamanian TV channels. It was the first satellite to be able to service to five different American countries.
    7.00
    1 votes
    171
    Salyut

    Salyut

    The Salyut programme (Russian: Салю́т, IPA: [sɐˈlʲut], Salute or Fireworks) was the first space station program undertaken by the Soviet Union, which consisted of a series of four crewed scientific research space stations and two crewed military reconnaissance space stations over a period of 15 years from 1971 to 1986. It was, on the one hand, designed to carry out long-term research into the problems of living in space and a variety of astronomical, biological and Earth-resources experiments, and on the other hand this civilian program was used as a cover for the highly secretive military Almaz stations, which flew as well under the Salyut designation. Salyut broke several spaceflight records, including the first space station, several mission duration records, the first ever orbital handover of a space station from one crew to another, and various spacewalk records. By the time the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991 and the Soviet space station program was concluded, it had seen space station technology evolve from basic, engineering development stage, single-docking port stations to complex, multi-ported long-term orbital outposts with impressive scientific capabilities, whose
    7.00
    1 votes
    172
    Salyut 4

    Salyut 4

    Salyut 4 (DOS 4) (Russian: Салют-4; English translation: Salute 4) was a Salyut space station launched on December 26, 1974 into an orbit with an apogee of 355 km, a perigee of 343 km and an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees. It was essentially a copy of the DOS 3, and unlike its ill-fated sibling it was a complete success. Three crews attempted to make stays aboard Salyut 4 (Soyuz 17 and Soyuz 18 docked; Soyuz 18a suffered a launch abort). The second stay was for 63 days duration, and an unmanned Soyuz capsule remained docked to the station for three months, proving the system's long-term durability. Salyut 4 was deorbited February 2, 1977, and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on February 3. Installed on the Salyut 4 were OST-1 (Orbiting Solar Telescope) 25 cm solar telescope, designed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, and two X-ray telescopes. One of X-ray telescopes, often called the Filin telescope, consisted of four gas flow proportional counters, three of which had a total detection surface of 450 cm² in the energy range 2-10 keV, and one of which had an effective surface of 37 cm² for the range 0.2 to 2 keV (32 to 320 aJ). The field of view was limited by a slit
    7.00
    1 votes
    173
    5.33
    3 votes
    174
    Landsat 6

    Landsat 6

    Landsat 6, equipped with upgraded versions of the instruments on its predecessor, was designed to continue the Landsat program. It was launched on October 5, 1993 using a Titan II launch vehicle, but failed to reach orbit. As a consequence, Landsat 4 and Landsat 5 were used well beyond their designed lifespan. Landsat 5 is still active. Landsat 6 omitted the Multi-Spectral Scanner found on its predecessors, but carried an Enhanced Thematic Mapper, which improved on the previous Thematic Mapper by adding a 15m-resolution panchromatic band.
    5.33
    3 votes
    175
    5.33
    3 votes
    176
    Proteus

    Proteus

    Proteus is the name of the multimission platform satellite developed by CNES and Aérospatiale Satellite Division (now Thales Alenia Space) in France.
    5.33
    3 votes
    177

    AO-40

    AO-40 is the on-orbit name designation of an amateur radio satellite of the OSCAR series; formerly known as Phase 3D, built by AMSAT. The Project Manager was Peter Guelzow (amateur radio call sign DB2OS) of AMSAT Germany (AMSAT-DL). Following the failure of the Phase 3A launcher, design studies were undertaken and construction started for two successor satellites, that became AO-10 (Phase 3B) and AO-13 (Phase 3C) respectively. After the launch of AO-13, design commenced for a Phase 4 satellite. This idea was later shelved, and design of Phase 3D (on-orbit name: AO-40) was undertaken under direction of the project team based in Germany, involving amateur radio payloads from many countries in Europe. Assembly was done at AMSAT's Spacecraft Integration Facility in the 'Free Trade Zone Building' at the Orlando International Airport, Orlando, Florida from 1994 to 2000. It was launched on 16 November 2000, on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle from Kourou, in French Guiana, and reported cost was 4.5 Million USD. On 13 December 2000 at 11:23 UTC, transmissions from AO-40 ceased during the exercising of its 400 newton motor. The Command Team were able to infer that there had been an explosion
    4.50
    4 votes
    178
    Anik

    Anik

    The Anik satellites are a series of geostationary communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for television in Canada, from 1972 through 2007. Some of the later satellites in the series remain operational in orbit, while others have been retired and are derelict. In Inuktitut, Anik means "little brother". The Anik A satellites were the world's first national domestic satellites. (Prior to Anik A1's launch, all geosynchronous communications satellites were transcontinental, i.e. Intelsat I and others.) The Anik A fleet of satellites gave the CBC the ability to reach the Canadian North for the first time. Each of the satellites was equipped with 12 C-band transponders, and thus had the capacity for 12 colour television channels. There is a detailed description of the Anik A satellites on the Boeing Satellite Systems website. The Anik B satellite had twelve C-band transponders like the Anik As, with an additional six Ku band transponders. It was launched on December 15, 1978 and was the successor to the Anik A series and Hermes (aka Communications Technology Satellite, or CTS) experimental satellite. Most of the transponders were devoted to CBC Television -- East and West
    6.00
    2 votes
    179
    6.00
    2 votes
    180
    5.00
    3 votes
    181
    Landsat 7

    Landsat 7

    • Launch Site: Vandenberg Air Force Base
    • Orbit type: Sun-synchronous orbit
    Landsat 7, launched on April 15, 1999, is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. Landsat 7's primary goal is to refresh the global archive of satellite photos, providing up-to-date and cloud-free images. The Landsat Program is managed and operated by the USGS, and data from Landsat 7 is collected and distributed by the USGS. The NASA World Wind project allows 3D images from Landsat 7 and other sources to be freely navigated and viewed from any angle. The satellite's companion, Earth Observing-1, trails by one minute and follows the same orbital characteristics. Landsat 7 was built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. Landsat 7 was designed to last for five years, and has the capacity to collect and transmit up to 532 images per day. It is in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit, meaning it scans across the entire earth's surface. With an altitude of 705 kilometres +/- 5 kilometres, it takes 232 orbits, or 16 days, to do so. The satellite weighs 1973 kg, is 4.04 m long, and 2.74 m in diameter. Unlike its predecessors, Landsat 7 has a solid state memory of 378 gigabits (roughly 100 images). The main instrument on board Landsat 7 is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). On
    5.00
    3 votes
    182

    Genesis II

    • Launch Vehicle: Dnepr launch vehicle
    • Launch Site: Dombarovsky
    Genesis II is the second experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace, and was launched in 2007. As the second module sent into orbit by the company, this spacecraft builds on the data and experience gleaned from its previously orbited sister-ship Genesis I to continue testing the long-term viability of expandable space structures. Like its sister-ship and other modules being designed by Bigelow Aerospace, this spacecraft is based on the NASA TransHab design, which provides increased interior volume and reduced launch diameter along with potentially reduced mass compared to traditional rigid structures. Genesis II was launched on 28 June 2007, at 15:02 UTC. As with Genesis I, it was launched aboard an ISC Kosmotras Dnepr rocket from Dombarovskiy missile base near Yasniy, Russia. It successfully reached orbit after separation from the rocket at 15:16 UTC. Due to the mechanics of its orbit, first contact with the craft was established once it passed over SpaceQuest, Ltd.'s Fairfax, Virginia receiving station at 22:20 UTC, confirming that it was alive and functioning nominally with power and air pressure at expected levels. Externally,
    4.25
    4 votes
    183
    5.50
    2 votes
    184
    Gravity Probe B

    Gravity Probe B

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a satellite-based mission which launched on 20 April 2004 on a Delta II rocket. The spaceflight phase lasted until 2005; its aim was to measure spacetime curvature near Earth, and thereby the stress–energy tensor (which is related to the distribution and the motion of matter in space) in and near Earth. This provided a test of general relativity, gravitomagnetism and related models. The principal investigator was Francis Everitt. Initial results confirmed the expected geodetic effect to an accuracy of about 1%. The expected frame-dragging effect was similar in magnitude to the current noise level (the noise being dominated by initially unmodeled effects). Work is continuing to model and account for these sources of unintended signal, thus permitting extraction of the frame-dragging signal if it exists at the expected level. By August 2008 the uncertainty in the frame-dragging signal had been reduced to 15%, and the December 2008 NASA report indicated that the geodetic effect was confirmed to better than 0.5%. In an article published in the journal Physical Review Letters in 2011, the authors reported analysis of the data from all four gyroscopes results in
    5.50
    2 votes
    185

    Venesat-1

    Venesat-1, also known as Simón Bolívar, is the first Venezuelan satellite. It was designed, built, launched, controlled and monitored by the CGWIC subsidiary of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation. It is a communications satellite, which will be operated from a geosynchronous orbit. It was launched on a Chinese Long March 3B carrier rocket, from LA-2 at the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre, at 16:53 GMT on 29 October 2008. Venesat-1 will be operated by Venezuela's Ministry of Science and Technology. It carries 12 G-band (IEEE's C band) and 14 J-band (IEEE Ku) transponders. It has a mass of 5,100 kilograms (11,000 lb), and an expected service life of 15 years. It is based on the DFH-4 satellite bus. The satellite occupies an orbital slot, 78-West, designated for Uruguay and ceded to Venezuela by mutual accord.
    5.50
    2 votes
    186

    AMC 18

    AMC-18 is a geostationary Lockheed Martin A2100A communications satellite owned by SES Americom. It was launched on December 8, 2006 from Kourou aboard an Ariane 5 launch vehicle and is situated at 105° west longitude, providing coverage of North America with twenty-four C band transponders of 12-18 watts each. Future users in May 2007 include The CW Television Network and Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, among other services. The spacecraft can deliver and receive signals from 50 states, the Caribbean and Mexico and has been designated as the third HD-PRIME satellite. Originally built as a ground spare to the AMC-10 and AMC-11 satellite program, AMC-18 is optimized for digital television distribution from the center of the U.S. orbital arc. The satellite has an expected lifetime of at least 15 years.
    4.67
    3 votes
    187
    Landsat 5

    Landsat 5

    Landsat 5 is the fifth satellite of the Landsat program. It was launched on March 1, 1984, with the primary goal of providing a global archive of satellite photos. The Landsat Program is managed by USGS, and data from Landsat 5 is collected and distributed from the USGS's Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science. In March 2012, it celebrated 28 years in space, 25 years beyond its original mission. On November 26, 2005, the back-up solar array drive on Landsat 5 began exhibiting unusual behavior. The solar array drive maintains the proper pointing angle between the solar array and the sun. The rotation of the solar array drive became sporadic, and the solar array was not able to provide the power needed to charge the batteries. Maintaining power to the batteries is critical to sustain proper operation of the spacecraft. The primary solar array drive failed under similar circumstances in January 2005. As a result of this situation, imaging operations were suspended. After a month-long investigation in December 2005 and testing in January 2006, new operating procedures were developed that would allow Landsat 5 to continue normal operations. In March 2009, Landsat 5
    4.67
    3 votes
    188

    Tiung SAT

    Tiung SAT is the first Malaysian microsatellite. The satellite is developed through the technology transfer and training programme between Astronautic Technology Sdn Bhd (ATSB) Malaysia and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd., United Kingdom. Tiung SAT-1 was launched aboard Dnepr rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on 26 September 2000.
    4.67
    3 votes
    189

    Astra 3A

    Astra 3A is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES, launched in 2002 to the Astra 23.5°E orbital slot providing digital television and radio for DTH and cable, multimedia and interactive services, corporate networks, and occasional and other business services to central Europe. The satellite provides two broadcast beams, of horizontal and vertical polarisation, across two footprints that cover essentially the same areas of Europe – principally the countries of central Europe. TV signals can be received with a 50 cm dish across Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, the Czech Republic, most of Denmark, and in parts of France, Italy, Poland, Slovenia, and Slovakia. Reception is even possible as far afield as Scotland, Sweden and Serbia when a larger dish (around 110 cm) is used. In addition to contribution feeds and individual TV channels, Astra 3A carried pay-TV networks including Kabel Deutschland (Germany), CanalDigitaal (The Netherlands), TV Vlaanderen (Belgium), CS Link (Slovakia and Czech Republic) and Skylink (Slovakia and Czech Republic). On February 1, 2012 Kabel Deutschland left the Astra 3A. At the moment the
    6.00
    1 votes
    190

    ASTRO

    • Launch Vehicle: Atlas V
    ASTRO is one of two satellites that make up the Orbital Express demonstration program, the other satellite being NextSat. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate in orbit servicing of sattelites by other sattelites. ASTRO is the servicing vehicle that will perform fuel transfer, battery replacement, and computer replacement on NextSat. ASTRO will also automatically rendevous with NextSat.
    6.00
    1 votes
    191

    BADR4

    Badr-4 (aka Arabsat 4B) is an EADS Astrium-built communications satellite operated by Arabsat, launched November 8, 2006 on a Proton-M/Briz-M rocket. It provides fixed satellite communications services in C- and Ku-bands from the 26° East orbital position. The satellite is based on the Eurostar E2000+ platform and equipped with a payload supplied by Alcatel Alenia Space. The Badr-4-payload consists of 28 active channels in Ku band (16 in BSS and 12 in FSS). Payload power is about 6 kW. The satellite has two 2.5m deployable antennas and one 1.35 m top floor antenna. Badr 4 is located at 26.0°E. The satellite was a successfully launched from Russia. Due to success of the satellite, Arabsat led another agreement for an upgraded version of Badr-4 communication satellite: in June 2006, EADS Astrium was awarded the contract by Arabsat for construction of Badr-6, a new high-power broadcast satellite to cover the Middle East and Africa. Badr-6 was launched by an Ariane 5 in July 2008. This satellite carries 32 transponders in Ku band/FSS & Ku band/BSS. The spacecraft utilizes Astrium's Eurostar E2000+ platform to carry 22 C-band transponders (including eight 52 W moderate power
    6.00
    1 votes
    192
    Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Chandra X-ray Observatory

    • Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle Columbia
    • Launch Site: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is a space telescope launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999. Chandra is sensitive to X-ray sources 100 times fainter than any previous X-ray telescope, enabled by the high angular resolution of its mirrors. Since the Earth's atmosphere absorbs the vast majority of X-rays, they are not detectable from Earth-based telescopes; therefore space-based telescopes are required to make these observations. Chandra is an Earth satellite in a 64 hour orbit, and its mission is ongoing as of 2012. Chandra Observatory is the third of NASA's four Great Observatories. The first was Hubble Space Telescope; the second was the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, launched in 1991; and the last is the Spitzer Space Telescope. Of the four, Compton ended in 2000 and the other three continue. Chandra has been described as being as revolutionary to astronomy as Galileo's first telescope. It was named in honor of the Nobel-prize winning physicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar who worked for University of Chicago from 1937 until he died in 1995. He was known for determining the maximum mass for white dwarfs. "Chandra" means "moon" in Sanskrit. Before 1998, it was known as AXAF, the
    6.00
    1 votes
    193

    EDUSAT

    EDUSAT or GSAT-3 is a communications satellite which was launched on 20 September 2004 by the Indian Space Research Organisation. EDUSAT is the first Indian satellite built exclusively to serve the educational sector. It is mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite-based distance education system for the country. EDUSAT carries five Ku band transponders providing spot beams, one Ku band transponder providing a national beam and six extended C band transponders providing national coverage beams. EDUSAT was successfully launched into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit on the first operational launch of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, which flew from the First Launch Pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. EDUSAT was initially placed into a transfer orbit with a perigee of 180 kilometres (110 mi) and an apogee of 35,985 kilometres (22,360 mi) and a period of 10.5 hours, inclined at 19.2 degrees to the equator. The 414 tonne, 49 m tall GSLV, carrying the 1950 kg EDUSAT, lifted off from Sriharikota at 4:01 pm. About seventeen minutes after lift off, EDUSAT was successfully placed in GTO. At 4.8 seconds before the countdown reached zero, the
    6.00
    1 votes
    194
    Explorer I

    Explorer I

    Explorer 1 (1958 Alpha 1) was the first Earth satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year. The mission followed the first two Earth satellites the previous year, the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1 and 2, beginning the Cold War Space Race between the two nations. Explorer 1 was launched on January 31, 1958 at 22:48 Eastern Time (equal to February 1, 03:48 UTC) atop the first Juno booster from LC-26 at the Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida. It was the first spacecraft to detect the Van Allen radiation belt, returning data until its batteries were exhausted after nearly four months. It remained in orbit until 1970, and has been followed by more than 90 scientific spacecraft in the Explorer series. The U.S. Earth satellite program began in 1954 as a joint U.S. Army and U.S. Navy proposal, called Project Orbiter, to put a scientific satellite into orbit during the International Geophysical Year. The proposal, using a military Redstone missile, was rejected in 1955 by the Eisenhower administration in favor of the Navy's Project Vanguard, using a booster produced for civilian space launches. Following the launch of the Soviet
    6.00
    1 votes
    195
    Mariner 10

    Mariner 10

    Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus. Mariner 10 was launched approximately two years after Mariner 9 and was the last spacecraft in the Mariner program (Mariner 11 and 12 were allocated to the Voyager program and redesignated Voyager 1 and Voyager 2). The mission objectives were to measure Mercury's environment, atmosphere, surface, and body characteristics and to make similar investigations of Venus. Secondary objectives were to perform experiments in the interplanetary medium and to obtain experience with a dual-planet gravity assist mission. There currently is a spacecraft mission doing a more in-depth survey of Mercury, MESSENGER. The planning of the mission was dependent on Mariner 10's data sets. Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to make use of an interplanetary gravitational slingshot maneuver, using Venus to bend its flight path and bring its perihelion down to the level of Mercury's orbit. This maneuver, inspired by the orbital mechanics calculations of the Italian scientist Giuseppe Colombo, put the spacecraft into an orbit that repeatedly brought it back to Mercury. Mariner 10 used
    6.00
    1 votes
    196
    Pioneer 11

    Pioneer 11

    Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a 259-kilogram (569 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the solar system and heliosphere. It was the first probe to encounter Saturn and the second to fly through the asteroid belt and by Jupiter. Due to power constraints and the vast distance to the probe, communication has been lost since November 30, 1995. Approved in February 1969, Pioneer 11 and twin probe Pioneer 10 were the first to be designed for exploring the outer solar system. Yielding to multiple proposals throughout the 1960s, early mission objectives were defined as: Subsequent planning for an encounter with Saturn added many more goals: Pioneer 11 was built by TRW and managed as part of the Pioneer program by NASA Ames Research Center. A backup unit, Pioneer H, is currently on display in the "Milestones of Flight" exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.. Many elements of the mission proved to be critical in the planning of the Voyager Program. Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 carry a gold-anodized aluminum
    6.00
    1 votes
    197
    Salyut 2

    Salyut 2

    Salyut 2 (OPS-1) (Russian: Салют-2 meaning Salute 2) was a Soviet space station which was launched in 1973 as part of the Salyut programme. It was the first Almaz military space station to fly. Within two weeks of launch the station had lost attitude control and depressurised, leaving it unusable. It decayed from orbit by 28 May 1973, without any crews having visited it. Salyut 2 was an Almaz military space station. It was designated part of the Salyut programme in order to conceal the existence of the two separate space station programmes. Salyut 2 was 14.55 metres (47.7 ft) with a diameter of 4.15 metres (13.6 ft), and had an internal habitable volume of 90 cubic metres (3,200 cu ft). At launch it had a mass of 18,950 kilograms (41,800 lb). A single aft-mounted docking port was intended for use by Soyuz spacecraft carrying cosmonauts to work aboard the station. Two solar arrays mounted at the aft end of the station near the docking port provided power to the station, generating a total of 3,120 watts of electricity. The station was equipped with 32 attitude control thrusters, as well as two RD-0225 engines, each capable of generating 3.9 kilonewtons (880 lbf) of thrust, for
    6.00
    1 votes
    198
    TanDEM-X

    TanDEM-X

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is the name of TerraSAR-X's twin satellite, a German Earth observation satellite using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) - a modern radar imaging technology. It is a second, almost identical spacecraft to TerraSAR-X. TanDEM-X is also the name of the satellite mission flying the two satellites in a closely controlled formation with typical distances between 250 and 500 m. The primary mission objective is the generation of a consistent global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with an unprecedented accuracy according to better than DTED Level 2 specifications. The new DEM resolution will correspond to DTED Level 3 (post spacing of better than 12 meters) and a height accuracy of better than 2m - a standard not yet defined. Digital Elevation Models of posting better than DTED Level 2 are often called HRTI (High Resolution Terrain Information) DEM. Researchers at the German Aerospace Center facility in Oberpfaffenhofen published the first 3D images from the TanDEM-X satellite mission. A group of Russian islands of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Arctic Ocean was selected for the first test.
    6.00
    1 votes
    199
    5.00
    2 votes
    200

    ASTRA 1F

    • Launch Vehicle: Proton rocket
    • Launch Site: Baikonur Cosmodrome
    • Orbit type: Geostationary orbit
    5.00
    2 votes
    201

    Cosmos 954

    Kosmos 954 (Russian: Космос 954) was a reconnaissance satellite launched by the Soviet Union in 1977. A malfunction prevented safe separation of its onboard nuclear reactor; when the satellite reentered the Earth's atmosphere the following year it scattered radioactive debris over northern Canada, prompting an extensive cleanup operation. The satellite was part of the Soviet Union's RORSAT programme, a series of reconnaissance satellites which observed ocean traffic, including surface vessels and nuclear submarines, using active radar. It was assigned the Kosmos number 954 and was launched on September 18, 1977 at 13:55 UTC from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, on a Tsyklon-2 carrier rocket. With an orbital inclination of 65°, a periapsis of 259 kilometres (161 mi) and apoapsis of 277 kilometres (172 mi), it orbited the Earth every 89.5 minutes. Powered by a liquid sodium-potassium thermionic converter driven by a nuclear reactor containing around 110 pounds (50 kg) of Uranium 235, the satellite was intended for long-term on-orbit observation, but by December 1977 the satellite had deviated from its designed orbit and its flightpath was becoming increasingly erratic. In mid-December North
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    LISA Pathfinder

    LISA Pathfinder

    LISA Pathfinder is the revised name for SMART-2 or Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology-2, a NASA/ESA space probe to be launched in 2014. The aim of the LISA Pathfinder is to test technologies needed for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, a joint NASA/ESA gravitational wave detector. It will contain one arm of the LISA interferometer, shortened from 5 Gm (5 million km) to 35 cm. In particular, it will verify: LISA Pathfinder is being built by EADS Astrium Ltd. of Stevenage, UK under contract to the European Space Agency. It will carry a European 'LISA Test Package' comprising inertial sensors, interferometer and associated instrumentation as well as two drag-free control systems: a European one using field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thrusters, and a US-built 'Disturbance Reduction System' using slightly different sensors and colloid thrusters that use ionised droplets of a colloid accelerated in an electric field. The LISA Test Package is being integrated by Astrium Germany, but the instruments and components are being supplied to Astrium by contributing institutions across Europe. The noise rejection technical requirements on the interferometer are very
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    204
    Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a NASA satellite mission intended to provide global space-based observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The original spacecraft was lost in a launch failure on February 24, 2009, when the payload fairing of the Taurus rocket which was carrying it failed to separate during ascent. The added mass of the fairing prevented the satellite from reaching orbit. It subsequently re-entered the atmosphere and crashed into the Indian Ocean near Antarctica. The FY 2010 NASA budget request includes US$170 million for NASA to develop and fly a replacement for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. OCO's measurements would have been accurate enough to show for the first time the geographic distribution of carbon dioxide sources and sinks on a regional scale. The data would have improved the understanding of the global carbon cycle, the natural processes and human activities that influence the abundance and distribution of the greenhouse gas. This improved understanding was expected to enable more reliable forecasts of future changes in the abundance and distribution of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the effect that these changes may have on
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    205
    Sputnik 1

    Sputnik 1

    • Launch Vehicle: Sputnik
    • Launch Site: Gagarin's Start
    Sputnik 1 (Russian: "Cпутник-1" Russian pronunciation: [ˈsputʲnʲək], "Satellite-1", ПС-1 (PS-1, i.e. "Простейший Спутник-1", or Elementary Satellite-1)) was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. The surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis, began the Space Age and triggered the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. Sputnik was also scientifically valuable. The density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from its drag on the orbit, and the propagation of its radio signals gave information about the ionosphere. Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now at the Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite travelled at about 29,000 kilometers (18,000 mi) per hour, taking 96.2 minutes to complete each orbit. It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 22 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957.
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    AO-51

    AO-51

    AO-51 is the in-orbit name designation of a LEO amateur radio satellite of the OSCAR series; formerly known as ECHO, built by AMSAT. It was launched on June 29, 2004 from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on a Dnepr launch vehicle. It is in sun synchronous low Earth orbit. AO-51 contains an FM repeater with both 144 MHz (V band) and 1.2 GHz (L band) uplinks and 435 MHz (U band) and 2.4 GHz (S band) downlinks. It also contains a digital subsystem that transmits telemetry on 70 cm and provides a complete PACSAT BBS that can be configured on both V band and S band uplinks. As well, there is a 10 meter PSK uplink. AO-51 has four VHF receivers, two UHF transmitters, six modems, and 56 channels of telemetry. The two UHF transmitters are connected to four phased antennas, yielding right-hand circular polarization for the 435.300 downlink and left-hand circular polarization for the 435.150 downlink. The AO-51 FM satellite is easily workable with an amateur radio VHF dual band hand-held radio, as long as you know when the satellite's footprint is within reach. Transatlantic contacts have been made without much effort, as long as the satellite is approximately mid-Atlantic so that the edge of
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    Resurs DK

    Resurs DK

    Resurs-DK1 is a commercial Earth observation satellite capable of transmitting high-resolution imagery (up to 0.9 m) to the ground stations as it passes overhead. The spacecraft is operated by NTs OMZ, Russian Research Center for Earth Operative Monitoring. The satellite is designed for multi-spectral remote sensing of the Earth's surface aimed at acquiring high-quality visible images in near real-time as well as on-line data delivery via radio link and providing a wide range of consumers with value-added processed data. The Resurs-DK1 spacecraft was built by the Russian space company TsSKB Progress in Samara, Russia. It is a modified version of the military reconnaissance satellite Yantar-4KS1 (Terilen). The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized. The design lifetime is no less than three years, with an expected lifetime of five years. Ground location accuracy is 100 metres (330 ft). Onboard storage is 768 gigabits. Data link speed to the ground station is 300 Mbit/s. Maximum daily productivity is 1,000,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi). Resurs is Russian for "Resource". The letters DK are the initials of Dmitry Kozlov, chief designer of the first satellite of the Yantar-2K
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    Advanced Composition Explorer

    Advanced Composition Explorer

    Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) is a NASA Explorer program Solar and space exploration mission to study matter comprising energetic particles from the solar wind, the interplanetary medium, and other sources. Real-time data from ACE is used by the Space Weather Prediction Center to improve forecasts and warnings of solar storms. The ACE robotic spacecraft was launched August 25, 1997 and is currently operating in a Lissajous orbit close to the L1 Lagrange point (which lies between the Sun and the Earth at a distance of some 1.5 million km from the latter). The spacecraft is still in generally good condition, and has enough fuel to maintain its orbit until 2024. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center managed the development and integration of the ACE spacecraft. Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS): CRIS determines the isotope composition of galactic cosmic rays. It is designed to be sensitive enough to detect isotopes up to the range of zinc (Z-30). ACE Real Time Solar Wind (RTSW): Solar Wind Ion Mass Spectrometer (SWIMS) and Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS): These two instruments are time-of-flight mass spectrometers, each tuned for a different set of measurements.
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    Almaz

    Almaz

    The Almaz (Russian: Алмаз, "Diamond") program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program, began in the early 1960s. Three crewed military reconnaissance stations were launched between 1971 and 1974: Salyut 2, Salyut 3 and Salyut 5. To cover the military nature of the program the three launched Almaz stations were designated as civilian Salyut space stations. Salyut 2 failed shortly after achieving orbit, but Salyut 3 and Salyut 5 both conducted successful manned testing. Following Salyut 5, the Soviet Ministry of Defence judged in 1978 that the time consumed by station maintenance outweighed the benefits relative to automatic reconnaissance satellites. The space stations cores were known internally as OPS (Russian: ОПС, GRAU index 11F71 and 11F71B), from "Orbital Piloted Station" (Russian: Орбитальная Пилотируемая Станция). As part of the Almaz program several spacecraft for supportive roles were developed: The VA spacecraft, the Functional Cargo Block and the TKS spacecraft, which were to be used in several combinations. The heritage of the Almaz program continues to this day with the ISS module Zarya being one example. Almaz had been promoted by Vladimir
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    Arirang-1

    Arirang-1 or Arirang I is an unmanned artificial satellite created by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute and launched by a US rocket on December 21, 1999. This was the first satellite built primarily by South Korean engineers, although previous foreign-built satellites had been launched by Korean companies. It carries a surveillance camera able to distinguish objects with a diameter of 6.6 meters. It takes its name from the popular Korean folk song Arirang. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on a Taurus rocket. It had been built in Daedeok Science Town in Daejeon, South Korea. The parts were shipped in three stages from Korea to California by First Express International, a Korean shipping firm. The Arirang-1 was succeeded by the Arirang-2 in 2006. Additional satellites in the series are planned. On January 6, 2008, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute reported that they had lost contact with the satellite. It is suspected to have had a malfunction that has affected power generation.
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    Astra 1A

    • Launch Vehicle: Ariane
    • Launch Site: Centre Spatial Guyanais
    • Orbit type: Geostationary orbit
    Astra 1A was the first satellite launched and operated by SES (Société Européenne des Satellites), launched in December 1988. During its early days, it was often referred to as the Astra Satellite, as SES only operated one satellite originally. The satellite provided television coverage to Western Europe from 1989 through 2004 and was revolutionary as one of the first medium-powered satellites, allowing reception with smaller dishes than before.a Astra 1A was retired and became derelict in December 2004. Among the channels carried in the early years after launch were the entire four channel Sky Television (later British Sky Broadcasting. After the merger with rival British Satellite Broadcasting on the Marcopolo satellite), the services consisted of Sky One/Sky Channel, Sky News, Sky Movies and Eurosport, the Scandinavian TV3 and TV1000, the German Pro7, Sat.1, RTL plus, 3sat and Teleclub, the Dutch RTL4 as well as FilmNet, Screensport, MTV Europe, The Children's Channel and Lifestyle. Astra 1A began television broadcasts on February 5, 1989. Until 1998 all of SES' satellites were co-located with 1A at 19.2° east, leading that position to be known mostly as Astra 1 (later, Astra
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    213

    Gorizont

    Gorizont, (Russian: Горизонт, Horizon), GRAU index 11F662, is a series of 35 Russian, previously Soviet, geosynchronous communication satellites launched between 1978 and 2000. The programme was started in order to develop a satellite system to relay coverage of the 1980 Olympic Games from Moscow. The first four satellites were originally launched for this sole purpose. Following this, the Gorizont system was integrated into the YeSSS Unified Satellite Communication System, and used to relay both civilian and military communications. From 1988 onwards, the satellites were also used in support of the Okean programme. Gorizont satellites are based on the KAUR-3 satellite bus, which provides three-axis stabilisation, and liquid manoeuvring engines. The series was replaced by the Ekspress series.
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    Hubble Space Telescope

    Hubble Space Telescope

    • Launch Vehicle: STS-31
    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle in 1990 and remains in operation. A 2.4-meter (7.9 ft) aperture telescope in low Earth orbit, Hubble's four main instruments observe in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared. The telescope is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble. Hubble's orbit outside the distortion of Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble's Ultra-Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image ever made of the universe's most distant objects. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe. Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST was built by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency, and is operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute. The HST is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the
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    International Space Station

    International Space Station

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. It follows the Salyut, Almaz, Skylab and Mir stations as the ninth space station to be inhabited. The ISS is a modular structure whose first component was launched in 1998. Like many artificial satellites, the station can be seen from Earth without any equipment (referred to as naked eye). The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components. ISS components have been launched by American Space Shuttles as well as Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets. Budget constraints led to the merger of three space station projects with the Japanese Kibō module and Canadian robotics. In 1993 the partially built Soviet/Russian Mir-2, the proposed American Freedom, and the proposed European Columbus merged into a single multinational programme. The Russian Federal Space Agency (RSA/RKA) is using the ISS as a work site to assemble their next space station, called OPSEK. Modules and components for the new station began arriving on orbit in 2010, and the RSA plans to commission the new station before the remainder of the ISS is de-orbited. The ISS serves as a microgravity
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    Molniya

    Molniya

    Molniya (Russian: Молния, meaning "lightning") was a military communications satellite system used by the Soviet Union. The satellites were placed into highly eccentric elliptical orbits known as Molniya orbits, characterised by an inclination of +63.4 degrees and a period of around 12 hours. Such orbits allowed them to remain visible to sites in polar regions for extended periods, unlike satellites in geosynchronous orbits. The Molniya program was authorized by a government decree in late 1960. After some initial failures in 1964, the first operational satellite, Molniya 1-01, was successfully launched on April 23, 1965. Since October 1967, Molniya satellites have been used by Russia to broadcast their national Orbita television network.
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    217
    SORCE

    SORCE

    The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) is a NASA-sponsored satellite mission that provides state-of-the-art measurements of incoming X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and total solar radiation. The measurements provided by SORCE specifically address long-term climate change, natural variability and enhanced climate prediction, and atmospheric ozone and UV-B radiation. These measurements are critical to studies of the Sun; its effect on our Earth system; and its influence on humankind. SORCE measures the Sun's output with the use of state-of-the-art radiometers, spectrometers, photodiodes, detectors, and bolometers engineered into instruments mounted on a satellite observatory. The SORCE satellite orbits around the Earth accumulating solar data. Spectral measurements identify the irradiance of the Sun by characterizing the Sun's energy and emissions in the form of color that can then be translated into quantities and elements of matter. Data obtained by the SORCE experiment can be used to model the Sun's output and to explain and predict the effect of the Sun's radiation on the Earth's atmosphere and climate. The SORCE spacecraft launched on January 25, 2003 on
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    218
    Alouette 1

    Alouette 1

    Alouette 1 was Canada's first satellite, and the first satellite constructed by a country other than the USSR or the United States. Occasionally, Alouette 1 is misrepresented as the third satellite successfully put in orbit, rather than being from the third country to have one of its own in space, but numerous US and Soviet missions preceded it. Furthermore, Canada was not the third country to have a satellite in orbit: the United Kingdom's Ariel 1 preceded Alouette 1, but that was constructed by NASA. The name "Alouette" came from the French "skylark" and from the title of a popular French-Canadian folk song, "Alouette". Alouette 1 was launched by NASA from the Pacific Missile Range at Vandenberg AFB, California, USA at 06:05 UTC on September 29, 1962, into orbit around the earth. Alouette was used to study the ionosphere, an area of the upper atmosphere where many future satellites would be placed into orbit. Alouette's mission lasted for 10 years before the unit was deliberately switched off. The mission brought a modicum of fame to its Program Manager, John E. Jackson, Canadian director, John Herbert Chapman and its Chief Electrical Engineer, Colin A. Franklin. Alouette 1
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    Astra 2B

    Astra 2B is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES, launched in 2000 to join Astra 2A at the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot providing digital television and radio broadcast services to the UK and Republic of Ireland. The satellite provides two broadcast beams, each with horizontal and vertical polarisation, across two footprints - 2B North (covering central Europe and Scandinavia) and 2B South (covering Central Europe and the Iberian peninsula and Canary Islands). TV signals can be received with a 43 cm dish across the majority of the British Isles with a 60 cm dish required in the extreme north and west. 17 transponders on Astra 2B are used by BSkyB to provide the Sky Digital TV services of standard and high definition TV and digital radio. Astra 2B can also provide backup capacity, substituting for one or more transponders across the whole 10.70-12.75 GHz range used by Astra satellites in the Astra 19.2°E and Astra 28.2°E orbital positions. A third, steerable beam provides 8 transponders in the 12.50-12.75 GHz range for Internet and telecommunications services in West Africa. This aspect of the satellite is the commercial responsibility of SES New Skies.
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    Astra 2C

    Astra 2C is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES. Designed to join Astra 2A and Astra 2B at the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot providing digital television and radio broadcast services to the UK and Republic of Ireland, the satellite was first used at 19.2°E for pan-European coverage. The satellite provides two broadcast beams, each with horizontal and vertical polarisation, across two footprints – 2C North and 2C South – covering substantially the same areas of Central and Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, the Iberian peninsula and Canary Islands. TV signals can be received with a 50 cm dish across the majority of the British Isles with a 60 cm dish required in the extreme north and west. Astra 2C can also provide backup capacity, substituting for one or more transponders across the 10.70 GHz-12.20 GHz broadcast range used by Astra satellites in the Astra 19.2°E and Astra 28.2°E orbital positions, and was first deployed after launch in 2001 at 19.2°E. The satellite was moved to 28.2°E in August 2007, transmitting digital TV and interactive services for Sky Digital and Freesat. Only two transponders were active during this time. In March 2009, SES announced
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    223

    Jugnu

    Jugnu (Hindi: जुगनू), is an Indian technology demonstration and remote sensing satellite which will be operated by the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. It is a nanosatellite which will be used to provide data for agriculture and disaster monitoring. It is a 3-kilogram (6.6 lb) spacecraft, which measures 34 centimetres (13 in) in length by 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in height and width. Its development programme cost around 25 million rupee. It has a design life of one year. Jugnu's primary instrument is the Micro Imaging System, a near infrared camera which will be used to observe vegetation. It also carries a GPS receiver to aid tracking, and is intended to demonstrate a microelectromechanical inertial measurement unit. On 12 October 2011, Jugnu has launched into low Earth orbit by a PSLV-CA, serial number C18. The Mission Goal is to make a Nano satellite at IIT Kanpur that would serve the following applications: Some of the long term objectives are :
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    Landsat 1

    Landsat 1

    • Launch Vehicle: Delta rocket
    • Orbit type: Sun-synchronous orbit
    Landsat 1, originally named "Earth Resources Technology Satellite 1", was the first satellite of the United States' Landsat program. It was a modified version of the Nimbus 4 meteorological satellite and was launched on July 23, 1972 by a Delta 900 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The near-polar orbiting spacecraft served as a stabilized, Earth-oriented platform for obtaining information on agricultural and forestry resources, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water resources, geography, cartography, environmental pollution, oceanography and marine resources, and meteorological phenomena. To accomplish these objectives, the spacecraft was equipped with: The satellite also carried two wide-band video tape recorders (WBVTR) capable of storing up to 30 minutes of scanner or camera data, giving the spacecraft's sensors a near-global coverage capability. An advanced attitude control system consisting of horizon scanners, sun sensors, and a command antenna combined with a freon gas propulsion system permitted the spacecraft's orientation to be maintained within plus or minus 0.7 degrees in all three axes. Spacecraft communications included a command
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    Parasol

    PARASOL is a French-built Earth observing research satellite. It carries an instrument called POLDER which studies the radiative and microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols. PARASOL was launched from the French spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana on December 18, 2004 by an Ariane 5 G+. It flew in formation in the "A Train" constelletion with several other satellites (Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat and Aura). These satellites have, for the first time ever, combined a full suite of instruments for observing clouds and aerosols, from passive radiometers to active lidar and radar sounders. On 2 December 2009, PARASOL was manoeuvred out of the A-Train, dropping some 4 km below the other satellites by early January 2010.
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    Pioneer 10

    Pioneer 10

    Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is a 258-kilogram robotic space probe that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter and became the first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity from the Solar System. The project was managed by the NASA Ames Research Center and the spacecraft was constructed by TRW Inc. Pioneer 10 was assembled around a hexagonal bus with a 2.74 m parabolic dish high-gain antenna oriented along the spin axis. Power was supplied by four radioisotope thermoelectric generators that provided a combined 155 W at the start of the mission. Pioneer 10 was launched on March 2, 1972 by an Atlas-Centaur expendable vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Between July 15, 1972, and February 15, 1973, it became the first spacecraft to traverse the asteroid belt. Imaging of Jupiter began November 6, 1973, at a range of 25 million km, and a total of more than 500 images were transmitted. The closest approach to the planet was on December 4, 1973, at a range of 132,252 km. During the mission, the on-board instruments were used to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter, solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the solar system and
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    US-KMO

    The US-KMO is a Soviet early-warning satellite tasked with the detection of rocket launches indicating an attack by ICBMs or SLBMs. It was originally intended that the OS-KMO would replace the earlier US-KS, which was useful for ICBM detection only, but it appears that the US-KMO was not successful, and the US-KS remains the primary Russian early-warning system to this day. The satellite is sometimes referred to as the Prognoz in the west, but this is the name of a science satellite program, although it appears the Prognoz spacecraft bus is used to form the US-KMO body. Published images of the US-KMO show a cylindrical main body oriented at right angles to the main detector. A long conical sunshield extends out from one end, consisting of several overlapping cylinders that fold for launch like a folding cup. Large solar panels extend from either side of the main body cylinder, resulting in a T-shaped spacecraft. Unlike the earlier US-KS, the US-KMO is launched from the Proton-K rocket, suggesting it is heavier than the US-KS, which was launched from the much smaller Molniya-M. Few other details are available. Development of the US-KMO started at NPO Lavochkin in 1979. Prior to this
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    Americom-8

    Americom-8, commonly referred to as AMC-8, is a satellite located at 139° West, and is a C-band satellite covering all 50 states, Canada and the Caribbean. It is owned and operated by SES Americom. The satellite, also known as Aurora III, provides critical telecommunications services to AT&T Alascom. AMC-8 was launched in 2000 as GE-8, and replaced Satcom C-5 in March 2001. AMC-8 is used by thousands of terrestrial radio stations for network feeds via Starguide III. Major tenets are ABC Satellite Services (which include ABC Radio Network, Talk Radio Network, WOR Radio Network and others), Clear Channel Satellite (which includes Premiere Radio Networks), Jones Radio Network and others.
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    234
    Aqua

    Aqua

    Aqua (EOS PM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the precipitation, evaporation, and cycling of water. It is the second major component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) preceded by Terra (launched 1999) and followed by Aura (launched 2004). The name "Aqua" comes from the Latin word for water. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on May 4, 2002, aboard a Delta II rocket. Aqua is on a Sun-synchronous orbit. It flies leading the satellite formation called the "A Train" with several other satellites (Aura, CALIPSO, CloudSat and the French PARASOL). Aqua carries six instruments for studies of water on the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere: The Aqua spacecraft has a mass of about 2,850 kilograms (6,300 lb), plus propellant of about 230 kilograms (510 lb) (at launch). Stowed, the satellite is 2.68 m x 2.49 m x 6.49 m. Deployed, Aqua is 4.81 m x 16.70 m x 8.04 m.
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    Deep Space 2

    Deep Space 2

    Deep Space 2 was a NASA probe which was part of the New Millennium Program. It included two highly advanced miniature space probes which were sent to Mars aboard the Mars Polar Lander in January 1999. The probes were named "Scott" and "Amundsen", in honor of Robert Falcon Scott and Roald Amundsen, the first explorers to reach the Earth's South Pole. Intended to be the first spacecraft to penetrate below the surface of another planet, after entering the Mars atmosphere DS2 was to detach from the Mars Polar Lander mother ship and plummet to the surface using only an aeroshell impactor, with no parachute. The mission was declared a failure on March 13, 2000, after all attempts to reestablish communications following the descent went unanswered. Each probe weighed just 2.4 kg (5.3 lb) and was encased in a protective aeroshell. They rode to Mars aboard another spacecraft, the Mars Polar Lander. Upon arrival just above the south polar region of Mars on December 3, 1999, the basketball-sized shells were released from the main spacecraft, plummeting through the atmosphere and hitting the planet's surface at over 179 m/s (590 ft/s). On impact, each shell was designed to shatter, and its
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    Disaster Monitoring Constellation

    The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) consists of a number of remote sensing satellites constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and operated for the Algerian, Nigerian, Turkish, British and Chinese governments by DMC International Imaging. The DMC provides emergency Earth imaging for disaster relief under the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters, which the DMC formally joined in November 2005. Other DMC Earth imagery is used for a variety of civil applications by a variety of governments. Spare available imaging capacity is sold under contract. The DMC provides far larger areas of imagery than, but at comparable resolution to, established government imaging satellites such as Landsat. DMC imagery was deliberately designed to be comparable to Landsat imagery, in order to leverage the expertise and software of the large established remote sensing community used to working with Landsat images. Imagery can be provided far more rapidly from the DMC than from Landsat, thanks to having multiple similar satellites in orbit ready to cross over a point of interest, and the larger images produced. This brings the responsiveness that is needed for emergencies
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    Explorer 8

    Explorer 8

    Explorer 8 was a U.S. research satellite launched on November 3, 1960. It confirmed the existence of a helium layer in the upper atmosphere. Explorer 8 decayed from orbit on 28 March 2012.
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    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer

    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is a space-based telescope operated by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. FUSE was launched on a Delta II rocket on June 24, 1999, as a part of NASA's Origins program. FUSE detected light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, between 90.5-119.5 nanometres, which is mostly unobservable by other telescopes. Its primary mission was to characterize universal deuterium in an effort to learn about the stellar processing times of deuterium left over from the Big Bang. FUSE resides in a low Earth orbit, approximately 760 km (410 nmi) in altitude, with an inclination of 25 degrees and just less than a 100 minute orbital period. Its Explorer designation is Explorer 77. On July 12, 2007, FUSE's final reaction wheel, which is required for accurately pointing a spacecraft, failed and efforts to restart it were unsuccessful. An announcement was made on September 6 that because the fine control needed to perform its mission had been lost, the FUSE mission would be terminated. Although the original specification was to have a Wolter-type grazing incidence telescope, the final design of the FUSE
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    Intelsat I

    Intelsat I

    Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the proverb "The early bird catches the worm") was the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, on April 6, 1965. It was built by the Space and Communications Group of Hughes Aircraft Company (later Hughes Space and Communications Company, and now Boeing Satellite Systems) for COMSAT, which activated it on June 28. It was based on the satellite that Hughes had built for NASA to demonstrate that communications via synchronous-orbit satellite were feasible. Its booster was a Thrust Augmented Delta (Delta D). It helped provide the first live TV coverage of a spacecraft splashdown, that of Gemini 6 in December 1965. Originally slated to operate for 18 months, Early Bird was in active service for four years, being deactivated in January 1969, although it was briefly activated in June of that year to serve the Apollo 11 flight when the Atlantic Intelsat satellite failed. It was deactivated again in August 1969 and has been inactive since that time (except for a brief reactivation in 1990 to commemorate its 25th launch anniversary), although it remains in orbit. The Early Bird satellite was the first to provide
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    Landsat 3

    Landsat 3

    Landsat 3 is the third satellite of the Landsat program. It was launched on March 5, 1978, with the primary goal of providing a global archive of satellite imagery (satellite data are called images and not photos because they are not just reflected light exposure, but recordings of radiative electromagnetic energy fluxes of surface materials). Unlike later Landsats, Landsat 3 was managed solely by NASA. Landsat 3 is no longer in operation, having been decommissioned on March 21, 1983, far beyond its designed life expectancy of one year. Landsat 3 had essentially the same design as Landsat 2. It carried a Multi-Spectral Scanner, which had a maximum 75m resolution. Unlike the previous two Landsat missions a thermal band was built into Landsat 3, but this instrument failed shortly after the satellite was deployed. Landsat 3 was placed into a polar orbit at about 920 kilometers, and took 18 days to cover the entire Earth's surface.
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    Landsat 4

    Landsat 4

    Landsat 4 is the fourth satellite of the Landsat program. It was launched on July 16th, 1982, with the primary goal of providing a global archive of satellite imagery. Although the Landsat Program is managed by NASA, data from Landsat 4 was collected and distributed by the USGS. Landsat 4 science operations ended December 14, 1993 when it lost the ability to transmit science data, far beyond its designed life expectancy of five years. The satellite housekeeping telemetry and tracking continued to be maintained by NASA until decommissioning June 15, 2001. Landsat 4 had a maximum transmission bandwidth of 85 Mbit/s, and carried an updated Multi-Spectral Scanner used on previous Landsats, and a Thematic Mapper. It had a maximum 30 m resolution. Shortly after launch, the satellite lost half of its solar power and the ability to send science data directly to Earth, prompting fears the satellite would fail sooner than expected. This prompted the early launch of Landsat 5, a satellite identical in specification to Landsat 4. Landsat 4 was able to resume science operations when the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System came on line, then was placed in standby in January 1986. Landsat 4
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    Meteosat

    Meteosat

    The Meteosat series of satellites are geostationary meteorological satellites operated by EUMETSAT under the Meteosat Transition Programme (MTP) and the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) program. The MTP program was established to ensure the operational continuity between the end of the successful Meteosat Operational Programme in 1995 and Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), which came into operation at the start of 2004 using improved satellites. The MTP provides an overlap with MSG by continuing the current Meteosat system until at least the end of the year 2005. The MSG program will provide service until the MTG (Meteosat Third Generation) program takes over. The first generation of Meteosat satellites, Meteosat-1 to Meteosat-7, provide continuous and reliable meteorological observations from space to a large user community. In addition to the provision of images of the Earth and its atmosphere every half-hour in three spectral channels (Visible, Infrared) and Water Vapour, via the Meteosat Visible and Infrared Imager (MVIRI) instrument, a range of processed meteorological products is produced. Meteosat also supports the retransmission of data from data collection platforms in
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    Solrad 7

    Solrad 7, also known as Solrad 7B, is a satellite launched as part of the Solrad program. The SOLar RADiation satellite program (SOLRAD) is conceived in the late 1950s to study the Sun's effects on Earth, particularly during periods of heightened solar activity. It served as a cover project for the Project Dyno ELINT intelligence satellites with the covernames GRAB and POPPY operated by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Solrad 7 is launched on March 9, 1965, and is not spin-stabilized. Two photocells give the necessary information about the solar aspect angle; i.e., the angle between the equatorial plane and the direction from the Sun to the satellite. The satellite carries aboard a solar X-ray monitoring experiment. Solrad 7 is still in orbit. Telemetry is received at Arcetri Observatory when the satellite passes into or out of the Earth's shadow. The satellite has been instrumented with ion chambers for monitoring solar radiation in the bands: 0.1-0.8 nm, 0.8-1.6 nm, and 4.4-6.0 nm. The 4.4-6.0 nm chamber is sensitive from 0.3 to 2.0 nm. Measurements are performed for three days: July 5, 6, and 9, 1965. July 6th has a higher solar activity than the other two and coincides
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    Third Small Astronomy Satellite

    Third Small Astronomy Satellite

    The Small Astronomy Satellite 3 (SAS 3, also known as SAS-C before launch) was a NASA X-ray astronomy space telescope. It functioned from May 7, 1975 to April 1979. It covered the X-ray range with four experiments on board. The satellite, built by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), was proposed and operated by MIT's Center for Space Research (CSR). It was launched on a Scout vehicle from the Italian/Kenyan San Marco launch platform near Mombasa, Kenya, into a low-Earth, nearly equatorial orbit. It was also known as Explorer 53, as part of NASA's Explorer program. The spacecraft was 3-axis stabilized with a momentum wheel that was used to establish stability about the nominal rotation, or z-axis. The orientation of the z-axis could be altered over a period of hours using magnetic torque coils that interacted with the Earth's magnetic field. Solar panels charged batteries during the daylight portion of each orbit, so that SAS 3 had essentially no expendables to limit its lifetime beyond the life of the tape recorders, batteries, and orbital drag. The spacecraft typically operated in a rotating mode, spinning at one revolution per 95-min orbit, so that the
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    UO-11

    UoSAT-2, which is also known as UO-11 and OSCAR-11, is a British satellite orbiting in Low Earth Orbit. The satellite functions as an amateur radio transmitter (known as an OSCAR) and was built at the University of Surrey. It launched into orbit in March 1984 and remains orbital and active, though unstable with irregular periods of transmission. The satellite was still heard transmitting telemetry in December 2010, more than twenty-six years after launch. It is operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), who also build UoSATs. The satellite carries a Digitalker speech synthesiser, magnetometers, a CCD camera, a Geiger-Müller tube, and a microphone to detect the vibrations of micrometeoroid impacts. Like UoSAT-1 it transmits telemetry data on the VHF beacon at 1200 baud, using asynchronous AFSK, though now all analogue telemetry channels have failed; on an FM receiver the audio signal resembles the cassette data format of the contemporary BBC Micro computer. Slight modulation had also been observed on the S band beacon. UoSAT-2's solar arrays were bought at a premium compared to those of UoSAT-1, the design having been space tested by its predecessor. The British affiliate
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    UoSat-OSCAR 9

    UoSAT-1, also known as UO-9, was a British satellite which orbited Earth. It was an amateur satellite built at the University of Surrey and launched into low Earth orbit on 6 October 1981. It exceeded its anticipated two-year orbital lifespan by six years, having received signals on 13 October 1989, before re-entering the atmosphere. Like its successor UoSAT-2 it carried a CCD camera and a Digitalker speech synthesiser, and transmitted telemetry data on a 145.826 MHz beacon at 1200 baud using asynchronous AFSK. The Astrid package sold by British firm MM Microwave, consisting of a fixed frequency VHF receiver set and software for the BBC Micro, could display the telemetry frames from either UoSAT-1 or UoSAT-2. UoSAT-1's solar arrays were of an experimental design reused for UoSAT-2.
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    USA 193

    USA 193

    • Launch Vehicle: Delta II
    • Launch Site: Vandenberg Air Force Base
    USA-193, also known as NRO launch 21 (NROL-21 or simply L-21), was an American military spy satellite launched on December 14, 2006. It was the first launch conducted by the United Launch Alliance. Owned by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the craft's precise function and purpose were classified. The satellite malfunctioned shortly after deployment, and was intentionally destroyed 14 months later on February 21, 2008, by a modified, $9.5 million SM-3 missile fired from the warship USS Lake Erie, stationed west of Hawaii. The event highlighted growing distrust between the U.S. and China, and was viewed by some to be part of a wider "space race" involving the U.S., China, and Russia. USA-193 was part of the NRO's Future Imagery Architecture, which was begun in 1997 to produce a fleet of inexpensive reconnaissance satellites, but has become the agency's most spectacular failure. USA-193 was initially developed by Boeing, which won the contract in 1999, beating out Lockheed Martin with proposals for innovative electro-optics and radar. But after cost overruns, delays, and parts failures, NRO sent the contract to Lockheed, which built USA-193 around the Boeing radar design.
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    Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    • Launch Site: Vandenberg AFB Space Launch Complex 2
    Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched on December 14, 2009, and decommissioned/hibernated on February 17, 2011 when its transmitter was turned off. The US$320 million mission launched an Earth-orbiting satellite with a 40 cm (16 in) diameter infrared telescope, which performed an all-sky astronomical survey with images in 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm wavelength range bands, over 10 months. The initial mission length was limited by its hydrogen coolant, but a secondary post-cryogenic mission continued for four more months. By October 2010, WISE hydrogen coolant and original NASA funding ran out, and the proposed WISE warm mission, using remaining functionality, was not approved by NASA. Rather than abandon the spacecraft, the NASA Planetary division stepped in with funding for a shorter fourth month mission extension called NEOWISE, to search for small solar system bodies close to Earth's orbit. WISE served as a replacement for the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), which failed within hours of reaching orbit in March 1999. In certain measurements, WISE is over 1,000 times more sensitive than prior infrared space
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