A royal line is a family to which a number of monarchs were born. Monarchs often passed control of a Kingdom from parent to child, and in this manner created long term dynasties. The family often had huge power over the kingdom, with family members gaining access to various influential positions within the governing body and ruling society of the kingdom.
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The Royal House of Jammu and Kashmir trace their roots to the mythical Ikshvaku (Solar) Dynasty of Northern India, Lord Rama is the 'kuldevta' (family deity) of the Dogras.
The Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir was the ruler of the erstwhile Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. The first ruler was Gulab Singh, who became Raja of Jammu and Kashmir through a grant from the Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and subsequently accepted the throne of Kashmir. The region of Jammu and Kashmir was ruled by Raja Gulab Singh but was in total control of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Raja Gulab Singh was allowed to collect tax and look after the management of the region with special orders from Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The region of Jammu and Kashmir became an integral part of Sikh Empire, ranging from Afghanistan to Punjab to Kashmir. The coins in circulation, that time can be found with Sikh motifs and Khalsa emblem.
Last ruling Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir was Hari Singh, his son His Highness Dr. Karan Singh is the present titular Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir.
According to legend, Raghuvanshi descendant, Agnigarba, who was living as a recluse, came to Nagarkote (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh), in
Monarchs from this line:Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
Kingdom(s) ruled:Electoral Palatinate of the Rhine
The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.
Members of the family served as Dukes, Electors and Kings of Bavaria (1180–1918), Counts Palatine of the Rhine (1214–1803 and 1816–1918), Margraves of Brandenburg (1323–1373), Counts of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland (1345–1432), Elector-Archbishops of Cologne (1583–1761), Dukes of Jülich and Berg (1614–1794/1806), Kings of Sweden (1441–1448 and 1654–1720) and Dukes of Bremen-Verden (1654–1719).
The family also provided two Holy Roman Emperors (1328/1742), one King of the Romans (1400), two Anti-Kings of Bohemia (1619/1742), one King of Hungary (1305), one King of Denmark and Norway (1440) and a King of Greece (1832–1862).
The family's head, since 1996, is Franz, Duke of Bavaria.
Berthold, Margrave in Bavaria (died 980), was the ancestor of Otto I, Count of Scheyern (died 1072), whose 3rd son Otto II, Count of Scheyern acquired the castle of Wittelsbach (near Aichach). The Counts of Scheyern left Burg Scheyern ("Scheyern Castle", constructed in about 940) in 1119 for Burg Wittelsbach ("Wittelsbach Castle").
Otto I's son Eckhard I, Count of Scheyern was father to the Count palatine of Bavaria Otto IV
The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು [tʃaːɭukjə]) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi II. After the death of Pulakesi II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan) until the end of the 12th century.
The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from
The Husainid Dynasty is the former ruling dynasty of Tunisia originally of Cretan-Turkish origin. They came to power under Al-Husayn I ibn Ali at-Turki in 1705 replacing the Muradid Dynasty. After taking power the Husainids ruled as Beys with succession to the throne determined by age with the oldest member of the dynasty becoming Bey. The heir apparent to the Bey held the title Bey al-Mahalla. The Husainids originally ruled under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. In 1881 Tunisia came under the control of France as a protectorate. Following independence from France on March 20, 1956, the Bey Muhammad VIII al-Amin assumed the title of King and reigned as such until the prime minister Habib Bourguiba deposed the dynasty and declared Tunisia a republic on July 25, 1957.
Since October 2006 the current head of the dynasty is Prince Muhammad Bey (born 1928) who is a grandson of Muhammad V an-Nasir.
Genealogoical chart of the descent from the Prophet of the Idrisid dynasty, rulers of Fez and Morocco, Kings of Tunis, and the Senussi dynasty, founders and heads of the Libyan Senussi Order and Kings of Libya are also descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali through Al Hassan
Monarchs from this line:Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Kingdom(s) ruled:United Kingdom
The House of Windsor is the royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. It was founded by King George V by royal proclamation on 17 July 1917, when he changed the name of his family from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (a branch of the House of Wettin) to the English Windsor, due to the anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I. Currently, the most prominent member of the House of Windsor is its head, Queen Elizabeth II, the reigning monarch of each of the Commonwealth realms. The House of Windsor, as the British Royal Family, has the legal and constitutional prerogatives and practices associated with that status.
Edward VII and, in turn, his son, George V, were members of the German ducal House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha by virtue of their descent from Albert, Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria. High anti-German sentiment amongst the people of the British Empire during World War I reached a peak in March 1917, when the Gotha G.IV, a heavy aircraft capable of crossing the English Channel, began bombing London directly and became a household name. In the same year, on 15 March, King George's first cousin, Nicholas II, the Tsar of
The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin from Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship of Ireland, later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry VII, a descendant through his mother of a legitimised branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, to which the Tudors were aligned, extinct.
Henry Tudor was able to establish himself as a candidate not only of the traditional Lancastrian supporters, but of discontented supporters of the rival House of York, and rose to capture the throne in battle, becoming Henry VII. His victory was reinforced by his marriage to Elizabeth of York, symbolically uniting the former warring factions under a new dynasty. The Tudors extended their power beyond modern England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542 (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542); and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland. They also maintained the traditional (i.e. nominal) claims to the Kingdom of
The Ahom Dynasty (1228–1826) ruled the Ahom Kingdom in present-day Assam for nearly 600 years. The dynasty was established by Sukaphaa, a Shan prince of Mong Mao who came to Assam after crossing the Patkai mountains. The rule of this dynasty ended with the Burmese invasion of Assam and the subsequent annexation by the British East India Company following the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826.
In medieval chronicles, the kings of this dynasty were called Asam Raja, whereas the subjects of the kingdom called them Chaopha (Chao-ruler, Pha-heaven), or as Swargadeo (the equivalent in Assamese) from the 16th century.
The Ahom kings (Ahom language: Chao-Pha, Assamese language: Swargadeo), were descendants of the first king Sukaphaa (1228–1268) who came to Assam from Mong Mao in 1228. Succession was by agnatic primogeniture. Nevertheless, following Rudra Singha's deathbed injunction four of his five sons became the king one after the other. The position of Swargadeo was reserved for the descendants of Sukaphaa and they were not eligible for ministerial positions—a division of power that was followed till the end of the dynasty and the kingdom. When the nobles asked Atan Burhagohain to became the
The Ynglings were the oldest known Scandinavian dynasty. It can refer to the clans of the Scylfings (Old Norse Skilfingar), the semi-legendary royal Swedish clan during the Age of Migrations, with kings such as Eadgils, Onela and Ohthere. When Beowulf and Ynglingatal were composed sometime in the eighth to tenth centuries, the respective scop and skald expected his audience to have a great deal of background information about these kings, which is shown in the allusiveness of the references.
Ynglings also refers to the Fairhair dynasty, descending from the kings of Oppland, Norway. According to surviving early sources, such as Ynglingatal and Íslendingabók, these kings were descended from the Swedish Scylfings of Uppland, Sweden. The House of Munsö, a Swedish dynasty also falls under the definition of Yngling. The earliest kings of this dynasty that historians generally agree are historical are Eirik the Victorious and Olof Skötkonung.
Some early kings were likely mythical, whereas others may have been real. Egil, Ottar, Ale and Adils are mentioned in several sources and are very likely to be real kings.
In the Scandinavian sources they are the descendants of Yngvi-Frey of
The Hafsids (Arabic: الحفصيون / ALA-LC: al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Masmuda-Berber dynasty ruling Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia) from 1229 to 1574. Their territories were stretched from east of modern Algeria to west of modern Libya during their zenith.
The dynasty was named after Muhammad bin Abu Hafs a Berber from the Masmuda tribe of Morocco. He was appointed governor of Ifriqiya (present day Tunisia) by Muhammad an-Nasir, Caliph of the Almohad empire between 1198-1213. The Banu Hafs, were a powerful group amongst the Almohads; their ancestor is Omar Abu Hafs al-Hentati, a member of the council of ten and a close companion of Ibn Tumart. His original name was "Fesga Oumzal", which later changed to "Abu Hafs Omar ibn Yahya al-Hentati" (also known as "Omar Inti") since it was a tradition of Ibn Tumart to rename his close companions once they had adhered to his religious teachings.
The Hafsids as governors on behalf of the Almohads faced constant threats from Banu Ghaniya who were descendents of Almoravid princes which the Almohads had defeated and replaced as a ruling dynasty.
Hafsids were Ifriqiya governors of Almohads until 1229, when they declared independence. After the split of the
A Peshwa (Marathi: पेशवे) is the titular equivalent of a modern Prime Minister. Emperor Shivaji created the Peshwa designation in order to more effectively delegate administrative duties during the growth of the Maratha Empire. The word Peshwa has roots in the Persian language meaning 'foremost'. The Peshwas were all Brahmin ministers who initially started as the chief executives to the king. Prior to 1749, Peshwas held office for 8-9 years and controlled the Maratha army. They later became the de facto hereditary administrators of the Maratha Empire from 1749 till its end in 1818.
Under Peshwa administration and with the support of several key generals and diplomats (listed below), the Maratha Empire reached its zenith, ruling most of the Indian subcontinent landmass. It was also under the Peshwas that the Maratha Empire came to its end through its formal annexation into the British Empire by the British East India Company in 1818.
After the coronation of Shivaji in 1674, he appointed Moropant Trimbak Pingle as the first Peshwa. Shivaji renamed this designation as Pantpradhan in 1674 but this term is less commonly used. Today, the surname "Peshwe" (alternatively "Peshave") is
The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father, and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis.
On the interior of the Pergamon Altar is a frieze depicting the life of Telephus, son of Herakles, whom the ruling Attalid dynasty associated with its city and utilized to claim descendance from the Olympians. Pergamon, having entered the Greek world much later than its counterparts to the west, could not boast the same divine heritage as older city-states, and retroactively had to cultivate its place in Greek mythos.
The Bagratuni, Bagratid or alternatively Pakradouni (Armenian: Բագրատունի) royal dynasty of Armenia was a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities of the medieval Kingdom of Armenia, such as Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Vanand, Taron, and Tayk, and the Kingdom itself in the 10th and 11th centuries. The exact origin of the Bagratuni, as well as of the related Georgian branch (Bagrationi) are still an object of debate among historians.
The Bagratid family first emerged as nakharars, members of the hereditary nobility of Armenia. Their holdings were in the region of Sper, in the Chorokhi valley. As early as 288-301, the Bagratid prince Smbat held the hereditary Armenian titles of Aspet, which means Master of the Horse, and T'agatir, which means Coronant of the King.
According to Prince Cyril Toumanoff, the earliest Bagratid prince was chronicled as early as AD 314. In the 8th century, a later Bagratid prince (also named Smbat) revolted against the Arab Caliphate but the revolt was defeated.
The Bagratid Princes of Armenia are known as early as 1st century BC when they served under the Artaxiad Dynasty. Unlike most noble families on Armenia they held only strips
The House of Nikolić was a Serbian medieval noble family from Hum (Herzegovina). The family's main estate was Popovo Polje.
Župan Nikola, the great-grandson of Knez Miroslav (Miroslav of Hum), had two sons by Catherine, the daughter of Stephen I, Ban of Bosnia: Vladimir and Bogiša. However, little is known about the first ancestors of the Nikolić family, being last mentioned in 1363, most likely as the governors of the Herzegovinian provinces. With princess Vukosava, Petar and Miliša Nikolić begin the second generation of the Nikolić family. It is known that their mother was a woman named Stanislava, but it is not certain who their father was, whether it was either Vladimir or Bogiša. Recent studies suggest that since Vladimir was older, and from other sources, we are able to assume that he was the father of three known princes. The mention of the Nikolić brothers begin after the death of King Tvrtko I of Bosnia in 1391. As adherents of the new Bosnian king, Stephen Dabiša, their reputation visually rose that by December of 1392, the Republic of Dubrovnik granted them citizenship. Stephen Ostoja's rise to the Bosnian throne found the Nikolić brothers in an unpredicted position, as
The House of Stenkil was a dynasty on the Swedish throne from c. 1060 to c. 1125. Stenkil probably originated from Västergötland.
Line (of magnates and earls) before Stenkil, according to the Norse sagas:
On the throne of Sweden or Västergötland:
(* c. 1155 – 1167 Charles VII of Sweden (his mother was the widow of Inge the Younger) who married Kirsten Stigsdatter, according to Norse legends daughter's daughter's daughter of Inge the Elder; this couple continued the in c 1130 ascended dynasty of Sverker)
Monarchs from this line:Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen
Zähringen is the name of an old German family that founded a large number of cities in what are today Switzerland and Baden-Württemberg. While the junior line that first assumed the title Duke of Zähringen, a cadet branch of the House of Baden, became extinct in 1218, the senior line persists and currently uses the title Margrave of Baden, Duke of Zähringen. Zähringen today is a district of the city of Freiburg im Breisgau, which the dukes founded in 1120. In the German language the word Zähringer is used for House of Zähringen in the same way as someone from New York is called a New Yorker.
The earliest known member of the family was Berthold I, Count in the Breisgau (died 982), who was first mentioned in 962. Earlier ancestors, such as the Ahalolfings are suspected. Bertholds's great-grandson Duke Berthold I (d. 1078) was count of Zähringen and was related to the early Hohenstaufen family.
Emperor Henry III had promised his liensman Berthold of Zähringen the Duchy of Swabia, but this was not fulfilled as upon Henry's death his widow Agnes of Poitou in 1057 appointed Count Rudolf of Rheinfelden. In compensation Berthold was made duke of Carinthia in 1061. Although this dignity was
The Ghurids or Ghorids (Persian: سلسله غوریان; self-designation: Shansabānī) were a native Iranian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Persianate culture, which established rule over parts of modern day Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan from 1148 to 1215. The dynasty succeeded the Ghaznavid Empire. Their empire was centered in Ghor Province, in the heartland of what is now Afghanistan. It encompassed Khorasan in the West and reached in the East to northern India, as far as Delhi. Their first capital was Fīrūzkūh in Ghor, which was later replaced by Herat while Ghazni and Lahore were used as additional capitals, especially during the winter seasons.
The Ghurids were succeeded in Persia by the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty and in northern India by the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
In the 19th century, some European scholars, such as Mountstuart Elphinstone, favoured the idea that the Ghurid dynasty relate to today's Pashtun people, but this is generally rejected by modern scholarship, and, as explained by Morgenstierne in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, is for "various reasons very improbable". Instead, the consensus in modern scholarship (incl. Morgenstierne, Bosworth, Dupree, Gibb, Ghirshman,
The lordship (seigneurie) of Albret (Labrit), situated in the Landes, gave its name to one of the most powerful feudal families of France in the Middle Ages. Its members distinguished themselves in the local wars of that epoch; and during the 14th century they espoused the English cause for some time, afterwards transferring their support to the side of France.
Arnaud Amanieu, lord of Albret, helped to take Guienne from the English. His son Charles became constable of France, and was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415. Alain the Great, lord of Albret (d. 1522), wished to marry Anne of Brittany, and to that end fought against Charles VIII; but his hopes being defeated by the betrothal of Anne to Maximilian of Austria, he surrendered Nantes to the French in 1486.
At that time the house of Albret had attained considerable territorial importance, due in great part to the liberal grants which it had obtained from successive kings of France. John of Albret, son of Alain, became king of Navarre by his marriage with Catherine of Foix. Their son Henry II, king of Navarre, was created duke of Albret and peer of France in 1550. By his wife Margaret d'Angoulême, sister of Francis I, he
The House of Aviz (in the current spelling Avis; Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈviʃ]) is a dynasty of the kings of Portugal. In 1385, the Interregnum of the 1383-1385 crisis ended with the proclamation by the Master of the Order of Aviz of John I, natural son of king Peter I and Dona Teresa Lourenço, as king. The descendants of king John I were still nominal Masters of Aviz, though they were often replaced by other officers of the monastic military order. With the death of John II, a new branch of the House was inaugurated when his cousin Manuel, Duke of Beja ascended to the throne of Portugal- hence, the House of Aviz-Beja.
The institution of House of Aviz followed the dynastic crisis that originated from the death of Ferdinand I in 1383. With the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, John I, half-brother of Ferdinand and natural son of Pedro I, confirmed the kingship which had been bestowed upon him at the Cortes of Coimbra in April 1385.
This period of Portuguese history is considered to include the ascent of Portugal to the status of a European and world power. The first act of expansion was the conquest of Ceuta in 1415 and was followed by the exploration,
The House of Valois (French pronunciation: [valwa]) was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, succeeding the House of Capet (or "Direct Capetians") as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482.
They were descendants of Charles of Valois, the fourth son of King Philip III. They based their claim on the Salic law, which excluded females (Joan II of Navarre) as well as male descendants through the distaff line (Edward III of England), from the succession to the French throne.
The Capetian dynasty seemed secure both during and after the reign of Philip IV. Philip had left three surviving sons (Louis, Philip and Charles) and a daughter (Isabella). Each son became king in turn but died young without male heirs, leaving only daughters who could not inherit the throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, the French Succession was thrown wide open.
In 1328 there were 3 reasonable candidates to the throne;
In England, Isabella of France heard the news and claimed the throne on behalf of her son. Similar to France, the English law of succession did not allow the succession of females, but allowed the succession through the
The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.
The known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty are as follows:
After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of royal power in Egypt followed. The pharaohs of the Twenty-First Dynasty ruled from Tanis, but were mostly active only in Lower Egypt which they controlled. This dynasty is described as 'Tanite' because its political capital was based at Tanis. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. The later Egyptian Priest Manetho of Sebennytos states in his Epitome on Egyptian royal history that "the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years".
The Imperial House of Japan (皇室, kōshitsu), also referred to as the Imperial Family, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the emperor is the symbol of the state and unity of the people. Other members of the imperial family perform ceremonial and social duties, but have no role in the affairs of government. The duties as an emperor are passed down the line to children and their children's children and so on.
The Japanese monarchy is the oldest continuous hereditary monarchy in the world. The imperial house recognizes 125 monarchs beginning with the legendary Emperor Jimmu (traditionally dated to February 11, 660 BC) and continuing up to the current emperor, Akihito; see its family tree. However, there is no historical evidence for the genealogical relationships, and in most cases even the existence of, the first 25 emperors.
Article 5 of the Imperial Household Law (皇室典範, Kōshitsu Tempan) defines the imperial family (皇族) as: the empress (皇后, kōgō); the empress dowager (皇太后, kōtaigō); the grand empress dowager (太皇太后, tai-kōtaigō); Emperor's legitimate sons and
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun Dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty), regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.
The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368–98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. He also took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through published dynastic instructions. This failed spectacularly when his teen-aged
The House of Habsburg ( /ˈhæps.bɜrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːps.bʊʁk]), also Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries.
The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built around 1020–1030 in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.
By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Archduchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became sovereign ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled for the next six centuries.
A series of dynastic marriages enabled the
The Bahmani Sultanate (Devanagari: बहमनी सल्तनत ; also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms. Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India.
The sultanate was founded on 3 August 1347 by governor Ala-ud-Din Hassan Bahman Shah, a Persian (Tajik) descent from Badakhshan, who revolted against the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Nazir uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultanate stepped down on that day in favour of Zafar Khan who ascended the throne with the title of Alauddin Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Ahsanabad (Gulbarga) between 1347 and 1425 when it was moved to Muhammadabad (Bidar). The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire to the south. The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466–1481) of Mahmud Gawan. After 1518 the sultanate broke up into five states: Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar, Qutubshahi of Golconda
Chola dynasty ([ˈt͡ʃoːɻə]) was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, of Maurya Empire; as one of the Three Crowned Kings, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century AD.
The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of two centuries and more. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-east Asia. The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the celebrated expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the overthrow after an unprecedented naval war of the maritime empire of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.
During the period 1010–1200, the Chola territories stretched from the
The House of Lancaster was a cadet branch of the royal House of Plantagenet. It was one of the opposing factions involved in the Wars of the Roses, an intermittent dynastic struggle which affected England and Wales during the 15th century. The family provided England with three kings: Henry IV of England, who ruled 1399–1413; Henry V of England, who ruled 1413–1422; and Henry VI of England and (II of) France, who ruled 1422–1461 and 1470–1471. The term "Lancastrian" refers to members of the family as well as their supporters.
The House descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. Gaunt did not receive a large inheritance, so he made his fortune through marriage to the heiress Blanche of Lancaster, who brought with her the considerable lands of the Earls of Leicester and Lancaster, which made Gaunt the wealthiest landowner in England after the King. He was conferred the second creation of the title of "Duke of Lancaster" by his father Edward III in 1362, a year following the death of John of Gaunt's father-in-law Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Gaunt enjoyed great political influence during his lifetime, but upon his death in 1399, his lands were
The Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period. The Seventeenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1580 to 1550 BC.
Known rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty are as follows:
The Seventeenth Dynasty covers a period of time when Egypt was split into a set of small Hyksos-ruled kingdoms. It is mainly Theban rulers contemporary with the Fifteenth Dynasties and Sixteenth Dynasties.
In March 2012, French archeologists examining a limestone door in the Amun-Ra temple in Luxor discovered hieroglyphs with the name Senakhtenre, the first contemporary evidence found for this king.
The last two kings of the dynasty opposed the Hyksos rule over Egypt and initiated a war that would rid Egypt of the Hyksos kings and began a period of unified rule, the New Kingdom.
Kamose, the second son of Seqenenre Tao, was the brother of Ahmose I--the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
The Liu Song Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 刘宋朝; traditional Chinese: 劉宋朝; pinyin: Liú Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Liu Sung Ch'ao), also known as Former Song Dynasty (前宋) (420-479 CE), was first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin Dynasty and followed by the Southern Qi Dynasty.
The dynasty was founded by Liu Yu 劉裕 (363–422), whose surname together with "Song" forms the most commonly used name for the dynasty, the Liu Song 劉宋. This appellation is used to distinguish it from a later dynasty of the same name, the Song Dynasty 宋 (960–1279), which is much more famous and significant. The Liu Song is also at times referred to as the "Southern Song Dynasty" (南宋), as it is one of the Southern Dynasties period, i.e., one of those with its capital at Jiankang (modern Nanjing). However, the later Song Dynasty, after 1127, when it moved its capital south to Lin'an (modern Hangzhou, Zhejiang), is most commonly referred to as "Southern Song Dynasty" (南宋). Thus, for the shorter dynasty which is the subject of this article, "Liu Song" has become the term preferred in most contexts.
The Liu Song was a time when there was much internal turmoil. A number of emperors were
The Qajar dynasty ( Qajar (help·info)) (Persian: سلسله قاجاریه or دودمان قاجار; also anglicized as Ghajar or Kadjar) is a Persianized Iranian royal family of Turkic origin, which ruled Persia (Iran) from 1785 to 1925. The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Persian sovereignty over parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad which was under Durrani suzerainty, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as shah.
The Qajar (or Ghajar) rulers were members of the Karagoz of the Qajars, originally the members of the Qarapapaqs of the larger Oghuz peoples. Qajars first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qizilbash tribes that supported the Safavids. The Safavids "left Arran (present-day Republic of Azerbaijan) to local Turkic speaking khans", and, "in 1554 Ganja was governed by Shahverdi Soltan Ziyadoglu Qajar, whose family came to govern Karabakh in southern Arran".
Qajars filled a number of diplomatic missions and governorships in the 16-17th centuries for the Safavids. The Qajars were resettled
The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι) was an ancient Greek royal house. They were the ruling dynasty of Macedonia from about 700 to 310 BC. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in southern Greece (hence the name Argeads). Initially, the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedonia all Upper Macedonian states. The family's most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedonia and Alexander the Great, under whose leadership, the kingdom of Macedonia gradually gained predominance throughout Greece, defeated the Achaemenid Empire and expanded as far as Egypt and India.
The Argeads claimed descent from the Temenids of Argos, in the Peloponnese, whose legendary ancestor was Temenus, the great-great-grandson of Heracles. In the excavations of the royal Palace at Aegae Manolis Andronikos discovered in the "tholos" room (according to some scholars "tholos" was the throne room) an inscription relating to that belief. This is testified by Herodotus, in The Histories, where he mentions that three brothers of the lineage of Temenus, Gauanes, Aeropus and
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom. Dynasty IV lasted from ca. 2613 to 2494 BC. It was a time of peace and prosperity as well as one during which trade with other countries is documented.
Dynasties III, IV, V and VI are often combined under the group title the Old Kingdom, which often is described as the age of the pyramids. The capital at that time was Memphis.
The Fourth Dynasty heralded the height of the pyramid-building age. The relative peace of the Third Dynasty allowed the Fourth Dynasty rulers the leisure to explore more artistic and cultural pursuits. Sneferu’s building experiments led to the evolution from the mastaba styled step pyramids to the smooth sided “true” pyramids, such as those on the Giza plateau. No other period in Egypt’s history equaled Dynasty IV’s architectural accomplishments. Each of the rulers of this dynasty commissioned at least one pyramid to serve as a tomb or cenotaph.
The pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty ruled for approximately 120 years, from ca 2613 to 2494 BCE. The names in the table are taken from Dodson and Hilton.
Sneferu, the first king of Dynasty IV, is
The Shah dynasty was a ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Nepal.
In the 1500s, Prince Yashobramha Shah of Kaski (son of King Kulamandan Shah) was enthroned in the principality of Lamjung. The rulers of the neighbouring principality of Ligligkot, now in Gorkha, were Ghale people. They had a tradition of choosing a ruler every autumn by way of a running race open to everyone. Whoever won the race was to become ruler for a year. However, Dravya Shah was not a physically robust man and so he tricked his way to the win with the backing of the Bhattarai, Aryal, Adhikari, Pant and the Acharya clans of Bahun. He then did away with the tradition of choosing a ruler every autumn. He ruled in a brutal way and executed anyone who suggested the reinstatement of the running race. By the time of Dravya Shah's death in 1570, the running race tradition was but a memory among the people. Dravya Shah had used the Magar army to invade neighbouring states and his successors continued this aggression to increase the kingdom's territory.
In 1743, Prithvi Narayan Shah came to the throne of Gorkha. He unified Nepal. In September 1768, he became the King of Nepal. In 1815, the Gurkha War between Nepal and the
Monarchs from this line:Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse
Succeeded by:House of Holstein-Gottorp (Swedish line)
The House of Hesse is a European royal dynasty from the region of Hesse, originally and still formally the House of Brabant.
The origins of the House of Hesse begin with the marriage of Sophie of Thuringia, daughter of Louis IV, Landgrave of Thuringia and Elizabeth of Hungary with Henry II, Duke of Brabant from the House of Reginar. Sophie was the heiress of Hesse which she passed on to her son, Henry upon her retention of the territory following her partial victory in the War of the Thuringian Succession in which she was one of the belligerents.
Originally the western part of the Landgraviate of Thuringia, in the mid 13th century it was inherited by the younger son of Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and became a distinct political entity. From the late 16th century it was generally divided into several branches, the most important of which were those of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and Hesse-Darmstadt. In the early 19th century the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel was elevated to Elector of Hesse (1803), while the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt became the Grand Duke of Hesse (1806), later Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. The Electorate of Hesse (Hesse-Kassel) was annexed by Prussia in 1866,
Monarchs from this line:Mohammed esh Sheikh el Mamun
The Saadi dynasty or Saadian dynasty (Arabic: سعديون), original name Bani Zaydan, were a dynasty of Arab descent that ruled Morocco from 1554 to 1659.
From 1509 to 1554 they had ruled only in the south of Morocco. While still recognizing the Wattasids as Sultans until 1528, Saadian's growing power led the Wattasids to attack them and, after an indecisive battle, to recognize their rule over southern Morocco through the Treaty of Tadla.
Their reign over Morocco began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1554, when he vanquished the last Wattasids at the Battle of Tadla. The Saadian rule ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad el Abbas
The Saadī family claimed descent from Muhammad through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima Zahra (Muhammad's daughter). The Saadi came from Tagmadert in the valley of the Draa River. The family's village of origin in the Draa was Tidzi (a qsar, some 10 km north of Zagora). They claimed sharifian origins through an ancestor from Yanbu and rendered Sufism respectable in Morocco. The name Saadi or Saadian derives from "sa'ada" meaning hapiness or salvation. Others think it derives from the name Bani Zaydan or that it was
The Orbelian lords of the province of Syunik were a noble family of Armenia, with a long history of political influence documented in inscriptions throughout the provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and recorded by the family historian Bishop Stepanos in his 1297 History of Syunik.
Through 12th century were a major feudal family in Georgia, with their home base the fortress of Orbet'i in southern Georgia. In 1177/8, their leader Ivane led his whole extended clan on the losing side in a power struggle between the deceased king's young heir, Ivane's protégé and son-in-law Demetre, and the king's brother Giorgi. Ivane sent his brother Liparit and nephews Elikum and Ivane to the Persians in Tabriz for help, but this new army came too late, after Ivane had been blinded, his family strangled, and young Demetre blinded and castrated.
Liparit died in exile. One son, Ivane, returned to Georgia when the situation cooled down; his descendants, on their dwindled estates, stayed prominent in Georgia and even the USSR. Honored by the Persian atabek, other son Elikum stayed and became an important official, converting (half-heartedly and maybe not at all) to Islam and dying in one of the atabek's
The Přemyslids (Czech: Přemyslovci, German: Premysliden, Polish: Przemyślidzi), were a Bohemian royal dynasty which reigned in Bohemia and Moravia (9th century–1306), and partly also in Hungary, Silesia, Austria and Poland. Subsequently the ruling House of Luxembourg (1310 - 1437) claimed title to the crown of Bohemia through relation to Přemyslids. The House of Habsburg (ruling 1526 - 1918) claimed title to the crown from its relation to all previously ruling houses, including the House of Přemysl.
Dynasty beginnings date back to the 9th century when Přemyslids ruled a tiny principality around Prague and gradually conquered the region of Bohemia, conveniently located in the Czech basin where it was not threatened by expansion of the Frankish Empire. The first historically-documented Premyslid Duke was Bořivoj I (867). In the following century Přemyslids also ruled over Silesia and founded the city of Wroclaw, derived from the name of a Bohemian duke Vratislaus I, father of Saint Wenceslaus. Under Prince Boleslaus II the Pious (972), the Přemyslids ruled territory stretching to today's Belarus. They controlled important trade routes. After their prominent rise, however, internal
The Julio-Claudian dynasty normally refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula (also known as Gaius), Claudius, and Nero, or the family to which they belonged; they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.
None of the Julio-Claudians were succeeded by their sons; only one of them had a legitimate son survive him. The ancient historical writers, chiefly Suetonius and Tacitus, write from the point of view of the Roman senatorial aristocracy, and portray the Emperors in generally negative terms, whether from preference for the Roman Republic or love of a good scandalous story.
Tacitus wrote this of the Julio-Claudian Emperors and history:
Julius and Claudius were two Roman family names; in classical Latin, they came second. Such names are inherited from father to son; but a sonless Roman aristocrat quite commonly adopted an heir, who would also take the family name - this could be done in his will. Thus (Gaius) Julius Caesar adopted his sister's grandson, Gaius Octavius, who became a Julius, eventually named Imperator Caesar Augustus,
The Liao Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 辽朝; traditional Chinese: 遼朝; pinyin: Liáo Cháo; Khitan language: Mos Jælud), also known as the Khitan Empire (simplified Chinese: 契丹国; traditional Chinese: 契丹國; pinyin: Qìdān Guó; Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled over Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East and northern China proper from 907 to 1125. It was founded by the Khitan Great Khan Abaoji around the time of the collapse of the Han Chinese Tang Dynasty.
The Liao Empire was destroyed by the Jurchen of the Jin Dynasty in 1125. However, remnants of its people, led by Yelü Dashi, established Western Liao Dynasty, also known as Kara-Khitan Khanate, which ruled over parts of Central Asia for almost a century before being conquered by Genghis Khan's Mongolian army.
Neither the origins, ethnic makeup, nor early history of the Khitans are well documented in historical records. The earliest reference to a Khitan state is found in the Book of Wei, a history of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386–534) that was completed in 554. Several books written after 554 mention the Khitans as being active during the late third and early fourth centuries. The Book of
The Eastern Ganga dynasty reigned from Kalinga and their rule consisted of the whole of the modern day Indian state of Orissa as well as parts of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh from the 11th century to the early 15th century. Their capital was known by the name Kalinganagar, which is the modern Srimukhalingam in Srikakulam District of Andhra Pradesh bordering Orissa. Today, they are most remembered as the builders of the Konark Sun Temple an UNESCO World Heritage site at Konark, Orissa.
The dynasty was founded by King Ananta-Varman Chodaganga Deva (1078–1147), grandson of the Chola king Virarajendra Chola and nephew of emperor Kulothunga Chola I. Anantavarman was a religious person as well as a patron of art and literature. He is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri in Orissa. King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264).
The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to
The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: 夏朝; pinyin: Xià Cháo; Wade–Giles: Hsia-Ch'ao; IPA: [ɕiâ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]; c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC) is the first dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles such as Bamboo Annals, Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian. The dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him. The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC).
According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations by Liu Xin, the Xia ruled between 2205 and 1766 BCE; according to the chronology based upon the Bamboo Annals, it ruled between 1989 and 1558 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project concluded that the Xia existed between 2070 and 1600 BCE. The tradition of tracing Chinese political history from heroic early emperors to the Xia to succeeding dynasties comes from the idea of the Mandate of Heaven, in which only one legitimate dynasty can exist at any given time, and was promoted by the Confucian school in the Eastern Zhou period, later becoming the basic position of imperial historiography and ideology. Although the Xia is an important element in early Chinese
The Jagiellonian dynasty (Polish: Jagiellonowie, Lithuanian: Jogailaičiai, Czech: Jagellonci, Hungarian: Jagelló, Belarusian: Ягелоны) was a royal dynasty originating from the Lithuanian House of Gediminas dynasty that reigned in Central European countries (present day Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Latvia, Estonia, parts of Russia (including today's Kaliningrad oblast), Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia) between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526).
The dynastic union between the two countries (converted into a full administrative union only in 1569) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onwards. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia (from 1490) and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as the Eastern branch of the House of Habsburg.
The name (other variations used in English include: Jagiellonians, Jagiellos, Jogailos, Jagiellas)
The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty in Magadha, and ruled in the eastern part of India from 75 BCE to 30 BCE. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty,Devbhooti, was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to continue to rule in obscurity in a corner of their former dominions. Magadha was ruled by four Kanva rulers. Their dynasty was brought to an end by king Shimuk.Shimuk was the founder of the Satavahanas dynasty or 'Andhra bhritya' dynasty in Pratishthan or Paithan in Maharashtra.
The Madurai Nayaks or Nayak Dynasty of Madurai (Tamil: மதுரை நாயக்கர்) were rulers of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans, and inauguration of a unique architectural style.
The dynasty consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king, Tirumalai Nayak, and the queen, Rani Mangammal. Foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portuguese, as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region.
Madurai Nayaks belonged to the Kamma social group. They claimed a Bana descent.
Early in the fourteenth century AD a dispute arose over the succession to the Pandya throne. One claimant appealed for help to emperor Ala-ud-din of Delhi, who dispatched his general, Malik Kafur, in 1310 AD. Malik Kafur marched south, ransacking kingdoms on the way and causing enormous changes to the political configuration of central and Southern India. He marched into Madurai, sacking the town,
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi dynasty ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1490 to 1686. Bijapur had been a province of the Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1518), before its political decline in the last quarter of the 15th century and eventual break-up in 1518. The Bijapur Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire on 12 September 1686, after its conquest by the Emperor Aurangzeb.
The founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah (1490–1510), was appointed Bahmani governor of the province, before creating a de facto independent Bijapur state. Yusuf and his son, Ismail, generally used the title Adil Khan. 'Khan', meaning 'Chief' in Mongolian and adopted in Persian, conferred a lower status than 'Shah', indicating royal rank. Only with the rule of Yusuf's grandson, Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1534–1558), did the title of Adil Shah come into common use.
The Bijapur Sultanate's borders changed considerably throughout its history. Its northern boundary remained relatively stable, straddling contemporary Southern Maharashtra and Northern Karnataka. The Sultanate expanded southward, first with the conquest of the Raichur Doab following the
The Antigonid dynasty (Greek: Δυναστεία των Αντιγονιδών) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").
Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Antigonus's son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying as a prisoner of Seleucus I. After a period of confusion, Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 BC.
It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty. The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty.
The ruling members of the
The Ayyubid dynasty (Arabic: الأيوبيون al-ʾAyyūbiyyūn) was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt. The dynasty ruled much of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Ayyubid family, under the brothers Ayyub and Shirkuh, originally served as soldiers for the Zengids until they supplanted them under Saladin, Ayyub's son. In 1174, Saladin proclaimed himself Sultan following the death of Nur al-Din. The Ayyubids spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia. Most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond Jordan River fell to Saladin after his victory at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. However, the Crusaders regained control of Palestine's coastline in the 1190s.
After the death of Saladin, his sons contested control over the sultanate, but Saladin's brother al-Adil eventually established himself as Sultan in 1200. In the 1230s, the Ayyubid rulers of Syria attempted to assert their independence from Egypt and remained divided until Egyptian
Thanjavur Marathas (Marathi: तंजावूर मराठा साम्राज्य) of the Bhonsle dynasty, were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu between the 17th to the 19th century C.E. Their native language was Marathi. Venkoji was the founder of the dynasty.
Following the demise of Chola rule in the 13th century, the Thanjavur country came under the rule of the Pandyas who ruled for about a century. Following the invasion of Malik Kafur, the Tanjore country fell into disorder. The rule of the Delhi Sultanate lasted for half a century before Pandya chieftains reasserted their independence. Soon afterwards, however, they were conquered by the Vijayanagar Empire. The supremacy of Vijayanagar was challenged by the Nayaks of Madurai who eventually conquered Thanjavur in 1646. The rule of the Thanjavur Nayaks lasted until 1673 when Chokkanatha Nayak the ruler of Madurai invaded Thanjavur and killed the ruler Vijayaraghava.
Chokkanatha placed his brother Alagiri on the throne of Thanjavur, but within a year the latter threw off his allegiance, and Chokkanatha was forced to recognise the independence of Thanjavur. A son of Vijaya Raghava induced the Bijapur Sultan to help him get back the
The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. This dynasty is considered to be the last one of the New Kingdom of Egypt, and was followed by the Third Intermediate Period.
The Pharaohs of the 20th dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and twenty years: from ca 1187 to 1064 BC. The dates and names in the table are mostly taken from Chronological Table for the Dynastic Period" in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill, 2006. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.
Pharaoh Setnakhte was likely already middle aged when he took the throne after Queen Twosret. He ruled for only around 4 years when he was succeeded by his son Ramesses III. Egypt was threatened by the Sea Peoples during this time period, but Ramesses III was able to defeat this confederacy from the Near East. The king is also known for a harem conspiracy in which Queen Tiye attempted to assassinate the king and put her son Pentawere on the
The Constantinian dynasty is an informal name for the ruling family of the Roman Empire from Constantius Chlorus (†305) to the death of Julian in 363. It is named after its most famous member, Constantine the Great who became the sole ruler of the empire in 324. The dynasty is also called Neo-Flavian because every Constantinian emperor bore the name Flavius, similarly to the rulers of the first Flavian dynasty in the 1st century.
In italics the Augusti and the Augustae.
Other rulers of the tetrarchy were related to the Constantinian dynasty:
Monarchs from this line:Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca
Kingdom(s) ruled:Kingdom of Iraq
Hashemite also Hashimite is the Latinate version of the Arabic: هاشمي, transliteration: Hāšimī, and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or "clan of Hashim", a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. It also refers to an Arab dynasty whose original strength stemmed from the network of tribal alliances and blood loyalties in the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, along the Red Sea.
The Hashemites trace their ancestry from Hashim ibn Abd al-Manaf (died c. 510 AD), the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although the definition today mainly refers to the descendants of the prophet's daughter, Fatimah. The early history of the Hashemites saw them in a continuous struggle against the Umayyads for control over who would be the caliph or successor to Muhammad. The Umayyads were of the same tribe as the Hashemites, but a different clan. After the overthrow of the Umayyads, the Abbasids would present themselves as representatives of the Hashemites, as they claimed descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle of Muhammad. Muhammad's father had died before he was born, and his mother died while he was a child, so Muhammad was raised by his uncle Abu Talib,
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name "Carolingian", Medieval Latin karolingi, an altered form of an unattested Old High German *karling, kerling (meaning "descendant of Charles", cf. MHG kerlinc), derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel: Carolus. The family consolidated its power in the late 7th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne. By 751, the Merovingian dynasty which until then had ruled the Franks by right was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short, was crowned King of the Franks.
Traditional historiography has seen the Carolingian assumption of kingship as the product of a long rise to power, punctuated even by a premature attempt to seize the throne through Childebert the Adopted. This picture, however, is not commonly accepted today. Rather, the coronation of 751 is seen typically as a product
The House of Bokassa is an African Noble and Imperial House. Its founder ruled as Emperor over the territories of the Central African Empire from 4 December 1976, until he was overthrown on 21 September 1979.
The short-lived "dynasty" was created in 1976, when Jean-Bédel Bokassa, formerly authoritarian President of the Central African Republic, changed the name of the state and transformed it into a monarchy. Jean-Bédel Bokassa II was declared Crown Prince and heir to the imperial throne. Pope Paul VI refused to take part in the coronation ceremony. (In spite of that, Bokassa held the baseless claim that Paul VI had appointed him "the 13th apostle of Christ"; around the same time, he officially declared himself "Grand Master of the International Brotherhood of Knights Collectors of Postage Stamps".) Neither the US nor any European country acknowledged or supported the newly founded monarchy, with the exception of France whose President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing held close ties to Bokassa. By 1979, France had withdrawn its support as well.
The Emperor's sixth wife (he had a total harem of nineteen even after converting to Roman Catholicism), Catherine Denguiadé became Her Imperial
Joseon (Hangul: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮; July 1392 – October 1897) (also Chosŏn, Choson, Chosun, Cho-sen), was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Dynasty in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the Amnok and Duman rivers through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korean history and the longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.
During its reign, Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea, encouraged the entrenchment of Korean Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society, imported and adapted Chinese culture, and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade, science, literature, and technology. However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when invasions by the neighboring states of Japan and Qing nearly overran the peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy for which the country became known
Kalhora Dynasty or Kalhoro Dynasty (Urdu: سلسله کلہوڑا) ruled Sindh, Pakistan. This dynasty was founded by Kalhora tribe.
Kalhora dynasty ruled certain other parts of Pakistan from 1701 to 1783 AD. Kalhoras ruled Sindh for 85 years and there were twelve Kalhora rulers during this time. By the late 1600s, the Mughal dynasty became very weak and the governor Yar Muhammad Khan Kalhora became virtual ruler of Sindh. Miya Yaar Mohammed Kalhora, when he was in power, around 1710, with the help of his followers, won over Khud-Abad from the Panohar Muslims. They called it Khudábád and fixed it as their Capital for Sindh. From this centre, parties were sent in different directions, till, they recovered Khárí and Kadiárah* and dispossessed Malak Alah Baksh brother to Bakhtáwar Khán of Ládkánah. Earlier, the Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar had developed the empty land and had called the city as Khud-Abad (Self-Developed) before Miya Yaar Mohammed took over from Panohar. After Nadir Shah Afshar of Iran and invaded and occupied the Mughal capital in 1739 the Kalhora became rulers of Sindh. The territory of Kalhora dynasty extended from Multan to Thatta. This period is known as the golden period of
The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 to 192. These Emperors are Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus.
The first five of the six successions within this dynasty were notable in that the reigning Emperor adopted the candidate of his choice to be his successor. Under Roman law, an adoption established a bond legally as strong as that of kinship. Because of this, the second through sixth Nerva-Antonine emperors are also called Adoptive Emperors.
This has often been considered as a conscious repudiation of the principle of dynastic inheritance and has been deemed as one of the factors of the period's prosperity. However, this was not a new practice; Roman emperors had adopted heirs in the past: The Emperor Augustus had adopted Tiberius and the Emperor Claudius had adopted Nero. The Imperator who appointed himself Dictator for Life, Gaius Julius Caesar, considered to be instrumental in the transition from Republic to Empire, adopted Octavian who would become Augustus, the first Emperor of Rome, even though he possibly had an illegitimate natural son Caesarion, by Cleopatra
The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade–Giles: Ch'in Ch'ao; IPA: [tɕʰǐn tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Gansu and Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring States Period. In the mid and late third century BCE, the Qin accomplished a series of swift conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou Dynasty, and eventually destroying the remaining six states of the major states to gain control over the whole of China, resulting in a unified China.
During its reign over China, the Qin Dynasty achieved increased trade, improved agriculture, and military security. This was due to the abolition of landowning lords, to whom peasants had formerly held allegiance. The central government now had direct control of the masses, giving it access to a much larger workforce. This allowed for the construction of ambitious projects, such as a wall on the northern border, now known as the Great Wall of China. The Qin Dynasty also introduced several reforms: currency, weights and
The Safavid dynasty (Persian: سلسلهٔ صفويان; Azerbaijani: صفویلر) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and at their height, they controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan and Armenia, most of Iraq, Georgia, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus, as well as parts of Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey. Safavid Iran was one of the Islamic "gunpowder empires", along with its neighbours, the Ottoman and Mughal empires.
The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region. It was of mixed ancestry (Azerbaijani, Kurdish and Turkmen, which included intermarriages with Georgian and Pontic Greek dignitaries). From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over all of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first
The Chakri Dynasty (Thai: ราชวงศ์จักรี; RTGS: Ratchawong Chakkri) is the current ruling royal house of the Kingdom of Thailand, the Head of the house is the King of Thailand. The dynasty has ruled Thailand since the founding of the Ratthanakosin era and the city of Bangkok in 1782 following the end of King Taksin of Thonburi's reign, when the capital of Siam shifted to Bangkok. The Royal house was founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke an Ayutthayan military leader.
Prior to the founding of the dynasty, King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (Rama I), held the title of Chao Pharaya Chakri for over ten years. This title was held by the greatest warlords of Ayuthaya and was meant to reflect the prowess of the holder on the battlefield. In the founding of the dynasty King Rama I himself chose both name and emblem for the dynasty. The Chakri which provides both name and emblem to the house of Chakri, is composed of the discus (Chakra) and the trident (Trisula, sometimes shortened to "Tri" in Thai language), the celestial weapon of the God Narayana (an Avatar of Vishnu) of whom the Siamese king is seen as a personification. The coined name Chakri thus denotes the transcending force of divine
The Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII) (c. 1550–c. 1292 BC) is perhaps the best known of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. As well as boasting a number of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, it included Tutankhamun, the finding of whose tomb by Howard Carter in 1922 was a sensational archaeological discovery despite its having been twice disturbed by tomb robbers. The dynasty is sometimes known as the Thutmosid Dynasty because of the four pharaohs named Thutmosis (English: Thoth child).
As well as Tutankhamen, famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut (1479 BC–1458 BC), longest-reigning queen-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten (1353–1336 BC/1351–1334 BC), the "heretic pharaoh", with his queen, Nefertiti.
Dynasty XVIII is often combined with Dynasties XIX and XX to form the New Kingdom period of ancient Egyptian history.
Radiocarbon dating suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC. The radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC.
The pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII ruled for approximately two hundred and fifty years (c. 1550–1298 BC).
After the extinction of the House of Stenkil and the ascension of Sverker I of Sweden in 1130, a civil war commenced. In the beginning, there were several pretenders, of whom Sverker I emerged as victorious, for a time. The antagonists in long run were finally the House of Sverker in Östergötland and the House of Eric in Västergötland and Uppland (Saint Eric was killed and buried in the latter province, others in the dynasty were buried in Varnhem Abbey in the former province as later also Birger Jarl was, a relative to the dynasty), which alternated on the throne for several generations, until in the 1220s the Eric dynasty got the upper hand, and the Sverker dynasty became extinct (at least in the male line).
As usual in medieval succession rivalries, the final outcome combined the blood of rival lines, as in 1250 Valdemar of the Folkungs (then a minor, his father Birger Jarl acting as regent) ascended the throne, having inherited the Eric dynasty claim from Valdemar's mother (who was sister of Eric XI of Sweden, the last Eric-dynast) and some of the Sverker dynasty claim from Birger's mother (who was daughter of a younger son of Sverker I).
The House of Trastámara was a dynasty of kings in the Iberian Peninsula, which first governed in Castile beginning in 1369 before expanding its rule into Aragón, Navarre and Naples. They were an illegitimate cadet line of the House of Burgundy.
The line of Trastámaran royalty in Castile ruled throughout a time period of military struggle with Aragon. Their family was sustained with large amounts of inbreeding, which led to a series of disputed struggles over rightful claims to the Castilian throne. This lineage ultimately ruled in Castile from the rise to power of Henry II in 1369 through the unification of the crowns under Ferdinand and Isabella.
Upon the death of the Castilian King Alfonso XI in 1350, his eldest son, Peter, took control of the Castilian throne as Peter I of Castile. Peter was born to Alfonso and his wife, Maria of Portugal, but Alfonso lived out a long and public affair with Eleanor of Guzman. Alfonso’s illegitimate children that Eleanor had given birth to, known collectively as the Trastámaras, immediately became rivals of the newly crowned Peter. Because of a personal history including political murders, his enemies quickly nicknamed him Peter the Cruel. Also
Mountbatten-Windsor is the personal surname of some of the descendants of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh under an ambiguously-worded Order in Council issued in 1960, and as such a cadet branch of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (known as the House of Glücksburg for short), which in turn is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
Mountbatten-Windsor differs from the official name of the British Royal Family or Royal House, which remains Windsor. The adoption of the Mountbatten-Windsor surname does not apply to members of the Royal Family who are not descended from the Queen (her cousins, for example, and the descendants of Princess Margaret). The Order specifically applies the surname to those descendants of the Queen not holding Royal styles and titles, but Mountbatten-Windsor has been applied to or informally used by the descendents of Queen Elizabeth II that hold Royal styles, as shown at the marriages of the Duke of York and the Princess Royal, both having been registered with Mountbatten-Windsor in their entries in the marriage registers.
The Mountbatten surname derives from the German town of Battenberg, in Hesse. Prince Louis of Battenberg
The Artaxiad Dynasty or Ardaxiad Dynasty (Artashessian Dynasty, Armenian: Արտաշեսեան արքայատոհմ) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. Their realm included Greater Armenia, Sophene and intermittently Lesser Armenia and parts of Mesopotamia. Their main enemies were the Seleucids and the Parthians, against whom the Armenians had to conduct multiple wars. During this period, Armenian culture experienced considerable Hellenistic influence.
According to the geographer Strabo, Artaxias and Zariadres were two satraps of the Seleucid Empire, who ruled over the provinces of Greater Armenia and Sophene respectively. After the Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, they revolted and declared their independence, with Artaxias (Armenian: Արտաշես) becoming the first king of the Artaxiad dynasty of Armenia in 188. However, some Armenian scholars believe that Artaxias and Zariadres were not foreign generals but local figures related to the previous Orontid dynasty, as their Irano-Armenian (and not Greek) names would indicate.
Artaxias is regarded as one of the most important kings in Armenian history. He presented himself as a
The House of Wessex, also known as the House of Cerdic, refers to the family that initially ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex, from the 6th century under Cerdic of Wessex until the unification of the Kingdoms of England.
The House became rulers of all England (Bretwalda) from Alfred the Great in 871 to Edmund Ironside in 1016. This period of the English monarchy is known as the Saxon period, though their rule was often contested, notably by the Danelaw and later by the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard who claimed the throne from 1013 to 1014, during the reign of Æthelred the Unready. Sweyn and his successors ruled until 1042. After Harthacanute, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066 under Edward the Confessor and Harold Godwinson, who was a member of the House of Godwin. After the Battle of Hastings, a decisive point in English history, William of Normandy became king of England. Anglo-Saxon attempts to restore native rule in the person of Edgar the Ætheling, a grandson of Edmund Ironside who had originally been passed over in favour of Harold, were unsuccessful and William's descendants secured their rule. Edgar's niece Matilda of Scotland later
The Ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IX) is often combined with Dynasties VII, VIII, X and XI (Thebes only) under the group title First Intermediate Period. Dynasties IX and X date approximately from 2160 to 2025 BC.
Known rulers in the Ninth Dynasty are as follows (dates are uncertain):
Dynasty IX was founded at Herakleopolis Magna, and Dynasty X continued there. At this time Egypt was not unified, and there is some overlap between these and other local dynasties. The Turin Canon lists eighteen kings for this royal line, but their names are damaged, unidentifiable, or lost.
Clan Bruce (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Brus) is a Scottish clan from Kincardine in Scotland. It was a Royal House in the 14th century, producing two kings of Scotland.
The surname Bruce comes from the French de Brus or de Bruis, derived from the lands now called Brix, situated between Cherbourg and Valognes in Normandy, France. The first of this family on record, in Great Britain, was Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale who came to England with King Henry I after his victory at Tinchebray in 1106. He was given 80 manors in Yorkshire, and later 13 manors around Skelton. He received the Lordship of Annandale from King David I of Scotland shortly after his accession in 1124. Robert founded a priory at Gysburn.
Both the English and Scots lines descend from this Robert.
It has long been written that the ancestor of the family was Robert de Brus, a knight of Normandy who came to England with William the Conqueror. But this was an invention taken from totally unreliable medieval lists of those who fought at Hastings.
Soon after the accession of David I of Scotland to the throne, Robert visited the monarch and obtained from him the lordship of Annandale. Robert de Brus (known as Robert le
The House of Kamehameha (Hale O Kamehameha), or the Kamehameha Dynasty, was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi between the unification of the islands by Kamehameha I in 1810 and the death of Kamehameha V in 1872. Their most important contributions were the institution of a constitutional form of government, abolition of ancient Hawaiian kapu systems in favor of westernized laws, proclamation of the Edict of Toleration giving freedom of religion and the promulgation of the Great Mahele, allowing private ownership of land for the first time in Hawaii.
The dynasty developed from royalty of the Kona district of Hawaiʻi Island. They supported chief Kamehameha in gradually taking over control of first the other parts of the island of Hawaiʻi, and then the other islands of the Hawaiian Islands archipelago.
His father was Keōua Kalanikupuapaʻkalaninui the Chief of Kona, and his mother was Kekuʻiapoiwa niece of the reigning King Alapaʻi. Relations were wide: for example, Kamehameha's father had also been the father of Kekuʻiapoiwa, the wife of his son's rival Kīwalaʻō and both were parents of Kamehameha's most sacred wife Keōpūolani.
Kamehameha himself descended also from Aliʻi
The Ptolemaic dynasty, (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖοι, sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagides, Ancient Greek: Λαγίδαι, from the name of Ptolemy I's father, Lagus) was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Ptolemy, one of the six somatophylakes (bodyguards) who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC.
All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her apparent suicide at the
The Solomonic dynasty is the Imperial House of Abyssinia. Its members claim lineal descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, the latter of whom tradition asserts gave birth to the first King Menelik I after her Biblically described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem (1 Kings 10:1–10).
The dynasty, a bastion of Judaic and later of Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, came to rule Ethiopia in the 10th Century A.D. Precise records of the dynasty's history had been maintained by the Ethiopian Orthodox monasteries to near antiquity. However, the resurgent Judaic Queen Judith I and her subsequent destruction of Orthodox monasteries resulted in the destruction of most such records. Yekuno Amlak I re-established the dynasty through birth traced to the last Solomonic King of Axum Dil Naod. The Dynasty re-established itself on 10 Nehasé 1262 EC(August 10, AD 1270) when Yekuno Amlak overthrew the last ruler of the Zagwe dynasty. Yekuno Amlak claimed direct male line descent from the old Axumite royal house that the Zagwes had replaced on the throne. Menelik II, and later his daughter Zewditu, would be the last Ethiopian monarchs who could claim uninterrupted direct male descent from King
The Zhou Dynasty (1046–256 BC) (Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu Cháo; Wade–Giles: Chou Ch'ao [tʂóʊ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji (Chinese: 姬) family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou.
During the Zhou Dynasty, the use of iron was introduced to China, though this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze-ware making. The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved into its modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period.
According to Chinese legend, the Zhou lineage began with Emperor Ku and proceeded from him to Qi, Buku, Ju, and then Gongliu, before Gugong Danfu moved the Zhou clan from Bin (豳 or 邠) to an area in the Wei River valley, where they founded a town that became central to the Zhou clan's growing prosperity.
Gugong Danfu's son, Jili, fought against the Rong as a vassal of the Shang Dynasty's King Wen Ding until the king killed
Aisin Gioro was the family name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing Dynasty. The House of Aisin Gioro ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which established a republican government in its place. The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, and "gioro" is the name of the place in present day Yilan, Heilongjiang Province. In Manchu custom, families are identified first by their Hala (哈拉), i.e. their family or clan name, and then by Mukūn (穆昆), the more detailed classification, typically referring to individual families. In the case of Aisin Gioro, Aisin is the Mukūn, and Gioro is the Hala. Other members of the Gioro clan include Irgen Gioro (伊尔根觉罗), Susu Gioro (舒舒觉罗) and Sirin Gioro (西林觉罗).
The Jin dynasty (jin means gold in Chinese) of the Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchus, was known as aisin gurun, and the Qing dynasty was initially named () amaga aisin gurun, or Later Jin dynasty. Since the fall of the Empire, a number of members of the family have changed their surnames to Jin (Chinese: 金) after the former dynasty. For example, Puyi's younger brother changed his name from Aisin-Gioro Puren (愛新覺羅溥任) to Jin Youzhi (金友之) and his children in turn are surnamed
The Hasmonean dynasty (/hæzməˈniːən/; Hebrew: חשמונאים Hashmonayim; Audio), was the ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity. Between c. 140 and c. 116 BCE, the dynasty ruled semi-autonomously from the Seleucids in the region of Judea. From 110 BCE, with the Seleucid empire disintegrating, the dynasty became fully independent, expanded in to the neighbouring regions of Galilee, Iturea, Perea, Idumea and Samaria, and took the title "basileus". Some modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel. In 63 BCE, the kingdom was conquered by the Roman Republic, broken up and set up as a Roman client state. The Kingdom had survived for 103 years before yielding to the Herodian Dynasty in 37 BCE. Even then, Herod the Great tried to bolster the legitimacy of his reign by marrying a Hasmonean princess, Mariamne, and planning to drown the last male Hasmonean heir at his Jericho palace.
The dynasty was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after his brother Judas the Maccabee ("Hammer") defeated the Seleucid army during the Maccabean Revolt. According to historical sources, including 1 Maccabees and 2
Monarchs from this line:Charles XIV John of Sweden
Kingdom(s) ruled:Union between Sweden and Norway
The House of Bernadotte, the current royal house of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. Between 1818 and 1905, it was also the royal house of Norway. Its founder, Charles XIV John of Sweden, was adopted by Charles XIII of Sweden, who belonged to the House of Holstein-Gottorp which was becoming extinct.
Following the Finnish War in 1809, Sweden lost possession of Finland, which had constituted the eastern half of the Swedish realm for centuries. Resentment towards King Gustav IV Adolf precipitated a coup d'état. Gustav Adolf was deposed and his uncle Charles XIII was elected King in his place. Because Charles XIII was childless, in 1810 the Riksdag of the Estates, the Swedish parliament, elected Prince Christian August of Augustenborg, from Denmark, as heir to the throne. He died later that same year.
At this time, Emperor Napoleon I of France controlled much of continental Europe, and some of his client kingdoms were headed by his brothers. The Riksdag decided to choose a king whom Napoleon would approve. On 21 August 1810, the Riksdag elected Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, a Marshal of France, as heir presumptive to the Swedish throne.
Bernadotte, born in the town of Pau, in the province
The House of Bruce was a Scottish Royal House in the 14th century. Two members of the house were kings of Scotland.
The House of Bruce originated in Normandy in the 11th century, where the family took its name from Bruis (present-day Brix). It was here that the earliest known member of the family, Adam de Brus, built a castle. His descendant, Robert de Brus, was a Norman knight who came to England with William the Conqueror and was granted lands in Yorkshire. His son, the second Robert de Brus (c.1078-1141), received from David I of Scotland the lordship of Annandale, in Scotland. He renounced his lordship of Annandale after supporting the English in the Battle of the Standard 1138, but it was later restored to his younger son, the 2nd Lord of Annandale.
His grandson, Robert, 4th Lord of Annandale, married in 1219 Isabella, the second daughter of David of Huntingdon and the great-granddaughter of David the 1st. This marriage provided the Bruces with an important link to the Scottish Royal House, and a future claim to the throne. The 5th Lord of Annandale, Robert the Bruce's grandfather, was named as heir-presumptive to the childless Alexander III, but never gained the throne as
The name of Tây Sơn is used in many ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the eras of the Later Lê and Nguyễn dynasties in the history of Vietnam between 1770 and 1802. The name Tây Sơn is used to refer to the leaders of this revolt (the Tây Sơn brothers), their uprising (the Tây Sơn Uprising) or their rule (the Tây Sơn Dynasty or Nguyễn Tây Sơn Dynasty).
During the 18th century, Vietnam was under the nominal rule of the officially-revered, but politically-ignored Lê Dynasty. Real power was in the hands of two warring feudal families, the Trịnh Lords of the north who controlled and ruled from the imperial court in Hanoi and the Nguyễn Lords in the south, who ruled from their capital Huế. Both sides fought each other for control of the nation, while claiming to be loyal to the king.
Life for the peasant farmers was difficult. Ownership of land became more concentrated in the hands of a few landlords as time passed. The Mandarin bureaucracy was oppressive and often corrupt; at one point, royal-sanctioned degrees were up for sale for whoever was wealthy enough to purchase them. In contrast to the people, the ruling lords
The Achaemenid Persian Empire ( /əˈkiːmənɪd/; Old Persian: Parsā, name of ruling dynasty: Haxāmanišiya, Persian: دودمان هخامنشي ) (c. 550–330 BCE), sometimes known as the First Persian Empire, was an Iranian empire in Western Asia, founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation. It expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world which at around 500 BCE stretched from the Indus Valley in the east, to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece, making it the biggest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenid Empire would eventually control Egypt as well. It was ruled by a series of monarchs who unified its disparate tribes and nationalities by constructing a complex network of roads.
Calling themselves the Pars after their original Aryan tribal name Parsa, Persians settled in a land which they named Parsua (Persis in Greek), bounded on the west by the Tigris River and on the south by the Persian Gulf. This became their heartland for the duration of the Achaemenid Empire. It was from this region that eventually Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II of Persia) would advance to defeat the Median, the Lydian,and
The Artquids or Artuqid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Artuklu Beyliği, sometimes also spelled as Artukid, Ortoqid or Ortokid; Turkish plural: Artukoğulları) was a Turkmen dynasty that ruled in Eastern Anatolia, Northern Syria and Northern Iraq in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Two main branches of the dynasty ruled from Hasankeyf (Hısn-ı Keyf, Hısnkeyfa) between 1102–1231 and Mardin between 1106–1186 (and until 1409 as vassals). There was also a third branch that acquired Harput in 1112 and was independent between 1185–1233.
The dynasty was founded by Artuq, son of Eksük, a general originally under Malik Shah I and then under the Seljuq emir of Damascus, Tutush I. Tutush appointed Artuq governor of Jerusalem in 1086. Artuq died in 1091, and his sons Sokman and Ilghazi were expelled from Jerusalem by the Fatimid vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah in 1098; the Fatimids lost the city to the crusaders the following year.
Sokman and Ilghazi set themselves up in Diyarbakır, Mardin, and Hasankeyf in the Jezirah, where they came into conflict with the sultanate of Great Seljuq. Sokman, bey of Mardin, defeated the crusaders at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Ilghazi succeeded Sokman in Mardin and
The Chen Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 陈朝; traditional Chinese: 陳朝; pinyin: Chén cháo) (557-589), also known as the Southern Chen Dynasty, was the fourth and last of the Southern dynasties in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui Dynasty.
When the dynasty was founded by Emperor Wu, it was exceedingly weak, possessing only a small portion of the territory once held by its predecessor Liang Dynasty -- and that portion was devastated by wars that had doomed Liang. However, Emperor Wu's successors Emperor Wen and Emperor Xuan were capable rulers, and the state gradually solidified and strengthened, becoming roughly equal in power to rivals Northern Zhou and Northern Qi. After Northern Zhou destroyed Northern Qi in 577, Chen was cornered. To make matters worse, its final emperor Chen Shubao was an incompetent and indulgent ruler, and Chen was eventually destroyed by Northern Zhou's successor state Sui.
The Ikhshidid dynasty of Egypt (sometimes transliterated other ways) ruled from 935 to 969. The dynasty carried the Arabic title "Wali" reflecting their position as governors on behalf of the Abbasids, the first governor was Muhammad bin Tughj Al-Ikhshid, a Turkic slave soldier, who was installed by the Abbasid Caliph and gave him and his descendants the Wilayah for 30 years, the last name Ikhshid is Soghdian for "prince" also given as title by the Caliph. The dynasty came to an end when the Fatimid army conquered Fustat in 969.
Only gold coins are common, with coppers being extremely rare. Dinars were mainly struck at Misr (Fustat) and Filastin (al-Ramla), and dirhams were usually struck at Filastin, and less often at Tabariya, Dimashq, and Hims. Other mints for dirhams are quite rare. Dinars from Misr are often well struck, while the Filastin dinars are more crude. Dirhams are usually crudely struck and often are illegible on half of the coin.
The Justinian Dynasty is a family who ruled over the Byzantine Empire from 518 to 602. It originated with Justin I and ended with Maurice. Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople (term c. 715 - 730), whose father was named Justinian, might have been a descendant of the dynasty. The names Justinian and Germanus were common among dynasty members.
The Second Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty II) is often combined with Dynasty I under the group title Early Dynastic Period. It dates approximately from 2890 to 2686 BC. The capital at that time was Thinis.
The names of the actual rulers of the Second Dynasty are in dispute. For the first five pharaohs, the sources are fairly close in agreement. Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for this dynasty are as follows:
However, the identity of the next two or three rulers is unclear: we may have both the Horus-name or Nebty (meaning two ladies) -name and their birth names for these rulers; they may be entirely different individuals; or they may be legendary names. On the left are the rulers most Egyptologists place here; on the right are the names that ultimately come from Manetho's Aegyptica:
With the last ruler, we return to an agreement:
Although Manetho states the capital was at Thinis, the same as during the First Dynasty, at least the first three kings were buried at Saqqara, suggesting the center of power had moved to Memphis. Beyond this, little can be said about the events during this period; the annual records on the Palermo stone only survive for the end of the
The Third Dynasty of Ur, also known as the Neo-Sumerian Empire or the Ur III Empire refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology timeline) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. The Third Dynasty of Ur is commonly abbreviated as Ur III by historians of the period.
The Third Dynasty of Ur came to preeminent power in Mesopotamia after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings. It controlled the cities of Isin, Larsa and Eshnunna and extended as far north as the Jazira.
The Third Dynasty of Ur arose some time after the fall of the Akkad Dynasty. The period between the last powerful king of the Akkad Dynasty, Shar-kali-sharri, and the first king of Ur III, Ur-Nammu, is not well documented, but most Assyriologists posit that there was a brief "dark ages", followed by a power struggle among the most powerful city-states. On the king-lists, Shar-kali-shari is followed by two more kings of Akkad and six in Uruk, however there are no year-names surviving for any of these, nor even any artifacts confirming any of these reigns were historical — save one artifact
The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان), self-designated Gurkānī (Persian: گوركانى), was a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage which ruled over the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, modern Central Asia, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the Caucasus. It was founded by the militant conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) in the 14th century.
The Timurids lost control of most of Persia to the Safavid dynasty in 1501, but members of the dynasty continued to rule parts of Central Asia, sometimes known as the Timurid Emirates. In the 16th century, the Timurid prince Babur, ruler of Ferghana, invaded present-day Pakistan and North India and founded the Mughal Empire. This came to rule most of North India until its decline after Aurangzeb in the early 18th century, and was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian rebellion of 1857. Later princes of the dynasty predominantly used the title Mirza to show descent from the Amir.
The origin of the Timurid dynasty goes back to the Mongol tribe known as Barlas, who were remnants of the original Mongol army of Genghis Khan. After the Mongol conquest of Central Asia,
Monarchs from this line:Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur
The Wadiyar dynasty was an Indian Hindu dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947, until the independence of India from British rule and the subsequent unification of the Indian dominion and princely states into the Republic of India. The word is pronounced to start with a vowel sound and not with a consonant. Odeyar in Kannada means the king or the owner.
The dynasty was established by Vijaya. Vijaya took on the name and ruled Mysore, then a small town, from 1399 CE to 1423 CE. The Mysore kingdom was ruled by a succession of Wadiyar rulers for the next couple of centuries. However, the kingdom remained fairly small during this early period and was a part of the Vijayanagara Empire. Later, after the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, the Kingdom of Mysore became independent and remained so until 1799. The Kingdom of Mysore came under the British during the reign of King Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (1799–1868). His successors changed the English spelling of their royal name to Wadiyar, and took the title of Bahadur. The last two monarchs also accepted the British decoration G.B.E.
The Vijayanagara Empire disintegrated in 1565. The power vacuum created soon after
The Zengid (or Zangid) dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of Syria and northern Iraq on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.
The dynasty was founded by Imad ad-Din Zengi (or Zangi), who became the Seljuk Atabeg (governor) of Mosul in 1127. He quickly became the chief Turkish potentate in Northern Syria and Iraq, taking Aleppo from the squabbling Ortoqid emirs in 1128, and capturing the County of Edessa from the Crusaders in 1144. This latter feat made Zengi a hero in the Muslim world, but he was assassinated by a slave two years later, in 1146.
On Zengi's death, his territories were divided, with Mosul and his lands in Iraq going to his eldest son Saif ad-Din Ghazi I, and Aleppo and Edessa falling to his second son, Nur ad-Din Mahmud. Nur ad-Din proved to be as competent as his father. In 1149 he defeated Prince Raymond of Antioch at the battle of Inab, and the next year conquered the remnants of the County of Edessa west of the Euphrates River. In 1154 he capped off these successes by his capture of Damascus from the Burid Emirs who ruled it.
Now ruling from Damascus, Nur ad-Din's success continued. Another Prince of Antioch, Raynald of Châtillon was
Monarchs from this line:Saeed bin Maktoum Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum (آلمكتوم in Arabic) is the family name of the ruling dynasty of the emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The Al Maktoum family is a branch of the Bani Yas tribe (a lineage the family shares with the Al Nahyan dynasty of Abu Dhabi), a powerful bedouin clan from the interior. The Al Maktoum family descends from the Al Bu Falasah (now known as Al-Falasi) section of the Bani Yas, a tribal federation that was the dominant power throughout most of what is now the United Arab Emirates. In 1833, about 800 members of the Bani Yas tribe, under the leadership of Maktoum bin Butti, took over the emirate of Dubai and established the Al Maktoum dynasty in the emirate.
The Al Maktoum dynasty has ruled Dubai since 1833. Within the federation of the United Arab Emirates, the ruler of Dubai is also the country's Vice President and Prime Minister. The following Al Maktoum members have ruled over Dubai:
The Goryeo Dynasty or Koryŏ (Hangul: 고려; Hanja: 高麗; 918–1392) was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by Emperor Taejo. This kingdom later gave name to the modern state of Korea. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean peninsula until it was removed by the leader of the Joseon dynasty in 1392. Goryeo expanded its borders to present-day Wonsan in the north-east (936–943) and the Amnok River (993) and finally almost the whole of the Korean peninsula (1374).
Two of this period's most notable products are Goryeo celadon pottery and the Tripitaka Koreana — the Buddhist scriptures (Tripitaka) carved onto roughly 80,000 woodblocks and stored, and still in, Haeinsa. Goryeo also created the world's first metal-based movable type in 1234 and the oldest surviving movable metal type book, the Jikji, was made in 1377.
In 668, Silla conquered Baekje and Goguryeo with alliance of Tang Dynasty, but by the late 9th century it was tottering, its monarchs being unimaginative and pressed by the power of powerful statesmen. Many robbers and outlaws agitated and in 900 Gyeon Hwon revolted from Silla control in the Jeolla region as Hubaekje and next year Gung Ye revolted
The House of Bourbon-Parma (Italian: Casa di Borbone di Parma) is an Italian cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. It is thus descended from the Capetian dynasty in male line. The name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Parma) from the title of Duke of Parma. The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons as the founder was the great-grandson of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma.
The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parma. In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza.
The Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, at which point the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Charles, whose mother Elisabeth was a member of the Farnese family. He ruled until the end of the War of the Polish Succession in 1735, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies.
The Habsburgs only ruled
The Mạc dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Mạc; Hán Việt: 莫朝, Mạc Triều), ruled the northern provinces of Vietnam from 1527 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Hanoi for the last time. Later Mạc representatives ruled over the province of Cao Bằng (with the direct support of the Chinese Qing dynasty) until 1677.
The founder of the Mạc Dynasty was a man who was related to a famous Trần Dynasty Confucian scholar named Mạc Đĩnh Chi. Unlike his ancestor, Mạc Đăng Dung chose to enter the military and ascended the ranks to become the senior general in the Vietnamese army. Later he seized power in a coup d'état and ruled Vietnam from 1527 till his death in 1541. Officially he resigned his position as Emperor in favor of his son but the reality was, he continued to rule. (Vietnam: The Revolutionary Path by Thomas Hodgkin, 1981).
Mạc Đăng Dung, famed for his strength and cunning, got his start as a bodyguard for the cruel and reviled Lê Emperor – Lê Uy Mục (around 1506). Over time, despite the deaths of several emperors, Mạc Đăng Dung increased his power and gained many supporters. However, he also gained the enmity of other rivals for power.
Around 1520, a civil war started. This war
The Protodynastic Period of Egypt (generally dated 3200 BC to 3000 BC) refers to the period at the very end of the Predynastic Period. It is equivalent to the archaeological phase known as Naqada III. It is also known as the Late Predynastic Period or Dynasty 0.
The Protodynastic Period in ancient Egypt was characterised by an ongoing process of political unification, culminating in the formation of a single state to begin the Early Dynastic Period. Furthermore, it is during this time that the Egyptian language was first recorded in hieroglyphs. There is also strong archaeological evidence of Egyptian settlements in southern Kanaan during the Protodynastic Period, which are regarded as colonies or trading entrepôts.
State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest then reduced Upper Egypt to three major states: Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen. Sandwiched between Thinis and Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain, but these two states may have merged peacefully, with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite
Slave Dynasty 1206 - 1286
In 1206, Muhammad of Ghor died. He had no child, so after his death, his kingdom was divided into many parts by his slaves. Taj-ud-Din Yildoz became the ruler of Ghazni. Mohammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji got Bengal. Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became the king of Multan. Qutub-ud-din-Aybak became the king of Delhi, and that was the start of the Slave dynasty.
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. Three of its members became Kings of England in the late 15th century. The House of York was descended in the male line from Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, but also represented Edward's senior line, being cognatic descendants of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Edward III's second surviving son. It is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown. Compared with the House of Lancaster, it had a senior claim to the throne of England according to cognatic primogeniture but junior claim according to the agnatic primogeniture.
Edmund of Langley had two sons, Edward, and Richard of Conisburgh. Edward succeeded to the dukedom in 1402, but was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415, with no issue. His younger brother married Anne de Mortimer, a great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of Edward III. Anne was also heiress to the earldom of March, following the death of her brother Edmund, 5th Earl in 1425. Edmund Mortimer was the son of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, who had been named heir presumptive of Richard II, prior to the
The Nanda Empire originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. At its greatest extent, the Nanda Empire extended from Bengal in the east, to Punjab in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range. The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Maurya Empire.
Mahapadma Nanda, who has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas", defeated the Panchalas, Kasis, Haihayas, Kalingas, Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few .. He expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains. Mahapadma Nanda, who died at the age of 88, was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 of the dynasty's 100 years. The Nandas who usurped the throne of the Shishunaga dynasty were thought to be of low origin with some sources stating that the dynasty's founder, Mahapadma, was the son of a Shudra .
The Nandas are sometimes described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000
The Shang Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: shāng cháo) or Yin Dynasty (殷代; pinyin: yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia Dynasty and followed by the Zhou Dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Classic of History, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled between 1766 BC and 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the Bamboo Annals, they ruled between 1556 BC and 1046 BC. The results of the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project place them between 1600 BC and 1046 BC.
Archaeological work at the Ruins of Yin (near modern day Anyang), which has been identified as the last Shang capital, uncovered eleven major Yin royal tombs and the foundations of palaces and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains from both animal and human sacrifices. Tens of thousands of bronze, jade, stone, bone, and ceramic artifacts have been obtained. The workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization.
A few bronze artifacts featured inscriptions, but
The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak) ruled Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy finally ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. During this era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, and Russia in the north. There were also many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan Wars and the 1929 civil war.
Bārakzai (Pashto: بارکزی barakzay, plur. BĀRAKZĪ; Urdu: برکزئی) is a common ethnic name among the Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan, meaning "son of Barak" in the Pashto language. Barakzai may also be the name of a Baloch tribe in Iran. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zīrak branch of the Abdal Tareen, Bor Tareen, Tareen. The Durrani is being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people.
Another source prevails the unfolded truth of the Barakzai in which the name Barak (English pronunciation: /ˈbɛəræk/ or /ˈbɛərək/; Hebrew: בָּרָק, Tiberian: Bārāq, "Lightning;
The Capetian dynasty ( /kəˈpiːʃⁱən/), also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. In contemporary times, both King Juan Carlos of Spain and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg are members of this family, both through the Bourbon branch of the dynasty.
The name of the dynasty derives from its founder, Hugh, who was known as "Hugh Capet". The meaning of "Capet" (a nickname rather than a surname of the modern sort) is unknown. While folk etymology identifies it with "cape", other suggestions suggest it to be connected to the Latin word caput ("head"), and thus explain it as meaning "chief" or "big head".
Historians came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice. The name "Capet" has also been used as a surname for French royals, particularly but not exclusively those of the House of Capet. One notable use was during the French Revolution, when the dethroned King Louis XVI (a member of the House of Bourbon and a direct male-line descendant of Hugh Capet) and
The Macedonian dynasty ruled the Byzantine Empire from 867 to 1056, following the Amorian dynasty. During this period, the Byzantine state reached its greatest expanse since the Muslim conquests, and the Macedonian Renaissance in letters and arts began. The dynasty was named after its founder, Basil I the Macedonian, who came from the theme of Macedonia. The dynasty's founder and many subsequent emperors were of Armenian descent, hence the dynasty is also referred to by some authors as the Armenian Dynasty.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. It began with the semi-legendary Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright). The first historical ruler was Prince Mieszko I (tenth century). The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir the Great. Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia and in the duchies of Silesia after 1370, until the last male Silesian Piast died in 1675. The Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire.
Although the early dukes and kings of Poland regarded themselves as descendants of Piast, the term "Piast Dynasty" originated in the 17th century.
Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright), the legendary founder of the Piast dynasty, is first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum (Chronicles and deeds of the dukes or princes of the Poles) of Gallus Anonymus, written c. 1113. The last ruling Piast George William of Brzeg and Legnica died in 1675, although numerous families link their genealogy to the Piasts. His son August of Legnica, the last legitimate male Silesian Piast, died in
The Sixth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty VI) is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and V under the group title the Old Kingdom.
Known pharaohs of the Sixth Dynasty are as follows (the absolute dates given are suggestions rather than facts, as the error margin amounts to tens of years) The pharaohs of this dynasty ruled for approximately 164 years. The Horus names and names of the Queens are taken from Dodson and Hilton.
Dynasty VI is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt includes Dynasties VII and VIII as part of the Old Kingdom. Manetho writes that these kings ruled from Memphis, since their pyramids were built at Saqqara, very close one to another.
Dynasty VI was founded by Teti, who had married Iput, commonly believed to be the daughter of the Dynasty V pharaoh Unas. Manetho claimed that Teti was eventually murdered by his own bodyguard, but no contemporary sources confirm this.
During this dynasty, expeditions were sent to Wadi Maghara in the Sinai Peninsula to mine for turquoise and copper, as well as to the mines at Hatnub and Wadi Hammamat. The pharaoh Djedkara sent trade expeditions
The Ziyarids, also spelled Zeyarids (Persian: زیاریان or آل زیار) were an Iranian Dailamite dynasty that ruled in the Caspian sea provinces of Gorgan and Mazandaran from 928-1043 (also known as Tabarestan). The founder of the dynasty was Mardavij (from 927 to 935), who took advantage of a rebellion in the Samanid army of Iran to seize power in northern Iran. He soon expanded his domains and captured the cities of Hamadan and Isfahan.
Perhaps among the more interesting things from this era is that we know that Abu Rayhan Biruni, the great scientist of the Middle Ages, was supported by Qabus, the ruler of the Ziyarid state, in 1000 in Gorgan. In fact he dedicated his work Chronology to Qabus around 1000 and observed eclipses of the moon from there.
Another feature is the tower Gonbad e Ghaboos built during this era. The tomb is one of the earliest architectural monuments with a dated inscription surviving in post-Islamic Iran. The tomb, built of fired brick, is an enormous cylinder capped by a conical roof. The circular plan, broken by 10 flanges, is 17 m in diameter, and the walls are 5.2 , thick. The height from base to tip is 49 m. Legend has it, that the body of Qabus was
The Tahirid dynasty (Persian: سلسله طاهریان) was a Persian dynasty that governed the Abbasid province of Khorasan from 821 to 873, and the city of Baghdad from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn, a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv, but later moved to Nishapur. The Tahirids enjoyed a high degree of autonomy in their governance of Khorasan, although they remained subject to the Abbasid caliphate and were not independent rulers.
The founder of the Tahirid dynasty was Tahir ibn Husayn, a general who had played a major role in the civil war between the rival caliphs al-Amin and al-Ma'mun. He and his ancestors had previously been awarded minor governorships in eastern Khorasan for their service to the Abbasids. In 821, Tahir was made governor of Khorasan, but he died soon afterwards. The caliph then appointed Tahir's son, Talha, whose governorship lasted from 822–828. Tahir's other son, Abdullah, was instated as the wali of Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, and when Talha died in 828 he was given the governorship of Khorasan. Abdullah is considered one of the greatest of the
Komnenós or Comnenus (Greek Κομνηνός, plural Κομνηνοί, pronounced /komniní/) was the name of a ruling family of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), who halted the political decline of the Empire from c.1081 to c.1185.
Manuel Erotikos Komnenos is the first member of the family to achieve public prominence. He was the strategos autokrator of the East under Emperor Basil II Manuel originated in Thrace and was possibly of Vlach ancestry, though other ethnic origins have been suggested. It is said that the family name was derived from the city of Komne, near Philippopolis in Thrace, where they were landowners, and that they were of Armenian ancestry, which is possibly supported by the use of the name Manuel instead of Emmanouel. Manuel came to the notice of Basil II because of his defence, in 978, of Nicaea against the rebel Bardas Skleros. In recognition of Manuel's loyalty Basil gave him lands near Kastamuni in Paphlagonia. Manuel was the father of Isaac I Komnenos and grandfather of Alexios I Komnenos.
The Komnenos dynasty of Byzantine emperors was founded by Isaac I Komnenos, a Stratopedarch of the East under Michael VI. In 1057 Isaac led a coup against Michael and was
The House of Hohenstaufen, also known as the Swabian dynasty or the Staufer, was a dynasty of German monarchs in the High Middle Ages, reigning from 1138 to 1254. Three members of the dynasty were crowned Holy Roman Emperors. In 1194, the Hohenstaufens were granted the Kingdom of Sicily. The terms Hofenstaufen and Staufen also identified the family's Hohenstaufen Castle in Swabia, located on an eponymous mountain near Göppingen. This second castle was built by the first known member of the dynasty, Duke Frederick I.
In 1079, the Salian king Henry IV of Germany appointed Count Frederick I at Hohenstaufen Castle as Duke of Swabia. At the same time, Frederick was engaged to the king's approximately seven-year old daughter, Agnes. Nothing is known about Frederick's life before this event, but he proved to be Imperial ally throughout Henry's struggles against other Swabian lords, namely Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Frederick's predecessor, and the Zähringen and Welf lords. Frederick's brother Otto was elevated to the Strasbourg bishopric in 1082.
Upon Frederick's death, he was succeeded by his son, Duke Frederick II, in 1105. Frederick II remained a close ally of the Salians, he and his
The Saffarids (Persian: سلسله صفاریان) were a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, Khorasan, Afghanistan and Balochistan from 861 to 1002. The dynasty, of Persian origin, was founded by Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, a native of Sistan and a local ayyar, who worked as a coppersmith (ṣaffār) before becoming a warlord. He seized control of the Sistan region and began conquering most of what is now Afghanistan in the name of Islam.
The Saffarids used their capital Zaranj, which is a city in modern-day Afghanistan, as a base for an aggressive expansion eastwards and westwards. They first invaded the Buddhist-Hindu dominated areas south of the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and then overthrew the Persian Tahirid dynasty, annexing Khorasan in 873. By the time of Ya'qub's death, he had conquered the Kabul Valley, Sindh, Tocharistan, Makran (Balochistan), Kerman, Fars, Khorasan, and nearly reached Baghdad but then suffered a defeat by the Abbasids.
The Saffarid empire did not last long after Ya'qub's death. His brother and successor, Amr bin Laith, was defeated in a battle in Balkh against Ismail Samani in 900. Amr bin Laith was forced to surrender most of
The Theodosian dynasty was a Roman family that rose to eminence in the waning days of the Roman Empire.
Its founding father was Flavius Theodosius (often referred to as Count Theodosius), a great general who had saved Britannia from the Great Conspiracy. His son, Flavius Theodosius was made emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 379, and briefly reunited the Roman Empire 394-395 by defeating the usurper Eugenius. Theodosius I was succeeded by his sons Honorius in the West and Arcadius in the East. The House of Theodosius was related to the Valentinian Dynasty by marriage, since Theodosius I had married Galla, a daughter of Valentinian I. Their daughter was Galla Placidia. The last emperor in the West belonging to the dynasty was Galla Placidia's son Valentinian III. The last emperor of the dynasty in the East was Marcian, who became emperor by marrying Pulcheria, the older sister of Theodosius II, after the death of the latter. Later on a granddaughter of Valentinian III was married to Olybrius and Anthemius was a son-in-law of Marcian. Descendants of the dynasty continued to be part of the East Roman nobility at Constantinople until the end of the 6th century.
In italics the
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt.
The 25th dynasty was a line of rulers originating in the Nubian Kingdom of Kush and most saw Napata as their spiritual homeland. They reigned in part or all of Ancient Egypt from 760 BC to 656 BC. The dynasty began with Kashta's invasion of Upper Egypt and culminated in several years of war with the Assyrians which was to result in the destruction of the Kushite Empire. The 25th's reunification of Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, and also Kush (Nubia) created the largest Egyptian empire since the New Kingdom. They ushered in an age of renaissance by reaffirming Ancient Egyptian religious traditions, temples, and artistic forms, while introducing some unique aspects of Kushite culture. It was during the 25th dynasty that the Nile valley saw the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in modern Sudan) since the Middle Kingdom. After Assyrian kings Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal invaded Egypt and defeated and drove out the Nubians, they were succeeded by the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the last native dynasty to rule Egypt
Monarchs from this line:Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom(s) ruled:Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. It is thus descended from the Capetian dynasty in male line. The name of Bourbon-Two Sicilies comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Two Sicilies) from the title King of the Two Sicilies, itself a merger of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples.
Succeeded by:House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
The House of Braganza (Portuguese:Casa de Bragança; Portuguese pronunciation: [bɾɐˈɣɐ̃sɐ]), officially the Most Serene House of Braganza (Portuguese: Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), is an important Portuguese noble house that later became the royal house of the Kingdom of Portugal and its colonial empire, from 1640 to 1910. In 1822 a branch of the house proclaimed independence of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, founding and ruling the Empire of Brazil from 1822 to 1889, as the Brazilian Imperial Family.
The House of Braganza forms a collateral line of the House of Aviz, which ruled Portugal from 1385 until 1580. The House of Aviz was itself a branch of the Portuguese House of Burgundy (also called Afonsine Royal House), and thus of the House of Burgundy. The Afonsine Royal House founded Portugal in 1139, when it proclaimed independence of the County of Portugal from the Kingdom of León. The Afonsine Royal House ruled until 1385, when the House of Aviz succeeded the throne, as result of the 1383-1385 Succession Crisis.
In 1853, Queen Dona Maria II of Portugal married Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The royal house continued to be called House of Braganza, though their
The House of Lippe is a German Royal House. The House of Lippe descends from Count Jobst Hermann of Lippe (died ca. 1056) whose son Bernhard I was the founder of the state of Lippe in 1123.
In 1613, the House's territory was split into Lippe-Detmold, Lippe-Brake and Lippe-Alverdissen. In 1643 Count Philipp of Lippe-Alverdissen founded the Schaumburg-Lippe line of the House of Lippe. In 1905 with the death of Prince Alexander the senior Lippe-Detmold branch of the family became extinct with Count Leopold of Lippe-Biesterfeld succeeding him as Prince.
With the German Revolution of 1918, the Princes of Lippe and Schaumburg-Lippe were forced to abdicate, ending the family's 795-year rule in Lippe. In 1937, Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld married Princess Juliana of the Netherlands. With the ascension of their daughter Beatrix in 1980, the name of the Royal House remained known as the House of Orange-Nassau, although Beatrix and her sisters are agnatically members of the house of Lippe.
The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.
By this point it had splintered into several different houses. The Royal House of Sweden was represented by the branch Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Kleeburg.
The ancestor of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken was Stefan, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken (1385–1459), a son of King Rupert of Germany.
Some cadet branches are:
Mountbatten is the family name originally adopted by a branch of the Battenberg family during World War I because of rising anti-German sentiment among the British public. On 14 July 1917, Prince Louis of Battenberg ("Prince Louis I") assumed the surname Mountbatten (having rejected an alternative translation, "Battenhill") for himself and his descendants and was created Marquess of Milford Haven. The name is an Anglicisation of the German Battenberg, a small town in Hesse. The title of count of Battenberg, later prince of Battenberg, was granted to a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt in the mid 19th century.
Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, the consort of now-Queen Elizabeth II, adopted the surname of Mountbatten from his mother's family in 1947, although he is a member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg by patrilineal descent.
The current head of the Mountbatten family is the great-grandson of Prince Louis I, George Mountbatten, 4th Marquess of Milford Haven, who was born in London on 6 June 1961. He has a son named Henry, born in 1991.
The sons of Princess Beatrice and Louis's brother, Prince Henry of Battenberg — Prince Alexander and
Poniatowski (plural: Poniatowscy) is an aristocratic (szlachta) family in Poland. Because Polish adjectives have different forms for the genders, Poniatowska is the same name for a female family member.
In 1764-95 their member was King.
The Poniatowski family became most prominent in the late 18th century and 19th century. In three generations the Poniatowski family rose from the rank of gentry to that of senator and then to royalty.
The first information about the family dates back to the end of the 15th century, when they appeared in Poniatowa, 40 km west from Lublin in about 1446. Their family name derives from that place name. Poniatowa was the residence of several branches of the Poniatowski family: Tłuk, Jarasz and Ciołek.
According to family's history, the family had ties with the Italian nobility: Giuseppe Salinguerra, a member of the Italian family of Torelli, settled in Poland about the middle of the 17th century, and there assumed the name of Poniatowski from the estate of Poniatow, belonging to his wife, who was the daughter of Albert Poniatowski and Anna Leszczyńska. Modern historians however consider this story dubious, particularly as around the 18th century it was
The Qutb Shahi dynasty (Urdu: سلطنت قطب شاهی) was a Turkman Muslim dynasty of Kara Koyunlu origin that embraced Persianate culture. Its members were collectively called the Qutub Shahis and were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda in modern-day Andhra Pradesh, India. They were Shia Muslims and as the kingdom was not heavily militarized, Golkonda tried to stay neutral and avoided any war scenario.
The dynasty's founder, Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, migrated to Delhi with his uncle, Allah-Quli, some of his relatives and friends in the beginning of the 16th century. Later he migrated south, to the Deccan and served the Bahmani sultan, Mohammad Shah. He conquered Golconda, after the disintegration of the Bahmani Kingdom into the five Deccan sultanates. Soon after, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate, took the title Qutub Shah, and thus established the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda. Though the state was Islamic, some Hindus did rise to prominence in the Qutb Shahi state, the most important example being the ministers Madanna and Akkanna. The dynasty ruled Golconda for 171 years, until the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Deccan in 1687.
The Qutub Shahi
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. The dynasty was founded by the Roman general Septimius Severus, who rose to power as the victor of the civil war through 193, known as the Year of the Five Emperors.
Although Septimius Severus successfully restored peace following the upheaval of the late 2nd century, the dynasty was disturbed by highly unstable family relationships, and constant political turmoil, foreshadowing the imminent Crisis of the Third Century. It was the last lineage of the Principate founded by Augustus.
Lucius Septimius Severus was born to a family of equestrian rank in the Roman province of Africa proconsularis. He rose through military service to consular rank under the later Antonines. Proclaimed emperor in 193 by his legionaries in Noricum during the political unrest that followed the death of Commodus, he secured sole rule over the empire in 197 after defeating his last rival, Clodius Albinus, at the Battle of Lugdunum.
Severus fought a successful war against the Parthians and campaigned with success against barbarian incursions in Roman Britain, rebuilding Hadrian's Wall. In Rome, his relations with
Las Bela was a princely state in British India (later Pakistan) which existed until 1955. The state occupied an area of 18,254 km (7,048 sq mi) in the extreme southeast of the Balochistan province with an extensive coastline on the Arabian Sea to the south. Las Bela was bordered by the princely states of Kalat and Makran to the north and west. To the east lay the province of Sind and to the southeast lay the Federal Capital Territory around the city of Karachi.
The State of Las Bela was founded in 1742 by Ali Khan I. His descendants ruled Las Bela until 1955 when the state became part of West Pakistan. For a period of three years between 3 October 1952 and 14 October 1955, Las Bela was part of the Baluchistan States Union but retained internal autonomy. In 1955, Las Bela was incorporated into the new province of West Pakistan and became part of Kalat division. In 1962, the area of Las Bela was detached from Kalat division and merged with the former Federal Capital Territory to form the division of Karachi-Bela. When the provincial system was changed in 1970, Las Bela became part of the new province of Balochistan.
The main ethnic groups in Las Bela are Baloch and Sindhis. The
For the Sumerian Renaissance, see Third Dynasty of Ur.
The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Other dynasties of the Old Kingdom include the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth. The capital during the period of the Old Kingdom was at Memphis.
After the turbulent last years of the Second Dynasty which may have included civil war, Egypt came under the rule of Djoser and this marks the beginning of the Third Dynasty. Both the Turin King List and the Abydos King List record five kings, while the Saqqara Tablet only records four.
The archaeological evidence shows that Khasekhemwy, the last ruler of the Second Dynasty, was succeeded by Djoser, who is usually attested by his Horus name Netjeriket. Djoser’s successor was Sekhemkhet who had the nebty name Djeserty. The last king of the dynasty is Huni. There are three remaining Horus names of known 3rd dynasty kings: Sanakht, Kaba and Qahedjet. One of these three went by the nebty name Nebka.
Dating the Third Dynasty is similarly challenging. Shaw gives the dates as being approximately from 2686 to 2613 BC. The Turin King List suggests a total of 75 years for the third dynasty. Baines and Malek have placed the third
Monarchs from this line:Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan
The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝, p Yuán Cháo; Mongolian: Их Юань улс) was the empire established by Kublai Khan, the leader of Mongolian Borjigin clan, after Mongol conquered Jin and Southern Song Dynasty in China. Although the Mongols had ruled territories, which included today's northern China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style. His realm – the Great Yuan Empire (t 大元帝國, s 大元帝国, p Dà Yuán Dìguó) – was by this point isolated from the other khanates and controlled only most of present-day China and its surrounding areas including modern Mongolia. It was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368, after which its remnants in Mongolia were known as the Northern Yuan.
The Yuan is considered both a successor to the Mongol Empire and as an imperial Chinese dynasty. In official Chinese histories, the Yuan Dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven, following the Song Dynasty and preceding the Ming Dynasty. Although the dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu.
In addition to
The Chogyal (Tibetan: ཆོས་རྒྱལ, Wylie: chos rgyal) were the monarchs of the former kingdoms of Sikkim and Ladakh, which were ruled by separate branches of the Namgyal family. The Chogyal, or divine ruler, was the absolute potentate of Sikkim from 1642 to 1975, when monarchy was abrogated and its people voted to make Sikkim India's 22nd state.
However, Chogyal meaning "Dharma Raja" or "Religious King" is a title which was also conferred upon a special class of temporal and spiritual rulers.
In Bhutan the Chogyal were also known as the Dharmaraja, or Kings of Dharma, and Shabdrung. In this context, the Chogyal was a recognized reincarnation (or succession of reincarnations) of Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, the 17th Century Tibetan-born founder of Bhutan. A position of supreme importance, the Bhutanese Chogyal was above both the highest monastic authority, the Je Khenpo, and the highest temporal ruler, the Deb Raja or Druk Desi. The Tibetan Dzogchen teacher Namkhai Norbu holds this title as a recognized reincarnation of Ngawang Namgyel, and there is also a line of claimed reincarnations in Bhutan and India. The remainder of this article deals with the Chogyal of Sikkim. For Bhutan, see
The Hamdanid dynasty (Arabic: حمدانيون Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004). They descended from the ancient Banu Taghlib Christian tribe of Mesopotamia and east Arabia. The Hamdanid dynasty was founded by Hamdan ibn Hamdun (after whom it is named), when he was appointed governor of Mardin in SE Anatolia by the Abbasid Caliphs in 890.
His son Abdallah (904-929) was in turn appointed governor of Mosul in northern Iraq (906) and even governed Baghdad (914). His sons were installed as governors in Mosul and Aleppo.
The rule of Hassan Nasir ad-Daula (929-968), governor of Mosul and Diyarbakır, was sufficiently tyrannical to cause him to be deposed by his own family.
His lineage still ruled in Mossul, a heavy defeat by the Buyids in 979 notwithstanding, until 990. After this, their area of control in northern Iraq was divided between the Uqailids and the Marwanids.
Ali Saif al-Daula 'Sword of the State' ruled (945-967) Northern Syria from Aleppo, and became the most important opponent of the Byzantine Empire's (Christian) expansion. His court was a centre of culture, thanks to its nurturing of Arabic literature, but it lost this
The Hồ dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hồ; Hán Việt: 胡 朝, Hồ Triều) in Vietnam was a short-lived seven-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400 and his second son, Hồ Hán Thương, who reigned from 1400 to 1407. The practice of bequeathing the throne to a designated son (not simply passing it on to the eldest) was similar to what had happened in the previous Trần Dynasty and was meant to avoid sibling rivalry. Hồ Quý Ly's eldest son, Hồ Nguyên Trừng, played his part as the dynasty's military general.
The appearance of the Hồ family name, origin and background can be traced back to 9th century Zhejiang, which was then in the midst of the Five Dynasties struggle. From Zhejiang, the family migrated south until they established themselves in Nam Viet (Vietnam). Hồ Liêm, Hồ Quý Ly's great-great-grandfather, moved further south and settled in the province of Thanh Hóa (about 100 km south of the modern city of Hanoi). Some historians bring attention to the fact that Hồ Quý Ly (胡 季 犛) is also known as Lê Quý Ly (黎 季 犛). In his childhood, Hồ Quý Ly was adopted by Lê Huan after whom he took the family name. He did not change this Lê last name to Hồ until after he had deposed the last king of the
Monarchs from this line:Rainier III, Prince of Monaco
The House of Grimaldi is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa, Italy and of the Principality of Monaco.
Grimaldi descends from Grimaldo, a Genoese statesman at the time of the early Crusades. He might have been a son of Otto Canella, a consul of the Republic of Genoa in 1133, and in turn Grimaldo became a consul in 1160, 1170 and again in 1184. His numerous grandsons and their children led maritime expeditions throughout the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and soon the North Sea, and quickly became one of the most powerful families of Genoa.
The Grimaldis feared that the head of a rival Genoese family could break the fragile balance of power in a political coup and become lord of Genoa, as had happened in other Italian cities. They entered into a Guelphic alliance with the Fieschi family and defended their interests with the sword. The Guelfs however were banned from the City in 1271, and found refuge in their castles of Liguria and in Provence. They signed a treaty with Charles of Anjou, King of Naples and Count of Provence, to retake control of Genoa, and generally to provide mutual assistance. In 1276, they accepted a peace under the auspices of the Pope, which
The House of Vasa (Swedish: Vasaätten, Polish: Wazowie) was the Royal House of Sweden 1523-1654 and of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587-1668. It originated from a noble family in Uppland of which several members held high office during the 15th century.
In 1654 Christina, the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, the Protestant Champion of the Thirty Years' War, abdicated, converted to Roman Catholicism and left the country. The throne passed to her half-cousin Charles X of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a cadet branch of the Wittelsbachs.
The kings of the house of Holstein-Gottorp, which produced the kings of Sweden from 1751 to 1818, emphasized their Vasa descent through a female line. The current ruling house of Bernadotte similarly claims a Vasa mantle: Charles XIV was an adopted son of Charles XIII; his son Oscar I married a Vasa descendant Josephine of Leuchtenberg; their grandson Gustav V married Victoria of Baden who was a great-grandchild of Gustav IV Adolf of the house Holstein-Gottorp.
John III of Sweden married Catherine Jagellonka, the sister of Sigismund II Augustus of Poland. When Sigismund II of Poland died without issue, the son of John III of Sweden and
The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China.
The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in contemporary Northeastern China. The Aisin Gioro leader, Nurhachi, who was originally a vassal of the Ming emperors, began unifying the Jurchen clans in the late sixteenth century. By 1635, Nurhachi's son Hong Taiji could claim they constituted a single and united Manchu people and began forcing the Ming out of Liaoning in southern Manchuria. In 1644, the Ming capital Beijing was sacked by a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committed suicide when the city fell. When Li Zicheng moved against Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Manchurian army. Under Prince Dorgon, they seized control of Beijing and overthrew Li Zicheng's short-lived Shun Dynasty. Complete pacification of China was accomplished around 1683
The Samma Dynasty (Sindhi: سمن جو راڄ, Urdu: سلسله سماں) ruled in Sindh and parts of Punjab and Balochistan from 1335-1520 AD, with their capital at Thatta in modern Pakistan before being replaced by the Arghun Dynasty. They claimed descent from Lord Krishna, their ancestor being Jam Unar who was 82nd in descent from Lord Krishna. Their collateral branch is Chudasama Rajput clan. They later converted to Islam. The Samma dynasty has left its mark in Sindh with magnificent structures including the necropolis of kings and royalties in Thatta.
The Sindh is a fertile valley with a sub-tropical climate watered by the Indus river, the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world, with settlements dating back to 7000 BCE. Always a prize possession, it has been controlled by many different empires, alternating with periods of independence. Before the Samma dynasty took control, the Sindh was ruled by the Soomra, first as nominal vassals of the Fatimid Caliphate of Cairo, later as vassals of the Delhi Sultanate, which reached its greatest extent under Muhammad bin Tughluq (c.1300–1351), but began to break up towards the end of his reign.
The Sammas, a Rajput tribe, gained
The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate from 1414 to 1451. They succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled that sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty.
This family claimed to be Sayyids, or descendants of Prophet Muhammad. The central authority of the Delhi Sultanate had been fatally weakened by the successive invasion of Timur and his sack of Delhi in 1398. After a period of chaos, when no central authority prevailed, the Sayyids gained power at Delhi. Their 37-year period of dominance witnessed the rule of four different members of the dynasty.
The dynasty was established by Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan (Punjab). Khizr Khan took Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi on May 28, 1414 and founded the Sayyid dynasty. But he did not take up the title of sultan and nominally, continued to be a Rayat-i-Ala (vassal) of the Timurids, initially of Timur and after his death, his successor Shah Rukh, grandson of Timur. Khizer Khan was succeeded by his son Mubarrak Khan after his death on May 20, 1421, who styled himself as Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah in his coins. A detailed account of his reign is available in the Tarikh-i-Mubarak
The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; pinyin: Táng Cháo; IPA: [tʰɑ̌ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]; Middle Chinese: Dâng) (June 18, 618 – June 1, 907) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li (李) family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, becoming the only Chinese empress regnant, ruling in her own right.
The Tang Dynasty, with its capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), which at the time was the most populous city in the world, is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization—equal to, or surpassing that of, the earlier Han Dynasty—a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivalled that of the Han Dynasty. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people. Yet, even when the central government was breaking down and unable to compile an accurate census of
Monarchs from this line:Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Kingdom(s) ruled:Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Succeeded by:House of Windsor
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (orig. Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty, the line of the Saxon House of Wettin that ruled the Ernestine duchies, including the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it is also the royal house of several European monarchies, and branches currently reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I, and in the Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V of the United Kingdom changed the name of his branch from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor in 1917. The same happened in Belgium where it was changed to "Van België" (Dutch) or "de Belgique" (French).
The first duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was Ernest I, who reigned from 1826 until his death in 1844. He had previously been Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (as Ernest III) from 1806 until the duchy was reorganized in 1826. Ernst's younger brother Leopold became King of the Belgians in 1831, and his descendants continue to serve as Belgian head of state. Léopold's only daughter, Princess Charlotte of Belgium, was the consort of
Monarchs from this line:Karl I, Prince of Liechtenstein
The Liechtenstein dynasty, from which the principality takes its name, is the family which reigns by constitutional, hereditary right over the nation of Liechtenstein. Only dynastic members of the House of Liechtenstein are eligible to inherit the throne, and the dynasty's membership, rights and responsibilities are defined by a law of the family, which is enforced by the reigning Prince and may be altered by vote among the family's dynasts, but which may not be altered by the Government or Parliament of Liechtenstein.
The family comes from Castle Liechtenstein in Lower Austria, which the family possessed from at least 1140 to the 13th century, and from 1807 onwards. Through the centuries, the dynasty acquired vast swathes of land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria, Silesia and Styria, though in all cases, these territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords, particularly under various lines of the Habsburg family, to whom several Liechtenstein princes served as close advisors. Thus, and without any territory held directly under the Imperial throne, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial
The Hồng Bàng Dynasty, also known as the Lạc Dynasty, is the first dynasty that ruled Vietnam (then known as Xích Quỷ and later Văn Lang) from 2879 BC until 258 BC. It was founded by Kinh Dương Vương and the title Hùng Vương is used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. The Hùng Vương was the absolute monarch of the country and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. There are many legends surrounding it, but little verifiable historical information is known about this dynasty.
Vietnam, a country situated along the eastern coast of mainland Southeast Asia, has had a long and turbulent history. The Vietnamese people represent a fusion of races, languages, and cultures, the elements of which are still being sorted out by ethnologists, linguists, and archaeologists. The Vietnamese language provides some clues to the cultural mixture of the Vietnamese people.
The area now known as Vietnam has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, with some archaeological sites in Thanh Hóa Province reportedly dating back several hundred thousand years. Around 3000 BC, northern Vietnam was a place with mountains, forests, and
The House of Balliol (de Balliol) was a Picard and Anglo-Norman family who began to rule some estates in England in the reign of William Rufus. In the late 13th and 14th centuries, two members of the house were kings of Scotland.
Both Balliols had English support for their claims; both were deposed. Edward died without issue, but the Balliol descent continued through his sister to the lords of Coucy and ultimately the Bourbon kings of France and Spain.
The House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Danish: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg, the latter name is also spelled Glücksborg), known as the House of Glücksburg (or House of Glücksborg) for short, is a German ducal house, junior branches of which include the royal houses of Denmark and Norway, the deposed royal house of Greece, and the heir to the thrones of the Commonwealth realms (although in the latter case, they are, by royal proclamation, declared to be members of the House of Windsor). The family is named after Glücksburg in northernmost Germany, and is a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg that is descended from King Christian I of Denmark. However, as the elder line of the House of Oldenburg and the line of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg became extinct in 1863 and 1931, respectively, the House of Glücksburg is now the senior surviving branch of the House of Oldenburg.
This particular line comes from the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. The last of them became Duke of Glücksburg and changed his title accordingly to Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. He was married to Princess Louise
The House of Munsö is one of the names of a protohistoric Swedish dynasty. Its early members of the 8th or 9th century are legendary or semi-legendary, while its later scions of the 10th to 11th centuries are historical.
It is also known as the House of Yngling, the House of Ivar Vidfamne, the House of Uppsala, or simply the Old Dynasty. Munsö is the island where a barrow has been claimed to be the grave of Björn Ironside, a legendary founding member.
The sagas, such as the Hervarar saga, contain extensive information on this dynasty for as many as 10 generations, but although, some of the 9th century kings are held to be historical, modern Swedish historiography begins it with the late 10th c. king Eric the Victorious. The king Björn, who was the father of Eric the Victorious, according to the sagas, is not accepted as historical by critical historians, unlike another 10th century king named Emund Eriksson who appears in the work of Adam of Bremen.
For easy reference on legendary, semi-legendary and historical members of the dynasty (including some generations before Björn Ironside), the following family tree is based on Hervarar saga, and the uncertain identification of Styrbjörn
Monarchs from this line:Charles Albert of Sardinia
The Savoy-Carignano family (Italian: Savoia-Carignano), (French: Savoie-Carignan) was a junior line of the House of Savoy. It was founded by Thomas Francis of Savoy, Prince di Carignano 21 December 1596 - 22 January 1656), an Italian military commander. His descendants were accepted as princes étrangers at the court of France, where some held prominent positions, eventually coming to reign as kings of Sardinia from 1831 to 1861 and as kings of Italy from 1861 until the dynasty's deposition in 1946. The Savoy-Carignanos also, briefly, supplied a king each to Spain and to Croatia, as well as queens consort to Bulgaria and Portugal.
Born in Turin, Thomas Francis was the youngest of the five legitimate sons of the sovereign Duke Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy by his consort Catherine Micaela of Spain, a daughter of King Philip II of Spain and the French princess Elizabeth of Valois. While still a young man, he bore arms in the service of the king of Spain in Italy.
Although in previous reigns, younger sons of Savoy had been granted rich appanages in Switzerland (Genevois, Vaud), Italy (Aosta), or France (Nemours, Bresse), the Savoy dukes found that this inhibited their own
The Pahlavi dynasty (Persian: دودمان پهلوی) consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1941–79), father and son respectively.
The Pahlavis came to power after Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last ruler of the Qajar dynasty, proved unable to stop British and Soviet encroachment on Iranian sovereignty, and was consequently overthrown in a military coup, abdicated and ultimately exiled to France. The National Assembly, known as the Majlis, convening as a constituent assembly on 12 December 1925, deposed the young Ahmad Shah Qajar, and declared Reza Shah the new monarch of the Imperial State of Persia. In 1935, Reza Shah instructed foreign embassies to call Persia by its ancient name, Iran.
The Pahlavi dynasty was overthrown in 1979 when Reza Shah's son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was forced into exile by an Islamic Revolution led by Ruhollah Khomeini.
In 1921, Reza Khan, an officer in Iran's Persian Cossack Brigade, used his troops to support a successful coup against the government of the Qajar dynasty. Within four years he had established himself as the most powerful person in the country by suppressing rebellions,
The Triệu dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Triệu; 家赵) ruled the kingdom of Nam Việt ("South Yuè"), which consisted of parts of southern China as well as northern Vietnam. Its capital was Panyu, in modern Guangzhou. The founder of the dynasty, called Triệu Ðà or Zhao Tuo, was a military governor for the Qin Empire. He asserted his independence in 207 BC when the Qin collapsed. The ruling elite included both ethnic Chinese and native Yue, with intermarriage and assimilation encouraged. Trieu Da conquered the Vietnamese state of Au Lac and led a coalition of Yuè states in a war against the Han Empire. Subsequent rulers were less successful in asserting their independence and the Han conquered the kingdom in 111 BC.
In Vietnamese historiography, this dynasty was a government of the Vietnamese nation, and its end marks the beginning of the First Chinese Domination (111 BC–39 AD). The modern name "Vietnam" is derived from "Nam Việt". However, Chinese-oriented historians regard the Trieu as a Chinese dynasty and thus consider this a period of Chinese rule over Vietnam.
The scholar Huang Zuo produced the first detailed published history of Nam Viet in the fifteenth century. Chinese historians have
The House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (also known as the House of Braganza-Coburg) was a dynasty descended through a distaff line of the House of Braganza that ruled the Kingdom of Portugal from 1853 until the declaration of the republic in 1910.
The use of the designation Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, however, is prevalent mainly in the writings of non-Portuguese historians and genealogists. The reason for this is: the last four Kings of Portugal were descendants of Queen Maria II of Portugal, from the House of Braganza, and Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. European custom classifies a descendant branch on the basis of patrilineal descent, which means that the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is a cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and therefore of the House of Wettin.
Nonetheless, the Portuguese constitution of 1838 stated that the House of Braganza was the ruling house of Portugal, by way of Queen Maria II, and they still continued to style themselves as members of the House of Braganza, as opposed to Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
As there are no living descendants, the claim to the crown of Portugal is again with the House of
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty I) is often combined with the Second Dynasty under the group title, Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. At that time the capital was Thinis.
Known rulers in the history of Egypt for the First Dynasty are as follows:
Information about this dynasty is derived from a few monuments and other objects bearing royal names, the most important being the Narmer palette and macehead as well as Den and Qa'a king lists. No detailed records of the first two dynasties have survived, except for the terse lists on the Palermo stone. The hieroglyphs were fully developed by then, and their shapes would be used with little change for more than three thousand years.
Large tombs of pharaohs at Abydos and Naqada, in addition to cemeteries at Saqqara and Helwan near Memphis, reveal structures built largely of wood and mud bricks, with some small use of stone for walls and floors. Stone was used in quantity for the manufacture of ornaments, vessels, and occasionally, for statues. Tamarix - tamarisk, salt cedar was used to build boats such as the Abydos Boats. One of the most important indigenous woodworking techniques was the ﬁxed Mortise and tenon joint. A
The Han Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 汉朝; traditional Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Han Ch'ao; IPA: [xân tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) (206 BC – 220 AD) was an imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty (221–207 BCE) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms (220–280 CE). It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty (9–23 CE) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han into two periods: the Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25–220 CE). Spanning over four centuries, the period of the Han Dynasty is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and Chinese characters are referred to as "Han characters".
The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government, known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. The Xiongnu, a nomadic confederation which dominated the eastern Eurasian Steppe, defeated the Han army in battle in
The House of Kawānanakoa, or the Kawānanakoa Dynasty in Waiting, are heirs presumptive to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.
A collateral branch of the reigning House of Kalākaua (from Kauaʻi island) and descendants of chiefs of areas such as Waimea on Hawaiʻi island, the dynastic line was established by Prince David Kawānanakoa who was declared to be in the line of royal succession through a proclamation of King David Kalākaua. He was the son of High Chief David Kahalepouli Piʻikoi and High Chiefess Victoria Kinoiki Kekaulike. Kawānanakoa was engaged to Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani on February 3, 1898, who would have become a monarch in her own right upon the death of Queen Liliʻuokalani had she not predeceased her.
David Kawānanakoa's paternal ancestry comes from a cadet branch of the Kauaʻi royal family. His paternal grandmother High Chiefess Kekahili was a half-sister of High Chief Caesar Kapaʻakea, the father of Kalākaua, both being children of the Chiefess Kamokuiki. This made her an aunt of King Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani, which makes the Kawānanakoas the closest surviving collateral relatives of the Kalākaua reigning house. The said grandmother descended, besides
The Slavniks/Slavníks or Slavnikids (Czech: Slavníkovci; German: Slawnikiden; Polish: Sławnikowice; Croatian: Slavnikovići) was a powerful dynasty in Bohemia during the 10th century. It governed Zličané, one of the oldest Czech tribes. The center of the principality was the gord of Libice located at the confluence of the rivers Cidlina and Elbe (Labe). The Slavníks competed with the Přemyslids for control over Bohemia and eventually succumbed to them.
The founder of the dynasty was prince Slavník (†981) who lent his name to the whole family. He had consanguinity with the Saxon kings. His wife was Střezislava, a woman of remarkable beauty, allegedly from the Přemyslid house. Slavník had at least 7 sons, among whom two – Vojtěch (Adalbert) and the illegitimate Radim (Gaudentius) – later became saints. According to Cosmas' Chronicle, Slavník was a happy man all his lifetime.
Slavník dynasty was supposedly related to the Babenbergs, the Přemyslid dynasty, and was friendly with the Polish kings.
Slavník's heir was his son Soběslav who rushed to consolidate the princedom's independence. For instance, he began to coin money in Libice, known among numismatists as the silver senars, in
The so-called House of Dunkeld, in Scottish Gaelic Dùn Chailleann (meaning Fort of the Caledonii or of the Caledonians), is a historiographical and genealogical construct to illustrate the clear succession of Scottish kings from 1034 to 1040 and from 1058 to 1290. The line is also variously referred to by historians as "The Canmores", and "MacMalcolm".
It is dynastically sort of a continuation to Cenél nGabráin of Dál Riata, "race of Fergus", as "house" an originally Celtic concept to express one of the two rivalling leader clans of early medieval Scotland, whose founding father is king Fergus Mor of Dalriada. This Ferguside royal clan had rivalled the crown (of Dalriada, then that of Alba) against the Cenél Loairn, the later House of Moray for the preceding four or more centuries. The Cenél nGabráin were represented by the so-called House of Alpin before Dunkeld.
Sir Iain Moncreiffe made the case that Crínán of Dunkeld actually belonged to a Scottish sept of Irish Cenél Conaill royal dynasty, a branch of the Uí Néill. This of course would not exclude his descendants from also being a (female line) continuation of the Cenél nGabráin through Bethóc.
Genealogically the Dunkeld
The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao; IPA: [sʊ̂ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as first discernment of true north using a compass.
The Song Dynasty is divided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song. During the Northern Song (Chinese: 北宋, 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled most of inner China. The Southern Song (Chinese: 南宋, 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou). Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern
The Antonines most often referred to were two successive Roman Emperors who ruled between 138 and 180: Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, famous for their skilled leadership. Also included in those usually considered to be "Antonines" were Lucius Verus for a time (161–169) co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius, and Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius.
In 138, after a long reign dedicated to the cultural unification and consolidation of the empire, the Emperor Hadrian named Antoninus his son and heir, under the condition that he adopt both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Hadrian died that same year, and Antoninus began a peaceful, benevolent reign, in contrast to Hadrian's wars of unification and his immediate predecessors' expansionist wars. He adhered strictly to Roman traditions and institutions and shared his power with the Roman Senate.
Marcus Aurelius succeeded Antoninus Pius upon that emperor's 161 death and continued his legacy as an unpretentious and gifted administrator and leader, a modern Numa Pompilius. Marcus Aurelius died in 180 and was followed by his biological son Commodus, who single-handedly ended the line of "Five Good Emperors" and the Pax Romana in general.
The Arsacid dynasty or Arshakuni dynasty (Armenian: Արշակունի Aršakuni) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428. They are a branch of the Iranian Parthian Arsacids. Arsacid Kings reigned intermittently throughout the chaotic years following the fall of the Artaxiad Dynasty until 62 when Tiridates I secured Arsacid rule in Armenia. An independent line of Kings was established by Vologases II (Vagharsh II) in 180. Two of the most notable events under Arsacid rule in Armenian history were the conversion of Armenia to Christianity by Gregory the Illuminator in 301 and the creation of the Armenian alphabet by Saint Mesrob in circa 406.
The first appearance of an Arsacid on the Armenian throne came about in 12 when the Parthian King Vonones I was exiled from Parthia due to his pro-Roman policies and Occidental manners. Vonones I briefly acquired the Armenian throne with Roman consent, but Artabanus II demanded his deposition, and as Emperor Augustus did not wish to begin a war with the Parthians he deposed Vonones I and sent him to Syria.
In the meantime Artabanus II didn't waste time after deposition of Vonones I; he installed his son Orodes on the Armenian throne. Emperor Tiberius
The Fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty V) is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and VI under the group title the Old Kingdom. The Fifth Dynasty dates approximately from 2494 to 2345 BC.
Known rulers in the Fifth Dynasty are listed below. The pharaohs of this dynasty ruled for approximately 150 years. The Horus names and names of the Queens are taken from Dodson and Hilton.
Manetho writes that the Dynasty V kings ruled from Elephantine, but archeologists have found evidence clearly showing that their palaces were still located at Ineb-hedj ("White Walls").
As before, expeditions were sent to Wadi Maghara and Wadi Kharit in the Sinai to mine for turquoise and copper, and to quarries northwest of Abu Simbel for gneiss. Trade expeditions were sent south to Punt to obtain malachite, myrrh, and electrum, and archeological finds at Byblos attest to diplomatic expeditions sent to that Phoenician city. Finds bearing the names of a several Dynasty V kings at the site of Dorak, near the Sea of Marmara, may be evidence of trade but remain a mystery.
How Pharaoh Userkaf founded this dynasty is not known for certain. The Papyrus Westcar, which was written during the Middle
Monarchs from this line:Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg
The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors (Kurfürsten) and kings that once ruled the area of today's German states of Saxony, the Saxon part of Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia for more than 800 years. Agnates of the House of Wettin have, at various times, ascended the thrones of Great Britain, Portugal, Bulgaria, Poland, Saxony, and Belgium; of these, only the British and Belgian lines retain their thrones today. (See list of members.)
The oldest member of the House of Wettin who is known for certain is Dietrich I von Wettin, also known as Thiedericus, or as Thierry I of Liesgau (died c. 982). He was most probably based in the Liesgau (located at the western edge of the Harz). Around 1000, the family acquired Wettin Castle, after which they named themselves. Wettin Castle is located in Wettin in the Hosgau on the Saale River. Around 1030, the Wettin family received the Eastern March as a fief.
The prominence of the Wettin family in the Slavic marches caused Emperor Henry IV to invest them with the March of Meissen as a fief in 1089. The family advanced over the course of the Middle Ages: in 1263 they inherited the landgraviate of Thuringia (though
The Muhammad Ali Dynasty (Arabic: أسرة محمد علي Usrat Muhammad 'Ali; Turkish: Mehmet Ali Paşa Hanedanı) was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. It is named after its progenitor, Muhammad Ali Pasha, regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. It was also more formally known as the Alawiyya Dynasty (Arabic: الأسرة العلوية al-Usra al-'Alawiyya). Because a majority of the rulers from this dynasty bore the title Khedive, it was often referred to by contemporaries as the 'Khedival Dynasty'.
Muhammad Ali was an Albanian commander of the Ottoman army that was sent to drive Napoleon's forces out of Egypt, but upon the French withdrawal, seized power himself and forced the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II to recognize him as Wāli, or Governor of Egypt in 1805. Demonstrating his grander ambitions, he took the title of Khedive; however, this was not sanctioned by the Porte.
Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw as the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire. He summed up his vision for Egypt in this way:
"I am well aware that the (Ottoman) Empire is heading by the day toward destruction...On her ruins I will build a vast
Payyan dynasty is a family which manage and administer Swamithope pathi, the head quarters of Ayyavazhi. The genesis of Payyan dynasty was a bit uncertain. It was believed to be the descendants of Pothukkutty who was called as Payyan by Ayya Vaikundar. But some people claim that they were the descendants of Paradevathai and Muthu Kutty.
There are a number of claims about them. Some legends says that they were the descendants of Pothukkutty who was the son of Paradevathai and her first husband. This legend says that Paradevathai after leaving her first husband went to the house of her grand mother on Poovandanthoppe. She also brings her three children, two boys and one girl. There she met Muthukuttu, who was known as Sampooranathevan in Akilam and fall in love with him. He too fall in love with her. They lived as husband and wife without marrying. One of the male child Paradevathai brought with her though married, died without descendants. And the remaining child was podukkutty and the ancestor of Payyan dynasty. He was taken as the primary Panividaiyalar by Ayya Vaikundar and called affectionately as 'Payyan' which later changed as the name of their dynasty. The female child was
The Senussi or Sanussi (Arabic: السنوسية) refers to a Muslim political-religious order in Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi. Senussi was concerned with both the decline of Islamic thought and spirituality and the weakening of Muslim political integrity. From 1902 to 1913 the Senussi fought French expansion in the Sahara, and the Italian colonisation of Libya beginning in 1911. In World War I, the Senussi fought against the British in Egypt and Sudan. The Grand Senussi's grandson became King Idris of Libya in 1951. In 1969, King Idris I was overthrown by a military coup led by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. A third of the population in Libya continue to be affiliated with the Senussi movement.
The Senussi order has been historically closed to Europeans and outsiders, leading reports of their beliefs and practices to vary immensely. Though it is possible to gain some insight from the lives of the Senussi sheikhs further details are difficult to obtain.
Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787–1859), the founder of the order,was born in Algeria near Mostaganem and was named al-Senussi after a venerated Muslim
Terter (Bulgarian: Тертер), also Terterids or Terterovtsi (Тертеровци), was a Bulgarian noble and royal house that ruled the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1280 and 1292, as well as between 1300 and 1323.
The Terterids were originally of Cuman origin (i.e. from the western branch of the Turkic Kipchaks), according to Plamen Pavlov they were a branch of the Cuman noble dynasty of Terteroba who had settled in Bulgaria as part of the second wave of Cuman migration, coming from the Kingdom of Hungary after 1241. The Terteroba clan had ruled the steppe proto-state of Cumania in the late 11th century, as well as in the mid-13th century under Köten.
The earliest representatives of the dynasty in Bulgaria were the despotēs Aldimir (Eltimir) and his older brother George Terter who was crowned emperor of Bulgaria as George I of Bulgaria (1280-1292), marrying the Bulgarian Maria. After his reign, Bulgaria was under the de facto control of the Golden Horde, with Nogai Khan nominating the next ruler, Smilets (1292-1298), who was of another noble family, and was briefly succeeded by his son Ivan II (1298-1299). In 1299-1300, Bulgaria was controlled by the Mongol Chaka. Chaka was deposed by
The Bagrationi Royal Dynasty (Georgian: ბაგრატიონი, bagrationi, ბაგრატიონთა დინასტია, bagrationt'a dinastia) was the ruling family of Georgia. Their ascendency lasted from the early Middle Ages until the early 19th century. In modern usage, this royal line is frequently referred to as the Georgian Bagratids, a Hellenized form of their dynastic name.
The origin of the Bagrationi dynasty is disputed, as well as the time when they first appeared on Georgian soil. The history of the dynasty is inextricably bound with that of Georgia. They began their rule, in the early 9th century, as presiding princes in historic southwestern Georgia and the adjacent Georgian marchlands reconquered from Arabs. Subsequently they restored, in 888, the Georgian kingdom, which prospered from the 11th to the 13th century, bringing several regional polities under its control. This period of time, particularly the reigns of David IV (1089–1125) and his great granddaughter Tamar (1184–1213), is celebrated as a "golden age" in the history of Georgia, the era of empire, military exploits, and remarkable achievements in culture. After the fragmentation of their unified feudal state in the late 15th century, the
Chēra dynasty, ruling from before the Sangam Age (3rd century BC — 3rd century AD) until the 12th century AD, is one of the most ancient ruling dynasties in India. Together with the Chōlas and the Pāndyas, they formed the three principal warring south Indian kingdoms in the early centuries of the Common Era. They are also referred to as Keralaputras (sons of Kerala) or Keralas.
During the time of Mauryas in northern India (c. 4th century BC — 3rd century BC) the Cheras (along with the Pandyas and the Cholas) were in a late megalithic phase on the western coast of ancient Tamil land. The cultural exchange with the northern India and the flourishing trade with the Roman Empire later contributed to the state formation. The kingdom, at its zenith, spread over most of the modern day Kerala and Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri districts of modern day Tamil Nadu. Some records suggest the possible annexation of Nagapattanam (southern part) and Thiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu.
The Cheras were in continuous conflict with neighboring Cholas and Pandyas. Some Chera rules are said to have defeated the combined armies of the Pandyas and the Cholas and their ally states. They also made battles
Doukas, Latinized as Ducas (Greek: Δούκας; feminine: Doukaina/Ducaena, Δούκαινα; plural: Doukai/Ducae, Δούκαι), from the Latin tile dux ("leader", "general", Hellenized as doux), is the name of a Byzantine Greek noble family, whose branches provided several notable generals and rulers to the Byzantine Empire. The continuity of descent amongst the various branches is not clear though, and historians generally recognize several distinct groups of Doukai based on their occurrence in the contemporary sources. In the words of Demetrios I. Polemis, who compiled the only overview work on the bearers of the Doukas name, in view of this lack of genealogical continuity "it would be a mistake to view the groups of people designated by the cognomen of Doukas as forming one large family".
Nothing is known for certain about the family's origin. Later tradition, mentioned by the historian Nikephoros Bryennios, held that they descended from a cousin of the Roman emperor Constantine I who had migrated to Constantinople in the 4th century and allegedly became the city's governor with the title of doux. This tradition is, however, evidently an invention meant to glorify the family, at the time the
Monarchs from this line:Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak
Kingdom(s) ruled:Kingdom of Sarawak
The White Rajahs were a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. The first in the line was Englishman James Brooke.
Sarawak was part of the realm of Brunei until James Brooke, who was to become the first White Rajah, received a sizable chunk of land from the Bruneian Sultan. Throughout the rule of the first two Brookes, Sarawak's size increased tremendously as more territory was leased or annexed from Brunei. There were three White Rajahs:
All three were educated in England and are buried there at Sheepstor Church.
By and large the Brookes pursued a policy of paternalism, aimed at protecting the 'native peoples' from 'capitalist exploitation,' and as a result preventing the same levels of development which were evident in some other parts of the British Empire. While James laid much of the groundwork for the expansion of Sarawak, it was his nephew Charles who was the great builder, both in terms of public buildings such as forts and also in extending the borders of the state. While the manner of his departure was controversial, Vyner nonetheless instituted significant political reforms, including ending the absolute rule of the Rajah in 1941 ahead of
The Ardennes-Verdun dynasty is used as a label on the dynasty centered on Verdun who dominated Lotharingia in the 11th century.
The founder of the dynasty was Godfrey, known as the Captive. He was a son of Count Gozlin, brother of bishop Adalbero of Metz, and Uda, a daughter of Gerard, Count of Metz, and Uda of Saxony. Godfrey was the brother of Adalbero, Archbishop of Reims. Count Gozlin's parents were Wigeric, count palatine of Lotharingia, and Cunigunde, a granddaughter of Louis II of France.
All descending from Wigeric and Cunigunde, the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty was closely tied to the houses of Ardennes-Bar, Salm and Ardennes-Luxembourg.
The County of Verdun was given to Godfrey by Emperor Otto I between 944 and 951, and was held by several dynasty members over the following four generations.
The Duchies of Upper and Lower Lorraine were the result of the division of the old kingdom, later duchy of Lotharingia in 959. Following the death of the childless Duke Otto in 1012, Godfrey the Childless was granted the Duchy of Lower Lorraine. Godfrey was succeeded in 1023 by his brother Gozelo, who also became Duke of Upper Lorraine in 1033. Both duchies were in the control of the
The Davidic line (also referred to as the House of David) (known in Hebrew as Malkhut Beit David (מלכות בית דוד) — "Royal House of David") refers to the tracing of lineage to the King David referred to in the Hebrew Bible, as well as the New Testament. In general, it is possible for anyone to claim as a descendant from King David because most of the tracings were lost. The term "House of David" referring to the Davidic dynasty appears many time in the Bible. Examples can be found in: 1 Kings 12:201 Kings 12:26 1 Kings 13:2, 1 Kings 14:8,2 Kings 12:1-19,2 Kings 17:21,2 Samuel 3:1, 1 Samuel 19:11HE, 1 Samuel 20:16,2 Samuel 3:6,Isaiah 7:2 HE,Jeremiah 21:12 HE,Zechariah 12:7 HE, Nehemiah 12:37 HE, Psalms 30:1 HE,Psalms 122:5 HE, 1 Chronicles 17:24, 2 Chronicles 10:19,etc.
Upon being chosen and becoming king, the custom in the times of the Tanakh was to be anointed with Holy Oil poured on the head. In David's case, this was done by the prophet Samuel:
In Hebrew, the anointing is called meshicha (meaning "pouring") and a king (melekh or melech in Hebrew) is referred to as a Moshiach or Messiah or a Melech HaMashiach meaning "the anointed king". The procedure of anointment, in David's
Monarchs from this line:Adalbert, Margrave of Austria
Originally from Bamberg in Franconia, now northern Bavaria, an apparent branch of the Babenbergs or Babenberger went on to rule Austria as counts of the march and dukes from 976–1248, before the rise of the house of Habsburg.
The Babenberg family can be broken down into two distinct groups: 1) The Franconian Babenbergs, the so called Elder House of Babenberg, or Popponids out of which came the Hennebergs and the Counts of Schweinfurt. 2) Austrian Babenbergs which ruled Austria. The second group claimed to have originated from the first but scholars have not been able to verify that claim.
Like the French royal Capetian dynasty, the Elder Babenbergs descended from the Robertians. The earliest known Babenberg was one Poppo, maybe a descendant of the Frankish count Cancor. In the early 9th century he appeared as a count in the Grabfeld, a historic region in northeastern Franconia bordering on Thuringia. One of his sons, Henry, sometimes called margrave and duke in Franconia under King Charles the Fat of East Francia, fell fighting against the Normans in 886; another, Poppo, was margrave in Thuringia from 880 to 892, when he was deposed by King Charles successor Arnulf of Carinthia.
The House of Kalākaua, or the Kalākaua Dynasty, was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi between the assumption of King David Kalākaua to the throne in 1874 and the overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani in 1893. Liliʻuokalani died in 1917, leaving only cousins as heirs. The House of Kalākaua was descended from chiefs on the island of Kauaʻi, and ascended to the royal throne by election when the males of the House of Kamehameha died out. The torch that burns at midday symbolizes the dynasty, based on the sacred kapu Kalākaua's ancestor High Chief Iwikauikaua.
The dynasty was founded by Kalākaua but included his brothers and sisters who were children of High Chiefess Analea Keohokālole and High Chief Caesar Kaluaiku Kapaʻakea. Through Kapaʻakea's paternal grandmother Alapa'iwahine he was great-great-grandson of Chief Keaweikekahiali`iokamoku the great-grandfather (through another son) of Kamehameha I. Through Kapaʻakea's paternal grandfather Kepoʻokalani (who was also Analea's grandfather) he was descended from one of the ninau pio royal twins Kameʻeiamoku. Analea was great-great-granddaughter of Chief Keaweikekahiali`iokamoku on her mother Kamaʻeokalani's side and on her father
The Jìn Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 晋朝; traditional Chinese: 晉朝; pinyin: Jìn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Chin⁴-ch'ao², IPA: [tɕîn tʂʰɑ̌ʊ];), was a dynasty in Chinese history, lasting between the years 265 and 420 CE. There are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin (ch: 西晉, 265–316) and the second Eastern Jin (ch: 東晉 317–420). Western Jin was founded by Sima Yan, with its capital at Luoyang, while Eastern Jin was begun by Sima Rui, with its capital at Jiankang. The two periods are also known as Liang Jin (ch: 兩晉 lit, two Jin) and Sima Jin by scholars, to distinguish this dynasty from other dynasties that use the same Chinese character, such as the Later Jin Dynasty (ch: 後晉).
The Sima clan was initially subordinate to the Wei dynasty, but the clan's influence and power grew greatly after the incident at Gaoping tombs in 249. In 265, Sima Yan forced emperor Cao Huan of Wei to abdicate the throne to him, ending Wei and starting Jin (as Emperor Wu). He named his dynasty after the state of Jin of the Spring and Autumn Period that once ruled the Sima clan's home county of Wen in Henei (present day Wen County, Henan). In 280, the Jin conquered Eastern Wu and
The Sena Empire (Bengali: সেন, Shen) was a Hindu dynasty that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. At its peak the empire covered much of the north-eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. They were called Brahma-Kshatriyas, as evidenced through their surname, which is derived from the Sanskrit, for "army". The Senas belonged to the 'Gaur Kayastha' sub-caste of the Chitraguptvanshi Kayastha and they were Brahma-Kshatriyas (those who were Brahmanas first and became Kshatriyas afterwards).
The dynasty's founder was Hemanta Sen, who was part of the Pala Dynasty until their empire began to weaken. He usurped power and styled himself king in 1095 AD. His successor Vijay Sen (ruled from 1096 AD to 1159 AD) helped lay the foundations of the dynasty, and had an unusually long reign of over 60 years. Ballal Sena conquered Gaur from the Pala, became the ruler of Bengal Delta as well as made Nabadwip the capital. Lakshman Sen succeeded Ballal Sena in 1179 and ruled Bengal for approximately 20 years. He expanded the Sena Empire to Assam, Orissa, Bihar and probably to Varanasi. In 1203–1204 AD, the Turkic general Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked Nabadwip. Though he defeated
The Sultanate of Rum or Seljuk Sultanate of Rum,(Modern Turkish: Rum Sultanlığı or Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti, Persian: سلجوقیان روم, Saljūqiyān-e Rūm), was a medieval Turko-Persian, Sunni Muslim state in Anatolia, originating from the Seljuk Turks. It existed from 1077 to 1307, with capitals first at İznik and then at Konya. Since the court of the sultanate was highly mobile, cities like Kayseri and Sivas also functioned at times as capitals. At its height the sultanate stretched across central Anatolia from the Antalya–Alanya shoreline on the Mediterranean coast to the territory of Sinop on the Black Sea. In the east, the sultanate absorbed other Turkish states and reached Lake Van. Its westernmost limit was near Denizli and the gates of the Aegean basin.
The term "Rûm" comes from the Arabic word for the Roman Empire. The Seljuqs called the lands of their sultanate Rum because it had been established on territory long considered "Roman", i.e. Byzantine, by Muslim armies. The state is occasionally called the Sultanate of Konya (or Sultanate of Iconium) in older western sources and was known as Turkey by its contemporaries.
The sultanate prospered, particularly during the late 12th
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (also written Dynasty XXVI or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). The Dynasty's reign (c. 685-525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.
This dynasty traced its origins to 24th dynasty. Psamtik I was probably a descendant of Bakenrenef, and following the Assyrians' invasions during the reigns of Taharqa and Tantamani, he was recognized as sole king over all of Egypt. While the Assyrian Empire was preoccupied with revolts and civil war over control of the throne, Psammetichus threw off his ties to the Assyrians, and formed alliances with Gyges, king of Lydia, and recruited mercenaries from Caria and Greece to resist Assyrian attacks.
With the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC and the fall of the Assyrian Empire, both Psamtik and his successors attempted to reassert Egyptian power in the Near East, but were driven back by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II. With the help of Greek mercenaries, Apries was able to hold back Babylonian attempts to conquer
Monarchs from this line:Salman ibn Ahmad Al-Khalifa
The Al Khalifa family (Arabic: آل خليفة / ALA-LC: Āl Khalīfah / English: The house of Khalifa) is the ruling royal family of Bahrain. The Al Khalifa profess Sunni Islam and belong to the Anizah tribe that migrated from Najd to Kuwait in the early 18th century. They are also from the Utub tribe. The current head of the family is Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, who became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999 and proclaimed himself King of Bahrain in 2002.
As of 2010, roughly half of the serving cabinet ministers of Bahrain have been selected from the Al Khalifa royal family, while the country's only Prime Minister, Khalifah bin Salman al-Khalifah, (serving since independence in 1971) is also from the Al Khalifa family and is the uncle of the current King.
Decisions pertaining to the Al Khalifa family, as well as disputes between family members are arbitrated by the Ruling Family Council (Arabic: مجلس العائلة الحاكمة). The council attends to internal family disputes particularly those related to appropriation of land, sale of real estate and other properties. Members of the ruling family are not allowed to refer these or other disputes to ordinary law courts.
Relations between the political
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived dynasties, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, mostly of Turkic and Pashtun (Afghan) origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty. The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).
Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave (Mamluk) of Muhammad of Ghor, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty managed to conquer large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate are also noted for being one of the few states to repeatedly defeat the Mongol Empire.
The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture, music, literature, religion and clothing. It is surmised that the Urdu language (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during this period as a
The Basarabs (also Bazarabs or Bazaraads, Romanian: Basarab pronounced [basaˈrab] ( listen)) were a family which had an important role in the establishing of the Principality of Wallachia, giving the country its first line of Princes, one closely related with the Mușatin rulers of Moldavia. Its status as a dynasty is rendered problematic by the official elective system, which implied that male members of the same family, including illegitimate offspring, were chosen to rule by a council of boyars (more often than not, the election was conditioned by the military force exercised by candidates). After the rule of Alexandru I Aldea (ended in 1436), the house was split by the conflict between the Dănești and the Drăculești, both of which claimed legitimacy. Several late rulers of the Craiovești claimed direct descent from the House after its eventual demise, including Neagoe Basarab, Matei Basarab, Constantin Șerban, Șerban Cantacuzino, and Constantin Brâncoveanu.
Rulers usually mentioned as members of the House include (in chronological order of first rule) Mircea the Elder, Dan II, Vlad II Dracul, Vlad III the Impaler, Vlad the Monk, Radu IV the Great, and Radu of Afumați.
The House of Capet, or The Direct Capetian Dynasty, (French: Les Capétiens, la Maison capétienne), also called The House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, which ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328, was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. As rulers of France, the dynasty succeeded the Carolingian dynasty. The name derives from the nickname of Hugh, the first Capetian King, who was known as Hugh Capet and was a cognatic descendant of the Carolingians.
The direct House of Capet came to an end in 1328, when the three sons of Philip IV all failed to produce surviving male heirs to the French throne. With the death of Charles IV, the throne passed to the House of Valois, the direct descendants of Charles of Valois, a younger son of Philip III. It would later pass again, to the House of Bourbon descended from Louis IX, and to its cadet branch, the House of Orléans, always remaining in the hands of agnatic descendants of Hugh Capet.
The first Capetian monarch was Hugh Capet (c.940–996), a Frankish nobleman from the Île-de-France, who, following the death of Louis V of France (c.967–987) – the last
Monarchs from this line:Guillaume IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
The House of Nassau-Weilburg ruled a division of Nassau, which was a state in current Germany, a state that existed from 1344 to 1806.
On July 17, 1806 the counties of Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Under pressure from Napoleon both counties merged to become the Duchy of Nassau on August 30, 1806 under joint rule of Prince Frederick August of Nassau-Usingen and his younger cousin Prince Frederick William of Nassau-Weilburg. As Frederick August had no heirs he agreed that Frederick William should become sole ruler after his death. However Frederick William died from a fall on the stairs at Weilburg Castle on 9 January 1816 and it was his son William who became duke of a unified Nassau.
The sovereigns of this house afterwards governed the Duchy of Nassau until 1866, and since 1890 they have governed the nation of Luxembourg. The House of Nassau-Weilburg became extinct in the male line with the death of Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg in 1985. However, the name has been carried on in the bilineal line, with the official name of the reigning house of Luxembourg remaining Nassau-Weilburg. Since the death of the Grand Duchess, members of
The Konbaung Dynasty (Burmese: ကုန်းဘောင်ခေတ်, pronounced: [kóʊɴbàʊɴ kʰɪʔ]) was the last dynasty that ruled Burma (Myanmar), from 1752 to 1885. The dynasty created the second largest empire in Burmese history, and continued the administrative reforms begun by the Toungoo dynasty, laying the foundations of modern state of Burma. The reforms proved insufficient to stem the advance of the British, who defeated the Burmese in all three Anglo-Burmese wars over a six-decade span (1824–1885) and ended the millennium-old Burmese monarchy in 1885.
The dynasty was founded by a village-chief Alaungpaya in 1752 to challenge the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom which had just toppled the Toungoo dynasty. By 1759, Alaungpaya's forces had reunited all of Burma (and Manipur), and driven out the French and the British who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy. In 1760, Burma began a series of wars with Siam that would last well into the middle of 19th century. By 1770, Alaungpaya's heirs had temporarily defeated Siam (1767), subdued much of Laos (1765) and defeated four invasions by Qing China (1765–1769). With the Burmese preoccupied for another two decades by another impending invasion by the Chinese, the
The Tuluva Dynasty was the third dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire.
The Tuluva were the third Hindu dynasty which ruled Vijayanagara empire. The dynasty was founded by chieftain Bunts who originally ruled southern parts of coastal Karnataka, also called Tulu Nadu. The dynasty gained the name "Tuluva" because they belonged to the Tulu speaking region of Tulu Nadu and their mother tongue was the ancient Tulu language which still survives and is the lingua franca of coastal Karnataka and northern parts of Kerala. They came to power after the Saluva Dynasty.
The Tuluva dynasty were the most powerful dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire of Southern India. They belonged to the Nagavanshi kshatriya order of lineage. They are believed to be Nagavanshis who worshiped Nagaraja Vasuki (name for a naga, one of the serpents of mythology) as their family deity. The Vijayanagar empire attained it greatest glory during this period and their most famous emperor Krishna Deva Raya. Their reign consisted of five emperors from 1491 till 1570. They ruled almost the entire South India with Vijayanagara as their capital. The fall of the Tuluva dynasty led the beginning of the disintegration of the empire.
The Alaouite Dynasty is the name of the current Moroccan royal family. The name Alaouite comes from the ‘Alī of its founder Moulay Ali Cherif who became Prince of Tafilalt in 1631. His son Mulay Al-Rashid (1664–1672) was able to unite and pacify the country. The Alaouite family claim descent from Muhammad through the line of Fāṭimah az-Zahrah, Muhammad's daughter, and her husband, the First Imam ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib A.S.
According to tradition the Alaouites entered Morocco at the end of the 13th century when Al Hassan Addakhil, who lived then in the town of Yanbu in the Hejaz, was brought to Morocco by the inhabitants of Tafilalet to be their imām. They were hoping that, as he was a descendant of Muhammad, his presence would help to improve their date palm crops thanks to his barakah "blessing", an Arabic term meaning a sense of divine presence or charisma. His descendants began to increase their power in southern Morocco after the death of the Saʻdī ruler Ahmad al-Mansur (1578–1603). In 1669, the last Saʻdī sultan was overthrown in the conquest of Marrakesh by Mulay r-Rshid (1664–1672). After the victory over the zāwiya of Dila, who controlled northern Morocco, he was able to unite
The Battenberg family was a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, rulers of the Grand Duchy of Hesse in Germany. The first member was Julia Hauke, whose brother-in-law Grand Duke Louis III of Hesse created her Countess of Battenberg with the style Illustrious Highness (H. Ill.H.) in 1851, at her morganatic marriage to Grand Duke Louis' brother Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, and elevated her title to Princess of Battenberg with the style Serene Highness (HSH) in 1858. The name "Battenberg" was last used by her youngest son, Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg, who died childless in 1924. Most members of the family, residing in the United Kingdom, had renounced their German titles in 1917, due to rising anti-German sentiment among the British public during World War I, and changed their name to "Mountbatten", an anglicised version of Battenberg. The name Battenberg refers to the town Battenberg, Hesse.
Prince Alexander (1823–1888) was the third son of Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse and by Rhine and of Wilhelmina of Baden yet it was openly rumoured his biological father was actually Baron Augustus de Senarclens, his mother's chamberlain. His spouse, Julia Hauke
The House of Oldenburg is a North German dynasty and one of Europe's most influential Royal Houses with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Russia, Greece, Norway, Schleswig, Holstein, Oldenburg and Sweden. The current Queen of Denmark, the King of Norway and the ex-King of Greece as well as consorts of Spain, Greece and the United Kingdom belong to this House.
It rose to prominence when Count Christian I of Oldenburg was elected King of Denmark in 1448, and of Norway in 1450. The house has occupied the Danish throne ever since.
Marriages of medieval counts of Oldenburg had paved the way for their heirs to become kings of various Scandinavian kingdoms. Through marriage with a descendant of King Valdemar I of Sweden and of King Eric IV of Denmark, a claim to Sweden and Denmark was staked, since 1350.
At that time, its competitors were the successors of Margaret I of Denmark. In the 15th century, the Oldenburg heir of that claim married Hedwig of Schauenburg, a descendant of Euphemia of Sweden and Norway and also a descendant of Eric V of Denmark. Since descendants better situated in genealogical charts died out, their son Christian (the abovementioned) became the king of
The Nineteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX) was one of the periods of the Egyptian New Kingdom. Founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne, this dynasty is best known for its military conquests in Canaan.
The warrior kings of the early 18th Dynasty had encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing them to expand their realm of influence easily. The situation had changed radically towards the end of the 18th Dynasty. The Hittites gradually extended their influence into Syria and Canaan to become a major power in international politics, a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would need to deal with.
The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and ten years: from ca 1292 to 1187 BCE. Seti I's reign is today considered to be 11 years and not 15 years by both J. von Beckerath and Peter Brand who wrote a biography on this pharaoh's reign. Consequently it will be amended to 11 years or 1290-1279 BCE. Therefore, Seti's father and predecessor would have ruled Egypt between 1292-1290 BCE. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated
The Tughlaq dynasty (Persian: سلسلہ تغلق), also called "Tughraq", was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin which established a Delhi sultanate. Its reign started in 1321 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq.
The empire grew under his son and successor Muhammad bin Tughluq, but the latter became notorious for ill-advised policy experiments such as shifting the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad and introducing copper coins without effective regulation against forgery. Tughluqi has as a result become synonym for brilliant if stubborn eccentricity in the Urdu language.
After Muhammad bin Tughluq died, a collateral relative, Mahmud Ibn Muhammad, ruled for less than a month, until a cousin Feroz Shah Tughlaq killed him and assumed the throne. His rule was somewhat weak militarily, mainly because of inept army. After Feroz died in 1388, the Tughlaq dynasty's power continued to fade, and no more able leaders came to the throne; the dynasty was essentially over within 10 years.
The lowest point for the dynasty however came in 1398, when Turco-Mongol invader, Timur (Tamerlane) defeated four armies of the Sultanate on December 15, 1398.
Nepherites I founded the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (according to an account preserved in a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum) by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and later putting him to death at Memphis. Nepherites made his capital at Mendes. This brief dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period.
On Nepherites' death, two rival factions fought for the throne: one behind his son Muthis, and the other supporting an usurper Psammuthes; although Psammuthes was successful, he only managed to reign for a year.
Psammuthes was overthrown by Hakor, who claimed to be the grandson of Nepherites I. He successfully resisted Persian attempts to reconquer Egypt, drawing support from Athens (until the Peace of Antalcidas in 386 BC), and from the rebel king of Cyprus, Evagoras. Although his son Nepherites II became king on his death, the younger Nepherites was unable to keep hold on his inheritance.
The Vijayanagara Empire referred to as the Kingdom of Bisnagar by the Portuguese, was an empire based in South India, in the Deccan Plateau region. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty and Dhangar / Kuruba Gowda lineage. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes and Niccolò Da Conti, and the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's power and wealth.
The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all
The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Braunschweig-Lüneburg), the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It succeeded the House of Stuart as monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714 and held that office until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. They are sometimes referred to as the House of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Hanover line. The House of Hanover is a younger branch of the House of Welf, which in turn is the senior branch of the House of Este.
Queen Victoria was the granddaughter of George III, and was an ancestor of most major European royal houses. She arranged marriages for her children and grandchildren across the continent, tying Europe together; this earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover; her son King Edward VII belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father, Prince Albert. Under semi-Salic law, Victoria could not inherit the German kingdom and duchies unless the entire male line became extinct; those
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XIII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom.
Known rulers of the Twelfth Dynasty are as follows:
The chronology of the 12th dynasty is the most stable of any period before the New Kingdom. The Ramses Papyrus canon (1290 BC) in Turin gives 213 years (1991-1778 BC. Manetho stated that it was based in Thebes, but from contemporary records it is clear that the first king moved its capital to a new city named "Amenemhat-itj-tawy" ("Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands"), more simply called Itjtawy. The location of Itjtaway has not been found, but is thought to be near the Fayyum, probably near the royal graveyards at el-Lisht. Egyptologists consider this dynasty to be the apex of the Middle Kingdom.
The order of its rulers is well known from several sources — two lists recorded at temples in Abydos and one at Saqqara, as well as Manetho's work. A recorded date during the reign of Senusret III can be correlated to the Sothic cycle, consequently many events during this dynasty are frequently assigned to a year BC or BCE.
This dynasty was founded by Amenemhat I, who may have been vizier
The House of Zogu is a European dynasty founded by Zogu Pasha who migrated to Mati, Albania in the late 15th century and was then appointed Governor of Mati by the Ottoman Sultan, with the position of Governor then becoming hereditary among the Zogu clan. The ancestral home of the Zogus was Castle Burgajet.
The most famous member of the dynasty is Zog I, Skanderbeg III, who in 1928 was proclaimed King of the Albanians and ruled until he was deposed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and the Italian invasion in 1939. Victor Emmanuel subsequently assumed the Albanian throne. King Zog's son was Leka, Crown Prince of Albania, known as King Leka I.
The current head of the dynasty is Prince Leka of Albania, the son of Leka, Crown Prince of Albania (d. 2011).
Aleksandar Karađorđević (Cyrillic: Александар Карађорђевић; 11 October 1806 – 3 May 1885) was the prince of Serbia between 1842 and 1858. He was a member of the House of Karađorđević.
The youngest son of Karađorđe Petrović and Jelena Jovanović was born in Topola on 11 October 1806. He was educated in Khotin, Bessarabia (Russia), under the patronage of the Russian Tsar.
In 1830 he married Persida Nenadović (15 February 1813 - 29 March 1873), daughter of Vojvoda (Duke) Jevrem Nenadović (1793–1867) and Jovanka Milovanović (1792–1880). They had ten children:
After the Sultan’s decree acknowledging the title of Prince Mihailo Obrenovic at the end of 1839, the family returned to Serbia. Alexander joined the Headquarters of the Serbian Army, and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and appointed as adjutant to Prince Mihailo.
After the political conflicts caused by disrespect of the so called "Turkish constitution," and Miloš Obrenović's and then Mihailo Obrenović's abdications, Aleksandar Karađorđević was elected the Prince of Serbia at the National Assembly in Vračar, a municipality in modern Belgrade, on 14 September 1842. Having had his title acknowledged by Russia and Turkey,
The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam of which anything is known today, appearing at the dawn of historical record. The Elamites were likely major rivals of neighboring Sumer from remotest antiquity; they were said to have been defeated by Enmebaragesi of Kish (ca. 25th century BC), who is the earliest archaeologically attested Sumerian king, as well as by a later monarch, Eannatum I of Lagash.
Awan was a city or possibly a region of Elam whose precise location is not certain, but it has been variously conjectured to be north of Susa, in south Luristan, close to Dezful, or Godin Tepe.
According to the Sumerian king list, a dynasty from Awan exerted hegemony in Sumer at one time. It mentions three Awan kings, who supposedly reigned for a total of 356 years. Their names have not survived on the extant copies, apart from the partial name of the third king, "Ku-ul...", who it says ruled for 36 years. This information is not considered reliable, but it does suggest that Awan had political importance in the 3rd millennium BC.
A royal list found at Susa gives 12 names of the kings in the Awan dynasty. As there are very few other sources for this period, most of these names are
The Ghaznavid dynasty (Persian: غزنویان) was a Turkic mamluk Muslim dynasty which adopted Persianate culture and ruled much of Persia, Transoxania, and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent from 975 to 1186. The dynasty was founded by Sebuktigin, upon his succession to rule Ghazna (modern-day Ghazni Province in Afghanistan) after his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a break-away ex-general of the Samanids from Balk, north of the Hindu Kush in Khorasan.
Sebuktigin's son, Mahmud of Ghazni, expanded the Ghaznavid Empire by stretching it between the Oxus River (Amu Darya) to the Indus Valley and the Indian Ocean; and in the west it reached Rey and Hamadan (modern-day Iran). Due to the political and cultural influence of their predecessors - that of the Persian Samanid Empire - the originally Turkic Ghaznavid rulers had become Persianized.
Under the reign of Mas'ud I, the Ghaznavid dynasty began losing control over its western territories to the Seljuqs after the Battle of Dandanaqan, resulting in a restriction of its holdings to modern-day Afghanistan, Western Punjab and the Balochistan region. In 1151, Sultan Bahram Shah lost Ghazni to Ala'uddin Hussain of Ghor.
The Herodian Dynasty was a Judean dynasty of Idumean descent. Herodian dynasty began with Herod the Great, who assumed the throne of Judea, with Roman support, bringing down the century long Hasmonean Kingdom. His kingdom lasted until 4 BCE, when it was divided between his sons as Tetrarchy, which lasted for about 10 years. Most of those kingdoms, including Judea proper, were incorporated into Judaea Province in 6 CE, though limited Herodian kingship continued in Northern Levant until 92 CE, when the last Herodian monarch, Agrippa II, died and Rome assumed full power of his domain.
During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus 134-104 BCE, Judea conquered Edom (Idumea) and forced the Edomites to convert to Judaism.
The Edomites were gradually integrated into the Judean nation, and some of them reached high ranking positions. In the days of Alexander Jannaeus, Edomite Antipas, was appointed governor of Edom. His son Antipater, father of Herod the Great, was the chief adviser to Hasmonean Hyrcanus II and managed to establish a good relationship with the Roman Republic, who at that time (63 BCE) extended their influence over the region, following conquest of Syria and
The House of Bjelbo (Swedish: Bjälboätten), also known as the House of Folkung (Folkungaätten), was an Ostrogothian Swedish family that provided for several medieval Swedish bishops, jarls and kings. It also provided three kings of Norway, and one king of Denmark in the 14th century.
The house has been known as the "House of Folkung" since the 17th century, and this name is still the most commonly used in Swedish works of reference. This name is probably derived from the oldest known member of the family who is certain to have existed, i.e. Folke who lived about the year 1100, or their legendary forefather Folke Filbyter who lived in pagan times. In an effort to avoid confusion with the Folkunge Party some modern historians have argued that "House of Bjälbo" would be a better name because Birger Jarl lived there and it is the family's oldest known manor. Bjälbo is located in Östergötland, outside of Skänninge in the present-day commune of Mjölby. In any way the members of this dynasty never used a name to refer to themselves since family names were not widely adopted in Sweden until the 16th century, thus there is no "correct name" of the dynasty which would have precedence over
The House of Lorraine, the main and now only remaining line known as Habsburg-Lorraine, is one of the most important and was one of the longest-reigning royal houses in the history of Europe. Currently the house is headed by Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, the titular Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Galicia and Lodomeria, Illyria, as well as the titular King of Jerusalem.
The house claims descent from Gerard I of Paris (Count of Paris) (died 779) whose immediate descendants are known as the Girardides. The Matfridings of the 10th century are thought to have been a branch of the family; at the turn of the 10th century they were Counts of Metz and ruled a set of lordships in Alsace and Lorraine. The Renaissance dukes of Lorraine tended to arrogate to themselves claims to Carolingian ancestry, as illustrated by Alexandre Dumas, père in the novel La Dame de Monsoreau (1846); in fact, so little documentation survives on the early generations that the reconstruction of a family tree for progenitors of the House of Alsace involves a good deal of guesswork.
What is more securely demonstrated is that in 1048 Emperor Henry III gave the Duchy of Upper Lorraine first to
The House of Obrenović (Serbian pronunciation: [obrěːnoʋitɕ]; Serbian: Обреновићи, Obrenovići, often spelled in English as Obrenovich or Obrenovitch) was a Serbian dynasty that ruled Serbia from 1817 to 1842, and again from 1858 to 1903. They came to power through the leadership of their progenitor Miloš Obrenović I in the Serbian Uprising of (1815–1817) against the Ottoman Empire, which led to the formation of the Principality of Serbia in 1817. The monarchs tended to rule autocratically, their popularity waxing and waning over their decades in power.
The family's rule came to an end when an underground movement the Black Hand, murdered the last sovereign Alexander I, proximately because of his unpopular choice of bride. After the end of their rule, a constitutional monarchy headed by the House of Karađorđević took its place.
Unlike other Balkan states such as Greece, Bulgaria, or Romania, Serbia did not import a member of an existing European royal family to take its throne; the House of Obrenović, like its Karađorđević rival, was a "home-grown" Serbian family.
Unlike most other dynasties in Europe, where a numeral is used to distinguish different monarchs who shared the same
The Malla Dynasty was a ruling dynasty of Nepal from the 12th to the 18th century. It was during their reign the people living in and around the Kathmandu Valley began to be called as "Newars" (or Nepa:mi in Newari language, meaning the citizens of Nepal). The Mallas were the ruling clan of the Malla Mahajanapada. The Mallas (literally "wrestlers" in Sanskrit) had been forced out of India and their name can be found in the Mahabharat and in Buddhist literature. The first of the Malla kings came to power in Kathmandu Valley around 1200. The Malla period was a golden one that stretched over 550 years, though it was peppered with fighting over the valuable trade routes to Tibet.
Beginning in the early twelfth century, leading notables in Nepal began to appear with names ending in the term malla, ("wrestler" in Sanskrit), indicating a person of great strength and power. Arimalla (reigned 1200–16) was the first king to be so called, and the practice of adopting such a name was followed regularly by rulers in Nepal until the eighteenth century. (The names of the Malla kings were also represented as, for example, Ari Malla.) This long Malla period witnessed the continued importance of the
The Rurik dynasty or Rurikids (Russian: Рю́риковичи, Ukrainian: Рю́риковичі, Belarusian: Ру́рыковичи) was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year 862 AD. The Rurikids were the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus' (after 862), the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia (after 1199), Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Russia. They are one of Europe's oldest royal houses, with numerous existing cadet branches.
The Rurikid dynasty was founded in 862 by Rurik, a Varangian prince. The apocryphal story tells of the [Slavic] tribes in the area calling on “‘the Varangians [i.e. Scandinavians], to the Rus' … The Chud, the Slovenes, the Krivichi and the Ves said “Our land is vast and abundant, but there is no order in it. Come and reign as princes and have authority over us!”’ Three brothers came with ‘their kin’ and ‘all the Rus’ in response to this invitation. Rurik set up rule in Novgorod, giving more provincial towns to his brothers. There is some ambiguity even in the Primary Chronicle about the specifics of the story, “hence their paradoxical statement ‘the people of
The Toungoo Dynasty (Burmese: တောင်ငူခေတ် [tàʊɴŋù kʰɪʔ]; also spelled Taungoo Dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from the mid-16th century to 1752. Its early kings Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung succeeded in reunifying the Pagan Empire for the first time since 1287, and in incorporating the Shan States for the first time. At its peak, the First Toungoo Empire also included Manipur, Chinese Shan States, Siam, and Lan Xang, but the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia collapsed in 1599, 18 years after Bayinnaung's death.
The dynasty quickly regrouped under the leadership of Nyaungyan and his son Anaukpetlun who succeeded in restoring a smaller, more manageable kingdom, encompassing Lower Burma, Upper Burma, Shan States and Lan Na by 1616. The Restored Toungoo kings, now based in Ava (Inwa), and created a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into 19th century. The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous
The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty is often combined with other groupings of rulers of ancient Egypt under the title, Late Period. These other groupings include the Twenty-Sixth, Twenty-Seventh, Twenty-Ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-First dynasties.
The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, and led a successful revolt against the Persians on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of his reign.
The Wuffingas or Wuffings were the ruling dynasty of East Anglia, the long-lived Anglo-Saxon kingdom which today includes the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The Wuffingas took their name from Wuffa, an early East Anglian king. It has been argued that the Wuffingas may have originated from a branch of the Geatish dynasty. Nothing is known of the members of the dynasty before Rædwald, who ruled from about 599 to circa 624. The Viking invasions of the ninth century destroyed the monasteries in East Anglia where many documents relating to the rule of the Wuffingas would have been kept.
The last of the Wuffingas kings was Ælfwald, who died in 749 and who was succeeded by kings whose lineage is unknown.
The following family tree includes the Wuffingas kings from Wehha to Ælfwald. They are numbered in order of ruling. Ecgric of East Anglia was also a member of the Wuffingas house, but his exact descent is not decided. He may have been Sigebert's brother, or his step-brother.
The kingdom of East Anglia was settled by peoples from northern Europe during the 5th and 6th centuries. Historical sources relating to the genealogy of the East Anglian kings include the Anglo-Saxon
The House of Seljuq (Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqīyān; Turkish: Selçuklular) was a Turkish Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually adopted Persian culture and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Great Seljuq Empire and Sultanate of Rum, which at their total height stretched from Anatolia through Persia, and were targets of the First Crusade.
The Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of Oghuz Turks who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral seas in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy, in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan. In 985, the Seljuq clan split off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz. They set up camp on the right bank of the lower Syr Darya (Jaxartes), where they converted to Islam.
Later, in the 10th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire. At the battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army and following Tughrul's successful siege of Isfahan in 1050-1051, led to the establishment of an empire which would later be called
The House of Bonaparte is an imperial and royal European dynasty founded by Napoleon I of France in 1804, a French military leader who rose to notability out of the French Revolution and transformed the French Republic into the First French Empire within five years of his coup d'état. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, founding the dynasty.
Throughout its history, the dynasty, as well as being Emperors of the French, held various other titles and territories including; their ancestral nation the Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Westphalia, Kingdom of Holland and the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty was in a position of power for around a decade until the Napoleonic Wars began to take their toll. Making very powerful enemies such as Austria, United Kingdom, Russia and Prussia, as well as royalist (particularly Bourbon) restorational movements in France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Sardinia, the dynasty eventually collapsed under its own weight.
Between the years 1852 and 1870 there was a Second
The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe. It is named after the lordship associated with Nassau Castle, located in present-day Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The lords of Nassau were originally titled Count of Nassau, then elevated to the princely class as princely counts. At the end of the Holy Roman Empire, they proclaimed themselves Dukes of Nassau.
All Dutch queens since 1890 and the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg since 1912 have been descended in the female line from the House of Nassau. According to German tradition, the family name is passed only in the male line of succession. The house is therefore, from this perspective, extinct since 1985. However Dutch aristocratic customs (and Luxembourg's, which are based on the aforementioned) differ, and do not consider the House extinct.
Count Dudo-Henry of Laurenburg (ca. 1060 - ca. 1123) is considered the founder of the House of Nassau. He is first mentioned in the purported founding-charter of Maria Laach Abbey in 1093 (although many historians consider the document to be fabricated). The Castle Laurenburg, located a few miles upriver from Nassau on the Lahn, was the seat of his lordship. His family
The House of Hohenzollern is a noble family and royal dynasty of electors, kings and emperors of Prussia, Germany and Romania. It originated in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century. They took their name from their ancestral home, the Burg Hohenzollern castle near Hechingen.
The family uses the motto Nihil Sine Deo (English: Nothing Without God). The family coat of arms, first adopted in 1192, began as a simple shield quarterly sable and argent. A century later, in 1317, Frederick IV, Burgrave of Nuremberg, added the head and shoulders of a hound as a crest. Later quartering reflected heiresses’ marriages into the family.
The family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch, known also as the Kirschner line. The Swabian branch ruled the area of Hechingen until their eventual extinction in 1869. The Franconian-Kirschner branch was more successful: members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525. Following the union of these two Franconian lines in 1618, the Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany and
The House of Romanov (Russian: Рома́нов, IPA: [rɐˈmanəf]) was the second and last imperial dynasty to rule over Russia, reigning from 1613 until the February Revolution abolished the crown in 1917. The later history of the Imperial House is sometimes referred to informally as the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov.
The Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, who was himself a member of a cadet branch of the Oldenburgs, married into the Romanov family early in the 18th century; all Romanov Tsars from the middle of that century to the revolution of 1917 were descended from that marriage. Though officially known as the House of Romanov, these descendants of the Romanov and Oldenburg Houses are sometimes referred to as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov.
The Romanovs share their origin with two dozen other Russian noble families. Their earliest common ancestor is one Andrei Kobyla, attested as a boyar in the service of Semyon I of Moscow. Later generations assigned to Kobyla the most illustrious pedigrees. An 18th century genealogy book claimed that he was the son of the Prussian prince Glanda Kambila, who came to Russia in the second half of the 13th century, fleeing the invading Germans. Indeed, one of the
The Capetian House of Anjou, also known as the House of Anjou-Sicily and House of Anjou-Naples, was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct House of Capet. Founded by Charles I of Sicily, a son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily during the 13th century. Later the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with just the southern half of the Italian Peninsula — the Kingdom of Naples. The house and its various branches would go on to influence much of the history of Southern and Central Europe during the Middle Ages, until becoming defunct in 1435.
In its time, the House ruled Naples and Sicily, Hungary, Croatia, and Poland.
A younger son of House of Capet king Louis VIII of France the Lion, Charles was first given a noble title by his brother Louis IX of France who succeeded to the French throne in 1246. Charles was named Count of Anjou and Maine; the feudal County of Anjou was a western vassal state of the Kingdom of France, which the Capetians had wrested from the House of Plantagenet only a few decades earlier. Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence named Beatrice of Provence, she
Dhaka Nawab Family reigned in Dhaka from mid 19th century to mid 20th century, after the fall of the Naib Nazims. The hereditary title of Nawab, similar to the British peerage, was conferred upon the head of the Family by the British Raj as a recognition of their loyalty in the time of the Sepoy Mutiny. The Family is a legal entity, created by a Waqfnama back in 1854. The self-definition is a Family instead of an Estate due to certain legal considerations imposed by the East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950.
They were not sovereigns, but played an important role in the politics of South Asia. The family was owner of Dhaka Nawab Estate, and were seated at Ahsan Manzil. Nawab of Dhaka was the title of the head of family and estate. Khwaja Alimullah was the first Nawab of Dhaka instated by the British Raj. Khwaja Abdul Ghani was the first person in the family to wield that title as a statesman.
Considerable infighting within the Nawab family lead to the decline of the estate. In 1952 the East Pakistan Estates Acquisition Act formally abolished the estate. Successive land reform in Pakistan and Bangladesh brought an end to the remaining landholdings of the Nawab family.
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman Imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96). The Flavians rose to power during the civil war of 69, known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho died in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. His claim to the throne was quickly challenged by legions stationed in the Eastern provinces, who declared their commander Vespasian Emperor in his place. The Second Battle of Bedriacum tilted the balance decisively in favour of the Flavian forces, who entered Rome on December 20. The following day, the Roman Senate officially declared Vespasian emperor of the Roman Empire, thus commencing the Flavian dynasty. Although the dynasty proved to be short-lived, several significant historic, economic and military events took place during their reign.
The reign of Titus was struck by multiple natural disasters, the most severe of which was the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79. The surrounding cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were completely buried under ash and lava. One year later, Rome was struck by fire and a
The House of Mukhrani is a Georgian princely family, a collateral branch of the former royal dynasty of Bagrationi of which it sprung early in the 16th century, and received in appanage the domain of Mukhrani located in Kartli, central Georgia. The family has since been known as Mukhran-Batoni (Georgian: მუხრანბატონი), that is "lords (batoni) of Mukhrani".
An elder branch of the house of Mukhrani, now extinct, furnished five royal sovereigns of Kartli between 1658 and 1724. Its descendants bore the Imperial Russian noble titles of Princes of Georgia (Gruzinsky; Грузи́нский, გრუზინსკი) and Princes Bagration (Багратион, ბაგრატიონი). A younger branch, received among the princely nobility of Russia under the name of Bagration of Mukhrani (Bagration-Mukhransky; Russian: Багратион-Мухранский; Bagration-Mukhraneli, Georgian: ბაგრატიონ-მუხრანელი), still flourishes and has, since 1957, claimed to be the Royal House of Georgia by virtue of being the genealogically eldest surviving line of the Bagrationi dynasty. David Bagration of Mukhrani has been the head of this house since January 16, 2008.
Origins of the house of Mukhrani date back to 1512, when King David X of Kartli was oblidged to
The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau, Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦœy̆s fɑn oˈrɑɲə ˈnɑsʌu̯]), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands — and at times in Europe — especially since William I of Orange (also known as "William the Silent" and "Father of the Fatherland") organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War led to an independent Dutch state.
Several members of the house served during this war and after as governor or stadtholder (Dutch stadhouder) during the Dutch Republic. However, in 1815, after a long period as a republic, the Netherlands became a monarchy under the House of Orange-Nassau.
The dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Hendrik III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and Claudia of Châlon-Orange from French Burgundy in 1515. Their son René inherited in 1530 the Principality of Orange from his mother's brother, Philibert of Châlon. As the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used "Orange-Nassau" as his new family name. However, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of
Monarchs from this line:Louis-Philippe I of France
Kingdom(s) ruled:Kingdom of France
Succeeded by:House of Bonaparte
Orléans is the name used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet. It became a tradition during France's ancien régime for the duchy of Orléans to be granted as an appanage to a younger (usually the second surviving) son of the king. While each of the Orléans branches thus descended from a junior prince, they were always among the king's nearest relations in the male line, sometimes aspiring and sometimes succeeding to the throne itself.
The last cadet branch to hold the ducal title descended from Henri de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (Henry IV of France), who became king (nominally) in 1589, and is sometimes known as the "House of Bourbon-Orléans" (Maison de Bourbon-Orléans). From 1709 until the French Revolution the Orléans dukes were next in the order of succession to the French throne after members of the seniormost branch of the House of Bourbon, descended from Louis XIV. Louis XIII's younger brother and younger son were granted the dukedom successively in 1626 and 1660, and since they had contemporaneous living descendants, there were actually two Bourbon-Orléans branches at court during the
Monarchs from this line:Metropolitan Danilo I Petrović-Njegoš
Kingdom(s) ruled:Kingdom of Montenegro
The House of Petrović-Njegoš (Serbian Cyrillic: Петровић-Његош) was the reigning family of Montenegro from 1696 to 1918. Montenegro had enjoyed de facto independence from the Ottoman Empire from 1711 but only received formal international recognition as an independent principality in 1878.
Montenegro was ruled from inception by Vladikas, Prince-Bishops, who had a dual temporal and spiritual role. In 1852 this role was amended to be a purely temporal office. In 1910 the ruling prince Nikola I announced his elevation to King. In 1916 King Nikola I was ousted by the invasion and occupation of his country by Austria-Hungary that was followed by his formal deposition by the Podgorica Assembly in 1918 as Montenegro was annexed by the emergent Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
A period of eighty years of control from Belgrade followed during which Nikola I died in exile in France in 1921 followed shorty afterwards by the surprise abdication of his son and heir, Danilo III, the same year. The latter's nephew, Michael Petrović-Njegoš, inherited the titles of his predecessors whilst in exile in France and survived arrest and internment by order of Adolf Hitler for refusing to head up a
The House of Saud (Arabic: آل سعود Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. The family has thousands of members. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad ibn Saud and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman Al Saud. The family advocates Salafi Islam and unification of Arabia.
The most influential member of the family is the King of Saudi Arabia. The line of succession to the Saudi Arabian throne is not father–son but brother–brother among the children of King Abdul-Aziz. The family is estimated to be composed of 15,000 members, but the majority of the power and wealth is possessed by a group of only about 2,000.
The House of Saud has gone through three phases: the First Saudi State, the Second Saudi State, and the modern nation of Saudi Arabia. The First Saudi State marked the expansion of Wahhabi Islam. The Second Saudi State was marked with continuous infighting. The modern nation of Saudi Arabia wields considerable influence in the Middle East. The family has had conflicts with the Ottoman Empire, the Sharif of Mecca, and the Al Rashid family of Ha'il.
House of Saud is a
Monarchs from this line:Philibert II, Duke of Savoy
Kingdom(s) ruled:Kingdom of Sardinia
The House of Savoy (Italian: Casa di Savoia) was formed in the early 11th century in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to eventually rule the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until the end of World War II. The House of Savoy ruled unified Italy for 85 years with Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II as monarchs. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being overthrown by a popular referendum and a new republican government.
The House of Savoy emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, in what is now called Switzerland. The name derives from the historical region Savoy in what is now France and Italy. Over time the house expanded from that region to rule almost all of the Italian Peninsula. Yet their growth and survival over the centuries was not based on spectacular conquests, but on gradual territorial expansion through marriage and methodical and highly manipulative political acquisitions.
The house descended from Humbert I, Count of Sabaudia (Umberto I "Biancamano"), (1003–1047 or 1048). Humbert's family are thought to have originated from near Magdeburg in Saxony,
Schwarzenberg (Czech: ze Švarcenberka) is the name of a Franconian and Bohemian aristocratic family.
The family was first mentioned in 1172. A branch of the Seinsheim family (the non-Schwarzenberg portion died out in 1958) was created when Erkinger I of Seinsheim acquired the Franconian barony of Schwarzenberg, the castle Schwarzenberg and the title Baron of Schwarzenberg, in 1405–21. At this time, they also possessed some fiefdoms in Bohemia. In 1599 the Schwarzenbergs were elevated to Counts and in 1670 to Princes. The House of Schwarzenberg came into extensive land holdings in Bohemia in 1661 through a marriage alliance with the House of Eggenberg. In the 1670s, they established their primary seat in Bohemia. Until 1918 their primary residence was in Český Krumlov, Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic).
In the late 18th century, the House of Schwarzenberg was divided into two titled lines (majorats). The elder line died out in the male line in 1965 with Heinrich Schwarzenberg, the 11th Prince of Schwarzenberg. The second line was established with Prince Karl Philipp of Schwarzenberg at Orlík, Murau and Vienna. Today the two lines are united under the current head of the house,
Monarchs from this line:Mir Akbar Ali Khan Asif Jah III
The Hyderābād State pronunciation (help·info) was located in the south-central region of the Indian subcontinent, and was ruled, from 1724 until 1948, by a hereditary Nizam. The capital city was Hyderabad.
The region became part of the Mughal Empire in the 1680s. When the empire began to weaken in the 18th century, a Mughal official, Asif Jah, defeated a rival Mughal governor's attempt to seize control of the empire's southern provinces, declaring himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. The Mughal emperor, under renewed attack from the Marathas, was unable to prevent it.
Nizam's Dominions in the 18th century extended from Aurangabad and Berar in the north to Tiruchirapally in the south, encompassing the entire area of 'Circars' (later annexed by French and British forces), and parts of today's Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The areas in what is now Tamil Nadu were administered by the Nawab of the Carnatic, who acknowledged the Nizam's suzerainty. However, with the death of the first Nizam and the arrival of foreign forces, the dominions gradually lost their coastal territories.
From 1798 Hyderabad was one of the princely states existing alongside
The Koch dynasty of Assam and Bengal, named after the Koch tribe, emerged as the dominant ruling house in the Kamata kingdom in 1515 after the fall of the Khen dynasty in 1498. The first of the Koch kings, Viswa Singha and then his sons, Nara Narayan as the subsequent king and Chilarai as the general, soon occupied the western portion of the erstwhile Kamarupa Kingdom as well as some regions of south Assam. The dynasty forked for the first time into two major branches that controlled Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo. Koch Bihar became a vassal of the Mughals, whereas Koch Hajo came under Ahom control and was subsequently absorbed. Koch Bihar became a princely state during British rule and was absorbed after Indian independence. A third branch of this dynasty at Khaspur disappeared into the Kachari kingdom.
After the fall of the Pala dynasty of Kamarupa, the Kamarupa fractured into differing domains. In the extreme east the Sutiya kingdom emerged on the north bank of Brahmaputra river. The Ahom kingdom emerged in the south bank and to their west was the Kachari kingdom. Further west was the region of the Baro-Bhuyan landlords and still further west was the Kamata kingdom. The last of the
The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasties VII and VIII) are often combined with Dynasties IX, X and XI (Thebes only) under the group title First Intermediate Period. The Dynasties VII and VIII date approximately from 2181 to 2160 BC.
Dynasties VII and VIII are a little-known line of kings (pharaohs) during a confusing time in the history of Egypt. Known rulers for these dynasties are as follows:
The three sources which provide our knowledge on this period is exceedingly difficult to work with. Manetho's full history does not survive intact, but is known through other writers who quoted from it. Unfortunately, the two ancient historians who quote from this section, Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius of Caesarea, provide inconsistent accounts of both dynasties. Africanus claims that Dynasty VII consisted of 70 kings that ruled during a period of seventy days in Memphis, and Dynasty VIII consisted of 27 kings who reigned for 146 years. However, Eusebius records that during Dynasty VII five kings ruled over seventy five days, and Dynasty VIII includes five kings who ruled for 100 years. Seventy kings in seventy days is usually considered the correct version
Thanjavur Nayaks were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu between the 16th to the 17th century. The Nayaks were appointed as provincial governors by the Vijayanagar Emperor who divided the Tamil country into three Nayakships viz., Madurai, Tanjore and Gingi. Thanjavur Nayaks were notable for their patronage of literature and the arts.
A few indicators point out the affiliation of the Tanjore Nayaks to the Balija social group. A translation from Sources (p. 284) on Raghunathabhyudayam, says this about Timma, the father of Sevappa Nayak, the founder of the Tanjore Nayak line: In the Shudra caste born from the feet of Vishnu was born a king called Timma. The Mannaru (Vishnu) of the Mannargudi temple was their kula daivam (family deity).
With the demise of the Chola dynasty in 1279, Thanjavur was ruled by various small chieftains, until the Vijayanagara Empire conquered all of south India by the late 14th century. The Vijayanagar rulers installed viceroys to rule over various parts of the empire. In 1532 CE, Achyuta Deva Raya, the brother and successor of Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagar granted Sevappa Nayak, the governor of Thanjavur, permission to establish a
The Abbadid dynasty or Abbadids (Arabic,بنو عباد) was an Arab Muslim Dynasty which arose in Al-Andalus on the downfall of the Caliphate of Cordoba (756–1031). Abbadid rule lasted from about 1023 until 1091, but during the short period of its existence it exhibited singular energy and typified its time.
Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad (ruled 1023–1042), the qadi of Seville, founded the house in 1023. He functioned as the chief of an Arab family settled in the city from the first days of the conquest. The Beni-abbad had not previously played a major role in history, though they were of noble pedigree, hailing from Bani Lakhm, the historical kings of Al-Hira in south-central Iraq. The family also did have considerable wealth.
Al-Qasim gained the confidence of the townsmen by organizing a successful resistance to the Berber soldiers of fortune who had grasped at the fragments of the caliphate. At first, he professed to rule only with the advice of a council formed of the nobles, but when his power became established, he dispensed with this show of republican government, and then gave himself the appearance of a legitimate title by protecting an impostor who professed to be the caliph
Lodi Dynasty (Pashto: د لوديانو واکمني) was a Pashtun dynasty that was the last dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate. The dynasty founded by Bahlul Lodi ruled from 1451 to 1526. The last ruler of this dynasty, Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526.
It was during the time of Lodi Dynasty in Delhi, the first Portuguese Armada under Vasco da Gama landed in India.
Bahlul Khan Lodi (r.1451–89) was the nephew and son-in-law of Islam Khan (Malik Sultan Shah Lodi), the governor of Sirhind in (Punjab), India and succeeded him as the governor of Sirhind during the reign of Sayyid dynasty ruler Muhammad Shah (Muhammad-bin-Farid). Muhammad Shah raised him to the status of an Emir. After the last Sayyid ruler of Delhi, Ala-ud-Din Alam Shah voluntarily abdicated in favour of him, Bahlul Khan Lodi ascended the throne of the Delhi sultanate on April 19, 1451. Bahlul spent most of his time in fighting against the Sharqi dynasty and ultimately annexed it. He placed his eldest surviving son Barbak on the throne of Jaunpur in 1486.
Sikandar Lodi (r.1489–1517) (born Nizam Khan), the second son of Bahlul, succeeded him after his death on July 17,
The Reddy kingdom (1325 - 1448 CE) was established in southern India by Prolaya Vema Reddy. The region that was ruled by the Reddy dynasty is now part of modern day coastal and central Andhra Pradesh. Prolaya Vema Reddy was part of the confederation that started a movement against the invading Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal. Reddy is a social group or caste of India, predominantly inhabiting Andhra Pradesh.
The first of the Reddy clans came into prominence during the Kakatiya period. The Reddy chiefs were appointed as generals and soldiers under the Kakatiyas. Reddys were among the feudatories of Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra. During this time the Reddys carved out feudal principalities for themselves. The Reddy feudatories fought against the invading Muslim sultans and defended the region from coming under Muslim rule. Eventually, the Muslim army of the Delhi Sultanate invaded Warangal and captured Pratapa Rudra. In 1323 CE, after the death of Pratapa Rudra and the subsequent fall of the Kakatiya empire, the Reddy chiefs became independent. Prolaya Vema Reddy proclaimed independence and established the Reddy kingdom in
The Salian dynasty [German: Salier] was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages of four German Kings (1024–1125), also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's origin and role as dukes of Franconia. All of these kings were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor (1027–1125): the term 'Salic dynasty' also applies to the Holy Roman Empire as a separate term.
After the death of the last Saxon of the Ottonian Dynasty in 1024, first the elected German King and then three years later the elected position of Holy Roman Emperor both passed to the first monarch of the Salian dynasty in the person of Conrad II, the only son of Count Henry of Speyer and Adelheid of Alsace (both territories in the Franconia of the day). He was elected German King in 1024 and crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on 26 March 1027.
The four Salian kings of the dynasty — Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, and Henry V — ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 to 1125, and firmly established their monarchy as a major European power. They achieved the development of a permanent administrative system based on a class of public officials answerable to the crown.
Werner of Worms and his son Duke Conrad the Red of Lorraine, who
The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) (Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until Orhan Bey declared himself sultan. Before that the tribe/dynasty might have been known as Söğüt but was renamed Osmanlı (Ottoman in English) in honour of Osman.
The sultan was the sole and absolute regent, head of state and head of government of the empire, at least officially, though often much power shifted de facto to other officials, especially the Grand Vizier. See the article on state organisation of the Ottoman Empire for further information on the sultan and the structure of power.
The Ottoman dynasty is known in modern Turkish as Osmanlı Hanedanı, meaning "House of Osman"; in Ottoman Turkish it was known as Khanedan-i Âl-i Osman.
The first rulers of the dynasty did not take the title of Sultan, but rather Bey, a title roughly the Turkic equivalent of Lord, which would itself become a gubernatorial title and even a common military or honorific rank. Thus they still formally acknowledged the sovereignty of the Seljuk Sultanate and its successor, the
The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Other writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII was from approximately 1802 BC until ca. 1649 BC for 153 years.
There are many known rulers for Dynasty XIII. Some of the better known ones are listed below. The names and order in the table is based on Dodson and Hilton.
In later texts, this dynasty is usually described as an era of chaos and disorder. However, the period may have been more peaceful than was once thought since the central government in Itj-tawy near the Faiyum was sustained during most of the dynasty and the country remained relatively stable. Unfortunately, the true chronology of this dynasty is difficult to determine as there are few monuments dating from the period. Many of the kings' names are only known from an odd fragmentary inscription or from scarabs.
Ryholt gives a ruler named "Sobkhotep I Sekhemre-khutawy" as the first king of this dynasty. Sobekhotep Sekhemre Khutawy is referred to as Sobekhotep II in this
The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt followed Nectanebo I's deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. This dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period.
Nectanebo I had gained control of all of Egypt by November of 380 BC, but spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of Sparta or Athens. In 365, Nectanebo made his son Teos co-king and heir, and until his death in 363 father and son reigned together. After his father's death, Teos invaded the Persian territories of modern Syria and Israel and was beginning to meet with some successes when he lost his throne due the machinations of his own son Tjahepimu. Tjahepimu took advantage of Teos' unpopularity within Egypt by declaring his son—and Teos' grandson--Nectanebo II--king. The Egyptian army rallied around Nectanebo which forced Teos to flee to the court of the king of Persia.
Nectanebo II's reign was dominated by the efforts of the Persian rulers to reconquer Egypt, which they considered a satrapy in revolt. For the first ten years, Nectanebo avoided the Persian reconquest because Artaxerxes III was forced to consolidate his control of the realm. Artaxerxes then
Borjigin (plural Borjigid; Mongolian: Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordžigin; simplified Chinese: 博尔济吉特; traditional Chinese: 博爾濟吉特; pinyin: Bó'ěrjìjítè), Manchu: Borjigit, also known as the Altan urug (Mongolian: Алтан ураг, Altan urag, Golden kin), were the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors.
The Mongolian Borjigin clan is the most renowned family in Inner Asia. The senior Borjigids provided ruling princes for Mongolia and Inner Mongolia until the 20th century. The clan formed the ruling class among the Mongols, Kazakhs, and other peoples of Inner Asia. Today, the Borjigid are found in most of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. Also there are many living in Kazakhstan as Tore, "AkSuyek", or "White Bone".
The patrilineage began with Blu-grey Wolf (Börte Chino) and Fallow Doe (Gua Maral). As in The Secret History of the Mongols, their 11th generation descendant Dobu Mergen's widow Alan Gua the Fair was impregnated by a ray of light. Her youngest son became the ancestor of the later Borjigid. He was Bodonchar Munkhag (the Simple), who along with his brothers sired the entire Mongol nation. According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, many of Mongolian old clans were
The Cometopuli dynasty (Bulgarian: Династия на комитопулите; Byzantine Greek: Κομητόπουλοι) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca. 976 until the fall of Bulgaria under Byzantine rule in 1018. The most notable member of the dynasty, tsar Samuel is famous for successfully resisting Byzantine conquest for more than 40 years. Sometimes the realm of the Cometopuli is called Western Bulgarian Kingdom or Western Bulgarian Empire.
The actual name of the dynasty is not known. “Cometopuli” is merely the nickname which is used by Byzantine historians to address rulers from the dynasty as its founder, boyar Nikola, was a comes (governor, cognate to "count"; Byzantine Greek Κóμης, from the Latin; Bulgarian Комита Komita) probably of the region of Sredetz (the present-day capital of Bulgaria, Sofia). According to some sources the dynasty was of Armenian origin. In 969 AD and following the Russo-Byzantine conquest of Eastern Bulgaria, count Nikola assumed control of the Bulgarian lands west of the rivers Iskar and Struma. By the time of the Byzantine conquest of Preslav and the dethronement of Tsar Boris II in 972, Nikola had been killed and the rule assumed by
The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XI) was one group of rulers, whose earlier members are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, while the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom. They all ruled from Thebes.
The known rulers are as follows:
Manetho's statement that Dynasty XI consisted of 16 kings, who reigned for 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony establishes that this kingdom consisted of seven kings who ruled for a total of 143 years. However, his testimony that this dynasty was based at Thebes is verified by the contemporary evidence. It was during this dynasty that all of ancient Egypt was united under the Middle Kingdom.
This dynasty traces its origins to a nomarch of Thebes, "Intef the Great, son of Iku", who is mentioned in a number of contemporary inscriptions. However, his immediate successor Mentuhotep I is considered the first king of this dynasty.
An inscription carved during the reign of Wahankh Intef II shows that he was the first of this dynasty to claim to rule over the whole of Egypt, a claim which
The House of Ascania (German: Askanier) was a dynasty of German rulers. It was also known as the House of Anhalt, after Anhalt, its longest-held possession.
The Ascanians are named after Ascania (or Ascaria) Castle, Schloss Askanien, which is located near and named after Aschersleben. The castle was seat of the County of Ascania, a title that was later subsumed into the titles of the princes of Anhalt.
The earliest known member of the house, Esiko, Count of Ballenstedt, first appears in a document of 1036, and is assumed to have been a grandson (through his mother) of Odo I, Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark. From Odo, the Ascanians inherited large properties in the Saxon Eastern March.
Esiko's grandson was Otto, Count of Ballenstedt, who died in 1123. By Otto's marriage to Eilika, daughter of Magnus, Duke of Saxony, the Ascanians became heirs to half of the property of the House of Billung, former dukes of Saxony.
Otto's son, Albert the Bear, became, with the help of his mother's inheritance, the first Ascanian duke of Saxony in 1139. But he lost control of Saxony soon to the rival House of Guelph.
However, Albert inherited the Margraviate of Brandenburg from its last Wendish ruler,
The House of Bourbon (English /ˈbʊərbən/; French pronunciation: [buʁ.bɔ̃]) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty (/kəˈpiːʃⁱən/). Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs.
Bourbon monarchs ruled Navarre (from 1555) and France (from 1589) until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown. The Princes of Condé were a cadet branch of the dukes of Vendômes and, in turn, were senior to the Princes of Conti both of which are now extinct.
Philip V of Spain was the first Bourbon of Spain. The Spanish Bourbons (in Spain the name is spelled Borbón and rendered into English as Borbon) have been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931,
The Karađorđević (Serbian pronunciation: [karadʑɔ̌ːrdʑɛʋitɕ]; Serbian: Карађорђевићи, Karađorđevići; ) is a Serbian dynasty, which began with Karađorđe, the Grand Vožd of Serbia during the First Serbian Uprising. The family had a long blood feud with the Obrenović dynasty after Miloš Obrenović had Karađorđe murdered. The dynasty lost the throne in November 1945 when the communists seized power in Yugoslavia. Peter II of Yugoslavia never abdicated.
The name Karađorđević is derived from progenitor Đorđe Petrović "Karađorđe". It is mostly written as Karadjordjevic in lack of unicode, and anglicized as Karageorgevitch, Karageorgevich.
Karađorđe's paternal ancestors migrated during the Second Great Serb Migration in 1737-1739 under the leadership of Patriarch Šakabenta, as a result of the Austrian-Turkish War in which Serbs took part. According to Radoš Ljušić, Karađorđe's ancestors most likely migrated from the Herzegovina-Montenegro hills to Šumadija.
According to Serbian historiography Karađorđe's ancestors hailed from Vasojevići. The Vasojevići clan claim descent from Stephen Constantine of the Nemanjić dynasty (that ruled Medieval Serbia, 1166–1371). The Vasojevići were proud of
The House of Griffins or House of Pomerania, (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), also known as House of Greifen; House of Gryf, was a Polish dynasty of Royal dukes that ruled the Duchy of Pomerania from the 12th century until the death of the last Duke, Bogislaw XIV (Bogislaw XIV of Pomerania or Bogislav XIV (Latin: Bogislaus XIV; Polish: Bogusław XIV) in 1637, when Pomerania was divided between Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden. The name was used by the dynasty after the 15th century and had been taken from the ducal coat of arms, which had depicted a griffin since, at least, late in the 12th century. The first verifiable use of the griffin as the dynasty's heraldic emblem occurred in a seal of Casimir II, Duke of Pomerania, which showed the imaginary beast within a shield, and was attached to a document dated 1194.
Wartislaw I, from 1121 to 1135 a vassal of Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland, was the first known non-legendary member of the family. As Pomerania's neighbors often sought to dethrone the Griffins, the dynasty was in constant need of allies, leading to various intermarriages with other noble houses, especially those of neighboring Denmark, Rügen, Mecklenburg,
The designation Lord of the Isles (Scottish Gaelic: Triath nan Eilean or Rìgh Innse Gall) is today a title of Scottish nobility with historical roots that go back beyond the Kingdom of Scotland. It emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys. Although they were, at times, nominal vassals of the King of Norway, High King of Ireland, or the King of Scotland, the island chiefs remained functionally independent for many centuries. Their territory included the Hebrides, (Skye and Ross from 1438), Knoydart, Ardnamurchan, and the Kintyre peninsula. At their height they were the greatest landowners and most powerful Lords in Britain and its Isles (excluding Ireland) following the Kings of England and Scotland.
The end of the Lordship came in 1493 when John Macdonald II forfeited his estates and titles to James IV of Scotland. Since that time, the eldest male child of the reigning Scottish (and later, British) monarch has been styled "Lord of the Isles", though the office itself has been extinct since the 15th century. Today Charles, Prince of Wales is styled Lord of the
The Lý Dynasty (Vietnamese: nhà Lý, pronounced [ɲâː lǐ], like Lee; Hán tự: 李朝, Lý Triều), sometimes known as the Later Lý Dynasty (nhà Hậu Lý, [ɲâː hə̂ˀw lǐ]), was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Prior Lê Dynasty (nhà Tiền Lê) and ended in 1225 when the queen Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. They ruled Vietnam for a total of 216 years. During Lý Thánh Tông's reign, the official name of Vietnam became Đại Việt.
The Lý Dynasty was started by Lý Công Uẩn. The Lý was the first Vietnamese dynasty that was able to hold onto power for more than several decades, allowing them to secure and expand the territory. Domestically, while the Lý Emperors were devout Buddhists, the influence of Confucianism from China was on the rise, with the opening of the first University in Vietnam in 1070 (Temple of Literature) for selection of civil servants who are not from noble families. Politically, they created a system of administration based on rule of law rather than on autocratic principles. The fact that they chose the Đại La Citadel as the capital (later renamed Thăng Long and subsequently
The Trần Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Trần, Hán Việt: 陳朝, Trần Triều) was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded in 1225 when king Trần Thái Tông ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý Dynasty. The dynasty ruled for a total of 175 years, ending in 1400 when king Thiếu Đế, then five years old, was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather Hồ Quý Ly. Among other things, the Trần Dynasty are noted for defeating three Mongol invasions, most notably in the decisive Battle of Bạch Đằng River, in 1288.
The founder of the Trần clan in Đại Việt was Trần Kinh, a man of Tức Mặc village (now Mỹ Lộc, Nam Định) who lived by fishing. After three generations in Đại Việt, Trần clan became a rich and powerful family under Trần Lý who was Trần Kinh's grandson. During the troubled time under the reign of Lý Cao Tông, the Crown Prince Lý Sảm sought refuge in the family of Trần Lý and decided to marry his beautiful daughter Trần Thị Dung in 1209. Afterward, it was the Trần clan who helped Lý Cao Tông and Lý Sảm restore the throne in Thăng Long; therefore, the Emperor
The Afsharids (Persian: افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty of Turkic origin, from Khorasan, who ruled Persia in the 18th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah, who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. During Nader's reign, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sassanid Empire. After his death, most of his empire was divided between the Zands and the Durranis, and Afsharid rule was confined to a small local state in Khorasan. Finally, the Afsharid dynasty was overthrown by Mohammad Khan Qajar in 1796.
The dynasty was named after the Turkic Afshar tribe to which Nader belonged. The Afshars had migrated from Turkestan to Azerbaijan in the 13th century. In the early 17th century, the Persian Shah Abbas the Great moved many Afshars from Azerbaijan to Khorasan to defend the north-eastern borders of his state against the Uzbeks. Nader belonged to the Qereqlu branch of the Afshars.
Nader Shah was born (as Nader Qoli) into a humble semi-nomadic family of Khorasan, where he became a local warlord. His path to power began when the Ghilzai Shah Mahmud overthrew the weak Safavid shah Sultan
The Almohad Dynasty (Berber: Imweḥḥden, from Arabic الموحدون al-Muwaḥḥidun, "the monotheists" or "the Unitarians"), was a Moroccan Berber-Muslim dynasty founded in the 12th century that established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains in roughly 1120.
The movement was started by Ibn Tumart in the Masmuda tribe, followed by Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi between 1130 and his death in 1163, the Almohads defeated the ruling Almoravids, extending their power over all of the Maghreb. Al-Andalus, Moorish Iberia (southern Portugal and southern Spain) under the Almoravid dynasty, followed the fate of Africa.
The Almohad dominance of Iberia continued until 1212, when Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" (1199–1214) was defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena by an alliance of the Christian princes of Castile, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon after, with the great Moorish cities of Córdoba and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively.
The Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the piecemeal loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective
The Almoravids (Berber: ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ Imṛabḍen, Arabic: المرابطون Al-Murābiṭūn) were a Berber dynasty of Morocco, who formed an empire in the 11th-century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Their capital was Marrakesh, a city which they founded in 1062. The dynasty originated amongst the Lamtuna and the Gudala, which were nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara traversing the territory between southern Morocco, the Niger river and the Senegal river.
The Almoravids were crucial in avoiding a precipitated fall of Al-Andalus to the Iberian Christian kingdoms, when they decisively beat a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas. This enabled them to control an empire that stretched 3,000 kilometers north to south. However, the rule of the dynasty was relatively short-lived and the Almoravids fell - at the height of their power - when they failed to quell the Masmuda-led rebellion initiated by Ibn Tumart. As a result, their last king Ishaq ibn Ali was killed in Marrakesh in April 1147 by the Almohads who replaced them as a ruling dynasty both in Morocco and Al-Andalus.
The term "Almoravid" comes from the Arabic "al-Murabitun" (المرابطون)
The Antipatrid dynasty was a Macedonian dynasty founded by Cassander, the son of Antipater, who declared himself King of Macedon in 302 BC. This dynasty did not last long; in 294 BC it was overthrown by the Antigonid dynasty, whose members proved to be more effective rulers.
Members of the Antipatrid dynasty:
The Árpáds or Arpads (Hungarian: Árpádok, Croatian: Arpadovići, Serbian: Арпадовци/Arpadovci, Slovak: Arpádovci, Turkish: Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary (9th–10th centuries) and of the Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1301). The dynasty was named after Grand Prince Árpád who was the head of the Hungarian tribal federation during the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, c. 895. It is also referred to as Turul dynasty.
Both the first Grand Prince of the Hungarians (Álmos) and the first King of Hungary (Saint Stephen) were members of the dynasty.
Seven members of the dynasty were canonized or beatified by the Roman Catholic Church; therefore, the dynasty has been often referred to as the "Kindred of the Holy Kings" from the 13th century. Two Árpáds were canonized by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The dynasty came to end in 1301 with the death of King Andrew III of Hungary, while the last member of the House of Árpad, Andrew's daughter, Blessed Elizabeth of Töss, died in 1336 or 1338. All of the subsequent kings of Hungary (with the exception of King Matthias Corvinus) were cognatic descendants of the Árpáds dynasty. The Croy family and the Drummond family of
The Hotaki dynasty was founded in April 1709 by Mir Wais Hotak at Kandahar after leading a successful revolution against the Persian Safavids. It was an Afghan-ruled monarchy that lasted until 1738 when Nader Shah of Khorasan defeated Hussain Hotaki during the long siege of Kandahar. At its peak, the Hotaki dynasty ruled over a wide area which is now Iran, Afghanistan, and northwestern Pakistan. After the death of its founder in 1715, Mir Wais, the monarchy was succeeded by Abdul Aziz followed by Mahmud who conquered Persia in 1722 and ruled it violently until 1725 when overthrown by his cousin, Ashraf.
Kandahar province was ruled by the Shi'a Safavids during the early 18th century and the native Afghan tribes living in the area were Sunni Muslims. Immediately to the east began the Sunni Mughul Empire, who occasionally fought wars with the Safavids over the territory of southern Afghanistan.
In 1704, the Safavid Shah Husayn appointed George XI (Gurgīn Khān), who is believed to have converted to Islam. Gurgin began imprisoning and executing Afghans, especially those suspected of organizing rebellions. One of those arrested and imprisoned was Mir Wais who belonged to an influential
The House of Sabah (Arabic: آل صباح Al Sabah) is the ruling family of Kuwait. They are a clan from the `Anizzah tribe which migrated to Kuwait in the early 18th century from Najd (current day Saudi Arabia). They are also from the Utub tribe. After reaching Kuwait, they entered in an alliance with the other families of the Utub such as Al-Khalifa and Al Jalahma. They have ruled Kuwait since 1718 when Sabah I became Sheikh (chief) of Kuwait. Subsequent sheikhs are the descendants of Sabah I. The sons of Sabah I were Salman, Mohammad, Mubarak, Malik and Abdullah.
The Emir of Kuwait is the head of the executive branch. He is nominated by a family council headed by the most senior and prominent members of the Al-Sabah. The leadership is not strictly hereditary and although many Emirs have succeeded their fathers, the family chooses the leader from each succeeding generation. For example, the late Sheikh Jaber Al-Sabah appointed his cousin, Sheikh Sheikh Saad, as heir apparent.
The Kuwaiti parliament has a say in the appointment of the emir. Although customs prohibit the use of such measures, the parliament (per article 3 of the constitution) has a constitutional right to approve or
The House of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet branch of the Oldenburg dynasty, ruled Sweden from 1751 until 1818, and Norway from 1814 to 1818.
In 1743 Adolf Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp was elected crown prince of Sweden as a Swedish concession to Russia, a strategy for achieving an acceptable peace after the disastrous war of the same year. He became King of Sweden in 1751.
King Gustav III of Sweden, Adolf Frederick's eldest son, was enthusiastic about the fact that through his great-great-grandmother their dynasty descended from the royal House of Vasa. He expressed wishes that their house be known as Vasa, as the new Royal House of Vasa and the continuation of the original. There was no effective way to force this change. Historians have not agreed with Gustav's desires, and the house is always referred to as Holstein-Gottorp.
In 1809 Gustav III's son King Gustav IV Adolf was deposed following the loss of Finland, and the dynasty disappeared from Swedish history with the death of his uncle King Charles XIII in 1818. In 1810, Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, a Marshal of France, was elected crown prince, and became the founder of the next and current Swedish dynasty, the House of
The House of Stewart, or Stuart, is a European royal house. Founded by Robert II of Scotland, the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century, and subsequently held the position of the Kings of England, Ireland, and Great Britain. Their patrilineal ancestors (from Brittany) had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England. The dynasty inherited further territory by the 17th century which covered the entire British Isles, including the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Ireland, also maintaining a claim to the Kingdom of France.
In total, nine Stewart monarchs ruled just Scotland from 1371 until 1603. After this there was a Union of the Crowns under James VI & I who had become the senior genealogical claimant to The Crown holdings of the extinct House of Tudor. Thus there were six Stewart monarchs who ruled both England and Scotland as well as Ireland (although the later Stuart era was interrupted by an interregnum lasting from 1649–1660, as a result of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms). Additionally, at the foundation of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union, which
The Keira dynasty were the rulers of the Sultanate of Darfur from the seventeenth century to 1916. Originally the Keira clan were perhaps regional rulers in the Tunjur state, with Sulayman traditionally seen as the founder of the Darfur state. The monarchy was suspended after the Egyptian conquest of the region in 1874, but was revived as a de facto independent state in 1898 after the defeat of the Mahdiyah. The Keira dynasty finally ended in 1916 when the British annexed Darfur to the Sudan.
As of 2012, the family includes Ali B. Ali-Dinar, the grand-son of the last ruling Sultan.
The Later Lê Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Lê; Hán Việt: 後黎朝), sometimes referred to as the Lê Dynasty (the earlier Lê Dynasty ruled only for a brief period) was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief interruption.
The dynasty officially began in 1428 with the coronation of Lê Lợi after he drove the Ming army from Vietnam. In 1527, the Mạc Dynasty usurped the throne; when the Lê Dynasty was restored in 1533, they still had to compete for power with the Mạc Dynasty during the period known as Southern and Northern Dynasties. The restored Lê emperors held no real power, and by the time the Mạc Dynasty was confined to only a small area in 1592 and finally eradicated in 1677, actual power was in the hands of the Nguyễn Lords in the South and the Trịnh Lords in the North, both ruling in the name of the Lê emperor while fighting each other. Their rule officially ended in 1788, when the peasant uprising of the Tây Sơn brothers defeated both the Trịnh and the Nguyễn, ironically in order to restore power to the Lê Dynasty.
The Lê Dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Lợi's
The Liang Dynasty (Chinese: 梁朝; pinyin: Liáng cháo) (502-557), also known as the Southern Liang Dynasty (南梁), was the third of the Southern dynasties during China's Southern and Northern Dynasties period. It was followed by the Chen Dynasty. The Western Liang Dynasty (西梁), with its capital established at Jiangling in 555 by Emperor Xuan, a grandson of Liang's founder Emperor Wu, claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Liang Dynasty; it was subservient to the successive Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty, and Sui Dynasty, and was abolished by Emperor Wen of Sui in 587.
During the Liang Dynasty, in 547 a Persian embassy paid tribute to the Liang, amber was recorded as originating from Persia by the Liang Shu (Liang Book).
The ending date for Liang Dynasty itself is a matter of controversy among historians. Many historians consider the end of Emperor Jing's reign in 556, when he was forced to yield the throne to Chen Baxian, who established Chen Dynasty, to be Liang's end date. Others regard the abolition of Western Liang in 587 to be the true end of Liang.
A Liang scion named Xiao Xian attempted to revive the Liang dynasty during the collapse of the Sui dynasty. He was
Lippe-Biesterfeld was a cadet line of the House of Lippe between 1762 and 1905, a morganatic title till 1916, and a title of the Dutch Royal House created in 1937.
The branch of Lippe-Biesterfeld was founded by Jobst Herman (1625-1678), youngest son of Simon VII of Lippe-Detmold. From the line Lippe-Biesterfeld later the branch Lippe-Weissenfeld was separated. Both the Counties Lippe-Biesterfeld and Lippe-Weissenfeld were ceded and sold to the princely line of Lippe(-Detmold) on 24 May 1762. The Head of the Lippe-Biesterfeld family was given the style Illustrious Highness (German: Erlaucht) at Detmold on 27 August and 1 October 1844.
When in 1895 the mentally ill Prince Alexander ascended the throne of the Principality of Lippe, Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe was appointed to act as regent of Lippe, this according to a then secret kept decree of the predecessor Prince Woldemar. Alexander was the last male of the Lippe-Detmold line, the next senior lines of the House of Lippe were the Counts of Lippe-Biesterfeld, followed by the Counts of Lippe-Weissenfeld, and then by the most junior line the Princes of Schaumburg-Lippe.
Shortly after becoming a member state of the German Empire
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region known as Francia in Latin, largely corresponding to ancient Gaul, for 300 years from the middle of the 5th century.
The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I (c.457 – 481) the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481 – 511) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule.
After the death of Clovis there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front.
During the final century of the Merovingian rule, the dynasty was increasingly pushed into a ceremonial role. The Merovingian rule ended in March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III. Zachary's successor, Pope Stephen II, confirmed and anointed Pepin the Short, in 754 beginning the Carolingian monarchy.
The Merovingian ruling family were sometimes referred to as the "long-haired kings" (Latin reges criniti) by contemporaries, as their long hair distinguished them among the Franks, who commonly cut their hair short. The term "Merovingian" comes from medieval Latin Merovingi or
The Nasrid dynasty (Arabic: بنو نصر banū Naṣr) was the last Moorish and Muslim dynasty in Spain. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Twenty-three different emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1232 by Mohammed I ibn Nasr until January 2, 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered to the Christian Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule.
Arabs trace their ancestry through their nasab, i.e. patrilineal descent. The Nasrid dynasty claimed direct male-line descent from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, chief of the Banu Khazraj tribe and one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Banu Khazraj were themselves part of the Qahtanite group of tribes, which originate in the southern regions of the Arabian Peninsula. The nasab of Yusuf (nicknamed "al-Ahmar", meaning "the Red"), the common ancestor of all Nasrid sultans, is shown below. The name of Nasr, from whom the dynasty derives its name, appears in bold font.
During the time the Christians were launching a campaign against the Emirate of
The Nguyễn Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm: 家阮, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam. Their rule lasted a total of 143 years. It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Tây Sơn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when Bảo Đại abdicated the throne and transferred power to the State of Vietnam. During the reign of Emperor Gia Long, the nation officially became known as Việt Nam (越南), but from the reign of emperor Minh Mạng on, the nation was renamed Đại Nam (大南, literally "Great South"). Their rule was marked by the increasing influence of French colonialism; the nation was eventually partitioned into three, Cochinchina became a French colony while Annam and Tonkin became protectorates which were independent in name only.
The Nguyễn family had been one of the major families in Vietnamese history, dating back to the days of the Hero–Emperor Lê Lợi. Due to a civil war and the weakness of the Later Lê Dynasty, the Nguyễn and the Trịnh (another of the major families) joined together in opposition to the Mạc. Nguyễn Kim, the leader of this alliance, was assassinated in 1545 by a servant of the Mạc. Kim's son-in-law Trịnh Kiểm, took over
The Sātavāhana Empire (Telugu: శాతవాహన సామ్రాజ్యము, Maharashtri: सालवाहण, Sālavāhaṇa) or Andhra Empire, was a royal Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan Empire.
Sātavāhanas started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, but declared independence with its decline. They are known for their patronage of Hinduism and Buddhism which resulted in Buddhist monuments from Ellora (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) to Amaravati. The Sātavāhanas were one of the first Indian state to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade as well as the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India.
They had to compete with the Sungas
The Shishunaga dynasty is believed to have been the third ruling dynasty of Magadha, a kingdom in ancient India. But according to the Puranas, this dynasty is the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, which succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty.
Shishunaga, the founder of this dynasty was initially an amatya (minister) of the last Haryanka dynasty ruler Nagadasaka and ascended to the thone after a popular rebellion in c. 413 BCE. The capital of this dynasty initially was Rajagriha, but later shifted to Pataliputra, near the present day Patna during the reign of Kakavarna. According to tradition, Kakavarna was succeeded by his ten sons. This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda dynasty in c.345 BCE.
Shishunaga (also called King Sisunaka) was the founder of this dynasty, known as the Shishunaga or Shaishunaga dynasty. He established the Magadha empire in 413 BCE. This empire, with its original capital in Rajgriha, later shifted to Pataliputra (both currently in the Indian state of Bihar). The Shishunaga dynasty in its time was the rulers of one of the largest empires of the Indian subcontinent.
According to the Puranas, Shishunaga was succeeded by his son Kakavarna and according to the Sinhala
The Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE) was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty.
Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui Dynasty capital was at Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing). His reign saw the reunification of Southern and Northern China and the construction of the Grand Canal. Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various reforms including the Equal-field system, which was initiated to reduce the rich-poor social gap that resulted in enhanced agricultural productivity, as well as government centralisation and reforms, creating a new model of governance after centuries of division. The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was officially instituted, coinage was standardized and re-unified, defense was improved and the Great Wall expanded. Buddhism was also spread and encouraged throughout the empire, uniting the varied peoples and cultures of China.
This dynasty has often been compared to the earlier Qin Dynasty in tenor and in the ruthlessness of its accomplishments. The Sui dynasty's early demise was attributed to the
The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.
The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty was a short-lived group of pharaohs who had their capital at Sais in the western Nile Delta. The known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty are as follows:
Tefnakht I formed an alliance of the Delta kinglets, with whose support he attempted to conquer Upper Egypt; his campaign attracted the attention of the Nubian king, Piye, who recorded his conquest and subjection of Tefnakhte of Sais and his peers in a well-known inscription. Tefnakht is always called the "Great Chief of the West" in Piye's Victory stela and in two stelas dating to the regnal years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V. It is uncertain if he ever adopted an official royal title. However, Olivier Perdu, has now argued that a certain Shepsesre Tefnakhte of Sais was not, in fact, Piye's famous nemesis. Perdu published a recently discovered donation stela which came from a private collection; the document is dated to Year 2 of Necho I of Sais and is similar in style, epigraphy and text with the donation
The Valentinian Dynasty or Valentinianic Dynasty, consisting of four emperors, ruled the Western Roman Empire from 364 to 392 and the Eastern Roman Empire from 364 to 378.
The dynasty was related to the Theodosian dynasty by the marriage of Theodosius I of the East to Valentinian I's daughter. From this marriage came Galla Placidia, whose son Valentinian III became the western emperor (425-455), the last ruler descended from either dynasty. His descendants continued to be a part of the Roman nobility in Constantinople until the end of the 6th century.
The Zand dynasty ( Zand (help·info)) (Persian: سلسله زندیه), formally known as the Zandieh dynasty, ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century. The dynasty was of Iranian origin.
The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan, chief of the Zand tribe, which is a tribe of the Lak people and is considered to be either Luri or Kurdish in origin. He became one of Nader Shah's generals. Nader Shah moved the Zand tribe from their home in Lakestan to the eastern steppes of Khorasan. After Nader’s death, the Zand tribe, under the guidance of Karim Khan, went back to their original land. After Adil Shah was made king Karim Khan and his soldiers defected from the army and along with Ali Morad Khan Bakhtiari and Abolfath Khan Haft Lang, two other local chiefs, became a major contender but was challenged by several adversaries. Abolfath Khan was the Prime Minister, Karim Khan became the army chief commander and Ali Morad Khan became the regent. Karim Khan declared Shiraz his capital. He gained control of central and southern parts of Iran. In order to add legitimacy to his claim, Karim Khan placed the infant Shah Ismail III, the grandson of the last Safavid king in 1757 on the throne. Ismail