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William Temple (15 October 1881 – 26 October 1944) was a bishop in the Church of England. He served as Bishop of Manchester (1921–29), Archbishop of York (1929–42) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1942–44).
A renowned teacher and preacher, Temple is perhaps best known for his 1942 book Christianity and Social Order, which set out an Anglican social theology and a vision for what would constitute a just post-war society. He is also noted for being one of the founders of the Council of Christians and Jews in 1942.
Temple was born in 1881 in Exeter, England, the second son of Archbishop Frederick Temple (1821–1902). From an early age, he suffered from gout and a cataract which left him blind in his right eye at age 40. He was educated at Rugby School and Balliol College, Oxford, where he obtained a double first in classics and served as president of the Oxford Union.
After graduation, he became fellow and lecturer in philosophy at Queen's College, Oxford from 1904 to 1910 and was ordained priest in 1909. Between 1910 and 1914 he was Headmaster of Repton School after which he returned to being a full-time cleric, becoming Bishop of Manchester in 1921 and Archbishop of York in 1929. During
Arthur Foley Winnington-Ingram KCVO PC (26 January 1858 – 26 May 1946) was Bishop of London from 1901 to 1939.
He was born in Worcestershire, the fourth son of the Revd Edward Winnington-Ingram and of Louisa (daughter of Henry Pepys, Bishop of Worcester). Ingram was educated at Marlborough College and Keble College, Oxford.
He was a private tutor, 1881–84; curate at St Mary's, Shrewsbury, 1884–85; private chaplain to the Bishop of Lichfield, 1885–89; head of Oxford House Settlement, Bethnal Green 1889-97, chaplain to the Archbishop of York, 1889; rector of Bethnal Green, 1895; rural dean of Spitalfields, 1896; and canon of St Paul's Cathedral, 1897.
In 1897, Winnnington-Ingram was raised to the episcopate as the second suffragan Bishop of Stepney. In 1901, after the death of Mandell Creighton, he was nominated to the see of London, and he was in the same year appointed as a Privy Counsellor. As a preacher he proved very successful. He was a leader in social work in London's East End. As an administrator he has been judged inefficient in maintaining standards among the clergy in comparison with his disciplinarian-minded successor Geoffrey Fisher, a feature aggravated by his lengthy
William Foxley Norris KCVO (1859–1937) was Dean of York between 1917 and 1925 and of Westminster from then until his death in 1937.
Born into a clerical family, he was educated at Charterhouse and Trinity College, Oxford before taking Holy Orders at Leeds Clergy School. After curacies in Eton and Chatham he embarked on a career that was to take him from pastoral (Incumbencies in Oxfordshire and Yorkshire) to administrative (Diocesan Educational Inspector) posts before a steady rise up the ecclesiastical ladder. He was successively Rural Dean of Silkstone, Canon of Wakefield and Archdeacon of Halifax before becoming Dean of York. An exceptionally talented artist he wrote widely on Church treasures whilst Dean of Westminster. A much respected cleric he died on 28 September 1937 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
His grandson was Air Chief Marshal Sir Christopher Foxley-Norris the Battle of Britain Pilot who went on to have a distinguished RAF career.
William Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth GCVO PC (known as Cosmo; 31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945) was a Scottish Anglican prelate who served as Archbishop of York (1908–1928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1928–1942). His rapid elevation to Archbishop of York, within 18 years of his ordination, is unprecedented in modern Church of England history. As Archbishop of Canterbury during the abdication crisis of 1936, he took a strong moral stance, and comments he made in a subsequent broadcast were widely condemned as uncharitable towards the departed king.
The son of a Scots Presbyterian minister, Lang abandoned the prospect of a legal and political career to train for the Anglican priesthood. Beginning in 1890, his early ministry was served in slum parishes in Leeds and Portsmouth, except for brief service as an Oxford college chaplain. In 1901 he was appointed suffragan Bishop of Stepney in London, where he continued his work among the poor. He also served as a canon of St Paul's Cathedral, London.
In 1908 Lang was nominated as Archbishop of York, despite his relatively junior status as a suffragan rather than a diocesan bishop. His religious stance was broadly
The Rt Rev Michael Bolton Furse, KCMG, DD was an eminent Anglican Bishop in the first half of the 20th century.
Born in 1870 and educated at Eton and Trinity College, Oxford, he was ordained in 1897. He was Fellow and Dean of his old college then Archdeacon of Johannesburg. In 1904 the Baker house, Bishopskop was built for him. In 1909 he was elevated to the Episcopate as Bishop of Pretoria, a post he held for 11 years. The Jane Furse Memorial Hospital was built in memory of his daughter, Jane, who died of scarlet fever in 1918. In 1920 he was translated to St Albans, retiring in 1944. He died on 18 June 1955.
The Rt. Rev. St John Basil Wynne Willson was an Anglican bishop in the first half of the 20th century. He was the Bishop of Bath and Wells from 1921 to 1937.
He was born on 28 August 1868 and educated at Cheltenham and St John's College, Cambridge. He was an Assistant Master at The Leys School and Rugby before Headships at Haileybury College and Marlborough. Ordained in 1904, he was appointed Dean of Bristol in 1916, a post he held for five years before his ordination to the episcopate as the Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1921. He married Alice Wills, retired in 1937, and died on 15 October 1946.
The Rt Rev Geoffrey Charles Lester Lunt (1885–1948) was an eminent Anglican priest in the first half of the 20th century.
Born into an ecclesiastical family and educated at Sherborne and Exeter College, Oxford he was ordained in 1909. His first post was as Curate at Christ Church, Clifton, Bristol, after which he was Secretary of the CMS for Public Schools and Young People’s Work then Vicar of St Paul’s, Bedminster. A Chaplain to the Forces in France during the Great War he was awarded the Military Cross in 1917. When peace returned he became Vicar of All Saints, Northampton then Archdeacon of Egypt. From 1928 he was Vicar of St Mary’s, Portsea before his elevation to the Episcopate as Bishop of Ripon. He was translated to Salisbury in 1946 and died in post two years later.
Herbert Hensley Henson (known as Hensley; born 1863 in London, died 1947 in Hintlesham, Suffolk) was an Anglican priest, a controversialist and Bishop of Durham. In the public eye from 1892 after an outburst at a diocesan conference in which he referred to dissenting Protestant churches as “emissaries of Satan”, Henson provoked some bemusement among his peers by entitling his autobiography Retrospect of an Unimportant Life.
Henson was conscious that a significant part of a diocesan bishop’s job must be to accept the responsibilities of a “great national officer”, and even before his elevation to the episcopal bench never avoided speaking his mind publicly on matters which he felt appropriate for a cleric, and continued to do so until his retirement in 1941.
In the aftermath of the second Dreyfus trial of 1899, Henson castigated the French Roman Catholic Church in his published sermons. In 1912, while canon of Westminster Abbey, he named from the pulpit the three British directors of the Putumayo Rubber Company, furious at their acquiescence in the notorious atrocities which the company committed against its Peruvian Indian labour force. In the more strictly ecclesiastical sphere he
Percy Mark Herbert, KCVO (24 April 1885–22 January 1968) was the first Bishop of Blackburn from 1927 then Bishop of Norwich from 1942 to 1959. He was also a Doctor of Divinity. He was the Clerk of the Closet from 1942–63. An active Freemason, he was Provincial Grand Master for Norfolk.
Percy was the son of Major-General the Honourable William Henry Herbert (himself the son of Edward Clive, 2nd Earl of Powis) and Sybella Milbank. Educated at Rugby and Trinity College, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1909. After a period as Chaplain to his old school he was appointed Vicar of St George's, Camberwell, and Warden of the Trinity Cambridge Mission until 1922. On 19 September 1922, he married Hon. Elaine Orde-Powlett, daughter of William Orde-Powlett, 5th Baron Bolton and they had four children. That same year he was also appointed Bishop of Kingston-upon-Thames. Further appointments followed, and after retiring from his post as Bishop of Norwich, Herbert became Rector of St Mary Magdalene's Church in Sandringham. It was at that church in 1961 where he baptised the Honourable Diana Spencer (later Princess of Wales). Above all "a pastoral bishop", he died at the Royal Masonic Hospital in