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Best Religious order of All Time

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    1

    Franciscan Brothers of Peace

    The Franciscan Brothers of Peace is a Roman Catholic, Franciscan religious institute for men. It was founded in 1982 by Michael Gaworski. The mother house of the order is in Saint Paul, Minnesota in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis.
    8.43
    7 votes
    2

    Sisters of Life

    Sisters of Life is a female Roman Catholic religious institute, following the Augustinian rule. It is both a contemplative and active religious community, dedicated to the promotion of pro-life causes. The abbreviation S.V. stands for Sorores Vitae, Latin for Sisters of Life. The Sisters of Life were an order first conceived of by Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor of New York, on a visit to the remains of a Nazi concentration camp at Dachau, Germany. There he placed his hands inside a crematoria oven, “felt the intermingled ashes of Jew and Christian, rabbi, priest and minister,” and is recorded as proclaiming, “Good God, how could human beings do this to other human beings?” Several years later, he decided to begin a new religious community in the Church, one dedicated to the promotion of pro-life causes, specifically working for an end to abortion and euthanasia. He proclaimed his intentions in an article entitled “Help Wanted: Sisters of Life” written for the newspaper Catholic New York, in which he asked for women of higher education to especially consider joining. Many women responded to the article, and on Foundation Day, June 1, 1991, eight women joined the order. For thirteen
    7.57
    7 votes
    3

    Chita che Zita Rinoyera

    The Chita che Zita Rinoyera (Community of the Holy Name), CZR, is an Anglican religious order of women headquartered in Mutare, Zimbabwe in the Anglican Church of the Province of Central Africa. The community was established in 1935 by the English Community of the Resurrection. Members of the community work in health care and teaching, and also provide goods and services to parish churches throughout Zimbabwe. They also have an orphanage that cares for about seventy children. Since the 1980s, CZR has seeded three new communities in various places in Zimbabwe. It is not to be confused with the Community of the Holy Name (CHN), which is active in England, Lesotho and Zululand, or with the Community of the Holy Name (CHN) in Australia.
    7.14
    7 votes
    4
    Franciscan

    Franciscan

    Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities. The most prominent group is the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called simply the "Franciscans." They seek to follow most directly the manner of life that Saint Francis led. This Order is a mendicant religious order of men tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi. It comprises three separate groups, each considered a religious order in its own right. These are the Observants, most commonly simply called "Franciscan friars," the Capuchins, and the Conventual Franciscans. They all live according to a body of regulations known as "The Rule of St. Francis". The official Latin name of the Orders of Friars Minor is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites. The modern organization of the Friars Minor now comprises three separate branches: the 'Friars Minor' (OFM); the 'Friars Minor Conventual' (OFM Conv), and the
    7.83
    6 votes
    5
    Teutonic Knights

    Teutonic Knights

    The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (Official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Today: German Order = Deutscher Orden, also Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a German medieval military order, and in modern times a purely religious Catholic order. It was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals. Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, since they also served as a crusading military order in the Middle Ages. The military membership was always small, with volunteers and mercenaries augmenting the force as needed. After the Reformation, the Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Order became Protestant; this branch still consists of knights, but the modern Roman Catholic order consists of Roman Catholic priests, nuns, and associates. Formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre, in the Levant, the medieval Order played an important role in Outremer, controlling the port tolls of Acre. After Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the
    10.00
    4 votes
    6
    Order of Poor Ladies

    Order of Poor Ladies

    The Poor Clares, officially the Order of Saint Clare, (Latin: Ordo sanctae Clarae) -- originally referred to as the Order of Poor Ladies, and later the Clarisses, the Minoresses, the Franciscan Clarist Order, and the Second Order of St. Francis -- are members of a contemplative Order of nuns in the Catholic Church. The Poor Clares were the second Franciscan Order to be established. Founded by Saints Clare of Assisi and Francis of Assisi on Palm Sunday in the year 1212, they were organized after the Order of Friars Minor (the first Order), and before the Third Order of Penance or tertiaries. As of 2011 there were over 20,000 Poor Clare nuns in over 75 countries throughout the world. They follow several different observances and are organized into federations . The Poor Clares follow the Rule of St. Clare, which was approved by Pope Innocent IV the day before Clare's death in 1253. The main branch of the Order (O.S.C.) follows the observance of Pope Urban. Other branches established since that time, who operate under their own unique Constitutions, are the Colettine Poor Clares (P.C.C.) (founded 1410), the Capuchin Poor Clares (O.S.C. Cap) (founded 1538) and the Poor Clares of
    8.60
    5 votes
    7

    Azeemia

    The Silsila-e-Azeemia (Azeemia Order), named after Syed Muhammad Azeem Barkhiya, is a Sufi order founded in Pakistan in 1960 by Qalander Ba Ba Auliya. It is currently headed by Khwaja Shamsuddin Azeemi. The aim of Silsila Azeemia is to promote the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. To serve the creatures of god and to enhance the spiritual potential of people worldwide. Silsila Azeemia believes that as people advance in the physical sciences, they become more distant from religion, that as their faith weakens, they stop pursuing peace and understanding of their inner being. Silsila-e-Azeemia responds to this belief by proposing a system that scientifically fulfills spiritual needs of man in this modern era. Instead of employing orthodox, traditional spiritual education, Silsila-e-Azeemia offers modern techniques formulated to keep pace with modern science. The founder leader of Silsila-e-Azeemia, Qalandar Baba Auliya, founded this Sufi Order after saying he had spiritually gained its approval from Muhammad in July 1960. The order is named after its founder. Silsila-e-Azeemia encompasses two spiritual areas: spiritual association (salook) and raptness (juzb). Qalandar Baba
    8.40
    5 votes
    8
    Canons Regular of the Holy Cross

    Canons Regular of the Holy Cross

    The Canons Regular of the Holy Cross of Coimbra were founded in Portugal in the 12th century. The Order was founded under the Rule of Saint Augustine, thus its members are classified as "Augustinians," as are all other Orders of Canons Regular. It was founded through the labors of St. Theotonius, Archdeacon Dom Tello, and Dom Juan Peculiar in 1131. Construction of its first monastery began on June 28, 1131, and the common life of the members of the Order began on February 25, 1132. It received official papal approval on May 5, 1135, from Pope Innocent II. Eventually all the various regional communities of canons regular in Portugal came to be a part of this Order. Saint Anthony of Padua was a member of this Order before he left them to join the newly-founded Franciscans. Saint Charles Borromeo was entrusted with the protection of the Order when he was a cardinal. The Order was suppressed in 1834 by an anti-clerical Portuguese government. In 1977, a movement called the Work of the Holy Angels began to work to restore the Order, which was approved in 1979 by Pope John Paul II. The letters "O.R.C."' represent membership in this Order.
    8.40
    5 votes
    9

    Conventual Franciscans

    The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv), commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, is a branch of the order of Catholic Friars founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209. The Order of Friars Minor Conventual sought to spread the ideals of Saint Francis throughout the new urban social order of the Middle Ages. Some friars settled in the urban slums, or the suburbs the medieval neighbourhoods where the huts and shacks of the poorest were built outside the safety of the city walls. In London, the first settlement of the friars was set in what was called "Stinking Lane." Since the suburbs were also the place where hospitals were set up, the friars were often commissioned by the city government to facilitate the care of the sick. The friars also helped to construct sturdier buildings, replacing the previous huts, and constructed churches. Robert Grosseteste, then Bishop of Lincoln, marvelled that the people "run to the friars for instruction as well as for confession and direction. They are transforming the world." The movement of the Conventual Franciscans into the cities was controversial and split the Franciscan Order into two factions: those who desired the traditional
    8.40
    5 votes
    10
    Community of St. Francis

    Community of St. Francis

    The Community of St. Francis (CSF) is a Franciscan Anglican religious order of sisters founded in 1905, and is the oldest surviving Anglican Franciscan religious community. As First Order sisters, the CSF is an autonomous part of the Society of St. Francis (First Order brothers), which also includes the Order of St. Clare (Second Order sisters), and a Third Order of secular members living as a dispersed community. Living under a Franciscan Rule, the sisters' primary vocation is prayer, study, and work in the context of community life. Some sisters serve as priests, and others live a solitary life. The community was begun in 1905 by Sr Rosina Eleanor Rice, who left another Anglican religious order, the Sisters of Bethany, to found CSF. After a short period in Hull, the sisters moved to Dalston in East London in 1908, where they supported themselves by working in the parish, caring for the sick and dying, and running a laundry. In the late 1950s their house came under a compulsory purchase order, and in 1962 CSF moved to a house in the hamlet of Compton Durville, near Yeovil in Somerset. There they ran a nursing home for elderly women for some years, before changing their ministry to
    7.17
    6 votes
    11
    Missionaries of the Precious Blood

    Missionaries of the Precious Blood

    The Missionaries of the Precious Blood form a community of priests and brothers within the Latin Church, one of the 23 sui iuris churches which make up the universal Catholic Church. The Society was founded by Saint Gaspar del Bufalo in 1815. The Missionaries of the Precious Blood is a shortened English translation of the Latin "Congregatio Missionariorum Pretiosissimi Sanguinis Domini Nostri Jesu Christi," (The Congregation of Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ). They use the post-nominal initials C.PP.S. after their names. It is a Society of Apostolic Life, composed of secular priests and brothers who live in community. Members do not take vows but are held together by the bond of charity only and by a promise "not to leave the community without permission of the lawful superior". The charism of the Society to bring the Word of God to where it is most needed. Saint Gaspare del Bufalo founded the Society at the request of Pope Pius VII who was shocked at the spiritual situation in Rome after he returned from exile. Pius decided that missions should be established throughout the Papal States. In 1814, he selected del Bufalo and some other priests to
    7.17
    6 votes
    12
    Sisters of Saint Agnes

    Sisters of Saint Agnes

    The Congregation of Sisters of Saint Agnes is a Catholic religious institute for women founded in 1858 and named in honor of Saint Agnes. The Motherhouse is located in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin within the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. The Congregation of Sisters of St. Agnes was founded in Barton, Wisconsin, on August 12, 1858. Father Caspar Rehrl, an Austrian missionary, established a sisterhood of pioneer women under the patronage of St. Agnes of Rome to whom he had a special devotion. At first the group suffered such untold hardship that, for a few months in 1861, it was reduced to one blind sister. The arrival of Mary Hazotte in 1863 gave the fledgling community a new life and leadership when she, in 1864 at the age of 17, was elected general superior. Mother Agnes Hazotte directed the move from Barton to Fond du Lac, WI, in 1870 and served as the community's leader until her death in 1905. In 1870, Father Francis Haas, OFM Capuchin, became the spiritual director of the community and assisted in revising the original rule. These three founders paved the ways for growth and expansion. Today vowed members of the Congregation minister throughout the United States and Nicaragua. Catholic
    7.17
    6 votes
    13

    Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem

    The Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem is a clerical Institute of Consecrated Life in the Catholic Church, founded in 2002 in the Diocese of La Crosse, and currently located in Charlestown, West Virginia after a period in Chesterfield, Missouri in the Archdiocese of Saint Louis, in the United States. This institute celebrates the traditional Latin Liturgy (Tridentine Mass) according to the rites of 1962, as promulgated by Pope John Paul II's motu proprio "Ecclesia Dei" of 1988. The members live in community under the Augustinian Rule. The institute was founded by Bishop Raymond Leo Burke and Dom Daniel Augustine Oppenheimer, Prior.
    8.00
    5 votes
    14

    Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur

    The Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur are a Roman Catholic religious institute of religious sisters, dedicated to providing education to the poor. The institute was founded in Amiens in 1803, but the opposition of the local bishop to missions outside his diocese led to the moving of headquarters to then French Namur in 1809, from which it spread to become a worldwide organization. The Sisters now have foundations in five continents and in 20 countries. Founded in 1804 at Amiens, France, by St. Julie Billiart and Marie-Louise-Françoise Blin de Bourdon, Countess of Gézaincourt, whose name as a Sister was Mother St. Joseph. Mlle Blin de Bourdon, who had received spiritual guidance from Julie for many years, offered to defray the immediate expenses of founding the Congregation. At Amiens, August 5, 1803, they took a house in Rue Neuve. In the chapel of this house, at Mass on February 2, 1804, the two foundresses and their postulant, Catherine Duchatel of Reims, made or renewed their vow of chastity, to which they added that of devoting themselves to the Christian education of girls, further proposing to train religious teachers who should go wherever their services were requested.
    8.00
    5 votes
    15

    Society of Jesus

    The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a Christian male religious order that follows the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits and are also known colloquially as "God's Marines" and as "The Company", these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and members' willingness to accept orders anywhere in the world and live in extreme conditions. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. The society's founding principles are contained in the document Formula of the Institute, written by Ignatius of Loyola. Jesuits are known for their work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits, and for their missionary efforts. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes and promote social justice and ecumenical dialogue. Ignatius founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including St. Francis
    8.00
    5 votes
    16

    Marianites of Holy Cross

    The Marianites of Holy Cross (MSC) is a Roman Catholic congregation of nuns, founded in Le Mans, France, in 1841, by the Blessed Father Basil Anthony-Marie Moreau, CSC. Originally, founded as a third distinct society within the Congregation of Holy Cross (that is, the congregation of the priests and brothers of Holy Cross), the Marianites of Holy Cross is now an independent congregation. As the congregation grew throughout the 1840s and early 1850s, in the United States, Canada and Bangladesh, Fr. Moreau would always send groups of priests, brothers and sisters to work together and support each other's mission within the Family of Holy Cross. The sisters initially supported the priests and brothers by providing domestic services. Very quickly, however, particularly in the United States, the sisters began their own educational institutions. In 1844, in Bertrand, Michigan, the sisters started a school for girls. By 1855, this school would move the 6 miles to Notre Dame, Indiana to become Saint Mary's College, one of the leading Catholic women's liberal arts colleges, even today. In 1856, Rome approved the constitutions of Holy Cross for the men. Doubting the propriety of a mixed
    6.83
    6 votes
    17

    Clerics of Saint Viator

    The Viatorians, or Clerics of Saint Viator ("C.S.V."), are a Roman Catholic religious institute founded in Lyon, France in 1831 by Father Louis Querbes. Its patron, Saint Viator, had been a 4th-century catechist in Lyon. The institute soon spread from its origins in France to the United States and now has provinces and missions all over the world. The Viatorians are a teaching order and are thus involved in parish ministries and all levels of education, from grade school through university.
    9.00
    4 votes
    18
    Community of St. Mary

    Community of St. Mary

    The Community of St. Mary (CSM) is an Anglican religious order of nuns with independent houses located in Greenwich, New York, Sewanee, Tennessee, Mukwonago, Wisconsin, and also in Malawi and the Philippines. The oldest indigenous Anglican order in the United States, it was founded in New York City in 1865 by a group of five sisters, and formally constituted by Bishop Horatio Potter of New York as the Sisters of St. Mary. The Episcopal Church was initially slow to recognize the order, and they only found wide support after four of the sisters died nursing victims of a yellow fever epidemic in Memphis, Tennessee in 1878. These four sisters are now commemorated by the Episcopal Church on September 9 as the Martyrs of Memphis or as Constance and her Companions. The community now consists of three independent provinces: Eastern, Western, and Southern. Their rule of life is very similar to the Benedictine rule, and they live a mixed life of prayer and service. The sisters pray five offices each day, and their Monastic Diurnal Revised is a popular prayer book for many outside of the community as well. From their foundation in 1865 the first sisters took charge of the "House of Mercy" in
    5.86
    7 votes
    19

    Community of the Sisters of the Love of God

    The Community of the Sisters of the Love of God is a contemplative community of women founded in 1906 within the Anglican Church, to witness to the priority of God, and to respond to the love of God for us, reflected in our love for God. Its members believe they are called to live a substantial degree of withdrawal from everyday life, devoting themselves to prayer in the belief that this prayer, rooted in the praise and worship of God, is essential for the peace and well-being of the world. The Sisters offer their lives to God in prayer and daily life together in Community, seeking to deepen their relationship with Jesus Christ and with one another. The Community has always drawn upon Carmelite spirituality: life and prayer in silence and solitude is a very important dimension of the vocation. However, the Community also draws from other traditions, and the Rule is not specifically Carmelite. Another important ingredient is an emphasis on the centrality of Divine Office and Eucharist together in choir, inspired partly by the Benedictine way of life. The Community is situated in England (at the Convent of the Incarnation, Fairacres, Oxford). It formerly had houses at Boxmoor, Hemel
    8.75
    4 votes
    20
    Carthusian

    Carthusian

    • Monasteries: Richmond Priory
    The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of Saint Bruno, is a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics. The order was founded by Saint Bruno of Cologne in 1084 and includes both monks and nuns. The order has its own Rule, called the Statutes, rather than the Rule of Saint Benedict, and combines eremitical and cenobitic life. The name Carthusian is derived from the Chartreuse Mountains; Saint Bruno built his first hermitage in the valley of these mountains in the French Alps. The word charterhouse, which is the English name for a Carthusian monastery, is derived from the same source. The same mountain range lends its name to the alcoholic cordial Chartreuse produced by the monks since the 1740s which itself gives rise to the name of the colour. The motto of the Carthusians is Stat crux dum volvitur orbis, Latin for "The Cross is steady while the world is turning." There are no Carthusian abbeys as they have no abbots, and each charterhouse is headed by a prior and is populated by choir monks, referred to as hermits, and lay brothers. Each hermit —  that is, a monk who is or who will be a priest  — has his own living space, called a cell, usually consisting of a small
    8.50
    4 votes
    21
    Congregatio Immaculatae Cordis Mariae

    Congregatio Immaculatae Cordis Mariae

    The Congregatio Immaculati Cordis Mariae (Latin), or the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary; (French: Congrégation du Coeur Immaculé de Marie; Dutch: Congregatie van het Onbevlekte Hart van Maria), also known as the Scheut fathers or Scheutists is a Belgian Roman Catholic missionary congregation established in 1862 by the priest Théophile Verbist. Its origins lie in Scheut, Anderlecht, a suburb of Brussels. The congregation did missionary work in China, Mongolia, the Philippines, and in Congo Free State/Belgian Congo, modern day Democratic Republic of the Congo. Presently, the name CICM Missionaries is preferred, although, in the USA, the congregation is known as Missionhurst Missionaries. Fr. Théophile Verbist was a diocesan priest in the Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels in Belgium in the mid 19th century. He served as chaplain in the military academy in Brussels and at the same time as a national director of the Pontifical Association of the Holy Childhood. A compassionate man of God, he led a group of other Belgian diocesan priests who became deeply concerned with the abandoned children in China and with millions of Chinese who lived at that time in ignorance and
    8.50
    4 votes
    22
    Oratory of Saint Philip Neri

    Oratory of Saint Philip Neri

    The Oratory of Saint Philip Neri is a society of apostolic life of Catholic priests and lay-brothers who live together in a community bound together by no formal vows but only with the bond of charity. They are commonly referred to as Oratorians (Oratorian Fathers). This "Congregation of the Oratory" should not be confused with the French Oratory, a distinct congregation, the Society of the Oratory of Jesus (Société de l'Oratoire de Jésus), founded by Pierre de Bérulle in 1611 in Paris. The Congregation of the Oratory was founded by St. Philip Neri (1515–1595) in the city of Rome. Today it has spread around the world, with over 70 Oratories and some 500 priests. The post-nominal initials commonly used to identify members of the society are "C.O." (Congregatio Oratorii). The abbreviation "Cong. Orat." is also used. Unlike a religious institute (the members of which take vows and are answerable to a central authority) or a monastery (the monks of which are likewise bound by vows in a community that may itself be autonomous and answerable directly to the Pope), the Oratorians are made up of members who commit themselves to membership in a particular, independent, self-governing local
    8.50
    4 votes
    23
    Society of Our Lady of the Most Holy Trinity

    Society of Our Lady of the Most Holy Trinity

    The Society of Our Lady of the Most Holy Trinity (SOLT) is a Society of Apostolic Life within the Roman Catholic Church. It was founded in 1958 by Father James H. Flanagan, a priest from the United States. The Society maintains missions in various countries, describing itself as Marian-Trinitarian, Catholic, Missionary, and Family. Membership of the Society includes priests, permanent deacons, religious sisters, religious brothers and the lay faithful. The charism (gift) which the Society brings to the universal Church is the formation of disciples of Jesus and Mary serving on ecclesial teams in areas of deepest apostolic need. While in seminary Father Flanagan’s realised that organizations where people work as a team, recognising and accepting individual talents, are the ones which are most successful. This is why the Society strives to have priests, permanent deacons, religious sisters, religious brothers and lay faithful in all of its communities, no matter how small. In 1957, five years after his ordination to the Priesthood, Flanagan approached Cardinal Cushing, then Archbishop of Boston with his idea, and Cushing gave his support. Soon after, the Archbishop of Santa Fe,
    8.50
    4 votes
    24

    Chishti Order

    The Chishtī Order (Persian: چشتی‎ - Čištī) (Arabic: ششتى‎ - Shishti) is a Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam. It began in Chisht, a small town near Herat, Afghanistan about 930 CE. The Chishti Order is known for its emphasis on love, tolerance, and openness. The Chishti Order is primarily followed in Afghanistan and South Asia. It was the first of the four main Sufi orders (Chishti, Qadiriyya, Suhrawardiyya and Naqshbandi) to be established in this region. Moinuddin Chishti introduced the Chishti Order in Lahore (Punjab) and Ajmer (Rajasthan), sometime in the middle of the 12th century AD. He was eighth in the line of succession from the founder of the Chishti Order, Abu Ishq Shami. There are now several branches of the order, which has been the most prominent South Asian Sufi brotherhood since the 12th century. In the last century, the order has spread outside Afghanistan and South Asia. Chishti teachers have established centers in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and South Africa. Devotees include both Muslim immigrants from South Asia and Westerners attracted to Sufi teachings. The Chishti are perhaps best known for the welcome extended to
    6.33
    6 votes
    25
    Paris Foreign Missions Society

    Paris Foreign Missions Society

    The Society of Foreign Missions of Paris (French: Société des Missions Étrangères de Paris, short M.E.P.) is a Roman Catholic missionary organization. It is not a religious institute, but an organization of secular priests and lay persons dedicated to missionary work in foreign lands. The Society of Foreign Missions of Paris was established 1658-63. In 1659, the instructions for the establishment of the Paris Foreign Missions Society were given by Rome's Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, and marked the creation of a missionary institution that did not depend on the control of the traditional missionary and colonial powers of Spain or Portugal. In the 350 years since its foundation, the institution has sent more than 4.200 missionary priests to Asia and North America, with the mission of adapting to local customs, establishing a native clergy, and keeping close contacts with Rome. In the 19th century, the local persecutions of missionary priests of the Paris Foreign Missions Society was often a pretext for French military intervention in Asia. In Vietnam, the persecutions were used by the French government to justify the armed interventions of Jean-Baptiste
    9.67
    3 votes
    26

    Community of Christ the King

    The Community of Christ the King (CCK) is an Anglican religious order of Benedictine nuns near Wangaratta, Victoria, Australia. Founded in 1993, this enclosed and contemplative order is under the jurisdiction of the Anglican Church of Australia. The convent operates guest and retreat facilities and the sisters provide a ministry of spiritual direction. The convent is located at the foot of the Warby Ranges in Victoria, Australia. The growing of produce provides some level of self-sufficiency and generates the labour needed to live the Rule of St Benedict. Silent retreats are held at the convent for visitors. The Revd Mother has been Rita Mary CCK since 31 July 1997.
    7.20
    5 votes
    27

    Malling Abbey

    St. Mary’s Abbey (Malling Abbey) is an abbey of Anglican Benedictine nuns, located at West Malling, Kent, England. The manor of West Malling was given by King Edmund to Burhic, Bishop of Rochester in 946. The land was lost to the church in the Danish Wars but was restored to the diocese in 1076. About 1090 Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester and monk of Bec Abbey in Normandy, chose Malling as the site of his foundation for a community of Benedictine nuns, one of the first post-Conquest monasteries for women. Just before his death in 1108, Gundulf appointed the French nun Avicia as the first abbess. Gundulf had endowed the community with the manor of Malling and Archbishop Anselm had given the manor of East Malling. Royal grants gave the nuns the rights to weekly markets and annual fairs as well as wood-cutting and pasturage rights in nearby royal forests. Bequests and gifts also added to the community’s income. As the Abbey prospered, West Malling became a flourishing market town. In the four-and-a-half centuries of Benedictine life at the Abbey, major events included a fire in 1190 which destroyed much of the Abbey and town, the Black Death in 1349 which reduced the community to four
    7.20
    5 votes
    28
    Congregation of St. Basil

    Congregation of St. Basil

    The Basilian Fathers, also known as The Congregation of Saint Basil, is an international order of Catholic priests and students studying for the priesthood, who focus on education and ministering through oratories. The patron saint is Saint Basil the Great. After the closing of Catholic seminaries during the French Revolution, a clandestine school was established by two priests in the central part of the country. After the relevant French laws were relaxed and after several years of operation, the congregation was founded in 1822 by a group of ten priests in order to ensure the continuation of the school, then operating in Annonay. The members of the new religious institute devoted themselves to Christian education, preaching, evangelization, and embraced the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. Eventually, changes in French law led to the closing of the congregation's schools in France; however, it was by then well established in Canada and the United States. Its history in Canada began in Toronto, which has become one of the congregation's largest centres. The city is home to the University of St. Michael's College (USMC) at the University of Toronto, and St. Michael's
    8.25
    4 votes
    29
    Shattari

    Shattari

    The Shattariyya are members of a Sufi mystical order (tariqah) that originated in Persia in the fifteenth century C.E. and formally developed, completed and codified in India. Later secondary branches were taken to Hejaz and Indonesia. The word Shattar, which means "lightning-quick","speed","rapidity", or "fast-goer" indicates a system of spiritual practices that lead quickly to a state of "completion", however the name derives from its founder, Sheikh Sirajuddin Abdullah Shattar (d. 1406 CE). Unlike other Sufis the Shattariyya do not subscribe to the concept of fana (annihilation of the ego). "With the sect of Shattaris, the Salik (seeker, aspirant) descends, of himself, in his own knowledge - there is no annihilation of self with them". Idries Shah, writing in The Sufis, states that the Shattari technique or "the Rapidness" originated with the Naqshbandi Sufi Order. Many of the later Shattaris, especially those of Medina, were initiated into the Naqshbandiyya, and among the Mazhariyya branch of the Naqshbandiyya the shaikhs were also authorised to initiate into the Shattariya and other turuq. True to its name shattari mode is the quickest. On entering shattari path the master
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    Community of the Resurrection

    Community of the Resurrection

    The Community of the Resurrection (CR) is an Anglican religious community for men in England. It is based in Mirfield, West Yorkshire and has 22 members as of March 2012. The community reflects Anglicanism in its broad nature and is strongly engaged in the life of the Anglican Communion. It also has a long tradition of ecumenical outlook and practice. CR is dedicated to the mystery of Christ's resurrection. The rule of the community states that: "the Community of the Resurrection is called specially to public, prophetic witness to the Christian hope of the Kingdom. The common life and corporate worship of its members is properly made visible in its works, which embrace social and missionary concern...The dedication to the Resurrection does not indicate an obligation to particular works or particular places, but rather a commitment to make public the fruits of the community life and worship in order to proclam the world made new in Christ...its charism...is to live the baptismal vocation through a commitment to community life, sustained by common worship, and issuing in works that are primarily of a public character." Since its foundation, the community has been active in pastoral
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    6 votes
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    Sisters of Charity of Leavenworth

    The Sisters of Charity of Leavenworth is a Catholic religious institute based in Leavenworth, Kansas who follow in the tradition of Saints Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac. A member of the Sisters of Charity Federation in the Vincentian-Setonian Tradition, the order operates schools and hospitals in the United States and Peru. Members are denominated with the post-nominal letters SCL. The Sisters of Charity were founded in 1858 by Mother Xavier Ross, who came to Leavenworth from Nashville, Tennessee at the invitation of Bishop John Baptiste Miege. They founded and operate the University of Saint Mary in Leavenworth. They also founded and operate Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California, and St. Francis Health Center in Topeka. Additionally, in 1873, they founded Exempla Saint Joseph Hospital in Denver, Colorado. Since the 1960s, the Sisters of Charity have expanded work in social services and outreach, and operate missions in South America and the Sudan.
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    5 votes
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    Clerics Regular Minor

    The Clerics Regular Minor, commonly known as the Adorno Fathers, are a Roman Catholic religious order of priests and brothers founded by Saint Francis Caracciolo, Augustine Adorno, and Fabrizio Caracciolo in 1588 in Villa Santa Maria. Belonging to the family of Clerics Regular, they desired to sanctify themselves and the People of God by imitating in their lives the Paschal Mystery of Christ. Their motto is : Ad Maiorem Dei Resurgentis Gloriam, "For the Greater Glory of the Risen God". The post-nominal letters are C.R.M. Saint Francis Caracciolo was born Ascanio Caracciolo on October 13, 1563 in Villa Santa Maria, Abruzzi, Italy. At twenty-two, Ascanio Caracciolo was a young man enjoying the exceedingly comfortable life available to an Italian nobleman of the sixteenth century. More pious than his comrades, he still did not allow religion to interfere with his other activities especially hunting. Then the unthinkable happened: he contracted a terrible skin disease, similar in appearance to leprosy, and apparently was going to die. Facing death was a fruitful experience for the youth; he vowed that if he recovered he would give the rest of his life to God, and after his miraculous
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    4 votes
    33

    Franciscan Servants of Jesus

    The Franciscan Servants of Jesus was a Roman Catholic, Franciscan religious congregation for women. The congregation was founded in 1997 with the approval of Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, while he was the Bishop of the Diocese of La Crosse. The motherhouse was located in Prescott, Wisconsin. However, controversy arose over the foundress of the congregation, Sister Julie Green, F.S.J., due to her alleged condition of being a transexual. The congregation was suppressed by Bishop Burke in 2003 before his departure to head the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis, and it is no longer in existence.
    8.00
    4 votes
    34
    Pallottines

    Pallottines

    The Society of the Catholic Apostolate (Latin: Societas Apostolatus Catholici, abbreviated S.A.C.), better known as the Pallottines, are a Society of Apostolic Life within the Roman Catholic Church, founded in 1835 by the Roman priest Saint Vincent Pallotti. Pallottines are part of the Union of Catholic Apostolate and are present in 45 countries on six continents. The Pallottines administer one of the largest churches in the world, the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro in Côte d'Ivoire. The charism of the Pallottines is to assist all in finding and living their apostolic vocation in life. St. Vincent Pallotti believed that all are called to revive faith, rekindle charity and be apostles. The Pallottines assist people in living these virtues. One example of their work was the Pallottine mission to Kamerun, established in 1890 in the German colony of Kamerun, today's Cameroon. From the late 1840s, when St. Vincent sent priests of the Society to London, to the present, with the addition of Taiwan and the Philippines, the Pallottines have been expanding their missionary apostolate. The Irish Province was founded in 1907 in Thurles, County Tipperary, and the Pallottines
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    4 votes
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    Patrician Brothers

    The Patrician Brothers, or Brothers of Saint Patrick, are an Ireland-based Roman Catholic congregation for the religious and literary education of youth and the instruction of the faithful in Christian piety. This Brotherhood was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Daniel Delany, Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, at Tullow, County Carlow, Ireland, on the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in 1808. Religious toleration of Catholics and dissenters by the Irish Parliament since 1782, was followed by was the restoration of the franchise in 1793, and the Maynooth Grant. The Act of Union in 1801, followed with the promise of Catholic Emancipation. Roman Catholics in Britain and Ireland were emerging from the punitive Penal Laws, which since 1728 had forbidden religious run schools which supported Roman Catholic doctrine and its practices. Bishop Delaney set to founding the Religious Congregation of the Brothers of Saint Patrick in his diocese, for this purpose. He chose from among the catechetical instructors of the diocesan Sunday schools seven young men who formed the nucleus of the new order. Under the personal instruction of the bishop, and the direction of his successor,
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    3 votes
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    7.75
    4 votes
    37

    Daughters of the Cross

    Daughters of the Cross is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church founded in Liège in 1833. The foundress, Mère Marie Therese (Jeanne Haze), sent her Sisters over to England in 1863. Its formal title is The Congregation of the Daughters of the Cross of Liège. Daughters of the Cross is constituted as a registered charity in the United Kingdom. In 2006–7 it had a gross income of £56,197,000, making it one of the 100 largest charities in the UK.
    5.83
    6 votes
    38
    Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary

    Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary

    • Monasteries: Beuerberg Abbey
    The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary or the Visitation Order is a Roman Catholic religious order for women. Members of the order are also known as the Salesian Sisters or, more commonly, as the Visitandines. The Order was founded in 1610 by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane Frances de Chantal in Annecy, Haute-Savoie, France. The special charism of the Visitation Order combines gentleness with a valiant spirit; initiative with communal support; dedication to prayer with presence in the world; a contemplative life with an apostolic dimension. The order's motto is "Vive Jésus" (French for "Live Jesus"). The Order spread from France throughout Europe and to North America. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914, The convent of Georgetown was the first house of the Visitation founded in the United States.... The Visitation of Georgetown founded that of Mobile 1833 and in the same year that of Kaskaskia [Illinois], which was transferred to St. Louis in 1844. In 1837 it founded the Visitation of Baltimore, that of Frederick [Maryland] in 1846, and Philadelphia in 1848. These various convents founded others, and at present there are in the United States 21 houses of the
    7.50
    4 votes
    39

    Sisters of St Rita

    The Sisters of Saint Rita are a Roman Catholic religious institute. They were founded in 1911 by Father Hugolinus Dach, an Augustinian priest from Würzburg, Germany.
    7.50
    4 votes
    40

    Community of the Transfiguration

    The Community of the Transfiguration is an Anglican (Episcopalian) religious community of women founded by Mother Eva Mary, the former Eva Lee Matthews, in 1898. At that time, Christians of all persuasions were beginning to rediscover the mystery of the Transfiguration, a feast of Jesus Christ rarely celebrated until the end of the 19th century. In fact, there is no record of any medieval church or religious congregation being dedicated to the Transfiguration until about the time of the Oxford Movement in the 1830s. The Community's Mother House, in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, is the center of ministries which include Bethany School, retreat work, and a recreation center. The Sisters live under the evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity and obedience, and pray the Divine Office four times each day. In addition to their main house in Ohio, the sisters also work in California and the Dominican Republic. The motto of the Sisters is "Benignitas, Simplicitas, Hilaritas"—Latin for "Kindness, Simplicity and Joy." Official website Mother Eva Mary, C.T.: The Story of a Foundation
    8.67
    3 votes
    41
    Felician Sisters

    Felician Sisters

    The Sisters of St. Felix of Cantalice, or Felician Sisters, are one branch of the Third Order of St. Francis. This active-contemplative religious institute was founded in Warsaw, Poland, in 1855, by Sophia Truszkowska, and named for a shrine of St. Felix, a 16th century Franciscan saint especially devoted to children. The Felician Sisters have always sought to harmonize a deep spiritual and community life with dedication to diverse acts of mercy. In North America, the Felician Sisters have ministered primarily to Polish Americans since their arrival from Poland in 1874. Their Foundress, Mother Mary Angela Truszkowska, was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1993. Most Felician Sisters maintain the religious garb of their Foundress, Blessed Mary Angela Truszkowska, consisting of a brown habit (beige during summer months), scapular, (jacket at specified times), headdress, black veil, collar, Felician wooden crucifix suspended on tape or cord, and simple ring received at final profession. This remains a discipline in the Kraków, Przemyśl and Warsaw provinces in Poland, and a treasured tradition in the former the Livonia and Enfield provinces in North America. The charism of the
    8.67
    3 votes
    42

    Oblates Of The Virgin Mary

    The Oblates of the Virgin Mary is a religious institute founded by the Venerable Bruno Lanteri, who was born on 12 May 1759 in Northern Italy and died 5 August 1830. Lanteri grew up in a religious household and developed a strong love for the Virgin Mary at the age of four after his mother died. His attraction to what he called "silence and seclusion" prompted him to enter the Carthusians at the age of seventeen. The Oblates of Mary Most Holy began in 1816 as a diocesan congregation. The Oblates of the Virgin Mary received papal approval from Pope Leo XII on September 1, 1826, almost four years before Lanteri's death. The Oblates of the Virgin Mary came to the United States in 1976. As of 2010, the congregation has expanded into Massachusetts, Colorado, Illinois, California, and a new seminary and retreat center in the Philippines. The Oblates of the Virgin Mary in the United States of America serve in: The Oblates serve in many countries around the world; the Generalate House is in Rome, Italy.
    8.67
    3 votes
    43
    Order of Saint Elisabeth

    Order of Saint Elisabeth

    The Order of the Sisters of St Elizabeth (Elisabethinae, Ordo Elisabethinarum, Sorores Hospitalariae S. Elisabethae, OSE) is a Catholic Church Order founded by Apollonia Radermecher (1571-1626) in Aachen in 1622. The order was called after Saint Elisabeth of Hungary (also of Thuringia). The Sisters of St. Elizabeth have a tradition of caring for the sick and so they have founded a lot of hospitals especially in Central Europe. In 1910s, Mother Pulcheria Wilhelm, superior general of the foundation in Klagenfurt, Austria, promoted the establishment of the sisters in North America. The convents and hospitals were founded in these places:
    8.67
    3 votes
    44

    Community of St John Baptist

    The Community of St. John Baptist (CSJB), also known as the Sisters of Mercy, or formerly Clewer Sisters, is an Anglican religious order of Augustinian nuns. The Community was founded in England in 1852 by Harriet Monsell (the first Superior), a clergy widow, and Thomas Thellusson Carter, a priest at Windsor. The purpose of the order was to help marginalised women - mainly single mothers, the homeless and sex trade workers - by providing them shelter and teaching them a trade. The work of the sisters expanded to include administering and working in orphanages, schools, convalescent hospitals, soup kitchens, and women's hostels. The Community is conspicuous amongst Anglican communities for its meteoric rise in numbers from the date of the foundation. By the time of Carter's death in 1901 there were some 300 Sisters. At its height, the Community had some forty-five priories and branch houses. The community's headquarters were, historically, at their purpose-built Victorian convent in Hatch Lane, Windsor. This very large and imposing structure is a local landmark, and includes a highly decorated chapel, and extensive accommodation for sisters, guests, and the female destitute persons
    10.00
    2 votes
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    Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo

    Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo

    The Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo or Scalabrinian Missionaries (abbr.: C.S.) are a Roman Catholic religious institute of brothers and priests founded by Giovanni Battista Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza in Italy, in 1887. Its mission is to "maintain Catholic faith and practice among Italian emigrants in the New World." Today, they and their sister organizations, the Missionary Sisters of St. Charles Borromeo (founded by Scalabrini on 25 October 1895) and Secular Institute of the Scalabrinian Missionary Women (founded 25 July 1961) minister to migrants, refugees and displaced persons. The institute was approved in principle by Pope Leo XIII in a Brief dated 25 November 1887 and its constitution definitively approved by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda on 3 October 1908. The expediency of providing for the spiritual — and also, in some degree, for the temporal — needs of Italian emigrants to the Americas was forcibly brought home to Bishop Scalabrini by the pathetic spectacle of a number of such emigrants waiting in the great railway station of Milan. Acting upon this inspiration, and encouraged by Cardinal Simeoni, then Cardinal Prefect of Propaganda, the
    7.25
    4 votes
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    Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart

    The Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart, often called the Josephites ("Brown Joeys"), were founded in Penola, South Australia in 1866 by Mary MacKillop and Father Julian Tenison Woods. The centre of the congregation is at Mary MacKillop Place, Mount Street, North Sydney where Saint Mary MacKillop's tomb is enshrined in the Mary MacKillop Memorial Chapel. At present there are around 850 sisters living and working throughout Australia (South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia) and New Zealand, as well as Ireland and Peru. The sisters have "Mary MacKillop Centres" at Penola, South Australia; Kensington, South Australia; East Melbourne, Victoria; Annerley, Queensland; South Perth, Western Australia - and the main centre mentioned above - at North Sydney. The Australian-New Zealand Federation of the Sisters of St Joseph includes convents in Goulburn and Lochinvar in New South Wales. Father Julian Tenison Woods had been very concerned about the lack of education and particularly Catholic education in South Australia. In 1866, he invited MacKillop and her sisters Annie and Lexie to come to Penola and open a Catholic school. Woods was appointed
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    4 votes
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    Society of the Sacred Heart

    The Society of the Sacred Heart (Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus) is a Roman Catholic religious congregation established in France by St. Madeleine Sophie Barat in 1800. Madeleine Sophie Barat founded this organisation as part of her catholic vision. It has presence in 45 countries. Membership to the Society is restricted to women only. Its members do many works, but focus on education, particularly girls' education. . Because of its origins, educational work, and character, the Society is sometimes considered a female equivalent to the Jesuits, or Society of Jesus. Members use the suffix "RSCJ" which stands for Religieuses du Sacré Cœur de Jésus or Religiosa Sanctissimi Cordis Jesu or Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus.
    7.25
    4 votes
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    Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter

    Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter

    The Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter (Latin: Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Sancti Petri; abbreviation: F.S.S.P.) is a traditionalist Catholic Society of Apostolic Life of priests and seminarians in good standing with the Holy See. According to Canon law, the F.S.S.P. is a "Clerical Society of Apostolic Life of Pontifical Right". It is not, therefore, an Institute of Consecrated Life, and members take no religious vows, but are instead bound by the same general laws of celibacy and obedience as diocesan clergy and, in addition, swear an oath as members of the Society. The Fraternity's pontifical-right status means that it has been established by the Pope and is answerable only to him in terms of their operation (through the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei), rather than to local bishops. A local bishop still governs the Fraternity's work within his respective diocese. In this sense its organization and administrative reporting status are similar to those of religious orders of pontifical right (for example, the Jesuits or Dominicans). The F.S.S.P. consists of priests and seminarians who intend to pursue the goal of Christian perfection according to a specific charism, which is to offer
    9.50
    2 votes
    49
    Bridgettines

    Bridgettines

    The Bridgettine or Birgittine Order (formally the Order of the Most Holy Savior, abbrevated as O.Ss.S.) is a monastic religious order of Augustinian nuns, Religious Sisters and monks founded by Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget) of Sweden in approximately 1350, and approved by Pope Urban V in 1370. There are today several different branches of Bridgettines. The original Bridgettine Order was open to both men and women, and was dedicated to devotion to the Passion of Jesus Christ. It was a ”double order” each monastery having attached to it a small community of monks to act as chaplains, but under the government of the abbess. St Bridget's Rule stipulated: the number of choir nuns shall not exceed sixty, with four lay sisters; the priests shall be thirteen, according to the number of the thirteen apostles, of whom Paul the thirteenth was not the least in toil; then there must be four deacons, who also may be priests if they will, and they are the figure of the four principal Doctors, Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory and Jerome, then eight lay brothers, who with their labors shall minister necessaries to the clerics, therefore counting three-score sisters, thirteen priests, four deacons, and
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    4 votes
    50

    Khalwati order

    The Khalwati order (also known as Khalwatiyya, Khalwatiya, or Halveti, as it is known in Turkey) is an Islamic Sufi brotherhood (tariqa). Along with the Naqshbandi, Qadiri and Shadhili orders, it is among the most famous Sufi orders. The order takes its name from the Arabic word khalwa, meaning “method of withdrawal or isolation from the world for mystical purposes.” The order was founded by Umar al-Khalwati in the city of Herat in medieval Khorasan (now located in western Afghanistan). However, it was Umar's disciple, Yahya Shirvani, who founded the “Khalwati Way.” Yahya Shirvani wrote Wird al-Sattar, a devotional text read by the members of nearly all the branches of Khalwatiyya. The Khalwati order is known for its strict ritual training of its dervishes and its emphasis of individualism. Particularly, the order promoted individual asceticism (zuhd) and retreat (khalwa), differentiating themselves from other orders at the time. The order is associated as one of the source schools of many other Sufi orders. There were two major historical movements of the Khalwati order. The first one started in the late fourteenth century and ended in the seventeenth century. The first historical
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    4 votes
    51
    Order of the Holy Cross

    Order of the Holy Cross

    The Order of the Holy Cross is an international Anglican monastic Order that follows the Rule of St. Benedict. The Order was founded in 1884 by the Rev. James Otis Sargent Huntington, an Episcopal priest, in New York City. The Order moved to Maryland briefly before settling in West Park, New York, in 1902. Today the Order operates four houses: Holy Cross Monastery, West Park, New York; Mt. Calvary Retreat House and Monastery, Santa Barbara, California; Holy Cross Priory, Toronto, Ontario; and Mariya uMama weThemba Monastery, Grahamstown, South Africa. Mount Calvary House burned to the ground in a wildfire on the morning of November 14, 2008. The monks of the Order engage in various ministries, the chief being that of prayer (including the Divine Office and daily Mass), as well as hosting guests for individual and group retreats. The Order estimates that more than 5,000 guests stay at Holy Cross Monastery, one of the largest monastic retreat centers in the Episcopal Church, each year. Holy Cross Monastery also makes and sells incense and religious literature. Mariya uMama weThemba Monastery operates a retreat house and is actively involved in the education of rural farm children
    7.00
    4 votes
    52
    Sovereign Military Order of Malta

    Sovereign Military Order of Malta

    • Monasteries: Clerkenwell Priory
    The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (Italian: Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), Order of Malta or Knights of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is the world's oldest surviving order of chivalry. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is headquartered in Rome, and is widely considered a sovereign subject of international law. SMOM is the modern continuation of the original medieval order of Saint John of Jerusalem, known as the Knights Hospitaller, a group founded in Jerusalem about 1050 as an Amalfitan hospital to provide care for poor and sick pilgrims to the Holy Land. After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, it became a military order under its own charter. Following the loss of Christian held territories of the Holy Land to Muslims, the Order operated from Rhodes (1310–1523), and later from Malta (1530–1798), over which it was sovereign. Although this state came to an end with the ejection of the Order from Malta by
    7.00
    4 votes
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    Sufi Order International

    The Sufi Order International is an organization dedicated to "Universal Sufism" as elaborated by Hazrat Inayat Khan. The order is currently led by Pir Zia Inayat Khan, the grandson of Hazrat Inayat Khan and son of Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan. The activities of the Sufi Order International, in keeping with the vision of Hazrat Inayat Khan, are contained within five concentrations — The Esoteric School, The Healing Order, The Universal Worship, Kinship Activity, and Ziraat. Each concentration is headed by a senior member of the Sufi Order appointed by the Pir. These are described further on the Sufi Order's Activities page. The Sufi Order International has centers throughout the world, where one may take classes, learn about practices, and find fellowship with other seekers. Some choose to work with a guide, who has been trained in the lineage of Murshid Inayat Khan, Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan, and Pir Zia Inayat Khan (and ultimately through the Chisti order in India). Traditional Sufism is a branch of Islam that provides a more personal and mystical connection to its enlightenment, or “divine love.” It originated in the Middle East and North East Africa as a sect of Islam that internalized
    7.00
    4 votes
    54
    Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem

    Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem

    The Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem were founded in 1975 by Brother Pierre-Marie Delfieux (currently prior general) with the aim of promoting the spirit of the monastic desert (cf. Charles de Foucauld) in the heart of cities. In the communities' Rule of Life, Delfieux answers the question: why Jerusalem? "Because Jerusalem is the city given by God to men and built by men for God, thereby becoming the foremost of the cities of the world, and because your vocation is to be a city-dweller, you are a monk, a nun of Jerusalem. §161 Be vigilant to keep in your heart a true concern for communion with all the sons of Abraham, Jews and Muslims, who are like you worshippers of the one God and for whom Jerusalem is equally a holy City." §174 These Catholic communities are present in
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    Salesians of Don Bosco

    Salesians of Don Bosco

    The Salesians of Don Bosco (or the Society, originally known as the Society of St. Francis de Sales) is a Roman Catholic religious institute founded in the late nineteenth century by Saint Don Bosco in an attempt, through works of charity, to care for the young and poor children of the industrial revolution. The Salesians' charter describes the society's mission as "the Christian perfection of its associates obtained by the exercise of spiritual and corporal works of charity towards the young, especially the poor, and the education of boys to the priesthood". The institute is named for St. Francis de Sales, an early-modern bishop of Geneva. In 1845 Don John Bosco ("Don" being a traditional Italian honorific for a priest) opened a night school for boys in Valdocco, now part of the municipality of Turin in Italy. In the coming years, he opened several more schools, and in 1857 drew up a set of rules for his helpers, which became the Rule of the Society of St. Francis de Sales, which Pope Pius IX approved definitively in 1873. The institute grew rapidly, with houses established in France and Argentina within a year of the society's formal recognition. Its official print organ, the
    8.00
    3 votes
    56
    Shadhili

    Shadhili

    The Shadhili Tariqa is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili. Followers (Arabic murids, "seekers") of the Shadhiliya are known as Shadhilis. It has historically been of importance and influence in North Africa and Egypt with many contributions to Islamic literature. Among the figures most known for their literary and intellectual contributions are Ibn 'Ata Allah, author of the Hikam, and Ahmad Zarruq, author of numerous commentaries and works, and Ahmad ibn Ajiba who also wrote numerous commentaries and works. In poetry expressing love of Muhammad, there have been the notable contributions of Muhammad al-Jazuli, author of the "Dala'il al-Khayrat", and Busiri, author of the famous poem, the Qaṣīda al-Burda. Many of the head lecturers of al-Azhar University in Cairo have also been followers of this tariqa. Of the various branches of the Shadhili tariqa are the Fassiyatush, found largely in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The Darqawi branch is found mostly in Morocco and the Alawiyya (no connection to the Turkish or Syrian Alawi or Alevi groups) which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many
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    3 votes
    57

    Society of the Holy Cross

    The Society of the Holy Cross (SHC) is an order of women religious (or nuns) in the Anglican Church of Korea. It is not to be confused with the Society of the Holy Cross, SSC (Societas Sanctae Crucis), which is an international order of Anglo-Catholic priests within the Anglican tradition. From 1892 onwards, sisters from the Community of St Peter in Woking were sent to work in Korea. In 1925 the local Anglican bishop in Seoul founded SHC as a local religious order, but support from the Community of St Peter continued until 1950. Today around 20 sisters live at the mother house in Seoul. Sister Mary Clare CSP came from Woking to assume office as the first Reverend Mother (superior) of the new Society of the Holy Cross. She was an active campaigner for the Korean people, and was persecuted by North Korean communist authorities. In 1950 Mother Mary Clare died during the Korean War 'death march', and her example has since formed a major influence upon the community. The SHC sisters have felt called in recent years to expand their work into other countries. Initially they opened a branch house convent in England, but this closed again in November 2010 as a result of the administrative
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    58

    Celestines

    Celestines are a Roman Catholic monastic order, a branch of the Benedictines, founded in 1244. At the foundation of the new rule, they were called Hermits of St Damiano, or Moronites (or Murronites), and did not assume the appellation of Celestines until after the election of their founder to the Papacy as Celestine V. The fame of the holy life and the austerities practised by the hermit in his solitude on the Mountain of Majella, near Sulmona, attracted many visitors, several of whom were moved to remain and share his mode of life. They built a small convent on the spot inhabited by the holy hermit, which became too small for the accommodation of those who came to share their life of privations. Peter of Morone, their founder built a number of other small oratories in that neighborhood. This happened about the year 1254. A new religious community was formed, and Peter of Morone gave them a rule formulated in accordance with his own practices. In 1264 the new institution was approved by Urban IV. The founder, having heard that it was probable that Pope Gregory X, then holding a council at Lyon, would suppress all such new orders as had been founded since the Lateran Council, having
    6.75
    4 votes
    59
    Community of All Hallows

    Community of All Hallows

    The Community of All Hallows (CAH) is an Anglican religious order based in Ditchingham, near Bungay, Suffolk, under the jurisdiction of the Church of England. The religious Sisters lead an active life of prayer and service, providing hospitality and spiritual direction in two retreat houses. One retreat house is situated in the Convent grounds at Ditchingham and the other house is in Norwich, adjacent to the Shrine of Julian of Norwich. The Community was founded by Lavinia Crosse in 1855. Lavinia was the daughter of the famous surgeon, John Green Crosse.
    6.75
    4 votes
    60
    Franciscan Missionaries of the Eternal Word

    Franciscan Missionaries of the Eternal Word

    The Franciscan Missionaries of the Eternal Word (MFVA) is a Public Clerical Association of the Faithful, located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Birmingham in Alabama. They were founded in 1987 by Mother Angelica, who also founded the Eternal Word Television Network (EWTN) and the Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament. The primary residence of the Friars is in Irondale, Alabama, and is next door to EWTN. They also have residences in Emmitsburg, Maryland, where their Seminarians attend the seminary at Mount Saint Mary's University, and in Hanceville, Alabama, near the Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament. The Friars’ apostolate is to communicate the Catholic faith by word and example. It involves using the media: television, radio and the Internet, as well as publishing and conducting retreats. Currently, they focus their attention on the television and radio ministry, in addition to providing for the spiritual needs of the Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration, the EWTN employees, and the visitors who come to EWTN and the Shrine. Many of the Friars take classes during the school year, either at Mount Saint Mary’s University or in their own House of Studies adjacent to the Friary in
    6.75
    4 votes
    61
    Lazarists

    Lazarists

    Congregation of the Mission (Congregatio Missionis; abbreviated as "C.M." in the Roman Catholic Church) is a vowed Roman Catholic religious institute of priests and brothers associated with the Vincentian Family, a loose federation of organizations who claim St. Vincent de Paul as their founder or Patron. They are popularly known as Vincentians, or Lazarites, Lazarists and Lazarians. The Congregation has its origin in the successful mission to the common people conducted by Saint Vincent de Paul and five other priests on the estates of the Gondi family. More immediately it dates from 1624, when the little community acquired a permanent settlement in the Collège des Bons Enfants in Paris. Archiepiscopal recognition was obtained in 1626. By a papal bull — on January 12, 1633 — the society was constituted a congregation, with St Vincent de Paul as its head. About the same time the canons regular of St Victor handed over to the congregation the priory of St Lazarus (formerly a lazar-house) in Paris, whence the name of Lazarites or Lazarists. Within a few years they had acquired another house in Paris and set up other establishments throughout France; missions were also sent to Italy
    6.75
    4 votes
    62
    Passionist

    Passionist

    The Passionists (The Congregation of the Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ) are a Roman Catholic religious institute founded by Saint Paul of the Cross (Paul Francis Danei). Professed members use the initials C.P. after their names. St. Paul of the Cross wrote the rules of the Congregation in December 1720; and in 1725, Pope Benedict XIII granted Paul the permission to form his congregation. Paul and his brother, John Baptist, were ordained by the pope on the same occasion. In 1769 Clement XIV granted full rights to the Passionists as enjoyed by the other religious institutes, making them not an order but a congregation. The congregation historically has had two primary goals: missionary work and contemplative life, with an attempt to blend the two. Its founder had attempted to combine aspects of the contemplative orders, such as the Trappist monks, together with the dynamic orders, such as the Jesuits. There are 2,179 Passionists in 59 countries on the five continents, led by a superior general who is elected every six years. He is assisted by four consultors in governing the congregation. The present superior general is Father Ottaviano D'Egidio. The congregation is divided into
    6.75
    4 votes
    63

    School Sisters of Notre Dame

    School Sisters of Notre Dame is a worldwide religious institute of Roman Catholic nuns devoted to primary, secondary, and post-secondary education. Their life in mission centers on prayer, community life and ministry. The sisters uphold their congregation's founding vision that education has the power to transform the world, and they do so in a variety of ways, serving as teachers, administrators, lawyers, accountants, nurses, therapists, social workers, pastoral ministers, social justice advocates and much more. The institute was founded in Bavaria in 1833 during a time of poverty and illiteracy. Its founder, Caroline Gerhardinger, known by the religious name of Mary Theresa of Jesus, formed a community with two other women in Neunburg vorm Wald to teach the poor. In 1847, Blessed Theresa and five companion sisters traveled to the United States to aid German immigrants, especially girls and women. That same year, the sisters staffed schools in three German parishes in Baltimore, Maryland: St. James, St. Michael, and St. Alphonsus, as well as opening the Institute of Notre Dame, a private school for German girls. Eventually the Congregation spread across the United States and into
    6.75
    4 votes
    64

    Sisters of Loreto

    The Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary whose members are commonly known as Sisters of Loreto (named so after the shrine at Loreto, Marche in Italy where Mary Ward used to pray) is a religious congregation of women, dedicated to apostolic work in the Church. It was founded in 1609 by Mary Ward. In North America, the original spelling of "Loretto" is used. Mary Ward was declared "Venerable" (the first of three steps towards being declared a saint) by the authority of Pope Benedict XVI on 19 December 2009. After being suppressed for a short period in 1639, the Institute was slowly revived, receiving complete canonical approval in 1877. Today it is engaged in a wide variety of ministries: Catholic schools, literacy programmes, spiritual direction, counselling, managing shelters for homeless women as well as several aspects of the movement for greater justice and peace in the world. They are active in every continent. Today, the Loreto Sisters have set up 150 schools worldwide, educating over 70,000 pupils. Mary Ward was inspired by the spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola (now often referred to as "Ignatian spirituality"). She had a vision for a different, new and modern
    6.75
    4 votes
    65
    Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy

    Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy

    The Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy (Congregatio Sororum Beatae Mariae Misericordiae (lat)), (Zgromadzenie Sióstr Matki Bożej Miłosierdzia (pol)) - was founded by Mother Teresa Eva Potocka (1814–1881) in Warsaw, Poland on November 1, 1862. This was the first "Mercy House". The order uses the abbreviation O.L.M. Mother Teresa Ewa countess Sułkowska princes Potocka after eight months of practice in the House of Mercy in the Laval (France) returned to Poland and at the invitation of Archbishop Zygmunt Szczesny Feliński she took over shelter (Dom Schronienia pol) in Warsaw for girls failed morally. November 1, 1862 Archbishop Feliński dedicated a chapel and a house for girls, and that date shall be adopted as the date of creation 'the Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy' in Poland. In 1878 there was a connection to the assembly on the Laval and obtain a decree authorizing the activities of the Papal Order. From 1922 Order works themselves. In communist times, the 1962 Polish government nationalized company conducted by the congregation. Some of them were converted to"Caritas", sisters took care of children affected by the reduced efficiency of mental
    9.00
    2 votes
    66

    Franciscan Friars of the Renewal

    The Community of the Franciscan Friars of the Renewal (abbreviated as "C.F.R.") is a mendicant congregation in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. It follows the Capuchin Franciscan tradition. The Friars were founded in 1987 by eight Capuchin priests, including Father Benedict Groeschel, Father Stan Fortuna, Father Robert Stanion, Father Glenn Sudano, and Father Andrew Apostoli. The purpose of the community is to strive to a return to the authentic Capuchin way of life and the renewal of the Catholic Church. In addition, the friars are known for their fidelity to the pope. The Community characterises itself as Catholic, Franciscan, Capuchin, contemplative, prophetic, apostolic, fraternal and pro-life. The Franciscan Friars of the Renewal always operate in harmony with the local bishop and serve according to the needs of each diocese. Their website states that the mission is twofold: First "...is to serve the materially poor, most especially the destitute and homeless. Friaries not primarily focused on formation should have one or more facilities to provide for the needs of the poor, for example, a shelter, soup kitchen, food pantry and/or clothing room. Each of these works must
    9.00
    2 votes
    67

    Franciscan Sisters of Christian Charity

    The Franciscan Sisters of Christian Charity are a Congregation of Roman Catholic apostolic religious women. The congregation was founded in 1869 in Manitowoc, Wisconsin in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milwaukee--later part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay. They follow St. Francis of Assisi’s Gospel way of life and declared their aspiration to live the Gospel in simplicity, built on faith in a loving God, joyful acceptance of poverty, love for the Church and selfless dedication to the service of others. The Reverend Ambrose Oschwald arrived from Germany in 1854 in the frontier region of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, with a community of men and women dedicated to Gospel-living as members of the Third Order of St. Francis. On November 9, 1869 five women from this group were declared a religious community and began living under the Rule of the Franciscan Third Order Regular. This was done with the approval of the Rt. Rev. John Henni, Bishop (later Archbishop) of Milwaukee and the Very Reverend Father Francis J. Haas, O.M.C., at that time the Minister Provincial of the Capuchin Friars in Wisconsin. The Reverend Joseph Fessler, pastor of Manitowoc, was the investing
    9.00
    2 votes
    68

    Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary

    The Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (I.H.M.)is a Catholic order of Sisters[Nuns]. It is divided among three separate congregations. The original community of the institute is headquartered in Monroe, Michigan. The Mother house currently houses more than 400 sisters, more than 100 of which require supportive care. The sisters originally began as teachers, but their ministries have become more diverse, including; Education in grade schools, high schools, colleges and universities,Pastoral care in hospitals, long-term care facilities and other health care settings,Parish ministry and outreach into poor communities,Social services for poor and homeless families,working with those with AIDS, individuals in need,they provide spiritual direction and retreats,Advocacy efforts to help people get the resources needed to fully participate in society,Programs and services for older adults in a variety of settings, and the sisters work to improve the environment. The beginnings of the institute came about in 1845 shortly after Father Louis Florent Gillet, C.Ss.R., arrived in Monroe, Michigan to become the pastor of St. Mary Parish. On November 10, Gillet and Theresa Maxis, a
    9.00
    2 votes
    69
    Buddhism

    Buddhism

    • Monasteries: Chi Lin Nunnery
    Buddhism is a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs, and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha (meaning "the awakened one" in Sanskrit and Pāli). The Buddha lived and taught in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end suffering (dukkha) through eliminating ignorance (avidyā) by way of understanding and seeing dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda) and eliminating craving (taṇhā), and thus attain the highest happiness, nirvāņa (nirvana). Two major branches of Buddhism are recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"). Theravada has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana is found throughout East Asia and includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shingon, Tiantai (Tendai) and Shinnyo-en. In some classifications, Vajrayana—practiced mainly in Tibet and Mongolia, and adjacent parts of
    5.80
    5 votes
    70
    Order of Friars Minor Capuchin

    Order of Friars Minor Capuchin

    The Order of Capuchin Friars Minor (in Latin: Ordo Fratrum Minorum Capuccinorum - abbreviated: O.F.M.Cap.) is an Order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The worldwide head of the Order, called the Minister General, is currently Father Mauro Jöhri. The Order arose in 1520 when Matteo da Bascio, an Observant Franciscan friar native to the Italian region of the Marches, said he had been inspired by God with the idea that the manner of life led by the friars of his day was not the one which their founder, St. Francis of Assisi, had envisaged. He sought to return to the primitive way of life of solitude and penance as practiced by the founder of their Order. His religious superiors tried to suppress these innovations, and Friar Matteo and his first companions were forced into hiding from Church authorities, who sought to arrest them for having abandoned their religious duties. They were given refuge by the Camaldolese monks, in gratitude for which they later adopted the hood (or cappuccio) worn by that Order - which was the mark of a hermit in that region of Italy - and the practice of wearing a beard. The popular name of their Order
    7.67
    3 votes
    71
    Sisters of Adoration, Slaves of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity

    Sisters of Adoration, Slaves of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity

    Adoratrices, Handmaids of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity, is a Roman Catholic religious institute founded in 1856 by Saint María Micaela of the Blessed Sacrament in Madrid, Spain. Maria Micaela Desmaisieres y Lopez de Dicastillo was born on 1 January 1809 in Madrid during the Spanish war of independence. Her father was a high-ranking officer in the Spanish army and her mother was a lady-in-waiting to the Spanish Queen, Maria Luisa de Parma. Maria Micaela's life unfolded in the circles of the Spanish and French nobility. Through her family and social connections she had very cordial relationships with the Monarchs in Spain, France, and Belgium, and spent most of her young life accompanying her brother, the Spanish Ambassador Diego, to the Royal Palaces. Dances, parties, social gatherings and horse riding were the order of the day for her. During these same years, Maria Micaela searched to find the direction she should give her life. She had inherited from her father a warrior's temperament, which prepared her for the hard battles in her later life, as well as nobility and generosity. Her heart, sensitive and compassionate, was guided by her mother towards works of charity
    7.67
    3 votes
    72

    Adrian Dominican Sisters

    The Adrian Dominican Sisters are a Catholic religious institute of Dominican sisters in the United States. Their motherhouse is in Adrian, Michigan. Their official title is the Congregation of the Most Holy Rosary. The congregation serves in ministries of education, healthcare and social service and the other ministries that have developed from them. Adrian Dominicans serve in these ministries in 30 US states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Canada, Dominican Republic, Italy, and Swaziland. The Adrian Dominican Sisters have an associate program consisting of women and men who associate with the vowed members for their own spiritual growth and support in their own ministerial lives under the inspiration of the Dominican tradition. The congregation sponsors two universities, a healthcare system (Catholic Healthcare West) to which its two hospitals belong, and one long term healthcare facility. The Dominican Sisters of Adrian, Michigan trace their origin to Holy Cross Convent in Regensburg (Ratisbon), Bavaria, a convent established in 1233. In 1853 four sisters from this convent were sent to New York in response to a request for sisters to provide religious education for German
    10.00
    1 votes
    73

    Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy

    The Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy, or in full Brothers of Mercy of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, are a Catholic religious institute. The institute was founded at Mechlin (Flanders, capital of the ecclesiastical province coinciding with Belgium) in 1839 by Canon J. B. Cornelius Scheppers for the instruction and care of prisoners and of the sick. They were invited to S. Balbina in Perugia by Cardinal Pecci, afterwards Leo XIII, who had witnessed their work while he was nuncio in Belgium at Brussels. It was at his instance that Pius IX confirmed the institution of the brothers in 1854. In 1855 Cardinal Manning invited them to London, where they have undertaken the care of the prisoners in Catholic reformatories and are also occupied with the education of the children of the poor. They are under simple vows and the term of the novitiate is two years. They wear a black habit and scapular with a brown cross on the breast.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
    10.00
    1 votes
    74

    Congregatio Discipulorum Domini

    Congregation of the Disciples of the Lord(also known as , Congregatio Discipulorum Domini also its translation in Latin) is a Catholic religious institute, founded by future Cardinal Celso Costantini on 31 March 1931 at Xuanhwa of Chahar Province in China.
    10.00
    1 votes
    75

    Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux

    The Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux is the first religious brothers congregation founded in the Syro-Malabar Church in India and the first congregation in the name of St. Thérèse of Lisieux in India. The congregation also has a priestly wing. It was founded on 19 March 1931 in a small village called Mookkannur by Mar Augustine Kandathil, the Metropolitan of Ernakulam and head of the Syro-Malabar Church. Later the Archbishop augmented the congregation with a priestly wing in 1945. They are engaged in catechetical works, orphanages, schools, industrial training centres (ITC), hospitals, production centers, library, youth centres, prison ministry etc. Balanagar ITC, Mookkannur, is one of the most famous industrial training centres run by them.
    10.00
    1 votes
    76

    Sisters of St. Joseph

    The title Sisters of St. Joseph applies to several Roman Catholic religious congregations of women. The largest and oldest of these was founded in Le Puy-en-Velay, France. This Congregation has approximately 14,000 members worldwide: about 7,000 in the United States; 2,000 in France; and are active in fifty other countries. The Congregation was founded in Le Puy by the Jesuit Jean Paul Médaille on October 15, 1650. On the following March 10, the local bishop, Henri de Maupas, granted ecclesiastical approval to these women. On December 13, 1651, the Sisters of St. Joseph presented themselves to the Royal Notary in LePuy for their legal incorporation. Only one, a widow, could sign her name and only two brought any kind of dowry. They had taken over the administration of the hospital-orphanage in the rue de Montferrand in LePuy and were connected with the work of Father Médaille, whom they consider their founder. The new Congregation enjoyed rapid growth, expanding into eighteen houses during the first decade. By the time of the French Revolution, almost 150 years later, the Sisters had spread to twelve dioceses in the southeast corner of France. The Congregation of Saint Joseph was
    10.00
    1 votes
    77

    Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word

    The Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word is the name of two Roman Catholic religious institutes based in the U.S. state of Texas. The Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, Houston is a religious institute of women begun in 1866, at the request of French-born Claude Marie Dubuis, the second Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Galveston, which then included the entire state of Texas. Bishop Dubuis made this foundational call to his native France in 1866, asking for sisters to join him in assisting the ill: Our Lord Jesus Christ, suffering in the persons of a multitude of sick and infirm of every kind, seeks relief at your hands. Three sisters came from France to Galveston, Texas, and started Charity Hospital (the first Catholic hospital in Texas) in Galveston (which would later become St. Mary's Infirmary & St. Mary's Hospital). The sisters were Sister Mary Blandine, Sister Mary Joseph and Sister Mary Ange. Later, as a result of the yellow fever epidemic that struck Galveston, the St. Mary's Orphanage was started, first in the hospital, and was later moved just outside town (away from the epidemic). This epidemic also struck two of the
    6.50
    4 votes
    78

    Barnabites

    The Barnabites, or Clerics Regular of Saint Paul (Latin: Clerici Regulares Sancti Pauli, abbr. B.) is a Roman Catholic order. It was founded in 1530 by three Italian noblemen: St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria (S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria), Venerable Barthalomew Ferrari (Bartolomeo Ferrari), and Venerable James Morigia (Giacomo Antonio Morigia), and approved by Pope Clement VII in the brief Vota per quae vos in 1533. Later approvals gave it the status of an order, but it is still normally referred to as a congregation. Both the date and the vocation place it among the orders associated with the Counter-Reformation. The popular name Barnabites came naturally to the Congregation through its association with the church of St. Barnabas in Milan, which came into its possession within the earliest years of the foundation of the institute, which was at first peculiarly Milanese. St. Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, presided, in 1579, as Cardinal Protector, over the commission which determined once for all the constitution of the order, and the general chapters were regularly held at Milan until the reign of Pope Alexander VII (1655-67), who ordered them to convene in Rome. Pope Innocent XI
    8.50
    2 votes
    79

    Chama Cha Mariamu Mtakatifu

    The Chama cha Mariamu Mtakatifu (Community of St. Mary of Nazareth and Calvary), (CMM) is a large Anglican religious order operating within the Anglican Church of Tanzania, and with its headquarters at Masasi, Tanzania. Female religious were first introduced to Tanzania by clergy missionaries of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, working in conjunction with the sisters of the Community of the Sacred Passion (CSP). The Order was formally recognised in 1946, and then in 1968 gained independence from CSP, and became the autonomous CMM. Today the sisters focus their work on caring for parish churches, administering and teaching in primary schools, and outreach to hospitals, prisons, and the disadvantaged. They engage in agriculture, and also produce community wares for sale, including vestments, altar breads, and candles. The Order reported around 120 sisters in membership at the start of 2012. There is a Sister Superior for each convent, or regional group of nearby convents. At the head of the Order is an elected Reverend Mother Superior - currently Reverend Mother Gloria Prisca CMM (elected 2004). There is a Bishop Visitor, who is one of the diocesan bishops of the Anglican
    8.50
    2 votes
    80
    Christa Sevika Sangha

    Christa Sevika Sangha

    The Christa Sevika Sangha (Handmaids of Christ), CSS, is an Anglican religious order for women based in Jobarpar, Bangladesh. It is a part of the Anglican Church of Bangladesh. In 1970 the Sisterhood of the Epiphany, a group of largely British-ethnicity sisters working in Bangladesh, formed a parallel community for sisters of Bangladeshi nationality, and chose the name Christa Sevika Sangha (Handmaids of Christ). The key founder was Sr Susila SE. In 1986 the order became fully independent. At that time the foundress, Sr Susila SE, left the Sisterhood of the Epiphany to become the first Mother Superior CSS, an office she continued to until her death on 16 May 2011. In total she led the community for 41 years, and was Mother Superior for 26 years. The Sevikas have a longstanding attachment to the Oxford Mission, and are often referred to simply as the "Oxford Mission Sisters". The sisters supervise hostels for young girls, and a play centre for small children. They are involved in work at local schools and other community projects. They offer a four-fold daily office in Bengali language, as well as a daily eucharist, and a daily informal quiet prayer session.
    8.50
    2 votes
    81

    Apostles of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

    The Catholic Apostles of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (ASCJ) were founded in Viareggio, Italy, in 1894, by Mother Clelia Merloni (1861-1930). The congregation has grown to over 1,500 sisters on five continents serving the universal Church, including in the United States. The U.S. Provincialate is located at Mount Sacred Heart, 295 Benham Street, Hamden, CT 06514-2801, 203-248-4225; the order operates in CT, NY, PA, MO, and FL), Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Italy, Switzerland, Albania, Benin, Mozambique, Taiwan, and the Philippines. Their principal ministries of service are in education (all age levels), health care, missionary activity, and social work and pastoral service.
    7.33
    3 votes
    82
    Camaldolese

    Camaldolese

    The Camaldolese monks and nuns are part of the Benedictine family of monastic communities which follow the way of life outlined in the Rule of St. Benedict, written in the 6th century. Their name is derived from the Holy Hermitage (Italian: Sacro Eremo) of Camaldoli, high in the mountains of central Italy, near the city of Arezzo. The Camaldolese were established through the efforts of the Italian monk Saint Romuald (ca. 950– ca. 1025/27) at the start of the second Christian millennium. His reform sought to renew and integrate the eremetical tradition of monastic life with that of the cenobium. In his youth Romuald became acquainted with the three major schools of western monastic tradition. The monastery where he entered the Order, Sant' Apollinare in Classe was a traditional Benedictine community under the influence of the Cluniac reforms. Romuald chose to be under a spiritual master, Marinus, who followed a much harsher ascetic and solitary lifestyle that was originally of Irish eremitical origins. Some years later, Marinus and Romuald settled near the Abbey of Sant Miguel de Cuxa, where Abbot Guarinus was also beginning reforms but was building mainly upon the Iberian Christian
    7.33
    3 votes
    83
    Company of Mary

    Company of Mary

    The Missionaries of the Company of Mary is a missionary religious congregation within the [[Latin Church]; one of the 23 sui iuris churches which compose the universal Catholic Church. The community was founded by Saint Louis de Montfort in 1705 with the recruitment of his first missionary disciple, Mathurin Rangeard. The congregation is made up of priests and brothers who serve both in the native lands and in other countries. The Montfortian Family comprises three groups: the Company of Mary, the Daughters of Wisdom and the Brothers of Saint Gabriel. As early as 1700 Montfort had conceived the idea of founding a society of missionaries. Five months after his ordination, in November 1700, he wrote: "I am continually asking in my prayers for a poor and small company of good priests to preach missions and retreats under the standard and protection of the Blessed Virgin". In 1713 he went to Paris with a view to recruit members for his community. The director of the seminary Du St-Esprit promised to send him such young priests as would feel called to do missionary work. During the intervals between his missions Montfort wrote the Rule of the Company of Mary (1713) though no official
    7.33
    3 votes
    84
    Eudists

    Eudists

    The Congregation of Jesus and Mary (Latin: Congregatio Iesu et Mariae), commonly referred to as the Eudists (Latin: Congregatio Eudistarum) is a Society of Apostolic Life in the Roman Catholic Church. The Congregation of Jesus and Mary was instituted at Caen, in Normandy, France on 25 March 1643, by Saint Jean Eudes, exemplar of the French school of spirituality. The principal works of the Congregation are the education of priests in seminaries and the giving of missions. To develop the spirit of Jesus Christ in the members of the Congregation, Father Eudes caused to be celebrated every year in his seminaries the feast of the Holy Priesthood of Jesus Christ and of all Holy Priests and Levites. After the feast of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary it is the primary feast of the community. The solemnity begins on 13 November, and thus serves as a preparation for the renewal of the clerical promises on 21 November, the feast of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. As early as 1649 Father Eudes had prepared an Office proper to the feast. Some years later the feast and office were adopted by the Sulpician Fathers. During the lifetime of Father Eudes, the congregation founded in
    7.33
    3 votes
    85

    Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters

    The Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters are a Roman Catholic religious institute of cloistered nuns. The nuns live a contemplative life, focused on perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, offering intercessory prayers for the world. Inside the cloister the nuns wear rose-colored habits in honor of the Holy Spirit. It is from these habits that they are nicknamed the "Pink Sisters." The congregation was founded in 1896 in Holland by Saint Arnold Janssen, a German diocesan priest who was canonized on October 5, 2003 by Pope John Paul II. The first house was established in the United States in 1915 by Mother Mary Michaele in Pennsylvania, upon the invitation of Archbishop Edmund Francis Pendergast. Currently, there are 22 Houses located in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Germany, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Poland, Slovakia, Togo, and the United States.
    7.33
    3 votes
    86
    Ismaili

    Ismaili

    Ismāʿīlism (Arabic: الإسماعيلية‎ al-Ismāʿīliyya; Persian: اسماعیلیان‎Esmāʿiliyān; Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī) is the second largest branch of Shia Islam after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). The Ismāʿīlī get their name from their acceptance of Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar as the appointed spiritual successor (Imām) to Jaʿfar aṣ-Ṣādiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers, who accept Mūsà al-Kāżim, younger brother of Ismāʿīl, as the true Imām. Tracing its earliest theology to the lifetime of Muhammad, Ismāʿīlism rose at one point to become the largest branch of Shī‘ism, climaxing as a political power with the Fatimid Empire in the tenth through twelfth centuries. Ismailis believe in the oneness of God, as well as the closing of divine revelation with Muhammad, whom they see as "the final Prophet and Messenger of God to all humanity". The Ismāʿīlī and the Twelvers both accept the same initial A'immah from the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima Zahra and therefore share much of their early history. Both Shī‘ite groups see the family of Muḥammad (Ahl al-Bayt) as divinely chosen, infallible (ismah), and guided by God to lead the Islamic community (Ummah), a belief that
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Maryknoll

    Maryknoll

    Maryknoll is a name shared by three organizations that are part of the Roman Catholic Church and whose joint focus is on the overseas mission activity of the Catholic Church in the United States. These organizations consist of a society of apostolic life for men, a religious institute for women and a lay group: The Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers (The Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America); The Maryknoll Sisters (The Maryknoll Sisters of St. Dominic); and the Maryknoll Lay Missioners. While sharing a name and similar origins, the organizations are independent entities that work closely together in many of their missionary endeavors. Throughout its 100-year history Maryknoll has emphasized ministry and missionary work particularly in East Asia, China, Japan, Korea, Latin America and Africa. Maryknoll's headquarters are in the Village of Ossining, Westchester County, New York. Maryknoll was established in 1911 as the Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America by the Bishops of the United States. Responsibility for its development fell to two diocesan priests, Fr. James Anthony Walsh of Boston and Fr. Thomas Frederick Price of North Carolina, with the commission to recruit, send
    7.33
    3 votes
    88
    Missionaries of Charity

    Missionaries of Charity

    Missionaries of Charity is a Roman Catholic religious congregation established in 1950 by Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta. It consists of over 4,500 religious sisters and is active in 133 countries. Members of the order designate their affiliation using the order's initials, "M.C." A member of the Congregation must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty, obedience, and the fourth vow, to give "Wholehearted and Free service to the poorest of the poor". Today, the order consists of both Contemplative and Active Branches of Brothers and Sisters over several different countries. In 1963, both the Contemplative branch of the Sisters and the Active branch of the Brothers were founded, Brothers being co-founded by then Australian Jesuit (who became Brother Andrew, M.C.) Fr Ian Travers-Ball S.J. In 1979 the Contemplative branch of the Brothers was added and in 1984 a priest branch, the Missionaries of Charity Fathers, was founded by Mother Teresa with Fr. Joseph Langford, combining the vocation of the Missionaries of Charity with the Ministerial Priesthood. As with the Sisters, the Fathers live a very simple lifestyle without television, radios or items of convenience. They neither
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    89
    Servite Order

    Servite Order

    The Servite Order is one of the five original Catholic mendicant orders. Its objects are the sanctification of its members, preaching the Gospel, and the propagation of devotion to the Mother of God, with special reference to her sorrows. The members of the Order use O.S.M. (for Ordo Servorum Beatae Mariae Virginis) as their post-nominal letters. The male members are known as Servite Friars or Servants of Mary. The city of Florence bore the seven youths who formed the nucleus of the order: Buonfiglio dei Monaldi (Bonfilius), Giovanni di Buonagiunta (Bonajuncta), Amadeus of the Amidei (Bartolomeus), Ricovero dei Lippi-Ugguccioni (Hugh), Benedetto dell' Antella (Manettus), Gherardino di Sostegno (Sostene), and Alessio de' Falconieri (Alexius); they belonged to seven patrician families of that city, and had early formed a confraternity of laymen, known as the Laudesi, or Praisers of Mary. They are also known as the "Seven Holy Founders." While engaged in the exercises of the confraternity on the feast of the Assumption, 1233, they witnessed a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary advising them to withdraw from the world and devote themselves entirely to eternal things. They followed this
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    90

    Sisters of Charity

    Many religious communities have the term Sisters of Charity as part of their name. The rule of Saint Vincent for the Daughters of Charity has been adopted and adapted by at least sixty founders of religious institutes around the world in the subsequent centuries. The most famous convent is at 14 Rue du Bac in Paris, France, born 1633. This was where Catholics believe Sister Catherine Laboure received the vision of Immaculate Mary on the eve of St. Vincent's feastday, 1830 and the dispensation of the Miraculous Medal on 27 Novena. While some Sisters of Charity communities refer to the Vincentian tradition, and in America to the tradition of Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton those links are by no means universal. It is important to recognize that there may be no "family" or historical relationship between groups having the phrase Sisters of Charity as part of their name. Many groups calling themselves Sisters of Charity have founded and operate educational institutions, hospitals and orphanages:
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    91
    Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament

    Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament

    The Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament was founded in 1891 by Saint Katharine Drexel. Originally called the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People, the religious institute is commonly known today as the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament. The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884), which at the time was the meeting of all Roman Catholic bishops in the United States, renewed the vigor for missionary work among the "Colored and Indian races". Archbishop James O'Connor of Omaha, acting alongside Katharine Drexel, decided with the approval of Archbishop P. J. Ryan of Philadelphia, to form a new congregation on behalf of Native Americans and African Americans. The first sisters, including foundress Katharine Drexel, entered religious life under the tutelage of the Sisters of Mercy in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They were also inspired by O'Connor, who served as Drexel's spiritual director until his death. After completing a two-year novitiate to learn the foundations of religious life and upon first profession of vows, these sisters were clothed in the habit of the new congregation of the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament of the Indians and Colored People. Mother
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    92

    Community of St. Laurence

    The Community of St. Laurence (CSL) is an Anglican religious order of nuns. Established in 1874, the order's house is located in Southwell, Nottinghamshire, England. The community was originally established to provide pastoral care, but now focuses more on retreat work and assisting at the cathedral of the Diocese of Southwell.
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    93

    English Benedictine Congregation

    The English Benedictine Congregation (abbr. EBC) comprises autonomous Roman Catholic Benedictine communities of monks and nuns and is technically the oldest of the 21 congregations that are affiliated in the Benedictine Confederation. Although the EBC claims technical canonical continuity with the congregation erected by the Holy See in 1216, that earlier English Congregation was destroyed at the dissolution of the monasteries in 1535-40. The present English Congregation was revived and restored by Rome in 1607-33 when numbers of Englishmen and Welshmen had become monks in continental European monasteries and were coming to England as missioners. At the beginning of the 21st century the EBC has Houses in the United Kingdom, the United States, South America and Africa. Every four years the General Chapter of the EBC elects an Abbot President from among the Ruling Abbots with jurisdiction, and those who have been Ruling Abbots. He is assisted by a number of officials. Periodically he undertakes a Visitation of the individual Houses. The purpose of the Visitation is the preservation, strengthening and renewal of the religious life, including the laws of the Church and the
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    94
    Dominican Sisters of St. Cecilia

    Dominican Sisters of St. Cecilia

    The Congregation of St. Cecilia, commonly known as the Nashville Dominicans, is a religious institute within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church located in Nashville, Tennessee. It is a member of the Council of Major Superiors of Women Religious, one of the two organizations which represent women religious in the United States (the other is the Leadership Conference of Women Religious). The Sisters combine a monastic communal lifestyle of contemplation with an active apostolate in Catholic education. In 1860, James Whelan, the second bishop of the Diocese of Nashville, a Dominican, requested that sisters establish a school in his diocese. The Dominican Sisters of St. Mary in Somerset, Ohio, responded by sending four members to Nashville, where they opened an academy in 1862 specializing in music and the fine arts. Two years later, the new community witnessed the US Civil War at the Battle of Nashville in December 1864. After the battle, the new community took on the responsibility of caring for numerous children at a nearby orphanage. After the Civil War, the enrollment dropped. In 1867, the year in which the community welcomed its first postulant, debts were so serious that the
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    95
    Naqshbandi

    Naqshbandi

    Naqshbandi (an-Naqshbandiyyah, Nakşibendi, Naksbendi, Naksbandi) is one of the major Sufi spiritual orders (tariqa) of Sufi Islam. The Naqshbandi order is the only Sufi order that claims to trace its direct spiritual lineage/chain (silsilah) to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through Abu Bakr, the first caliph and Muhammad's companion. This lineage also indirectly connects to Ali, Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law and the Fourth Caliph, via Jafar as-Sadiq. In contrast, most other Sufi orders (turuq) trace their lineage through Ali. Its coming from Prophet Mohammad grandson. Naqshbandi is from Hussain different with Shadhili that coming from Hassan. It is considered that the transmission of spiritual lineage or silsilah, is directly from one Sheikh to another, at or after the time of death or burial. It is not tied to a country, family or political appointment, but is a direct heart to heart transmission. It is also considered that the appointed Sheikh will be in some communication with past Sheikhs. At any one time, there will of course be many other Sheikhs, who will all naturally owe their bay'ah "spiritual allegiance" to the current master of the silsilah. The Naqshbandi order owes
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    96

    Sisters of St Francis of the Martyr St George

    The Sisters of St. Francis of the Martyr St. George is a Roman Catholic religious institute for women. The mother house is in Germany and the American provincial house is in Alton, Illinois, with convents in the Diocese of La Crosse, the Archdiocese of Philadelphia, the Archdiocese of St. Louis, the Archdiocese of Kansas City in Kansas, and others. The institute was founded in 1869 by Mother M. Anselma Bopp, in Thuine, Germany. The charism of this congregation is "To make the merciful love of Christ visible". The Sisters live this out in an intense spiritual life, grounded in the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, a committed common life and an active apostolate. The sisters serve in health care, education, domestic service, and care for prelates and priests.
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    97

    Society of the Atonement

    The Society of the Atonement, also known as the Friars and Sisters of the Atonement or Graymoor Friars and Sisters is a Franciscan religious congregation in the Latin Rite branch of the Catholic Church. The friars and sisters were founded in 1898 as a religious community in the Episcopal Church. In late 1895, Lurana White, then a novice in a religious community of women known as The Episcopal Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus, made contact with the Rev. Lewis Wattson, the superior of a small community of Episcopal priests. Both were part of the Anglo-Catholic Movement, also known as the Oxford Movement, which had developed in the Church of England in the early 19th century. Miss White asked Father Wattson's help in finding an Episcopal community of religious which practised corporate poverty in the Catholic Franciscan tradition. Father Wattson was unaware of any such community, but began corresponding with her regarding his desire to see the Anglican and Catholic Churches reunited under the leadership of the Bishop of Rome. In October 1898, White and Wattson met and made a spiritual covenant to form a new religious community with the aim of re-establishing Franciscan life in the
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    98
    Ursulines

    Ursulines

    • Monasteries: Ursuline Convent
    The Ursulines (in full: Ursulines of the Roman Union) are a Roman Catholic religious institute for women founded at Brescia, Italy, by Saint Angela de Merici in November 1535, primarily for the education of girls and the care of the sick and needy. Their patron saint is Saint Ursula. St Angela de Merici spent 17 years leading a group of women known as the "Company of St. Ursula," who regularly met for conferences and devotional practices but did not live together. They were recognized in 1544 by Pope Paul III. In 1572, Pope Gregory XIII, at the insistence of Saint Charles Borromeo, the Cardinal Archbishop of Milan, declared the Ursulines a religious order with enclosure under the rule of Augustine of Hippo. Ursulines were the main accusers in the Loudun and Aix-en-Provence demonic possession cases. In the following century, the Ursulines were powerfully encouraged and supported by Saint Francis de Sales. In most cases, especially in France, the sisters adopted enclosure and took solemn vows. They were called the "religious Ursulines" as distinct from the "congregated Ursulines," who preferred to follow the original plan. The Ursuline Sisters were the first Catholic nuns to land in
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    99

    Sinsinawa Dominican Sisters

    Sinsinawa Dominican Congregation of the Most Holy Rosary of the Order of Preachers is a Catholic religious institute for women. The mother house is located in Sinsinawa, Wisconsin in the Diocese of Madison. Sinsinawa Mound has been called the "Hill of Grace". Since 1847, over 3,200 women have ascended its slopes to take their vows as Sinsinawa Dominicans, then departed to preach and teach the Gospel. Today, the Mound still serves as the motherhouse for more than 600 sisters and more than 240 associates. Sinsinawa Dominican women are called to proclaim the Gospel through the ministry of preaching and teaching to participate in the building of a holy and just society. The Sinsinawa Dominican Congregation of the Most Holy Rosary was founded on Aug. 4, 1847, by Sisters Seraphina and Ermeline, along with Father Samuel Charles Mazzuchelli, O.P. Vision 2006–11: In a world graced by the Holy Spirit: and yet wounded by divisions, exploitation, and oppression, we are impelled by God's tender mercy to commit ourselves in partnership with others to seek and foster right relationships among all of God's people and with the earth that sustains us. Sinsinawa Dominican sisters are dedicated to
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    100

    Society of Saint Edmund

    The Society of Saint Edmund is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church founded in 1843, in Pontigny, France by Rev. Jean Baptiste Muard. They adhere to vows of chastity, poverty and obedience. The congregation is named after Saint Edmund. The Society was formed to keep St. Edmund's memory and life alive through faithful service, for the work of popular missions. The members also devote themselves to parochial work, to the education of youth in seminaries and colleges, to the direction of pious associations, and to foreign missions. Members of the Society, based in Pontigny, fled to the United States in 1889 after widespread anticlericalism seized France. The Society of St. Edmund settled in Winooski Park, Vermont, and established Saint Michael's College in 1904 where the deeds and values of St. Edmund's life continue through fulfillment of the College's mission. The original motherhouse is at Pontigny, but since the expulsion of the religious institutes the superior general resided at Hitchin, England. In the early 20th century, the congregation had two houses in the United States: a missionary house and apostolic school at Swanton, Vermont, for the training of young men
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    101
    Bektashi

    Bektashi

    The Bektashi Order (Turkish: Bektaşi Tarikatı), or the ideology of BektashismTurkish: Bektaşilik), is an Islamic Shi'a Alevi Sufi order (tariqat) founded in the 13th century by the Persian saint Haji Bektash Veli. The order is particularly found throughout Anatolia and the Balkans. In addition to the spiritual teachings of Haji Bektash Veli the Bktashi tariqat was significantly influenced during its formative period by both the Hurufis (in the early 15th century) as well as the Qalandariyah stream of Sufism, which took many forms in 13th century Anatolia. The mystical practices and rituals of the Bektashi order were systematized and structured by Balım Sultan in the 16th century after which many of the order's distinct practices and beliefs took shape. A large number of academics consider Bektashism to have fused a number of Sunni, Shi'a and Sufi concepts, although the order contains rituals and doctrines that are distinct unto itself. Throughout its history Bektashis have always had wide appeal and influence among both the Ottoman intellectual elite as well as the peasantry. The Bektashi Order is a Sufi order and shares much in common with other Islamic mystical movements, such as
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    102

    Community of Nazareth

    The Community of Nazareth (CN) is an Anglican religious order for women founded in 1936. It was established in Tokyo by the English Community of the Epiphany. It is now under the jurisdiction of the Anglican Church in Japan, the Nippon Sei Ko Kai, and operates a daughter house on the island of Okinawa. The sisters operate a retreat house.
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    103

    Community of the Companions of Jesus the Good Shepherd

    The Community of the Companions of Jesus the Good Shepherd (CJGS) is an Anglican religious order founded in 1920, part of the Church of England. It is currently based near Kidlington, Oxfordshire. Originally, the sisters were teachers living alone or in small groups, but in 1943 a mother house was established in Devon under a monastic rule. Christian education continues to be the primary focus of the community's work, mainly through ministry training and spiritual direction. The community has decreased in size and its novitiate is now closed. In 1996 the remaining sisters elected to move to Clewer and share accommodation with another Order of sisters, the Community of St John Baptist. The two Orders remain separate and distinct, but share the same priory house. In 2001 they moved to Begbroke, near Kidlington, and a further joint move is likely to take place during 2011.
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    104

    Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Bourg

    The Congregation of Saint Joseph is a Roman Catholic order of women founded in Le Puy, France by the Jesuit Jean-Pierre Médaille and accepted by the bishop, Mgr. de Maupas, on October 15, 1650. The Congregation of Saint Joseph was disbanded during the French Revolution. The Congregation was revived in 1807 at Lyons, during the Napoleonic regime through the efforts of Cardinal Fesch and the devotedness of Mother Saint John Fontbonne. In 1819 a foundation from the mother house in Lyons was established in the Diocese of Belley under the leadership of Mother Saint Joseph Chaney. In 1823 the sisters of the diocese formally separated from Lyons. They became a new independent diocesan congregation under the leadership of Reverend Mother Saint Benoit Cornillon and direction of Bishop Alexander Devie. In 1854 the sisters were sent from Bourg to establish a house at Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, in the Diocese of Natchez. In 1863 a novitiate was opened at New Orleans. After establishing a central house in New Orleans, Louisiana, the Sisters extended their ministry to the poor and suffering of Louisiana and Mississippi, opening schools, hospitals and an orphanage. In 1893, Sisters from the New
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    105

    Hurufism

    Hurufism (Arabic: حروفية‎ hurufiyya, adjective form hurufi literal meaning "letters" [of the alphabet]) was a mystical kabbalistic Sufi doctrine, which spread in areas of western Persia, Anatolia and Azerbaijan in later 14th - early 15th century. The founder and spiritual head of the Hurufi movement was Fażlu l-Lāh Astar-Ābādī, also called Nāimī (1340–1394). Born in Astrabad, Iran, he was strongly drawn to Sufism and the teachings of Mansur Al-Hallaj and Rumi at an early age. In the mid-1370s Nāimī started to propagate his teachings all over Persia and Azerbaijan. While living in Tabriz, Fazlallah gained an elite following in the Jalayirid court, where the writing of his main work, Jawidan-Al-Kabir, allegedly took place. At that time he was still in the mainstream of Sufi tradition. Later, he did move towards more esoteric spirituality, and, failing to convert Timur, was executed in 1394 near Alinja castle in Nakhchivan by the ruler's son Miran Shah. The uprising of Hurufis, who had gathered a large following, was crushed in Azerbaijan, but the popular movement survived for another decade or so in different guises. According to Fazlallah, the key to open seventh sealed book, the
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    106

    Nimatullahi

    The Ni'matullāhī or Ne'matollāhī (Persian: نعمت‌اللهی‎) (also spelled as "Nimatollahi", "Nematollahi" or "Ni'matallahi) is a Sufi order (or tariqa) originating in Iran. According to Moojan Momen, the number of Ni'matullāhī in Iran in 1980 was estimated to be between 50,000 and 350,000. Following the emigration of Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh and other dervishes after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the tariqa has attracted numerous followers outside Iran, mostly in Europe, West Africa and North America, although the first khaniqa outside of Iran was formed in San Francisco, California, United States in 1975, a few years before the revolution in Iran. The order is named after its 14th century CE founder Shah Nimatullah (Nūr ad-Din Ni'matullāh Wali), who settled in and is buried in Mahan, Kerman Province, Iran, where his tomb is still an important pilgrimage site. Shah Ni'matallāhī was a disciple of the Qadiri sufi ʿAbd-Allah Yefâ’î: a chain of succession of masters (silsilah) has been claimed that extends back to Maruf Karkhi.. Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh took the lead of the Ni'matullāhī Order in 1953 upon the death of his predecessor Mūnis ʿAli Shad Dhu al-Riyasetin. Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh undertook a
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    107
    Paulist Fathers

    Paulist Fathers

    The Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle, better known as the Paulist Fathers, is a Roman Catholic society of apostolic life for men founded in New York City in 1858 by Servant of God Fr. Isaac Thomas Hecker in collaboration with Fr. George Deshon, Fr. Augustine Hewit, and Fr. Francis A. Baker. Members of the society identify themselves as such by the use of the initials C.S.P. after their names, for the Congregation of St. Paul. The Paulist Fathers were the first religious community of priests created in North America and as such the Society took on a very American character, particularly in organization and administration. The President, Vice-President, and Council of the Paulist Fathers are elected to 4-year terms; in addition, a First Consultor is appointed by the President. The current President of the Paulist Fathers is the Very Reverend Michael B. McGarry, C.S.P., who succeeded Fr. John Duffy, C.S.P. in May 2010 The Paulist mission is to evangelize the people of North America in a manner particularly suited to the continent's culture. In addition to evangelization, the Paulists have taken on ministries of ecumenism, interfaith relations, and reconciliation as part of
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    108

    Resurrectionist Order

    The Congregation of the Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ (C.R.) is an international Institute of Consecrated Life of men within the Roman Catholic Church, founded in 1836 by three men, Bogdan Jański, Peter Semenenko and Hieronim Kajsiewicz in Paris on the heels of the Polish Great Emigration. The name of the Congregation refers to the sounded bells in Roma in noon of the Easter 1842, when the first seven brothers left catacombs of the church of Saint Sebastian outside the walls after their vows: As consecrated religious, resurrectionists profess the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. “By our vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, we dedicate and consecrate ourselves totally to the Risen Christ in the religious life. This dedication entails an act of faith whereby we respond to God’s call to give ourselves completely with all our talents, abilities, and powers to him, to the church, and to the Congregation” (Constitutions of the Congregation of the Resurrection, article 13). Their life as consecrated religious within the Congregation of the Resurrection is fulfilled as a Priest, Brother or Permanent Deacon. The Congregation declared its intention to follow the advice of
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    109
    Sarwari Qadiri

    Sarwari Qadiri

    The Sarwari Qadiriyya Sufi Order is combination of two Arabic words Sarwari and Qadiriyya. First part Sarwari is derived from an Arabic word Sarwar (Arabic: سرور Persian: سرور) (English: translation Chief, Leader) which is associated with Prophet Muhammad. The second word Qadiriyya (Arabic: القادريه, Persian:قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri or Qadri), (English: translation Capable, Competent, Adequate) is linked to famous Sufi Saint Abdul-Qadir Gilani (1077–1166 CE, also transliterated as "Jilani" etc.) who was a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. The Sarwari Qadiri Sufi Order relies strongly upon adherence to the fundamentals of Islam. The Sufi Order, with its many offshoots, is widespread, particularly in the Arabic, Urdu and Persian-speaking world, and can be found in Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran, the Balkans, China, East and West Africa. There are many groups in Europe and the Americas of this Sarwari Qadiri Sufi Order. Well known Sufi Saint Sultan Bahoo was the founder of this Sarwari Qadari Sufi Order. Being a vibrant Sufi writer and poet he wrote more than 140 books in Persian
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    110

    Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, known by their initials BVM, is a Roman Catholic religious institute founded in the United States by Mother Mary Frances Clarke. BVM Sisters work in twenty-five U.S. states and three foreign countries. The BVM Sisters have a distinctive philosophy of living that: In 1831, four Franciscan Tertiaries, women who had been spending their days in Ireland, rented a small cottage and began an experiment in community living. Before long, the original four—Mary Frances Clarke, Margaret Mann, Rose O’Toole, and Eliza Kelly—were joined by another, Catherine Byrne. Together, these five opened a school, Miss Clarke’s Seminary, for young girls on North Anne Street in Dublin. In 1833, they met Patrick Costello, a Catholic priest from Philadelphia, who was convalescing in Dublin. From him the five learned about the plight of the Irish Catholic immigrants in America. After prayerful consideration and Fr. Costello's agreement to make arrangements for their arrival in the United States, the fellowship of women, except for Rose O'Toole (who remained in Dublin long enough to settle a family estate) decided to leave their homeland to teach in Philadelphia.
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    111
    Sisters of Saint Francis of Rochester, Minnesota

    Sisters of Saint Francis of Rochester, Minnesota

    The Sisters of Saint Francis of Rochester, Minnesota is a Roman Catholic religious congregation for women. The congregation was founded in 1877 by Mother Mary Alfred Moes in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Winona. The motherhouse, which is in Rochester, Minnesota, is called Assisi Heights. The congregation founded Saint Marys Hospital (Rochester), which is now part of the Mayo Clinic, and it still maintains a close connection with the hospital. The Sisters operate schools and a clinic in Bogotá, Colombia. They also run a spiritual retreat center in Janesville, Minnesota. Rochester Franciscan Sisters are involved in many aspects of the community. They work in the inner city, minister to prisoners, serve as therapists and administrators, artists and writers. They serve in parishes as pastoral ministers and on institutional and community boards. As sponsors of Saint Marys Hospital, they volunteer their services and give guidance on values and medical ethics. In the last 130+ years, the Sisters of Saint Francis have served in more than fifteen states, as well as Sierra Leone, Africa, Bogotá, Colombia, and various locations in Cambodia. Much of this service has been in education and
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    112
    Stigmatines

    Stigmatines

    The Congregation of the Sacred Stigmata was founded by St. Gaspar Bertoni in Verona, Italy, in 1816. The first written Constitutions for the Congregation was based on the Constitutions of St. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus. The growth of the Community was slow, in 1905 Stigmatines went to the USA, and in 1910 they started activities in Brazil. For nearly two centuries, the Stigmatines worked in China, Thailand and the Philippines, various countries in Africa and Latin America. In the year 2002, the Stigmatines settled in India.
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    113

    Chita che Zvipo Zve Moto

    The Chita che Zvipo Zve Moto (Community of the Gifts of the Holy Fire), CZM, is an Anglican religious order of nuns and friars based in Gokwe Centre, Zimbabwe. Founded in 1977, the order is a part of the Anglican Church of the Province of Central Africa. Since its establishment, two daughter houses have been established. Their mission is wide-ranging, but with a special emphasis on caring for orphans.
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    114

    Assumptionists

    The Augustinians of the Assumption (A.A.) constitute a congregation of Catholic religious (priests and brothers), founded in Nîmes, southern France, by Fr. Emmanuel d'Alzon in 1845, initially approved by Rome in 1857 and definitively approved in 1864 (the Constitutions were approved in 1923). The current Rule of Life of the congregation draws its inspiration from that of St. Augustine of Hippo. This international congregation is present in nearly 30 countries throughout the world, with the most recent foundations being established in 2006 in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Togo. The congregation has long been involved in education, the press, ecumenism, pilgrimages, and the missions. In the 1870s, religious launched several magazines which have, over the years, expanded into one of the largest Catholic publishing houses in the world, Bayard Presse, which publishes the award-winning daily French newspaper, La Croix, and more than 100 magazines in 15 languages (in English its best known publication is Catholic Digest). In 1873 these religious also began a series of large-scale pilgrimages both within France and to the Holy Land which developed into such current endeavors as the popular
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    115
    Brotherhood of Saint Gregory

    Brotherhood of Saint Gregory

    The Brotherhood of Saint Gregory is a community of friars within the Anglican communion. Its members, known as Gregorians, include clergy and laymen. As a Christian Community of the Episcopal Church, it is open to both married and unmarried men. Its motto is Soli Deo gloria, "to God alone be the glory". The aim is always to follow Saint Gregory the Great as "servants of the servants of God" – whether in church or society. It is a member of the National Association of Episcopal Christian Communities. It was founded on 14 September 1969 (Holy Cross Day) in New York by Richard Thomas Biernacki. Its members work in diverse fields throughout the world, and come together twice a year for prayer and discussion. Since 1987 there has also been a parallel order of sisters, the Sisters of Saint Gregory. John Nidecker, a former White House speech writer, was a member later in his life. The Brotherhood was a centerpiece of the award-winning documentary Changing Habits by Sara Needham. Ministries of the community have been the subject of local press reports in Chattanooga and Yonkers.
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    116

    Brothers of Christian Instruction of St Gabriel

    The Brothers of Christian Instruction of St Gabriel, otherwise Gabrielite Brothers or FSG, is a secular religious institute. Its roots go back to Saint Louis de Montfort, who opened a few schools for poor children in La Rochelle, France, in about 1711. After the French Revolution, the congregation amalgamated under the guidance of Father Gabriel Deshayes into the Brothers they are today. The name of "Saint Gabriel" stems from the dedication of the first chapel of the congregation. The institute's main concern is Christian education, especially for the poor, orphans and the physically challenged. Other organizations inspired by Montfortian ideals are the Company of Mary and the Daughters of Wisdom. The 'Associates' are a lay association linked to the Gabrielites and similarly inspired by Montfortian spirituality. One of the examples of institutions run by FSG is Assumption University (better known as ABAC from its former name of Assumption Business Administration College), which was the first university in Thailand to offer all classes in the English language. They also established a school in Salem, India.
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    117

    Legion of Christ

    The Legion of Christ (LC) is a Roman Catholic congregation of pontifical right, made up of priests and seminarians studying for the priesthood. It was founded in Mexico in 1941, by Marcial Maciel, who directed the congregation as its General Director until January 2005. The Legion of Christ has priests working in over 22 countries, and had 889 priests and 2,373 seminarians as of December 31, 2010. In the U.S. it operates 9 schools (and assists at several others) and two of a small number of seminaries for teenage boys currently operating in the US. Its lay movement Regnum Christi has approximately 70,000 members, and the youth branch ECyD has tens of thousands. Both memebers of the lay movement and legionaries dedicate themselves to various apostolates such as education and spiritual direction in order to form the new man in Christ. In 2006, Maciel was investigated by the Holy See and suspended from his ministry initally over breaches of celibacy, and following public revelations later confirmed as sustained sexual abuse. This was followed in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI ordering an extensive apostolic visitation of the institutions of the Legionaries of Christ. Cardinal Velasio De
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    118

    Little Brothers of St Francis

    The Little Brothers of St Francis were founded in the Archdiocese of Boston in 1970. They follow an adaptation of the Rule for Hermits written by Saint Francis of Assisi and live the contemplative life among the poorest of the poor. The congregation was founded by Brother James Curran. Brother James, who was then employed by the Opera Company of Boston, felt called to follow a life of prayer and service among the poor. In this goal, he was guided by the Franciscan friars who provided him counseling and spiritual direction. The first home of the community was Brother James' apartment on Beacon Hill in downtown Boston. He eventually gained the blessing of the archbishop, Cardinal Humberto Medeiros, who was himself a member of the Secular Franciscan Order. The cardinal allowed him to take religious vows and to wear a Franciscan habit, even though he was alone at that point. He soon adopted a habit made of denim, which quickly became the distinguishing mark of the community, earning them the nickname of the "Bluejean Franciscans." His way of life was to keep working at his secular job, while spending several hours of prayer before the Blessed Sacrament. He then would go out among the
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    119
    Sisters of the Cenacle

    Sisters of the Cenacle

    The Sisters of the Cenacle (full title: Congregation of Our Lady of the Retreat in the Cenacle) is a Catholic Congregation founded in 1826 in the village of Lalouvesc (Ardèche), France. The founders were Saint Thérèse Couderc and diocesan priest Jean-Pierre Etienne Terme. The French Revolution had left people with a deeply disturbed faith, few religious leaders, and little, if any, education in faith. In the early decades of the nineteenth century, seminaries were being re-opened and mission bands roamed the countryside rekindling the faith. There was a young woman named Marie-Victoire-Thérèse Couderc, who lived in the small hamlet of Le Mas in the south of France. In 1825, her father brought her home from school to participate with the rest of the family in a mission given at Sablières. This mission was to be given by an energetic and zealous priest, Etienne Terme, who had recently founded a small group of teaching Sisters called the Sisters of St. Regis. When Victoire revealed to him that she would like to enter religious life, he said, "I'll take you with me right now to the novitiate of the Sisters of St. Regis." Although her father was unhappy with this prospect, he eventually
    9.00
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    120

    Society of Mary

    The Society of Mary, a Roman Catholic Marian Society, is a congregation of brothers and priests called The Marianists or Marianist Brothers and Priests. The Society was founded by Blessed William Joseph Chaminade, a priest who survived the anti-clerical persecution during the French Revolution. The Society is one of the four branches of the Marianist Family. Along with the other branches, the Marianist Brothers and Priests look to Mary as a model of faith and spirituality. They believe that the best ways to live a spiritual life are to share their faith with others, work with the poor, and educate and nourish the mind, the body, and the soul. There are about 1,200 Marianists: 405 priests, two bishops, and 800 brothers, on four continents and in 38 countries. The Marianists say that they "devote the major part of their efforts to inculturation to become rooted in new countries, in Asia and Africa, and also to be in tune with the surrounding cultures that challenge us and that we call modern or postmodern." Men who pursue a vocation with the Society of Mary follow an intense formation process that leads them to examine themselves and their spirituality. The first step to becoming a
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    121

    Adorers of the Blood of Christ

    The Adorers of the Blood of Christ are a Catholic religious institute founded by St. Maria De Mattias in 1834, their post-nominal letters are A.S.C. The institute operates Newman University in Wichita, Kansas. In October 1992, Sisters Barbara Ann Muttra, Mary Joel Kolmer, Kathleen McGuire, Agnes Mueller, and Shirley Kolmer were killed by soldiers fighting in Liberia. On January 24, 2008, Morris Padmore, a former combatant of the defunct NPFL warring faction testified at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Liberia) that the nuns were raped and executed under the command of former NPFL general Christopher Vambo.
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    Congregation of Holy Cross

    Congregation of Holy Cross

    The Congregation of Holy Cross or Congregatio a Sancta Cruce (C.S.C.) is a Catholic congregation of priests and brothers founded in 1837 by Blessed Father Basil Anthony-Marie Moreau, CSC, in Le Mans, France. Father Moreau also founded the Marianites of Holy Cross, now divided into three independent congregations of sisters. The Congregations of women who trace their origins to Father Moreau are the Marianites of Holy Cross (Le Mans, France), the Sisters of the Holy Cross, (Notre Dame, Indiana), and the Sisters of Holy Cross, (Montreal, Canada). Basile Antoine-Marie Moreau was born at Laigné-en-Belin, near Le Mans, France, on February 11, 1799 in the final months of the French Revolution. Moreau was raised in a time when the Catholic Church was facing intense pressure and was being stripped of land, resources, and rights. When Moreau decided to enter the priesthood he was forced to undergo his seminary training in secret for fear that the French government would arrest him. He completed his studies and was ordained for the Diocese of Le Mans in 1821. The French government continued to work for the removal of the Church from the educational system, which left many Catholics without a
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Valliscaulian Order

    Valliscaulian Order

    • Monasteries: Beauly Priory
    The Valliscaulian Order was a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church, so named after "Vallis Caulium", or "Val-des-Choux", its first monastery, in Burgundy. It was founded at the end of the twelfth century and lasted until its absorption by the Cistercians in the eighteenth century. The order was founded towards the end of the twelfth century by Viard (also styled Gui), a lay brother of the Carthusian priory of Lugny, in the Diocese of Langres in Burgundy. Viard was permitted by his superior to lead the life of a hermit in a cavern in a wood, where he gained by his life of prayer and austerity the reputation of a saint. Odo (Eudes) III, Duke of Burgundy, in fulfilment of a vow made while on the Fourth Crusade, immediately upon inheriting his estates built a church and monastery on the site of the hermitage. Viard became prior in 1193, and framed rules for the new foundation drawn partly from the Carthusian and partly from the Cistercian observance. In 1203, for the benefit of his soul, of his father's and his predecessors' the Duke Eudes gave all the surrounding forest to the brothers. He made a further gift in 1209. The gifts were confirmed by a bull of Pope Innocent III, 10
    6.67
    3 votes
    124

    Carmelites of Mary Immaculate

    The Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (C.M.I.) are an religious institute for men in the Syro-Malabar Church. It is the first and only such Catholic religious congregation founded in India. Its first monastery was established on 11 May 1831 at Mannanam, Kerala, India. The institute was founded by Fathers Palackal Thoma Malpan, Porukara Thoma Kathanar and Kuriakose Elias Chavara. On 8 December 1855, the religious community at Mannanam was recognised canonically with the profession of vows of eleven priests headed by Father Chavara, the first prior of the congregation. The original name of the group was the Congregation of the Servants of Mary Immaculate of Mount Carmel. In 1860, this congregation was affiliated to the Carmelite Order and its members began to use the postnominal initials of T.O.C.D. (Third Order of Discalced Carmelites). Several diocesan priests as well as lay people enthusiastically sought admission into the rank of the religious, and six more new monasteries were founded: Koonammavu (1857), Elthuruth near Trichur (1858), Vazhakulam near Muvattupuzha (1859), Pulinkunnu (1861), Ambazhakad (1868), and Mutholy (1870). The congregation was granted pontifical recognition in
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    2 votes
    125
    Cistercians

    Cistercians

    • Monasteries: Castagniers Abbey
    The Order of Cistercians ( /sɪˈstɜrʃⁱən/; OCist. Latin: Ordo Cisterciensis or, alternatively, OCSO for the Trappists (Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance)) is a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed monks and nuns. They are sometimes also called the Bernardines or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular is worn. The emphasis of Cistercian life is on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Citeaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had
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    126

    Community of St. John the Evangelist

    The Community of St. John the Evangelist (CSJE) is an Anglican religious order of nuns of the Church of Ireland. Founded in 1912, the order is located in Dublin, and administers their house as a nursing and residential care home. For some years, the Community had a priory in St. David's, Wales. This later moved to Bridgend, Wales, before consolidating with the mother house in Dublin.
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    127

    Franciscan Missionaries of Mary

    Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, or the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Mary is a Roman Catholic religious institute founded by Sister Mary of the Passion, Helene de Chappotin, in 1877 at Ootacamund, India.It is an International Religious Congregation of women comprising 78 nationalities and spread over 77 countries in the five continents of the world. Their patron saint is St.Francis of Assisi.January 6th 1887 marked the foundation of FMM. There was a mission at Fantome Island, near Palm Island, Queensland as well as a leprosarium
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    128
    Order of Saint Benedict (Anglican)

    Order of Saint Benedict (Anglican)

    There are a number of Benedictine Anglican religious orders, some of them using the name Order of St. Benedict (OSB). Just like their Roman Catholic counterparts, each abbey / priory / convent is independent of each other. The vows are not made to an order, but to a local incarnation of the order, hence each individual order is free to develop its own character and charism, yet each under a common rule of life after the precepts of St. Benedict. Most of the communities include a confraternity of oblates. The order consists of a number of independent communities: England Australia Republic of Korea United States The following abbeys and communities follow the Benedictine Rule, but do not style themselves "OSB".
    7.50
    2 votes
    129

    Qalandariyah

    The Qalandariyyah (Persian: قلندریه‎, Urdu: قلندریہ, Hindi: क़लन्दरिय्या, Bengali: ক়লন্দরিয়্য়া), Qalandaris or Kalandars are wandering Sufi dervishes. The term covers a variety of sects, not centrally organized. One was founded by Qalandar Yusuf al-Andalusi of Andalusia, Spain. Starting in the early 12th century, the movement gained popularity in Greater Khorasan and neighbouring regions, including the South Asia. The first references are found in 11th century prose text Qalandarname (The Tale of the Kalandar) attributed to Ansarī Harawī. The term Qalandariyyat (the Qalandar condition) appears to be first applied by Sanai Ghaznavi (d 1131) in seminal poetic works where diverse practices are described. Particular to the qalandar genre of poetry are terms that refer to gambling, games, intoxicants and Nazar ila'l-murd - themes commonly referred to as kufriyyat or kharabat. The Qalandariya may have arisen from the earlier Malamatiyya and exhibited some Buddhist and Hindu influences in South Asia. They condemned the use of drugs and dressed only in blankets or in hip-length hairshirts. The writings of qalandars were not a mere celebration of libertinism, but antinomial practices of
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    130
    Scriptural Way of the Cross

    Scriptural Way of the Cross

    The Scriptural Way of the Cross or Scriptural Stations of the Cross is a version of the traditional Stations of the Cross inaugurated as a Roman Catholic devotion by Pope John Paul II on Good Friday 1991. Thereafter John Paul II performed the scriptural version many times at the Colosseum in Rome on Good Fridays during his reign. The scriptural version was not intended to invalidate the traditional version, rather it was meant to add nuance to an understanding of the Passion. Before each station: Minister: We adore you, O Christ, and we bless you'. All: Because by your holy cross you have redeemed the world. Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to his disciples, "Sit here while I go over there and pray." He took along Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to feel sorrow and distress. Then he said to them, "My soul is sorrowful even to death. Remain here and keep watch with me." He advanced a little and fell prostrate in prayer, saying, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from me; yet, not as I will, but as you will." When he returned to his disciples he found them asleep. He said to Peter, "So you could not keep watch with me for
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    2 votes
    131

    Canons Regular

    Canons Regular are members of certain bodies of priests living in community under the Augustinian Rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common. Distinct from monks, who live a cloistered, contemplative life and sometimes engage in ministry to those from outside the monastery, the purpose of the life of a canon is to engage in public ministry of liturgy and sacraments for those who visit their churches (historically the monastic life was by its nature lay, whereas canonical life was essentially clerical). Distinct from Clerks Regular (Regular Clerics)—an example of which is the Society of Jesus—they are members of a particular community of a particular place, and are bound to the public praying of the Liturgy of the Hours in choir. Secular canons, by contrast, belong to a community of priests attached to a church but do not take vows or live in common under a Rule. Canons Regular are sometimes called Black or White Canons, depending on the color of the religious habit worn by the congregation to which they belong. The Canons Regular of Saint Augustine (C.R.S.A. or Can.Reg.), also referred to as Augustinian Canons or Austin Canons ('Austin' being a corruption of
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    132
    Carmelites

    Carmelites

    The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Latin: Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel, hence its name. However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain. Saint Bertold has traditionally been associated with the founding of the order, but few clear records of early Carmelite history have survived and this is likely to be a later extrapolation by hagiographers. There is a very small body of Anglican Carmelites. The charism, or spiritual focus, of the Carmelite Order is contemplative prayer. The Order is considered by the Church to be under the special protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary and thus has a strong Marian devotion. As in most of the orders dating to medieval times, the First Order is the friars (who are active/contemplative), the Second Order is the nuns (who are cloistered) and the Third Order consists of laypeople who continue to live in the world, and can be married, but participate in the charism of the order by liturgical prayers, apostolates, and contemplative prayer. There are
    6.33
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    133

    Community of St. Denys

    The Community of St. Denys (CSD) is an Anglican religious order of nuns founded in 1879, under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Salisbury of the Church of England. The community was originally established to engage in domestic and foreign missionary work, but is now engaged in adult education, parish ministry, spiritual guidance, and leading retreats. There is a retreat house located in Warminster, and sisters also reside in Salisbury. Until 1973 a satellite community of three sisters worked in the parish of Chiswick (London W4) occupying a small cottage opposite St Nicholas church which is still named St Denys' House.
    6.33
    3 votes
    134

    Congregation of the Ursulines of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus

    The Congregation of the Ursulines of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus (Polish: Zgromadzenie Sióstr Urszulanek Serca Jezusa Konającego), also known as the Grey Ursulines, is a Catholic order founded by Saint Ursula Julia Ledochowska in Poland. At present the Congregation consists of over 900 sisters in 12 countries. The nuns are committed to the service of poor people and specialize in providing educational opportunities.
    6.33
    3 votes
    135

    Divine Word Missionaries

    The Society of the Divine Word (Latin: Societas Verbi Divini, abbreviated SVD), popularly called the Divine Word Missionaries, and sometimes the Steyler Missionaries, is a missionary religious congregation in the Latin Church, one of the 23 sui iuris churches which make up the Catholic Church. As of 2006 it consisted of 6,102 members composed of priests and brothers. It is the largest missionary congregation in the Catholic Church. The superior general is Heinz Kulüke who hails from Germany. The Society was founded in Steyl in the Netherlands in 1875 by Arnold Janssen a diocesan priest and drawn mostly from German priests and religious exiles in the Netherlands during the church-state conflict called the Kulturkampf, which had resulted in many religious groups being expelled and seminaries being closed in Germany. In 1882 the Society started sending missionaries in to China’s Shandong Province, where their aggressive methods were part of the chain of events that led to the Boxer Uprising in the late 1890s. In 1892, missionaries were sent to Togo a small country in west Africa. The Togo mission was particularly fruitful for by 15 years later the Holy See had appointed an Apostolic
    6.33
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    136

    Badawiyyah

    The Badawiyyah, Sufi tarika, was founded in the thirteenth century in Egypt by Ahmad al-Badawi (1199-1276). As a tarika, the Badawiyyah lacks any distinct doctrines. It has produced no major teachers or writers; instead it is a popular cult whose conduct has always been subject to the censure of the Ulama. It was, however, extremely popular during both the Mamluk and Ottoman periods of Egypt. Mamluk Sultans often supported elaborate 'Mawlids' at the resting place of Sheikh Ahmed al-Badawi (or Seyyid Badawi as he is more commonly known) in the Nile Delta town of Tanta. During the Ottoman period, this order spread to Turkey and there were several Tekkes or zawiyas in Istanbul many of which survived until the founding of the Turkish republic. The moulid of Seyyid Badawi is still celebrated in Egypt every year where the population of Tanta swells to almost double. Tents are placed in the streets around the Mosque of Seyyid Badawi where Qur'an recitations and sermons by important scholars from al-Azhar Mosque are delivered.
    8.00
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    137

    Claretians

    The Claretians, a community of Roman Catholic priests and brothers, were founded by Saint Anthony Claret in 1849. They strive to follow their founder's “on fire” example and help wherever they are needed. Their ministries are highly diverse and vary depending on the needs of the area. They focus on seeing life through the eyes of the poor and respond to the biggest need at the time. They have a special devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Their formal title is the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, but they are popularly known as "the Claretians". Antonio María Claret y Clará (Anthony Claret) said Today a great work is beginning to five young priests in a cell in the Vic seminary on July 16, 1849. This was the founding of the Congregation of "Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary" in Vic, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Anthony Claret had been thinking for a long time about preparing priests to proclaim the Gospel and bring together a group of priests who shared his vision to accomplish work he could not do alone. Through his evangelizing missionary work in Catalonia and the Canary Islands he was convinced that people needed to be evangelized
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    138
    Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools

    Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools

    The (also known as the Christian Brothers, the Lasallian Brothers, the French Christian Brothers, or the De La Salle Brothers; French: Frères des écoles chrétiennes; Latin: Fratres Scholarum Christianarum) is a Roman Catholic religious teaching congregation, founded in France by Saint Jean-Baptiste de la Salle and now based in Rome. Brothers use the post-nominal abbreviation FSC. The Founder is St. John Baptist de La Salle, a French priest who lived in the 17th century. He came from a wealthy family. He became involved with in teaching poor children in parish charity schools, and focused his life on this. He was canonized as a saint on May 15, 1900. In 1950, Pope Pius XII declared him to be the Special Patron of All Teachers of Youth in the Catholic Church. He emphasized the virtue of faith for the brothers: "The spirit of this Institute is first, a spirit of faith, which should induce those who compose it not to look upon anything but with the eyes of faith, not to do anything but in view of God, and to attribute all to God." (Rule 1718). He also said that “To touch the hearts of your students and to inspire them with the Christian spirit is the greatest miracle you could perform,
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    139

    Josephite Fathers

    The Josephite Fathers and Brothers or, more properly, Saint Joseph's Society of the Sacred Heart, Inc. (abbreviated post-nominally as S.S.J.) are a society of Catholic priests and brothers, based in the United States. It was formed in 1871 by a group of priests from the English Foreign Mission Society of Saint Joseph, also known as the Mill Hill Missionaries. They decided to establish a mission society in the United States dedicated to newly freed people after the American Civil War. 1865 ushered in the period of Southern Reconstruction during which time, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, outlawing slavery, was passed Ten former confederate states were divided into five military districts. As a condition of readmission to the Union, the former confederate states were required to accept the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which granted citizenship to all people born in the U.S. regardless of race. It was against this backdrop that the U.S. bishops met for their tenth provincial council in Baltimore in 1869. The fifth decree of this Council exhorted the Council Fathers to provide missions and schools for all black Americans in their dioceses, as
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    140
    Order of Julian of Norwich

    Order of Julian of Norwich

    The Order of Julian of Norwich (OJN) is a contemplative community of monks and nuns in the Episcopal Church (Anglican Communion). The Order was founded in Connecticut in 1985, under the inspiration of Fr John Swanson (now known by his religious name, Fr John-Julian OJN). The Episcopal Church formally recognised the Order in 1997. The Order has since relocated to Waukesha, Wisconsin, where Julian House Monastery has been gradually extended. The community is semi-enclosed, and the focus of their life together is on prayer, contemplation, and manual labor. Since 2010 the Guardian (elected superior of the community) has been Reverend Mother Hilary OJN. Originally occupying a single house with an adjacent chapel, the community engaged in extensive fundraising to extend the monastic buildings, and engaged with local contractors to construct an ecologically sensitive building. The house and chapel are now joined, and further extensions have provided community work rooms, additional cells, and facilities for caring for elderly members of the community. Amongst other eco-friendly features, the monastery generates its own solar electricity, harvests rainwater through a water management
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    141

    Sisters of Mary, Mother of the Eucharist

    The Dominican Sisters of Mary, Mother of the Eucharist is a Roman Catholic religious institute founded in 1997 by four members of the Dominican Sisters of St. Cecilia. Based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, it has, as of 2010, approximately 100 Sisters. In 1996 Pope John Paul II wrote Apostolic Exhortation Vita Consecrata, calling for a renewal of religious life. Inspired by his words, Mother Mary Assumpta Long, former superior of the Nashville-based Dominican Sisters of St. Cecilia, and three other Sisters of the community, Sr. Joseph Andrew Bogdanowicz, Sr. Mary Samuel Handwerker and Sr. John Dominic Rasmussen, set off to "undertake a new initiative". On February 9, 1997 John Cardinal O'Connor established the new foundation as a "Public Association of Christ's Faithful" in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York. After their canonical establishment, the Sisters accepted an invitation by Bishop Carl Frederick Mengeling to teach in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lansing and began to administer the Spiritus Sanctus Academies located in Ann Arbor, Michigan and Plymouth, Michigan. In 2010 the congregation announced that it had agreed to buy the Pope John Paul II Cultural Center in
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    1 votes
    142

    Society of the Holy Child Jesus

    The Society of the Holy Child Jesus is an international community of Roman Catholic sisters founded in England in 1846 by Philadelphia-born Cornelia Connelly. Cornelia converted to the Roman Catholic Church in 1835. The Society was approved in 1887 by Pope Leo XIII, and the rules and constitutions were confirmed and ratified by him in 1893. The constitutions are founded on those of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus. The Society is composed of three provinces: an American, African, and European. There are 415 Holy Child Sisters serving throughout the world. Since the Society's founding, education has always been at the heart of its mission. Today, the Holy Child Sisters continue to serve as educators in the broadest sense of the word through their ministries in spirituality, health care, social work, pastoral care and administration, law, and teaching. In the U.S., the Society sponsors 15 schools, one college, and several social service organizations. The Society is led by a superior general whose ordinary residence is at the mother-house in Rome. The superior general is elected by a chapter consisting of representatives of the whole order and her term of
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    143
    Third Order Regular of St. Francis of Penance

    Third Order Regular of St. Francis of Penance

    The Third Order Regular of St. Francis of Penance is a mendicant order rooted in the Third Order of St. Francis which was founded in 1447. The origin of the Regular Third Order, both male and female, possibly was rooted in the lifetime of St. Francis. His first official biographer, Thomas of Celano, lists hermits as among the categories of lifestyle of those who flocked to follow the Saint. The organized form of this life, though, can be more reliably traced back to the second half of the thirteenth century, but no precise date can be indicated. It was organized, in different forms, in the Low Countries, in the south of France, in Germany, and in Italy. Probably some secular tertiaries, who in many cases had their house of meeting, gradually withdrew entirely from the world and so formed religious communities, but without the three substantial vows of religious orders. Other religious organizations, such as the Beguines (women) and Beghards (men) in the Low Countries, sometimes passed over to the Third Order. Towards the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th centuries, some suspicion of heretical opinions fell on some of these free religious unions of the Third Order
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    144

    Zahediyeh

    The Zahediyeh Sufi Order was founded by Sheikh Zahed Gilani (Taj Al-Din Ebrahim ibn Rushan Amir Al-Kurdi Al-Sanjani) of Lahijan. As a precursor to the Safaviyya tariqa, which was yet to culminate in the Safavid Dynasty, the Zahediyeh Order and its murshid, Sheikh Zahed Gilani, holds a distinct place in the history of Iran.
    8.00
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    145
    Brotherhood of the Ascended Christ

    Brotherhood of the Ascended Christ

    The Brotherhood of the Ascended Christ (BAC) is an Anglican religious order of the Church of North India, and is based in Delhi, India. Founded in 1877, the order was founded with a mission to serve the poor and underprivileged. In 1975, the Delhi Brotherhood Society was established to fund and organise social development projects in the city. These include community health, education, vocational training, and programmes for street and working children. The Brotherhood House operates a small retreat and conference centre. Financial support for the Brotherhood's educational work has been provided by the Wye & Brook India Trust (a UK charity) since 1978.
    5.25
    4 votes
    146
    Capuchin Poor Clares

    Capuchin Poor Clares

    The Capuchin Poor Clares were founded in Naples, Italy, in 1538, by Ven. Maria Laurentia Longo. The Capuchin Poor Clares follow the original ideals of St. Francis of Assisi and St. Clare of Assisi.
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    2 votes
    147

    Community of St. Mary the Virgin

    The Community of St Mary the Virgin (CSMV) is an Anglican religious order founded in 1848 by the vicar of Wantage, William John Butler. Its current Superior is the Reverend Mother Winsome CSMV, a former Baptist Christian, who converted to Anglicanism in order to become a nun. William John Butler (1818–1894), a High Church Anglican priest, was Vicar of Wantage from 1846 and several of his curates became notable churchmen (e.g. Henry Parry Liddon). In 1880 he became a canon of Worcester and in 1885 Dean of Lincoln. He was offered the bishopric of Natal in 1864 but did not accept it. He was the founder of the Community and continued as Warden until his death. Butler founded St Mary's School in Wantage, Oxfordshire in 1873. In 2007 St Mary's was absorbed into Heathfield School, a Anglican boarding school in Ascot, Berkshire. The order founded the School of St Helen and St Katharine, which was a merger of two girls' schools.
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    148
    Daughters of Charity

    Daughters of Charity

    The Company of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, sometimes simply referred to as Daughters of Charity, is a Society of Apostolic Life for women within the Catholic Church. Its members take simple, private, annual vows. It was founded in 1633 and devoted to serving Jesus Christ in persons who are poor through corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The full title of the congregation is the Daughters of Charity (the people of Paris used this term for the sisters), Servants of the Sick Poor. The term "of St. Vincent de Paul" was added to distinguish them from other communities called "Sisters of Charity", animated with a similar spirit, founded after the French Revolution, and modelled on the rule which Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac gave their own sisters. Sometimes they have been popularly known in France as "the Grey Sisters" from the colour of their traditional religious habit, which was originally grey, then bluish grey. The 1996 publication The Vincentian Family Tree presents an overview of related communities from a genealogical perspective. The congregation was founded by Saint Vincent de Paul, a French priest, and Saint Louise de Marillac, a widow. The
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    149
    Hieronymites

    Hieronymites

    Hieronymites, or the Order of St. Jerome (Latin: Ordo Sancti Hieronymi, abbreviated O.S.H.), is a common name for several congregations of hermits living according to the Rule of St. Augustine, with supplementary regulations taken from the writings of the 5th-century monk and scholar, St Jerome. The principal group with this name was founded in Spain in the 14th century. Their traditional habit is a white tunic with a brown, hooded scapular and a brown mantle. Established near Toledo, the Order developed out of a spontaneous interest by a number of eremetical communities in both Spain and Italy in imitating the life of St. Jerome. This way of life soon became popular in both Spain and Portugal. Two of these hermits, Pedro Fernández y Pecha and Fernando Yáñez y de Figueroa, decided it would be more advantageous to live a more regular way of life in a community, under an authorized monastic Rule. Under their leadership, the Monastery of St. Bartholomew was then founded in Lupiana, with Fernández y Pecha acting as their first Prior. On 18 October 1373 Pope Gregory XI issued a Papal Bull recognizing them as a religious order, under the Rule of St. Augustine. The Constitutions included
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    Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate

    The Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate (OMI) is a missionary religious congregation in the Catholic Church. It was founded on January 25, 1826 by Saint Eugene de Mazenod, a French priest born in Aix-en-Provence in the south of France on August 1, 1782. The congregation was given recognition by Pope Leo XII on February 17, 1826. The congregation is composed of priests and brothers usually living in community. Their traditional salutation is Laudetur Jesus Christus ("Praised be Jesus Christ"), to which the response is Et Maria Immaculata ("And Mary Immaculate"). As of 2011, the congregation had approximately 4,400 (including 580 in formation) members serving in numerous parts of the world. The congregation was established to renew the Church in France after the Revolution, primarily to "(1) Revive the spirit of faith among rural and industrial populations by means of missions and retreats, in which devotion to the Sacred Heart and to Mary Immaculate is recommended as a supernatural means of regeneration. "He hath sent me to preach the Gospel to the poor", has been adopted as the device of the congregation. (2) Care of young men's societies, Catholic clubs. (3) Formation of clergy
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    151
    Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco

    Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco

    The Salesian Sisters of St John Bosco or Daughters of Mary Help of Christians are the sister order of the Salesians of Don Bosco. They were founded by Saint Maria Mazzarello in 1872 to work alongside Saint John Bosco in his teaching projects in Turin and continue to be a teaching order worldwide. On August 5, 1872 in Mornese, Alessandria, Italy, the first Daughters of Mary Help of Christians gathered with Don Bosco and Msgr. Joseph Sciandra, the Bishop of Acqui, to celebrate their admission to the novitiate and the first professions. On that day St. Mary Domenica Mazzarello was also elected the first superior and given the title of “vicar”. Through a gift of the Holy Spirit and the direct intervention of Mary, St John Bosco founded our Institute as a response of salvation to the profound hopes of young girls. He endowed it with a spiritual heritage that had its inspiration in the charity of Christ the Good Shepherd, and imparted to it a strong missionary impulse.(Constitutions of the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, 1) A year later their first boarding school and primary school was recognized by the educational authorities of Castelletto d’Orba. On October 8,
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    152

    Sisters of Charity

    The Sisters of Charity (SC) is an Anglican religious order following the Rule of St. Vincent de Paul, and so committed to the service of those in need. The Order was founded in 1869. From their mission house in Plymouth, England, the sisters are involved in parish and mission work. The community also maintains a nursing home near Plymouth. The order maintains a confraternity of oblates. Until 2008 the Order maintained a convent and guest house in Martinsburg, West Virginia, where the sisters were active in providing care to children and dogs. In 2008 the American SC sisters took the decision to withdraw from the Order, and to unite with the Community of St. Mary (CSM). The sisters have relocated to the CSM convent at Sewanee, Tennessee.
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    Society of Mary

    Society of Mary

    The Society of Mary (Marists), is a Roman Catholic religious institute, founded by (later) Father Jean-Claude Colin and a group of other seminarians in France in 1816. Jean-Claude Courveille (1787–1866) had the original insight for the congregation but it was brought to fruition by Colin. By the beginning of the 19th century Christian churches were well established in the Americas, Europe, and Australia. Christian evangelization efforts turned to Africa, Asia and Oceania. The Holy See, keen to get the Catholic faith established in this area entrusted its evangelization efforts of Oceania to two religious congregations. The Vicariate Apostolic of Eastern Oceania (including Tahiti, the Marquesas and Hawaii) was assigned to the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary (Picpus Fathers). Similarly, the Vicariate Apostolic of Western Oceania (including Micronesia, Melanesia, Fiji, New Zealand, Samoa, and Tonga), was assigned to the Society of Mary (Marists). The Society's members include two canonized saints, Saint Peter Chanel, S.M., martyred on the island of Futuna and Saint Marcellin Champagnat, S.M., founder of the Marist Brothers. The society's name derives from the
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    154
    Holy Ghost Fathers

    Holy Ghost Fathers

    The Congregation of the Holy Spirit (full title, Congregation of the Holy Spirit under the protection of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, or in Latin, Congregatio Sancti Spiritus sub tutela Immaculati Cordis Beatissimae Virginis Mariae, and thus abbreviated C.S.Sp.) is a Roman Catholic congregation of priests, lay brothers, and since Vatican II, lay associates. Congregation members are known as Spiritans in Continental Europe, and as the Holy Ghost Fathers in English-speaking countries, although even there, they are becoming known as Spiritans. A Spiritan priest or brother has the abbreviation C.S.Sp. after his name. The Spiritans have a rich history of serving the poor and marginalized. Spiritans in the 1840s dedicated themselves to working with newly freed slaves on the islands of Haiti, Mauritius and Réunion. In East Africa, where most of the American Spiritans now serve, they began work in the 1860s by buying men and women out of slavery in Zanzibar. They opened schools and hospitals, taught people marketable skills, and gave property to those who needed it. The Spiritans pioneered modern missionary activity in Africa and ultimately sent more missionaries there than any other
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    155
    Lebanese Maronite Order

    Lebanese Maronite Order

    The Lebanese Maronite Order (known also as Baladites or Valadites), is a monastic order among the Levantine Catholic Maronite Church, which from the beginning has been specifically a monastic Church. The order was founded in 1694 in the Monastery of Mart Moura, Ehden, Lebanon, by three Maronite young men from Aleppo, Syria, under the patronage of Patriarch Estephan El Douaihy (1670–1704). Its name Baladites comes from the Arabic baladiyah (Arabic: الرهبنة البلدية‎), country monks. It is one of the three Lebanese congregations founded by Saint Anthony the Great. The second order is the Aleppians (or halabiyyah), monks of Aleppo, a city in present Syria, the antonym of baladiyah. This order resulted from a split with the Baladites. Pope Clement XIV sanctioned this separation in 1770. The third Lebanese monastic order is that of Saint Isaiah, known as the Lebanese Antonin Order founded on August 15, 1700, by the Patriarch Gabriel Al Blouzani from Blaouza (1704–1705).
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    156

    Missionary Society of St. Columban

    The Missionary Society of St. Columban (Latin: Societas Santi Columbani pro Missionibus ad Exteros) (abbreviated as S.S.C.), commonly known as the "Columbans", is a missionary Catholic society society of apostolic life, founded in Ireland in 1916 and approved by the Vatican in 1918. Initially it was known as the Maynooth Mission to China. Members may be priests, seminarians or lay workers. The founders of the Society also founded the Missionary Sisters of St. Columban to share in their work. The Society was founded through the inspiration of the Reverend (later Bishop) Edward Galvin of Ireland (1882-1956). Galvin had considered serving as a missionary as a young man, but he was dissuaded by the concerns of his parents over the life of a missioner. He entered (usually called Maynooth Seminary), to study for the priesthood for his native Diocese of Cork, and was ordained in 1909. Due to an oversupply of clergy for that diocese, his bishop suggested that Galvin offer his service in the United States until such time as there would be an opening in Cork. Galvin followed his advice and went to serve in the Diocese of Brooklyn in New York City, where he was assigned to Holy Rosary
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    157

    Oblate Sisters of Providence

    The Oblate Sisters of Providence is a Roman Catholic women's religious institute, founded by Mother Mary Lange, OSP, and Rev. James Nicholas Joubert, SS in 1829 in Baltimore, Maryland for the education of girls of African descent. It has the distinction of being the first Roman Catholic religious institute begun for Catholic women of African descent. The congregation is also a member of the Women of Providence in Collaboration. Father Joubert belonged to a noble French family forced by the Revolution to take refuge in San Domingo. Alone of his family, he escaped from a massacre and went to Baltimore, first being a teacher and later entering St. Mary's Seminary to be a Sulpician priest. After his ordination he was given charge of the colored French speaking Catholics of St. Mary's chapel. Finding he was making no headway as the children were having trouble reading and learning their catechism he had the idea of founding a school for the purpose of educating these children. In this he was encouraged by his two friends, Fathers Babade and Tessier. He was introduced to two women of African descent who kept a small private school, and had a hope of consecrating their lives to God.
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    158

    Sisters of St. Joseph of Peace

    The Sisters of St. Joseph of Peace is a Roman Catholic religious order of women founded in January, 1884 by Margaret Anna Cusack, in the Diocese of Nottingham, England.
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    159
    Congregation of the Mother Co-Redemptrix

    Congregation of the Mother Co-Redemptrix

    The Congregation of the Mother Co-Redemptrix (abbreviated CMC; Vietnamese: Dòng Đức Mẹ Đồng Công or simply Dòng Đồng Công) is a religious order within the Roman Catholic Church. The order is dominated by men of Vietnamese extraction. The unofficial title Co-Redemptrix in its name refers to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The Congregation maintains a monastery in Carthage, Missouri, which hosts an annual Marian Days pilgrimage, the largest Roman Catholic festival in the United States. Of the order's 228 members, about 120 reside in Carthage. The Congregation was founded in 1953 by the Most Rev. Dominic Maria Trần Đình Thủ, CMC, in Vietnam. Before 1975, the congregation was relatively small in Vietnam, overshadowed by the Dominican, Franciscan, Jesuit, and Redemptorist orders, among others. In the United States, however, virtually all Vietnamese Roman Catholics are aware of the Congregation. Just before the Fall of Saigon in 1975, 185 clergy – about half of the Congregation – left Vietnam as boat people and arrived in the United States at Fort Chaffee. Cardinal Bernard Francis Law, then Bishop of Springfield–Cape Girardeau, sponsored the priests and brothers, inviting them to buy a vacant
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    160

    Sisters Adorers of the Royal Heart of Jesus Christ Sovereign Priest

    The Sisters Adorers of the Royal Heart of Jesus Christ Sovereign Priest is a consecrated lay group of women in the Roman Catholic Church, associated with the Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest. The Sisters are based in Gricigliano, Italy, along with the Institute. Their life is non-cloistered contemplative, and based on the Benedictine tradition. The community participates in Mass and the Divine Office using the Traditional Latin Rite. The Sisters' religious formation is based on the teachings of Thomas Aquinas. The Latin motto of the order is In Corde Regis, which loosely translated means "In the heart of the King". The first three Sisters were vested with their habit in June, 2004, with postulants joining the order in 2005.
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    Trappists

    Trappists

    • Monasteries: Mount St. Joseph Abbey, Roscrea
    The Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (O.C.S.O.: Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae) is a Roman Catholic religious order of cloistered contemplative monastics who follow the Rule of St. Benedict. A branch of the Order of Cistercians, they have communities of both monks and nuns, commonly referred to as Trappists and Trappistines, respectively. The order takes its name from La Trappe Abbey or La Grande Trappe in Normandy in France. A reform movement began there in 1664, in reaction to the relaxation of practices in many Cistercian monasteries. Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé, originally the commendatory abbot of La Trappe, led the reform. As commendatory abbot, de Rancé was a layman who obtained income from the monastery but had no religious obligations. After a conversion of life between 1660 and 1662, de Rancé formally joined the abbey and became its regular abbot in 1663. In 1892 the reformed "Trappists" broke away from the Cistercian order and formed an independent monastic order with the approval of the Pope. The life of the Trappists is guided by the Rule of St. Benedict, written in the sixth century. The Rule describes ideals and values of a monastic
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    162
    White Fathers

    White Fathers

    The missionary society known as "White Fathers" (Pères Blancs in French), after their habit, is a Roman Catholic Society of Apostolic Life founded in 1868 by the first Archbishop of Algiers, later Cardinal Lavigerie, as the Missionaries of Our Lady of Africa of Algeria, and is also now known as the Society of the Missionaries of Africa. Members of the society use the post-nominal initials M. Afr. The famine of 1867 left a large number of Arab orphans, and the education and Christian instruction of these children was the occasion of the founding of the society; but from its inception the founder had in mind the conversion of the Arabs and the peoples of Central Africa. Missionary posts were established in Kabylie and in the Sahara. In 1876 and in 1881 two caravans from South Algeria and R'dames, intending to open missions in Sudan, were massacred by their guides. In 1878 ten missionaries left Algiers to establish posts at Lakes Victoria, Nyanza and Tanganyika. These now form the present Lakes Archdioceses of Kampala, Gitega, Tabora, and the dioceses of Kigoma, Lilongwe, and Kalemie-Kirungu. In 1894 the mission of French Sudan (now Mali) was founded, now the Archdiocese of
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    163
    Augustinian Recollects

    Augustinian Recollects

    The Order of Augustinian Recollects or simply the Augustinian Recollects are a Roman Catholic mendicant Catholic religious order of friars and nuns. They are a reformist offshoot from the Augustinian hermit friars and follow the same Rule of St. Augustine. They were founded in 16th-century Spain as a separate province of the Augustinian friars under their own Vicar General. Through the 5th Determination of the Chapter of Toledo, it was decided that: Since there are among us, or at least maybe, some who have greater love for monastic perfection and want to follow a more austere plan of life, we ought to favor their legitimate desire by not placing obstacles to the Holy Spirit; having previously consulted our most Reverend Father General and implored his leave, we determine that in our Province three or more monasteries of men and as many of women be designated or established; in them a more austere kind of life is to be practiced; its manner is to be regulated, after mature reflection, by the Father Provincial with his Definitorum. Their reform emphasized fidelity to the Rule of St. Augustine. The reformers placed special emphasis on community prayer and simplicity of life. On 5
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    165

    Darqawa

    The Darqawiyya or Darqawa Sufi order was a revivalist branch of the Shadhiliyah brotherhood. The Darqawa comprised the followers of Sheikh Muhammad al-Arabi al-Darqawi (1760–1823). The movement, which became one of the leading orders (tariqa) in Morocco, exalted poverty and asceticism. It gained widespread support among the rural inhabitants and the urban lower classes. Its popularity was increased by its use of musical instruments in its rituals. In both Algeria and Morocco the Darqawiyya were involved in political activities and protest movements. It has received little attention from Orientalists compared to other Sufi orders, despite its closeness to Europe and relatively recent history. The few authors who did write about the Darqawiyya were largely guided by administrative concerns. In their book, Confreries (1897), Depont and Coppolani call them "ferocious sectarians," and "puritans of Islam" (p. 504-5). These judgements can be completed by E. Doutte in L'Islam algerien en 1900, "The Darqawa are thus mendicant derviches. It is a dangerous order, one found in almost all the insurrections that have taken place against governments". In Morocco the vitality of the Darqawa has
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    Fathers of Mercy

    Fathers of Mercy

    The Fathers of Mercy (Latin: Congregatio Presbyterorum a Misericordia, C.P.M.) is a Catholic religious institute of missionary priests, founded by Jean-Baptiste Rauzan in early 19th-century France. The institute was first established at Lyon, France, in 1808, and later at Paris, in 1814, and finally approved by Pope Gregory XVI on 18 February 1834. The founder, Jean-Baptiste Rauzan, was born at Bordeaux on 5 December 1757, and died in Paris, 5 September 1847. After completing his ecclesiastical studies, he taught theology and sacred eloquence and later was chosen Vicar-General of Bordeaux where he inaugurated a missionary movement to save the faith in France. So effective was their preaching in the Diocese of Troyes, that they won the favour of Emperor Napoleon I, and received from the Government, unsolicited, subsidies to defray the expenses of their missions. This favour, however, was short-lived, for owing to Napoleon's quarrel with Pius VII, the society, which was called the Missionaries of France, was suppressed. In 1814, at the suggestion of Cardinal Fesch, Father Rauzan rallied his co-labourers, adding others, among whom were the young Vicar-General of Chambéry, de
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    167
    Presentation Brothers

    Presentation Brothers

    The Congregation of Presentation Brothers is an international Catholic congregation of laymen founded in 1802 in Waterford, Ireland, by a local businessman, Edmund Ignatius Rice, now Blessed Edmund Ignatius Rice. Presentation Brothers live and work in Ireland, England, USA, Canada, Ghana, Switzerland, Slovakia, St. Lucia and Grenada with about 100 Brothers throughout these countries. The Brothers take three promises—poverty, chastity and obedience—and live together in small groups called "communities". The motto of the congregation was adopted from that of the Jesuits: "Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam" or "For the Greater Glory of God". Brothers bear the initials F.P.M. (Fratres Presentationis Mariae). The expressed mission of the Presentation Brothers is to "form Christ in the Young" and traditionally they have worked to achieve this through education. Today Presentation Brothers work in a wider range of ministries including with the homeless, elderly, disadvantaged youth and the Roma people. In 2007 the Presentation Brothers opened new missions in Slovakia and Nigeria and an Advocacy Office for the poor in Geneva. Edmund Rice’s founding charism gave birth to two congregations, the
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    Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary

    Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary

    The Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary (known in the United States as the RSHM and in other parts of the world as RSCM) are a global Roman Catholic community of about 900 apostolic religious women, connected by personal contact, local, provincial and general meetings, telephone, e-mail and many websites to one another with a hope of promoting the integral development and liberation of the whole person. Today the diversity of ministries include educational, pastoral and social services. RSHM work in colleges and universities, secondary and elementary schools. RSHM serve in parishes and prisons, in hospitals and nursing homes, in studios and social centers, in retreat houses and retirement homes. Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary are administrators, teachers, social workers, artists, lawyers, health care personnel, musicians, librarians, spiritual directors, and others. The rule of life of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary, the RSHM Constitutions, was approved on the diocesan level in 1850, the canonical level in 1880 and revised in 1983. In all editions of the Constitutions, the mission of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary is defined: "to know and love God, to
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    169
    Jerrahi

    Jerrahi

    The Jerrahi (Turkish: Cerrahiyye, Cerrahilik) are a Sufi tariqah (order) derived from the Halveti order. Their founder was Muhammad Nureddin al-Jerrahi, who lived in Istanbul and is buried at the site of his tekke in Karagumruk - Istanbul. During the late Ottoman period, this order was widespread throughout the Balkans, particularly Macedonia and southern Greece (Morea). Founded in the 17th century by Muhammad Nuraddin al-Jarrahi, the Halveti-Jerrahi Order of Dervishes is a cultural, educational, and social relief organization with members from diverse professional, ethnic and national backgrounds. Al-Jarrahi was a direct descendant of the prophet Muhammad both from his mother and father. The path he founded is dedicated to the teachings and traditions, through an unbroken chain of spiritual transmission (silsilah), that go directly back to Muhammad. The head dergah "convention" of the Halveti-Jerrahi order is in Karagumruk - Istanbul. It has branches in some European countries, Australia, South Africa, South America and North America, including New York, Mexico, San Francisco, Toronto and Chicago. Branches of the Halveti-Jerrahi conduct gatherings where the dervishes perform Sufi
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    170
    Marist Brothers

    Marist Brothers

    The Marist Brothers, or Little Brothers of Mary, are a Catholic religious institute of brothers and affiliated lay people, founded in France, at La Valla-en-Gier near Lyon in 1817 by Saint Marcellin Champagnat, a young French priest of the Society of Mary (Marist Fathers). It is characteristically Marian. Worldwide, there are more than 4,500 brothers working in 77 countries on 6 continents. They directly share their mission and spirituality with more than 40,000 laypeople, and together educate close to 500,000 children and young people in schools. Marcellin, disillusioned with the encroaching culture of post-revolution secularism that gripped the areas of rural France where he worked, decided to start an institute of consecrated brothers in the Marian tradition, building schools for the underprivileged where they might learn to become "Good Christians and Good people". The decision to found teaching institute crystallized one day, when as a parish priest he was called to administer the last rites to a dying teen boy named Jean Baptiste Montagne. Trying to lead the boy through his last moments in prayer, Marcellin was struck by the fact that the young man had no gauge of
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    171
    Mevlevi

    Mevlevi

    The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order, or the Mevlevilik / Mevleviye (Persian: مولويه‎ - Molavīyeh) is a Sufi order founded in Konya (in present-day Turkey) by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic jurist, and theologian. They are also known as the Whirling Dervishes due to their famous practice of whirling as a form of dhikr (remembrance of God). Dervish is a common term for an initiate of the Sufi path; the whirling is part of the formal Sama ceremony and the participants are properly known as semazen-s. The current master of the order is Sheikha Nur, born Nur Artiran. In 2005, UNESCO proclaimed the "The Mevlevi Sema Ceremony" of Turkey as amongst the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The Mawlawi order was founded in 1273 by Rumi's followers after his death, particularly by his successor Hüsamettin Çelebi who decided to build a mausoleum for Mawlâna, and then Mawlâna's son, Baha al-Din Muhammad-i Walad (or Çelebi, Chelebi, meaning "fully initiated"). He was an accomplished Sufi mystic with great organizing talents. His personal efforts were continued by his successor Ulu Arif Çelebi. The Mawlawi believe in
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    Sisters of Holy Cross

    The Sisters of Holy Cross, headquartered in Montreal, Canada is Catholic congregation of religious sisters which traces its origins to the foundation of the Congregation of Holy Cross in 1837 in Le Mans, France by the Blessed Father Basil Anthony-Marie Moreau, CSC. Two other congregations of sisters also have the same origins: the Marianites of Holy Cross (New Orleans, Louisiana) and the Sisters of the Holy Cross (Notre Dame, Indiana). For a history of the four congregations of Holy Cross, see the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Sisters of Holy Cross are represented in the following countries (with their year of first arrival in parentheses):
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    Society of St. John the Evangelist

    Society of St. John the Evangelist

    The Society of St John the Evangelist (SSJE) is an Anglican religious order for men. The members live under a rule of life and, at profession, make monastic vows of poverty, celibacy and obedience. The SSJE was founded in 1866 at Cowley, Oxford, England, by the Father Richard Meux Benson, a priest in the Church of England. Known colloquially as the Cowley Fathers, the society was the first stable religious community of men to be established in the Anglican Communion since the English Reformation. For many years the society had houses in Scotland, India, South Africa, Japan and Canada. In 1870, the society came to Boston, Massachusetts, where it became part of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. The members of the North American congregation live at a monastery designed by Ralph Adams Cram, in Cambridge, near Harvard Square. They also keep a rural retreat center, Emery House, in West Newbury, where guests can stay in small hermitages in the meadow. The community has just completed a capital campaign, Stone & Light, to restore the Monastery buildings and make them fully handicapped-accessible. The Monastery Chapel and Guesthouse are recently re- opened.
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    174

    Companions of the Cross

    The Companions of the Cross is a Society of Apostolic Life based in Ottawa, Ontario. It is a community of Roman Catholic priests, which is Eucharistic, Charismatic, Marian and Magisterial. It was founded by Father Robert Bedard and was approved in 2002 by Vatican City as a Society of Apostolic Life. A definition of the beliefs, practices and goals of the Companions is: "We are a Roman Catholic community of priests, committed to living and ministering together as brothers in the Lord. We are called to the ongoing renewal of the Church through a dynamic evangelization in the wisdom and power of the Holy Spirit. We proclaim the Good News of Jesus Christ to all we are called to serve, with special attention to parish communities, the poor, youth, and those alienated from the Church." The way that the Companions of the Cross live and serve can be summarized as: The Companions of the Cross ministry in locations including Combermere, Ottawa and, Toronto, Ontario, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Detroit, Michigan, and Houston, Texas.
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    175

    Sisterhood of St. John the Divine

    The Sisterhood of St. John the Divine is a religious community of nuns in the Anglican Church of Canada. Founded in Toronto in 1884 by Mother Hannah Grier Coome, the order ministers at St. John's Rehab Hospital and is known for its members' distinctive blue habits, retreat leadership, and spiritual direction services. The sisters make altar linens to order, and founded the Altar Guild at St. Thomas Anglican Church. The Sisterhood has been active in liturgical renewal and unequivocal in its acceptance of the Book of Alternative Services. The order has houses in Toronto (St. John's Convent and Guest House) and Victoria (St. John's House, BC).
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    Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration

    Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration

    The Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration are a congregation of sisters that follow the Rule of St. Benedict and have a Eucharistic charism. The original monastery was founded in 1874 by a group of five sisters led by Sister Mary Anselma Felber, O.S.B., who came from the young monastery of Maria-Rickenbach (founded 1857) in Switzerland. Arriving in Clyde, Missouri, they founded the Benedictine Convent of Perpetual Adoration. This remains the motherhouse and largest community of the congregation. It houses 550 documented relics of the saints. The decision to come was sparked by the departure of a group of monks from the nearby Engelberg Abbey, at a time when monastic communities felt threatened by political changes taking place throughout Europe. As with many other monastic groups, they looked to the New World for a place of refuge.The monks went on to found Conception Abbey in nearby Conception, Missouri, and began to minister to German and Irish immigrants of the region. The sisters follow a simple, contemplative way of life, formed by the Rule of St. Benedict. They support themselves by producing Altar Breads, soap, liturgical vestments and gourmet popcorn. Since the early
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    177
    Melanesian Brotherhood

    Melanesian Brotherhood

    The Melanesian Brotherhood is an Anglican religious community of men in simple vows based primarily in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea. The Melanesian Brotherhood was formed in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, a policeman from Maravovo, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. He and the Bishop of Melanesia, the Right Reverend John Manwaring Steward, realised Ini's dream by forming a band of brothers (known in the Mota language as 'Ira Reta Tasiu') to take the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the non-Christian areas of Melanesia. The Brothers (or 'Tasiu', as they are more generally known in the islands) were responsible for the evangelisation of large areas of Guadalcanal, Malaita, Temotu, and other areas in the Solomons, for Big Bay and other places in Vanuatu, and the Popondetta area of Papua New Guinea. After training for three years, a novice is admitted as a brother by the Archbishop of Melanesia in his capacity as Father of the Brotherhood, or his deputy, or the Regional Father, who is a diocesan Bishop in his role as a Regional Father of the Brotherhood. This admission usually takes place on the Sunday nearest the feast of St. Simon & St. Jude (28 October) at one of the three regional
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    Piarists

    The Order of Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools (Latin: Ordo Clericorum Regularium pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum, Sch. P. or S. P.) or, in short, Piarists ( /ˈpaɪ.ərɨsts/), is the name of the oldest Catholic educational order also known as the Scolopi, Escolapios or Poor Clerics of the Mother of God (in both cases 'Clerics' can also become 'Clerks', from the same etymology). Founded by Saint Joseph Calasanctius, the main occupation of the Piarist fathers is teaching children and youth, the primary goal being to provide free education for poor children. The Piarist practice was taken as a model by numerous later Catholic societies devoted to teaching, while the state-supported public school system in certain parts of Europe also followed their example. The Piarists have had a considerable success in the education of physically or mentally disabled persons. Some famous individuals of the last few centuries, including Pope Pius IX, Goya, Schubert, Gregor Mendel, and Victor Hugo, were taught at Piarist schools. Joseph Calasanctius (also known as Joseph Calasanz or José de Calasanz, and whose religious name was Josephus a Matre Dei), who was born in
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    179

    Verbum Dei Missionary Fraternity

    The Verbum Dei Missionary Fraternity (Fraternidad Misionera Verbum Dei in Spanish) is a Roman Catholic contemplative-active missionary community. It was founded on 17 January 1963, in the Spanish island of Majorca, by Jaime Bonet. The community was ecclesiastically approved as an Institute of Consecrated Life, by Pope John Paul II on 15 April 2000. According to the constitutions endorsed on that date their mission is to announce the Word of God and to propagate the Kingdom of God through prayer, the ministry of the Word, and the testimony of evangelical life. The community consists of consecrated religious women, consecrated religious men (brothers & priests), and associated married couples. The name, Verbum Dei, is Latin for "Word of God". The mission of the VDMF is to promote the greatest dignity for all people by empowering individuals and communities to partake in the journey of Christian discipleship. This discipleship is forged in a spirituality rooted in Scripture and Catholic tradition that leads to witnessing to justice made visible through community. Most celibate members of the community go through several years of academic study of philosophy and theology similar to
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    180
    Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross

    Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross

    The Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross, commonly called Crosiers, are a Roman Catholic religious order. According to their own tradition, the Crosiers were founded by five men attached to the household of the prince-bishop of Liege, Radulf von Zähringen, who accompanied the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa on the Third Crusade (1189–1191). Upon their return, the five, led by Theodorus de Cellis (1166-1236), sought a new way of life, and shortly before his death, their bishop appointed them to be canons of his Cathedral of St. Lambert in Liège. After efforts to renew the life and practice of the college of canons to which they belonged, the five withdrew from Liege and moved up the Meuse river to a place called Clairlieu, outside the city of Huy, and began a way of life more in keeping with their ideals. This settlement of the five at Huy was the beginning of their Order, and the house and small church dedicated to Saint Theobald that they established there became the Order's motherhouse. Pope Innocent III verbally approved their Order on the feast of the Finding of the Holy Cross, May 3, 1210, and Pope Innocent IV granted them full and final approval in 1248. This
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    181
    Daughters of Wisdom

    Daughters of Wisdom

    Daughters of Wisdom is a Catholic contemplative organization founded by Saint Louis de Montfort and Blessed Marie Louise Trichet. While he was temporary chaplain of the hospital of Poitiers in 1707, he associated into a little community some pious but afflicted girls, and gave them a rule of life, the main points of which have been retained in the Rule of the Daughters of Wisdom. The congregation strives to acquire heavenly wisdom by imitating the Incarnate Wisdom, Jesus Christ. The means for imitating Christ is a special devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. When St Louis died in 1716, the community numbered only four sister, led by Blessed Marie Louise Trichet who had met Louis de Montfort in 1701 and became known as the First Daughter of Wisdom when she freely offered her services to the hospital. Her mother reportedly told her: "You will become as mad as that priest". That was the beginning of a forty-three year effort during which she nursed the sick; gave food to beggars and administered the great maritime hospital of France. The poor people of the Hospital of Niort (Deux-Sèvres) called her "good Mother Jesus". The number of sisters grew to 700 by the time of the French
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    182

    Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration

    The Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration is a Roman Catholic religious congregation for women whose motherhouse, St. Rose of Viterbo Convent, is in La Crosse, Wisconsin in the Diocese of La Crosse. The Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration founded Viterbo University and staffed Aquinas High School in La Crosse. The congregation was founded in 1849. The Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration have their retirement home in St. Joseph, Wisconsin. The Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist were formed as a separate congregation on December 2, 1973, as a result of a period of renewal leading to a divergence of vision within the Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration. The Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration and the Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist shared the original founders with the Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi of St. Francis, Wisconsin. One of their best-known members was Sister Thea Bowman, F.S.P.A., who, after a long career as a teacher, became a noted evangelist in the African-American community from which she came. The Sisters are a sponsoring member of 8th Day Center for Justice.
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    183

    Safaviyeh

    The Safaviyya (Persian: صفویه) was a Sufi order founded by the Kurdish mystic Sheikh Safi-ad-din Ardabili (1252–1334). It held a prominent place in the society and politics of northwestern Iran in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but today it is best known for having given rise to the Safavid dynasty. Safī al-Din grew up in Ardabil but left it, for lack of adequate teachers, and travelled to Shiraz and then Gilan. In Gilan, he became the disciple of Sheikh Zahid, leader of the Zahidī Sufi order. He eventually became Sheikh Zahid's chief disciple and married his daughter. Upon Sheikh Zahid's death, the Zahidiyya came under Safī al-Din's leadership and was renamed the Safaviyya. Safī al-Din's importance is attested in two letters by Rashid al-Din. In one, Rashid al-Din pledges an annual offering of foodstuffs. In the other, Rashid al-Din writes to his son, the governor of Ardabil, advising him to show proper consideration to the sheikh. After Safī al-Din's death, leadership of the order passed to his son Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā, and subsequently passed down from father to son. In the mid-fifteenth century, the Safaviyya changed in character and became militant under Shaykh Junayd and
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    184

    Tijaniyyah

    The Tijāniyyah (Arabic: الطريقة التجانية, transliterated: Al-Ṭarīqah al-Tijāniyyah, or "The Tijānī Path") is a sufi tariqa (order, path) originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, The Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, and Northern Nigeria and Sudan. Its adherents are called Tijānī (spelled Tijaan or Tiijaan in Wolof, Tidiane or Tidjane in French). Tijānī attach a large importance to culture and education, and emphasize the individual adhesion of the disciple (murīd). To become a member of the order, one must receive the Tijānī wird, or a sequence of holy phrases to be repeated twice daily, from a muqaddam, or representative of the order. Sīdī 'Aḥmad al-Tijānī (1737–1815), who was born in Algeria and died in Fes, Morocco, founded the Tijānī order around 1781 (see Triaud, 2000). Tijānī Islam, an "Islam for the poor," reacted against the conservative, hierarchical Qadiriyyah brotherhood then dominant, focusing on social reform and grass-roots Islamic revival. During the first period, some of Shaykh Tijani's appointed khalifas established new Tijani centres abroad and developed ramifications of their own: Although several other Sufi
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    185

    Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God

    The Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God are a Roman Catholic order founded in 1572. They are also known commonly as the Fatebenefratelli, meaning "Do-Good Brothers" in Italian. St. John of God, the founder of this religious institution, was born 8 March 1495 at Montemor-o-Novo in Portugal. In his fortieth year he was drawn strongly to God's service and began a life of prayer, penance and charity towards his neighbour. He founded his first hospital at Granada in Andalusia, (south Spain), where he served the sick and afflicted. He was canonized by Pope Alexander VIII in 1690 and was declared patron saint of the dying and of all hospitals by Pope Leo XIII in 1898. The charity of St. John of God was destined to be perpetuated among his brethren, whom he had formed by his lessons and example. His first companion Antoni Martin was chosen to succeed him as superior of the order. Thanks to the generosity of King Philip II of Spain, a hospital was founded at Madrid, another at Cordova and several others in various Spanish towns. St. Pius V approved the Order of the Brothers Hospitallers in 1572 under the rule of St. Augustine. The order spread rapidly into the other countries of
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    186
    Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament

    Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament

    The Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament (S.S.S.) is a Catholic religious congregation of priests, deacons, and brothers whose ideal of life is to become living witnesses of the Eucharist, the source and summit of Christian life. By their life and activities, they assist the Church in her efforts to form Christian communities whose center of life is the Eucharist. They commit themselves to the implementation of this ideal in collaboration with lay men and women engaged in various ministries. The Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament, whose name in Latin is Societas Sanctissimi Sacramenti, was founded in Paris, France, on May 13, 1856, by a French priest, Saint Peter Julian Eymard. As he searched for response to the needs and challenges of his time, he found the answer in the love of God manifested in a special way in his Eucharist. Captivated by this love, he traced out for his companions and contemporaries a new form of life in the Church. Since its founding, the members of the congregation have reached all continents of the globe and continue the mission begun by St. Peter Julian Eymard. Currently numbering a little less than a thousand religious, they are present in thirty
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    187
    Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy

    Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy

    The Royal, Celestial and Military Order of Our Lady of Mercy and the Redemption of the Captives also known as Our Lady of Ransom (Latin: Ordo Beatae Mariae de Mercede redemptionis captivorum) is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco in the city of Barcelona, at that time in the Kingdom of Aragon, for the redemption of Christian captives. One of the distinguishing marks of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy is that, since its foundation, its members are required to take a Fourth Vow to die for another who is in danger of losing their Faith. The Order exists today in 17 countries. The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy (or the Order of Merced, O.Merc., Mercedarians, the Order of Captives, or the Order of Our Lady of Ransom) was one of many dozens of associations that sprang up in Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries as institutions of charitable works. The work of the Mercedarians was in ransoming impoverished captive Christians (slaves) held in Muslim hands, especially along the frontier that the Crown of Aragon shared with al-Andalus (Muslim Spain). Starting before the First Crusade, many hospices and hospitals were
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    188
    Premonstratensian

    Premonstratensian

    • Monasteries: Titchfield Abbey
    The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines, or in Britain and Ireland as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a Roman Catholic religious order of canons regular founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, who later became Archbishop of Magdeburg. Premonstratensians are designated by O.Praem (Ordo Praemonstratensis) following their name. Saint Norbert had made various efforts to introduce a strict form of canonical life in various communities of canons in Germany; in 1120 he was working in the now-extinct Diocese of Laon, in the Picardy province of northeastern France. There, in a rural place called Prémontré, he and thirteen companions established a monastery to be the cradle of a new order. As they were canons regular, they followed the Rule of St. Augustine, but with supplementary statutes that made their life one of great austerity. Norbert was a friend of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux and so was largely influenced by the Cistercian ideals as to both the manner of life and the government of his order. As the Premonstratensians are not monks but canons regular, their work often involves preaching and
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    189

    Salvatorians

    The term Salvatorians refers to members of three religious communities: the Congregation of the Sisters of the Divine Saviour, the Lay Salvatorians, and the Society of the Divine Saviour (Latin: Societas Divini Salvatoris), a Roman Catholic religious institute composed of priests, religious brothers, and seminarians. The Society was founded by Father John Baptist Jordan in Rome on December 8, 1881. As of December 2010 the Society of the Divine Saviour numbers 1,127 members and works in 40 countries around the world. Salvatorians use the post-nominal letters "SDS"
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    190
    Trinitarian Order

    Trinitarian Order

    The Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of the Captives or Order of the Holy Trinity for short (Latin: Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis redemptionis captivorum, Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis, also known as Trinitarians) is a Catholic religious order that was founded in the area of Cerfroid, some 80 km northeast of Paris, at the end of the twelfth century. The founder was St. John de Matha, whose feast day is celebrated on 17 December. Pope Innocent III granted the order and its rule approval with his letter Operante divine dispositionis clementia, issued on 17 December 1198. Throughout the centuries, the Trinitarian Rule underwent several revisions, notably in 1267 and in 1631. It has been complemented by statutes and constitutions. From the very outset, a special dedication to the mystery of the Holy Trinity has been a constitutive element of the Order's life. The founding-intention for the Order was the ransom of Christians held captive by non-Christians during the time of the Crusades. The Order has the initials "O.SS.T." Soon after papal approbation, the Trinitarian ministry to Christian captives was incorporated into the Order's title: Order of the Holy Trinity and of
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    191

    Brotherhood of Hope

    The Brotherhood of Hope is a religious community of Catholic lay brothers founded by Fr. Philip Merdinger, a priest of the Archdiocese of Newark, New Jersey. The Brotherhood began on September 14, 1980 when Fr. Philip and five other lay men made a public commitment to live single for the Lord. The Brotherhood received it's vision for community life from the Servants of the Word, "an ecumenical, international Christian brotherhood of men living single for the Lord" from Ann Arbor, MI. In 1985, the Brotherhood began their first mission of serving in campus ministry at Rutgers University where they also serve today. In 1993, the Brotherhood was invited by Bishop John Mortimer Smith to the Diocese of Pensacola-Tallahassee, FL where they began to serve in campus ministry at Florida State University. The ministry at FSU, the Catholic Student Union, has developed into a flourishing ministry where many students have experienced deep conversions to Christ. In August of 1995, the Brotherhood moved its headquarters to the Archdiocese of Boston under the invitation of Cardinal Bernard Francis Law. Members of the Brotherhood, Fr. Bob Oliver and Fr. Paul Helfrich were ordained to the Archdiocese
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    192
    Congregation of Marian Fathers

    Congregation of Marian Fathers

    The Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary (Lat., Congregatio Clericorum Marianorum ab Immaculata Conceptionis Beatissimae Virginis Mariae, abbrev. MIC) is a Roman Catholic male clerical religious congregation founded, 1673, in Poland. It is also known as Marians of the Immaculate Conception. The Congregation of about 500 priests and brothers has houses in 19 countries on 6 continents. Marians pledge support to the pope and follow the official teachings of the Catholic Church and aim to spread devotion to Blessed Virgin Mary as the Immaculate Conception, pray for the souls in purgatory and undertake a variety of apostolic work. Marians were the first Catholic men’s religious institute dedicated to the honor of Mary’s Immaculate Conception. The community traces its roots to Blessed Stanislaus of Jesus and Mary Papczyński who was beatified in Lichen, Poland in 2007. They are an Institute of Consecrated Life and their motto is Pro Christo et Ecclesia. Marians are also Official promoters of the authentic Divine Mercy message since 1941. The Congregation was formed by Blessed Stanislaus Papczyński in 1673 in Puszcza Korabiewska (today
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    193

    Little Brothers of Jesus

    The Little Brothers of Jesus is a religious congregation of brothers within the Catholic Church; it is inspired by the life and writings of Blessed Charles de Foucauld. Founded in 1933 in France by five seminarians with the assistance of Louis Massignon, a scholar of Islam and contemporary of Foucauld, the congregation took root in El Abiodh Sidi Cheikh District in the North African colony of French Algeria. Founded at the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur in Montmartre, Paris, in September 1933 by five seminarians from Issy-les-Moulineaux, they first took the name of Little Brothers of Solitude. From Paris, with the assistance of Louis Massignon and Louis Gardet, and with a temporary superior named René Voillaume, they left to found their first 'fraternity' in El Abiadh Sidi Cheikh in southern Oran at the edge of the Saharan Desert. There they took on their present name the Little Brothers of Jesus and the religious habit of grey embroidered with the 'Jesus Caritas' symbol of a heart with an outcropped cross and modified nomadic garb. Drawn by the desert experience of monastic austerity and the Islamic culture of the sub-Sahara, the first years were marked by tracing the intuitions of
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    194
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    195

    Qadiriyyah

    The Qadiriyya (Arabic: القادريه, Persian:قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri or Qadri), are members of the Qadiri Sufi order (tariqa). This derives its name from Syed Abdul Qader Gilani Al Amoli (1077–1166 CE, also transliterated as "Jilani" etc.) who was a native of the Iranian province of Mazandaran. The order relies strongly upon adherence to the fundamentals of Islam. Common names for descendants of this order include Balochi Qadri and Ahmed Qadri. The Qadri are all Sufis. The order, with its many offshoots, is widespread, particularly in the Arabic-speaking world, and can also be found in Turkey, Indonesia, Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Balkans, Israel, China, East and West Africa. A few famous travelers and writers such as Isabelle Eberhardt also belonged to the Qadiri order. The founder of the Qadiriyya, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, was a respected scholar and preacher. Having been a pupil at the school (madrasa) of Abu Sa'id al-Mubarak Mukharrami he became leader of this school after Mukharrami's death in 1119 CE. Being the new shaykh, he and his large family lived comfortably in the madrasa until his
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    196

    Rogationists

    The Rogationists of the Heart of Jesus (RCJ) is a religious congregation of priests and brothers founded by St. Hannibal Mary Di Francia (1851-1927). The word "rogationist" comes from the Latin "rogate" which means "pray". The spirituality of the congregation is centered on the words of Jesus Christ in the Gospel: Hence, they carry out the mission of: The Congregation of the Rogationists originated in Italy and spread to several other countries in Europe, United States, Brazil, Argentina, Rwanda, India and the Philippines. In the United States the Rogationists established their first community in 1967 assuming parish work in Mendota, California. At present, there are three Rogationist communities in California. Their houses are in Sanger, Van Nuys and in Camarillo. Mother Mary Nazarene Majone was born in Italy in 1869. At 16 she entered the congregation that was newly founded by Fr. Hannibal. M. Di Francia, with the special mission to answer the command of Jesus; "Rogate-Pray the Lord of the Harvest..." She lived this with remarkable humility in prayer and effective witnessing among the poor, the orphans, the outcasts, the needy... She was a Mother, Teacher, Friend and Servant of
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    197
    Rosminians

    Rosminians

    The Rosminians, officially the Institute of Charity or Societas a charitate nuncupata, are a Roman Catholic religious institute founded by Antonio Rosmini and first organised in 1828. The order was formally approved by the Holy See in 1838, and took its name from "charity" as the fullness of Christian virtue. Its members are commonly called Fathers of Charity and use the postnominal letters IC. Antonio Rosmini-Serbati (1797-1855), also known as Antonio Rosmini, an Italian from Rovereto in the Austrian Tyrol, ordained in 1821, had been organising his life along the principles of striving to put God's prompting first and his own wishes second. His two life-principles, written down at this time were: First, to apply himself to correct his faults and purify his soul by prayer and living a life as close to the teaching of Christ as possible. Second, to accept any opportunity to do charitable work. This principle was soon put to the test when the Marchioness di Canossa asked him to establish an institute for the education of poor boys. Rosmini saw this as God's hand at work. In 1827 Rosmini was in Milan and met the Abbé Loewenbruck who informed him that he had been thinking about
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    198

    Sisters of Charity Federation in the Vincentian-Setonian Tradition

    The Sisters of Charity Federation in the Vincentian-Setonian Tradition is an organization of 13 congregations of religious women in the Catholic Church who trace their lineage to Saint Elizabeth Seton, Saint Vincent de Paul and Saint Louise de Marillac. It was founded in 1947, in part to advocate Seton's canonization, but has since expanded its role. For instance, it serves as an advocate for the sisters' concern for the poor at the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The federation of Sisters of Charity includes:
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    199

    Sisters of the Holy Family

    The Sisters of the Holy Family is the name for a French and two different American religious institutes for women. The name may also refer to the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth.
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    200
    Society of St. Paul

    Society of St. Paul

    The Society of St. Paul is a religious congregation founded on 20 August 1914 at Alba in Italy by Fr. Giacomo Alberione and officially approved by the Holy See on 27 June 1949. Its members are known as the Paulines. Faithful to the mission assigned them by their founder, they communicate the Christian message with the use of all means that technology put at the disposition of modern man. They are present in 30 countries around the world. They are active in many fields: editorial and bookstores, journalism, cinematography, television, radio, audiovisual, multimedia, telematics; centres of studies, research, formation, animation. The Society is one of ten religious and lay institutes founded by Alberione.
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    201

    Tironensian order

    • Monasteries: Lesmahagow Priory
    The Tironensian Order or the Order of Tiron was a Roman Catholic monastic order named after the location of the mother abbey (Tiron Abbey, French: Abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité de Tiron, established in 1109) in the woods of Tiron (sometimes Thiron) in Perche, some 35 miles west of Chartres in France). They were nicknamed "Grey Monks" because of their grey robes, which their spiritual cousins, the monks of Savigny, also wore. The order, or congregation, of Tiron was founded in about 1106 by the Benedictine Bernard de Ponthieu, also known as Bernard d'Abbeville (1046-1117), born in a small village near Abbeville, Ponthieu. As a pre-Cistercian reformer, Bernard's intention was to restore the asceticism and strict observance of the Rule of St. Benedict in monastic life, insisting on manual labour. Tonsured at the Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Cyprien in Poitiers around the year 1070, Bernard left the order in 1101 when his nomination as new abbot was disapproved by Cluny and Pope Paschal II. From then on Bernard lived first as a hermit on the island of Chausey, between Jersey and Saint-Malo, then in the woods of Craon, near Chartres, with two other rigorist monks: Robert d'Arbrissel, future
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    202

    Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest

    The Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest (Latin: Institutum Christi Regis Summi Sacerdotis) is a society of priests in the Catholic Church that celebrates the Liturgy in Latin in accordance with its constitutions and founding documents. Its goals are to preserve and patronize traditional Latin Rite liturgical art and music. It has undertaken the restoration of a number of historic church buildings. The Institute is a Society of Apostolic Life of Pontifical Right, whose rule of life is based generally on that of the secular canons. The Institute has its own choir dress, adopted in 2006, which was given to members by the Cardinal Archbishop of Florence. Its stated mission is the defense and propagation of the reign of Christ in all areas of human life, both private and social. The Institute, founded in 1990, is based in Gricigliano, Italy, where the international seminary is located. The Institute's foundation was originally canonically erected in Gabon, Africa, where the Institute still maintains several missions, notably in the capital Libreville. Its canonical status was of diocesan right until October 7, 2008. On that date it was granted the status of pontifical right by
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    203
    Little Sisters of the Poor

    Little Sisters of the Poor

    The Little Sisters of the Poor is a Roman Catholic religious institute for women. It was founded in the 19th century by Saint Jeanne Jugan near Rennes, France. Jugan felt the need to care for the many impoverished elderly who lined the streets of French towns and cities. This led her to welcome an elderly lady into her home and the work of the Little Sisters of the Poor began. Gradually Jugan built up homes in and around Rennes. In 1843 the community's spiritual advisor declined to let Jugan head the institute and so she became an ordinary sister and model of humility. Jeanne Jugan was a helper to the elderly and disabled. She used to go on the streets of France to collect money for her organization. Once when Jugan begged a young man for money, he hit her on the face. She replied with calmness, "You gave that to me, now give me something for the elderly." The man was astounded by the sweetness of her reply and with all his heart he gave her all the money he had at that time. Today the Little Sisters of the Poor serve in 31 countries around the world (including homes in Hong Kong, Taiwan, India, Penang, New Zealand and Philippines), continuing in their original purpose of caring
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    204

    Sacred Fraternity of the Cross

    The Sacred Fraternity of the Cross is an Hermetic society founded by Alexander Guilford (known in the order as Frater Auriel) in London during the 1930s. The order promoted Christian mysticism, and is most known for a variation on the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn's Supreme Invoking Ritual of the Pentagram (SIRP), which utilized scenes from the alchemical work Rosarium philosophorum, and was reconfigured to allow use of the Pentagrammaton over the Tetragrammaton. It dissolved in the early 1960s after the unexpected death of the Dux Ducis, Simone Montbarde (known in the order as Frater Carpocrates).
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    205

    Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth

    The Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth are a Roman Catholic apostolic congregation of pontifical right, based in the Convent Station area of Morris Township, New Jersey. The stated purpose of the order is to show the love of Jesus Christ in serving those in need, especially the poor. The religious order was established in 1859 in Newark, New Jersey, following the example of Elizabeth Ann Seton's community that was founded during 1808 in Emmitsburg, Maryland. The first bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark, James Roosevelt Bayley, a nephew of Elizabeth Ann Seton, called for the establishment of a new regious order for women in that diocese based upon her work. Two members of the New York Sisters of Charity, Mary Xavier Mehegan assisted by Mary Catherine Nevin, established the new order and chose to remain with the new congregation. The Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth founded the Academy of Saint Elizabeth, the first secondary school for young women in the state, near Morristown in 1860 during the same year that they established their motherhouse at that location. Eventually, the nearby community became known as Convent Station because of a railway station built
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    206
    Theatines

    Theatines

    The Theatines or the Congregation of Clerks Regular of the Divine Providence are a male religious order of the Catholic Church, with the post-nominal initials "C.R." The order was founded by Saint Cajetan (Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene), Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, and Giovanni Pietro Carafa (afterwards Pope Paul IV). Carafa was Bishop of Chieti; Chieti (Theate) is a city of the Abruzzi in Central Italy, from which the congregation adopted its specific name, to distinguish it from other congregations (Jesuits, Barnabites, Somaschi, Caracciolini, etc.) modelled upon it. Cajetan consecrated his order to the Cross, which he adopted as its emblem, and the foundation took place on the feast of the Finding of the Holy Cross, May 3, 1524. It was approved on June 24 of that year, by Pope Clement VII in the Brief Exponi Nobis. On September 14, feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, Cajetan and his companions made solemn profession before the papal altar of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, in the presence of Mgr. Giovanni Battista Bonziano, Bishop of Caserta, a special papal delegate. The chief object of the order was to recall the clergy to an edifying life and the laity to the
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    Senussi

    The Senussi or Sanussi (Arabic: السنوسية‎) refers to a Muslim political-religious order in Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi. Senussi was concerned with both the decline of Islamic thought and spirituality and the weakening of Muslim political integrity. From 1902 to 1913 the Senussi fought French expansion in the Sahara, and the Italian colonisation of Libya beginning in 1911. In World War I, the Senussi fought against the British in Egypt and Sudan. The Grand Senussi's grandson became King Idris of Libya in 1951. In 1969, King Idris I was overthrown by a military coup led by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. A third of the population in Libya continue to be affiliated with the Senussi movement. The Senussi order has been historically closed to Europeans and outsiders, leading reports of their beliefs and practices to vary immensely. Though it is possible to gain some insight from the lives of the Senussi sheikhs further details are difficult to obtain. Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787–1859), the founder of the order,was born in Algeria near Mostaganem and was named al-Senussi after a venerated Muslim
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    208
    Augustinians

    Augustinians

    • Monasteries: Llanthony Priory
    The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders: (1) Several mendicant Orders of friars, who lived a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry and follow the Rule of St. Augustine, a brief document providing guidelines for living in a religious community. The largest and most familiar, originally known as the Hermits of Saint Augustine (O.E.S.A. - Ordo Eremitarum sancti Augustini) and also as the Austin friars, is now simply referred to as the Order of Saint Augustine (O.S.A.). Two other Orders, the Augustinian Recollects and the Discalced Augustinians, were once part of the Augustinian Order under a single Prior General. The Recollect friars, founded in 1588 as a reform movement of the Augustinian friars in Spain, became autonomous in 1612 with their first Prior General, Enrique de la Sagrada. The Discalced friars became an independent religious congregation with their own Prior General in 1592, and were raised to the status of a separate mendicant Order in 1610. (2) Various congregations of clerics, known as canons regular, who also follow the Rule of St. Augustine,
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    Community of St. Andrew

    The Community of St. Andrew (CSA) is an Anglican religious order of professed sisters in holy orders or who otherwise serve in diaconal ministry. The community was founded in 1861 by Elizabeth Ferard, with the encouragement of Bishop Tait of London. It is based in London, England, in the Diocese of London of the Church of England. The focus of ministry for the community includes prayer, evangelism, pastoral work, and hospitality. Initially, the community was known as "North London Deaconess Institution". It was based in a house in Burton Crescent, and members worked near King's Cross. On 18 July 1862 Elizabeth Ferard was ordained as the first Deaconess in this renewed order. Its name was changed to "London Diocesan Deaconess Institution" in 1868, then to "Deaconess Community of St Andrew" in 1983, and finally to "Community of St. Andrew" in 1987. The Community moved to Tavistock Crescent, Westbourne Park, in 1873. From this time on, the Sisters worked in Notting Dale and many London parishes. The earliest work was the training of Deaconesses, parish work, nursing and teaching. The Lambeth Conference recognized the Deaconess Order in 1897, but controversy concerning appropriate
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    Community of St. John the Divine

    Community of St. John the Divine

    The Community of St. John the Divine (CSJD) is an Anglican religious order of nuns founded in London in 1848. The community, now based in Alum Rock, Birmingham, England, was originally a nursing order, and continues to be involved in areas of health and pastoral care. The community operates retreat facilities. Author Jennifer Worth wrote about her work with the order in the 1950's in her Call The Midwife trilogy.
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    Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary

    The Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary (Soeurs des Saints Noms de Jésus et de Marie) is a teaching religious institute founded at Longueuil, Québec, Canada in 1843 by Blessed Mother Marie-Rose (Eulalie Durocher, 1811- 1849) for the Christian education of young girls. Their motto is: "Jésus et Marie, Ma Force et Ma Gloire" ("Jesus and Mary, my strength and my glory"). Since 1843, the SNJM's mission to educate young girls has extended beyond Québec into other Canadian provinces, including Ontario and Manitoba. Their mission of education also continues internationally, in the United States, Lesotho, and South America. Within the United States, the Sisters have established ministries in California, Oregon, Florida, Mississippi, New York, the Mid-Atlantic states and Washington among other states.
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    Community of the Sisters of the Church

    Community of the Sisters of the Church

    The Community of the Sisters of the Church is a religious order of women in various Anglican provinces who live the vowed life of poverty, chastity and obedience. In 2012 the Order had 105 sisters living in community, together with an extensive network of associates. The order was founded by Mother Emily Ayckbowm in 1870 as the Church Extension Association. Mother Emily and other women who felt called to the religious life established schools and orphanages throughout England in the late 19th century. The Church Extension Association evolved into the present Community of the Sisters of the Church. The sisters have houses worldwide (see below). The Order is under the patronage of St Michael and All Angels. Sister Dorina CSC was a prominent religious artist of the 1920s and 1930s who is particularly remembered for a set of Stations of the Cross which has been replicated many times over; examples of this work may be found in many Anglican churches, especially in London. Any woman who feels called to join the sisters must first apply to the house and then make several visits. Then she becomes an aspirant, then a novice then makes promises to live as a Junior Sister for a few years
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    Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer

    The Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Latin: Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris – C.Ss.R.) is a Roman Catholic missionary Congregation founded by Saint Alphonsus Liguori at Scala, near Amalfi, Italy for the purpose of labouring among the neglected country people in the neighbourhood of Naples. Members of the Congregation, Catholic priests and consecrated religious brothers, are known as Redemptorists and minister in more than 77 countries around the world. Redemptorists seek to put into action the command of Christ Jesus to “Love one another as I have loved you.” (John 15:12). They are essentially a missionary society although their ministry is not confined to developing nations. According to their rule they are "to strive to imitate the virtues and examples of Jesus Christ, our Redeemer consecrating themselves especially to the preaching of the word of God to the poor". Their labours consist principally in missions, retreats, and similar exercises. Traditionally, this has been the mainstay of the Redemptorists as they are well known for conducting parochial missions. The purpose of these parish missions and the homilies preached by the Redemptorists is to “…invite people to
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    Franciscan Brothers of the Eucharist

    The Franciscan Brothers of the Eucharist is a Roman Catholic, Franciscan public association of the faithful intended to become a religious institute for men. The association was founded in 2002 as a complement to the Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist. The mother house of the order is in Meriden, Connecticut in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford. The Franciscan Brothers of the Eucharist is still new. It is open to men who are discerning the call to religious life as brothers. They have a house near the motherhouse of the Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist. Every day the brothers pray and attend Mass with the sisters at their center. Both the brothers and sister are financially self-supporting. The Franciscan Brothers of the Eucharist work in complement with the Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist to rebuild the Church of our day in the spirit of St. Francis and St. Clare.
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    Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist

    The Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist is a Roman Catholic religious congregation for women. The motherhouse is in Meriden, Connecticut in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford. The Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist came into existence on December 2, 1973 as a result of a period of renewal within the Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration of La Crosse, Wisconsin which led to a divergence of outlook within that Congregation. In 2002, the Franciscan Brothers of the Eucharist was founded as a complement to the Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist. The Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist, at one time, owned and operated a ferry and store on Shaw Island part of the San Juan Islands in the state of Washington. The Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist share the original founders with the Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration and the Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi of St. Francis, Wisconsin.
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    Society of St. Paul

    The Society of St. Paul (SSP) is an Anglican monastic community in the United States. Founded in 1958, it was the first community for men recognised by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Other communities for men existed, but were founded in England. It describes its mission as one of pilgrimage, prophecy, and exploration of "the emerging spirituality and ministry of the twenty-first century." The order includes a confraternity, The Fellowship of St. Paul. The house is located in San Diego, California. .
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    Suhrawardiyya

    Suhrawardy redirects here. For the East Bengali politician and Prime Minister of Pakistan, see Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. The well-known Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi "the Executed" (1153 - 1191CE), the Shia founder of Illuminationism, is unconnected. The Suhrawardiyya (Arabic: سهروردية‎) is a Sufi order founded by the Iranian Sufi Diya al-din Abu 'n-Najib as-Suhrawardi (1097 – 1168 CE). It is a strictly Sunni order, guided by the Shafi`i school of Islamic law (madhab), and, like many such orders, traces its spiritual genealogy (silsila) to Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib through Junayd Baghdadi and al-Ghazali. It played an important role in the formation of a conservative ‘new piety’ and in the regulation of urban vocational and other groups, such as trades-guilds and youth clubs (see Futuwwa), particularly in Baghdad. Some of its usages resemble those of Freemasonry. The order originated in Iraq though it spread all over the Islamic world under its founder's nephew, Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (1145 – 1234 CE), who was sent by the Caliph in Baghdad as an ambassador to the Ayyubid Sultan Al-Adil I of Egypt, to Khwarezm-Shah Muhammad of Bukhara and to Kayqubad I, Sultan of Rûm. The order's
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    Tibetan Buddhism

    Tibetan Buddhism

    • Monasteries: Keydong Thuk-Che-Cho-Ling Nunnery
    Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and India (particularly in Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim). It is the state religion of Bhutan. It is also practiced in Mongolia and parts of Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia, and Tuva) and Northeast China. Texts recognized as scripture and commentary are contained in the Tibetan Buddhist canon, such that Tibetan is a spiritual language of these areas. A Tibetan diaspora has spread Tibetan Buddhism to many Western countries, where the tradition has gained popularity. Among its prominent exponents is the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The number of its adherents is estimated to be between ten and twenty million. Tibetan Buddhism comprises the teachings of the three vehicles of Buddhism: the Foundational Vehicle, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna. The Mahāyāna goal of spiritual development is to achieve the enlightenment of Buddhahood in order to most efficiently help all other sentient beings attain this state. The motivation in it is the bodhicitta mind of enlightenment — an
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    Community of St. Clare

    The Community of St. Clare (OSC) is a Franciscan Anglican religious order of nuns, and part of the wider Franciscan movement within the Anglican Communion. The community, founded in 1950 and based at Freeland near Witney, Oxfordshire, England, is one of several associated with the Society of Saint Francis. It forms the 'Second Order' of the Anglican Franciscan movement, commonly known as the 'Poor Clares'. The community, in common with other Second Order Franciscan communities, is an enclosed and contemplative one, and the sisters provide for their own needs through a variety of activities. The sisters believe that their 'enclosed' life does not mean being 'shut in', but rather an opportunity to live and work together on one site in real community. The community runs a guest house and retreat centre, and the sisters engage in various works including sewing, painting, printing, and manufacturing altar breads. The Anglican Religious Communities Yearbook 2004-05. Norwich: Canterbury Press, 2003.
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    Dominican Order

    Dominican Order

    • Monasteries: Batalha Monastery
    The Order of Preachers (Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum), more commonly known after the 15th century as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic de Guzman in France and approved by Pope Honorius III (1216–27) on 22 December 1216. Membership in the Order includes friars, nuns, active sisters, and lay or secular Dominicans (formerly known as tertiaries) affiliated with the Order. A number of other names have been used to refer to both the order and its members. Members of the order generally carry the letters O.P. standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers, after their names. Founded to preach the Gospel and to combat heresy, the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. The Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order, who is currently Father Bruno Cadoré. Like his contemporary, Francis of Assisi, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, and the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. He had accompanied as canon Diego de
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    Good Shepherd Sisters

    Good Shepherd Sisters

    The Good Shepherd Sisters (called also Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd) are a Roman Catholic religious institute for women. In addition to the standard vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, the Good Shepherd Sisters take the following fourth vow of zeal for souls [to save souls], particularly of women and girls: "I bind myself to labor for the conversion of fallen women and girls needing refuge from the temptation of the world." The Institute of the Good Shepherd began as a branch of Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge (OLC), founded in 1641 by Saint John Eudes, at Caen, France dedicated to the mission of reconciliation and mercy. The OLC is devoted to the care, rehabilitation, and education of girls and young women of dissolute habits, who wish to do penance for their iniquities and to lead a Christian life. Each convent of the OLC is independently run and operated. The congregation of the Good Shepherd Sisters was founded by Saint Mary Euphrasia Pelletier (formerly known as Rose Virginie Pelletier) in Angers, France in 1835, when she broke away from OLC and formed a separate institute. The reason she founded the separate institute was because the
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    Missionaries of the Sacred Heart

    The Missionaries of the Sacred Heart is a missionary congregation in the Latin Church, one of the 23 sui iuris churches that make up the Catholic Church led by the Bishop of Rome. It was founded in 1854 by Father Jules Chevalier at Issoudun, France, in the Diocese of Bourges, who was a member of the Chevalier Family. Jules Chevalier had a vision of a new world emerging and he wanted to make known the Gospel message of God's love and care for all men and women and to evoke a response in every human heart. He especially valued love, concern, compassion, understanding, respect and acceptance of every individual. His vision was based on the words of Jesus: "I give you a new commandment, love one another. Just as I have loved you, you also must love one another. By this love you have for one another, everyone will know that you are my disciples." [John 13:34 ff] The motto of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart is: May the Sacred Heart of Jesus be loved everywhere! The priests, deacons and brothers of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart are known as MSCs (from the Latin, Missionarii Sacratissimi Cordis). As with most religious congregations in the Catholic Church there is significant
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    Order of Sisters of Charity of Montreal

    Order of Sisters of Charity of Montreal

    The Sisters of Charity of Montreal, formerly called The Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal and more commonly known as the Grey Nuns of Montreal, is a Canadian religious institute of Roman Catholic religious sisters, founded in 1738 by Saint Marguerite d'Youville, a young widow. The congregation was founded when Marguerite d'Youville and three of her friends formed a religious association to care for the poor. They rented a small house in Montreal on 30 October 1738, taking in a small number of destitute persons. On 3 June 1753 the society received royal sanction, which also transferred to them the rights and privileges previously granted by letters patent in 1694 to the Frères Hospitaliers de la Croix et de Saint-Joseph, known after their founder as the Frères Charon. At that time they also took over the work of the bankrupt Frères Charon at the Hôpital Général de Montréal located outside the city walls. The city residents mocked the nuns by calling them "les grises" – a phrase meaning both "the grey women" and "the drunken women", in reference to the color of their attire and d'Youville's late husband, François-Magdeleine You d’Youville (1700–1730), a notorious
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    Society of Saint Francis

    Society of Saint Francis

    The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion. The Society of Saint Francis comprises: The Brothers of the First Order; The Sisters of the First Order; The Sisters of the Second Order; The Brothers and Sisters of the Third Order. Francis of Assisi and Clare of Assisi, the founders of the Franciscan movement, produced separate rules for three parallel Orders - the First Order were to be mendicant friars, embracing poverty as a gift from God, and living the community life in the world, serving the poor. The Second Order were to be a parallel community of sisters living a more enclosed life of prayer and contemplation. The Third Order was to consist of brothers and sisters not living in community, nor under full monastic vows, but nevertheless taking simple promises, and following a Rule of life in the world. These three Orders still co-exist as parts of the Franciscan family. Within Anglicanism, the Brothers of the First Order are called the Society of Saint Francis (SSF); the Sisters of the First Order are called the Community of Saint Francis (CSF); the members of the Second Order are called the Community of Saint Clare (OSC); and the
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    Society of Saint-Sulpice

    Society of Saint-Sulpice

    The Society of Saint-Sulpice (Latin: Societas Presbyterorum a S. Sulpitio) is a Catholic Society of Apostolic Life named for Eglise Saint-Sulpice, Paris, in turn named for St. Sulpitius the Pious. Typically, priests become members of the Society of St. Sulpice only after ordination and some years of pastoral work. Uniquely, Sulpicians retain incardination in their own dioceses even after joining the society. The purpose of the society is mainly the education of priests and to some extent parish work. As their main role is the education of those preparing to become members of the presbyterate, Sulpicians place great emphasis on the academic and spiritual formation of their own members, who commit themelves to undergoing lifelong development in these areas. The Society is divided into three provinces, operating in various countries: the Province of France, Canada, and the United States. The Society of Saint Sulpice was founded in France in 1641 by Father Jean-Jacques Olier (1608–1657), an exemplar of the French School of Spirituality. The state of the priesthood in France at that time was sadly deficient. For the purpose of a new approach to priestly preparation, Olier gathered a few
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    17th century denominations in England

    A large number of religious denominations emerged during the early-to-mid-17th century in England. Many of these were influenced by the radical changes brought on by the English Civil War, subsequent execution of Charles I and the advent of the Commonwealth of England. This event lead to a widespread discussion about how society should be structured.
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    Alexians

    The Alexians, Alexian Brothers or Cellites are a Catholic religious institute or congregation specifically devoted to caring for the sick which has its origin in Europe at the time of the Black Death. They follow the Augustinian rule. The Alexians trace their origin to the early 12th-century Beghards, male counterparts of the Beguines, the lay women who followed a devout style of life in a limited degree of common life. The men did not get much attention until they made a great contribution in history in the city of Mechelen, in the Duchy of Brabant (in central Flanders, now Belgium), some time in the 14th century, during the terrible ravages of the Black Death. Some laymen united under the guidance of a certain Tobias to succor the plague-stricken, without taking any vows or adopting a rule of life. One of their most obvious activities was caring for those stricken with the bubonic plague, along with their families, and burying those who died. These laymen lived in little rooms or cells (from Latin "cella," a cell that gave rise to their early name of "Cellites"). The speculation that the name "Beghards" arose from supporting themselves by begging for food was dismissed by the
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    Camillians

    Camillians

    The Camillians or (Clerks Regular) Ministers to the Sick are a Roman Catholic religious order of the type of Regular Clerks, founded by Saint Camillus de Lellis. A red cross was chosen by Camillus as the distinguishing badge for the members of the Order to wear upon their black cassocks. The founder taught his volunteers that the "hospital was a house of God, a garden where the voices of the sick were music from heaven". The Very Reverend Father Renato Salvatore, M.I., as of September 2012, is the current Superior General of the Clerks Regular Ministers of the Sick (Camillians). On Tuesday, September 18, 2012, the Very Rev. Fr. Salvatore was named by Pope Benedict XVI to serve as one of the papally-appointed, non-episcopal Synod Fathers from the Church's religious orders for the upcoming October 2012 13th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the New Evangelization. As per June 2006, the Order of Clerks Regular Ministers of the Sick is divided into Provinces (the main level of geographical jurisdictions), some of which have Delegations and/or Foundations in other continents; they are distributed geographically as follows: Europe is divided into 11 Provinces (4 of
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    Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception

    Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception

    The Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception is an institute of consecrated life which follows the Augustinian Rule, and is part of the Canonical Order of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine. This religious institute was founded at Saint-Claude, in the Department of Jura and later at Saint-Antoine, in the Department of Isère, France, by the Abbé Dom Adrien Gréa, and approved by Pope Pius IX and Pope Leo XIII, in three rescripts (1870, 1876, and 1887). The first four members of the Congregation took their first vows in 1866, and together with two other Canons perpetual vows in 1871. The members of the congregation undertook the restoration of the full canonical life with its primitive observances, the recitation of the whole of the Divine Office day and night, perpetual abstinence and the fasts of earlier times. Their object being to unite the practices of ordinary religious life with clerical functions, principally in the administration of pastoral duties in parishes and the education of young clerics. The mother-house was maintained at Saint-Claude, from 1865 until 1890, and then at Saint-Antoine, from 1890 until 1903, however following the French laws of 1901 and the
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    Congregation of Christian Brothers

    The Congregation of Christian Brothers (officially, in Latin: Congregatio Fratrum Christianorum) is a worldwide religious community within the Catholic Church, founded by Blessed Edmund Rice. The Christian Brothers, as they are commonly known, chiefly work for the evangelisation and education of youth, but are involved in many ministries, especially with the poor. Their first school was opened in Waterford, Ireland, in 1802. Br Philip Pinto is the current Congregation Leader of the Christian Brothers, and head of its Congregational Leadership Team that is based in Rome. At the time of its foundation, though much relieved from the harshest of the Penal Laws by the Irish Parliament's Relief Acts, some discrimination against Catholics remained throughout the newly created United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland pending full Catholic Emancipation in 1829. This congregation is sometimes confused with the Brothers of the Christian Schools, or "De La Salle Christian Brothers," founded by Saint Jean-Baptiste de la Salle in France. This is a completely separate religious institute. Rice's congregation is sometimes called the Irish Christian Brothers. At the turn of the eighteenth
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    Congregation of Our Lady of the Missions

    The Congregation of Our Lady of the Missions is a Roman Catholic Roman Catholic religious congregation of women. They were founded in Lyons, France in 1861 by Euphrasie Barbier. The Congregation's presence is felt worldwide. Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions reside in Italy, Australia, Bangladesh, British Isles, Canada, France, India, Kenya, countries in Latin America, Myanmar, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Senegal and Vietnam. The primary focus of the Congregation is education of women and children. They also provide health care services to the poor and underprivileged, organise medical camps, free schools with meals for the less privileged children.
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    Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary

    Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary

    The Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and of the Perpetual Adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar is a Roman Catholic religious institute of brothers, priests, and nuns. The priests of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, are also known as the Picpus Fathers, because Rue de Picpus is the street in Paris, France where they had their first house. Their post-nominal letters, SS.CC., are the Latin initials for Sacrorum Cordium, "of the Sacred Hearts". (The letters are doubled to indicate that both words are plural, a convention of Latin abbreviations). The Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary arose amid the religious upheaval caused by the French Revolution. In March 1792, the Frenchman Piere Coudrin was secretly ordained to the priesthood. The following May, under the oppression of a government persecuting Catholic religious leaders, Father Coudrin went into hiding in an attic of the granary of the Chateau d'Usseau where he was confined for six months. One evening during his time in hiding, Coudrin saw a vision of being surrounded by a heavenly illuminated group of priests, brothers and sisters dressed in white robes. It
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    Daughters of St. Paul

    Daughters of St. Paul

    The Daughters of St Paul is a Roman Catholic international religious congregation founded in 1915 in Italy. The congregation is part of the worldwide Pauline family, consisting of ten orders and lay institutes, all founded by Blessed Giacomo Alberione, and operates in 50 countries around the world. Ven. Thecla Merlo (born Teresa Merlo) assisted in the founding and development of the Daughters of St. Paul and other Pauline institutes that developed throughout the 20th century. The Daughters of St. Paul are called to live by the way, truth and life of Jesus and to give this to the world by the use of every available means of communication to spread the Gospel and promote the dignity of all peoples.
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    Discalced Carmelites

    Discalced Carmelites

    The Discalced Carmelites, or Barefoot Carmelites, is a Catholic mendicant order with roots in the eremitic tradition of the Desert Fathers and Mothers. The order was established in 1593, pursuant to the reform of the Carmelite Order of the Ancient Observance by two Spanish saints, Saint Teresa of Ávila and Saint John of the Cross. The Discalced Carmelite order is now known by the initials "O.C.D." (The older branch of the order, Carmelites of the Ancient Observance, has the initials "O. Carm."). The secular branch of the order (the Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites, formerly known as the Third Order), has the initials "O.C.D.S." In the 16th century, St. Teresa of Ávila's made a vow always to follow the most perfect course, and resolved to keep the rule as perfectly as she could. A group of nuns assembled in her cell one September evening in 1560, taking their inspiration from the primitive tradition of Carmel and the discalced reform of St. Peter of Alcantara (a controversial movement within Spanish Franciscanism), proposed the foundation of a monastery of an eremitical type. On August 24, 1562, the new monastery dedicated to St. Joseph was founded. Then in Duruelo, with John
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    Franciscan Handmaids of Mary

    The Franciscan Handmaids of the Most Pure Heart of Mary are a predominantly African-American religious congregation of Roman Catholic women who follow the Rule of the Third Order of St. Francis of Assisi. Their primary mission has always been education, primarily of the children of the African-American community. The congregation was founded in 1916, in Savannah, Georgia, by Fr. Ignatius Lissner, S.M.A., in response to threatened segregation of teachers in Negro schools by state legislators. To forestall the expected effects on the black children of the state, Father Lissner recruited Mother Mary Theodore Williams to help found a congregation of African-American women to teach these children. The bill never passed, but the Sisters found little support in Georgia. Thus it was decided that the motherhouse of the congregation be moved to the Harlem neighborhood of New York City in 1924, where it has remained. At its height in the 1960s, the congregation counted 80 Sisters. As of 2001, they were down to 21 Sisters, mostly in their sixties or older.
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    Heralds of the Gospel

    Heralds of the Gospel

    The Heralds of the Gospel (Latin: Evangelii Praecones, abbreviated to EP) is a Roman Catholic International Association of Pontifical Right based in Brazil. Founded by Msgr. João Scognamiglio Clá Dias, the organization is active in 78 countries. The Heralds of the Gospel is an International Association of Pontifical Right, the first established by the Holy See in the third millennium, on the liturgical feast of the Chair of St. Peter, February 22, 2001. Consisting mainly of young people, this Association is established in 78 countries. Its members practice celibacy, and are entirely dedicated to apostolate, living in separate houses designated for young men and young women. Their life of recollection, study and prayer alternates with evangelizing activities in dioceses and parishes, with special emphasis placed on the formation of youth. The spirituality of the Heralds of the Gospel is based on three essential points: The Eucharist, the Virgin Mary and the Pope. These points are represented in the emblem that distinguishes them. The three devotions can be seen in the symbol of the Heralds of the Gospel. Their charism leads them to strive for perfection, while always searching for
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    Missionaries of La Salette

    Missionaries of La Salette

    The Missionaries of Our Lady of La Salette (M.S. - Missionarium Saletiniensis) are a religious congregation of priests and brothers in the Latin Church one of the 23 sui iuris churches which make up the Catholic Church which is led by the Bishop of Rome. They are named after the apparition of Our Lady of La Salette in France La Salette apparition. There is also a parallel religious community of sisters called the Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of La Salette. A lay fraternal group of associates also works in cooperation with the vowed religious. The Missionaries are dedicated to making known the message of Our Lady at La Salette, a call to healing of inner brokenness and personal reconciliation with God especially as found in the first three commandments. The missionaries are popularly known as "the La Salettes." Statues from the site of the apparition in the tiny mountain village of La Salette, in the commune of Corps France depicti Our Lady addressing two children. The distinctive La Salette crucifix bears a small hammer and pincers on either side of the cross as worn by Our Lady. The hammer traditionally symbolizes the instrument that crucified Christ and the pincers symbolize
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    Olivetans

    The Olivetans, or the Order of Our Lady of Mount Olivet, are a monastic order formally recognised in 1344. They have formed the Olivetan Congregation within the Benedictine Confederation since 1960. The Order of Our Lady of Mount Olivet is a small Roman Catholic order, founded in 1313 by Bernardo Tolomei (born Giovanni Tolomei) along with two of his friends from the noble families of Siena, Patrizio Patrizi and Ambrogio Piccolomini. They initially lived as hermits in the "savage waste of Accona". The building of the monastery here began with the approbation of the foundation charter by Guido Tarlati, bishop of Arezzo (26 March 1319). The name "Olivetan" comes from the name of the order's original hermitage, called Monte Oliveto in honour of Christ’s Passion. The monastery later became known as "Monte Oliveto Maggiore" ("greater") to distinguish it from successive foundations at Florence, San Gimignano, Naples and elsewhere. It is still the mother house of the order or congregation. See Monte Oliveto Maggiore for the main article on the monastery. After the arrival of a number of new followers, the nascent community adopted the Rule of St. Benedict and was recognised by Pope Clement
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    Order of Saint Benedict

    Order of Saint Benedict

    • Monasteries: Coldingham Priory
    The Order of Saint Benedict (Latin name: Ordo Sancti Benedicti) is a Roman Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict. Within the order, each individual community (which may be a monastery, a priory or abbey) maintains its own autonomy, while the organization as a whole exists to represent their mutual interests. Today the terms "Order of Saint Benedict" and "Benedictine Order" are also used frequently to refer to the total of the independent Benedictine abbeys, thereby giving the wrong impression of a "generalate" or "motherhouse" with jurisdiction over dependent communities. The Benedictine Confederation, which was established in 1883 by Pope Leo XIII in his brief Summum semper, is the international governing body of the order, headed by the Abbot Primate. Members of the order generally use the initials O.S.B. after their name. The monastery at Subiaco established in Italy by Saint Benedict of Nursia circa 529 was the first of a dozen monasteries founded by him. Even so, there is no evidence to suggest that he intended to found an order. To the contrary, the Rule of St Benedict presupposes the autonomy of each community.
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    Racine Dominican Sisters

    The Congregation of Sisters of St. Dominic of St. Catherine of Siena is a Catholic religious institute for women founded in 1862 in Racine, Wisconsin in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. The late Sister Rose Thering, who was professor of Catholic-Jewish dialogue at the Seton Hall University was a member of the Racine Dominican Sisters. The Racine Dominicans are a community of vowed women religious and lay associates who live according to the mission: committed to truth, compelled to justice. Since 1862, their "motherhouse" or home, has been located in Racine, a city on the shores of Lake Michigan in southeastern Wisconsin. The Racine Dominican sisters work in a variety of ministries. Among them are prison ministers, counselors, chaplains, social workers, teachers, pastoral associates, musicians, health care workers, bakers, spiritual directors, writers and neighborhood outreach coordinators. Prayer and study are integral to the life of all Racine Dominican sisters. Racine Dominican sisters serve in nine states: Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio and Wisconsin.
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    School Sisters of the Third Order of St Francis

    School Sisters of the Third Order of St Francis

    The School Sisters of St. Francis are an international community of Catholic sisters who unite with others to build a just and peaceful world. Founded in 1874, the community now has sisters, associates, staff, donors and volunteers working to address the needs of those who are poor and marginalized by society. The congregation’s mission is thriving throughout the United States, Europe, Latin America and India. The mission of the School Sisters of St. Francis is “to live the Good News of Jesus and witness to the presence of God as we enter into the lives and needs of people around te world, especially those who are poor. We strive to be a source of new life, new meaning and new hope.” Joining with others to strengthen the impact of its mission is one of the core values of the School Sisters of St. Francis. The ways in which people can partner with the community in its work include: .
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    Sisters of Charity of New York

    The Sisters of Charity of New York is a religious congregation of women in the Catholic Church whose primary missions are education and nursing and who are dedicated in particular to the service of the poor. Saint Elizabeth Seton founded the Sisters of Charity in Emmitsburg, Maryland in 1809, modeling her foundation on the Daughters of Charity founded in France by Saint Vincent de Paul and Saint Louise de Marillac in the 17th century. The Sisters followed the Vincentian practice of taking temporary religious vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, renewing these annually (in contrast to most orders of religious women, who at some point take permanent or "perpetual" vows). The Sisters of Charity began to spread their work to other areas throughout the 19th century, always seeking the poor and particularly the young to serve. This practice lasted until 1938, when the congregation adopted the more standard practice of professing lifetime vows. In 1817, three of the Sisters were sent to New York City (which was Seton's hometown) to establish an orphanage. The Sisters quickly took on the job of establishing Catholic orphanages in a city overrun with abandoned, orphaned or
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    Sisters of Mercy

    Sisters of Mercy

    The Religious Sisters of Mercy (R.S.M.) are members of a religious institute of Catholic women founded by Catherine McAuley in Dublin, Ireland, in 1831. In 2003, the institute has about 10,000 members worldwide, organized into a number of independent congregations. Sisters of Mercy are an international community of Roman Catholic women religious vowed to serve people who suffer from poverty, sickness and lack of education with a special concern for women and children. Members take vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, the evangelical counsels commonly vowed in religious life, and, in addition, vows of service. They continue to participate in the life of the surrounding community. In keeping with their mission of serving the poor and needy, many sisters engage in teaching, medical care, and community programs. The organization is active in lobbying and politics. The religious institute began when McAuley used an inherited fortune to build a "House of Mercy" in Dublin that provided educational, religious, and social services for poor women and children. The House aroused local opposition, however, it being traditional for nuns rather than lay women to engage in this sort of
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    Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi

    The Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi is a Roman Catholic religious congregation for women. The motherhouse is in St. Francis, Wisconsin, in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milwaukee. The Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi were founded in 1849 and the Sisters share the original founders of the congregation with the Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration and the Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist. In 1848, six women and five men from Ettenbeuren, Bavaria, along with Father Francis Anthony Keppeler and Father Mathias Steiger, of the parish of Our Lady of the Assumption, came to assist Bishop J. Martin Henni in the newly organized diocese of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The women, Otillie Dirr, Krescentia Eberle, Anna Ritter, Theresia Moser, Maria Saumweber, and Maria Eisenschmid and the men Anton Joseph Zahler, Leo Bernard, Joseph Suess, William Reder, and John Spitzelberger, while strong believers in the faith were lay people. In fact, on October 30, 1848, in order to legally collect her dowry to help cover the expenses for the journey, Ottilie Dirr married Anton Joseph Zahler. On December 8, 1848, the group drew up their purpose and plans as the Brothers and Sisters of the Society
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    245

    Sisters of St. Joseph of the Third Order of St. Francis

    The Sisters of St. Joseph of the Third Order of St. Francis is a Roman Catholic Franciscan religious congregation for women. The Congregation was established in 1901. Their motherhouse is in Stevens Point, Wisconsin in the Diocese of La Crosse. The Congregation was founded on July 1, 1901, by 46 former members of the School Sisters of St. Francis who wished to see to the educational needs of the children of Polish immigrants. They began this journey in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, under the title of the "Polish Sisters of St. Joseph". The congregation acquired its current title in 1945.
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    Sisters of the Apostolic Carmel

    The Sisters of the Apostolic Carmel are members of a Carmelite religious institute dedicated to female education. It was founded in the latter part of the 19th-century by Mother Veronica of the Passion, O.C.D., under the guidance of her mentor, Bishop Marie Ephrem of the Sacred Heart, O.C.D., who had envisioned the birth of a "Carmel for the Missions" in India, devoted to teaching and education. Sister Veronica of the Passion had come to India as a member of the teaching congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Apparition, founded in France in 1832 by Saint Emily de Vialar (+ 1856). She had entered the congregation in 1851, shortly after her conversion to the Roman Catholic Church from the Church of England. She met Bishop Ephrem upon her assignment to India in the early 1850s. Like the other Discalced Carmelite friars providing pastoral care to western India, they had sought to provide Catholic education to the women and young girls under their care. Inspired by his vision of such a religious institute of Carmelite Sisters, Sister Veronica entered the Carmel of Puy, France, as a novice in the Discalced Carmelite Order. After her profession, she began to train a group of
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    Sisters of the Holy Cross

    The Sisters of the Holy Cross (CSC) headquartered on the same grounds as Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana, is one of three Catholic congregations of religious sisters which trace their origins to the foundation of the Congregation of Holy Cross by the Blessed Father Basil Anthony-Marie Moreau, CSC, at Le Mans, France in 1837. The other two congregations of religious women in the tradition of the Holy Cross Family are the Marianites of Holy Cross (New Orleans, Louisiana) and the Sisters of Holy Cross (Montreal, Canada). They are distinct from the Menzingen Sisters of the Holy Cross,, a teaching congregation founded separately in Switzerland in 1844. For a history of the foundation of the four congregations of Holy Cross, see the Congregation of Holy Cross. For a history of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, see the Sisters of the Holy Cross History. The Sisters of the Holy Cross are represented in the following countries (with their year of first arrival in parentheses):
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    Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls

    The Society of Helpers, formerly known as the Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls, is a Roman Catholic religious congregation of women founded in Paris, France in 1856, with the objective of assisting the souls in Purgatory through their service to the needy of the world. The Sisters use the postnominal initials of "A.P." (French: Auxiliatrices des Purgatoires) in Europe, or, alternately, "H.H.S" in English-speaking countries. The Society was founded by Blessed Eugenia Smet, A.P. She was educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart in Lille, distinguishing herself by intellectual acquirements and striking traits of devotion to the souls in Purgatory. She went to Paris on January 19, 1856 (the society dates its foundation from this day); three days later, Smet obtained the permission of the local Archbishop to establish her congregation in Paris. On December 27, 1857, the foundress, with five of her first companions, pronounced her first religious vows. a Jesuit was appointed chaplain, and the Rule of St. Ignatius was adopted. Choosing never to adopt a traditional religious habit, the Helpers have worked with the poor and the marginal of their societies since their founding.
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    Society of the Sacred Cross

    The Society of the Sacred Cross is an Anglican religious order founded in Chichester, Sussex, in 1910. It established a community at Tymawr, Lydart, Monmouthshire, in 1923 with guidance from Fr G. Northcott of the Community of the Resurrection. The society today consists of less than ten professed sisters, with several oblates and associates.
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    Xaverian Brothers

    The Xaverian Brothers or Congregation of St. Francis Xavier (CFX) are a religious institute founded by Theodore James Ryken in Bruges, Belgium in 1839 and named after Saint Francis Xavier. The institute is dedicated to Roman Catholic education in Belgium, England and the United States. Theodore James Ryken was born in 1797 in the small village of Elshout, North Brabant, the Netherlands, to ardently Catholic middle class parents. Orphaned at a young age, Ryken was raised by his uncle. Ryken, like most of the early Xaverian Brothers, was trained as a shoemaker. However, Ryken also felt a calling by God which impelled him to work first as a catechist, then in helping to conduct an orphanage, and again in caring for cholera patients in the Netherlands. Aged 34, Ryken went to North America and served as a catechist among the missionaries to the Native Americans. During his three year tour, he conceived the idea of starting a congregation of brothers to work alongside the missionary priests. On returning to Europe he set about planning the establish such a society in Belgium, a country eminent for missionary zeal. When Ryken returned to the US in 1837, he decided that the children of
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