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Best Religious Leadership Title of All Time

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    1
    Bishop of Glendalough

    Bishop of Glendalough

    The Bishop of Glendalough (Irish: Easpuig Gleann Dá Loch) was an episcopal title which took its name after the monastery at Glendalough in County Wicklow, Ireland. An Irish version of the place name, Glenndálocha, is now used for a titular see. The diocese of Glendalough was one of the dioceses established at the Synod of Rathbreasail, held in 1111. After the death of Bishop William Piro and the failed effort to get possession of the see by Bishop-elect Robert de Bedford, the dioceses of Glendalough and Dublin were united in 1214. The union of the two was confirmed by Pope Innocent III on 25 February 1216, and confirmed again by Pope Honorius III on 6 October 1216. During the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, a number of titular bishops were appointed, but none of them had effective possession of the see. After the Reformation in Ireland, the title Bishop of Glendalough was dropped by the Roman Catholic archbishops of Dublin, but is still used by the Church of Ireland archbishops of Dublin. In 1969, an Irish version of the place name, Glenndálocha, is now used by Roman Catholic Church for a titular see. The current titular bishop of Glenndálocha is the Most Reverend Guy
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    Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh

    The Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh is the Ordinary of the Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. The archdiocese covers an area of 5,504 km². The Metropolitan see is in the City of Edinburgh where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Mary. The Vicariate Apostolic of the Eastern District was elevated to archdiocese status on 14 March 1878 upon the Restoration of the Scottish hierarchy. The current archbishop is Cardinal Keith O'Brien, the 7th Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh.
    7.57
    7 votes
    3

    Archbishop of Wales

    • Rank or Role: Archbishop
    The post of Archbishop of Wales was created in 1920 when the Church in Wales was separated from the Church of England (of which the four Welsh dioceses had previously been part), and disestablished. The new Church became the Welsh province of the Anglican Communion. Unlike the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, who are appointed by the Queen upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Wales is one of the six diocesan bishops of Wales, elected to hold this office in addition to his own diocese. With the establishment of the new province, there was debate as to whether a specific see should be made the primatial see, or if another solution should be adopted. Precedents were sought in the early history of Christianity in Wales, with St David's having a debatable pre-eminence among the sees. A Roman Catholic Archbishopric of Cardiff had been created in 1916. Instead it was decided that one of the diocesan bishops should hold the title Archbishop of Wales in addition to his own see. The circulating character of the post was justified by Welsh geography and by the ecclesiastical precedent of the province of Numidia (of which St. Augustine of Hippo had been a bishop). The
    8.00
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    4

    Bishop of Aotearoa

    The Bishop of Aotearoa is a bishop in the Anglican Church of New Zealand, belonging to Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia. The post was created in 1928.
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    5
    Apostle

    Apostle

    In the Latter Day Saint movement, an Apostle is a "special witness of the name of Jesus Christ who is sent to teach the principles of salvation to others." In many Latter Day Saint churches, an Apostle is a priesthood office of high authority within the church hierarchy. In many churches, apostles may be members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the church. In most Latter Day Saint churches, modern-day apostles are considered to have the same status and authority as the Biblical Apostles. In the Latter Day Saint tradition, Apostles and prophets are believed to be the foundation of the church, with Jesus Christ himself the chief cornerstone. The Articles of Faith, written by Joseph Smith, Jr., also mentions Apostles: "We believe in the same organization that existed in the Primitive Church, namely, apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, and so forth." In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), Apostle is the highest priesthood office of the Melchizedek Priesthood. The President of the Church is always an Apostle, as are the members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. In practice, counselors in the First Presidency are almost always Apostles
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    6
    Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia

    Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia

    Catholicos–Patriarch has been the title of the heads of the Georgian Orthodox Church since 1010. The first Catholicos–Patriarch of All Georgia was Melkisedek I (1010–1033). In the 15th century the Georgian Orthodox Church was divided into the East and the West parts and accordingly they were ruled by the Catholicos–Patriarch of East Georgia and the Catholicos–Patriarch of West Georgia. In 1801 the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (Eastern Georgia) was occupied and annexed by the Tsarist Russian Empire. In 1811, the Autocephalous status (independence) of the Georgian Church was abolished by Russia and the Russian Orthodox Church took over its administration. In 1917 the autocephaly of the Georgian Orthodox Church was restored. The first Catholicos–Patriarch of All Georgia since the restoration of autocephaly was Kyrion II Sadzaglishvili (1917–1918). The incumbent Catholicos-Patriarch of the church is Patriarch Ilia II of Georgia since 1977
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    Apostolic Nuncio to Austria

    Apostolic Nuncio to Austria

    The Apostolic Nuncio to the Austria is an ecclesiastical office of the Roman Catholic Church in Austria. It is a diplomatic post of the Holy See, whose representative is called the Apostolic Nuncio with the rank of an ambassador.
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    8

    Bishop of Shrewsbury

    The Bishop of Shrewsbury is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Shrewsbury in the Province of Birmingham, England. The diocese covers an area of 6,136 km (2,369 sq mi) of the counties and unitary authorities of Cheshire, Shropshire and Telford and Wrekin with parts of Derbyshire, Halton, Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Warrington. The see is in the town of Shrewsbury where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Our Lady Help of Christians and Saint Peter of Alcantara. The diocese of Shrewsbury was erected on 29 September 1850 from parts of the Vicariates Apostolic of the Central, Lancashire and Welsh Districts. The current incumbent is the Right Reverend Mark Davies who succeeded as the 11th Bishop of Shrewsbury on 1 October 2010. He had previously been appointed the Coadjutor Bishop of Shrewsbury by the Holy See on 22 December 2009 and ordained a bishop on 22 February 2010.
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    11

    Bishop of Dover

    • Rank or Role: Suffragan bishop
    The Bishop of Dover is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after the town of Dover in Kent. The Bishop of Dover holds the additional title of "Bishop in Canterbury" and is empowered to act almost as if he were the diocesan bishop of Canterbury, since the actual diocesan bishop (the Archbishop of Canterbury) is based at Lambeth Palace in London, and thus is so frequently away from his diocese fulfilling national and international duties. Among other things, this gives the Bishop of Dover an ex officio seat in the Church's General Synod. Until recently, there was another proper suffragan, the Bishop of Maidstone, who did not have the same extra powers. The role of the Bishop of Dover in the Diocese of Canterbury is comparable to that of the Cardinal Vicar in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rome, who exercises most functions that the Roman Pope formally has in his own diocese. The current Bishop of Dover, since February 2010, is the Rt Revd Trevor Willmott.
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    12

    Bishop of Newcastle, Australia

    The present bishop of Newcastle in the Anglican Church of Australia is the Right Reverend Brian Farran, who was enthroned on 24 June 2005 (the feast of the nativity of St John the Baptist) at Christ Church Cathedral, Newcastle, New South Wales.
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    13

    National President of the Assemblies of God in Australia

    The National President of Australian Christian Churches is the title given to the leader of the Australian branch of the Assemblies of God (AOG). Australian Christian Churches represents 1,100 churches and 190,000 Christians across Australia. Previously the leader of Australian Christian Churches was known as Superintendent. Former National President Brian Houston changed the name of the position when he was elected as leader in May 1997. The National President of Australian Christian Churches is elected at the biennial National Australian Christian Churches conference. The National President does not deal much with the day-to-day running of the movement but is seen as more of a figurehead. The National President works with the National Vice President and National Secretary, as well as the Executive Members and State Presidents of the movement.
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    14

    Bishop of Aachen

    The following is a list of Bishops of Aachen. Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
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    15

    Bishop of Southwark

    The Bishop of Southwark is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Southwark in the Province of Canterbury. Until 1877, Southwark had been part of the Diocese of Winchester when it was transferred to the Diocese of Rochester. In 1891, the Bishop of Rochester appointed the only Suffragan Bishop of Southwark, and an ancient parish church in Southwark was restored to become a pro-Cathedral in 1897, which later became Southwark Cathedral. On the 1 May 1905, the Diocese of Southwark was created and covers Greater London south of the River Thames and north and east Surrey. The Bishop of Southwark is assisted by the suffragan bishops of Croydon, Kingston and Woolwich who each oversee an episcopal area of the diocese. The current and previous bishops of Southwark have both been cited as the reasons for "valid but irregular" ordinations of candidates associated with a conservative evangelical church planting group based in the diocese. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Christopher Chessun, the 10th Bishop of Southwark, who signs +Christopher Southwark. He had previously been the Bishop of Woolwich (2005–2011).
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    16

    Bishop of Manchester

    The Bishop of Manchester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Manchester in the Province of York. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Nigel McCulloch, the 11th Lord Bishop of Manchester, who signs Nigel Manchester. The bishop's official residence is Bishopscourt, Bury New Road, Salford. The diocese of Manchester was founded in 1847. With the growth of the population in and around Manchester, the bishop appointed the first suffragan bishop, the Bishop of Hulme, in 1924 to assist in overseeing the diocese. Three years later a second was appointed, the Bishop of Middleton. After nearly sixty years, the third and final suffragan bishop, the Bishop of Bolton, was appointed in 1984.
    8.25
    4 votes
    17
    Catholicos of India

    Catholicos of India

    • Rank or Role: Catholicos
    (catholicos of jacobatic Syrian church) Catholicos of India(jacobates) is an ecclesiastical office in the Syriac Orthodox Church, the head of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church in Kerala, India. Its holder bears the titles of Catholicos and Maphrian, and functions at an ecclesiastical rank second to the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. The jurisdiction of the Syriac Orthodox Catholicos is limited to India and Indian diaspora, although he is often invited to preside over Syriac Orthodox functions abroad. The current Catholicos of India is Catholicos Baselios Thomas I, who was consecrated in 2002. The position was created in the 2002, amid a series of splits caused by Syriac Orthodox communion that divided the community into Jacobite Syrian and Malankara Orthodox Syrian factions. It was instituted to provide a regional head for Jacobite Syrian Church, the faction that remained closely aligned with the Patriarch of Antioch. The word catholic is a transliteration of the Greek καθολικός, pl. καθολικοί, meaning concerning the whole, universal or general. It was a title that existed in the Roman Empire where a government representative who was in charge of a large area was called
    8.25
    4 votes
    18

    Dom

    Dom is a title of respect prefixed to the given name. It derives from Latin Dominus. It is used in English for certain Benedictine and Carthusian monks, and for members of certain communities of Canons Regular. Examples include Benedictine monks of the English Benedictine Congregation (e.g. Dom John Chapman, late Abbot of Downside). The equivalent female usage for such a cleric is "Dame" (e.g. Dame Laurentia McLachlan, late Abbess of Stanbrook, or Dame Felicitas Corrigan, author). It has historically been used on occasions in French, as in Dom Pérignon, and was used for the Avignon popes, analogously to the Italian and Spanish Don (Spanish: [ˈdon], Italian: [ˈdɔn]). In Portugal and Brazil Dom (pronounced: [ˈdõ]) is used as a title of respect, particularly for men of the royal and imperial dynasty or hierarchs of the Roman Catholic Church. The feminine form Dona is a common honorific reserved for women.
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    19
    Patriarch of Antioch

    Patriarch of Antioch

    Patriarch of Antioch is a traditional title held by the Bishop of Antioch. As the traditional "overseer" (ἐπίσκοπος, episkopos, from which the word 'bishop' is derived) of the first gentile Christian community, the position has been of prime importance in the church from its earliest period. This diocese is one of the few for which the names of its bishops from the apostolic beginnings have been preserved. Today five churches use the title of Patriarch of Antioch: the Syriac Orthodox Church and Syriac Catholic Church, and the Chalcedonian, the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, Melkite Greek Catholic Church, and Maronite Church; and, historically, there has also been a Latin Patriarch of Antioch. According to church tradition, this ancient Patriarchate was founded by the Apostle Saint Peter. The patriarchal succession was disputed at the time of the Meletian schism in 362 and again after the Council of Chalcedon in 451, when there were rival Melkite and non-Chalcedonian claimants to the see. After a 7th century succession dispute in the Melkite church, the Maronites began appointing a Maronite Patriarch as well. After the First Crusade, the Catholic Church began appointing a Latin
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    Archbishop of Canterbury

    Archbishop of Canterbury

    The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. In his role as head of the Anglican Communion, the archbishop leads the third largest group of Christians in the world. The current archbishop is the Most Reverend Rowan Williams. He is the 104th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to St Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", in the year 597. From the time of St Augustine until the 16th century, the Archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and thus received the pallium. During the English Reformation the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church, at first temporarily under Henry VIII and Edward VI and later permanently during the reign of Elizabeth I. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops. At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the King of England, or the Pope. Since the English Reformation, the
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    Bishop of Natal

    The Bishop of Natal exercises episcopal leadership over the Diocese of Natal of the Church of Southern Africa.
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    Bishop of Rochester

    The Bishop of Rochester is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Rochester in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers the west of the county of Kent and is centred in the town of Rochester where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, which was founded as a cathedral in 604. During the late 17th and 18th centuries it was customary for the Bishop of Rochester to also be appointed Dean of Westminster Abbey. The bishop's residence, "Bishopscourt", is in Rochester. The office was created in AD 604 at the founding of the diocese in the Kingdom of Kent under King Æthelbert. The current bishop is the Rt Revd James Langstaff. The Diocese of Rochester was historically the oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury. Founded by St Augustine, who in 604 consecrated St Justus as its first bishop. (After two more Roman bishops, all subsequent bishops until 1066, beginning with Ithamar, were drawn from the Christianised inhabitants of Kent.) The diocesan territory consisted roughly of the western part of Kent, separated from the rest of the county by the River Medway, though the diocesan boundaries did not
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    24
    Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin

    Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin

    The Archbishop of Dublin (Irish: Ard-Easpuig Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the title of the senior cleric who presides over the Archdiocese of Dublin. The Church of Ireland has a similar role, heading the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough. In both cases, the Archbishop is also Primate of Ireland. The Archbishop has his seat at Saint Mary's Pro-Cathedral, though formally Dublin's cathedral is still Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin. The Dublin area was Christian long before Dublin had a distinct diocese, and the remains and memory of monasteries famous before that time, at Finglas, Glasnevin, Glendalough, Kilnamanagh, Rathmichael, Swords, Tallaght, among others, are witness to the faith of earlier generations, and to a flourishing Church life in their time. Several of these functioned as "head churches" and the most powerful of all was Glendalough. In the early church in Ireland, the church had a monastic basis, with greatest power vested in the Abbots of the major communities. There were bishops but not organised dioceses in the modern sense, and the offices of abbot and bishop were often comprised in one person. Some early "Bishops of Dublin," back to 633, are mentioned in Ware's
    9.33
    3 votes
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    Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses

    Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses

    The Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses is the ruling council of Jehovah's Witnesses based in Brooklyn, New York. The body assumes responsibility for formulating policy and doctrines, producing material for publications and conventions, and administering its worldwide branch office staff. The Governing Body is described as the representative and "spokesman" for God's "faithful and discreet slave class" (approximately 12,000 Jehovah's Witnesses who profess to be "anointed"). Members of the Governing Body say they are followers of Christ rather than religious leaders. Its size has varied, with as many as eighteen members from 1974 to 1980; since December 2010 it has comprised seven members, who each claim to be of the "anointed" class with a hope of heavenly life. Its membership is unelected; existing members invite new members to join the body. Since its incorporation in 1884, the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania has been directed by a president and board of directors. Until January 1976, the president exercised complete control of doctrines, publications and activity of the Watch Tower Society and the religious denominations with which it was connected—the
    6.80
    5 votes
    26

    Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem

    The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Since 2005, the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem has been Theophilos III. The Patriarch is styled "Patriarch of the Holy City of Jerusalem and all Palestine, Syria, beyond the Jordan River, Cana of Galilee, and Holy Zion." The Patriarch is the head of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, and the religious leader of about 130,000 Orthodox Christians in the Holy Land, most of them Palestinians. The Patriarchate traces its line of succession to the first Christian bishops of Jerusalem, the first being James the Just in the 1st century AD. Jerusalem was recognized as a patriarchate at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. On the importance of Jerusalem, the Catholic Encyclopedia reads: In the Apostolic Age the Christian Church was organized as an indefinite number of local Churches that in the initial years looked to that at Jerusalem as its main centre and point of reference, see also Jerusalem in Christianity. James the Just, who was martyred around 62, is described as the first Bishop of Jerusalem. Roman persecutions
    6.80
    5 votes
    27

    Bishop of Bedford

    The Bishop of Bedford is an episcopal title used by a Church of England suffragan bishop who, under the direction of the Diocesan Bishop of St Albans, oversees 150 parishes in Luton and Bedfordshire. The title, which takes its name after the town of Bedford, was created under the Suffragan Bishops Act 1534. The first three suffragan bishops were appointed for the Diocese of London, but through reorganisation within the Church of England in 1914, Bedford came under the Diocese of St Albans. The current bishop is the Rt Revd Richard Atkinson, formerly Archdeacon of Leicester, who was consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Revd Dr Rowan Williams at St Paul's Cathedral on 17 May 2012.
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    President

    • Leaders: Presidency of Soka Gakkai International
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, club, trade union, university, or country. Etymologically, a president is one who presides, (from Latin pre- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an official. Among other things, "President" today is a common title for the heads of state of most republics, whether popularly elected, chosen by the legislature or by a special electoral college. Presidents in countries with a democratic or representative form of government are usually elected for a specified period of time and in some cases may be re-elected by the same process by which they are appointed, i.e. in many nations, periodic popular elections. The powers vested in such presidents vary considerably. Some presidencies, such as that of Ireland, are largely ceremonial, whereas other systems vest the President with substantive powers such as the appointment and dismissal of Prime Ministers or cabinets, the power to declare war, and powers of veto on legislation. In many nations the President is also the Commander-in-Chief of
    7.75
    4 votes
    29

    Archbishop of Cape Town

    The Archbishop of Cape Town is the Primate / Metropolitan of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa. The current Archbishop is the Most Reverend Thabo Makgoba Robert Gray (1809-1872) was the first Anglican Bishop of Cape Town.
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    Archbishop of Uppsala

    Archbishop of Uppsala

    The Archbishop of Uppsala (spelled Upsala until early 20th century) has been the primate in Sweden in an unbroken succession since 1164, first during the Catholic era, and from the 1530s and onward under the Lutheran church. There have been bishops in Uppsala from the time of Swedish King Ingold the Elder in the 11th century. They were governed by the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen until Uppsala was made an archbishopric in 1164. The archbishop in Lund (which at that time belonged to Denmark) was declared primate of Sweden, meaning it was his right to select and ordain the Uppsala archbishop by handing him the pallium. To gain independence, Folke Johansson Ängel in 1274 went to Rome and was ordained directly by the pope. This practice was increasing, so that no Uppsala archbishop was in Lund after Olov Björnsson, in 1318. In 1457, the archbishop Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna) was allowed by the pope to declare himself primate of Sweden. Uppsala (then a village) was originally located a couple of miles to the north of the present city, in what is today known as Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala). In 1273, the archbishopric, together with the relics of King Eric the Saint, was moved to the
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    Bishop of Ramsbury

    The Anglican Bishop of Ramsbury is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after the town of Ramsbury in Wiltshire, and was first used between the 10th and 11th centuries by the Anglo-Saxon Bishops of Ramsbury. The diocese announced in August 2011 that the Bishop of Salisbury had commissioned (under new national guidelines) a consultation as to whether a new Bishop of Ramsbury should be appointed. Condry's appointment was announced on 19 June 2012.
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    Bishop of Ramsbury

    This page refers to holders of the Saxon bishopric. See Bishop of Ramsbury (Anglican) for the modern suffragan bishop. In Saxon times the village of Ramsbury in Wiltshire was an extremely important location for the Church, and several of the early bishops went on to become Archbishops of Canterbury. The bishopric of Ramsbury was created in AD 909 as part of a division of the two West Saxon bishoprics into five smaller ones. Wiltshire and Berkshire were taken from the bishopric of Winchester to form the new diocese of Ramsbury. It was occasionally referred to as the bishopric of Ramsbury and Sonning. In 1058 it was joined with the bishopric of Sherborne to form the diocese of Sarum (Salisbury) and the see was translated to Old Sarum in 1075.
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    Caliph

    Caliph

    The Caliph (Arabic: خليفة‎ ḫalīfah/khalīfah) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. The word derives from the Arabic  خليفة Khalīfah (help·info), which means "successor" or "representative". Following Muhammad's death in 632, the early leaders of the Muslim nation were called Khalifat Rasul Allah, the political successors to the messenger of God (referring to Muhammad). Some academics prefer to transliterate the term as Khalīfah. A Calipha is either a female caliph or the wife or widow of a caliph. There was one known instance in history that a calipha ruled a Caliphate: Sitt al-Mulk was regent of the Fatimid Caliphate from 1221 to 1223. Some caliphas, such as Zaynab an-Nafzawiyyah and Al-Khayzuran bint Atta, wielded great influence in the courts of their husbands. In his book The Early Islamic Conquests (1981), Fred Donner argues that the standard Arabian practice at the time was for the prominent men of a kinship group, or tribe, to gather after a leader's death and elect a leader from amongst themselves. There was no specified procedure for this shura or consultation. Candidates were
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    Bishop of Fulham

    • Rank or Role: Suffragan bishop
    The Bishop of Fulham is a suffragan bishop in the Diocese of London in the Church of England. The bishopric is named after Fulham, an area of south-west London. Until 1980 the Bishop of Fulham was the bishop with episcopal oversight of churches in northern and central Europe. In that year, responsibility for these parishes was transferred to the Bishop of Gibraltar, as head of the renamed Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe. More recently, the Bishop of Fulham fulfilled the role of a provincial episcopal visitor for the dioceses of London, Southwark and Rochester. The bishop had responsibility for a number of parishes in these dioceses who cannot in good conscience accept the ministry of bishops who have participated in the ordination of women. In November 2010, following the announcement of Bishop John Broadhurst's resignation, the Bishop of London entrusted, for the time being, episcopal oversight for traditionalists within the diocese to the Bishop of Edmonton. At the same time it was decided that the next Bishop of Fulham would have a more usual suffragan role in supporting the Bishop of London's ministry in the cities of London and Westminster.
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    Bishop of Liverpool

    The Bishop of Liverpool is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Liverpool in the Province of York. The diocese stretches from Southport in the north, to Widnes in the south, and from the River Mersey to Wigan in the east. Its see is in the City of Liverpool at the Cathedral Church of Christ. The Bishop's residence is Bishop's Lodge, Liverpool. The office has existed since the founding of the diocese in 1880 under Queen Victoria. The current Bishop is the Right Reverend James Jones, the 7th Lord Bishop of Liverpool, who signs James Liverpool and has been bishop since 1998.
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    Auxiliary bishop

    An auxiliary bishop, in the Roman Catholic Church, is an additional bishop assigned to a diocese because the diocesan bishop is unable to perform his functions, the diocese is so extensive that it requires more than one bishop to administer, or the diocese is attached to a royal or imperial office needing the diocesan bishop's protracted location at court. According to canon law, no bishop can be ordained without title to a certain and distinct episcopal see which he governs either actually or potentially, therefore auxiliary bishops are titular bishops to sees that no longer exist. Canon law requires that the diocesan bishop appoints each auxiliary bishop as vicar general or episcopal vicar of the diocese.
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    Nuncio

    Nuncio

    Nuncio is an ecclesiastical diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin word, Nuntius, meaning "envoy." This article addresses this title as well as derived similar titles, all within the structure of the Roman Catholic Church. A Papal Nuncio is the equivalent of Ambassadors of other countries, although in Catholic countries, the nuncio often ranks above Ambassadors in diplomatic protocol. A Papal Nuncio (officially known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of diplomatic mission) of the Holy See to a state or international organization (e.g., the Arab League), having the rank of an ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, usually with the ecclesiastical rank of titular archbishop. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, a papal nuncio is an ambassador like those from any other country. However, the Vienna Convention allows the receiving state to grant seniority of precedence to the papal nuncio over others of ambassadorial rank accredited to the same country, and may grant the deanship of that country's diplomatic corps to the nuncio regardless of seniority. In addition, the Nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy
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    Bishop of Jarrow

    The Bishop of Jarrow is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Durham, in the Province of York, England. The title takes its name after the former Anglo Saxon monastery in the town of Jarrow in Tyne and Wear.
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    Bishop of Ross

    Bishop of Ross

    The Bishop of Ross was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Ross, one of Scotland's 13 medieval bishoprics. The first recorded bishop appears in the late 7th century as a witness to Adomnán of Iona's Cáin Adomnáin. The bishopric was based at the settlement of Rosemarkie until the mid-13th century, afterwards being moved to nearby Fortrose and Fortrose Cathedral. As far as the evidence goes, this bishoric was the oldest of all bishoprics north of the Forth, and was perhaps the only Pictish bishopric until the 9th century. Indeed, the Cáin Adomnáin indicates that in the reign of Bruide mac Der Ilei, king of the Picts, the bishop of Rosemarkie was the only significant figure in Pictland other than the king. The bishopric is located conveniently close to the heartland of Fortriu, being just across the water from Moray. However, in the High and Later Middle Ages, the bishopric was only of medium-to-low status in the Scottish church. The Bishopric's links with Rome ceased to exist after the Scottish Reformation, but continued, saving temporary abolition between 1638 and 1661, under the episcopal Church of Scotland until the Revolution of 1688. Episcopacy in the established church in
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    Area Bishop of Dorchester

    Area Bishop of Dorchester, suffragan bishop of the Suffragan Episcopal Area of Dorchester, part of the Archdeaconry of Oxford in the Diocese of Oxford, under the Bishop of Oxford. Its predecessor office (lapsed for 1000 years) was the Bishop of Dorchester. The current Bishop of Dorchester is the Right Reverend Colin Fletcher OBE.
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    Bishop of Gloucester

    The Bishop of Gloucester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Gloucester in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers the County of Gloucestershire and part of the County of Worcestershire and has its see in the City of Gloucester where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity. The Bishop's residence is Bishopscourt, Gloucester. The office has been in existence since the foundation of the see in 1541 under King Henry VIII from part of the Diocese of Worcester. The current Incumbent is the Right Reverend Michael Perham MA, the Lord Bishop of Gloucester, who signs Michael Gloucestr. Chronological list of the Bishops of the Diocese of Gloucester, England. (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)
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    Cardinal

    Cardinal

    A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. Cardinals are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the pope if he requests their counsel. Most cardinals have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or running a department of the Roman Curia. A cardinal's other main function is electing the pope whenever, by death or resignation, the seat becomes vacant. In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees. During the sede vacante, the period between a pope's death and the election of his successor, the day-to-day governance of the Church as a whole is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. The right to enter the conclave of cardinals who elect the pope is now limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years on the day of the pope's death or resignation. The term cardinal at one time applied to any priest permanently
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    Grand Mufti

    The Grand Mufti (Arabic: مفتي عام‎) is the highest official of religious law in a Sunni or Ibadi Muslim country. The Grand Mufti issues legal opinions and edicts, fatāwā, on interpretations of Islamic law for private clients or to assist judges in deciding cases. The collected opinions of the Grand Mufti serve as a valuable source of information on the practical application of Islamic law as opposed to its abstract formulation. The Grand Mufti's fatāwā (plural of "fatwā") are not binding precedents in areas of civil laws regulating marriage, divorce, and inheritance. In criminal courts, the Grand Mufti's recommendations are generally not binding either. Muftis are Muslim religious scholars who issue influential legal opinions (fatwas) interpreting Sharia (Islamic law). The Ottoman Empire began the practice of giving official recognition and status to a single mufti, above all others, as the Grand Mufti. The Grand Mufti of Istanbul had, since the late 16th century, come to be regarded as the head of the religious establishment. He was thus not only pre-eminent but bureaucratically responsible for the body of regious-legal scholars and gave legal rulings on important state policies
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    Bishop of Kildare

    Bishop of Kildare

    The Bishop of Kildare was an episcopal title which took its name after the town of Kildare in County Kildare, Ireland. The title is no longer in use by any of the main Christian churches having been united with other bishoprics. In the Roman Catholic Church, the title has been merged with that of the bishopric of Leighlin and is currently held by the Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin. In the Church of Ireland, the title has been merged with that of the bishopric of Meath and is currently held by the Bishop of Meath and Kildare. In the 5th century, the Abbey of Kildare was founded by Saint Brigid, a double monastery of nuns and monks. The abbey was governed by an abbess, who was the 'heir of Brigit' (comarbae Brigte), and by abbots, bishops and abbot-bishops, who were subordinate to the abbess. Although the bishopric was founded with the abbey in the fifth-century, it wasn't until 1111 AD that the diocese of Kildare was established at the Synod of Rathbreasail. The diocese covered roughly the northern part of County Kildare and the eastern part of County Offaly. After the episcopate of Walter Wellesley (1529–1539), there were parallel apostolic successions. In the Church of Ireland,
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    Bishop of Ravenna

    This page is a list of Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops of Ravenna, and (from 1985) of the Archdiocese of Ravenna-Cervia. The earlier ones were frequently tied to the Exarchate of Ravenna. (The city also became the centre of the Orthodox Church in Italy in 1995.)
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    Clerk of the Closet

    Clerk of the Closet

    The College of Chaplains of the Ecclesiastical Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom is under the Clerk of the Closet, an office dating from 1437. It is normally held by a diocesan bishop, who may however remain in office after leaving his see. The current Clerk is the Lord Bishop of Guildford, Christopher Hill. The Clerk of the Closet is responsible for advising the Private Secretary to the Sovereign on the names for candidates to fill vacancies in the Roll of Chaplains to the Sovereign. He presents Bishops for Homage to the Sovereign; examines any theological books to be presented to the Sovereign; and preaches annually in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. He receives a salary of £7 a year. The Deputy Clerk of the Closet, an office dating from 1677, is the Domestic Chaplain to the Sovereign, and Sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, and is the sole full-time clerical member of the Household. Other members of the royal family may also have their own Clerk of the Closet.
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    Bishop of Richborough

    The Bishop of Richborough is a suffragan bishop and provincial episcopal visitor for the whole of the Province of Canterbury in the Church of England. The position was created in 1995 and licensed by the Archbishop of Canterbury as a "flying bishop" to provide episcopal oversight for parishes throughout the province which cannot in good conscience accept the sacramental ministry of bishops who have participated in the ordination of women. The title takes its name from Richborough, a settlement north of Sandwich in Kent. In the southern province, the Bishops of Ebbsfleet and of Richborough each minister in thirteen of the 40 dioceses. The Bishop of Richborough serves the eastern half (Canterbury, Chelmsford, Chichester, Ely, Guildford, St Edmundsbury & Ipswich, Leicester, Lincoln, Norwich, Peterborough, Portsmouth, St Albans and Winchester). On 31 December 2010, the Right Reverend Keith Newton resigned as the Bishop of Richborough and soon afterwards was received into the Roman Catholic Church. On 5 May 2011, Norman Banks was announced as the bishop-designate for the position. He was subsequently ordained as a bishop on 16 June 2011.
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    Bishop of St David's

    Bishop of St David's

    The Bishop of St David's is the ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of St David's. The succession of bishops stretches back to Saint David who in the 6th century established his seat in what is today the city of St David's in Pembrokeshire, founding St David's Cathedral. The current Bishop of St. David's is the Right Reverend Wyn Evans, who succeeded to the post on 1 September 2008. The history of the diocese of St David's is traditionally traced to that saint in the latter half of the 6th century Records of the history of the diocese before Norman times are very fragmentary, however, consisting of a few chance references in old chronicles, such as 'Annales Cambriae' and 'Brut y Tywysogion' (Rolls Series). Originally corresponding with the boundaries of Dyfed (Demetia), St David's eventually comprised all the country south of the River Dyfi and west of the English border, with the exception of the greater part of Glamorganshire, in all some 3,500 square miles (9,100 km). The early ecclesiastical organisation of the Welsh church is unclear but scanty references reveal that some form of Archbishopric definitely existed, with multiple bishops under the jurisdiction of a senior
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    Founder

    A founder is a person involved in the creation of an organization.  Many times the organization is a business, although sometimes it is a non-profit, or even a religious organization.
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    Bishop of Grahamstown

    Bishop of Grahamstown

    The Bishop of Grahamstown is the bishop of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa in the Diocese of Grahamstown, which encompasses the area around Grahamstown, South Africa and is located in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The seat of the Bishop is St. Michael and St. George Cathedral. The current Bishop of Grahamstown, is Ebenezer St Mark Ntlali, who has been Bishop of the Diocese since 2007. The Diocese of Grahamstown is under the Primate of South Africa, currently Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town Thabo Makgoba.
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    Bishop of Rangoon

    Bishop of Rangoon

    The Lord Bishop of Rangoon was the Anglican bishop responsible for the diocese of Rangoon in the province of Calcutta from 1877 to 1970. Beforehand British Burma, then part of the Indian Empire, had come under the guidance of the Bishop of Calcutta, Metropolitan of India. In 1966 the last non-Burmese bishop was evicted by the Burmese authorities and in 1970 the Diocese of Rangoon became the Church of the Province of Burma, and the bishop was elevated to Archbishop in that church. He was officially styled The Right Reverend Father in God, (Name), by Divine Providence Lord Bishop of Rangoon, but this full title was rarely used, the majority of the time the bishop being addressed either Bishop or Lord Bishop of Rangoon. In signing his name, the bishop's surname would be replaced by the name of his diocese. Therefore J.O.E. Bloggs would become J.O.E. Rangoon in official correspondence. In 1884 the pay of the Bishop was the not insubstantial salary of £960 per annum. The official residence of the Bishop was throughout the existence of the diocese Bishop's Court in Rangoon. It was decided that the area of Southern Burma, then part of the British Indian Empire required a more substantial
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    Chaplain of the United States Senate

    Chaplain of the United States Senate

    The Chaplain of the United States Senate opens each session of the United States Senate with a prayer, and provides and coordinates religious programs and pastoral care support for Senators, their staffs, and their families. The Chaplain is appointed by a majority vote of the members of the Senate on a resolution nominating an individual for the position. The three most recent nominations have been submitted based on a bipartisan search committee although that procedure is not required. Chaplains are elected as individuals and not as representatives of any religious community, body, or organization. As of 2011, all Senate Chaplains have been Christian but can be members of any religion or faith group. Guest Chaplains, recommended by Senators to deliver the session's opening prayer in place of the Senate Chaplain, have represented "all the world's major religious faiths." The current Chaplain, Barry C. Black, a retired Navy Rear Admiral and former Chief of Navy Chaplains, is the first African-American and the first Seventh Day Adventist to hold the position. The Chaplain of the United States Senate is chosen to "perform ceremonial, symbolic, and pastoral duties." These
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    Apostolic Nuncio to Brazil

    Apostolic Nuncio to Brazil

    The Apostolic Nunciature to the Republic of Brazil is an ecclesiastical office of the Catholic Church in Brazil. It is a diplomatic post of the Holy See, whose representative is called the Apostolic Nuncio with the rank of an ambassador.
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    Archbishop of Brussels-Mechelen

    The Archbishops of Mechelen-Brussels are the head of the Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussel of the Catholic church in Belgium. It currently encompasses all of Belgium, making them the head of the Roman Catholic faith in the country. The current Archbishop is André-Mutien Léonard. http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/dmech.html
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    Bishop of Edinburgh

    Bishop of Edinburgh

    The Bishop of Edinburgh is the Ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Edinburgh. The see was founded in 1633 by King Charles I. William Forbes was consecrated in St. Giles' Cathedral as its first bishop on 23 January 1634 though he died later that year. The General Assembly of 1638 deposed Bishop David Lindsay and all the other bishops, so the next, George Wishart, was consecrated in 1662 after the Restoration. In 1690 it was Bishop Alexander Rose (1687–1720) whose unwelcome reply to King William III led to the disestablishment of the Scottish Episcopalians as Jacobite sympathisers, and it was he who led his congregation from St. Giles to a former wool store as their meeting house, on the site now occupied by Old Saint Paul's Church. After the repeal of the penal laws in 1792 and the reuniting of Episcopal and 'Qualified' congregations, the Diocese grew under the leadership of Bishops Daniel Sandford, James Walker, C.H. Terrot and Henry Cotterill. The high point of the 19th Century was the consecration of St Mary’s Cathedral in 1879. The current Bishop is The Right Revd Dr John Armes. He became Bishop-elect of Edinburgh on 11th February, 2012 and was consecrated and
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    Metropolitan bishop

    Metropolitan bishop

    In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. Before the establishment of patriarchs (beginning in AD 325), metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church. They presided over synods of bishops, and were granted special privileges by canon law and sacred tradition. The Early Church structure generally followed the Roman imperial practice, with one bishop ruling each city and its territory. The bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province, later called suffragans. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title is used variously. In the Greek Churches archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence, as in the case of Archbishop Demetrios of America, who is the Primate of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, and primates of local churches below patriarchal rank are generally designated as archbishops. The
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    59

    Primate of Ireland

    The Primacy of Ireland was historically disputed between the Archbishop of Armagh and the Archbishop of Dublin until finally settled by Pope Innocent VI. Primate is a title of honour denoting ceremonial precedence in the Church, and in the Middle Ages there was an intense rivalry between the two archbishoprics as to seniority. Since 1353 the Archbishop of Armagh has been titled Primate of All Ireland and the Archbishop of Dublin Primate of Ireland, signifying that they are the senior churchmen in the island of Ireland, the Primate of All Ireland being the more senior. The titles are used by both the Roman Catholic and Church of Ireland bishops. The distinction mirrors that in the Church of England between the Primate of All England, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Primate of England, the Archbishop of York. The Episcopal see of Dublin was created in the eleventh century, when Dublin was a Norse city. Its first bishop, Dunan (or Donatus), was described at his death as "chief bishop of the Foreigners". From the first, Dublin had close ties to the see of Canterbury. The fifth bishop of Dublin, Gregory, was only a subdeacon when he was elected bishop by what Aubrey Gwynn called
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    60
    Apostolic Nuncio to Argentina

    Apostolic Nuncio to Argentina

    The Apostolic Nuncio to Argentina is the principal representative of the Holy See to the Government of Argentina. The nunciature is at the Fernández Anchorena Palace, in Buenos Aires.
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    Archbishop of Valoret

    In the fictional universe of the Deryni novels of Katherine Kurtz, the Archbishop of Valoret is the highest-ranking priest of the Holy Church of Gwynedd. Also bearing the title of Primate of All Gwynedd, the Archbishop of Valoret is chosen by an election among the Synod of Bishops, and must receive a two-thirds majority of votes to be elected. Although the office of Archbishop of Valoret wields no official secular authority within Gwynedd, the important role of the church in Gwyneddan society makes the Archbishop one of the most powerful and influential men in the kingdom. It is the right and duty of the Primate of All Gwynedd to not only crown a new monarch, but to also perform royal weddings, baptisms, and funerals. Additionally, the Archbishop of Valoret traditionally sits on any royal Regency Councils. Within the church itself, the Archbishop wields enormous influence on the direction and course of the church as a whole through his control of ecclesiastical lands, revenues, and personnel.
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    Bishop of Maidstone

    The Bishop of Maidstone was an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Canterbury, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after the county town of Maidstone in Kent and had a similar though subordinate role to that of the Bishop of Dover. It was decided at the Diocesan Synod of November 2010 that a new bishop will not be appointed.
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    Bishop of Reykjavik

    The Bishop of Reykjavík is the head of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Reykjavík, part of the Catholic church in Iceland. The Norsemen who settled in Iceland from the end of the ninth century worshipped the Æsir (the Norse gods). The country converted around 999. In 1056 the country was given a bishop of its own, suffragan to the Archbishop of Hamburg, with his see at Skálholt, while in 1106 a bishopric was erected at Hólar. These two dioceses were first under the Archbishop of Lund, later (1152) under that of Trondheim, and until the middle of the 16th century were in close communion with Rome. The bishops were selected by the Alþingi, but the nominees were consecrated by the metropolitan. Many of their prelates were distinguished for their virtue and wisdom. The priests of Iceland frequently went to French and English universities for studies. Many among the clergy and laity made pilgrimages to shrines of both East and West. Canon law was in force by the year 1053. Under the influence of the Church the old laws (Gragas) were written down in 1117, but civil strife led to recognition of Norwegian hegemony. Upon the death of Haakon VI of Norway in 1380, his son Olaf, who since 1376
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    Bishop of Salford

    The Bishop of Salford is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Salford in the Province of Liverpool, England. With the gradual abolition of the legal restrictions on the activities of Catholics in England and Wales in the early 19th century, Rome decided to proceed to bridge the gap of the centuries from Queen Elizabeth I by instituting Catholic dioceses on the regular historical pattern. On 29 September 1850, Pope Pius IX issued the Bull Universalis Ecclesiae which created thirteen new dioceses which did not formally claim any continuity with the pre-Elizabethan English dioceses of which one of these was the diocese of Salford and went on to take up the reins of part of the former Vicariate Apostolic of the Lancashire District. In the early period from 1850 the diocese was a suffragan of the Metropolitan See of Westminster, but a further development was its assignment under Pope Pius X, on 28 October 1911, to a newly created Province of Liverpool. At the diocese's creation the territory assigned to it was the hundreds of Salford and Blackburn. The diocese currently covers an area of 1,600 km (600 sq mi) and consists a large part of Greater Manchester and adjacent parts of
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    Marja

    Marja

    Marja' (Arabic/Persian: مرجع) (Plural: maraji), also known as a marja-i taqlid or marja dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means "Source to Imitate/Follow" or "Religious Reference". It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics. After the Qur'an and the Prophets and Imams, marjas are the highest authority on religious laws in Usuli Shia Islam. Currently, marjas are accorded the title Grand Ayatollah (Arabic/Persian: آية ‌الله العظمی Ayatollah al-Uthma), however when referring to one, the use of Ayatollah is acceptable. Previously, the titles of Allamah and Imam have also been used. The marja'yiat of an ayatollah transpires when he becomes a celebrated figure in the hawza and his students and followers trust him in answering their questions, and ask him to publish his juristic book, the resalah amaliyah—a manual of practical rulings arranged according to topics dealing with ritual purity, worship, social issues, business, and political affairs. The resalah contains an ayatollah's fatwas on different topics, according to his
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    Bishop of St Andrews

    The Bishop of St. Andrews was the ecclesiatical head of the Diocese and then, as Archbishop of St Andrews , the Archdiocese of St. Andrews (originally Cennrᅢᆳgmonaid, and then Kilrymont (i.e. Cellrᅢᆳgmonaid, hence Cill Rᅢᆲmhinn) in the High Middle Ages). The bishopric itself originates in the period 700-900, and is the best attested bishopric in Scottish history. By the 11th century, it is clear that it is the most important bishopric in Scotland. There had been a monastry there since the 8th century. It was probably taken over by Cᅢᄅli Dᅢᄅ monks in the 9th or 10th centuries, and these survive into the 14th century. It is the Gaelic abbey, rather than the continental priory, that the abbot was in charge of; the importance of the Cᅢᄅli Dᅢᄅ abbey has come down into the modern era in the street names of St. Andrews. Only a few abbots are known. It is often thought that the position of Abbot and Bishop were the same until the Norman era, although that can never be proved for certain. During the Western Schism, in which Scotland chose to side with the Avignon Papacy, the English church would now and then appoint its own candidates to the bishoric. They never, of course, took
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    Archbishop of Tuam

    Archbishop of Tuam

    The Archbishop of Tuam (Irish: Ard-Easpuig Tuaim) is an archiepiscopal title which takes its name after the town of Tuam in County Galway, Ireland. The title was used by the Church of Ireland until 1839, and is still in use by the Roman Catholic Church. At the Synod of Rathbreasail in 1111, Tuam was named as the seat of a diocese corresponding roughly with the diocese of Elphin, whilst Cong was chosen as the seat of a diocese corresponding with the later archdiocese of Tuam in west Connacht. There is no record of any bishops of Cong, and no bishop was given the title "bishop of Tuam" in the Irish annals before 1152, although the annals recorded some "bishops of Connacht". At the Synod of Kells in 1152, the archdiocese of Tuam was established with six suffragan dioceses. During the Reformation, the bishopric of Annaghdown was annexed to Tuam in circa 1555. After the Reformation, there were parallel apostolic successions: one of the Church of Ireland and the other of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1569, the Church of Ireland bishopric of Mayo was annexed to the archbishopric. Between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, a number of other bishoprics were also united to the
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    Bishop of Acre

    The Bishop of Acre was a suffragan bishop of the Crusader Archbishop of Tyre. Acre is present-day Akko.
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    Bishop of Argyll

    The Bishop of Argyll or Bishop of Lismore was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Argyll, one of Scotland's 13 medieval bishoprics. It was created in 1200, when the western half of the territory of the Bishopric of Dunkeld was formed into the new diocese. The bishops were based at Lismore. The Bishopric of Argyll, like other Scottish bishoprics, passed into the keeping of the Scottish Episcopal Church after the Scottish Reformation. In 1689, Episcopacy was permanently abolished in the Scottish Church. The line of bishops continued within the Scottish Episcopal Church, where the title was often combined with others. In 1847, Alexander Ewing became the first to bear the title Bishop of Argyll and the Isles, and, in 1878, Angus MacDonald became the first Roman Catholic bishop to bear that same title.
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    Archbishop of Lyon

    The archbishop of Lyon is the head of the Roman Catholic diocese of the French city of Lyon. The office is currently held by Philippe Cardinal Barbarin. Previous incumbents include: Lyon
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    Archbishop of Southwark

    The Archbishop of Southwark is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Southwark in England. As such he is the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Province of Southwark. The archdiocese has an area of 3,000 km (1,200 sq mi) and covers the London Boroughs south of the Thames, the county of Kent and the Medway Unitary Authority. The Metropolitan See is in Southwark where the archbishop's seat is located at the Metropolitan Cathedral Church of Saint George. The see is currently held by the Most Reverend Peter Smith, Ll.B., J.C.D., 4th Metropolitan Archbishop of Southwark, who was appointed by the Holy See on 30 April 2010 and installed at St George's Cathedral, Southwark on 10 June 2010. The Diocese of Southwark was created on 29 September 1850 and originally covered the historic counties of Surrey, Berkshire, Hampshire, Kent, Sussex, the Isle of Wight, and the Channel Islands. It lost territory on the creation of the Diocese of Portsmouth on 19 May 1882. The diocese lost further territory on the creation of the Diocese of Arundel & Brighton on 28 May 1965. However, on the same day the diocese of Southwark was elevated to an archdiocese when the Ecclesiastical province of
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    Bishop of Bangor

    The Bishop of Bangor is the Ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Bangor. The diocese covers the counties of Anglesey, most of Caernarfonshire and Merionethshire and a small part of Montgomeryshire. The see is in the city of Bangor where the seat is located at Cathedral Church of Saint Deiniol. The diocese in the Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd was founded around 546 by Saint Deiniol, and with the rest of Wales, initially resisted the papal mission of St Augustine in Britain. In 1534, the church in England and Wales broke allegiance with the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England. After a brief restoration with the Holy See during the reign of Queen Mary I, the diocese remained part of the Anglican Province of Canterbury until the early 20th century. Following the Welsh Church Act 1914, the Welsh dioceses formed the independent Church in Wales within the Anglican Communion on 31 March 1920. The current incumbent is Right Reverend Andrew John, Bishop of Bangor, who was consecrated on 29 November 2008 and enthroned on 24 January 2009. The Bishop's residence is Ty'r Esgob ("Bishop's House") in Bangor.
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    Bishop of Canberra and Goulburn

    Bishop of Canberra and Goulburn

    The Diocese of Canberra and Goulburn is one of the 23 dioceses of the Anglican Church of Australia. The diocese has 60 parishes covering most of south-east New South Wales, the eastern Riverina and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). It stretches from Marulan in the north, from Batemans Bay to Eden on the south coast across to Holbrook in the south-west, north to Wagga Wagga, Temora, Young and Goulburn. The Diocese of Goulburn was established in 1863. At that time it extended to the south and west of Goulburn to the south-western corner of New South Wales (south of the 34th degree of latitude). In 1883 the diocese was divided, with the western portion designated as the major part of the newly created Diocese of Riverina. In 1950 the name was changed to the Diocese of Canberra and Goulburn. St Saviour's Cathedral, the mother church of the diocese, is located in Goulburn, New South Wales. Both the diocesan bishop and the diocesan office are located in Canberra, Australia's national capital, which is 87 kilometres to the south of Goulburn. The diocesan bishop is the Rt Revd Stuart Robinson, who was elected 10th bishop of the diocese on 1 November 2008 (All Saints' Day). He was
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    Bishop of Grimsby

    The Bishop of Grimsby is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Lincoln, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after the town of Grimsby in Lincolnshire. The suffragan bishop's official residence is Bishop's House, Church Lane, Irby-on-Humber, Lincolnshire. The bishop has episcopal oversight as the area bishop for the northern part of the diocese, i.e. the same area as the Archdeacon of Stow and Lindsey – the archdeaconries of Stow and of Lindsey.
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    Bishop of Kensington

    The Bishop of Kensington is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of London, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The Bishop of Kensington is responsible for a part of Greater London, including Kensington, Hounslow, Hampton, Hammersmith and Fulham, plus the Spelthorne district in Surrey.
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    Rabbi

    Rabbi

    In Judaism, a rabbi ( /ˈræbaɪ/) is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רַבִּי rabi [ˈʁäbi], meaning "My Master" (irregular plural רבנים rabanim [ʁäbäˈnim]), which is the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word "master" רב rav [ˈʁäv] literally means "great one". The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. In more recent centuries, the duties of the rabbi became increasingly influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", and in 19th century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, and representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, and differences in opinion regarding who is to be recognized as a rabbi. All types of Judaism except for Orthodox Judaism and some conservative strains ordain women and lesbian and gay people as rabbis and cantors. The word rabbi derives from the Semitic root R-B-B, in Hebrew script רַב rav, which
    10.00
    1 votes
    78
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    4 votes
    79
    6.50
    4 votes
    80

    Archbishop of Harare

    The Archbishop of Harare heads the Roman Catholic Metropolitan See for Zimbabwe. In 2004, the number of Roman Catholics in the archdiocese was estimated as 483,293 (from a total population of 4,866,000), and they were served by 124 priests. There are three suffragan dioceses, Chinhoyi, Gokwe and Mutare. The present archbishop is Archbishop Robert Ndlovu. A mission sui iuris of Zambese (in Latin, Zambesia) was erected on 2 July 1879. On 9 March 1915, this was elevated to the Prefecture Apostolic of Zambese, and on 14 July 1927 the name was changed to the Prefecture Apostolic of Salisbury (in Latin, Salisburiensis). On 3 March 1931, this was again elevated to become the Vicariate Apostolic of Salisbury. On 1 January 1955, the Archdiocese of Salisbury was instituted as the Metropolitan See for Rhodesia. In 1973, territory was lost when the Prefecture Apostolic of Sinoia was erected. On 25 June 1982, the name of the Archdiocese was changed from Salisbury to Harare.
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    81

    Bishop of Bunbury

    The Bishop of Bunbury is the diocesan bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Bunbury. One holder was Cecil Wilson (1860-1941), from 1918 to 1937. Its present holder is the Right Reverend David McCall.
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    82
    Bishop of Saint Edmundsbury and Ipswich

    Bishop of Saint Edmundsbury and Ipswich

    The Bishop of Saint Edmundsbury and Ipswich is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Saint Edmundsbury and Ipswich in the Province of Canterbury. The current incumbent is the Right Reverend Nigel Stock, 10th Lord Bishop of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich. The Bishop's residence is The Bishop's House, Ipswich, Suffolk. Under the Suffragan Bishops Act 1534, the title Bishop of Ipswich was created in 1536, but it fell into abeyance following the first holder surrendering the office in 1538. In 1899, the title was revived with two suffragan bishops of Ipswich were appointed to assist the diocesan bishop of Norwich. Through reorganisation in the Church of England, the Diocese of Saint Edmundsbury and Ipswich was established by Act of Parliament in 1913 under King George V. The bishop's and the diocesan offices are located in Ipswich, while the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of St James in Bury St Edmunds. Since 1934, the bishops of Saint Edmundsbury and Ipswich have been assisted by the suffragan bishops of Dunwich in overseeing the diocese.
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    2 votes
    83
    Archbishop of Westminster

    Archbishop of Westminster

    The Archbishop of Westminster heads the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Westminster, in England. The incumbent is the Metropolitan of the Province of Westminster and, as a matter of custom, is elected President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, and therefore de facto spokesman of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. Since the re-establishment of the hierarchy in 1850, each successive Archbishop of Westminster has been raised to the rank of cardinal. Although all the bishops of the restored diocesan episcopacy took new titles, like that of Westminster, they saw themselves in continuity with the pre-Reformation Church and post-Reformation Vicars Apostolic and Titular Bishops. Westminster, in particular, saw itself as the continuity of Canterbury, hence the similarity of the coat of arms of the two Sees, with Westminster believing it has more right to it since it features the pallium, a distinctly Catholic symbol of communion with the Holy See. With the gradual abolition of the legal restrictions on the activities of Catholics in England and Wales in the early 19th century, Rome on its own ("not by Concordat with the English government nor conversations with
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    3 votes
    84

    Bishop of Clogher

    The Bishop of Clogher is an episcopal title which takes its name after the village of Clogher in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. Following the Reformation, there are now parallel apostolic successions: one of the Church of Ireland and the other of the Roman Catholic Church. Clogher is one of the twenty-four dioceses established at the Synod of Ráth Breasail in 1111 and consists of much of south west Ulster, taking in most of counties Fermanagh and Monaghan and parts of Tyrone, Cavan, Leitrim and Donegal. Frequently in the Irish annals the Bishop of Clogher was styled the Bishop of Oirialla. Between circa 1140 to circa 1190, County Louth was transferred from the see of Armagh to the see of Clogher. During this period the Bishop of Clogher used the style Bishop of Louth. The title Bishop of Clogher was resumed after 1193, when County Louth was restored to the see of Armagh. The present Church of Ireland bishop is the Right Reverend John Francis McDowell, who was appointed by the House of Bishops on 30 May 2011 and consecrated a bishop on 23 September. The Church of Ireland bishop is unique in having two diocesan cathedrals within a single diocese, with one Dean and chapter between
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    85

    Bishop of Hertford

    The Bishop of Hertford is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of St Albans, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after Hertford, the county town of Hertfordshire. The Bishop of Hertford, along with the Bishop of Bedford, assists the Diocesan Bishop of St Albans in overseeing the diocese.
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    86

    Bishop of Selby

    The Bishop of Selby is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of York, in the Province of York, England. The title takes its name after the town of Selby in North Yorkshire. The Bishop of Selby is responsible for the Archdeaconry of York.
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

    Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

    The Ecumenical Patriarch (Greek: Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Œcumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) in the Eastern Orthodox communion, which is seen by its approximately 300 million followers worldwide as the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. The Ecumenical Patriarch has been historically known as the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople, as distinct from the Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople and the ancient Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. Historically, within the five ecumenical sees of Pentarchy, the patriarch is regarded as the successor of Saint Andrew, the Apostle. The current holder of the office is Bartholomew I, the 270th holder of the title. The Turkish government recognises him as the spiritual leader of the Greek minority in Turkey, and refer to him as the Greek (lit. Roman) Orthodox Patriarch of the Phanar (Turkish: Fener Rum Ortodoks Patriği). The Patriarch was subject to the authority of the Ottoman Empire after the conquest
    7.33
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    88

    Bishop of Caithness

    The Bishop of Caithness was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Caithness, one of Scotland's 13 medieval bishoprics. The first referenced bishop of Caithness was Aindréas, a Gael who appears in sources between 1146 and 1151 as bishop. Aindréas spent much if not all of his career outside his see. Other bishops before Aindréas are possible, but none is documented. King David I of Scotland, is credited with founding many bishoprics, and it is possible that Caithness was one of them. Little documented history exists before the reign of King David. The earliest bishops resided at Halkirk, with a castle at Scrabster. Bishop Gilbert de Moravia moved the episcopal seat to Dornoch in what is now Sutherland (then regared as part of Caithness), and the bishopric remained at Dornoch Cathedral for the remainder of its existence. The Bishopric of Caithness' links with Rome ceased to exist after the Scottish Reformation, but continued, saving temporary abolition between 1638 and 1661, under the episcopal Church of Scotland until the Revolution of 1688. Episcopacy in the established church in Scotland was permanently abolished.
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    4 votes
    89

    Bishop of Moray

    The Bishop of Moray or Bishop of Elgin was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Moray in northern Scotland, one of Scotland's 13 medieval bishoprics. If the foundation charter of the monastery at Scone is reliable, then the Bishopric of Moray was in existence as early as the reign of King Alexander I of Scotland (1107–1124), but was certainly in existence by 1127, when one Gregoir ("Gregorius") is mentioned as "Bishop of Moray" in a charter of king David I of Scotland. The bishopric had its seat (Latin: Cathedra) at Elgin and Elgin Cathedral, but was severally at Birnie, Kinneddar and as late as Bishop Andreas de Moravia at Spynie, where the bishops continued to maintain a palace. The Bishopric's links with Rome ceased to exist after the Scottish Reformation, but continued, saving temporary abolition between 1638 and 1661, under the episcopal Church of Scotland until the Revolution of 1688. Episcopacy in the established church in Scotland was permanently abolished in 1689.The Bishops fortified seat for over 500 years was at Spynie Palace
    6.25
    4 votes
    90

    Bishop of Lincoln

    The Bishop of Lincoln is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. The present diocese covers the county of Lincolnshire and the unitary authority areas of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. The Bishop's seat (cathedra) is located in the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the city of Lincoln. This was originally a minster church founded around 653 and re-founded as a cathedral in 1072. The historic medieval Bishop's Palace lies immediately to the south of the Cathedral in Palace Yard; managed by English Heritage, it is open to visitors. An adjacent later residence (first used by Bishop Edward King in 1885) was converted from office accommodation to reopen in 2009 as a 16-bedroom conference centre and wedding venue. A 14-bedroomed house on Eastgate was the official residence in use from 1948 until 2011, when the Bishop's office staff and home were separated, allowing the incoming Bishop Christopher to reside in a modern, five-bedroomed house. The Anglo-Saxon dioceses of Lindsey and Leicester were established when the large Diocese of Mercia was divided in the late 7th century into the bishoprics of Lichfield and
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    91
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    92
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    93

    Bishop of Buenos Aires

    The Bishop of Argentina is a bishop in the Anglican communion, the head of the Anglican Diocese of Argentina. Buenos Aires succeeded the Falkland Islands as the episcopal seat for the whole of South America during the 19th century, but it is now the seat only for the Diocese of Argentina within the Anglican Church of the Southern Cone of the Americas.
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    3 votes
    94
    Bishop of Durham

    Bishop of Durham

    The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the diocese of Durham in the province of York. The Diocese is one of the oldest in the country and its bishop is a member of the House of Lords. The current Bishop is Justin Welby who was consecrated on 28 October 2011 and installed on 26 November 2011. Other duties of the Bishop of Durham include (with the Bishop of Bath and Wells) escorting the sovereign at the coronation. He is officially styled The Right Reverend Father in God, (Christian Name), by Divine Providence Lord Bishop of Durham, but this full title is rarely used. In signatures, the bishop's family name is replaced by Dunelm, from the Latin name for Durham (the Latinised form of Old English Dunholm). In the past, bishops of Durham varied their signatures between Dunelm and the French Duresm. Auckland Castle has been the official residence of the Bishops of Durham since 1832. From the seventh century A.D. onwards, in addition to his spiritual authority, the bishop of Durham also acted as the civil ruler of the region as the lord of the liberty of Durham, claiming local authority equal to that of the king. The bishop appointed all local officials and maintained
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    3 votes
    95
    Bishop of Orkney

    Bishop of Orkney

    The Bishop of Orkney was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Orkney, one of thirteen medieval bishoprics within the territory of modern Scotland. It included both Orkney and Shetland. It was based for almost all of its history at St. Magnus' Cathedral, Kirkwall. The bishopric appears to have been suffragan of the Archbishop of York (with intermittent control exercised by the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen) until the creation of the Archbishopric of Trondheim (Niðaros) in 1152. Although Orkney itself did not become politically part of Scotland until 1468, the Scottish kings and political community had been pushing for control of the islands for centuries. The see, however, remained under the nominal control of Trondheim until the creation of the Archbishopric of St. Andrews in 1472, when it became for the first time an officially Scottish bishopric. The Bishopric's links with Rome ceased to exist after the Scottish Reformation. The bishopric continued, saving temporary abolition between 1638 and 1661, under the episcopal Church of Scotland until the Revolution of 1688. Episcopacy in the established church in Scotland was permanently abolished in 1689, but in 1878 the Catholic
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    3 votes
    96

    Bishop of Sodor and Man

    The Bishop of Sodor and Man is the Ordinary of the Diocese of Sodor and Man in the Province of York in the Church of England. The diocese covers the Isle of Man. The see is in the town of Peel where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of St German, elevated to cathedral status on 1 November 1980. The termination "and Man" appears to have been added in the 17th century and the designation "Sodor and Man" had become a fixture by 1684. The right to nominate to the See of Sodor and Man rests with the Crown, which acts, perhaps somewhat anomalously (in view of Man's status as a Crown Dependency), on the advice of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Following the resignation of the Right Reverend Graeme Knowles, who became Dean of St Paul's, London on 1 October 2007, on 8 February 2008 it was announced from 10 Downing Street that the next Bishop would be Canon Robert Paterson whose appointment was confirmed by Letters Patent issued by Queen Elizabeth II on 18 April 2008, and who was consecrated bishop on 25 April 2008 at York Minster. He was enthroned Bishop of Sodor and Man on 14 June 2008 in St German's Cathedral at Peel, Isle of Man. The diocese covers the Isle
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    3 votes
    97
    Deacon

    Deacon

    Deacon is a ministry in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions the "diaconate", the term for a deacon's office, is a clerical office; in others it is for laity. The word "deacon" is derived from the Greek word diakonos (διάκονος), which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning "servant", "waiting-man", "minister" or "messenger". One commonly promulgated speculation as to its etymology is that it literally means 'through the dust', referring to the dust raised by the busy servant or messenger. It is generally believed that the office of deacon originated in the selection of seven men, among them Stephen, to assist with the charitable work of the early church as recorded in Acts 6. Female deacons are mentioned by Pliny the Younger in a letter to Trajan dated c. 112. The exact relationship between male and female Deacons varies. In some traditions a female deacon is simply a member of the order of deacons; in others, deaconesses constitute a separate order; in others, the title "deaconess" is given to the wife of a deacon. A biblical description of the qualities
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    3 votes
    98
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly

    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly

    The Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly (Irish: Ard-Deoise Chaisil agus Imligh) is a Roman Catholic archdiocese in mid-western Ireland. The archdiocese is in the secular province of Munster. The Diocese of Cashel was established in 1111 by the Synod of Rathbreasail and promoted to the status of a Metropolitan Province in 1152 by the Synod of Kells. The incumbent Ordinary is Dermot Clifford. The Province of Cashel, is one of the four ecclesiastical provinces that together form the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland; the other provinces are Dublin, Tuam and Armagh. Its metropolitan bishop is the Archbishop of Cashel and Emly. The geographical remit of the province is confined to the Republic of Ireland. The suffragan dioceses of the province are: The Archdiocese consists of two older entities: The "Diocese of Cashel" and the "Diocese of Emly". Since the Papal Legate, Cardinal Paparo, awarded the pallium to Donat O'Lonergan of Cashel at the Synod of Kells, his successors have ruled the ecclesiastical Province of Cashel (or Munster as it is sometimes known). The diocese of Emly took its name from the village of Emly in South Tipperary, which was the location of the principal
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    99

    Bishop of Wakefield

    The Bishop of Wakefield is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Wakefield in the Province of York. The diocese based in Wakefield in West Yorkshire, covers Wakefield, Barnsley, Kirklees and Calderdale. The see is in the City of Wakefield where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of All Saints, a parish church elevated to cathedral status in 1888. The Bishop's residence is Bishop's Lodge, Wakefield. The office has existed since the founding of the diocese in 1888 under Queen Victoria. The Cathedral contains a memorial to Bishop Walsham How, the Bishop of Wakefield. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Stephen Platten, the 12th Bishop of Wakefield, who signs +Stephen Wakefield.
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    4 votes
    100

    Archbishop of Cologne

    The Elector of Cologne was, from 1356 to 1801, one of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire. There have been 94 bishops and archbishops of Cologne. Seven of them retired by resignation and four in response to impeachment. Eight were Coadjutor bishop before they took office, seven coadjutors were appointed freely by the Pope. Eight of them were at the same time archbishops, one moved to the Curia, where he became a cardinal. Six archbishops were chairmen of the German Bishops' Conference. All names before Maternus ('II') are to be approached with considerable skepticism since no contemporary evidence is available. Maternus was present at a council in Rome in 313. The bishops between Severinus and Charentius are also apocryphal. Domitianus was bishop of Maastricht (Mosa Traiectum). The given dates of office before bishop Gunther are also conjectural at best.
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    2 votes
    101

    Bishop

    Bishop is the highest priesthood office of the Aaronic priesthood in the Latter Day Saint movement, and is leader of the Aaronic priesthood in a given ward or congregation. It is almost always held by one who already holds the Melchizedek Priesthood office of high priest and who serves as the leader of a local congregation of church members. The Latter Day Saint concept of the office differs significantly from the role of bishops in other Christian denominations, being in some respects more analogous to a pastor or parish priest. Each bishop serves with two counselors, which together form a bishopric. The role of a bishop varies in the different Latter Day Saint denominations; however, they derive from a common history. Edward Partridge became the first man called to the office of bishop in the early Latter Day Saint church on February 4, 1831. The duties of the office were to oversee the temporal affairs and accounts of the church through the implementation of the law of consecration. Partridge was called to preside over the Missouri Church in Joseph Smith's absence and soon thereafter Edward and his family emigrated to the church's growing colony in Jackson County, Missouri, and
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    2 votes
    102

    Bishop of Barbados

    The Anglican diocese of Barbados was set up in 1824, as one of two covering the whole Caribbean. Before that, the area was nominally part of the Bishop of London's responsibility, a situation that had been assumed to hold from 1660 onwards. In 1813, the then Bishop of London denied it was his responsibility, and so it turned out that appointments to the Church in the Colonies were recommended by the local governor, in this case of the Leeward Islands. The Barbados diocese initially also covered Trinidad, British Guiana, the Leeward Islands and the Windward Islands. It was later divided, on the retirement in 1841/2 of the first Bishop: his three Archdeacons took charge as the Bishop of Antigua (Daniel Gateward Davis), of Barbados (Parry) and the Bishop of British Guiana (William Piercy Austin). The official residence was located at Bishop's Court Hill along Upper Colleymore Rock Road (Highway 6). There is a Roman Catholic diocese in Barbados, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bridgetown.
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    2 votes
    103
    Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway

    Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway

    The Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway is the ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Glasgow and Galloway. When the dioceses of Glasgow and Galloway were combined in 1837, Michael Russell, the then incumbent of Leith became the first bishop of the combined see. Initially there were only three or four congregations in the south west of Scotland. Until the establishment of St Mary's Church in Great Western Road as the cathedral of the diocese, the bishops were also incumbents of individual congregations - Michael Russell at Leith; Walter Trower at St Mary's Church in Glasgow; and William Wilson at Ayr. The episcopate of William Harrison was specially notable for the exceptional expansion of the church in the south west of Scotland. Bishop Reid was translated to the Diocese of Saint Andrews, Dunkeld and Dunblane. His successor, Bishop Darbyshire, was also translated becoming the Archbishop of Cape Town in the Church of the Province of Southern Africa (now the Anglican Church of Southern Africa). Bishop Rawcliffe was already a bishop when he came to the diocese having previously been consecrated at the first Bishop of the New Hebrides in the Church of the Province of Melanesia
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    2 votes
    104
    Dalai Lama

    Dalai Lama

    The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The name is a combination of the Sino-Mongolian word dalai meaning "Ocean" and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ bla-ma (with a silent "b") meaning "guru, teacher". In religious terms, the Dalai Lama is believed by his devotees to be the rebirth of a long line of tulkus who are considered to be manifestations of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara. Traditionally, the Dalai Lama is thought of as the latest reincarnation of a series of spiritual leaders who have chosen to be reborn in order to enlighten others. The Dalai Lama is often thought to be the leader of the Gelug School, but this position belongs officially to the Ganden Tripa, which is a temporary position appointed by the Dalai Lama who, in practice, exerts much influence. The line of Dalai Lamas began as a lineage of spiritual teachers; the 5th Dalai Lama assumed political authority over Tibet. For certain periods between the 17th century and 1959, the Dalai Lamas sometimes directed the Tibetan government, which administered portions of Tibet from Lhasa. The 14th Dalai Lama remained the head of state for the Central Tibetan
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    105

    General authority

    In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), a general authority is a member of certain leadership organizations who is given administrative and ecclesiastical authority over the church. A general authority's jurisdiction is church-wide, in contrast to the responsibilities of a local authority or an area authority, which relate to a particular area, unit, or department of the church. However, not all church leaders with church-wide jurisdiction in the church are considered general authorities. As of April 2010, the number of general authorities was 109. The first scriptural use of the term General Authority was in minutes of a meeting for the organization of the Presiding High Council in 1834. Though the original minutes did not refer to the term General Authorities, the revised minutes, which were included in the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants, stated that decisions of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles "can only be called into question by the General Authorities of the Church in case of transgression." The use of the term General Authorities at this time and in this context is generally interpreted to include the First Presidency and the Presiding
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    2 votes
    106
    Missionary

    Missionary

    Missionaries of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)—widely known as Mormon missionaries—are volunteer representatives of the LDS Church who engage variously in proselytizing, church service, humanitarian aid, and community service. Mormon missionaries may serve on a full- or part-time basis depending on the assignment, and are organized geographically into missions. The mission assignment could be to any one of the 347 missions organized worldwide. The LDS Church is one of the most active modern practitioners of missionary work, reporting that it fielded over 55,000 full-time missionaries and over 22,000 part-time church-service missionaries worldwide in 2011. Most full-time Mormon missionaries constitute single young men and women in their late teens and early twenties and older couples no longer with children in the home. Many are assigned to serve far from the missionary's home, often in another country or overseas, which often requires learning a new language at a missionary training center. These assignments are typically two years for males, and anywhere from 6 to 18 months for females and older couples. Missionary service is strongly encouraged for
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    2 votes
    107

    Archbishop of Beirut

    The Orthodox Archbishop of Beirut and Exarch of Phoenicia is the head of the Archdiocese of Beirut and Exarchate of Phoenicia in the Syrian-based patriarchate of the Orthodox Church of Antioch. The present Archbishop is Elias Audi (1980-)
    9.00
    1 votes
    108
    Archbishop of Toronto and Eastern Canada

    Archbishop of Toronto and Eastern Canada

    The Eastern Eparchy of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada, an autonomous part of the Church of Constantinople, is currently vacant, with Metropolitan Yurij (Kalistchuk) of Winnipeg serving as the diocese's locum tenens. Prior to his election as primate of the UOCC in 2010 Metropolitan Yurij served as Archbishop of Toronto and the Eastern Eparchy. The UOCC's Eastern Eparchy consists of the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, and consists of 27 parish cathedrals and churches. Since the UOCC is part of the Constantinopolitan Orthodox Church, which already has a diocese for Toronto (the Greek Metropolis of Toronto, headed by Metropolitan Sotirios), there is a dilemma to regarding the titles of the UOCC's bishops in the city. Only one bishop can hold the title of a city in Orthodox ecclesiology, and this problem has yet to be solved.
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    1 votes
    109
    Ayatollah

    Ayatollah

    Ayatollah (UK /aɪəˈtɒlə/ or US /aɪətoʊlə/; Persian: آيت‌الله‎ ayatollah from Arabic: آية الله‎, āyatu allah "Sign of Allah") is a high ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, ethics, and philosophy and usually teach in Islamic seminaries. The next lower clerical rank is Hojatoleslam wal-muslemin. The name "ayatollah" originates from the Quran where the Shi'a, unlike the Sunni, interpret that human beings can also be regarded as signs of God, the literal translation of the title. 51:20–21 of the Quran states: The title is currently granted to top Shia mujtahid, after completing sat'h and kharij studies in the hawza. By then the mujtahid would be able to issue his own edicts from the sources of Islamic religious laws: the Qur'an, the Sunnah, ijmāʻ, and 'aql ("intellect", rather than the Sunnī principle of qiyas). Most of the time this is attested by an issued certificate from his teachers. The ayatollah can then teach in hawzas (shia temples) according to his speciality, can act as a reference for their religious questions, and act as a judge. There is an important difference from Shi'a
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    110
    Bishop

    Bishop

    • Rank or Role: Bishop
    A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic Churches, and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who posess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy including other bishops. Some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. It is the one ordained deacon, priest and then bishop who is understood to hold the fullness of the (ministerial) priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern, teach and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests, deacons, and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishop(s) in shepherding a flock. The term epískopos was not from the
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    111

    Bishop of Achonry

    The Bishop of Achonry is an episcopal title which takes its name after the village of Achonry in County Sligo, Ireland. In the Roman Catholic Church it remains as a separate title, but in the Church of Ireland it has been united with other bishoprics. In the sixth century, the monastery at Achonry was founded by Saint Nathy, a disciple of Saint Finnian of Clonard. The superiors of the monastery were styled abbots or bishops of Achad Cain or Achad Conaire, and in some of the Irish annals they were called bishops of Luighne. It was not until 1152 that the diocese of Achonry was established at the Synod of Kells. The bishop's seat was located at the Cathedral Church of St Crumnathy in Achonry. During the Reformation, the bishops changed their allegiance back and forth between the Pope and the Crown. After the Reformation, the Church of Ireland see of Achonry combined with Killala to form the united bishopric of Killala and Achonry in 1622. In the Roman Catholic Church, it still continues as separate title. The Roman Catholic bishop's seat is now located at the Cathedral Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Nathy in Ballaghaderreen, County Roscommon. The
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    1 votes
    112

    Bishop of Bradford

    The Bishop of Bradford is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Bradford, in the Province of York The diocese covers the extreme west of Yorkshire, and has its see in the city of Bradford where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter. The Bishop's residence is Bishopscroft, Bradford. The office has existed since the foundation of the see from part of the Diocese of Ripon in 1920 under King George V. The current (and possibly last) diocesan Bishop of Bradford is Nick Baines, since 21 May 2011.
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    113
    Bishop of Dunblane

    Bishop of Dunblane

    The Bishop of Dunblane or Bishop of Strathearn was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Dunblane/Strathearn, one of medieval Scotland's thirteen bishoprics. It was based at Dunblane Cathedral, now a parish church of the Church of Scotland. The bishopric itself certainly derives from an older Gaelic Christian community. According to legend, the Christian community of Dunblane was derived from the mission of St. Bláán, a saint originally associated with the monastery of Cenn Garath (Kingarth) on the Isle of Bute. Although the bishopric had its origins in the 1150s or before, the cathedral was not build nor was the seat (cathedra) of the diocese fixed at Dunblane until the episcopate of Clement. The Bishopric's links with Rome ceased to exist after the Scottish Reformation, but continued, saving temporary abolition between 1638 and 1661, under the episcopal Church of Scotland until the Revolution of 1688. Episcopacy in the established church in Scotland was permanently abolished in 1689.
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    Bishop of Kilmacduagh

    Bishop of Kilmacduagh

    The Bishop of Kilmacduagh was a separate episcopal title which took its name after the village of Kilmacduagh in County Galway, Ireland. In both the Church of Ireland and the Roman Catholic Church, the title is now united with other bishoprics. In the seventh century, the monastery of Kilmacduagh was founded by Saint Colman, son of Duagh. It was not until 1152 that the Diocese of Kilmacduagh was established at the Synod of Kells. After the Reformation, there were parallel apostolic successions. The Church of Ireland bishopric of Kilmacduagh was united with Clonfert to form the united bishopric of Clonfert and Kilmacduagh in 1625. Under the Church Temporalities (Ireland) Act 1833, the united see became part of the bishopric of Killaloe and Clonfert in 1834. Since 1976, Kilmacduagh has been one of the sees held by the Bishop of Limerick and Killaloe. The Roman Catholic Church bishopric of Kilmacduagh continued as a separate title until 1750 when Pope Benedict XIV decreed that it to be united with the bishopric of Kilfenora. The ordinary of the united dioceses was to be alternately bishop of one diocese and apostolic administrator of the other, since the two dioceses were in different
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    Bishop of Lisieux

    Bishop of Lisieux

    The bishop of Lisieux was the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lisieux. The first known Bishop of Lisieux is Theodibandes, mentioned in connexion with a council held in 538.
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    Bishop of Llandaff

    Bishop of Llandaff

    The Bishop of Llandaff is the Ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Llandaff. The diocese covers most of the County of Glamorgan. The Bishop's seat is located in the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (the site of a church wrongly said to have been founded in 560 by Saint Teilo), in the village of Llandaff, just north-west of the City of Cardiff. The Bishop's residence is Llys Esgob, The Cathedral Green, Llandaff in Cardiff. Originally Celtic Christians, the bishops were in communion with Rome from 777 and, since the Reformation of the 1530s, have been members of the Anglican Church in Wales. There is only evidence for the bishops being called 'Bishop of Llandaff' from the early 11th century. Before this, though still ministering to Glamorgan and Gwent, the bishops were called Bishop of Teilo and were almost certainly based at Llandeilo Abbey. The very early bishops were probably based in Ergyng. In medieval records, the bishop is sometimes referred to as the Archbishop of Llandaff. This appears to have been a simple reaction to the claim of St David's to the archiepiscopal title. The current (102nd) Bishop of Llandaff is the Most Reverend Dr Barry Cennydd Morgan;
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    Takser Rinpoche

    Taktser Rinpoche (Tibetan: སྟག་མཚེར་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, ZYPY: Dagcêr Rinboqê; Chinese: 当彩活佛) was a Tibetan lama. Thupten Jigme Norbu, the brother of Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet was recognized in Tibetan Buddhism as his reincarnation. On September 5, 2008, Norbu, 86, died at his Indiana, USA home after illness for many years. He was survived by his wife Kunyang Norbu, and 3 sons.
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    Bishop of Argyll and the Isles

    The Bishop of Argyll and The Isles is the ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Argyll and the Isles in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, Scotland. The Scottish hierarchy was restored by Pope Leo XIII on 15 March 1878 and the ancient bishoprics of Argyll and The Isles were re-established and united under one bishop. The diocese covers an area of 31,080 km (12,000 sq mi) and comprises most of Argyll and Bute, the southern part of the Highland council area, the Outer Hebrides, and the Isle of Arran. The Episcopal see is in the town of Oban where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of St. Columba. The current incumbent is The Rt. Rev. Dr. Joseph Toal, who was appointed by the Holy See as the tenth Bishop of Argyll and the Isles on 16 October 2008 and ordained bishop on 8 December 2008.
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    Bishop of Limerick and Killaloe

    The Bishop of Limerick, Killaloe and Ardfert or the Bishop of Limerick and Killaloe (Full title: Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert, Aghadoe, Killaloe, Kilfenora, Clonfert, Kilmacduagh and Emly) is the Church of Ireland Ordinary of the united Diocese of Limerick and Killaloe in the Province of Dublin. The united bishopric has three cathedrals: Five others are in ruins or no longer exist:
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    Bishop of St Asaph

    The Bishop of St Asaph heads the Church in Wales diocese of St Asaph. The diocese covers the counties of Conwy and Flintshire, Wrexham county borough, the eastern part of Merioneth in Gwynedd and part of northern Powys. The Episcopal seat is located in the Cathedral Church of St Asaph in the town of St Asaph in Denbighshire, north Wales. The Bishop's residence is Esgobty, St Asaph. The current bishop is the Rt Revd Gregory Cameron, who was elected on 5 January and consecrated on 4 April 2009. He became the 76th Bishop of St Asaph in succession to the Rt Revd John Stewart Davies, who was consecrated in October 1999 and who retired in 2008. This diocese was supposedly founded by St Kentigern (Cyndeyrn) about the middle of the 6th century, although this is unlikely. The date often given is 583. Exiled from his see in Scotland, Kentigern is said to have founded a monastery called Llanelwy - which is the Welsh name for St Asaph - at the confluence of the rivers Clwyd and Elwy in north Wales, where after his return to Scotland he was succeeded by Asaph or Asa, who was consecrated Bishop of Llanelwy. The diocese originally largely coincided with the kingdom of Powys, together with the
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    Bishop of Uganda

    The Anglican diocese of Uganda was formed in 1897 as a division of the diocese of Eastern Equatorial Africa. Prior to 1980, the dioscese included Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Boga, in what was then the country of Zaire. That year, the Diocese of Uganda was separated and made a separate Province: As of June 2012, the Church of Uganda is divided into 34 dioceses and is under an Archbishop.
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    Archbishop of Mount Sinai and Raithu

    The following is a list of Orthodox Archbishops of Mount Sinai and Raithu. It is an autocephalous (possibly autonomous, given that the Archbishop, and abbot of the monastery, is appointed by the Patriarch of Jerusalem) Julian Calendar Orthodox Church.
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    Bishop of Ely

    The Bishop of Ely is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese roughly covers the county of Cambridgeshire (with the exception of the Soke of Peterborough), together with a section of north-west Norfolk and has its see in the City of Ely, Cambridgeshire, where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity. The current bishop is the Rt Revd Stephen Conway, the 69th Lord Bishop of Ely, who signs +Stephen Elien: (abbreviation of the Latin Eliensis, genetive case, meaning "of Ely"). The Bishops of Ely now reside in the Bishop's House, Ely, the former Cathedral Deanery. Bishop Conway became Bishop of Ely in 2010, translated from the Diocese of Salisbury, where he was Bishop of Ramsbury. The roots of the diocese of Ely are ancient and the area of Ely was part of the patrimony of Saint Etheldreda. Prior to the elevation of Ely Cathedral as the seat of the diocese, it existed as first as a convent of religious sisters and later as a monastery. It was led by first by an abbess and later by an abbot. The convent was founded in the city in 673. After St Etheldreda's death in 679 she was buried outside the church. Her
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    Bishop of Truro

    The Bishop of Truro is the ordinary (diocesan bishop) of the Church of England Diocese of Truro in the Province of Canterbury. The current incumbent is the Right Reverend Tim Thornton, 15th Lord Bishop of Truro, who was enthroned at Truro Cathedral on 7 March 2009. There had been between the 9th and 11th centuries a Bishopric of Cornwall until it was merged with Crediton and the sees were transferred to Exeter in 1050. The Diocese of Truro was established by Act of Parliament in 1876 under Queen Victoria. It was created by the division of the Diocese of Exeter in 1876 approximately along the Devon-Cornwall border (a few parishes of Devon west of the Tamar were included in the new diocese). The bishop's seat is located at Truro Cathedral and his official residence at Lis Escop, Feock, Truro. The Bishop of Truro is assisted by the suffragan Bishop of St Germans in overseeing the diocese.
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    Guru

    Guru

    Guru (Devanagari गुरु) is a Sanskrit term for "teacher" or "master", especially in Indian religions. The Hindu guru-shishya tradition is the oral tradition or religious doctrine transmitted from teacher to student. In the United States, the meaning of "guru" has been used to cover anyone who acquires followers, especially by exploiting their naiveté, due to the inflationary use of the term in new religious movements. The syllable gu means shadows The syllable ru, he who disperses them, Because of the power to disperse darkness the guru is thus named. — Advayataraka Upanishad 14—18, verse 5 The word guru, a noun, means "teacher" in Sanskrit and in other languages derived from or borrowing words from Sanskrit, such as Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Bengali, Gujarati and Nepali. The malayalam term Acharyan or Asan are derivered from the Sanskrit word Acharya. It is transliterated in different ways such as Asaan, Ashan, Aasaan etc. As a noun the word means the imparter of knowledge (jñāna; also Pali: ñāna). As an adjective, it means 'heavy,' or 'weighty,' in the sense of "heavy with knowledge," heavy with spiritual wisdom, "heavy with spiritual weight,"
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    Patriarch of Alexandria

    Patriarch of Alexandria

    The Patriarch of Alexandria is the Archbishop of Alexandria and Cairo, Egypt. Historically, this office has included the designation of Pope (etymologically 'Father', like Abbot etc.). The first Bishop known to have been called "Pope" was the thirteenth Patriarch of Alexandria, Papas Heraclas. At first the position was an Episcopate, which was revered as one of the three most ancient Episcopates, along with Rome and Antioch, several centuries before Jerusalem or Constantinople attained that status in 381 or 451; the five subsequently came to be known as the Pentarchy. It was, de facto, elevated to an Archiepiscopal status by the local Alexandrine Council on the one hand and it was then regulated by canon law of the First Ecumenical Council stipulating that all the Egyptian episcopal and metropolitan provinces be subjected to this Metropolitan See of Alexandria, as was already the prevailing custom. The office was acknowledged as a Patriarchate by the time of the First Council of Ephesus, and was officially ratified as such by the Council of Chalcedon. The title Pope was originally used in a capacity of an appellation rather than a title and eventually it became a title, but unlike
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    Quorums of the Seventy

    Seventy is a priesthood office in the Melchizedek priesthood of several denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Traditionally, a Latter Day Saint holding this priesthood office is a "traveling minister" and an "especial witness" of Jesus Christ, charged with the mission of preaching the gospel to the entire world under the direction of the Twelve Apostles. Latter Day Saints teach that the office of seventy was anciently conferred upon the seventy disciples mentioned in the Gospel of Luke 10:1-2. Multiple individuals holding the office of seventy are referred to collectively as seventies. In practical terms, the priesthood office of seventy is one which has varied widely over the course of history. As originally envisioned by Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith, Jr. in the 1830s, the seventy were to be a body composed of several separate quorums of up to 70 seventies each, all of which would be led by seven presidents. These presidents, chosen from the first quorum, would appoint and direct the other quorums of seventy. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the largest of the
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    Apostolic Nuncio to France

    Apostolic Nuncio to France

    The Apostolic Nunciature to the French Republic is an ecclesiastical office of the Catholic Church in France. It is a diplomatic post of the Holy See, whose representative is called the Apostolic Nuncio with the rank of an ambassador. The early twentieth century was a very difficult time in France-Vatican relations because of tensions over Church-State separation (laicite) and anticlericalism, which were condemned by Pius X, and which led to the freezing of relations. However, relations were renewed after the First World War and had very much improved under the presidency of Charles de Gaulle. There was controversy over relations under the Vichy regime, because the regime rewarded the Church even though bishops often opposed antisemitism. Relations with the Sarkozy government have been relatively good, given the fact that the government has announced an end to the ban on recognition of higher Christian institutions.
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    Archbishop of Liverpool

    Archbishop of Liverpool

    The Archbishop of Liverpool heads the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Liverpool in England. As such he is the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Province of Liverpool, known also on occasion as the Northern Province. With the gradual abolition of the legal restrictions on the activities of Catholics in England and Wales in the early 19th century, Rome decided to proceed to bridge the gap of the centuries from Queen Elizabeth I by instituting Catholic dioceses on the regular historical pattern. Thus Pope Pius IX issued the Bull Universalis Ecclesiae of 29 September 1850 by which thirteen new dioceses which did not formally claim any continuity with the pre-Elizabethan English dioceses were created. One of these was the diocese of Liverpool. At its creation it comprised the hundreds of West Derby, Leyland, Lonsdale and Amounderness in Lancashire, plus the Isle of Man. In the early period from 1850 the diocese was a suffragan of the Metropolitan See of Westminster, but a further development was the creation under Pope Pius X, on 28 October 1911, of a new Province of Liverpool. The archdiocese covers an area of 1,165 km² (450 sq. mi.) of the west of the County of Lancashire south of the
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    Bishop of Blackburn

    The Bishop of Blackburn is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Blackburn in the Province of York. The diocese covers much of the county of Lancashire and has its see in the town of Blackburn, where the seat of the diocese is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Mary. Despite having a cathedral Blackburn is not officially a city. The office has existed since the foundation of the see from part of the Diocese of Manchester in 1926 under King George V. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Nicholas Reade BA, the 8th Bishop of Blackburn, who signs +Nicholas Blackburn, and who will retire on 31 October 2012.
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    Bishop of Oxford

    Bishop of Oxford

    The Bishop of Oxford is the diocesan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury; his seat is at Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. The present incumbent, the 42nd, is John Lawrence Pritchard, who ceremonially began his work on 8 June 2007. The origins of Christianity in this part of England go back at least to the 7th century, when Saint Birinus brought his mission to the West Saxons in 634. The West Saxon King Cynegils was baptised in the River Thames near the present site of Dorchester Abbey, where the original See was established. The see was transferred in 1092 to Winchester, before being absorbed into the Diocese of Lincoln, the vast extent of which covered much of central and eastern England from the River Thames to the Humber. King Henry VIII, acting now as head of the Church in England, established by Act of Parliament in 1542 six new dioceses, mostly out of the spoils of the suppressed monasteries. These six were Bristol, Chester, Gloucester, Oxford, Peterborough and Westminster. This intervention by Henry VIII saw a new see located at Osney in Oxfordshire in 1542 before finally being moved to its present location in the City of Oxford in
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    Bishop of Whitby

    The Bishop of Whitby is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of York, in the Province of York, England. The title takes its name after the town of Whitby in North Yorkshire. Today, the Bishop of Whitby is responsible for the Archdeaconry of Cleveland, and assists the Archbishop of York in overseeing the diocese, particularly in parishes unable to accept the priestly ministry of women.
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    Latin archbishop of Nicosia

    The Latin (Roman Catholic) archbishopric of Nicosia, in Cyprus, was created in the time of the Crusades. It later became titular only. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia there were 31 Latin archbishops from 1196, shortly after the conquest of Cyprus by Richard I of England, to 1502.
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    Bishop of Cork and Ross

    Bishop of Cork and Ross

    The Bishop of Cork and Ross is an episcopal title which takes its name after the city of Cork and the town of Rosscarbery in Ireland. The combined title was first used by the Church of Ireland from 1638 to 1660 and again from 1679 to 1835. At present the title is being used by the Roman Catholic Church. The Church of Ireland title was formed when the bishopric of Cork, Cloyne and Ross was separated in 1638 into bishopric of Cork and Ross and the bishopric of Cloyne. They were reunited in 1660, but again were separated in 1679. Since 1835, the sees of Cork, Cloyne and Ross have again been reunited under one bishop. The Roman Catholic title was formed by the union of the bishoprics of Cork and Ross on the 19 April 1958. The current bishop is the Most Reverend John Buckley, Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cork and Ross who was appointed by the Holy See on 19 December 1997 and was installed at the Cathedral of St Mary and St Anne, Cork, on 8 February 1998.
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    Bishop of Hereford

    The Bishop of Hereford is a character in the Robin Hood legend. He is typically portrayed as a wealthy and greedy clergyman who is robbed by Robin and his Merry Men. The character first appears by this name in the ballad "Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford". The earliest surviving text is in the Forresters manuscript (British Library Additional MS 71158), which dates to the 1670s. Relying on later printed versions, Francis James Child collected the work as Child Ballad 144. In the song, Robin Hood and some of his men, disguised as shepherds, poach a deer in an area where they know the Bishop of Hereford will pass through. Finding them, the Bishop threatens to bring them before King Richard, and refuses to grant them pardon. Robin summons his Merry Men, who capture the Bishop and force him to "pay for" a feast with the outlaws and to perform a mass for them. Child regarded it as "far superior to most of the seventeenth-century broadsides". The work is related to Child Ballad 143, "Robin Hood and the Bishop", which features an unidentified bishop and ends in a nearly identical way. Both are variants of the episode in the much older "Gest of Robyn Hode" in which Robin robs a monk.
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    Bishop of Horsham

    The Bishop of Horsham is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after the market town of Horsham in West Sussex. Horsham was one of the thirteen new post-English Reformation reformation bishoprics and dioceses proposed by King Henry VIII in an ecclesiastical revision proposal written in the king's own handwriting. The subsequent reallocation of former monastic incomes allowed for the eventual creation of only six of these thirteen dioceses. Nonetheless, an area of west Horsham became known as 'Bishopric'. When new sees (both suffragan and diocesan) were established by the Church of England in the 20th century, the proposed Tudor dioceses which had not come into being were considered as episcopal titles. Horsham was one of those chosen (as was Leicester). The current Bishop is the Right Reverend Mark Sowerby, who was consecrated a bishop on 25 July 2009 in Chichester Cathedral in a ceremony led by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
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    Bishop of Reading

    The Bishop of Reading is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford, which is within the Province of Canterbury, England. The current Bishop is the Rt Revd Andrew Proud. The title takes its name after the town of Reading in Berkshire. The Bishop of Reading is responsible for the archdeaconry of Berkshire.
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    Peshwa

    Peshwa

    A Peshwa (Marathi: पेशवे) is the titular equivalent of a modern Prime Minister. Emperor Shivaji created the Peshwa designation in order to more effectively delegate administrative duties during the growth of the Maratha Empire. The word Peshwa has roots in the Persian language meaning 'foremost'. The Peshwas were all Brahmin ministers who initially started as the chief executives to the king. Prior to 1749, Peshwas held office for 8-9 years and controlled the Maratha army. They later became the de facto hereditary administrators of the Maratha Empire from 1749 till its end in 1818. Under Peshwa administration and with the support of several key generals and diplomats (listed below), the Maratha Empire reached its zenith, ruling most of the Indian subcontinent landmass. It was also under the Peshwas that the Maratha Empire came to its end through its formal annexation into the British Empire by the British East India Company in 1818. After the coronation of Shivaji in 1674, he appointed Moropant Trimbak Pingle as the first Peshwa. Shivaji renamed this designation as Pantpradhan in 1674 but this term is less commonly used. Today, the surname "Peshwe" (alternatively "Peshave") is
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    Bishop of Augsburg

    Bishop of Augsburg

    The Bishop of Augsburg is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Augsburg in the Ecclesiastical province of München und Freising. The diocese covers an area of 13,250 km². The current bishop is Konrad Zdarsa who was appointed in 2010.
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    Bishop of Coventry

    Bishop of Coventry

    The Bishop of Coventry is the Ordinary of the England Diocese of Coventry in the Province of Canterbury. In the Middle Ages, the Bishop of Coventry was a title used by the bishops known today as the Bishop of Lichfield. The present diocese covers most of the County of Warwickshire. The see is in the City of Coventry where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Michael. The Bishop's residence is The Bishop's House, Coventry. From 1102 to 1238, the former Benedictine Priory and Cathedral of St Mary in the city was the seat of the early Bishops of Coventry (previously known as Bishops of Chester or of Lichfield). It was, afterwards, one of the two seats of the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield until the Reformation of the 1530s when Coventry Cathedral was demolished and the bishop's seat moved to Lichfield, though the title remained as Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry until 1837, when Coventry was united with the Diocese of Worcester. In the late nineteenth century there were two Suffragan Bishops of Coventry appointed to assist the Bishop of Worcester, the Rt Revd John Perowne, in overseeing the Diocese of Worcester. The diocese was revived in 1918 under King George V
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    Bishop of Riverina

    The Diocese of Riverina is one of 23 dioceses of the Anglican Church of Australia. The diocese covers 37% of New South Wales, including the Riverina and the far west of the State. The diocese has 23 parishes and covers main population centres of Griffith, Broken Hill, Deniliquin, Leeton, Narrandera and Corowa. However, only 15 of the parishes have full-time clergy. In 2003 funding pressures lead the diocese to a joint funding arrangement with the Diocese of Canberra and Goulburn and the Diocese of Bathurst for several minstry services. The Diocese of Riverina was established in 1884 when the Diocese of Goulburn was divided. In 1953 Robinson transferred the administrative centre of the diocese to Narrandera, with accommodation for the bishop and registry. Hay, however, remained the site of the pro-cathedral of the diocese. Sir John Grindrod, an Englishman, came to Riverina via Queensland. He travelled widely to the remote parts of the diocese (in a small VW Beetle) and was a keen bird-spotter. He later became Bishop of Rockhampton, Archbishop of Brisbane and Primate of the Anglican Church of Australia. He died in January 2009. Bishop Hunter was a keen poet and the first and only
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    Bishop of the Falkland Islands

    The Bishop of the Falkland Islands was historically a bishopric in the Church of England; as the ordinary of the Diocese of the Falkland Islands, the bishop had responsibility for chaplaincies across South America, before national metropolitcal provinces were formed. Today the Bishop of the Falkland Islands is the head of the small extra-provincial Church of the Falkland Islands, a member church of the Anglican Communion. The title is held concurrently and ex officio by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Waite Stirling, a missionary from the Patagonian Missionary Society (renamed the South American Missionary Society in 1868) was ordained in Westminster Abbey on 21 December 1869, as the first Bishop of the Falkland Islands. Stirling had episcopal jurisdiction over "the whole of South America with the exception of British Guiana". Bishop Stirling served the people of the Falkland Islands for 30 years, later becoming Canon of Wells Cathedral. Until well into the twentieth century, the Bishop of the Falkland Islands had episcopal authority over the whole of South America, until power shifted to the Bishop of Buenos Aires. In 1982, the Argentinian episcopal authority over the Falkland
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    Archbishop of Nazareth

    The Archbishop of Nazareth was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the crusades. The ancient diocese was located at Scythopolis, known as Bethsan to the crusaders. It was the metropolis of Palaestina Secunda. After Nazareth was captured following the First Crusade, the Greek Orthodox diocese was moved there. and a Roman Catholic archdiocese was established. Among its suffragans were the bishop of Tiberias and the abbot of Mount Tabor. Following the Muslim conquest in the Holy Land, Archbishop of Nazareth took refuge in Barletta (Italy), and moved permanently there in 1327. It began, well, the long line of archbishops of Nazareth residents in Barletta. On June 27, 1818, with the bull De ulteriori of Pope Pius VII, the Archdiocese of Nazareth was suppressed. On 22 October 1828, with the Bull Multis quidem of Pope Leo XII the title of Archbishop of Nazareth was granted to the Archbishops of Trani. Subsequently, the title passed to the archbishops of Barletta and Trani (1860) and then to the Archbishops of Trani-Barletta-Bisceglie (1986).
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    Bishop of Hull

    The Bishop of Hull is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of York, England. The suffragan bishop, along with the Bishop of Selby and the Bishop of Whitby, assists the Archbishop of York in overseeing the diocese. The title takes its name after the city of Kingston upon Hull and was first created under the Suffragan Bishops Act 1534. Today, the Bishop of Hull is responsible for the Archdeaconry of the East Riding.
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    Bishop of Osnabrück

    The Bishop of Osnabrück is the ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Osnabrück, the current incumbent is Franz-Josef Hermann Bode. Theodor Kettmann is his auxiliary bishop.
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    Bishop of Willesden

    The Bishop of Willesden is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of London, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after Willesden, an area of the London Borough of Brent. The post was created in 1911, and was the fourth suffragan bishopric in the diocese. The new bishop was given oversight of four rural deaneries: Hampstead, Hornsey, St Pancras and Willesden previously the responsibility of the Bishop of Islington. The bishop now has responsibility for the Willesden Episcopal Area, comprising four deaneries: Brent, Ealing, Harrow and Hillingdon.
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    Mufti

    Mufti

    A mufti (Arabic: مفتي‎, muftī , Turkish: müftü ) is a Sunni Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh). In religious administrative terms, a mufti is roughly equivalent to a deacon to a Sunni population. A muftiat or diyanet is a council of muftis. A Mufti will generally go through an Iftaa course and the person should fulfill the following conditions set by scholars in order that he may be able to issue verdicts (fataawa). They are eight:
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    Roman Catholic Bishop of San Jose in California

    Roman Catholic Bishop of San Jose in California

    The Roman Catholic Bishop of San Jose in California is the head of the Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose in California, being the ordinary minister of the diocese. As such, he is a member of the College of Bishops, and is responsible for teaching, governing, and sanctifying the faithful of the Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose in California. In this capacity, he shares or delegates duties with the priests and deacons who serve in the diocese. The sacramental duties and jurisdiction of his ministry is assisted by auxiliary bishops and vicars general.
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    Archbishop of Novgorod

    Archbishop of Novgorod

    The bishop of Novgorod is the head of the eparchy of Novgorod the Great and is one of the oldest offices in the Russian Orthodox Church. The medieval archbishops of Novgorod were among the most important figures in medieval Russian history and culture and their successors (as bishops, archbishops, or metropolitans) have continued to play significant roles in Russian history up to the present day. The medieval archbishops patronized a significant number of churches in and around the city (several of which can still be seen today) and their artistic and architectural embellishments influenced later Russian art and architecture; they also patronized chronicle-writing, a crucial source on medieval Russian history. The office of bishop of Novgorod was created around the time of the Christianization of Rus' (988), although the chronicles give conflicting dates for its establishment ranging anywhere from 989 to 992. The first bishop, Ioakim Korsunianin (ca. 989-1030), built the first (wooden) Cathedral of Holy Wisdom (also called St. Sofia's) "with thirteen tops" around the time of his arrival in Novgorod. That cathedral burned in 1045, and the current, stone, cathedral, the oldest
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    156
    Bishop of Brechin

    Bishop of Brechin

    The Bishop of Brechin is the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Brechin or Angus, based at Dundee. Brechin Cathedral, Brechin is a parish church of the established (presbyterian) Church of Scotland. The diocese had a long-established Gaelic monastic community which survived into the 13th century. The clerical establishment may very well have traced their earlier origins from Abernethy. During the Scottish Reformation, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland gained control of the heritage and jurisdiction of the bishopric. However, the line of bishops has continued to this day, according to ancient models of consecration, in the Scottish Episcopal Church. Today the bishop is the Ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin.
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    157

    Bishop of Bristol

    The Bishop of Bristol heads the Church of England Diocese of Bristol in the Province of Canterbury, in England. The present diocese covers parts of the counties of Somerset and Gloucestershire together with a small area of Wiltshire. The see is in the City of Bristol where the seat is located at Bristol Cathedral. The bishop's residence is in Winterbourne, Bristol. The current bishop is the Rt Revd Mike Hill, the 55th Bishop of Bristol, who signs +Mike Bristol. In 1133, Robert Fitzharding began to build "the abbeye at Bristowe, that of Saint Austin is" (i.e. an Augustinian monastery). The abbey church, destined to serve hereafter as a cathedral, was of different dates: the old Norman nave built by Fitzharding seems to have stood till the suppression, but the chancel, which still exists, was early 14th century and the transepts late 15th. The building was worthy to serve as a cathedral. Yet at first Bristol does not seem to have been thought of as a bishopric, for it is not included in the list of projected sees now among the Cottonian MSS in the British Museum. The abbey church of the Augustinian Canons was plundered at the time of the suppression of the house in 1539, during the
    5.67
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    158

    Bishop of Chichester, England

    The Bishop of Chichester headed in the Middle Ages and Tudor times the Catholic diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury, in England. The diocese covers the Counties of East and West Sussex. The see is in the City of Chichester where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, a fine building founded in 1075, after the seat of the bishop was transferred to the town from nearby Selsey. It was consecrated in 1108, but after a fire and rebuilding reconsecrated in 1199 and further developed since. Sussex has held a bishopric since 681 when the first cathedral was founded at Selsey on a site which is now probably submerged by the sea off the Sussex coast near Selsey. The seat was moved to Chichester in 1075 under William the Conqueror. In 1559 the last Catholic bishop was deprived by Elizabeth I; the bishops since then have been protestant. (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)
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    159
    Bishop of Kuching

    Bishop of Kuching

    The Bishop of Kuching is the ordinary of the Anglican Diocese of Kuching in the Church of the Province of South East Asia. The bishop exercises episcopal authority over Anglican churches in the Malaysian state of Sarawak and in the independent nation of Brunei Darussalam. The see is in the city of Kuching where the seat of the bishop is located at St. Thomas' Cathedral, originally built in 1848 and consecrated in 1851 as the home church and base for the Borneo Church Mission in Sarawak. The first Bishop of Kuching to be styled as such was appointed in 1962. In 1968, the Right Reverend Datuk Basil Temenggong was appointed the bishop of the diocese, becoming the first native Malaysian and Sarawakian to be appointed to the seat. The current bishop is the Most Reverend Datuk Bolly Lapok who is also concurrently the Archbishop of South East Asia. The bishop's residence is in The Bishop's House on a small hill in Kuching known as College Hill within the compound of the Cathedral. Initially constructed in 1849 as The Mission House and served as the first dispensary in Kuching. Anglican missions to the Kingdom of Sarawak began in 1848 under the auspices of the Borneo Church Mission.
    5.67
    3 votes
    160

    Bishop of Rottenburg-Stuttgart

    The German Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg, established by Pope Pius VII on August 16, 1821, was renamed the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart on January 18, 1978 under Pope Paul VI. The following men have served as Bishop of the diocese:
    5.67
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    161
    Archbishop of Armagh

    Archbishop of Armagh

    The Anglican Archbishop of Armagh is the ecclesiastical head of the Church of Ireland, the metropolitan of the Province of Armagh and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Armagh. The diocese traces its history to Saint Patrick in the 5th century, who founded the See, and his most recent successor is the Most Reverend Alan Harper who was enthroned at St Patrick's Church of Ireland Cathedral in Armagh on the 16 March 2007. Like his counterpart, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, he bears the title Primate of All Ireland. Saint Patrick, having received some grants of land from the chieftain Daire, on the hill called Ard-Macha (the Height of Macha), built a stone church on the summit and a monastery and some other religious edifices round about, and fixed on this place for his metropolitan see. In Irish times, the primacy of Armagh was questioned only by the great southern centre of the Irish Church, at Cashel. Brian Boru recognized the supremacy of Armagh, possibly in a political move to gain support from Armagh for Boru's claim to the High Kingship. Another note-worthy incumbent was St. Malachy O'Morgair (1134–37), who suffered many tribulations in trying to effect a
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    162

    Archbishop of Cluj

    The Archdiocese of Vad, Feleac and Cluj is an episcopal see of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Cathedral of this archbishopric is the Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral in Cluj.
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    164
    Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia

    Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia

    The Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia (Macedonian: Архиепископ Охридски и Македонски) is the title given to the primate of the Macedonian Orthodox Church. The Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia exercises jurisdiction over the Macedonian Orthodox Church members in the Republic of Macedonia and in exarchates in diaspora. Additionally to the title "Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia", the title "mister mister" (господин господин) is given, always after the first one. The current Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia is Archbishop Stephen, who was elected in 1999 following the passing of Archbishop Michael. In 1959, the Macedonian Orthodox Church was declared as the restoration of the Archbishopric of Ohrid. The declaration was celebrated in a common liturgy by Macedonian priests and the Serbian Patriarch German in 1959 in Skopje. The Archbishop Dositheus II was enthroned as Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia, continuing in the lineage of the Archbishops of Ohrid. In 1962, the Serbian Patriarch German and Russian Patriarch Alexius I visited the Macedonian Orthodox Church on the feast of Saints Methodius and Cyril in Ohrid. The two Patriarchs and the Macedonian Archbishop Dositheus II
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    165

    Archbishop of Tyre

    The Archbishop of Tyre was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades and was established to serve the Roman Catholic members of the diocese. Tyre was one of the most ancient dioceses in Christianity. The original Diocese of Tyre was part of the Province of Antioch and was subject to the Patriarch of Antioch. Following the schism between Rome and Constantinople in 1054, the congregation followed the Eastern Orthodox rite. However, when the Crusaders conquered Tyre, arguments over who had the right to appoint the suffragan fell in favor of the Catholic Church and the Orthodox bishop fled to Constantinople. Tyre was made part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, rather than the separate Principality of Antioch further to the north, and it was claimed by the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, against the claim of the Latin Patriarch of Antioch. The diocese was also raised to an archdiocese. Traditionally, the Patriarch of Jerusalem would have first served as the archbishop of Tyre, or of Caesarea. The most notable archbishop of Tyre was the historian William of Tyre, who served from 1175 to 1185. After the recapture of Tyre by the Crusaders, the Christian
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    166

    Bishop of Colombo

    The Anglican Bishop of Colombo is the bishop of the Diocese of Colombo, a diocese in the Church of Ceylon which is part of the Anglican Communion. Bishops of Colombo
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    167

    Bishop of Dorchester

    The modern Bishop of Dorchester is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The Bishop of Dorchester, along with the Bishop of Buckingham and the Bishop of Reading, assists the Diocesan Bishop of Oxford in overseeing the diocese. The title takes is name after the town of Dorchester-on-Thames in Oxfordshire, and was first used by the historic Bishops of Dorchester; at first for a West Saxon diocese, and later for a Mercian diocese.
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    168

    Bishop of Estonia

    Bishop of Estonia was the name of the main Bishop in Estonia during the early Catholic missionary phase of the late 12th and early 13th centuries. The two known bishops were Fulco and Theoderich.
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    169
    Bishop of Gibraltar in Europe

    Bishop of Gibraltar in Europe

    The Bishop in Europe (full title: Bishop of Gibraltar in Europe) is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese in Europe in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers not only the area of Gibraltar in British jurisdiction but also all of mainland Europe, Morocco and the territory of the former Soviet Union. The see is based in the City of Gibraltar where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity. The bishop's residence, however, is in England at Bishop's Lodge in Worth, Crawley, West Sussex (close to Gatwick Airport, to facilitate ease of travel) and the diocesan office is in Tufton Street, London, part of the Church House complex. The bishopric has existed since the union in 1980 of the see of Gibraltar (founded 1842) with the Jurisdiction of North and Central Europe of the see of London (headed by the suffragan Bishop of Fulham). The current bishop is the Right Reverend Geoffrey Rowell. (Any dates appearing in italics indicate de facto continuation of office. The start date of tenure below is the date of appointment or succession. Where known, the date of installation and ordination as bishop are listed in the notes together with the post
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    170
    Chaplain

    Chaplain

    Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, imam, lay representative of a world view attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel. Though originally the word "chaplain" referred to representatives of the Christian faith, it is now applied to men and women of other religions or philosophical traditions–such as in the case of the humanist chaplains serving with military forces in the Netherlands and Belgium. In recent years many lay individuals have received professional training in chaplaincy and are now appointed as chaplains in schools, hospitals, universities, prisons and elsewhere to work alongside or instead of official members of the clergy. The concept of 'generic' and/or 'multifaith' chaplaincy is also gaining increasing support, particularly within healthcare and educational settings. A chaplain provides pastoral (spiritual) and emotional support for service personnel, including the conduct of religious services at sea or in the field. Military chaplains have a long history; the first English military-oriented chaplains, for instance, were
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    171

    Chief Rabbi

    Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognized religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities. Since 1911, through a capitulation by Rabbi Uziel, Israel has had two chief rabbis, one Ashkenazi and one Sephardi. Cities with large Jewish communities may also have their own chief rabbis; this is especially the case in Israel but has also been past practice in major Jewish centers in Europe prior to the Holocaust. North American cities have rarely had chief rabbis, although some do have them: Montreal, in fact, has two—one for the Ashkenazi community, the other for the Sephardi. The Chief Rabbi's name is often followed by ABD, which stands for Av Beth Din. See chief Rabbis of Hong Kong, China. The position of chief rabbi of the Land of Israel has existed for hundreds of years. During the mandatory period, the British recognized the chief Rabbis of the Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities, just as they recognized the Mufti of Jerusalem. The offices continued after statehood was achieved. Haredi Jewish groups (such as Edah HaChareidis) do not recognize the authority of the Chief Rabbinate. They
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    172
    Doctor of the Church

    Doctor of the Church

    Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a title given by a variety of Christian churches to individuals whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine. In the Catholic Church, this title is given to a saint from whose writings the whole Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom "eminent learning" and "great sanctity" have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope or of an ecumenical council. This honour is given rarely, and only after canonization. No ecumenical council has yet exercised the prerogative of proclaiming a Doctor of the Church. Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, Saint Jerome, and Pope Gregory I were the original Doctors of the Church and were named in 1298. They are known collectively as the Great Doctors of the Western Church. The four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church, John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Athanasius of Alexandria were recognized in 1568 by Pope St. Pius V. The Doctors' works vary greatly in subject and form. Some, such as Pope Gregory I and Ambrose were prominent writers of letters and short
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    173

    Grand Master

    Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head of various orders of knighthood, including various military orders, religious orders and civil orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order. The title of Grand Master is used by the heads of Grand Lodges of Freemasons since 1717. In military orders such as the Knights Templar or the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, the Grand Master was the formal and executive head of a military and feudal pyramid, which can be considered a 'state within the state', especially in the 'crusader' context lato sensu (notably Middle Eastern crusades aimed at Jerusalem, Iberian reconquista, pagan territories east of Germany). If an order is granted statehood (and thus widely considered sovereign), the Grand Master is also its Head of State (if within the Holy Roman Empire, a Reichsfürst) and Head of Government, and thus a true territorial Prince of the church, as was the case with the Teutonic Knights and the Maltese Knights Hospitaller. In some orders, the head may be styled "Sovereign". In this case a Grand Master may come after the Sovereign. As most present-day orders are essentially an honorary distinction, as some orders
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    174

    Grand Mufti of Jerusalem

    The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is the Sunni Muslim cleric in charge of Jerusalem's Islamic holy places, including the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The first Qadi, Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni, was appointed by the Ottoman Empire, which ruled the Middle East, including the territory known as Palestine, from the 16th century to the early 20th century. When Tahir al-Husayni died in 1908, his son Kamil al-Husayni succeeded him and served with approval of the British authorities once the British conquered Jerusalem in December 1917. However, during World War I, the Ottoman Empire claimed that al-Husayni was a British stooge and that As'ad Shuqeiri-who was appointed by the Ottoman Empire as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem 1914-1918-was the rightful Grand Mufti. Shuqeiri was the father of Ahmad Shukeiri (1908–1980), the first leader of the Palestine Liberation Organisation. When Palestine was under British occupation, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a position appointed by the British Mandate authorities. When Kamil al-Husayni died in 1921, the British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husayni to the position. Amin al-Husayni, a member of the al-Husayni clan of
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    175
    Pastor

    Pastor

    A pastor is usually an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, the term may be abbreviated to "Pr" or often "Ps." The word itself is derived from the Latin word pastor which means "shepherd". The term "pastor" is also related to the role of elder within the New Testament, but is not synonymous with the biblical understanding of minister. Present-day usage of the word is rooted in the Bible. The Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament) uses the Hebrew word רעה (roʿeh). It is mentioned 173 times and describes the feeding of sheep, as in Genesis 29:7, or the spiritual feeding of human beings, as in Jeremiah 3:15, "Then I will give you shepherds after My own heart, who will feed you on knowledge and understanding" (NASB). In the New Testament, the Greek noun ποιμήν (poimēn) and verb ποιμαίνω (poimaino) are usually translated shepherd or to shepherd. The two words are used a total of 29 times in the New Testament, most frequently referring to Jesus. For example, Jesus called himself the "Good Shepherd" in John 10:11. The same words are used in familiar Christmas story (Luke 2) referring to literal shepherds. In five New Testament passages
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    176

    Archbishop of Birmingham

    The Archbishop of Birmingham heads the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Birmingham in England. As such he is the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Province of Birmingham. The archdiocese covers an area of 8,735 km (3,400 sq mi) and spans of the counties of Oxfordshire, Staffordshire, West Midlands, Warwickshire and Worcestershire. The see in the City of Birmingham where the archbishop's seat is located at the Metropolitan Cathedral and Basilica of Saint Chad. With the gradual abolition of the legal restrictions on the activities of Catholics in England and Wales in the early 19th century, Rome decided to proceed to bridge the gap of the centuries from Queen Elizabeth I by instituting Catholic dioceses on the regular historical pattern. Thus Pope Pius IX issued the Bull Universalis Ecclesiae of 29 September 1850 by which thirteen new dioceses which did not formally claim any continuity with the pre-Elizabethan English dioceses were created. One of these was the diocese of Birmingham. This has its origins in the Vicariates Apostolic of England, of the Midland District and lastly of the Central District. The last Vicar Apostolic of the Central District, from 28 July 1848, was Bishop William
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    177

    Archbishop of Caesarea

    The Archbishop of Caesarea was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades. The Bishop of Caesarea became metropolitan of Palestine in the early 3rd century but after the Council of Chalcedon in 451 he was subordinate to the Patriarch of Jerusalem. His see was at Caesarea Maritima a port city in Palestine. The diocese was an ancient one, established in one of the first Christian communities ever created: it was due to the work of St Peter and St Paul. Records of the community are dated as far back as the 2nd century. According to the Apostolic Constitutions (7.46), the first Bishop of Caesarea was Zacchaeus the Publican. Caesarea Maritima was the capital of Roman Iudaea province and after the Bar Kokhba revolt it was the metropolis of the diocese of Palaestina Prima. Until the establishment of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, it was subject to the Patriarch of Antioch. The most notable Bishop of Caesarea was Eusebius of Caesarea, also known as Eusebius Pamphili. The notable theological library established by Pamphilus of Caesarea remained in existence until the Arabs invaded Palestine in the 7th century. The diocese suffered a troubled history
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    178
    Archbishop of Edmonton and Western Canada

    Archbishop of Edmonton and Western Canada

    The Western Eparchy is an eparchy of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada, which itself is under the Ecumenical Patriarchate. The current bishop for the eparchy is His Grace Bishop Ilarion (Roman Rudnyk), and he is stylized as: Bishop of Edmonton, and the Western Eparchy. The last serving bishop for the diocese was Metropolitan John (Stinka), who went on to become the UOCC's Metropolitan, and Archbishop of Winnipeg. His Eminence served in the capacity as "Bishop of Edmonton" for 20 years (1985-2005). Bishop Ilarion was elected as Bishop of Edmonton at the Ukrainian Orthodox Church's Sobor (Church Council) on August 23, 2008, in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. This election was later ratified by the Ecumenical Patriarchate's Holy and Sacred Synod, and his Grace was enthroned as Bishop of Edmonton on Sunday, October 26, 2008 at St. John's Cathedral by His Eminence Metropolitan John. The Western Eparchy consists of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, and has about 60 churches (most of them country churches), and 2 cathedral churches (St. John's Cathedral, Edmonton, and Holy Trinity Ukrainian Orthodox Cathedral (Vancouver)).
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    179

    Archbishop of Petra

    The Archbishop of Petra was established during the Crusader era and served the diocese of Palaestrina III, the Oultrejordain area, and traditionally included St. Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai, although Crusader protection rarely extended that far. The Islamic conquest in the 7th century had eliminated Byzantine control of the area and with it the protection of the Christian communities. However, Palestinian and Syrian Christian communities had remained in the region well into the Islamic occupation period and with the arrival of the Crusader Principalities, they were placed under the supervision of the diocese with the expectation of restoring the area's Christian roots. Frankish communities soon added to their number and before Saladin's reconquest, the area had an increasing number of Catholic communities. Following the destruction of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by Saladin, what little protection for Christians had existed was eliminated and the nascent Christian communities were soon destroyed. Nonetheless, several isolated monasteries at various levels of precarious existence continued, thereby creating the necessity of appointing Archbishops well into the modern period.
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    181

    Bishop of Arundel and Brighton

    The Bishop of Arundel and Brighton is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Arundel and Brighton in the Province of Southwark, England. The bishop's official residence is Bishop's House, The Upper Drive, Hove, East Sussex. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Kieran Thomas Conry, the fourth Bishop of the diocese. The Diocese of Arundel and Brighton was created on 28 May 1965 out of the Diocese of Southwark when the latter was elevated to archdiocese status. The diocese covers 4,997 km² and consists of the counties of East and West Sussex and Surrey outside the Greater London Boroughs. The see is in the town of Arundel where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Our Lady & Saint Philip Howard.
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    182
    Bishop of Down

    Bishop of Down

    The Bishop of Down was an episcopal title which took its name from the town of Downpatrick in Northern Ireland. The bishop's seat (Cathedra) was located on the site of the present cathedral church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity in the Church of Ireland. The title is now united with other bishoprics. In the Church of Ireland it is held by the Bishop of Down and Dromore, and in the Roman Catholic Church it is held by the Bishop of Down and Connor. The diocese of Down was one of the twenty-four dioceses established at the Synod of Rathbreasail in 1111 and comprised roughly the eastern half of County Down. For a brief period in the early 12th-century, Down was united with the see of Connor under Máel Máedóc Ua Morgair (Saint Malachy), who also became Archbishop of Armagh. On 29 July 1439, plans for a permanent union of the sees of Down and Connor were submitted to King Henry VI of England for his sanction. Exactly twelve months later, 29 July 1439, Pope Eugene IV issued a papal bull stating that Down and Connor were to be united on the death or resignation of either bishop. On 29 May 1441, Archbishop Prene of Armagh sent a letter to Pope Eugene IV in which he writes about the crimes
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    183

    Bishop of Ebbsfleet

    The Bishop of Ebbsfleet is a suffragan bishop who fulfils the role of a provincial episcopal visitor for the whole of the Province of Canterbury in the Church of England. The position was created in 1994 and licensed by the Archbishop of Canterbury as a "flying bishop" to provide episcopal oversight for parishes throughout the province which do not accept the sacramental ministry of bishops who have participated in the ordination of women. The position is named after Ebbsfleet in Thanet, Kent. In the southern province, the Bishops of Ebbsfleet and of Richborough each minister in thirteen of the 40 dioceses. The Bishop of Ebbsfleet serves the western thirteen dioceses (Birmingham, Bristol, Coventry, Derby, Exeter, Gloucester, Hereford, Lichfield, Oxford, Salisbury, Truro, Bath and Wells and Worcester). Jonathan Baker was consecrated as a bishop on 16 June 2011 at Southwark Cathedral. His installation as the fourth Bishop of Ebbsfleet is yet to be announced.
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    184

    Bishop of Gurk

    The Bishop of Gurk is the head of the Diocese of Gurk, which was established in 1072, as the first suffragan bishop of the Archdiocese of Salzburg. The following men have held this office:
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    185

    Bishop of Monmouth

    The Bishop of Monmouth is the diocesan bishop of the Church in Wales Diocese of Monmouth. The see covers the historic county of Monmouthshire with the bishop's seat located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Woolos in Newport, which had been elevated to that status in 1921. The Bishop's residence is Bishopstow, which is in central Newport. The diocese is one of two new ones founded in 1921 when the Church in Wales became independent of the established Church of England. The current Bishop is the Right Reverend Dominic Walker OGS, the 9th Bishop of Monmouth, who was previously Area Bishop of Reading in the Church of England. His predecessor, the Most Reverend Dr. Rowan Williams, was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 2002 - the first Welsh bishop to hold that post since the English Reformation in the 16th century. He was also the Archbishop of Wales at the time of his appointment to Canterbury and was styled as "The Most Reverend Dr. Rowan Williams, Archbishop of Wales and Bishop of Monmouth."
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    186
    Catholicos of the East

    Catholicos of the East

    • Rank or Role: Catholicos
    Catholicos of the East is an ecclesiastical title used historically by the Syriac Orthodox Church, and now used in successor churches. The title Catholicos, or "universal leader", is used in several Eastern Christian churches and implies a degree of sovereignty and autocephaly. The designation "Catholicos of the East" originated in the see of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the capital of Persia, center of the Church of the East since the early days of Christianity in Persia. In the Church of the East, also known as the Nestorian Church, "Catholicos of the East" was one of the titles borne by the Bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, who was the designated Patriarch of the Church of the East. It is still used in two successor churches, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East, the heads of which are known as Catholicos-Patriarchs. Later, the church now known as the Syriac Orthodox Church (Jacobite Church) began using the title for its Maphrian, who was originally the head of the Jacobite Christian community in Nestorian-dominated Persia. This office ranked second in the church hierarchy after the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, until it was abolished in 1860. In the
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    187

    Archbishop of America

    The Archdiocese of America, better known as the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, is a jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church under the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. It was formally constituted in 1922 and has had seven incumbents. The Archdiocese currently covers the United States and one parish in the Bahamas, and is mostly Greek-American in composition and culture. The following individuals have held the office of Archbishop of America: The Diocese of the Aleutians and North America was a pan-ethnic and missionary jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church under the Russian Orthodox Church from 1900 to 1922. (Before this period it was known as the "Diocese of the Aleutians and Alaska" from 1870 to 1900; before that, it was part of the Diocese of Kamchatka, Russia, from 1840 to 1870, and before that, of the Diocese of Irkutsk, Russia. From the 1920s until 1970 it was the "Metropolia of All America and Canada" [a/k/a the "Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church in America"], and since 1970 it has also been known as "The Orthodox Church in America," covering the United States, Canada, Mexico, and two parishes in Australia.) From 1905 to 1922, its incumbents
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    188

    Bishop of Swansea and Brecon

    The Bishop of Swansea and Brecon is the Ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Swansea and Brecon. The diocese covers the City and County of Swansea and the ancient counties of Brecknockshire and Radnorshire. The see is in the town of Brecon where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Evangelist which was a parish church since the Reformation, becoming elevated to cathedral status in 1923. The Bishops residence is Ely Tower, Brecon. The office was created in 1923 at the founding of the diocese. On 29 January 2008, The Very Reverend John Davies, Dean of Brecon Cathedral was elected Bishop. The election follows the retirement of the Rt Rev Anthony Pierce on January 16, who served as bishop of the diocese from 1999. The Dean will be the ninth Bishop of Swansea and Brecon, an area stretching south to the coast of Gower and north into much of mid-Wales.
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    189
    Priest

    Priest

    A priest or priestess is a person authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or multiple deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the priesthood, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively. Priests and priestesses have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies. They exist in all or some branches of Judaism, Christianity, Shintoism, Hinduism and many other religions. They are generally regarded as having positive contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe, often interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. Priests are leaders to whom other believers will often turn for advice on spiritual matters. In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest". As seen in the saga of Hrafnkell
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    193

    Archbishop of Papua New Guinea

    The Archbishop of Papua New Guinea is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea, part of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The archdiocese came into existence when the Anglican Province of Papua New Guinea was separated from the Anglican Church of Australia's Province of Brisbane in 1976 following Papua New Guinea's independence. The Archbishop and Primate of Papua New Guinea may be any one of the five diocesan bishops of the country's five dioceses and retains his see as bishop of his diocese. The first Primate and Archbishop was David Hand, The current Primate is Archbishop James Ayong, Bishop of Aipo-Rongo. The dioceses are:
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    Archbishop of York

    Archbishop of York

    The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and metropolitan of the Province of York, which covers the northern portion of England (north of the Trent) as well as the Isle of Man. The archbishop is a member ex officio of the House of Lords, and is styled Primate of England. (The Archbishop of Canterbury is "Primate of All England".) His throne is in York Minster in central York and his official residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe, outside York. The incumbent, since 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu. He signs +Sentamu Ebor: (since both John and Sentamu are his forenames). There was a bishop in York from very early Christian times. Bishops of York were present at the Councils of Arles and Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was later destroyed by the pagan Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones. The diocese was refounded by Paulinus (a member of Augustine's mission) in the 7th century. Notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid. These early bishops of York acted as diocesan
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    Bishop of Leeds

    The Bishop of Leeds is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Leeds in the Province of Liverpool, England. The Vicariate Apostolic of the Yorkshire District was elevated to diocese status as the Diocese of Beverley on 29 September 1850, which was suppressed on 20 December 1878 and its area was divided into the dioceses of Leeds and Middlesbrough. The Diocese of Leeds covers an area of 4,075 km (1,600 sq mi) and consists of the County of West Yorkshire, together parts of the counties of the East Riding of Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, Greater Manchester, Lancashire, and Cumbria. The see is in the city of Leeds where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Anne, Cookridge Street. At the present, the Most Reverend Arthur Roche serves as the Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Leeds, following his appointment as the Secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments by Pope Benedict XVI on 26 June 2012. He had served as the Diocesan Bishop of Leeds (2004–2012), and prior to that Coadjutor Bishop of Leeds (2002–2004) and an Auxiliary Bishop of Westminster (2001–2002).
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    Bishop of Sheffield

    The Bishop of Sheffield is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Sheffield in the Province of York. The title was first created as a suffragan see in the Diocese of York in 1901. The only suffragan bishop of Sheffield assisted the Archbishop of York in overseeing the diocese. Under King George V, the Diocese of Sheffield was created out of the south-western part of the Diocese of York in 1914. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Steven Croft, who is the seventh to hold the position and signs +Steven Sheffield. He is assisted by the Right Reverend Peter Burrows, suffragan Bishop of Doncaster.
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    198

    Archbishop of Byblos and Botrys

    List of Orthodox Archbishops of Byblos and Botrys (Mount Lebanon), in Lebanon, an archdiocese part of the Syrian-based patriarchate of the Orthodox Church of Antioch:
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    Catholicos of Armenia

    • Rank or Role: Catholicos
    The Catholicos of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) (Armenian: Ամենայն հայոց կաթողիկոսներ) is the chief bishop of Armenia's national church, the Armenian Apostolic Church. It is one of the Oriental Orthodox churches that do not accept the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon. The first Catholicos of All Armenians was Saint Gregory the Illuminator. According to tradition, it was the apostles Saint Thaddeus and Saint Bartholomew, who brought Christianity to Armenia in the 1st century. The Supreme Spiritual and Administrative leader of the Armenian Church is the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians, who is the worldwide spiritual leader of the Nation, for Armenians both in Armenia and dispersed throughout the world. He is Chief Shepherd and Pontiff to the Armenian faithful. The spiritual and administrative headquarters of the Armenian Church, the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, located in the city of Vagharshapat, Republic of Armenia, was established in 301 AD
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    Primate of All Ireland

    Primate of All Ireland is a title held by the Archbishops of Armagh, in both the Roman Catholic and Church of Ireland traditions, and signifies that within their respective churches they are the senior churchmen in the island of Ireland. Although the island of Ireland was partitioned by the Government of Ireland Act 1920 into two states now known as the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, the Roman Catholic and Anglican Church of Ireland are (like other major Irish religions) organised on an all-island basis. Armagh is in Northern Ireland; in both churches the highest-ranking figure within the Republic is the Archbishop of Dublin, who bears the title Primate of Ireland. But these similar and yet subtly different titles have nothing to do with the present political situation in Ireland; the distinction dates to mediaeval times and simply represents a compromise whereby the seniority of Armagh was affirmed while still allowing the Archbishop of Dublin to use the title of "Primate". The situation mirrors that in the Church of England (again dating back to long before the Reformation) which has a Primate of All England (the Archbishop of Canterbury) and a Primate of England (the
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    201
    Apostolic Nuncio to Poland

    Apostolic Nuncio to Poland

    The Apostolic Nuncio to Poland is one of the oldest nuncios, appointed by the Pope as apostolic representative to the Roman Catholic Church in Poland. Three nuncios to Poland went on to be elected pope. Three were cardinals at the time of their appointment as nuncio, and the rest—with the sole exception of Filippo Cortesi—were elevated afterwards. The Polish Provisional Government declared the Concordat of 1925 null and void in 1945 due to what they perceived as its wartime abrogation. No Apostolic Nuncio was appointed between 1947 and 1989. Two Delegation Chiefs partially filled this role:
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    Bishop of Nagpur

    The Bishop of Nagpur exercises episcopal leadership over the Diocese of Nagpur of the Church of North India. This is an incomplete list of people who have served as the Bishop of Nagpur.
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    Bishop of Regensburg

    Bishop of Regensburg

    The Bishops of Regensburg are bishops of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany. The seat of the bishops is Regensburg Cathedral. The diocese was founded in 739. The bishops were Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, ruling a territory known as the Prince-Bishopric of Regensburg. They were not among the most powerful Prince-Bishops, due to the existence of other reichsfrei authorities in Regensburg that prevented them from consolidating a major territorial base. With the dissolution of the Archbishopric of Mainz, the Bishopric of Regensburg was elevated to the Archbishopric of Regensburg. It was part of the Principality of Regensburg, ruled by the Prince-Primate Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg. The end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and its aftermath saw the end of the territorial claim of the bishops. With the death of Dalberg in 1817, the archdiocese was downgraded to being a suffragan of the Archbishops of Munich and Freising. Itinerant bishops before the foundation of the diocese: Bishops since the foundation of the diocese of Regensburg in 739:
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    Archbishop of Riga

    The Archbishopric of Riga (Latin: Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Low German: Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See. It was established in 1186 as the bishopric of Livonia at Üxküll, then after moving to Riga it became the bishopric of Riga in 1202 and was elevated to an archbishopric in 1255. The archbishops of Riga were also the secular rulers of Riga until 1561 when during the reformation the territory converted from Catholicism to Lutheranism and all church territories were secularized. The see was restored as a diocese of the Catholic Church in 1918 and raised into an archdiocese in 1923. A new Bishopric of Livonia was established in Latgalia in 1621 during the Inflanty Voivodeship of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Archbishops of Riga were innovators in the field of minting currency, reviving techniques abandoned since the collapse of Rome. The names of individual archbishops after 1418, as well as the years of their respective reigns, are stamped on Livonian pennies excavated at archaeological sites. In many cases, this is the only biographical data available. No Livonian pennies before 1418 have been found.
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    Bishop of London

    Bishop of London

    The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers 458 km² (177 sq. mi.) of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the River Thames (historically the County of Middlesex) and a small part of the County of Surrey. The see is in the City of London where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Paul which was founded as a cathedral in 604 and was rebuilt from 1675 following the Great Fire of London (1666). Third in seniority in the Church of England after the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the bishop is one of five senior bishops, with the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop of Winchester, who sit as of right, each as one of the 26 Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords (as opposed to the remaining diocesan bishops of lesser rank, for whom elevation to one of the seats reserved is attained upon its vacancy and is determined by chronological seniority). The bishop's residence is The Old Deanery, Dean's Court, London. Previously, for over a 1000 years, Fulham Palace was the residence although, from the 18th century, London House next to the
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    Bishop of Newcastle

    The Bishop of Newcastle is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Newcastle in the Province of York. The diocese at present covers the County of Northumberland and the Alston Moor area of Cumbria. The see is in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Nicholas, a parish church elevated to cathedral status in 1882. The bishop's residence is Bishop's House, Gosforth. The office has existed since the founding of the diocese in 1882 under Queen Victoria by division of the diocese of Durham. The current bishop, the 11th, is Martin Wharton.
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    Bishop of Rome

    Bishop of Rome

    The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Roman Catholic tradition as the Pope. The first Bishop of Rome to bear the title of "Pope" or "Pappas" (LGk.,"father") was Boniface III in 607, the first to assume the title of "Universal Bishop" by decree of Emperor Phocas. Earlier Bishops of Rome are customarily extended the title Pope as a courtesy, except in strict historical discourse. However, in popular culture and in most history books, almanacs ( that list popes), etc., "Pope" is the designated name for the Bishop of Rome. The title "Bishop of Rome" is also used in preference to Pope by some members of Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Protestant denominations, to reflect their rejection of papal authority over the whole Christian Church, though most, in keeping with protocol and diplomatic form, use the term "Pope" or "Your Holiness." The Catholic Church holds that the Bishop of Rome is the sole successor to the "supremacy" or primacy of Simon Peter and is thus the "Vicar of Christ" for the world as a whole; however, the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox have no such tradition, but rather view the primacy as a primacy of honor, but not of universal
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    Bishop of Sherwood

    The Bishop of Sherwood is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Southwell and Nottingham, in the Province of York, England. The title takes its name after the Royal forest of Sherwood in Nottinghamshire.
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    Prelate

    A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin prælatus, the past participle of præferre, which means "carry before", "be set above or over" or "prefer"; hence, a prelate is one set over others. A prelature is the office of a prelate or the entire juridical entity which the prelate governs. Prelacy is the body of prelates as a whole or a system of government, administration or ministry by prelates. The archetypal prelate is a bishop, whose prelature is his particular church. All other prelates, including the regular prelates such as abbots and major superiors, are based upon this original model of prelacy. Sometimes the clergy of a state church with a formal hierarchy are called prelates without having ordinary jurisdiction. Higher-ranking monsignors are given the title of honorary Prelate of H. H. In some countries such as Germany; they are addressed as Mr. Prelate while regular prelates are addressed with their other titles and respective courteous forms, such as Mr. Bishop, Your Lordship etc. A territorial prelature is, in Catholic usage, a prelate whose geographic jurisdiction,
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    Bishop of Connor

    The Bishop of Connor is an episcopal title which takes its name after the village of Connor in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. The title is currently used by the Church of Ireland, but in the Roman Catholic Church it has been united with another bishopric. The diocese of Connor was one of the twenty-four dioceses established at the Synod of Rathbreasail in 1111. It is located in the northeast corner of the Ireland and includes much of the city of Belfast. By some of the Irish annalists it was called by its territorial name The See of Dalaradia. For a brief period in the early 12th-century, the see of Connor was united with Down under Máel Máedóc Ua Morgair (Saint Malachy), who also was Archbishop of Armagh. On 29 July 1439, plans for a permanent union of the two sees were submitted to King Henry VI of England for his sanction. Exactly twelve months later, 29 July 1439, Pope Eugene IV issued a papal bull stating that Down and Connor were to be united on the death or resignation of either bishop. In 1442, John Sely, Bishop of Down, was deprived of his see by Pope Eugene IV, thereby effecting the union of the two dioceses. John Fossade, who had been bishop of Connor since 1431,
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    Bishop of Norwich

    The Bishop of Norwich is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Norwich in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers most of the County of Norfolk and part of Suffolk. The current bishop is The Right Reverend Graham James, the 71st Bishop of Norwich. The see is in the City of Norwich where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity. The Bishop's residence is Bishop's House, Norwich. East Anglia has held a bishopric since 630 when the first cathedral was founded at Dunwich on a site which is now submerged by the sea off the coast of Suffolk. The seat was moved in 673 to Elmham (now North Elmham) and thence to Thetford in 1070 before finally being located in Norwich in 1094 under King William II ahead of the completion of the new cathedral building. Though the see took the name Norwich in the 11th century, its history goes back 500 years earlier, to the conversion of East Anglia by St Felix in the reign of King Sigeberht, who succeeded to the kingdom in 628. St Felix first fixed his see at Dunwich, a sea-coast town whose site is now submerged off the coast of Suffolk in Southwold Bay. From there he evangelized the areas corresponding
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    Bishop of Nottingham

    The Bishop of Nottingham is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Nottingham in the Province of Westminster. The diocese covers an area of 13,074 km (5,000 sq mi) and spans the counties of Derbyshire (excluding the High Peak and Chesterfield districts), Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire (excluding the district of Bassetlaw) and North Lincolnshire. The see is in the City of Nottingham where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of St. Barnabas, Nottingham. The Diocese of Nottingham was erected on 29 September 1850, mainly from out of the Vicariate Apostolic of the Central District, and partly from the Eastern District. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Malcolm McMahon, O.P., the 9th Bishop of Nottingham.
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    Bishop of Woolwich

    • Rank or Role: Suffragan bishop
    The Bishop of Woolwich is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Southwark, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after Woolwich, a suburb of the Royal Borough of Greenwich. One of the best known former bishops is John A. T. Robinson, who was a major figure in Liberal Christianity. The current incumbent is the Rt. Rev. Michael Ipgrave, the Bishop of Woolwich, who was nominated on 3 February 2012 and subsequently consecrated and installed at Southwark Cathedral on 21 March 2012.
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    Archbishop of Glasgow

    Archbishop of Glasgow

    The Archbishop of Glasgow is an archiepiscopal title which takes its name after the city of Glasgow in Scotland. The title was abolished by the Church of Scotland in 1689 and in the Scottish Episcopal Church it is now part the bishopric of Glasgow and Galloway. In the Roman Catholic Church, the title was restored by Pope Leo XIII in 1878. The most recent archbishop was the Most Reverend Mario Conti, Metropolitan Archbishop of Glasgow, who retired on 24 July 2012. On the same day, the Holy See announced the appointment of Bishop Philip Tartaglia of Paisley as Archbishop of Glasgow to succeed Archbishop Mario Conti. The new Archbishop will take possession of the diocese on 8 September 2012, the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The Diocese of Glasgow originates in the period of the reign of David I, Prince of the Cumbrians, but the earliest attested bishops come from the 11th century, appointees of the Archbishop of York. The episcopal seat was located at Glasgow Cathedral. In 1492, the diocese was elevated to an archdiocese by Pope Innocent VIII. After the Scottish church broke its links with Rome in 1560, the archbishopric continued under the independent Scottish
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    Bishop of Hexham

    Bishop of Hexham

    The Bishop of Hexham was an episcopal title which took its name after the market town of Hexham in Northumberland, England. The title was first used by the Anglo-Saxons in the 7th and 9th centuries, and then by the Roman Catholic Church in the 19th century. The first Diocese of Lindisfarne was merged into the Diocese of York in 664. York diocese was then divided in 678 by Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury, forming a bishopric for the country between the Rivers Aln and Tees, with a seat at Hexham. This gradually and erratically merged back into the bishopric of Lindisfarne. Eleven bishops of Hexham followed St. Eata, of which six were saints. No successor was appointed in 821, the condition of the country being too unsettled. A period of disorder followed the Danish devastations, after which Hexham monastery was reconstituted in 1113 as a priory of Austin Canons, which flourished until its dissolution under Henry VIII. Meantime the bishopric had been merged in that of Lindisfarne, which latter see was removed to Chester-le-Street in 883, and thence to Durham in 995. By the decree of 29 September 1850 by Pope Pius IX, the Roman Catholic hierarchy was restored in England and Wales.
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    Bishop of Melanesia

    The Bishop of Melanesia was the head of the Diocese of Melanesia from 1861 until the inauguration of Church of the Province of Melanesia in 1975. In that year the office was replaced by the Archbishop of Melanesia and regional diocesan bishops. John Dickinson was Assistant Bishop of Melanesia from 1931 to 1937.
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    Archbishop of Santiago

    Archbishop of Santiago

    The Archbishop of Santiago de Chile is a Roman Catholic title given to the archbishop of the church in the Diocese of Santiago de Chile. From 1561 to 1840 the title was a bishop but since 1840 with Manuel Vicuña Larraín it was elevated to archbishop status.
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    Bishop of Aberdeen

    • Rank or Role: Bishop
    The Bishop of Aberdeen (originally Bishop of Mortlach, in Latin Murthlacum) was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Aberdeen, one of Scotland's 13 medieval bishoprics, whose first recorded bishop is an early 12th century cleric named Nechtan. It appears that the episcopal seat had previously been at Mortlach (Mòrthlach), but was moved to Aberdeen during the reign of King David I of Scotland. The names of three bishops of Mortlach are known, the latter two of whom, "Donercius" and "Cormauch" (Cormac), by name only. The Bishop of Aberdeen broke communion with the Roman Catholic Church after the Scottish Reformation. Following the Glorious Revolution, the office was abolished. A Roman Catholic diocese was recreated in Aberdeen in 1878. The Bishopric of Aberdeen, as the Bishopric of Aberdeen, appears to date from the 1130s, as does the list of known bishops. (Any dates appearing in italics indicate de facto continuation of office. The start date of tenure below is the date of appointment or succession. Where known, the date of installation and ordination as bishop are listed in the notes together with the post held prior to appointment.) The modern Bishop of Aberdeen is the
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    Bishop of Birmingham

    Bishop of Birmingham

    The Bishop of Birmingham heads the Church of England diocese of Birmingham, in the Province of Canterbury, in England. The diocese covers the North West of the historical county of Warwickshire and has its see in the City of Birmingham, West Midlands, where the seat of the diocese is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Philip which was elevated to cathedral status in 1905. The Bishop's residence is Bishop's Croft in Harborne, Birmingham. The office has existed since the foundation of the see in 1905 from the Diocese of Worcester under King Edward VII. The present bishop is the Rt Revd David Urquhart, who was inaugurated on 17 November 2006. He was formerly suffragan Bishop of Birkenhead in the Diocese of Chester. The bishop is assisted, throughout the whole diocese, by the suffragan Bishop of Aston.
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    Bishop of Croydon

    The Bishop of Croydon is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Southwark, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The Bishop of Croydon oversees the Episcopal Area of Croydon, which is made up of the Archdeaconries of Croydon and Reigate. The Archdeaconry of Reigate comprises the three Rural Deaneries of Caterham (9 parishes), Godstone (14 parishes) and Reigate (24 parishes), extending as far south as Gatwick Airport. The Archdeaconry of Croydon comprises the Rural Deaneries of Croydon Addington (9 parishes), Croydon Central (10 parishes), Croydon North (12 parishes), Croydon South (10 parishes) and Sutton (14 parishes). The Episcopal area was historically in the Diocese of Canterbury, as the Archbishops of Canterbury lived at Croydon Palace and Addington Palace until the 19th century. Since the Croydon area was transferred from Canterbury to Southwark in 1984, Stuart Snell was presumably the first suffragan Bishop of Croydon for the Diocese of Southwark. On 21 March 2012, the Rt Revd Jonathan Clark was consecrated. He took up his post as Area Bishop of Croydon during May 2012.
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    Bishop of Derby

    The Bishop of Derby is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Derby in the Province of Canterbury, UK. The diocese was formed from part of the Diocese of Southwell in 1927 under King George V and roughly covers the county of Derbyshire. Before this time however there had been two Suffragan Bishops of Derby whilst the bishopric was still within the Diocese of Southwell. The bishop's seat (cathedra) or see is located in the City of Derby at The Cathedral Church of All Saints – formerly a parish church which was elevated to cathedral status in 1927. The bishop's residence is Derby Church House, Full Street, Derby. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Dr Alastair Redfern, the 7th Bishop of Derby, who signs + Alastair Derby. He is one of the 21 senior bishops entitled by length of tenure to sit in the House of Lords, and was introduced on 15 June 2010.
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    Bishop of Elmham

    Bishop of Elmham

    The Bishop of Elmham is an episcopal title which was first used by an Anglo-Saxon bishop between the 7th and 11th centuries and is currently used by the Roman Catholic Church for a titular see. The title takes its name after the small town of North Elmham in Norfolk, England. In about 630 or 631, a diocese was established by St. Felix for the Kingdom of the East Angles, with his episcopal seat at Dunwich on the Suffolk coast. In 672, the diocese was divided into the sees of Dunwich and Elmham by St. Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury. The line of bishops of Elmham continued until it was interrupted by the Danish Viking invasions in the late 9th and early 10th centuries. By the mid 950s, the sees of Elmham and Dunwich were reunited under one bishop, with the episcopal see at Elmham. After the Norman conquest, the see was transferred to Thetford in 1075, and soon afterwards to Norwich in 1094. In 1969, the Roman Catholic Church revived the title Bishop of Elmham (Italian: Elmhama, Latin: Helmamensis) for a titular see. The current titular bishop is the Most Reverend Eamonn Oliver Walsh, Auxiliary Bishop of Dublin who was appointed on 7 March 1990.
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    Bishop of Guildford

    The Bishop of Guildford is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Guildford in the Province of Canterbury. The title was first created as a suffragan see in the Diocese of Winchester in 1874. The suffragan bishop of Guildford assisted the Bishop of Winchester in overseeing the diocese. Under King George V, the Diocese of Guildford was created out of the north-eastern part of the Diocese of Winchester in 1927. The diocese covers the western half of the County of Surrey. The see is in the town of Guildford where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Spirit which was built as a cathedral 1936 to 1965. The bishop's residence is Willow Grange, Guildford. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Christopher John Hill, the 9th Bishop of Guildford, who signs + Christopher Guildford. He is one of the 21 senior bishops entitled by length of tenure to sit in the House of Lords, and was introduced on 27 May 2010.
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    Bishop of Portsmouth

    The Bishop of Portsmouth is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Portsmouth in the Province of Southwark, England. The bishop's official residence is Bishop's House, Bishop Crispian Way, Portsmouth, Hampshire. The current Bishop is Philip Egan who was ordained Bishop at St John's Cathedral, Portsmouth, on 24th September 2012, the Feast of Our Lady of Walsingham. Bishop Egan was previously the Vicar General for the Diocese of Shrewsbury and his appointment was announced by the Holy See on 11th July 2012. The bishop emeritus is the Right Reverend Crispian Hollis, the 7th Bishop of Portsmouth, who was appointed on 6 December 1988. He reached retirement age (75) in November 2011, and retired as Bishop on 11 July 2012 upon his successor's appointment. Bishop Hollis acted as Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Portsmouth from 11 July 2012 until Bishop Egan's ordination on 24th September 2012. In 1688 the Portsmouth area came under the authority of the Vicar Apostolic of the London District. On the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales in 1850 Portsmouth became part of the Diocese of Southwark. On 19 May 1882 the Roman Catholic Diocese of Portsmouth
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    His Holiness

    His Holiness

    The honorific His Holiness is the official style used to refer to male leaders and highly respected spiritual figures of some religious groups; Her Holiness is the female equivalent. The term is sometimes abbreviated or "HH" or "H.H." when confusion with "His/Her Highness" is unlikely. The associated form of address is "Your Holiness". It is used for figures of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam. The style may be used alone or followed by title and name; when speaking about a current Pope either "His Holiness visited the shrine..." or "His Holiness Pope Benedict visited the shrine...". The title and form of address are used routinely by protocol in diplomacy and in formal contexts. The term is used in Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, the Dalai Lama is commonly referred to in English by this style, as are other Buddhist leaders such as the Patriarch of Sakyapa. The Dalai Lama is not the actual leader of a religious group, but does appoint the Ganden Tripa (Tibetan dga' ldan khri pa), who is the nominal head of the Gelug (Tibetan dge lugs) school of Tibetan Buddhism. Recently the chief lamas of other of the spiritual traditions of Tibet, including the Sakya Trizin (head of the
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    Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross

    The Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross is the Church of Ireland Ordinary of the united Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross in the Province of Dublin. The current bishop is the Right Reverend Paul Colton BCL DipTh MPhil. He was consecrated bishop at Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, on Thursday 25 March 1999; the Feast of the Annunciation. He was enthroned in St. Finbarre's Cathedral, Cork on 24 April 1999, in St Coleman's Cathedral, Cloyne on 13 May 1999, and in St. Fachtna's Cathedral, Ross on 28 May 1999. This bishop is successor to the Bishop of Cork (from 876), Bishop of Cloyne (from 887) and Bishop of Ross (from 1160, and distinct from the Scottish Bishop of Ross). They were combined to establish the Bishop of Cork and Ross (from 1583) and the current position Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross (from 1835).
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    Archbishop of Hong Kong

    Archbishop of Hong Kong

    The Archbishop of Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港聖公會大主教) is the senior bishop, spiritual and moral leader of the Anglican Province of Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui. The archbishop is also Primate of Hong Kong (Chinese: 教省主教長), and both incumbents have, coincidentally, also been Bishop of Hong Kong Island. The Archbishop of the Province is elected from among the bishops by the General Synod in which all Houses meet in a joint session. It is notable that the Archbishop ranks first among the religious leaders in the order of precedence of Hong Kong. The current Archbishop of Hong Kong is The Most Rev. Dr. Paul Kwong (Chinese: 鄺保羅) and his seat is at St. John's Cathedral. The Bishop's House, located in Central, is the office and official residence of the Archbishop. The Archbishop chairs the meeting of the Provincial General Synod. As the chief pastor of the Province, he is responsible for: Since the establishment of Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui in 1998, the office of Archbishop of Hong Kong has been the Primate of Anglican Church in Hong Kong and Macau:
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    Assistant to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles

    Assistant to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, commonly shortened to Assistant to the Twelve or Assistant to the Twelve Apostles, was a priesthood calling in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints between 1941 and 1976. As the title of the calling suggests, men who held this position assisted the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in fulfilling their priesthood responsibilities. Assistants to the Twelve were general authorities, and were generally assigned by the Twelve Apostles to preside over and speak at stake conferences; re-organize stakes; tour missions; and assist in the direction of worldwide missionary work. Like Counselor in the First Presidency, Assistant to the Twelve was not a distinct priesthood office—rather, it was a calling that any worthy high priest could be called to fill. In April 1941, Church President Heber J. Grant called five men to serve as Assistants to the Twelve. No more Assistants to the Twelve were called until 1951; the church continued to call Assistants to the Twelve throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and the first half of the 1970s. Of the 38 men who held the calling of Assistant to the Twelve, thirteen later became members of the Quorum of the
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    Bishop of Antigua

    The Anglican diocese of Antigua and the Leeward Islands was formed in 1842, as the diocese of Barbados, then one of two covering the Caribbean, was sub-divided. There is also a Catholic diocese.
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    Bishop of Argyll and the Isles

    The Bishop of Argyll and The Isles is the Ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Argyll and the Isles. The Episcopal see was created by the union of the ancient bishoprics of Argyll and The Isles in 1847. The bishop has two seats: the Cathedral Church of St John the Divine in Oban and the Cathedral of The Isles and Collegiate Church of the Holy Spirit in Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, which is the smallest cathedral in the British Isles. There are two island retreat centres. Bishop's House is on Iona, while the College of The Holy Spirit is also in Millport. The Right Reverend Martin Shaw was consecrated Bishop of Argyll and The Isles on 8 June 2004 at St John's Cathedral in Oban. He retired in 2009. His successor, Kevin Pearson, was elected at an Episcopal Synod held at the Cathedral of the Isles on 6 October 2010.
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    Bishop of Chester

    The Bishop of Chester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chester in the Province of York. The diocese expands across most of the historic county boundaries of Cheshire, including the Wirral Peninsula and has its see in the City of Chester where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, which was formerly the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Werburgh, being elevated to cathedral status in 1541. The Bishop's residence is Bishop's House, Chester. Cheshire has held a bishopric since 1072 when the seat was at the collegiate church of Saint John the Baptist until 1102. The present diocese was formed in 1541 under King Henry VIII. The current Bishop of Chester is the Right Reverend Dr Peter Robert Forster, PhD, the 40th Lord Bishop of Chester, who was enthroned on 11 January 1997, and who signs Peter Cestr. At present the Bishop is permitted to sit in the House of Lords as one of the Lords Spiritual. Chester at various periods in its history had a bishop and a cathedral, though till the early sixteenth century only intermittently. Even before the Norman conquest the title Bishop of Chester is found in documents applied to prelates who
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    Roman Catholic Archbishop of Atlanta

    The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Atlanta is the Ordinary of the Archdiocese of Atlanta in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States. As a metropolitan bishop, the archbishop oversees the entire Ecclesiastical Province of Atlanta which spans the states of Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina, and consists of the dioceses of Charleston, Charlotte, Raleigh, and Savannah. The archbishop's seat is located in the Cathedral of Christ the King. The archdiocese is currently led by Wilton D. Gregory, who was installed as the seventh bishop and sixth archbishop of Atlanta on 17 January 2005. He previously served as Bishop of Belleville in Illinois.
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    Sikh guru

    Sikh guru

    The Sikh Gurus established Sikhism from over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469. Sikhism was founded by the first guru, Guru Nanak, and subsequently, each guru, in succession, was referred to as "Nanak", and as "Light", making their teachings, in the holy scriptures, equivalent. There are a total of 11 gurus, of which the current, and everlasting, Sikh Guru is the integrated Sikh scriptures known as the Adi Granth or, Siri Guru Granth Sahib. Sikhism was established by Guru Nanak and ten other Sikh Gurus starting in 1469. Guru Nanak was the first guru, and Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru, bestowed the Guruship forevermore to the Sikh holy scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib as the 11th Guru, the living word. Sikhs follow the teachings of the gurus, which is believed upon remembering, leads to salvation. The name "Nanak" was used by all the subsequent gurus who wrote any sacred text in the Sikh holy scripture called the Guru Granth Sahib. The second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad Dev, is also called the "Second Nanak" or "Nanak II". Sikhs hold that all subsequent Gurus carried the same message as that of Guru Nanak, and so they have used the name "Nanak" in their holy text, instead of
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    Archbishop of Cardiff

    The Archbishop of Cardiff is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cardiff. The archdiocese covers an area of 1,183 square miles (3,060 km) and spans the historic counties of Monmouthshire, Herefordshire and eastern Glamorganshire. The Metropolitan See is in the city of Cardiff where the archbishop's seat is located at the Metropolitan Cathedral Church of St David. The see is currently held by the Most Reverend George Stack, 7th Archbishop of Cardiff, who was appointed by the Holy See on 19 April 2011 and installed at St David's Cathedral, Cardiff on 20 June 2011. The Vicariate Apostolic of the Welsh District was created out of the Western District of England and Wales in 1840. The Welsh District covered all of the principality of Wales and the English county of Herefordshire. On the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales in 1850, the Welsh District was divided. The southern half became the Diocese of Newport and Menevia and the northern half became part of the Diocese of Shrewsbury. In 1895, the diocese lost territory on the creation of the Vicariate Apostolic of Wales, which became the diocese of Menevia in 1898. As a result, the see changed its
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    Archbishop of Dublin

    Archbishop of Dublin

    The Archbishop of Dublin is an archiepiscopal title which takes its name after Dublin, Ireland. Since the Reformation, there have been parallel apostolic successions to the title: one in the Church of Ireland and the other in the Roman Catholic Church. The archbishop of each denomination also holds the title of Primate of Ireland. The diocese of Dublin was formally established by Sigtrygg (Sitric) Silkbeard, King of Dublin in 1028, and the first bishop, Dúnán, was consecrated in about the same year. The diocese of Dublin was subject to the Province of Canterbury until 1152. At the Synod of Kells, held in March 1152, Dublin was raised to an ecclesiastical province with the archbishop of Dublin having the jurisdiction over the bishops of Ferns, Glendalough, Kildare, Leighlin and Ossory. In 1214, the dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough were united, which was confirmed by Pope Innocent III on 25 February 1216 and by Pope Honorius III on 6 October 1216. After the Reformation, there are apostolic successions of Church of Ireland and Roman Catholic archbishops. From 1846 to 1977, Church of Ireland diocese of Dublin and Glendalough was united with the see of Kildare. The current Church of
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    Archpriest

    An archpriest is a priest with supervisory duties over a number of parishes. The term is most often used in Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic Churches, although it may be used in the Latin rite of the Roman Catholic Church instead of dean or vicar forane. In the 16th and 17th centuries, during the persecution of Roman Catholics in England, an archpriest appointed from Rome had authority over all of the church's secular clergy in the country. In the present-day Church of England, an archpriest closely resembles a Rural or Area Dean. In ancient times, the archdeacon was the head of the diaconate of a diocese, as is still the case in the Eastern Orthodox Church, while the archpriest was first the chief of the presbyterium of the diocese. His duties included deputising for the Bishop in spiritual matters when necessary. In the western church, by the Middle Ages, the title had evolved and was that of the priest of the principal parish among several local parishes. This priest had general charge of worship in this archpresbyteriate, and the parishioners of the smaller parishes had to attend Sunday Mass and hold baptisms at the principal parish while the subordinate parishes instead
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    Bishop of Aberdeen and Orkney

    For the Catholic bishop, see Bishop of Aberdeen The Bishop of Aberdeen and Orkney is the Ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Aberdeen and Orkney. The Diocese of Aberdeen was founded in 1100 and its first bishop was Nectan. The Diocese of Orkney was founded in 1073 and the first bishop was Ralph. These dioceses were united in 1865 to create the United Diocese of Aberdeen and Orkney. Including Shetland and Orkney, the diocese covers Aberdeen city and Aberdeenshire, including to the north Buckie, Banff, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Ellon, and following the River Dee to encompass Banchory, Ballater and Braemar. Aberdeen Orkney United Diocese of Aberdeen and Orkney Aberdeen and OrkneyAberdeen and Orkney
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    Bishop of Ardmore

    Bishop of Ardmore

    The Bishop of Ardmore was an episcopal title which took its name after the fishing village of Ardmore in County Waterford, Ireland. Ardmore was not included in the list of Irish dioceses approved at the Synod of Kells, but is named as a church which claimed the right to a bishopric. A bishop of Ardmore took the oath of fealty to Henry II of England in 1172. Bishop Eugenius appears as a witness to a charter some years later, and he also acted as a suffragan bishop in the diocese of Lichfield in 1184 and 1185. Ua Selbaig, who died at Cork in 1205, may have been bishop of Ardmore or of Ross. By the late 12th century, Ardmore was incorporated into Lismore.
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    Bishop of Beverley

    The Bishop of Beverley is a Church of England suffragan bishop. The title takes its name after the town of Beverley in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The suffragran bishop was originally to assist the Archbishop of York in overseeing the Diocese of York, but after 1923 the position fell into abeyance. The title was revived in 1994 as a Provincial Episcopal Visitor for the whole of the Province of York. The bishop has responsibility for parishes throughout the province who cannot in good conscience accept the sacramental ministry of bishops who have participated in the ordination of women. As of 2012, four of the fourteen dioceses in the northern province provide a different suffragan bishop to such parishes in their diocese: in Wakefield the Bishop of Pontefract, in Blackburn and Carlisle the Bishop of Burnley and in York itself the Bishop of Whitby.
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    Bishop of Chalcedon

    Chalcedon (Italian Calcedonia) is a Catholic titular see, having the status of archdiocese. During the seventeenth century, the title Bishop of Chalcedon was officially given to the Roman Catholic Bishop of England after 1623. Chalcedon was an episcopal see at an early date; after the Council of Chalcedon it became a metropolitan see, but without suffragans. There is a list of its bishops in Lequien, completed by Anthimus Alexoudes, revised for the early period by Pargoire. Among others are The titular Latin see is suffragan of Nicomedia. Lequien mentions eight Latin bishops, from 1345 to 1443; Eubel has ten names, from 1293 to 1525. Five other titular bishops of the sixteenth century are mentioned in the "Revue bénédictine". The title refers to an ancient see in Asia Minor because King James I of England agreed to allow a bishop to be named provided he did not have a title derived from an English See. The Bishop of Chalcedon had full authority over the regular priests and secular priests in England, Wales and Scotland.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
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    Bishop of Lewes

    The Bishop of Lewes is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after Lewes, the county town of East Sussex.
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    Bishop of Peru

    Bishop of Peru

    The Archdiocese of São Sebastião do Lima (Archidiocesis Sancti Sebastiani Fluminis Ianuarii, lit. "Archdiocese of St. Sebastian of Lima") in Peru was established as a territorial prelature on July 19, 1575. It was elevated to the status of a diocese on November 16, 1676. It was later elevated to a metropolitan see on April 27, 1892. On May 6, 2003, the territorial abbey of Nossa Senhora do Monserrate do Lima was suppressed and added to the archdiocese. The current Archbishop of Lima is Juan de Jesus Chaufrey O. Cist. since 2009. Eugênio Cardinal de Araújo Sales and Eusébio Cardinal Scheid S.C.I. hold the position of Deputy Archbishops Emeriti. Since Pope St. Pius X appointed the third Metropolitan Archbishop of Lima, Joaquim Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church in 1905, all subsequent Archbishops were either elevated to the Cardinalate during their service in the Archdiocese of Lima, or were transferred to that Metropolitan See when already members of the College of Cardinals. Accordingly, current Archbishop Juan de Jesus Chaufrey is expected to be raised to the Cardinalate in the future.
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    Bishop of Speyer

    Bishop of Speyer

    The Bishop of Speyer is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer, which is a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Bamberg. The diocese covers an area of 5,893 km². The current bishop is Karl-Heinz Wiesemann.
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    Bishop of the Isles

    Bishop of the Isles

    The Bishop of the Isles or Bishop of Sodor was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Sodor, one of Scotland's thirteen medieval bishoprics. The bishopric, encompasing both the Hebrides and Mann, probably traces its origins as an ecclesiastical unity to the careers of Olaf, King of the Isles, and Bishop Wimund. Previously, there had been numerous bishoprics, and recorded bishoprics include Kingarth, Iona, Skye and Mann. There were very likely numerous others. Kingarth was a church on the Isle of Bute, supposedly founded by Saint Chattan and Saint Blane. Three abbots are known, but only two bishops. Sadly, little is known about the abbey, bishopric and individual clerics. The list of bishops known to have ruled the whole of what became the Diocese of the Isles (Sodor). The bishopric of the Isles became divided, primarily because the see became divided between the kings of England and Scotland. The English had taken over Mann, leaving the other islands to the north under Scottish overlordship.
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    Bishop of Worcester

    Bishop of Worcester

    The Bishop of Worcester is the head of the Church of England Diocese of Worcester in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title can be traced back to the foundation of the diocese in the year 680. From then until the 16th century, the bishops were in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. During the Reformation, the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church, at first temporarily and later more permanently. Since the Reformation, the Bishop and Diocese of Worcester has been part of the Church of England and the Anglican Communion. The diocese covers most of the county of Worcestershire, the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, and parts of the City of Wolverhampton. The Episcopal see is in the city of Worcester where the bishop's throne is located at the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary. The bishop's official residence is the Bishop's Office, The Old Palace, Deans Way, Worcester, Worcestershire. The bishops had two earlier residences: Hartlebury Castle near Kidderminster from the 13th-century to 2007 and a palace at Alvechurch until it was pulled down in the 17th-century. The current bishop is the Right
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    Pope

    Pope

    The pope (from Latin: papa; from Greek: πάππας (pappas), a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle. The current office-holder is Pope Benedict XVI, who was elected in a papal conclave on 19 April 2005. The office of the pope is known as the papacy. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is often called the "Holy See" (Sancta Sedes in Latin), or the "Apostolic See" based upon the Church tradition that the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul were martyred in Rome. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City, a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within the city of Rome. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in human history. The Popes in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity and the resolution of various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs, and averting several wars. Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are
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    Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

    Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

    The Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the head of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, which has about 16 million members worldwide, including about 12 million in Egypt. The 117th holder of this position was Pope Shenouda III who died on March 17, 2012. Metropolitan Pachomious, metropolitan of Beheira and five western cities, was chosen as chair of the Holy Synod and an acting (or caretaker) Pope until the election and consecration of a new Pope. Following the traditions of the church, the pope is chairman and head of the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria as a first among equals. This organization is the highest authority in the Church of Alexandria. It formulates the rules and regulations regarding matters of the church's organization, faith, and order. The pope is also the chairman of the church's General Congregation Council. Although historically associated with the city of Alexandria, the residence and Seat of the Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria has been located in Cairo since 1047. The pope is currently established in Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, in a compound which includes the Patriarchal palace, with an
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    President of the Church

    President of the Church

    In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. It was the office held by Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the movement, and the office assumed by many of Smith's claimed successors, such as Brigham Young, Joseph Smith III, Sidney Rigdon, and James Strang. Several other titles have been associated with this office, including First Elder of the church, Presiding High Priest, President of the High Priesthood, Trustee-in-Trust for the church, Prophet, Seer, Revelator, Translator, and Ruler (in Israel). The movement's founder, Joseph Smith, Jr., the first president of the church, was known by all of these titles in his lifetime (although not necessarily with consistency). Joseph Smith died in 1844 without having indisputably established who was to be his successor. Therefore, his death was followed by a succession crisis in which various groups followed leaders with succession claims. Years later, the office of President was reorganized in many of the resulting Latter Day Saint denominations, the largest of which are The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Community of Christ (formerly the
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    Roman Catholic Archbishop of San Francisco

    The Roman Catholic Archbishop of San Francisco is the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Francisco, the Roman Catholic Church in San Francisco, San Mateo and Marin counties in California, the United States. The archbishop is the metropolitan archbishop of the ecclesiastical province of San Francisco, which includes the suffragan dioceses of Honolulu, Las Vegas, Oakland, Reno, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Jose, Santa Rosa, and Stockton. The current archbishop is the Most Reverend Salvatore Joseph Cordileone, who was installed as the ninth Archbishop of San Francisco on October 4, 2012. He had previously been Bishop of Oakland, California. To date, no sitting Archibishop of San Francisco has been elevated to cardinal. Two Archbishops of San Francisco have served as the leader of the episcopal conference of bishops and archbishops in the United States. Archbishop Edward Hanna served as the first chairman of the National Catholic Welfare Council (renamed National Catholic Welfare Conference in 1922) from its founding in 1919 until his retirement in 1935. Archbishop John R. Quinn was president of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and the United States
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