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Best Religious Leader of All Time

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    1
    Hossein Noori Hamedani

    Hossein Noori Hamedani

    Grand Ayatollah Hosein Nuri-Hamadani (born in 1926) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja. Nuri-Hamadani has been called a "hard-line cleric," who has expressed his strong disapproval of Sufis and dervishes, Jews, the intellectual Abdolkarim Soroush and the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Hosein Nuri-Hamadani was born in Hamadan, Iran. After finishing elementary studies in Hamadan, at the age of 17 he moved to Qom, Iran to continue his religious studies. He studied in the seminaries of Allameh Tabatabai and Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi. He currently resides and teaches in the Seminary of Qom, Iran. After 2009 Iranian presidential election, Hamedani took side with Ahmadinejad and attacked those who questioned the accuracy of the election. Among his reported views are that Iran "must purge universities of anti-Islamic and atheist professors." In September 2006 he called for a clampdown on dervish groups in Qom. He also issued a fatwa against the attendance of women in stadiums. In early 2008 he issued what some see as an implicit death threat against Iranian intellectual Abdolkarim Soroush, saying “Soroush’s writings are ‎worse than Salman
    6.22
    9 votes
    2
    Pope Gregory II

    Pope Gregory II

    Pope Saint Gregory II (669 – 11 February 731) was pope from 19 May 715 to his death on 11 February 731. His defiance of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian as a result of the iconoclastic controversy in the Eastern Empire prepared the way for a long series of revolts, schisms and civil wars that eventually led to the establishment of the temporal power of the popes. Born into a noble Roman family in the year 669, Gregory was the son of Marcellus and Honesta. As a young man, he was placed into the papal court, and was made a subdeacon and sacellarius (or treasurer) of the Roman See during the pontificate of Pope Sergius I (687 – 701). Later he was made a deacon and placed in charge of the Vatican Library. During the pontificate of Pope Constantine Gregory was made a papal secretary, and accompanied him to Constantinople in 711 to deal with the issues raised by Rome’s rejection of the canons of the Quinisext Council. The actual negotiations on the contentious articles were handled by Gregory, with the result that the emperor Justinian II agreed that the Papacy could disregard whichever of the council’s decisions it wished to. After Constantine’s death on 9 April 715, Gregory
    8.67
    6 votes
    3
    Pope Celestine I

    Pope Celestine I

    Pope Saint Celestine I was elevated to the papacy in the year 422, on 3 November according to the Liber Pontificalis, but on 10 April according to Tillemont. Celestine I was a Roman from the region of Campania. Nothing is known of his early history except that his father's name was Priscus. He is said to have lived for a time at Milan with St. Ambrose. The first known record of him is in a document of Pope Innocent I from the year 416, where he is spoken of as "Celestine the Deacon". Various portions of the liturgy are attributed to him, but without any certainty on the subject. Though he did not attend personally, he sent delegates to the First Council of Ephesus of 431, in which the Nestorians were condemned. Four letters written by him on that occasion, all dated 15 March 431, together with a few others, to the African bishops, to those of Illyria, of Thessalonica, and of Narbonne, are extant in re-translations from the Greek; the Latin originals having been lost. St. Celestine actively condemned the Pelagians and was zealous for orthodoxy. He sent Palladius to Ireland to serve as a bishop in 431. Bishop Patricius (Saint Patrick) continued this missionary work. Pope Celestine
    7.57
    7 votes
    4
    Pope Pelagius I

    Pope Pelagius I

    Pope Pelagius I was Pope from 556 to 4 March 561. He was the second pope of the Byzantine Papacy, like his predecessor a former apocrisiarius to Constantinople. He came from a Roman noble family. His father John seems to have been vicar of one of the two civil "dioceses", or districts, into which Italy was then divided. Pelagius accompanied Pope Agapetus I to Constantinople and was appointed by him nuncio of the Roman Church to that city. When Pope Vigilius went to Constantinople on the orders of Emperor Justinian I, Pelagius stayed in Rome as the pope's representative. Totila, King of the Goths, had begun to blockade the city. Pelagius poured out his own fortune for the benefit of the famine-stricken people, and tried to induce the king to grant a truce. Though he failed, he afterwards induced Totila to spare the lives of the people when he captured Rome in December 546. Totila sent Pelagius to Constantinople in order to arrange a peace with Justinian I, but the emperor sent him back to say that his general Belisarius was in command in Italy. Traditionally he is credited with the construction of the Santi Apostoli, Rome, built to celebrate the complete victory of Narses over the
    7.43
    7 votes
    5
    Tsangyang Gyatso, 6th Dalai Lama

    Tsangyang Gyatso, 6th Dalai Lama

    Tsangyang Gyatso (Tibetan: ཚངས་དབྱངས་རྒྱ་མཚོ, Wylie: tshang-dbyangs rgya-mtsho, ZYPY: Cangyang Gyamco) (1 March 1683 – 15 November 1706) was the sixth Dalai Lama. He was a Monpa by ethnicity and was born at Urgelling Monastery, 5 km from Tawang, Tibet and not far from the large Tawang Monastery in the northwestern part of present-day Arunachal Pradesh in India (claimed by China as South Tibet). He led a playboy lifestyle and disappeared, near Kokonor probably murdered on his way to Beijing in 1706. Tsangyang Gyatso composed poems and songs that are still immensely popular in Tibet to this day. Tsangyang was born on 1 March 1683 in Mon Tawang (in modern Arunachal Pradesh, India) to Lama Tashi Tenzin of Urgeling, a descendant of the treasure revealer Pema Lingpa, and Tsewang Lhamo, a Monpa girl hailing from a royal family of Bekhar Village. There are many stories about the life and death of Tsangyang Gyatso. There are several legendary tales about the birth of Tsangyang. Apparently, His mother, Tsewang, had experienced a few miracles prior to the birth of Tsangyang Gyamtso. One day, within the first month of her pregnancy, she was husking paddy in the stone mortar. To her surprise,
    9.00
    5 votes
    6
    Pope Callixtus I

    Pope Callixtus I

    Pope Saint Callixtus I or Callistus I was pope from about 217 to about 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. He was martyred for his Christian faith and is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church. His contemporary and enemy, the author of Philosophumena (probably Hippolytus of Rome), relates that Callixtus, as a young slave, was put in charge of collected funds by his master Carpophorus, funds which were given as alms by other Christians for the care of widows and orphans; Callixtus lost the funds and fled from Rome, but was caught near Portus. According to the tale, Callixtus jumped overboard to avoid capture but was rescued and taken back to his master. He was released at the request of the creditors, who hoped he might be able to recover some of the money, but was rearrested for fighting in a synagogue when he tried to borrow money or collect debts from some Jews. Philosophumena claims that, denounced as a Christian, Callixtus was sentenced to work in the mines of Sardinia. He was released with other Christians at the request of Hyacinthus, a eunuch presbyter, who represented Marcia, the favourite mistress of Emperor Commodus. At this time
    7.67
    6 votes
    7
    Pope Boniface IV

    Pope Boniface IV

    Pope Saint Boniface IV (c. 550 – 25 May 615) was pope from 608 to his death, and is also considered a Roman Catholic saint. Son of Johannes, "a physician, a Marsian from the province and town of Valeria; he succeeded Boniface III after a vacancy of over nine months." He was consecrated on either 25 August (Duchesne) or 15 September (Jaffé) in 608. His death is listed as either 8 May or 25 May 615 by these same two authorities. In the time of Pope Gregory I, he was a deacon of the Roman Church and held the position of dispensator, that is, the first official in connection with the administration of the patrimonies. Boniface obtained leave from the Byzantine Emperor Phocas to convert the Pantheon in Rome into a Christian church, and on 13 May 609 (?), the temple erected by Agrippa to Jupiter the Avenger, Venus, and Mars was consecrated by the pope to the Virgin Mary and all the Martyrs. It was the first instance at Rome of the transformation of a pagan temple into a place of Christian worship. Twenty-eight cartloads of sacred bones were said to have been removed from the Catacombs and placed in a porphyry basin beneath the high altar. During the pontificate of Boniface, Mellitus, the
    8.60
    5 votes
    8
    Pope John XI

    Pope John XI

    Pope John XI (910? – December 935) was a Pope from March 931 (at the age of 20) to December 935. The parentage of John XI is still a matter of dispute. According to Liutprand of Cremona (Antapodosis, ii. c. 48) and the "Liber Pontificalis," he was the natural son of Pope Sergius III (904–911), ("Johannes, natione Romanus ex patre Sergio papa," "Liber Pont." ed. Duchesne, II, 243). Ferdinand Gregorovius, Ernst Dümmler, Thomas Greenwood (Cathedra Petri: A Political History of the great Latin Patriarchate), Philip Schaff, and Rudolf Baxmann agree with Liutprand that Pope Sergius III fathered Pope John XI by Marozia. If that is true, John XI would be the only known illegitimate son of a Pope to have become Pope himself. (Silverius was the legitimate son of Pope Hormisdas). On the other hand, Horace Kinder Mann, Reginald L. Poole, Peter Llewelyn (Rome in the Dark Ages), Karl Josef von Hefele, August Friedrich Gfrörer, Ludovico Antonio Muratori, and Francis Patrick Kenrick maintain that Pope John XI was sired by Alberic I of Spoleto, Count of Tusculum. His mother was the Roman ruler at the time, resulting in his appointment to the Papacy. Marozia was thus allegedly able to exert complete
    6.83
    6 votes
    9
    Pope Zosimus

    Pope Zosimus

    Pope Saint Zosimus was born in Mesoraca, Calabria and was Pope from 18 March 417 to 26 December 418 (or 27 December). He succeeded Innocent I and was followed by Boniface I. Zosimus took a decided part in the protracted dispute in Gaul as to the jurisdiction of the See of Arles over that of Vienne, giving energetic decisions in favour of the former, but without settling the controversy. His fractious temper coloured all the controversies in which he took part, in Gaul, Africa and Italy, including Rome, where at his death the clergy were very much divided. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Zosimus was a Greek and his father's name was Abram. Historian Adolf von Harnack deduced from this that the family was of Jewish origin, but this cannot be certain. Nothing is known of the life of Zosimus before his elevation to the Papal See. His consecration as Bishop of Rome took place on 18 March 417. The festival was attended by Patroclus, Bishop of Arles, who had been raised to that See in place of Bishop Heros of Arles, who had been forcibly and unjustly removed by the imperial general Constantine. Patroclus gained the confidence of the new pope at once; as early as 22 March he received
    7.80
    5 votes
    10
    Yitzhak Nissim

    Yitzhak Nissim

    Yitzhak Nissim (1896–1981) (Hebrew: יצחק נסים‎) was a Sephardic chief rabbi of Israel. Nissim was born in Baghdad and immigrated to Palestine in 1925. In 1964, Pope Paul VI visited Israel but refused to visit the heads of other religions, insisting that they come visit him. In protest, Nissim boycotted this visit, insisting that he was willing to visit the Pope as long as there would be reciprocity if a chief rabbi came to Rome.
    6.67
    6 votes
    11
    Pope Stephen III

    Pope Stephen III

    Pope Stephen III (c. 720 – 1 February 772) was pope from 1 August 768 to 1 February 772. Born around the year 720 in Sicily, Stephen III was the son of a man named Olivus. Coming to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Gregory III, he was placed in the monastery of St. Chrysogonus, where he was ordained a Benedictine monk. During the pontificate of Pope Zachary, he was ordained a priest, after which the pope decided to keep him to work at the Lateran Palace. Gregory gradually rose to high office in the service of successive popes, and was at the bedside of the dying Pope Paul I as powerful factions began manoeuvring to ensure the election of their own candidate in late June 767. The next year was consumed by the rival claims of antipopes Constantine II (installed by a faction of Tuscan nobles) and Philip (the candidate of the Lombards), who were forced out of office by the efforts of Christophorus, the Primicerius of the notaries, and his son Sergius, the Treasurer of the Roman church. With the capture of Constantine II, Christophorus set about organising a canonical election, and on August 1 he summoned not only the Roman clergy and army, but also the people to assemble before the
    7.60
    5 votes
    12
    William Sancroft

    William Sancroft

    William Sancroft (30 January 1617 – 24 November 1693) was the 79th Archbishop of Canterbury. Sancroft was born at Ufford Hall in Fressingfield, Suffolk, son of Francis Sandcroft (1580–1647) and Margaret Sandcroft née Butcher (1594–1631). He was educated at the Bury St Edmunds free grammar school before being admitted to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in September 1633 and matriculating there in 1634. He became M.A. in 1641 and fellow in 1642, but was ejected in 1649 for refusing to accept the "Engagement." He then remained abroad till the Restoration, after which he was chosen one of the university preachers, and in 1663 was nominated to the deanery of York. He became Dean of St Paul's in 1664, greatly assisting with the rebuilding after the Great Fire of London, towards which he contributed £1400. He also rebuilt the deanery, and improved its revenue. In 1668 he was admitted Archdeacon of Canterbury upon the king's presentation, but he resigned the post in 1670. In 1677, being now prolocutor of the Convocation, he was unexpectedly advanced to the archbishopric of Canterbury, at the express wish of the King who trusted in his moderation. So unwilling was he to accept that the King
    7.60
    5 votes
    13
    Abraham Isaac Kook

    Abraham Isaac Kook

    Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935) was the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of the Religious Zionist Yeshiva Merkaz HaRav, Jewish thinker, Halachist, Kabbalist and a renowned Torah scholar. He is known in Hebrew as הרב אברהם יצחק הכהן קוק HaRav Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook, and by the acronym הראיה (HaRaAYaH) which in English means "evidence", or simply as "HaRav." He was one of the most celebrated and influential rabbis of the 20th century. Rav Kook was born in Grīva, at the time a town in Courland Governorate of the Russian Empire (now a part of Daugavpils, Latvia) in 1865, the oldest of eight children. His father, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Ha-Cohen Kook, was a student of the Volozhin Yeshiva, the "mother of the Lithuanian yeshivas", whereas his maternal grandfather was a member of the Kapust dynasty of the Hassidic movement. As a child he gained a reputation of being an ilui (prodigy). He entered the Volozhin Yeshiva in 1884 at the age of 18, where he became close to the rosh yeshiva, Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin (the Netziv). Although he stayed at the yeshiva for only a year and a half, the Netziv has been quoted as saying that if the
    8.75
    4 votes
    14
    Pope Anastasius I

    Pope Anastasius I

    Pope Saint Anastasius I, born in Rome the son of Maximus, was pope from 27 November 399 to 401. He condemned the writings of the Alexandrian theologian Origen shortly after their translation into Latin. He fought against these writings throughout his papacy, and in 400 he called a council to discuss them. The council agreed that Origen was not faithful to the Catholic Church. If Origen has put forth any other writings, you are to know that they and their author are alike condemned by me. The Lord have you in safe keeping, my lord and brother deservedly held in honour. — letter to Simplicianus, During his reign he also encouraged Catholics in North Africa to fight Donatism. It was Pope Anastasius who instructed priests to stand and bow their head as they read from the gospels. Among his friends were Augustine, Jerome, and Paulinus. Jerome speaks of him as a man of great holiness who was rich in his poverty. Anastasius was succeeded by his son, Innocent I, who was born before Anastasius entered the clergy, though according to Innocent's biographer in the Liber Pontificalis, Innocent was the son of a man called Innocens of Albano. He is buried in the Catacomb of Pontian.
    8.75
    4 votes
    15
    Pope Leo III

    Pope Leo III

    Pope Saint Leo III (750 – 12 June 816) was Pope from 795 to his death in 816. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him as Roman Emperor. Leo, who was of non-noble birth, had risen in the hierarchy of Rome and was elected Pope only one day after the burial of his predecessor, Pope Adrian I, who had worked for good relations between Rome and the Frankish Empire under Charlemagne. Leo announced his election to Charlemagne, sending him the keys of Saint Peter's tomb and the banner of Rome, requesting an envoy. Charlemagne's reply stated that it was his function to defend the Church, and the function of the Pope to pray for the realm and for the victory of his army. Leo aroused the hostility of Rome's nobility, who saw the papal post as reserved only for noble candidates. During his rule, he was accused of adultery and perjury. In April 799, he was attacked by a gang who unsuccessfully attempted to gouge out his eyes and cut off his tongue for his earlier actions, only to be saved by Magnus Forteman and 700 Frisian nobles of his army. He was then formally deposed and sent to a monastery, but escaped and made
    8.75
    4 votes
    16
    Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani

    Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani

    Ali al-Husayni al-Sistani (Arabic: علي الحسيني السيستاني‎ Persian: علی حسینی سیستانی‎, born August 4, 1930 - Mashhad) is the highest-ranking Shia marja in Iraq and the leader of the Hawza of Najaf. Sistani was born in Mashhad, Iran, to a family of religious scholars. During the Safavid period, Sistani's ancestor Sayyid Mohammad was appointed by Sultan Husayn to the office of Sheikh ul-Islam (Leading Authority of Islam) presiding over the Sistan province, where he then traveled with his children and settled, an event which accounts for the usage of the title "al-Sistani" in Ayatollah Sistani's own name today. Sistani began his religious education as a child, first in Mashhad and continuing later in Qom. In 1951, Sistani traveled to Iraq to study in Najaf under Grand Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei. Sistani rose to the rank of Mujtahid in 1960. At the unusually young age of thirty-one, Sistani reached the senior level of clerical accomplishment, or Ijtihad, which entitled him to pass his own judgments on religious questions. When Grand Ayatollah Khoei died in 1992, Sistani ascended to the rank of Grand Ayatollah through traditional peer recognition of his scholarship. His role as
    10.00
    3 votes
    17
    Pope Stephen II

    Pope Stephen II

    Pope Stephen II (715 – 26 April 757) was Pope from 752 to 757, succeeding Pope Zachary following the death of Pope-elect Stephen. Stephen II marks the historical delineation between the Byzantine Papacy and the Frankish Papacy. The Lombards to the north of Rome had captured Ravenna, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire Exarchate of Ravenna, in 751, and began to put pressure on the city of Rome. Relations were very strained in the mid-8th century between the papacy and the Eastern Roman emperors over the support of the Isaurian Dynasty for iconoclasm. Likewise, maintaining political control over Rome became untenable as the Eastern Roman Empire itself was beset by the Abbasid Caliphate to the south and Bulgars to the northwest. As a result, Rome was unable to secure military support from Constantinople to push back Lombard forces. Stephen turned to Pepin the Younger, the recently-crowned King of the Franks, and even traveled to Paris to plead for help in person. On 6 January 754, Stephen re-consecrated Pepin as king. In return, Pepin assumed the role of ordained protector of the Church and set his sights on the Lombards. Pepin invaded Italy twice to settle the Lombard problem and
    6.50
    6 votes
    18
    Pope Adrian I

    Pope Adrian I

    Pope Adrian (c. 700 – 25 December 795) was pope from 1 February 772 to 25 December 795. He was the son of Theodore, a Roman nobleman. Shortly after Adrian's accession the territory ruled by the papacy was invaded by Desiderius, king of the Lombards, and Adrian was compelled to seek the assistance of the Frankish king Charlemagne, who entered Italy with a large army. Charlemagne besieged Desiderius in his capital of Pavia. After taking the town, he banished the Lombard king to the Abbey of Corbie in France, and adopted the title "King of the Lombards" himself. The pope, whose expectations had been aroused, had to content himself with some additions to the Duchy of Rome, the Exarchate of Ravenna, and the Pentapolis in the Marches, which consisted of the "five cities" on the Adriatic coast from Rimini to Ancona with the coastal plain as far as the mountains. He celebrated the occasion by striking the earliest papal coin, and in a mark of the direction the mediaeval papacy was to take, no longer dated his documents by the Emperor in the east, but by the reign of Charles, king of the Franks. A mark of such newly-settled conditions in the Duchy of Rome is the Domusculta Capracorum, the
    8.50
    4 votes
    19
    Zechariah

    Zechariah

    Zechariah  /zɛkəˈraɪ.ə/ (Hebrew: זְכַרְיָה, Modern Zekharya Tiberian Zəḵaryā, "YHWH has remembered"; Arabic: زكريا‎ Zakariya' or Zakkariya; Greek: Ζαχαρίας Zakharias; Latin: Zacharias) was a person in the Hebrew Bible and traditionally considered the author of the Book of Zechariah, the eleventh of the Twelve Minor Prophets. He was a prophet of the two-tribe Kingdom of Judah, and like Ezekiel was of priestly extraction. He describes himself (Zechariah 1:1) as "the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo." In Ezra 5:1 and 6:14 he is called "the son of Iddo," who was properly his grandfather. His prophetical career began in the second year of Darius, king of Persia (B.C. 520), about sixteen years after the return of the first company from their Babylonian exile. He was contemporary with Haggai (Ezra 5:1). Not much is known about Zechariah’s life other than what may be inferred from the book. It has been speculated that his ancestor Iddo was the head of a priestly family who returned with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:4), and that Zechariah may himself have been a priest as well as a prophet. This is supported by Zechariah's interest in the Temple and the priesthood, and from Iddo's preaching in
    8.50
    4 votes
    20
    Cosmo Lang

    Cosmo Lang

    William Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth GCVO PC (known as Cosmo; 31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945) was a Scottish Anglican prelate who served as Archbishop of York (1908–1928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1928–1942). His rapid elevation to Archbishop of York, within 18 years of his ordination, is unprecedented in modern Church of England history. As Archbishop of Canterbury during the abdication crisis of 1936, he took a strong moral stance, and comments he made in a subsequent broadcast were widely condemned as uncharitable towards the departed king. The son of a Scots Presbyterian minister, Lang abandoned the prospect of a legal and political career to train for the Anglican priesthood. Beginning in 1890, his early ministry was served in slum parishes in Leeds and Portsmouth, except for brief service as an Oxford college chaplain. In 1901 he was appointed suffragan Bishop of Stepney in London, where he continued his work among the poor. He also served as a canon of St Paul's Cathedral, London. In 1908 Lang was nominated as Archbishop of York, despite his relatively junior status as a suffragan rather than a diocesan bishop. His religious stance was broadly
    9.67
    3 votes
    21
    Pope Adrian III

    Pope Adrian III

    Pope Saint Adrian III, was Pope from 17 May 884 to July 885. He was born at Rome. He died in July 885 at San Cesario sul Panaro (Modena) not long after embarking on a trip to Worms, in modern Germany. The purpose the journey was to attend a diet after being summoned by the Frankish King Charles III, the Fat, to settle the succession to the Holy Roman Empire and discuss the rising power of the Saracens. He was noted for having aided the Romans during a famine. His cult was confirmed in 1891, and his feast day is 8 July. His death and subsequent burial in the church of San Silvestro Nonantola Abbey near Modena is commemorated in the sculpted reliefs (c. 1122) that frame the doorway of this church. His relics are found near the high altar here.
    9.67
    3 votes
    22
    Pope Sergius II

    Pope Sergius II

    Pope Sergius II was Pope from January 844 – 24 January 847. On the death of Gregory IV, the archdeacon John was proclaimed pope by popular acclamation, while the nobility elected Sergius, a Roman of noble birth. The opposition was suppressed, with Sergius intervening to save John's life. Sergius was then consecrated immediately by the nobles (or the bishops), without seeking the ratification of the Frankish court. The Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I, however, disapproved of this abandonment of the Constitutio Romana of 824, which included a statute that no pope should be consecrated until his election had the approval of the Frankish emperor. He sent an army under his son Louis, the recently appointed Viceroy of Italy, to re-establish his authority. The Church and the Emperor reached an accommodation, with Louis being crowned king of Lombardy by Sergius, although the Pope did not accede to all the demands made upon him. Sergius contributed to urban redevelopment in Rome, relying on what some consider to be dubious means of gaining money. Simony is said to have flourished during the reign of Sergius II. During his pontificate Rome was ravaged, and the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul
    8.25
    4 votes
    23
    Pope Telesphorus

    Pope Telesphorus

    Pope Saint Telesphorus was Pope from 126 or 127 to 136 or 137 or 138, during the reigns of Roman Emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. He was of Greek ancestry and born in Terranova da Sibari, Calabria, Italy. Telesphorus is traditionally reckoned as being the seventh Roman bishop in succession after Saint Peter. The Liber Pontificalis mentions that he had been an anchorite (or hermit) monk prior to assuming office. According to the testimony of Irenæus (Against Heresies III.3.3), he suffered a "glorious" martyrdom. Although most early popes are called martyrs by sources such as the Liber Ponificalis, Telesphorus is the first to whom Ireneaus, writing considerably earlier, gives this title. Eusebius (Church History iv.7; iv.14) places the beginning of his pontificate in the twelfth year of the reign of Emperor Hadrian (128–129) and gives the date of his death as being in the first year of the reign of Antoninus Pius (138–139). In the Roman Martyrology his feast is celebrated on 2 January; the Greek Church celebrates it on 22 February. The tradition of Christmas Midnight Masses, the celebration of Easter on Sundays, the keeping of a seven-week Lent before Easter and the singing of
    8.25
    4 votes
    24
    Frederick Cornwallis

    Frederick Cornwallis

    Frederick Cornwallis (5 March 1713 – 19 March 1783) was Archbishop of Canterbury, and the twin brother of Edward Cornwallis. Cornwallis was born in London, England, the seventh son of Charles Cornwallis, 4th Baron Cornwallis. He was educated at Eton College and graduated from Christ's College, Cambridge. He was ordained a priest in 1742, and became a Doctor of Divinity in 1748. Cornwallis was able to ascend quickly in the Church thanks to his aristocratic connections, and in 1746 was made chaplain to King George II and a canon of Windsor. In 1750 he became a canon at St Paul's Cathedral, and later that same year became Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry thanks to the patronage of the Duke of Newcastle, then Secretary of State. He was also Dean of Windsor (1765–1768) and Dean of St Paul's (1766–1768). On the death of Thomas Secker in 1768, his friendship with the then-prime minister, the Duke of Grafton, resulted in his translation to Archbishop of Canterbury. As archbishop, his sociability and geniality made him popular. He was a consistent supporter of the administration of Lord North, and led efforts in support of dispossessed Anglican clergy in the American colonies during the
    6.17
    6 votes
    25
    Pope Valentine

    Pope Valentine

    Pope Valentine, (in Latin: Valentinus), was elected pope for a short time in 827. Born in Rome in the region of the Via Lata, Valentine was the son of a Roman noble called Leontius. Showing an early aptitude for learning, he was moved from the school attached to the Lateran Palace and, according to the Liber Pontificalis, was made a Deacon by Paschal I (817–824). Paschal grew attached to the young man, and soon raised him rank of Archdeacon. He also was clearly favoured by Paschal’s successor, Pope Eugene II, to the point where rumours were circulated that Valentine was really the son of Eugene. Other rumours declared that Valentine and Eugene were involved in an illicit relationship. With the death of Eugene, the Roman clergy, nobility and people all acclaimed Valentine as being the most worthy to occupy the Apostolic See. They took him from the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, and installed him in the Lateran Palace, ignoring his protests. In their haste, they enthroned him before he was consecrated a priest; this was an unusual reversal of the normal proceedings, and in fact was the first time it had happened in the recorded history of the papacy, although it would be repeated
    6.17
    6 votes
    26
    Joel

    Joel

    Joel ( /ˈdʒoʊ.əl/; Hebrew: יואל‎) (Yoel) was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and the author of the Book of Joel. He is mentioned by name only once in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, in the introduction to his own brief book, as the son of Pethuel (Joel 1:1). The name Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH (or Yahweh), and el (god), and has been translated as "one to whom YHWH is God," that is, a worshipper of YHWH. The dates of his life are unknown; he may have lived anywhere from the 9th century BCE to the 5th century BCE, depending on the dating of his book. The book's mention of Greeks has not given scholars any help in dating the text since the Greeks were known to have had access to Judah from Mycenaean times. However, the book's mention of Judah's suffering and to the standing temple has led some scholars to place the date of the book in the post-exilic period, after the construction of the Second Temple. Joel was originally from Judah/Judea, and, judging from its prominence in his prophecy, was quite possibly a prophet associated with the ritual of the Jerusalem temple. According to a long-standing tradition, Joel was buried in Gush
    8.00
    4 votes
    27
    Pope Cornelius

    Pope Cornelius

    Pope Cornelius was pope from his election on 6 or 13 March 251 to his martyrdom in June 253. Emperor Decius, who ruled from 249 to 251 AD, persecuted Christians in the Roman Empire rather sporadically and locally, but starting January in the year 250, he ordered all citizens to perform a religious sacrifice in the presence of commissioners, or else face death. Many Christians refused and were martyred (possibly including the pope, St Fabian, on 20 January), while others partook in the sacrifices in order to save their own lives. Two schools of thought arose after the persecution. One side, led by Novatian, who was a priest in the diocese of Rome, believed that those who had stopped practicing Christianity during the persecution could not be accepted back into the church even if they repented. Under this philosophy, the only way to re-enter the church would be re-baptism. The opposing side, including Cornelius and Cyprian the Bishop of Carthage, did not believe in the need for re-baptism. Instead they thought that the sinners should only need to show contrition and true repentance to be welcomed back into the church. In hopes that Christianity would fade away, Decius prevented the
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    4 votes
    28
    Anna

    Anna

    Anna (Hebrew: חַנָּה‎, Ancient Greek: Ἄννα) or Anna the Prophetess was a biblical figure mentioned only in the Gospel of Luke. According to that Gospel, she was an aged Jewish prophetess who prophesied about Jesus at the Temple of Jerusalem. She appears in Luke 2:36-38 in the episode of the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. The passage mentioning Anna is as follows: Luke 2:36-38 There was also a prophet, Anna, the daughter of Penuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was very old; she had lived with her husband seven years after her marriage, and then was a widow until she was eighty-four.[e] She never left the temple but worshiped night and day, fasting and praying. Coming up to them at that very moment, she gave thanks to God and spoke about the child to all who were looking forward to the redemption of Jerusalem. From the three verses in Luke, the following is known of Anna: Luke describes Anna as "very old." Many Bibles and older commentaries state that she was 84 years old. The Greek text states that "she was a widow of eighty four years". The passage is ambiguous: it could mean that she was 84 years old, or that she had been a widow for 84 years, Some scholars consider the latter
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    5 votes
    29
    Jeremiah

    Jeremiah

    Jeremiah ( /dʒɛrɨˈmaɪ.ə/; Hebrew: יִרְמְיָה, Modern Hebrew: Yirməyāhū, IPA: jirməˈjaːhu, Tiberian: Yirmĭyahu, Greek: Ἰερεμίας, Arabic: إرميا Irmiya‎) meaning "Yah exalts", also called the "Weeping prophet" was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. Jeremiah is traditionally credited with authoring the Book of Jeremiah, 1 Kings, 2 Kings and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple. Judaism considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its canon, and regards Jeremiah as the second of the major prophets. Islam considers Jeremiah a prophet, and is listed as a prophet in all the collections of Stories of the Prophets. Christianity also regards Jeremiah as a prophet and he is quoted in the New Testament. It has been interpreted that Jeremiah “spiritualized and individualized religion and insisted upon the primacy of the individual’s relationship with God.” About a year after King Josiah of Judah had turned the nation toward repentance from the widespread idolatrous practices of his father and grandfather. Jeremiah’s sole purpose was to reveal the sins of the people and explain the reason for the impending
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    5 votes
    30
    Saint Peter

    Saint Peter

    Saint Peter or Simon Peter was an early Christian leader and one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. Peter is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles and is venerated as a saint. The son of John or of Jonah or Jona (King James Bible (KJB), Douay–Rheims Bible (D-R)), he was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. Peter is venerated in multiple churches and is regarded as the first pope by the Catholic Church. After working to establish the church of Antioch, and presiding for seven years as the leader of the city's Christian community, he preached, or his epistle was preached, to scattered communities of believers: Jews, Hebrew Christians and the gentiles, in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia Minor and Bithynia. He then went to Rome, where in the second year of Claudius, it is claimed, he overthrew Simon Magus and held the Sacerdotal Chair for 25 years. He is said to have been put to death at the hand of Emperor Nero. Peter wrote two general epistles. The Gospel of Mark is also ascribed to him (as Mark was his disciple and interpreter). Several other books bearing his name—the
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    5 votes
    31
    Pope Mark

    Pope Mark

    Saint Mark (not to be confused with the evangelist) was Pope from 18 January 336 to 7 October 336, the date of his death. Little is known of his early life. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was a Roman, and his father's name was Priscus. Some evidence suggests that the early lists of bishops and martyrs known as the Depositio episcoporum and Depositio martyrum were begun during his pontificate. He issued a constitution confirming the power of the Bishop of Ostia to consecrate newly-elected popes. He is credited with the foundation of the Basilica of San Marco in Rome, and a cemetery church over the Catacomb of Balbina, just outside the city. Mark died of natural causes and was buried in the catacomb of Balbina. His feast day is celebrated on 7 October.
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    3 votes
    32
    Barnabas

    Barnabas

    Barnabas (Ancient Greek: Βαρναβᾶς), born Joseph, was an early Christian, one of the earliest Christian disciples in Jerusalem. According to Acts 4:36 Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew. Named an apostle in Acts 14:14, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers. They traveled together making more converts (c 45-47), and participated in the Council of Jerusalem (c 50). Barnabas and Paul successfully evangelized among the "God-fearing" gentiles who attended synagogues in various Hellenized cities of Anatolia. Barnabas' story appears in the Acts of the Apostles, and Paul mentions him in some of his epistles. Tertullian named him as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, but this and other attributions are conjecture. Clement of Alexandria ascribed the Epistle of Barnabas to him, but that is highly improbable. Although the date, place, and circumstances of his death are historically unverifiable, Christian tradition holds that Barnabas was martyred at Salamis, Cyprus, in 61 AD. He is traditionally identified as the founder of the Cypriot Orthodox Church. The feast day of Barnabas is celebrated on June 11. Barnabas is
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    4 votes
    33
    Pope Boniface II

    Pope Boniface II

    Pope Boniface II was pope from 530 to 532. He was by birth an Ostrogoth, the first Germanic pope, and he owed his appointment to the influence of the Gothic king Athalaric. Boniface was chosen by his predecessor, Pope Felix IV, who had been a strong adherent of the Arian king, and was never elected. For a time, Boniface served as Pope in competition with the Antipope Dioscorus, who had been elected by most of the priests of Rome. Boniface and Dioscorus were both consecrated in Rome on 22 September 530, but Dioscurus died only twenty-two days later. Boniface changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini.
    7.75
    4 votes
    34
    Pope Clement I

    Pope Clement I

    Pope Clement I (fl. 96), also known as Saint Clement of Rome (in Latin, Clemens Romanus), is listed from an early date as a Bishop of Rome. He was the first Apostolic Father of the Church. Few details are known about Clement's life. According to Tertullian, Clement was consecrated by Saint Peter, and he is known to have been a leading member of the church in Rome in the late 1st century. Early church lists place him as the second or third bishop of Rome after Saint Peter. The Liber Pontificalis presents a list that makes Pope Linus the second in the line of bishops of Rome, with Peter as first; but at the same time it states that Peter ordained two bishops, Linus and Pope Cletus, for the priestly service of the community, devoting himself instead to prayer and preaching, and that it was to Clement that he entrusted the Church as a whole, appointing him as his successor. Tertullian too makes Clement the immediate successor of Peter. And while in one of his works Jerome gives Clement as "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter" (not in the sense of fourth successor of Peter, but fourth in a series that included Peter), he adds that "most of the Latins think that Clement was second
    7.75
    4 votes
    35
    Pope Gregory III

    Pope Gregory III

    Pope Saint Gregory III (died 28 November 741) was pope from 11 February 731 to 28 November 741. His pontificate, like that of his predecessor, was disturbed by the iconoclastic controversy in the Byzantine Empire, and by the ongoing advance of the Lombards, in which he vainly invoked the intervention of Charles Martel. Gregory, was the son of a Syrian named John. He was elected pope by popular acclamation on 11 February 731, but was not formally consecrated as Bishop of Rome until 18 March after receiving the approval of the Byzantine exarch in Ravenna. He was the last pope to seek the exarch’s ratification of a papal election. Upon his accession as pope, Gregory immediately appealed to the Byzantine Emperor Leo III to moderate his position on the iconoclastic controversy. When Gregory’s representative was arrested on the orders of the emperor, Gregory called a synod in November 731, which condemned iconoclasm outright. Leo responded by trying to bring the Pope under control, although the fleet he sent to enforce the imperial will was shipwrecked in the Adriatic Sea. He then proceeded to appropriate papal territories in Sicily and Calabria, and transferring ecclesiastical
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    4 votes
    36
    Richard Bancroft

    Richard Bancroft

    Archbishop Richard Bancroft, DD, BD, MA, BA (1544 – 2 November 1610) was an English churchman, who became Archbishop of Canterbury and the "chief overseer" of the production of the King James Bible. Bancroft was born at Farnworth, then a village in south Lancashire, in 1544. His early education was at Farnworth grammar school which had been founded by bishop William Smyth who had also been born in the village. He was later educated at Cambridge, first at Christ's College and afterwards at Jesus College. He took his degree of BA in 1567 and that of MA in 1570. Ordained about that time, he was named chaplain to Richard Cox, then bishop of Ely, and in 1575 was presented to the rectory of Teversham in Cambridgeshire. The next year he was one of the preachers to the university. He graduated BD in 1580 and DD five years later. In 1584 he was made rector of St Andrew, Holborn. In 1585 he was appointed treasurer of St Paul's cathedral, London, and in 1586 was made a member of the ecclesiastical commission. On 9 February 1589 he preached at Paul's Cross a sermon, the substance of which was a passionate attack on the Puritans. He described their speeches and proceedings, caricatured their
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    4 votes
    37
    Pope Sisinnius

    Pope Sisinnius

    Pope Sisinnius (c. 650 – 4 February 708) was Pope for about three weeks in 708. A Syrian by birth, Sisinnius' father's name was John. The paucity of donations to the papacy during his reign (42 pounds of gold and 310 pounds of silver, a fraction of the personal donations of other contemporary pontiffs) indicate that he was probably not from the aristocracy. Sisinnius was selected as pope during the Byzantine Papacy. He succeeded Pope John VII after a sede vacante of three months. He was consecrated around 15 January 708. Sisinnius remained pope for just twenty days. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "although he was so afflicted with gout that he was unable even to feed himself, he is nevertheless said to have been a man of strong character, and to have been able to take thought for the good of the city". Among his few acts as pope was the consecration of a bishop for Corsica. He also ordered "that lime be burned in order to restore portions" of the walls of Rome. The restoration of the walls planned by Sisinnius was carried out by Pope Gregory II. The book True Christianity: The Catholic Way credits him with defending the Church against the Lombards and Saracens. Sisinnius
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    5 votes
    38
    Lungtok Gyatso, 9th Dalai Lama

    Lungtok Gyatso, 9th Dalai Lama

    The 9th Dalai Lama (religious name: Lungtok Gyatso, shortened from Lobzang Tenpai Wangchuk Lungtok Gyatso; 1 December 1805 – 6 March 1815), also spelled Lungtog Gyatso and Luntok Gyatso, was the 9th Dalai Lama of Tibet. He was the only Dalai Lama to die in childhood and was part of a string of four Dalai Lamas to die before reaching 22 years of age. Under auspicious signs, Lungtok Gyatso was born near the monastery of Dan Chokhor (or Denchokor), on 1 December 1805. Many sources render him as an orphan, but others name his parents as Tendzin Chokyong and Dondrub Dolma. A contestant to be the next Dalai Lama since early infancy, the boy was brought to Gungtang monastery near Lhasa, where he was examined by Tibetan officials, including the Qing representatives, the ambans. He was the favored choice of the Eighth Dalai Lama's attendants. He was ultimately selected by the Seventh Panchen Lama, Gedun Choekyi Nyima, who, in 1808, performed the tonsure ceremony and gave him the name Lobzang Tenpai Wangchuk Lungtok Gyatso. In 1807, he was recognized as the reincarnation of the Eighth Dalai Lama and was escorted to Lhasa with great ceremony. In 1810, he was enthroned at the Potala Palace on
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    4 votes
    39
    Pope Dionysius

    Pope Dionysius

    Pope Saint Dionysius was pope from 22 July 259 to 26 December 268. He may have been born in Magna Græcia, but this has not been verified. Dionysius was elected pope in 259, after the martyrdom of Sixtus II in 258. The Holy See had been vacant for nearly a year due to difficulty in electing a new pope during the violent persecution which Christians faced. When the persecution had begun to subside, Dionysius was raised to the office of Bishop of Rome. Emperor Valerian I, who had led the persecution, was captured and killed by the King of Persia in 260. The new emperor, Gallienus, issued an edict of toleration, bringing the persecution of Christians to an end and giving the Church legal status. To the new pope fell the task of reorganizing the Roman church, which had fallen into great disorder. On the protest of some of the faithful at Alexandria, he demanded from the bishop of Alexandria, also called Dionysius, explanations concerning his doctrine regarding the relation of God to the Logos, which was satisfied. Pope Dionysius sent large sums of money to the churches of Cappadocia, which had been devastated by the marauding Goths, to rebuild and to ransom those held captive. He
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    4 votes
    40
    Thomas Tenison

    Thomas Tenison

    Thomas Tenison (29 September 1636 – 14 December 1715) was an English church leader, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1694 until his death. During his primacy, he crowned two British monarchs. He was born at Cottenham, Cambridgeshire, and educated at the free school in Norwich, going on to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, as a scholar on Archbishop Matthew Parker's foundation. He graduated in 1657, and was chosen fellow in 1659. For a short time he studied medicine, but in 1659 was privately ordained. As vicar of St Andrew-the-Great, Cambridge, he set an example by his devoted attention to the sufferers from the plague. In 1667 he was presented to the living of Holywell-cum-Needingworth, Huntingdonshire, by the Earl of Manchester, to whose son he had been tutor, and in 1670 to that of St Peter Mancroft, Norwich. In 1680 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and was presented by King Charles II to the important London church of St Martin's-in-the-Fields. Tenison, according to Gilbert Burnet, "endowed schools including Archbishop Tenison's School, Lambeth, founded in 1685 and Archbishop Tenison's School, Croydon, founded in 1714, set up a public library, and kept many curates
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    4 votes
    41
    Abraham

    Abraham

    Abraham (Hebrew:  אַבְרָהָם (help·info), Modern: Avraham, Greek: Αβραάμ (Avraam), Tiberian: ʼAḇrāhām, Ashkenazi: Avrohom or Avruhom, Arabic: إبراهيم‎ Ibrāhīm) is one of the biblical patriarchs and a major character in the founding myth of the Israelites. His story is told in chapters 11-25 of the Book of Genesis, and he plays a prominent role in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. According to the account in Genesis, at the age of 75, Abram, following what he took to be God's command, took his wife Sarai, and his household and traveled from Haran to Shechem in Canaan. Abram enters into a covenant with God, signified by the rite of circumcision. Abram is now known as Abraham (“father of many nations”), and Sarai becomes Sarah. As Abraham and Sarah are childless, Sarah suggests Abraham have a child by her handmaid, Hagar. Hagar bears Abraham his firstborn, Ishmael. Abraham and Sarah later become the parents of Isaac. In Jewish and Christian tradition, Abraham is the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac. In Islamic tradition, Abraham is considered a prophet of Islam, an ancestor of Muhammad, through Ishmael. Muslims regard him as an example of the perfect Muslim, and the
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    3 votes
    42
    Nathan

    Nathan

    Nathan the Prophet (Hebrew: נתן הנביא‎; fl. c. 1000 BC) was a court prophet who lived in the time of King David and Queen Bathsheba. He came to David to reprimand him over his committing adultery with Bathsheba while she was the wife of Uriah the Hittite whose death the King had also arranged to hide his previous transgression. His actions are described in the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles (see especially, 2 Samuel 7:2-17, 12:1-25.) Nathan wrote histories of the reigns of both David and of Solomon (see 1 Chronicles 29:29 and 2 Chronicles 9:29), and was involved in the music of the temple (see 2 Chronicles 29:25). In 1 Kings 1:8-45 it is Nathan who tells the dying David of the plot of Adonijah to become king, resulting in Solomon being proclaimed king instead. The feast day of Nathan the Prophet is on 24 October. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite, he is commemorated as a saint on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers (i.e., the Sunday before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord). King David named one of his sons after the prophet. The third of four sons born to David and Bathsheba
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    3 votes
    43
    Yona Metzger

    Yona Metzger

    Yona Metzger (Hebrew: יונה מצגר‎; born 1953) is an Israeli rabbi and the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel. His counterpart is Rabbi Shlomo Amar, the Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel since their appointments in 2003. Rabbi Metzger was born in Haifa in 1953. He served in the Israel Defense Forces as a chaplain, fought in several wars in the 7th Armored Brigade, and was discharged with the rank of captain. He is the youngest Chief Rabbi in Israel's history. Rabbi Metzger received his ordination from the Yeshivat Kerem BeYavne hesder yeshiva before working as a religious teacher. He served as rabbi of the Tiferet Zvi Synagogue in Tel Aviv and was later appointed regional rabbi of northern Tel Aviv. Metzger has written ten books, two of which were awarded prizes by the President of Israel. He is also the former head of a publishing house. While Metzger is from a National Religious family and educational background, he has been closely identified with Haredi Judaism, and often sought the advice of Degel HaTorah's late spiritual leader Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv. Some observers have claimed that this has made Metzger an excellent candidate to represent both communities, with one reporter
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    3 votes
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    Ovadia Yosef

    Ovadia Yosef

    Ovadia Yosef, born Abdullah Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף‎) (born September 23, 1920) is the former Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, a recognised Talmudic scholar and foremost halakhic authority. He currently serves as the spiritual leader of the Shas political party in the Israeli parliament. His halakhic responsa are highly regarded within Orthodox circles and are considered binding in many Mizrahi communities, among whom he is regarded as "the most important living halachic authority." Yosef was born in Baghdad, Iraq the day after Yom Kippur. In 1924, when he was four years old, he immigrated to Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine with his family. As a teenager he studied at the Porat Yosef Yeshiva, where he advanced to the highest shiur taught by the rosh yeshiva, Rabbi Ezra Attiya. A story retells how Attiya was instrumental in keeping the young Yosef in the Torah world. At one point, the diligent young scholar suddenly stopped coming to yeshiva for several days. Attiya paid a visit to his home and was shocked by the poverty he saw there. Yosef's father explained that he ran a small grocery and needed the boy to work for him. Attiya attempted to convince the father of the importance of
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    2 votes
    45
    Philip the Evangelist

    Philip the Evangelist

    Saint Philip the Evangelist appears several times in the Acts of the Apostles. He was one of the Seven Deacons chosen to care for the poor of the Christian community in Jerusalem (Acts 6). He preached and performed miracles in Samaria, and met and baptised an Ethiopian man, a eunuch, in Gaza, traditionally marking the start of the Ethiopian Church (Acts 8). Later, he lived in Caesarea Maritima with his four daughters who prophesied, where he was visited by Paul (Acts 21). He is first mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (6:5) as one of "the seven" who were chosen to attend to certain temporal affairs of the church in Jerusalem in consequence of the murmurings of the Hellenists against the Hebrews. After the martyrdom of Saint Stephen he went to "the city of Samaria", where he preached with much success, Simon Magus being one of his converts. He afterwards instructed and baptized the Ethiopian eunuch on the road between Jerusalem and Gaza; next he was "caught away" by the Spirit and "found at Azotus" (Ashdod), then "passing through he preached in all the cities till he came to Caesarea" (Acts 8). Here some years afterwards, according to Acts 21:8-9, where he is described as "the
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    2 votes
    46
    Sonam Gyatso, 3rd Dalai Lama

    Sonam Gyatso, 3rd Dalai Lama

    Sonam Gyatso (Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་, Wylie: bsod nams rgya mtsho, ZYPY: Soinam Gyaco) (1543–1588) was the first officially recognized Dalai Lama, although the title was retrospectively given to his two predecessors. He was born near Lhasa in 1543 and was recognised as the reincarnation of Gendun Gyatso and subsequently enthroned at Drepung Monastery by Panchen Sonam Dragpa, who became his tutor. Panchen Sonam Dragpa was the 15th Ganden Tripa and his texts still serve as the core curriculum for many Gelugpa monasteries. The third Dalai Lama studied at Drepung Monastery and became its abbot. His reputation spread quickly and the monks at Sera Monastery also recognised him as their abbot. According to Sumpa Khenpo, the great Gelug scholar, he also studied some Nyingmapa tantric doctrines. When one of Tibet's kings, who had been supported by the Kagyupa, died in 1564, Sonam Gyatso presided over his funeral. His political power, and that of the Gelugpas, became dominant in Tibet by the 1570s. It has been commonly claimed that the title "Dalai Lama" was first bestowed by the Mongolian ruler Altan Khan upon Sonam Gyatso in 1578. Since the time of Genghis Khaan, only people who were
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    2 votes
    47
    John Moore

    John Moore

    John Moore (26 April 1730 – 18 January 1805) was a bishop in the Church of England. Moore was the son of George Moore, butcher, and his wife Jane. He was born in Gloucester and was educated at the Crypt School there. He was a student at Pembroke College, Oxford (1745, BA 1748, MA 1751). Patronage from the third duke of Marlborough gained him the fifth prebendal stall at Durham Cathedral (1761) and a canonry of the first prebend at Christ Church, Oxford (1763). He next became Dean of Canterbury (1771–1775). He was appointed bishop of Bangor (1774–1783) and subsequently Archbishop of Canterbury from 1783 until his death in 1805.
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    5 votes
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    Pope Siricius

    Pope Siricius

    Pope Saint Siricius, Bishop of Rome from December 384 (the date in December—15 or 22 or 29—is uncertain) until his death on 26 November 399, was successor to Damasus I and was himself succeeded by Anastasius I. Siricius was elected Bishop of Rome unanimously, despite attempts by the Antipope Ursinus to promote himself. Tradition suggests that Siricius left his wife and children in order to become Pope. The number of Siricius' children is unknown, however. He was an active Pope, involved in the administration of the Church and the handling of various factions and viewpoints within it. He was the first Pope to issue decretals, the first of which was the Directa Decretal sent to Himerius of Tarragona. He was the author of two decrees concerning clerical celibacy. The decree of 385 stated that priests should stop cohabiting with their wives. When the Spanish bishop and ascetic Priscillian, accused by his fellow bishops of heresy, was executed by the emperor Magnus Maximus under the charge of magic, Siricus—along with Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours—protested against this verdict. His feast day is 26 November. Although the website Religion Facts, without citing any source, says
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    5 votes
    49
    William Laud

    William Laud

    William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633 to 1645. One of the High Church Caroline divines, he opposed radical forms of Puritanism. This, and his support for King Charles I, resulted in his beheading in the midst of the English Civil War. William Laud was born in a house on Broad Street in Reading, of comparatively lowly origins; his father, also named William, was a cloth merchant (a fact about which Laud was to remain sensitive throughout his career). He was baptised at St Laurence's Church in Reading. He was educated at Reading School and, through a White Scholarship, St John's College, Oxford. Laud was ordained on 5 April 1601; he soon gained a reputation for Arminian and High Church tendencies and antipathy to Puritanism and for intellectual and organisational brilliance. At that time the Calvinist party was strong in the Church of England and Laud's affirmation of apostolic succession was unpopular in many quarters. In 1605, somewhat against his will, he obliged his patron, Lord Devonshire, by conducting his marriage to a divorcée, Penelope, Lady Rich. In 1609 he became rector of West Tilbury in Essex. Laud continued to rise
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    5 votes
    50
    Pope Symmachus

    Pope Symmachus

    Saint Symmachus was pope from 498 to 514. His tenure was marked by a serious schism over who was legitimately elected pope by the citizens of Rome. He was born on Sardinia, the son of Fortunatus; Jeffrey Richards notes that he was born a pagan, and "perhaps the rankest outsider" of all the Ostrogothic Popes, most of whom were members of aristocratic families. Symmachus was baptized in Rome, where he became archdeacon of the Church under Pope Anastasius II. Symmachus was elected pope on 22 November 498 in the Constantinian basilica. The archpriest of Santa Prassede, Laurentius, was elected pope that same day at the church of St. Mary's by a dissenting minority faction with Byzantine sympathies, who were supported by Emperor Anastasius. Both factions agreed to allow the Gothic King Theodoric the Great to arbitrate. He ruled that the one who was elected first and whose supporters were the most numerous should be recognized as pope. An investigation found the facts favored Symmachus and his election was recognized as proper. However, an early document known as the "Laurentian Fragment" claims that Symmachus obtained the decision by paying bribes, while deacon Magnus Felix Ennodius of
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    4 votes
    51
    Pope Boniface III

    Pope Boniface III

    Pope Boniface III was Pope from 19 February to 12 November 607. Despite his short time as Pope he made a significant contribution to the organization of the Catholic Church. The son of John Cataadioce, he was a Roman by birth although of Greek extraction. As a deacon, Boniface had impressed Pope Gregory I, who described him as a man "of tried faith and character" and selected him to be apocrisiarius (legate, essentially the papal nuncio) to the court of Constantinople in 603. This was to be a significant time in his life and helped to shape his short but eventful papacy. As apocrisarius he had the ear of Emperor Phocas and was held in esteem by him. This was to prove important when he was instructed by Pope Gregory to intercede with Emperor Phocas on behalf of Bishop Alcison of Cassiope on the island of Corcyra. Alcison found his position as bishop being usurped by Bishop John of Euria in Epirus, who had fled his home along with his clergy to escape from attacks by the Slavs and Avars. John, having found himself safe on Corcyra, was not content to serve under Bishop Alcison; instead he set about trying to usurp his episcopal authority. Normally this behaviour would not have been
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    Pope Sixtus III

    Pope Sixtus III

    Pope Saint Sixtus III was pope from 31 July 432 to 18 August 440. The name of Sixtus is often connected with a great building boom in Rome: Santa Sabina on the Aventine Hill was dedicated during his pontificate and he built Santa Maria Maggiore, whose dedication to Mary the Mother of God reflected his acceptance of the Ecumenical council of Ephesus which closed in 431. At that council the debate over Christ's human and divine natures turned on whether Mary could legitimately be called the "Mother of God" or only "Mother of Christ". The council gave her the Greek title Theotokos (literally "God-bearer", or "Mother of God"), and the dedication of the large church in Rome is a response to that. Prior to being made Pope, Sixtus was a patron of Pelagius, who was later condemned as a heretic. One of his main concerns was in restoring peace between Cyril of Alexandria and the Syrians. He also maintained the rights of the Pope over Illyria and the position of the archbishop of Thessalonica as head of the local Illyrian church.
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    53
    John the Baptist

    John the Baptist

    John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yoḥanan ha-mmaṭbil, Arabic: يوحنا المعمدان‎ Yuhanna Al-Ma'madan, Aramaic: ܝܘܚܢܢ Ioḥanan, Greek: Ὁ Ἅγιος/Τίμιος Ἐνδοξος Προφήτης, Πρόδρομος καὶ Βαπτιστής Ἰωάννης Ho Hágios/Tímios Endoxos, Prophḗtēs, Pródromos, kaì Baptistḗs Ioánnes) (died ca. 28 CE) was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels and the Qur'an. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River. Some scholars maintain that he was influenced by the Essenes, who were semi-ascetic, expected an apocalypse, and practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism, although there is no direct evidence to substantiate this. John is regarded as a prophet in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith, and Mandaeism. Most biblical scholars agree that John baptized Jesus at "Bethany beyond the Jordan," by wading into the water with Jesus from the eastern bank. John the Baptist is also mentioned by Jewish historian Josephus, in Aramaic Matthew, in the Pseudo-Clementine literature, and in the Qur'an. Accounts of John in the New Testament appear compatible with the account in Josephus. There
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    Pope Adeodatus I

    Pope Adeodatus I

    Pope Saint Adeodatus I or Deodatus I (which is Given by God in Latin, also called Deusdedit, which is God Has Given; both are now considered variants of the same name) (died 8 November 618) was Pope from 13 November 615 to his death. He was born in Rome, the son of a subdeacon. He served as a priest for 40 years before his election and was the first priest to be elected pope since John II in 533. Adeodatus represents the second wave of anti-Gregorian challenge to the papacy, the first being that of Sabinian. He reversed the practice of his predecessor Boniface IV of filling the papal administrative ranks with monks by recalling the clergy to such positions and by ordaining some 14 priests, the first ordinations in Rome since Pope Gregory. In August 618, an earthquake struck Rome, followed by an outbreak of a scab disease, during which Adeodatus died. There was a vacancy of one year, one month, and 16 days before his successor was consecrated. According to tradition, he was the first pope to use lead seals (bullae) on papal documents, which in time came to be called "papal bulls". One bulla dating from his reign is still preserved, the obverse of which represents the Good Shepherd
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    55
    Pope Anastasius II

    Pope Anastasius II

    Pope Anastasius II was pope from 24 November 496 to 16 November 498. Anastasius II was pontiff during the time of the schism of Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople. He showed some tendency towards conciliation, and thus brought upon himself the lively reproaches of the author of the Liber Pontificalis. On the strength of this tradition, Dante placed this pope in Hell. According to historian Richard P. McBrien, the view of Anastasius II as a traitor is unjust. Anastasius II had entered in communion with a supporter of Acacius, bringing condemnation from some of the clergy of Rome, who denounced Anastasius II. His death in 498 at the height of the crisis was seen as divine retribution.
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    Pope John II

    Pope John II

    Pope John II (born Mercurius) was pope from 533 to 535. He was the son of a certain Projectus, born in Rome and a priest of the Basilica di San Clemente on the Caelian Hill. He was made pope on 2 January 533. The basilica of St. Clement still retains several memorials of "Johannes surnamed Mercurius". Presbyter Mercurius is found on a fragment of an ancient ciborium, and several of the marble slabs which enclose the schola cantorum bear upon them, in the style of the sixth century, the monogram of Johannes. He was the first pope to adopt a new name (regnal name) upon elevation to the papacy, as his theophoric birth name honoured the Roman god Mercury. At this period simony (the purchase or sale of church offices or preferment) in the election of popes and bishops was rife among clergy and laity. During the sede vacante of over two months, "shameless trafficking in sacred things was indulged in. Even sacred vessels were exposed for sale". The matter had been brought before the Senate, and laid before the Arian Ostrogothic Court at Ravenna. The last decree (Senatus consultum) which the Roman Senate is known to have issued, passed under Boniface II, was directed against simony in
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    57
    Pope Felix III

    Pope Felix III

    Pope Saint Felix III (though as Antipope Felix the "II" was not actually pope, he could also be called "Pope St. Felix II") was pope from 13 March 483 to 3 January 492. His repudiation of the Henoticon is considered the beginning of the Acacian schism. Felix was born into a Roman senatorial family and was a great-great-grandfather of Pope Gregory I. He was a widower with two children when he was elected to succeed Pope Simplicius in 483. It is said that Felix appeared as an apparition to one of his descendants, his great-granddaughter Trasilla (an aunt of Pope Gregory I), and asked her to enter Heaven through death, and on the eve of Christmas Trasilla died, seeing Jesus Christ beckoning. His first act was to repudiate the Henoticon, a deed of union originating with Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople and published by Emperor Zeno with the view of allaying the strife between the Miaphysite Christians and Chalcedonian Christians. He also addressed a letter of remonstrance to Acacius. The latter proved refractory and sentence of deposition was passed against Acacius. In his first synod, Felix excommunicated Peter the Fuller, who had assumed the See of Antioch against papal wishes. In
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    58
    Pope Sixtus II

    Pope Sixtus II

    Pope Sixtus II or Pope Saint Sixtus II (a corruption of Greek Ξυστος, Xystus, "polished") was pope from 30 August 257 to 6 August 258. He died as a martyr during the persecution by Emperor Valerian. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was Greek by birth; however this is uncertain, and is disputed by modern western historians arguing that the authors of Liber Pontificalis confused him with that of the contemporary author Xystus who was Greek student of Pythagoreanism. He restored the relations with the African and Eastern Orthodox churches which had been broken off by his predecessor on the question of heretical baptism raised by the heresy Novatianism. In the persecutions under Valerian in 258, numerous bishops, priests, and deacons were put to death. Pope Sixtus II was one of the first victims of this persecution, being beheaded on 6 August. He was martyred along with six deacons— Januarius, Vincentius, Magnus, Stephanus, Felicissimus and Agapitus. Lawrence of Rome, his best-known deacon, suffered martyrdom on 10 August, 3 days after his bishop, as Sixtus had prophesied. He is thought to be the author of the pseudo-Cyprianic writing Ad Novatianum, though this view has not
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    Gilbert Sheldon

    Gilbert Sheldon

    Gilbert Sheldon (1598–1677) was an English Archbishop of Canterbury. He was born in Stanton, Staffordshire in the parish of Ellastone, on 19 July 1598, the youngest son of Roger Sheldon; his father worked for Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury. He was educated at Trinity College, Oxford; he matriculated at Oxford on 1 July 1614, graduated B.A. from Trinity College on 27 November 1617, and M.A. on 28 June 1620. In 1619 he was incorporated at Cambridge. In 1622 he was elected fellow of All Souls' College, where he took the degrees of B.D. on 11 November 1628 and D.D. on 25 June 1634. In 1622 he was ordained, and shortly afterwards he became domestic chaplain to Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry. In March 1626 he was elected warden of All Souls' on the death of Richard Astley. He had already made the acquaintance of William Laud, and corresponded with him on college business, university politics, and on the conversion of William Chillingworth from Roman Catholicism. Sheldon was not initially a Laudian, and he resisted (unsuccessfully) Laud's appointment of Jeremy Taylor to a fellowship at All Souls'. In 1634 and 1640 he was pro-vice-chancellor. In 1638 he was on the commission
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    60
    Isaiah

    Isaiah

    Isaiah ( /aɪˈzeɪ.ə/ or UK /aɪˈzaɪ.ə/; Hebrew: יְשַׁעְיָהוּ, Modern Yeshayahu Tiberian Yəšạʻyā́hû ; Greek: Ἠσαΐας, Ēsaïās ; Arabic: شعيا Shaiya; "Yahu is salvation") was a prophet who lived in the 8th-century BC Kingdom of Judah. Jews and Christians consider the Book of Isaiah a part of their Biblical canon; he is the first listed (although not the earliest) of the neviim akharonim, the latter prophets. It is stated in the first verse of the Book of Isaiah that he prophesied during the reigns of Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, the kings of Judah (Isaiah 1:1). Uzziah reigned fifty-two years in the middle of the 8th century BC, and Isaiah must have begun his ministry a few years before Uzziah's death, probably in the 740s BC. Isaiah lived until the fourteenth year of Hezekiah (who died 698 BC), and may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for as long as sixty-four years. Isaiah's wife was called "the prophetess" (Isaiah 8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judges 4:4) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was the wife of "the prophet" (Isaiah 38:1). The second
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    61
    Matthew Parker

    Matthew Parker

    Matthew Parker (6 August 1504 – 17 May 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 until his death in 1575. He was also an influential theologian and arguably the co-founder (with Thomas Cranmer and Richard Hooker) of a distinctive tradition of Anglican theological thought. Parker was one of the primary architects of the Thirty-Nine Articles, the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. The Parker collection of early English manuscripts, including the book of St. Augustine Gospels and Version A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was created as part of his efforts to demonstrate that the English Church was historically independent from Rome, creating one of the world's most important collections of ancient manuscripts. The eldest son of William Parker, he was born in Norwich, in St Saviour's parish. His mother's maiden name was Alice Monins and she may have been related by marriage to Thomas Cranmer. When William Parker died, in about 1516, his widow married John Baker. Parker was sent in 1522 to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1525. He was ordained deacon in April 1527 and priest in June the same year. In September 1527 he was elected
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    62
    Nahum

    Nahum

    Nahum ( /ˈneɪ.əm/ or /ˈneɪhəm/; Hebrew: נַחוּם Naḥūm‎) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. His book comes in chronological order between Micah and Habakkuk in the Bible. He wrote about the end of the Assyrian Empire, and its capital city, Nineveh, in a vivid poetic style. Little is known about Nahum’s personal history. His name means "comforter," and he was from the town of Alqosh, (Nah 1:1) which scholars have attempted to identify with several cities, including the modern `Alqush of Assyria and Capharnaum of northern Galilee. He was a very nationalistic Hebrew however and lived amongst the Elkoshites in peace. Nahum's writings could be taken as prophecy or as history. One account suggests that his writings are a prophecy written in about 615 BC, just before the downfall of Assyria, while another account suggests that he wrote this passage as liturgy just after its downfall in 612 BC. The book was introduced in Calvin's Commentary as a complete and finished poem: Nahum, taking words from Moses himself, have shown in a general way what sort of "Being God is". The Reformation theologian Calvin argued, Nahum painted God by which his nature must be
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    63
    Pope Agapetus II

    Pope Agapetus II

    Pope Agapetus II (died November 955) was Pope from 10 May 946 until his death in 955, at the time when Alberic II (932–954), son of Marozia, was governing the independent republic of Rome under the title of "prince and senator of the Romans." He was born in Rome. Agapetus, a man of some force of character, attempted to put a stop to the so-called Pornocracy, which lasted from the accession of Pope Sergius III in 904 to the deposition of Pope John XII in 963. His appeal to Otto I the Great to intervene in Rome remained without immediate effect, since Alberic II's position was too strong to be attacked, but it bore fruit after his death.
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    Pope Silvester I

    Pope Silvester I

    Pope Sylvester I served as pope from 31 January 314 to 31 December 335, succeeding Pope Miltiades. He filled the See of Rome at an important era in the history of the Catholic Church, yet very little is known of him. The accounts of his papacy preserved in the Liber Pontificalis (7th or 8th century) are little else than a record of the gifts said to have been conferred on the Church by Constantine I, but it does say that he was the son of a Roman named Rufinus. During his pontificate were built the great churches founded at Rome by Constantine, e.g. the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, St. Peter's Basilica, and several cemeterial churches over the graves of martyrs. Sylvester did not himself attend the First Council of Nicaea in 325, but he was represented by two legates, Vitus and Vincentius, and he approved the council's decision. Part of the Symmachean forgeries, the Vita beati Sylvestri (c. 501–508), which has been preserved in Greek and Syriac (and in Latin in the Constitutum Sylvestri), is an apocryphal account of an alleged Roman council, including legends of Sylvester's close relationship with the first Christian emperor. These also appear in the
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    65
    Haggai

    Haggai

    Haggai ( /ˈhæɡiˌaɪ/; Hebrew: חַגַּי‎, Ḥaggay or "Hag-i", Koine Greek: Ἀγγαῖος; Latin: Aggeus) was a Hebrew prophet during the building of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, and one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the author of the Book of Haggai. His name means "my holiday". He was the first of three prophets (with Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who lived about one hundred years later), who belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything is known of his personal history. He may have been one of the captives taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He began his ministry about sixteen years after the return of the Jews to Judah (ca. 520 BCE). The work of rebuilding the temple had been put to a stop through the intrigues of the Samaritans. After having been suspended for eighteen years, the work was resumed through the efforts of Haggai and Zechariah. They exhorted the people, which roused them from their lethargy, and induced them to take advantage of a change in the policy of the Persian government under Darius the Great. The name Haggai, with various vocalizations, is also found in the Book
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    Hosea

    Hosea

    Hosea ( /ˌhoʊˈzeɪ.ə/; Hebrew: הוֹשֵׁעַ, Modern Hoshea Tiberian Hôšēăʻ ; "Salvation", Greek Ὠσηέ = Ōsēé) was the son of Beeri, a prophet in Israel in the 8th century BC and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name. He is one of the Twelve Prophets of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, also known as the Minor Prophets of the Christian Old Testament. Hosea is often seen as a "prophet of doom", but underneath his message of destruction is a promise of restoration. The Talmud (Pesachim 87a) claims from God that he was the greatest prophet of his generation, which included the more famous Isaiah. The period of Hosea's ministry extended to some sixty years and he was the only prophet of Israel who left any written prophecy. The name "Hosea", probably meaning "help," seems to have been not uncommon, being derived from the auspicious verb from which we have the frequently recurring word "salvation." It may be a contraction of a larger form of which the Divine name or its abbreviation formed a part, so as to signify "God is help," or "Help, God." according to Numbers 13:8, 13:16 that was the original name of Joshua son of Nun, till Moses gave him the longer name (compounded with the name of
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    67
    Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama

    Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama

    Thubten Gyatso (Tibetan: ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་, Wylie: Thub Bstan Rgya Mtsho; 12 February 1876 – 17 December 1933) was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet. In 1878 he was recognized as the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama. He was escorted to Lhasa and given his pre-novice vows by the Panchen Lama, Tenpai Wangchuk, and named "Ngawang Lobsang Thupten Gyatso Jigdral Chokley Namgyal". In 1879 he was enthroned at the Potala Palace, but did not assume political power until 1895, after he had reached his majority. Thubten Gyatso was an intelligent reformer who proved himself a skillful politician when Tibet became a pawn in The Great Game between the Russian Empire and the British Empire. He was responsible for countering the British expedition to Tibet, restoring discipline in monastic life, and increasing the number of lay officials to avoid excessive power being placed in the hands of the monks. The Dalai Lama was born near Sam-ye Monastery, Tak-po province, in 1876. Agvan Dorzhiev, (1854–1938), a Khori-Buryat Mongol, and a Russian subject, was born in the village of Khara-Shibir, not far from Ulan Ude, to the east of Lake Baikal. He left home in 1873 at nineteen to study at the Gelugpa monastery,
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    68
    Hasan ibn Ali

    Hasan ibn Ali

    Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib (Arabic: الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب‎)‎ (born March 1, 625 CE (Ramadhān 15th, 3 AH) – died 669 CE (Safar 7th or 28th, 50 AH) aged 47) is an important figure in Islam. He is the son of Ali and his wife Fatimah. The latter is the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. After his father's death, he briefly succeeded him as the righteous Caliph (head of state), before retiring to Madinah and entering into an agreement with the first Umayyad ruler, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, who assumed the Caliphate. Both Sunni and Shia Muslims regard Hasan as a martyr. Hasan is one of the five people of the Ahl al-Kisa, as well as a member of the Ahl al-Bayt. According to Shia and Sunni sources, Muhammad, upon the birth of his grandson in 3 AH, was ordered by the archangel Gabriel to name him Hasan - a name not used in the pre-Islamic period. Muhammad also honoured his grandson by reciting the Adhān in his right ear, the Iqāmah in his left ear, shaving his head, and sacrificing a ram for the sake of his birth. He married nine women: As a growing youth Hasan saw his father on the battlefield defending Islam as well as preaching to a vast congregation of believers on the
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    Pope Conon

    Pope Conon

    Pope Conon (c. 630 – 21 September 687) was Pope from 21 October 686 until his death in Rome. He had been put forward as a compromise candidate, there being a conflict between the two factions resident in Rome—military and clerical. On his death, Conon was buried in the Patriarchal Basilica of St. Peter. Conon was apparently the son of an officer in the Thracian troop. He was educated in Sicily then ordained priest at Rome. His age, venerable appearance, and simple character caused the clergy and soldiery of Rome, who were in disagreement, to put aside their respective candidates and to elect him as pope. He was consecrated on 21 October 686 after notice of his election had been sent to the Exarch of Ravenna, or after it had been confirmed by him. He received the Irish missionaries Saint Kilian and his companions, consecrated Kilian bishop, and commissioned him and the others to preach the faith in Franconia. (Vita S. Kiliani, in Canisius, Lect. Antiquæ, III, 175–180.) He was in favour with Byzantine Emperor Justinian II, who informed him that he had recovered the Acts of the Third Council of Constantinople, by which, the Emperor wrote, it was his intention to abide. Justinian also
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    70
    Pope Lucius I

    Pope Lucius I

    Pope Saint Lucius I was Pope from 25 June 253 to 5 March 254. St. Lucius was born in Rome at an unknown date; nothing is known about his family except his father's name, Porphyrianus. He was elected probably on 25 June 253 and died on 5 March 254. His election took place during the persecution which caused the banishment of his predecessor Pope Cornelius, and he also was banished soon after his consecration, but succeeded in gaining permission to return. He is praised in several letters of St. Cyprian (see Epist. lxviii. 5) for condemning the Novationists for their refusal to readmit to communion Christians who repented for having lapsed under persecution. His feast day is 5 March, on which date he is commemorated in the Roman Martyrology in the following terms: "In the cemetery of Callistus on the Via Appia, Rome, burial of Saint Lucius, Pope, successor of Saint Cornelius. For his faith in Christ he suffered exile and acted as an outstanding confessor of the faith, with moderation and prudence, in the difficult times that were his." His feast did not appear in the Tridentine Calendar of Pope Saint Pius V. In 1602 it was inserted, under the date of 4 March into the calendar of
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    71
    Pope Paschal I

    Pope Paschal I

    Pope Saint Paschal I (baptismal name, Pascale Massimi) was pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 25 January 817 to 11 February 824. His mother was the renowned religious, the Lady Theodora. A native of Rome and son of Bonosus and Lady Theodora, Paschal was serving as abbot of Santo Stefano Rotondo when he was raised to the pontificate by the acclamation of the clergy less than a day after the death of Pope Stephen IV. This decision occurred before the sanction of the emperor Louis the Pious had been obtained, and was a circumstance for which it was one of his first tasks to apologize. Paschal advised the emperor that the decision had been made to avoid factional strife in Rome, and his papal legate Theodore returned with a document titled Pactum cum Pashali pontiff, in which the Emperor congratulated Paschal, recognized his sovereignty over the Papal States and guaranteed the free election of future pontiffs. . This document was challenged by later historians as a forgery as Paschal’s relations with the imperial house never became cordial, and he was also unsuccessful in winning the sympathy of the Roman nobles. During his reign, he gave shelter to exiled monks from the Byzantine
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    Pope Victor I

    Pope Victor I

    Pope Saint Victor I was Pope from 189 to 199 (the Vatican cites 186 or 189 to 197 or 201). Pope Victor I was the first bishop of Rome born in the Roman Province of Africa: probably he was born in Leptis Magna (or Tripolitania). He was later canonized. His feast day is celebrated on 28 July as "St Victor I, Pope and Martyr". Before his elevation to the Roman episcopacy, a difference in dating the celebration of the Christian Passover/Easter between Rome and the bishops of Asia Minor had been tolerated by both the Roman and Eastern churches. The churches in Asia Minor celebrated it on the 14th of the Jewish month of Nisan, the day before Jewish Passover, regardless of what day of the week it fell on, as the Crucifixion had occurred on the Friday before Passover. The Latins called them Quartodecimans. Rome and the West celebrated Easter on the Sunday following the 14th of Nisan. Victor is remembered for the great concern he displayed for order in the church by severing ties with bishops such as Polycrates of Ephesus who opposed his views on Easter. He also broke with Theodotus of Byzantium for his beliefs about Christ. Until Victor's time, Rome celebrated the Mass in Greek. Pope
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    73
    William Juxon

    William Juxon

    William Juxon (1582 – 4 June 1663) was an English churchman, Bishop of London from 1633 to 1649 and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1660 until his death. Juxon was the son of Robert Juxon and was born probably in Chichester, and educated at the local grammar school, The Prebendal School. He then went on to Merchant Taylors' School, London, and St John's College, Oxford, where he was elected to a scholarship in 1598. Juxon studied law at Oxford, but afterwards took holy orders, and in 1609 became vicar of St Giles' Church, Oxford, where he stayed until he became rector of Somerton, Oxfordshire in 1615. In December 1621 he succeeded his friend, William Laud, as President (i.e. principal) of St John's College, and in 1626 and 1627 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Juxon soon obtained other important positions, including that of chaplain-in-ordinary to King Charles I. In 1627 he was made Dean of Worcester and in 1632 he was nominated to the bishopric of Hereford and resigned the presidency of St John's in January 1633. However, he never took up duties at Hereford, as in October 1633 he was consecrated Bishop of London in succession to Laud. In March 1636 Charles I
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    74
    Muhammad al-Baqir

    Muhammad al-Baqir

    Quotations related to Muhammad al-Bāqir at Wikiquote Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī al-Bāqir (Arabic: محمد ابن علي الباقر ‎) (676-733 AD or 1 Rajab 57 AH – 7 Dhu al-Hijjah 114 AH) was the Fifth Imām to the Twelver Shi‘a and Fourth Imām to the Ismā‘īlī Shī‘a. His father was the previous Imām, ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, and his mother was Fatimah bint al-Hasan. He is revered by Shi'a Muslims for his religious leadership and highly respected by Sunni Muslims for his knowledge and Islamic scholarship as a leading jurist of Madinah, the City of the Prophet. Muhammad al-Baqir was born on the 1st of the month of Rajab, 57th Hijra, in the city of Medina. Because of his resemblance to his great-grandfather he was named Muhammad, because of it that he analyzed the knowledge and made manifest its secrets he became known with the title of al-Baqir. He was the first Imam whose lineage ascended and reached the Islamic prophet Muhammad both from the paternal and maternal sides. His life history can be divided into two parts: Shia historians allege a hadith, that one of the companions of Muhammad, Jabir ibn Abd-Allah Ansari was in the presence of Muhammad. He asked Muhammad about the names of descendants from his
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    75
    Pope Benedict XVI

    Pope Benedict XVI

    Benedict XVI (Latin: Benedictus PP. XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger; 16 April 1927) is the 265th Pope, a position in which he serves dual roles as Sovereign of the Vatican City State and leader of the Catholic Church. As Pope, he is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter the Apostle. Benedict XVI was elected on 19 April 2005 in a papal conclave, celebrated his Papal Inauguration Mass on 24 April 2005, and took possession of his cathedral, the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, on 7 May 2005. A native of Bavaria, Pope Benedict XVI has both German and Vatican citizenship. Ordained as a priest in 1951, Ratzinger established himself as a highly regarded university theologian by the late 1950s and was appointed a full professor in 1958. After a long career as an academic, serving as a professor of theology at several German universities—the last being the University of Regensburg—he was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising and cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1977, an unusual promotion for someone with little pastoral experience. In 1981, he settled in Rome when he became Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, one
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    Pope Formosus

    Pope Formosus

    Pope Formosus (c. 816 – 896) was Pope of the Catholic Church from 891 to 896. His brief reign as Pope was troubled, and his remains were exhumed and put on trial in the notorious Cadaver Synod. Born at Ostia, he became Cardinal Bishop of Portus in 864. He undertook diplomatic missions to Bulgaria (866) and France (869 and 872), and he persuaded Charles the Bald, King of France, to be crowned as emperor by the Pope in 875. As early as 872 he was a candidate for the papacy, but due to political complications he left Rome and the court of Pope John VIII that year. John convened a synod, and Formosus was ordered to return or be excommunicated on charges that he had aspired to the Bulgarian Archbishopric and the Holy See; had opposed the emperor and had deserted his diocese without papal permission; had despoiled the cloisters in Rome; had performed the divine service in spite of the interdict; and had "conspired with certain iniquitous men and women for the destruction of the papal see". The condemnation of Formosus and others was announced in July 872. In 878 the sentence of excommunication was withdrawn after he promised never to return to Rome or exercise his priestly functions. In
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    Pope Pelagius II

    Pope Pelagius II

    Pope Pelagius II was Pope from 579 to 590. He was a native of Rome, but probably of Ostrogothic descent, as his father's name was Winigild. Pelagius appealed for help from Emperor Maurice against the Lombards, but the Byzantines were of little help, forcing Pelagius to "buy" a truce and turn to the Franks, who invaded Italy, but left after being bribed by the Lombards. Pelagius labored to promote the celibacy of the clergy, and he issued such stringent regulations on this matter that his successor Pope Gregory I thought them too strict, and modified them to some extent. During his pontificate, the bishop of Milan, who had broken communion with Rome in the Schism of the Three Chapters, returned to full communion around 581, while other bishops in Northern Italy remained in schism. Pelagius ordered the construction of the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, a church shrine over the place where Saint Lawrence was martyred. During his reign, the Visigoths of Spain converted, but he also faced conflict with the See of Constantinople over the adoption of the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch," which Pelagius believed to undermine the authority of the papacy. Pelagius fell victim to the
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    78
    Pope Sixtus I

    Pope Sixtus I

    Pope Saint Sixtus I was bishop of Rome from about 114 or 119 to 124 or 128 C.E., succeeding Pope Alexander I and succeeded by Pope Telesphorus. In the oldest documents, Xystus is the spelling used for the first three popes of that name. Pope Sixtus I is also the sixth Pope after Peter. The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio (2012) identifies him as a Roman who reigned from 117 or 119 to 126 or 128. According to the Liberian Catalogue of popes, he ruled the Church during the reign of Hadrian "a consulatu Negro et Aproniani usque Vero III et Ambibulo", that is, from 117 to 126. Eusebius states in his Chronicon that Sixtus I was pope from 114 to 124, while his Historia Ecclesiastica, using a different catalogue of popes, claims his rule from 114 to 128. All authorities agree that he reigned about ten years. Sixtus I is credited as having instituted several Roman Catholic liturgical and administrative traditions, but historians believe that these were attributed to him by later writers who were interested in bolstering the papacy's claims to ancient supremacy. Like most of his predecessors, Sixtus I was believed to be buried near Saint Peter's grave on Vatican Hill, although there are
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    79
    Samuel

    Samuel

    Samuel ( /ˈsæm.juː.əl/; Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֶל, Modern Shmu'el Tiberian Šəmûʼēl; Greek: Σαμουήλ Samouēl; Latin: Samvel; صموئيل, Ṣamu’īl; Strong's: Shemuwel) is a leader of ancient Israel in the Books of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. He is also known as a prophet and is mentioned in the second chapter of the Qur'an, although not by name. His status, as viewed by rabbinical literature, is that he was the last of the Hebrew Judges and the first of the major prophets who began to prophesy inside the Land of Israel. He was thus at the cusp between two eras. According to the text of the Books of Samuel, he also anointed the first two kings of the Kingdom of Israel: Saul and David. Samuel's mother was Hannah and his father was Elkanah. Hannah, at the beginning of the narrative, is barren and childless, like Abraham's wife Sarah. Hannah prays to God for a child. Eli who is sitting at the foot of the doorpost in the sanctuary at Shiloh, sees her apparently mumbling and thinks Hannah is drunk, but is soon assured of her motivation and sobriety. Eli was, according to the Books of Samuel, the name of a priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel.
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    Silas

    Silas

    Saint Silas or Saint Silvanus (Greek: Σίλας / Σιλουανός; fl. 1st century AD) was a leading member of the Early Christian community, who later accompanied Paul on parts of his first and second missionary journeys. There is some disagreement over the proper form of his name: he is consistently called "Silas" in Acts, but the Latin Silvanus, which means "of the forest," is always used by Paul and in the First Epistle of Peter; it may be that "Silvanus" is the Romanized version of the original "Silas," or that "Silas" is the Greek nickname for "Silvanus." Silas is thus often identified with Silvanus of the Seventy. Fitzmyer points out that Silas is the Greek version of the Aramaic "Seila," a version of the Hebrew "Saul," which is attested in Palmyrene inscriptions. The name Latin "Silvanus" may be derived from pre-Roman Italian languages (see, e.g., the character "Asilas," an Etruscan leader and warrior-prophet who plays a prominent role in assisting Aeneas in Virgil's epic poem the Aeneid). He was with Paul in Phillipi when they were imprisoned, but were freed when an earthquake broke their chains and opened the prison door. He is thus sometimes depicted carrying broken chains. He is
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    81
    Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog

    Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog

    Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog (Hebrew: יצחק אייזיק הלוי הרצוג; born 3 December 1888 – died 25 July 1959), also known as Isaac Herzog, was the first Chief Rabbi of Ireland, his term lasting from 1921 to 1936. From 1937 until his death in 1959, he was Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of the British Mandate of Palestine and of Israel after its independence in 1948. Rabbi Herzog was born in Łomża, Poland, and moved to the United Kingdom with his family in 1898, where they settled in Leeds. His initial schooling was largely at the instruction of his father, Joel Leib Herzog, who was a rabbi in Leeds and then later in Paris. After mastering Talmudic studies at a young age, Yitzhak went on to attend the Sorbonne and then later the University of London, where he received his doctorate. His thesis, which made him famous in the Jewish world, concerned his claim of re-discovering Techelet, the type of blue dye once used for the making of Tzitzit. Rabbi Herzog served as rabbi of Belfast from 1916 to 1919 and was appointed rabbi of Dublin in 1919. He was a fluent speaker of the Irish language. He was Chief Rabbi to what (from 1922) became the Irish Free State. He was known as "the Sinn Féin Rabbi" He went
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    82
    Moslem Malakouti

    Moslem Malakouti

    Grand Ayatollah Moslem Malakouti (Persian: مسلم ملكوتی) (born 13 August 1923 in Sarab, Azarbaijan, Iran) is an Iranian Shia Marja.
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    83
    Pope Benedict III

    Pope Benedict III

    Pope Benedict III was Pope from 29 September 855 to 17 April 858. Little is known of Benedict's life before his papacy. He was educated and lived in Rome and was cardinal priest of the church of San Callisto at the time of his election. Benedict had a reputation for learning and piety. He was elected upon the refusal of Hadrian, the initial choice of the clergy and people. A group of important people preferred a different candidate, Anastasius. This latter group had Benedict's election disavowed and Anastasius installed. However, popular opinion was so strong that Benedict's consecration was allowed. The envoys of Holy Roman Emperor Louis II forced Benedict to handle Anastasius and his adherents leniently. The schism helped to weaken the hold of the emperors upon the popes, especially upon their elections. Benedict intervened in the conflict between the sons of Lothair I (the future King Lothair II of Lotharingia, Emperor Louis II and Charles of Provence) on the latter's death. He was active in other cases as well and adopted a firm position towards Constantinople. Æthelwulf of Wessex and his son, the future king Alfred the Great, visited Rome in Benedict's reign. A medieval
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    84
    Pope Fabian

    Pope Fabian

    Pope Fabian was Pope from 10 January 236 to 20 January 250, succeeding Pope Anterus. Eusebius of Caesarea (Church History, VI. 29) relates how the Christians, having assembled in Rome to elect a new bishop, saw a dove alight upon the head of Fabian, a layman and stranger to the city, who was thus marked out for this dignity and was at once proclaimed bishop by acclamation, although there were several famous men among the candidates for the vacant position. He is said to have baptized Philip the Arab and his son, to have done some building in the catacombs, to have improved the organization of the church in Rome, and to have appointed officials to register the deeds of the martyrs. According to "later accounts, more or less trustworthy", Fabian sent out the "apostles to the Gauls" to Christianize Gaul after the persecutions under Emperor Decius had all but dissolved the small Christian communities. Fabian sent seven bishops from Rome to Gaul to preach the Gospel: Gatianus of Tours to Tours, Trophimus of Arles to Arles, Paul of Narbonne to Narbonne, Saturnin to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Austromoine to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Clermont, and Saint Martial to Limoges. He also
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    85
    Pope Linus

    Pope Linus

    Pope Saint Linus (died c. 76) was, according to several early sources, Bishop of the Diocese of Rome after Saint Peter. This would make Linus the second Pope. According to other early sources Pope Clement I was the Pope after Peter. Linus is the only person specifically mentioned in the New Testament, other than Peter, considered by the Catholic Church to have held the position of Pope. The earliest witness is Irenaeus, who in about the year 180 wrote: "The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes interprets Irenaeus as saying that Linus was the first bishop of Rome. Linus is presented by Jerome as "the first after Peter to be in charge of the Roman Church", by Eusebius, as "the first to receive the episcopate of the church at Rome, after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter" John Chrysostom says "This Linus, some say, was second Bishop of the Church of Rome after Peter", while the Liberian Catalogue presents Peter as the first Bishop of Rome and Linus as his successor in the same office. The Liber Pontificalis also presents a list that makes Linus the second in the
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    86
    William Howley

    William Howley

    William Howley (1766–1848) was a clergyman in the Church of England. He served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1828 to 1848. Howley's grandfather was, probably, a Lawrence Hooley/Howley of Heaton Mersey: and his uncle, Joseph Hooley [sic] was vicar of Newtown Linford, Leics. Both father and [presumed] uncle went to Brasenose College, Oxford. Howley was born in 1766 at Ropley, Hampshire, where his father was vicar. He was educated at Winchester School and in 1783 went to New College, Oxford. After some time working in Somerset as a private tutor, in 1809 he was appointed regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford University (as well as becoming a Fellow of Winchester and a Canon of Christ Church, Oxford.) He was an active English Freemason, having joined the 'Royal York Lodge' in Bristol on 21 December 1791, aged 25, and served the lodge regularly until his elevation to the episcopate took him to London. In October 1813, at Lambeth Palace, he was consecrated Bishop of London, a post he was to occupy until 1828, when he became Archbishop of Canterbury. Howley was Archbishop during the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts (1828), the Emancipation of the Catholics (1829) and the
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    87
    Paul of Tarsus

    Paul of Tarsus

    Paul the Apostle (c. AD 5 – c. AD 67; variously referred to as "the Apostle Paul" or "Saint Paul"), also known as Saul of Tarsus, is perhaps the most influential early Christian missionary. The writings ascribed to him by the church (the Pauline epistles) form a considerable portion of the New Testament. The influence on Christian thinking of the epistles ascribed to him has been significant, due in part to his association as a prominent apostle of Christianity during the spreading of the Gospel through early Christian communities across the Roman Empire. According to the writings in the New Testament, Paul was known as Saul prior to his conversion, and was dedicated to the persecution of the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem. In the narrative of the book of Acts, while traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "bring them which were there bound unto Jerusalem", the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light. He was struck blind, but after three days his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus, and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God. Along with Simon Peter and James the Just he was
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    88
    Pope Benedict I

    Pope Benedict I

    Pope Benedict I was Pope from 2 June 575 to 30 July 579. Benedict was the son of a man named Bonifacius, and was called Bonosus by the Greeks. The ravages of the Lombards rendered it very difficult to communicate with the Byzantine Emperor at Constantinople, who claimed the privilege of confirming the election of the popes. Hence there was a vacancy of nearly eleven months between the death of Pope John III and the arrival of the imperial confirmation of Benedict's election on 2 June 575. Benedict granted an estate, the Massa Veneris, in the territory of Minturnae, to Abbot Stephen of St. Mark's "near the walls of Spoleto" (St. Gregory I, Ep. ix, 87, I. al. 30). Famine followed the devastating Lombards, and from the few words the Liber Pontificalis has about Benedict, we gather that he died in the midst of his efforts to cope with these difficulties. He was buried in the vestibule of the sacristy of the old Basilica of St. Peter. In a ceremony held in December, he ordained fifteen priests and three deacons and consecrated twenty-one bishops. Few of the records of transactions outside Rome that could help us understand the history of this Papacy survive from Benedict's reign, and
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    89
    Habakkuk

    Habakkuk

    Habakkuk ( /həˈbækək/ or /ˈhæbəkʊk/; Hebrew: חֲבַקּוּק‎; Arabic: حيقوق‎ ; also spelled Habacuc), was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. He is the author of the Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of the collected twelve minor prophets. Almost nothing is known about Habakkuk, aside from what few facts are stated within the book of the Bible bearing his name, or those inferences that may be drawn from that book. His name appears in the Bible only in Habakkuk 1:1 and 3:1, with no biographical details provided other than his title "the prophet." Even the origin of his name is uncertain. For almost every other prophet, more information is given, such as the name of the prophet's hometown, his occupation, or information concerning his parentage or tribe. For Habakkuk, however, there is no reliable account of any of these. Although his home is not identified, scholars conclude that Habakkuk lived in Jerusalem at the time he wrote his prophecy. Further analysis has provided an approximate date for his prophecy and possibilities concerning his activities and background. Beyond the Bible, considerable conjecture has been put forward over the centuries in the form of Christian and Rabbinic tradition,
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    90
    Aaron

    Aaron

    In the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, Aaron ( /ˈærən/ or /ˈɛərən/; Hebrew: אַהֲרֹן‎ Ahărōn, Arabic: هارون‎ Hārūn, Greek (Septuagint): Ααρών ), who is often called "'Aaron the Priest"' (אֵהֲרֹן הֵכֹּהֵן) and once Aaron the Levite (אַהֲרֹן הַלֵּוִי) (Exodus 4:14), was the older brother of Moses, (Exodus 6:16-20, 7:7; Qur'an 28:34) and a prophet of God. He represented the priestly functions of his tribe, becoming the first High Priest of the Israelites. While Moses was receiving his education at the Egyptian royal court, and during his exile among the Midianites, Aaron and his sister Miriam remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt (Goshen). There, Aaron gained a name for eloquent and persuasive speech, so that when the time came for the demand upon the Pharaoh to release Israel from captivity, Aaron became his brother’s nabi, or spokesman, to his own people (Exodus 7:1) and, after their unwillingness to hear, to the Pharaoh himself (Exodus 7:9). Various dates for his life have been proposed, ranging from approximately 1600 to 1200 BC. The Jewish Encyclopedia suggests two possible accounts of Aaron's death. The principal one gives a detailed statement that soon
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    91
    John Tillotson

    John Tillotson

    John Tillotson (October 1630 – 22 November 1694) was an Archbishop of Canterbury (1691–1694). Tillotson was the son of a Puritan clothier at Haughend, Sowerby, Yorkshire. He entered as a pensioner of Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 1647, graduated in 1650 and was made fellow of his college in 1651. In 1656 he became tutor to the son of Edmund Prideaux, attorney-general to Oliver Cromwell. About 1661 he was ordained without subscription by Thomas Sydserf, a Scottish bishop. Tillotson was present at the Savoy Conference in 1661, and remained identified with the Presbyterians until the passing of the Act of Uniformity 1662. Shortly afterwards he became curate of Cheshunt, Herts, and in June 1663, rector of Kedington, Suffolk. He now devoted himself to an exact study of biblical and patristic writers, especially Basil and Chrysostom. The result of this reading, and of the influence of John Wilkins, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, was seen in the general tone of his preaching, which was practical rather than theological, concerned with issues of personal morality instead of theoretical doctrine. This plain style of preaching is reflective of the late 17th century, when the integration
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    92
    Pope Donus

    Pope Donus

    Pope Donus was Pope from 2 November 676 to 11 April 678. He was the son of a Roman named Mauricius. Not much is known of this pope. While he was Pope, he had the enclosed forecourt of St. Peter's Basilica paved, had the atrium (or quadrangle) in front of St. Peter's paved with great blocks of white marble, and restored other churches of Rome, notably the church of St. Euphemia on the Appian Way and the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls. During the pontificate of Donus, Reparatus, the Archbishop of Ravenna, returned to the obedience of the Holy See, thus ending the schism created by Archbishop Maurus, who had aimed at making Ravenna autocephalous. During the reign of Donus, a colony of Nestorian monks was discovered in a Syrian monastery at Rome — the Monasterium Boetianum. Donus is reported to have dispersed them through the various religious houses of the city and to have given their monastery to Roman monks. Relations with Constantinople at the time of Donus' reign tended towards the conciliatory. Donus' pontificate lasted one year, five months, and ten days. He was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. An apocryphal Pope Donus II used to be listed in the official lists. He was
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    93
    Huldah

    Huldah

    Huldah (Hebrew: חֻלְדָּה‎‎) was a prophetess mentioned briefly in 2 Kings 22, and 2 Chronicles 34. After the discovery of a book of the Law during renovations at Solomon's Temple, on the order of King Josiah, Hilkiah together with Ahikam, Acbor, Shaphan and Asaiah approach her to get the Lord's opinion. She was the wife of Shallum, son of Tokhath (also called Tikvah), son of Harhas (also called Hasrah), keeper of the wardrobe. She lived in Jerusalem, in the Second District. According to Rabbinic interpretation, Huldah and Deborah were the principal professed prophetesses in the Nevi'im (Prophets) portion of the Hebrew Bible, although other women were referred to as prophetesses. "Huldah" means "weasel", and "Deborah" means "bee" or "wasp". The Huldah Gates in the Southern Wall of the Temple Mount are named for her. The Bible recounts the consulting of Huldah as follows: Huldah, after authenticating the book and prophesying a future of destruction for failure to follow it, ends by reassuring King Josiah that because of his piety, God has heard his prayer and "thou shalt be gathered unto thy grave in peace, neither shall thy eyes see all the evil which I shall bring upon this place."
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    Jacob Meir

    Jacob Meir

    Jacob Meir, (1856-1939), was the first Sephardic Chief Rabbi appointed under the British Mandate of Palestine. A talmudic scholar, fluent in Hebrew as well as five other languages, he enjoyed a reputation as one of Jerusalem's most respected rabbis. Born in Jerusalem in 1856, the son of a successful merchant, Calev Mercado, Meir studied the Talmud under Rabbi Menachem Bechor Isaac and Kabbalah under Rabbi Aharon Azriel. In 1882 he was sent to Bukhara, as the first emissary to visit that country. He was instrumental in encouraging the immigration of Bukhara Jews to Palestine. In 1885, 1888, and 1900 he visited Tunisia and Algeria as an emissary. In 1888–99 he was a member of the Beth Din of Rabbi Jacob Saul Elyashar in Jerusalem. Under Turkish rule, he often interceded with the authorities on behalf of the Jewish community; he also encouraged the construction of new Jewish quarters of Jerusalem. In 1899 he was appointed deputy head of the Beth Din of Rabbi Raphael Isaac Israel. In 1906 he was chosen chief rabbi of Jerusalem, succeeding Elyashar, but his appointment was vetoed by his opponents, supported by the Hakham Bashi in Constantinople, because of his Zionist affiliations. He
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    95
    John Bird Sumner

    John Bird Sumner

    John Bird Sumner (1780 – 6 September 1862) was a bishop in the Church of England and Archbishop of Canterbury. John Bird Sumner was a brother of Charles Richard Sumner, bishop of Winchester. Their father was Robert Sumner and their mother was Hannah Bird, a first cousin of William Wilberforce. Sumner was born at Kenilworth, Warwickshire and educated at Eton College and King's College, Cambridge. In 1802 he became a master at Eton and was ordained the following year. He was elected a fellow of Eton in 1817 and in 1818 the school presented him to the living of Maple Durham, Oxfordshire. After being a prebendary of the Durham diocese for some years, he was consecrated Bishop of Chester in 1828. During his episcopate many churches and schools were built in the diocese. In 1848 he was elevated to Archbishop of Canterbury, and in this capacity he dealt impartially with the different church parties until his death. His numerous writings were much esteemed, especially by the Evangelical party to which he belonged. His best known writings are his Treatise on the Records of Creation and the Moral Attributes of the Creator (London, 1816) and The Evidence of Christianity derived from its
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    Pope Benedict VII

    Pope Benedict VII

    Pope Benedict VII (died 10 July 983) was born in Rome, the son of David or Deodatus (brother of Alberic II of Spoleto). Before his election to the papacy, he had previously served as Bishop of Sutri. He belonged to the noble family of the Counts of Tusculum. He was elected by the Roman clergy and people in October 974 under the influence of Sicco, imperial envoy of Emperor Otto II. He governed Rome quietly for nearly nine years, a somewhat rare thing in those days. Benedict VII's date of birth is not known with certainty, but it is known that he was related to Prince Alberic II and connected to the Crescenti family. He succeeded to the papacy as a compromise candidate to replace antipope Boniface VII (974, 984–985). Boniface VII was excommunicated and unsuccessfully attempted to retake the papacy. Benedict VII promoted monasticism and ecclesiastical reform along with Emperor Otto II. He also consecrated the priest James, who had been sent to him by the people of Carthage "to help the wretched province of Africa." Benedict VII visited the city of Orvieto with his nephew Filippo Alberici, who later settled there and became Consul of the city state in 1016. The Alberici family live
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    97
    Pope Eusebius

    Pope Eusebius

    Pope Saint Eusebius (from Greek Εὐσέβιος "pious", from eu (εὖ) "well" and sebein (σέβειν) "to respect") was pope in the year 309 or 310. His pontificate lasted only from 18 April to 17 August, after which, in consequence of disturbances within the Church which led to acts of violence, he was banished by the emperor Maxentius, who had been the ruler of Rome since 306, and had at first shown himself friendly to the Christians. The difficulty arose, as in the case of his predecessor Pope Marcellus I, out of his attitude toward the lapsi, which represented the milder standpoint. Eusebius died in exile in Sicily and was buried in the catacomb of Callixtus. Pope Damasus I placed an epitaph of eight hexameters over his tomb; the epithet "martyr" contained in them is not to be taken in the strict sense. His feast is celebrated on 26 September.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1914). "". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
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    98
    Pope Innocent I

    Pope Innocent I

    Pope Saint Innocent I was pope from 401 to 12 March 417. According to his biographer in the Liber Pontificalis, Innocent was the son of a man called Innocens of Albano, but according to his contemporary Jerome, his father was Pope Anastasius I (399–401), whom he was called by the unanimous voice of the clergy and laity to succeed (he had been born before his father's entry to the clergy). Innocent I lost no opportunity in maintaining and extending the authority of the Roman Empire. (See as the ultimate resort for the settlement of all disputes.) His communications with Victricius of Rouen, Exuperius of Toulouse, Alexander of Antioch and others, as well as his actions on the appeal made to him by John Chrysostom against Theophilus of Alexandria, show that opportunities of this kind were numerous and varied. He took a decided view on the Pelagian controversy, confirming the decisions of the synod of the province of proconsular Africa, held in Carthage in 416, which had been sent to him, and also writing in the same year in a similar sense to the fathers of the Numidian synod of Mileve who had addressed him (Augustine of Hippo among them). The historian Zosimus in his Historia Nova
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    99
    Pope Damasus I

    Pope Damasus I

    Pope Saint Damasus I ( /ˈdæməsəs/ DAM-əs-əs) was the Bishop of Rome from 366 to 384. He was born around 305, probably near the city of Egitania, Lusitania, in what is the present-day village of Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal, then part of the Western Roman Empire. His life coincided with the rise of Emperor Constantine I and the reunion and re-division of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, which is associated with the legitimization of Christianity and its later adoption as the official religion of the Roman state in 380. Damasus is known to have been raised in the service of the Basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls in Rome, and following the death of Pope Liberius, he succeeded to the papacy amidst factional violence. A group of Damasus' supporters, previously loyal to his opponent Felix, attacked and killed rivals loyal to Liberius' deacon Ursinus in a riot that required the intervention of Emperor Valentinian I to quell. Damasus faced accusations of murder and adultery (despite having not been married) in his early years as pope. The neutrality of these claims have come into question with some suggesting that the accusations were motivated by the schismatic conflict with
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    100
    Thomas Herring

    Thomas Herring

    Thomas Herring (1693 – 23 March 1757) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1747 to 1757. He was educated at Wisbech Grammar School and later Jesus College, Cambridge. At Cambridge, he was a contemporary of Matthew Hutton, who succeeded him in turn in each of his dioceses. He received his MA in 1717 and was a fellow at Corpus Christi College from 1716 to 1723. Herring became a close friend of Philip Yorke, the Solicitor General, who would later, as Lord Hardwicke, serve for many years as Lord Chancellor, and as such, was able to advance quickly. In 1728 he became Doctor of Divinity and a chaplain to George II, and in 1737 he was appointed Bishop of Bangor. Six years later he became Archbishop of York. On 23 September 1745, during the Jacobite rising, Herring gave a rousing sermon which, as Paul Langford notes, "captured the patriotic imagination as nothing previously had. It was to remain long in the collective mind of patriotic Protestantism". At a speech at York Castle on 24 September, Herring said: ...these Commotions in the North are but Part of a Great Plan concerted for our Ruin—They have begun under the Countenance, and will be supported by the Forces of France and Spain, our
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    101
    Edward White Benson

    Edward White Benson

    Edward White Benson (14 July 1829 – 11 October 1896) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1883 until his death. Edward White Benson was born in Highgate, Birmingham, the son of a Birmingham chemical manufacturer. He was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated BA (8th classic) in 1852. Benson began his career as a schoolmaster at Rugby School in 1852, and was ordained deacon in 1852 and priest in 1857. In 1859 Benson was chosen by Prince Albert as the first Master (headmaster) of Wellington College, Berkshire, which had been built as the nation's memorial to the Duke of Wellington. Benson was largely responsible for establishing Wellington as a great English public school, closely modelled on Rugby School, rather than the military academy originally planned. He later served as Chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral from 1872–77, and first Bishop of Truro from 1877–82. He founded Truro High School for Girls in 1880. While at Canterbury, to avoid the prosecution before a lay tribunal of Edward King, Bishop of Lincoln, under the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 for six ritual offences he heard the case in his own archiepiscopal court
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    102
    Agabus

    Agabus

    Saint Agabus (Greek: Ἄγαβος) or Saint Agabo was an early follower of Christianity mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles as a prophet. He is traditionally remembered as one of the Seventy Disciples described in Luke 10:1-24. According to Acts 11:27-28, he was one of a group of prophets who came to Antioch from Jerusalem. While there he predicted a severe famine that the author says came under the reign of the Roman Emperor Claudius. Acts 21:10-12 records that many years later, in 58, Agabus met Paul of Tarsus at Caesarea Maritima and warned him of his coming capture; he bound his own hands and feet with Paul's belt to demonstrate what the Jews would do if he continued his journey to Jerusalem, though Paul would not be persuaded. Agabus is revered as a saint in most branches of Christianity. The Roman Catholic Church celebrates his feast day on February 13, while the Eastern Christianity celebrates it on March 8. According to tradition he died a martyr in Antioch.
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    103
    Grand Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani

    Grand Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani

    Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Fazel Lankarani (1931 in Qom, Iran — June 16, 2007 in Qom, Iran) was an Islamic Iranian cleric. He was student of Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi. He was a child of an Persian mother and an Azerbaijani father. Lankarani was born in Qom, Iran. Both of his parents were immigrants. His father was an Azerbaijani-speaking native of Soviet Azerbaijan who studied in Najaf and Qom and eventually settled in the latter. His mother, was a woman of Sayed descent. Lankarani was fluent in Arabic, Azerbaijani, Persian, Pashtu and Russian. Lankarani received his ijtihad, the permission of independent interpretation of the legal sources (the Qur'an and the Sunnah), from Ayatollah Boroujerdi at the age of 25. He led the prayer in the haram of Bibi Masouma A.S in Qum. Grand Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani was declared as the most knowledgeable specialist in the field of the Islamic law (Marja al-taqlid) by the central Shi'a school of religious studies in Qom, Hawza 'Ilmiyyah, after the death of Ayatollah Khomeini. At the time of his death he was one of seven Grand Ayatollahs in Iran. His Resalah, the book including his interpretation of Islamic laws on different topics, is available in
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    104
    John Potter

    John Potter

    John Potter (c. 1674 – 10 October 1747) was Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the son of a linen-draper at Wakefield, Yorkshire. At the age of fourteen he entered University College, Oxford, and in 1693 he published notes on Plutarch's De audiendis poetis and Basil's Oratio ad juvenes. In 1694 he was elected fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford and in 1697 his edition of Lycophron appeared. It was followed by his Archaeologia graeca (2 vols. 8vo, 1697–1798), the popularity of which endured till the advent of Dr William Smith's dictionaries. In it he defended the usefulness of prostitution. A reprint of his Lycophron in 1702 was dedicated to Graevius, and the Antiquities was afterwards published in Latin in the Thesaurus of Gronovius. Besides holding several livings he became, in 1704, chaplain to Archbishop Tenison, and shortly afterwards was made chaplain-in-ordinary to Queen Anne. From 1708 he was Regius Professor of Divinity and canon of Christ Church, Oxford; and from 1715 he was Bishop of Oxford. In the latter year appeared his edition of Clement of Alexandria. In 1707 he published a Discourse on Church Government, and he took a prominent part in the controversy with Benjamin
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    Pope John IV

    Pope John IV

    Pope John IV (died 12 October 642) was elected Pope of the Catholic Church, after a four-month sede vacante, on 24 December 640. Pope John was a native of Dalmatia (probably in the town of Salona). He was the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. At the time of his election he was archdeacon of the Roman Church, an important role in governing the see. As John's consecration on 24 December 640 followed very soon after his election, and it is supposed that the papal elections were being confirmed by the Exarch of Ravenna rather than by the Emperor in Constantinople. Troubles in his native land caused by invasions of Slavs directed John's attention there. To alleviate the distress of the inhabitants, John sent the abbot Martin into Dalmatia and Istria with large sums of money for the redemption of captives. As the ruined churches could not be rebuilt, the relics of some of the more important Dalmatian saints were brought to Rome. John erected an oratory in their honour which still stands. It was adorned by the pope with mosaics depicting John himself holding in his hands a model of his oratory. John endeavoured thereby to convert the Slavs in Dalmatia and Istria to
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    106
    Pope Marcellus I

    Pope Marcellus I

    Pope Marcellus I, serving as pope from May or June 308 to 309, succeeded Pope Marcellinus after a considerable interval. Under Maxentius he was banished from Rome in 309 on account of the tumult caused by the severity of the penances he had imposed on Christians who had lapsed under the recent persecution. He died the same year, being succeeded by Pope Eusebius. His relics are under the altar of San Marcello al Corso in Rome. His third-class feast day is kept on January 16 in the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite. For some time after the death of Marcellinus in 304 the Diocletian persecution continued with unabated severity. After the abdication of Diocletian in 305, and the accession in Rome of Maxentius to the throne of the Caesars in October of the following year, the Christians of the capital again enjoyed comparative peace. Nevertheless, nearly two years passed before a new Bishop of Rome was elected. Then in 308, according to the Catalogus Liberianus, Pope Marcellus first entered on his office: "Fuit temporibus Maxenti a cons. X et Maximiano usque post consulatum X et septimum". This abbreviated notice is to be read: "A cons. Maximiano Herculio X et Maximiano Galerio VII
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    Pope Stephen VIII

    Pope Stephen VIII

    Pope Stephen VIII was pope from 14 July 939, until his death towards the end of October 942. Stephen VIII was born of a Roman family, and prior to becoming pope was attached to the church of Saints Silvester and Martin. With his elevation as Bishop of Rome, Stephen gave his attention to the situation in West Francia, or as the Romans still referred to it, Gaul. In early 940, Stephen intervened on behalf of Louis IV of France, who had been trying to bring to heel his rebellious dukes, Hugh the Great and Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, both of whom had appealed for support from the German king Otto I. The Pope dispatched a Papal legate to the Frankish nobles, instructing them to acknowledge Louis, and to cease their rebellious actions against him, under threat of excommunication. Although the embassy did not achieve its stated objective, it did have the effect of removing the support of the Frankish bishops who had been backing Hugh and Herbert. Emboldened by this, Stephen then sought to break up the alliance against Louis by offering Herbert’s son, Hugh of Vermandois, the office of Archbishop of Reims. Along with the Pallium (the symbol of office for the archbishop), Stephen sent
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    108
    Robert Drinan

    Robert Drinan

    Robert Frederick Drinan, S.J. (November 15, 1920 – January 28, 2007) was a Roman Catholic Jesuit priest, lawyer, human rights activist, and Democratic U.S. Representative from Massachusetts. He was also a law professor at Georgetown University Law Center for the last twenty-six years of his life. Drinan grew up in Hyde Park, Massachusetts, the son of Ann Mary (Flanagan) and James John Drinan. He graduated from Hyde Park High School in 1938. He received a B.A. and an M.A. from Boston College in 1942 and joined the Society of Jesus the same year; he was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1953. He received an LL.M. and LL.B. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1950, and a doctorate in theology from Gregorian University in Rome in 1954, in addition to receiving 21 honorary degrees throughout his life. He studied in Florence for two years before returning to Boston, where he was admitted to the bar in 1956. He served as dean of the Boston College Law School from 1956 until 1970, during which time he also taught as a professor of family law and church-state relations. During this period he was also a visiting professor at other schools including the University of Texas School of Law,
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    109
    Sun Myung Moon

    Sun Myung Moon

    Sun Myung Moon (Korean 문선명; born Mun Yong-myeong; 25 February 1920 – 3 September 2012) was a Korean religious leader best known as the founder of the Unification Church, and for his claim that he was a messiah. He was also known as a media mogul and an anti-communist activist. Since its inception, the Unification Church has expanded to most nations of the world, with an uncertain number of members. It often receives media attention for the blessing ceremony, a mass wedding or marriage rededication ceremony (usually presided over by Moon and his wife Hak Ja Han) which sometimes features thousands of participants. By the time of his death, the Unification Church's affiliated organizations had become a multi-billion-dollar empire. Sun Myung Moon was born Mun Yong-myeong on 25 February 1920, in modern-day Sangsa-ri (上思里), Deogun-myon, Jeongju-gun, North P'yŏng'an Province, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule (today it lies in North Korea). Moon's birthday was recorded as 6 January by the traditional lunar calendar (25 February 1920, according to the Gregorian Calendar). Moon's family followed traditional Confucianist beliefs. When he was around 10 years old, they converted to
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    110
    George Abbot

    George Abbot

    George Abbot (19 October 1562 – 5 August 1633) was an English divine and Archbishop of Canterbury. He also served as the fourth Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, between 1612 and 1633. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as "[a] sincere but narrow-minded Calvinist". Among his four brothers, Robert became Bishop of Salisbury and Maurice became Lord Mayor of London. He is the only Archbishop of Canterbury ever to have killed a man, although it was entirely accidental. Born at Guildford in Surrey, where his father Maurice Abbot (died 1606) was a cloth-worker, he was taught at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford. He later studied, and then taught, at Balliol College, Oxford, was chosen Master of University College in 1597, and appointed Dean of Winchester in 1600. He was three times Vice-Chancellor of the University, and took a leading part in preparing the authorised version of the New Testament. In 1608, he went to Scotland with George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar to arrange for a union between the churches of England and Scotland. He so pleased King James in this affair that he was made Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1609 and was translated to the see of London
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    Pope Theodore I

    Pope Theodore I

    Pope Theodore I (died 14 May 649), who was pope from 24 November 642 until his death, is considered a Greek, but was born in Jerusalem. He was made a cardinal deacon (possibly around 640) and a full cardinal by Pope John IV. His election was supported by the exarch and he was installed on 24 November 642, succeeding John IV. The main focus of his pontificate was the continued struggle against the heretical Monothelites. He refused to recognize Paul as the Patriarch of Constantinople, because his predecessor, Pyrrhus, had not been correctly replaced. He pressed Emperor Constans II to withdraw the Ecthesis of Heraclius. While his efforts made little impression on Constantinople, it increased the opposition to the heresy in the West; Pyrrhus even briefly recanted his heresy (645), but was excommunicated in 648. Paul was excommunicated in 649. In response, Paul destroyed the Roman altar in the palace of Placidia and exiled or imprisoned the papal nuncios. But he also sought to end the issue with the Emperor by promulgating the Type of Constans, ordering that the Ecthesis be taken down and seeking to end discussion on the doctrine. Theodore planned the Lateran Council of 649 to condemn
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    Ali ibn Hussayn

    Ali ibn Hussayn

    Ali ibn al-Husayn (Arabic: علي بن الحسين ‎) (approximately 6 January 659 – 20 October 712) sometimes called Zayn al-Abidin ("Beauty/Best of the Worshippers") was a great-grandson of Muhammad, as well as the fourth Shiah Imam (the third Imam according to Ismailis). His mother was Shahrbanu and his father was Husayn ibn Ali. His brothers include Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn and Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn. He is also referred to as Imam al-Sajjad "the Prostrating Imam" and Sayyid as-Sajjadīna wa Raki‘in "Leader of Those who Prostrate and Bow". al-Ḥusayn was born in Medina. His father, Husayn ibn Ali, was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His brothers were Ali al-Akbar and Ali al-Asghar. His sisters were Sakinah (Fatima al-Kubra) bint Husayn, Fatima al-Sughra bint al-Husayn and Ruqayyah. He dedicated his life to learning and became an authority on prophetic traditions and Sharia. He is regarded as the source of the third holiest book in Shia Islam after the Quraan and the Nahj al Balagha: the Saḥīfa al-Sadjadiyya, commonly referred to as the Psalms of the Household of Muhammad. Al-Ḥusayn had many supporters such as Sa'id ibn Jubayr. He migrated to Karbala with his father. He was the
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    113
    Edmund Grindal

    Edmund Grindal

    Edmund Grindal (c. 1519 – 6 July 1583) was an English church leader who successively held the posts of Bishop of London, Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reign of Elizabeth I of England. Tradition, also retailed by Grindal's biographer John Strype, had long held that Grindal was born in Hensingham, now a suburb of Whitehaven. However recent scholarship has shown that his birthplace was Cross Hill House, St. Bees, Cumberland. Grindal himself gave a description of his birthplace in a letter to Sir William Cecil, Elizabeth I's Secretary of State, "... the house wherein I was born, and the lands pertaining thereto, being a small matter, under twenty shillings rent, but well builded at the charges of my father and brother", which corresponds to Cross Hill House. This has been proven by the discovery of the long-mislaid St. Bees long leases, which have provided the missing link in the chain of ownership back to William Grindal, Edmund's father, a farmer in the village. Edmund Grindal's exact date of birth is uncertain, but is c.1519. His education may have started with the monks at the nearby St Bees Priory, though this is not recorded. It is believed by
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    114
    Edward Braxton

    Edward Braxton

    Edward Kenneth Braxton (born (1944-06-28)June 28, 1944) was a priest of the Archdiocese of Chicago when he was appointed bishop by Pope John Paul II on March 28, 1995. He was consecrated auxiliary bishop of Saint Louis by Justin Francis Rigali on May 17, 1995, in the city's Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis. Braxton was installed as Bishop of Lake Charles on February 21, 2001. On 22 June 2005 he was installed as Bishop of Belleville in the Cathedral of Saint Peter. He succeeded a fellow African American prelate, Wilton D. Gregory. Braxton is a member of USCCB's Committees on Education, Science and Human Values, and also of the committee on Scripture Translation. He serves as the convenor of the African American Catholic Bishops. He is regarded as being a pastoral theologian, who earned his MA and S.T.L. from St. Mary of the Lake Seminary in Mundelein, Illinois and a Ph.D. in Religious Studies and S.T.D. in Systematic Theology from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium. Braxton, a native of Chicago, has long been involved in interracial and intercultural dialogue. He has lectured in major cities and townships of South Africa during their annual "winter school." His
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    115
    Huineng

    Huineng

    Dajian Huineng (大鑒惠能; Pinyin: Dàjiàn Huìnéng; Japanese: Daikan Enō; Korean: Hyeneung, 638–713) was a Chinese Chán (Zen) monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition, according to standard Zen hagiographies. Huineng has been traditionally viewed as the Sixth and Last Patriarch of Chán Buddhism. Most modern scholars doubt the historicity of traditional biographies and works written about Huineng. The two primary sources for Huineng's life are the preface to the Platform Sutra and the Transmission of the Lamp. Huineng was born into the Lu family in 638 A.D. in Xinzhou (present-day Xinxing County) in Guangdong province. His father died when he was young and his family was poor. As a consequence, Huineng had no opportunity to learn to read or write and is said to have remained illiterate his entire life. The Platform Sūtra of the Sixth Patriarch is attributed to Huineng. It was constructed over a longer period of time, and contains different layers of writing. It is... The Platform Sūtra cites and explains a wide range of Buddhist scriptures: the Diamond Sūtra, the Lotus Sūtra (Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra), the Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra, the Śūraṅgama Sūtra,
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    Lozang Gyatso, 5th Dalai Lama

    Lozang Gyatso, 5th Dalai Lama

    Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama (1617–1682), was a political and religious leader in seventeenth-century Tibet. Ngawang Lozang Gyatso was the ordination name he had received from Panchen Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen who was responsible for his ordination. He was the first Dalai Lama to wield effective political power over central Tibet, and is frequently referred to as the "Great Fifth Dalai Lama". Lobsang Gyatso (birthname: Künga Nyingpo) was born in 1617 in Tsang to a family with traditional ties to the Sakya and Nyingma orders. His famous noble Zahor family had held their seat since the 14th century at Taktsé Castle, the former stronghold of the Tibetan kings. His father, Dudul Rabten, was arrested in 1618 for being involved in a plot against the royal government of the king of Tsang at almost the same time the Gelug had secretly chosen his son as the reincarnation of Yonten Gyatso, the 4th Dalai Lama. According to the 14th Dalai Lama it was Sonam Choephel, the chief attendant of the Fourth Dalai Lama, who discovered the incarnation. Dudul Rabten escaped and tried to reach eastern Tibet but was rearrested and never saw his son again before he died in 1626 at
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    Menachem Mendel Schneerson

    Menachem Mendel Schneerson

    Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 5, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994 NS), known as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or just the Rebbe among his followers, was a prominent Hasidic rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe (Hasidic leader) of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement. He was fifth in a direct paternal line to the third Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneersohn. In January 1951, a year after the death of his father-in-law, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, he assumed the leadership of the Lubavitch movement. He led the movement until his death in 1994, greatly expanding its worldwide activities and founding a worldwide network of institutions to spread Orthodox Judaism among the Jewish people. These institutions include schools, kindergartens, synagogues, Chabad houses, and others, and are run under the auspices of Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, the educational branch of the Chabad movement. During his lifetime many of his followers had considered him to be the Jewish Messiah. The accepted date of his birth is 11 Nissan 5662, which is equivalent to April 5, 1902 OS or April 18, 1902 NS. (Dates in March 1895 appear on his Russian passport and his application for French citizenship, he swore on
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    Naser Makarem Shirazi

    Naser Makarem Shirazi

    Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi is an ayatollah in Iran. He is a spiritual guide for many Shia Muslims. He started his formal Islamic studies at the age of 14 in the Agha Babakhan Shirazi seminary. After completing the introductory studies, he started studying jurisprudence (fiqh) and its principles (usul al-fiqh). He made rapid progress and finished studying the complete levels of introductory and both the levels of the intermediate Islamic studies in approximately four years. During this time, he also taught at the Islamic seminary in Shiraz. At the age of 18, he formally entered the theological seminary of Qom, and for the next five years was present in the religious gatherings and classes of some of the leading Islamic teachers of those days, such as Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Burujerdi, & Ayatollah Seyyed Kazem Shariatmadari. In 1950 he made his way to the seminary of Najaf, Iraq. Here, he was able to take part in classes of teachers such as Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim, Ayatollah Abul-Qassim Khoei and Ayatollah Abdul Hadi ash-Shirazi. At the age of 24, he was granted complete ijtihad by two senior scholars in Najaf. Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim also wrote a short,
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    119
    Pope Hilarius

    Pope Hilarius

    Pope Saint Hilarius (also Hilarus, Hilary) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 461 to 28 February 468. He was canonized as a saint after his death. The Sardinian archdeacon of Rome, Hilarius was elected bishop of Rome, probably on 17 November 461, and was consecrated on 19 November 461. As archdeacon under Pope Leo I, he fought vigorously for the rights of the Roman See and vigorously opposed the condemnation of Flavian of Constantinople at the Second Council of Ephesus in 449 to settle the question of Eutyches. According to a letter to the Empress Pulcheria collected among the letters of Leo I, Hilarius apologized for not delivering to her the pope's letter after the synod, but owing to Dioscurus of Alexandria, who tried to hinder his going either to Rome or to Constantinople, he had great difficulty in making his escape in order to bring to the pontiff the news of the result of the council. As pope, he continued the policy of his predecessor Leo who, in his contest with Hilary of Arles, had obtained from Valentinian III a famous rescript of 445 confirming the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome. Hilarius continued to strengthen papal control over episcopal discipline. At
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    120
    Pope John III

    Pope John III

    Pope John III was pope from 561 to 13 July 574. He was born in Rome of a distinguished family. The Liber Pontificalis calls him a son of one Anastasius. His father bore the title illustris, more than likely being a vir illustris ("illustrius man", high-ranking member of the Roman Senate). According to the historian Evagrius, his birth name was Catelinus, but he took the name John on his accession. He may be identical with the subdeacon John who made a collection of extracts from the Greek Fathers and completed the translation of the Vitae patrum into Latin which Pope Pelagius I had begun. His pontificate is characterized by two major events over which he had no control. The first was the death of Emperor Justinian I in 565. Jeffrey Richards considers his reign was an "anomaly", "a temporary damming up of the stream of history." With his death, the Byzantine Empire turned its attention from Rome and the West to pressing problems in the Balkans, from the Avars, Persians and the Arabs. "Italy, being geographically peripheral to the imperial heartland, inevitably took bottom place on the strategic priority list." The other major event was the invasion of the Lombards, which began in
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    Pope Leo VIII

    Pope Leo VIII

    Pope Leo VIII (died 1 March 965), a Roman by birth, is considered by the Church an Antipope from 963 to 964 and a true Pope from 964 to 965. He held the lay office of protoserinus when he was elected Pope, allegedly invalidly, by the Roman synod in December 963, when it also invalidly deposed Pope John XII, who was still alive. This occurred at the insistence of Emperor Otto I the Great, "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy", who on 2 February 962 had been crowned emperor by John XII to rule the territories that would later become known as the Holy Roman Empire. Having been hurried with unseemly haste through all the intermediate orders, Leo received consecration two days after his election, which was unacceptable to the Roman populace. In February 964, after the Emperor withdrew from the city, Leo VIII found it necessary to seek safety in flight, whereupon he was deposed by a synod held under the presidency of the restored John XII. On the sudden death of John XII, the populace chose Pope Benedict V (964–966) as his successor. But Otto I, after returning and laying siege to the city, compelled its acceptance of Leo VIII. With the consent of all members of
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    122
    Khedrup Gyatso, 11th Dalai Lama

    Khedrup Gyatso, 11th Dalai Lama

    Khedrup Gyatso (1 November 1838 – 31 January 1856) was the 11th Dalai Lama of Tibet. He was recognised as the Eleventh Dalai Lama in 1840, having come from the same village as Kelzang Gyatso, the seventh Dalai Lama, had in 1708. In 1841 the seventh Panchen Lama, Palden Tenpai Nyima, gave him the pre-novice ordination, cut his hair and gave him the name Khedrup Gyatso. In 1842, he was enthroned in the Potala Palace and, in 1849, at the age of eleven, he took the novice vows of monkhood from Seventh Panchen Lama. He was enthroned on 25 May 1842 and assumed full power on the request of his government on 1 March 1855. However, he died less than one year later, thus becoming the third successive Dalai Lama who died at too young an age to consolidate his power. He wrote a book of stanzas, Story of the Monkeys and Birds (Bya sprel gyi gtam-rgyud). It is an allegory of the war at the end of the 18th century between the Tibetans and the Gurkhas ('birds' and 'monkeys' respectively). During the life of Khedrup Gyatso, wars over Ladakh weakened the lamas' power over the Tibetan Plateau and the Opium Wars and Taiping Rebellion simultaneously weakened Chinese influence on Tibet. In the last
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    Pope John X

    Pope John X

    Pope John X (died c. June 928) was Pope from March 914 to May 928. A candidate of the Counts of Tusculum, he attempted to unify Italy under the leadership of Berengar of Friuli, and was instrumental in the defeat of the Saracens at the Battle of Garigliano. He eventually fell out with Marozia, who had him deposed, imprisoned, and finally murdered. John’s pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum. John X, whose father’s name was also John, was born at Tossignano, along the Santerno River. He was made a deacon by Peter IV, the Bishop of Bologna, where he attracted the attention of Theodora, the wife of Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, the most powerful noble in Rome. It was alleged by Liutprand of Cremona that John became her lover during a visit to Rome; it has also been speculated that John was related to either Theodora or Theophylact. Regardless, it was through Theodora’s influence that John was on the verge of succeeding Peter as bishop of Bologna, when the post of Archbishop of Ravenna became available. He was consecrated as Archbishop in 905 by Pope Sergius III, another clerical candidate of the Counts of Tusculum. During his eight years as
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    Pope Julius I

    Pope Julius I

    Pope Saint Julius I, was pope from 6 February 337 to 12 April 352. He was a native of Rome and was chosen as successor of Mark after the Roman see had been vacant for four months. He is chiefly known by the part he took in the Arian controversy. After the followers of Eusebius of Nicomedia (who was now the Patriarch of Constantinople) had renewed their deposition of Athanasius at a synod held in Antioch in 341, they resolved to send delegates to Constans, Emperor of the West, and also to Julius, setting forth the grounds on which they had proceeded. Julius, after expressing an opinion favourable to Athanasius, adroitly invited both parties to lay the case before a synod to be presided over by himself. This proposal, however, the Arian Eastern bishops declined to accept. On this second banishment from Alexandria, Athanasius came to Rome, and was recognised as a regular bishop by the synod presided over by Julius in 342. Julius sent a letter to the Eastern bishops that is an early instance of the claims of primacy for the bishop of Rome. Even if Athanasius and his companions were somewhat to blame, the letter runs, the Alexandrian Church should first have written to the pope. "Can
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    Pope Leo IV

    Pope Leo IV

    Pope Saint Leo IV was pope from 10 April 847 to 17 July 855. A Roman by birth, he was unanimously chosen to succeed Sergius II. When he was elected, on 10 April 847, he was cardinal of Santi Quattro Coronati and had been subdeacon of Gregory IV and archpriest under his predecessor. His pontificate was chiefly distinguished by his efforts to repair the damage done by the Saracens during the reign of his predecessor to various churches of the city, especially those of St Peter and St Paul. The Saracens were besieging Gaeta, which led to Leo's order that the walls of the city be restored and strengthened between 848 and 849. When the Muslims approached Portus, he summoned the Repubbliche Marinare (or mariner cities of Italy) – Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi – to form a league. The command of the unified fleet was given to Cesarius, son of Duke Sergius I of Naples. The subsequent Battle of Ostia was one of the most famous in history of the papacy of the Middle Ages and is celebrated in a famous fresco by Raphael and his pupils in his Rooms of the Vatican Palace in the Vatican City. Another episode of Leo's life celebrated by the Urbinate in his series of frescoes for the Incendio di Borgo is
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    Pope Martin I

    Pope Martin I

    Pope Martin I, born near Todi, Umbria, in the place now named after him (Pian di San Martino), was pope from 649 to 653, succeeding Pope Theodore I on 5 July 649. He was the only pope during the Byzantine Papacy whose election was not approved by a iussio from Constantinople. Martin I was abducted by Emperor Constans II and died in the Crimean peninsula. He is considered a martyr by the Catholic Church. He was the last apocrisiarius to be elected pope. He had previously acted as papal apocrisiarius or legate at Constantinople, and was held in high repute for his learning and virtue. One of his first official acts was to summon the Lateran Council of 649 to deal with the Monothelites, whom the Church considered heretical. The Council met in the church of St. John Lateran. It was attended by 105 bishops (chiefly from Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia, with a few from Africa and other quarters), held five sessions or secretarii from 5 October to 31 October 649, and in twenty canons condemned Monothelitism, its authors, and the writings by which Monothelitism had been promulgated. In this condemnation were included not only the Ecthesis (the exposition of faith of the Patriarch Sergius for
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    Pope Pius I

    Pope Pius I

    Pope Saint Pius I was Bishop of Rome, according to the Annuario Pontificio, from 142 or 146 to 157 or 161, respectively. Others suggest that his pontificate was perhaps from 140 to 154. Pius is believed to have been born at Aquileia, in Northern Italy, during the late 1st century. His father was called "Rufinus", who was also said to be of Aquileia according to the Liber Pontificalis. It is stated in the 2nd century Muratorian Canon, and in the Liberian Catalogue, that he was the brother of Hermas, author of the text known as The Shepherd of Hermas. The writer of the later text identifies himself as a former slave. This has led to speculation that both Hermas and Pius were freedmen. St Pius I governed the Church in the middle of the 2nd century during the reigns of the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He was the ninth successor of Saint Peter. He decreed that Easter should only be kept on a Sunday. Although being credited with ordering the publication of the Liber Pontificalis, compilation of that document was not started before the beginning of the 6th century. He is said to have built one of the oldest churches in Rome, Santa Pudenziana. St Pius I endured many
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    Pope Stephen IV

    Pope Stephen IV

    Pope Saint Stephen IV was Pope from June 816 to January 817. The son of a Roman noble called Marinus, Stephen IV belonged to the same family which also produced the Popes Sergius II and Adrian II. At a young age he was raised at the Lateran Palace during the pontificate of Pope Adrian I, and it was under Stephen's predecessor Pope Leo III that he was first ordained a Subdeacon before he was subsequently made a Deacon. Very popular among the Roman people, within ten days of Leo III’s death, he was escorted to Saint Peter’s Basilica and consecrated Bishop of Rome on 22 June 816. It has been conjectured that his rapid election was an attempt by the Roman clergy to ensure that the Roman emperor could not interfere in the election. Immediately after his consecration he ordered the Roman people to swear fidelity to the Frankish king and Roman emperor Louis the Pious, after which Stephen sent envoys to the emperor notifying him of his election, and to arrange a meeting between the two at the emperor’s convenience. With Louis’ invitation, Stephen left Rome in August 816, crossing the Alps together with Bernard, the King of the Lombards, who was ordered to accompany Stephen to the emperor.
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    Pope Zachary

    Pope Zachary

    Pope Saint Zachary (Greek: Zacharias) was Pope of the Catholic Church from 741 to 752. A Greek from Santa Severina,Calabria, he was the last pope of the Byzantine Papacy. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732 and was on intimate terms with Gregory III, whom he succeeded on 10 December 741. Zachary was a wise and subtle diplomat. Finding that his predecessor's alliance with the Lombard Duke of Spoleto was not protecting papal cities against the Lombard king, Zachary turned to Liutprand the Lombard directly. The contemporary history (Liber pontificalis) dwells chiefly on Zachary's great personal influence with Liutprand, and with his successor Ratchis. His tact in dealing with these princes in a variety of emergencies contributed to save the Exarchate of Ravenna from the Lombard attacks. A correspondence of considerable extent and of great interest between Zachary and Saint Boniface, the apostle of Germany, survives, and shows how great was the influence of this pope on events in France and Germany. He encouraged the deposition of the last Merovingian king of the Franks, Childeric III, and it was with his sanction
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    Ahijah HaShiloni

    Ahijah HaShiloni

    Ahiya is an Israeli outpost in the West Bank, near the Palestinian village of Jalud. It falls under the purview of the Mateh Binyamin Regional Council. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. As of 2004 permanent construction of homes in Ahiya was being carried out. As of 2011 the population of Ahiya was about 50 people. Ahiya is near the Israeli outpost of Shvut Rachel as well as the Palestinian village of Jalud. Ahiya has the only Jewish owned oil press in the region. Settlers from the region bring their olives to Ahiya to be pressed. Farmers from Jalud have said that settlers from Ahiya have taken already harvested olives from them by force.
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    Amos

    Amos

    Amos ( /ˈeɪməs/; Hebrew: עָמוֹס , Modern Amos Tiberian ʻāmōs) is a minor prophet in the Old Testament, and the author of the Book of Amos. He lived in Israel during the 8th century B.C.. Before becoming a prophet, Amos was a sheep herder and a sycamore fig farmer. Amos' prior professions and his claim "I am not a prophet nor a son of a prophet" (7:14) indicate that Amos was not from the school of prophets, which Amos claims makes him a true prophet (7:15). His prophetic career began in 750 BC out of the town of Tekoa, in Judah, south of Jerusalem. Despite being from the southern kingdom of Judah Amos' prophetic message was aimed at the Northern Kingdom of Israel, particularly the cities of Samaria and Bethel. The Book of Amos is one of the twelve minor prophets. Most Bibles place it third in sequence, after the Book of Joel and before the Book of Obadiah. The nine chapters of Amos' book bring three accusations of breaking God's covenant. On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, Amos' feast day is celebrated on June 15 (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, June 15 currently falls on June 28th of the modern Gregorian Calendar). He is commemorated along
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    132
    Enoch

    Enoch

    Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ, Modern H̱anokh Tiberian Ḥănōḵ; Arabic: إدريس‎ ʼIdrīs) is a character that appears in the Book of Genesis and a figure in the Generations of Adam. Enoch is described as the great grandson of Adam (through Seth) (Genesis 5:3-18), the son of Jared, the father of Methuselah, and the great-grandfather of Noah. The text reads—uniquely in the Generations—that Enoch "walked with God: and he was not; for God took him", (Genesis 5:22-29) suggesting he did not experience the mortal death ascribed to Adam's other descendants. Despite the brief descriptions of him, Enoch is one of the main two focal points for much of the 1st millennium BC Jewish mysticism, notably in the Book of Enoch. Additionally, Enoch is important in some Christian denominations: He is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church on July 26. He also features in the Latter Day Saint movement. Enoch appears in Genesis as the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs. Genesis claims that each of the pre-Flood Patriarchs lives for several centuries, has a son, lives more centuries, and then dies. The exception is
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    Pope Sergius III

    Pope Sergius III

    Pope Sergius III (c. 860 − 14 April 911) was a pope of the Catholic Church from 29 January 904 to 14 April 911, during a period of feudal violence and disorder in central Italy, when the Papacy was a pawn of warring aristocratic factions, often led by prominent women. Because Sergius III had reputedly ordered the murder of his two immediate predecessors, Leo V and Christopher and was the only pope to have allegedly fathered an illegitimate son who later became pope (John XI), his pontificate has been described as "dismal and disgraceful". He is the first Pope to be depicted wearing the papal tiara. Sergius was the son of Benedictus, and traditionally was believed descended from a noble Roman family, although it has been speculated that he was in fact related to the family of Theophylact, Count of Tusculum. He was ordained as a subdeacon by Pope Marinus I, followed by his being raised to the deaconate by Pope Stephen V. During the pontificate of Pope Formosus (891–896), he was a member of the party of nobles who supported the Emperor Lambert, who was the opponent of Formosus and the pope’s preferred imperial candidate, Arnulf of Carinthia. Formosus consecrated Sergius as bishop of
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    Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri

    Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri

    Hussein-Ali Montazeri (1922 – 19 December 2009) (Persian: حسینعلی منتظری‎) was a prominent Iranian scholar, Islamic theologian, Shia Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist. He was one of the leaders of the Iranian Revolution in 1979. He was once the designated successor to the revolution's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini, with whom he had a falling-out in 1989 over government policies that Montazeri said infringed on people's freedom and denied them their rights. Montazeri spent his later years in Qom, and remained politically influential in Iran, especially to the reformist movement. He was widely known as the most knowledgeable senior Islamic scholar in Iran. and a Grand Marja (religious authority) of Shia Islam. For more than two decades, Hussein-Ali Montazeri had been one of the main critics of the Islamic Republic's domestic and foreign policy. He had also been an active advocate of Baha'i rights, civil rights and women's rights in Iran. Montazeri was a prolific writer of books and articles. He was a staunch proponent of an Islamic state, and he argued that post-revolutionary Iran was not being ruled as an Islamic state. Born in 1922, Montazeri was from
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    Isaac

    Isaac

    Isaac ( /ˈaɪzək/; Hebrew: יִצְחָק, Modern Yitsẖak Tiberian Yiṣḥāq, ISO 259-3 Yiçḥaq, "he will laugh"; Yiddish: יצחק, Yitskhok; Ancient Greek: Ἰσαάκ, Isaak; Latin: Isaac; Arabic: إسحاق‎ or Arabic: إسحٰق‎ ʼIsḥāq) as described in the Hebrew Bible, was the only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah, and was the father of Jacob and Esau. Isaac was one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born, and Sarah was beyond childbearing years. Isaac was the only biblical patriarch whose name was not changed, and the only one who did not leave Canaan. Compared to those of Abraham and Jacob, Isaac's story relates fewer incidents of his life. He died when he was 180 years old, making him the longest-lived patriarch. The anglicized name Isaac is a transliteration of the Hebrew term Yiṣḥāq which literally means "He laughs/will laugh." Ugaritic texts dating from the 13th century BCE refer to the benevolent smile of the Canaanite deity El. Genesis, however, ascribes the laughter to Isaac's parents, Abraham and Sarah, rather than El. According to the biblical narrative, Abraham fell on his face and laughed when Elohim imparted
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    Yisrael Meir Lau

    Yisrael Meir Lau

    Yisrael (Israel) Meir Lau (Hebrew: ישראל מאיר לאו‎; born 1 June 1937 Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland) is an Israeli and the Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv, Israel, and Chairman of Yad Vashem. He previously served as the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1993 to 2003. Lau was born on 1 June 1937, in the Polish town of Piotrków Trybunalski. His father, Rabbi Moshe Chaim Lau, was the last Chief Rabbi of the town; he died in the Treblinka death camp. Yisrael Meir is the 38th generation in an unbroken family chain of rabbis. Lau was freed from the Buchenwald concentration camp in 1945. Lau has credited a teen prisoner with protecting him in the camp (later determined by historian Kenneth Waltzer to be Fyodor Michajlitschenko). His entire family was murdered, with the exception of his older brother, Naphtali Lau-Lavie, his half brother, Yehoshua Lau-Hager, and his uncle already living in Mandate Palestine. Lau immigrated to Mandate Palestine with his brother Naphtali in July 1945, where he studied in the famous yeshiva Kol Torah under Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach as well as in Ponevezh and Knesses Chizkiyahu. He was ordained as a rabbi in 1961. He married the daughter of Rabbi Yitzchok Yedidya
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    Leo Baeck

    Leo Baeck

    Leo Baeck (23 May 1873 – 2 November 1956) was a 20th century German Rabbi, scholar, and a leader of Progressive Judaism. Baeck was born in Lissa (Leszno) (then in the German Province of Posen, now in Poland), the son of Rabbi Samuel Baeck, and began his education at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau in 1894. He also studied philosophy in Berlin with Wilhelm Dilthey, served as a rabbi in Oppeln, Düsseldorf, and Berlin, and taught at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums (Higher Institute for Jewish Studies). In 1905 Baeck published The Essence of Judaism, in response to Adolf von Harnack's The Essence of Christianity. This book, which interpreted and valorized Judaism through a prism of Neo-Kantianism tempered with religious existentialism, made him a famous proponent for the Jewish people and their faith. During World War I, Baeck was a chaplain in the German Imperial Army. In 1933, after the Nazis seized power, Baeck worked to defend the Jewish community as president of the Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden, an umbrella organization that united German Jewry from 1933 to 1938. After the Reichsvertretung was disbanded during the November Pogrom, the Nazis
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    Pope Benedict II

    Pope Benedict II

    Pope Saint Benedict II was Pope from 684 to 685. Pope Benedict II died on 8 May 685. He succeeded Leo II. Although chosen in 683, he was not ordained until 684 because the permission of Emperor Constantine IV was not obtained until some months after the election. According to the Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum, he obtained from the Emperor a decree which either abolished imperial confirmations altogether or made them obtainable from the Exarch of Ravenna. This gave the power of confirmations of papal nominations directly to the Church and the people of Rome. Benedict symbolically adopted Constantine's two sons Justinian and Heraclius. To help to suppress Monothelitism, he endeavoured to secure the subscriptions of the bishops of Hispania to the decrees of the Third Council of Constantinople of 678, and to bring about the submission to the decrees of Macarius, the deposed bishop of Antioch. Restorations of numerous churches in Rome are ascribed to the less than a year's pontificate of Benedict II.
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    Pope John Paul II

    Pope John Paul II

    John Paul II (Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP. II, Italian: Giovanni Paolo II), sometimes called John Paul the Great, born Karol Józef Wojtyła (Polish: [ˈkarɔl ˈjuzɛf vɔjˈtɨwa]; 18 May 1920, Wadowice, Republic of Poland – 2 April 2005, Vatican City), reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church from 1978 until his death in 2005. He was the second-longest serving Pope in history and the first non-Italian since 1523. A very charismatic figure, John Paul II was acclaimed as one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century. He was instrumental in ending communism in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe. John Paul II significantly improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. Though criticised by progressives for upholding the Church's teachings against artificial contraception and the ordination of women, and by traditionalists for his support of the Church's Second Vatican Council and its reform, he was also widely praised for his firm, orthodox Catholic stances. He was one of the most-travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. As part of his special emphasis on the
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    140
    Pope John VII

    Pope John VII

    Pope John VII (c. 650 – 18 October 707) was pope from 705 to 707. The successor of John VI, he was (like his predecessor) of Greek ancestry. He is one of the popes of the Byzantine captivity. John was a native of Rossano in Calabria. His father, Plato (c. 620 – 686), was imperial cura palatii urbis Romae, or curator of the Palatine Hill. This makes John the first pope to be the son of a Byzantine official. His mother was called Blatta (c. 627 – 687). His paternal grandfather was Theodorus Chilas (c. 600 – aft. 655), a Senator in 655. John VII had good relations with the Lombards, who then ruled much of Italy. However, his relations with Justinian II, the Byzantine Emperor, were far from smooth. Papal relations with Byzantium had soured over the Quinisext (or Trullan) council of 692. Scholarly debate contests John VII's stance on the Canons. He did not ratify the Canons, which were deeply unpopular in Italy. Nonetheless, he was criticized, most unusually, by the Liber Pontificalis for not signing them: He [Emperor Justinian II] despatched two metropolitan bishops, also sending with them a mandate in which he requested and urged the pontiff [John VII] to gather a council of the
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    Pope Leo VI

    Pope Leo VI

    Pope Leo VI (died February 929), was pope for a little over seven months, from June 928 through to February 929. His pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum. Leo VI was born into Roman family, and his father was Christophorus, who had been Primicerius under Pope John VIII around the year 876. Tradition has it that he was a member of the Sanguini family. Just immediately prior to his election as pope, Leo had been serving as the Cardinal-Priest of the church of Santa Susanna. Leo was elected pope around June 928, during a period of anarchy. He was chosen by the senatrix Marozia, who had gained control of Rome via the domination of her husband Guy, Margrave of Tuscany, and who had ordered the imprisonment and death of Leo’s predecessor, Pope John X. During his brief pontificate, Leo confirmed the decisions of the Synod of Split. He completed his predecessor’s investigations into the ecclesiastical situation in Dalmatia, and proceeded to give the pallium to John, Archbishop of Salona, and ordered all the bishops of Dalmatia to obey him. He also ordered the Bishop of Nona and others to limit themselves to the extent of their dioceses. Leo then issued a ban
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    Pope Sergius I

    Pope Sergius I

    Pope Saint Sergius I (c. 650 – 8 September 701) was pope from 687 to 701. Selected to end a schism between Antipope Paschal and Antipope Theodore, Sergius I ended the last disputed sede vacante of the Byzantine Papacy. His papacy was dominated by his response to the Quinisext Council, whose canons he refused to accept. As a result of the dispute, the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II ordered Sergius I's abduction (as his predecessor Constans II had done with Pope Martin I), but with the assistance of the exarch of Ravenna, Sergius I was able to avoid trial in Constantinople. Sergius I came from an Antiochene Syrian family which had settled at Palermo in Sicily. Sergius left Sicily and arrived in Rome during the pontificate of Pope Adeodatus II.. Pope Leo II, ordained him cardinal-priest of Santa Susanna on 27 June 683, and he rose through the ranks of the clergy. He remained cardinal-priest of S. Susanna until his selection as pope. Sergius I owed his election as Pope Conon's successor to skillful intrigues against Antipope Paschal and Antipope Theodore, the other candidates. The two armed factions entered into open combat before Sergius I was chosen by a group of judges, soldiers,
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    143
    Pope Zephyrinus

    Pope Zephyrinus

    Pope Saint Zephyrinus, born in Rome, was bishop of Rome from 199 to 217. His predecessor was bishop Victor I. Upon his death on 20 December 217, he was succeeded by his principal advisor, bishop Callixtus I. During the 17-year pontificate of Zephyrinus, the young Church endured severe persecution under the Emperor Severus until his death in the year 211. To quote Butler (Ref. A. Butler: Lives of the Saints Vol VIII, 1866), St Zephyrinus was the support of his flock. He also endured the trials associated with new heresies and apostases. The chief among these were Marcion, Praxeas, Valentine and the Montanists. St. Optatus testifies that all of these were subdued by Zephyrinus, Bishop of Rome. (Ref. Optat. 1,1 De Schismate, n.9 et Albaspinæus, not.ib.) Eusebius insists that Zephyrinus fought vigorously against the blasphemies of the two Theodotuses, who in response treated him with contempt, but later called him the greatest defender of the divinity of Christ. Although he was not physically martyred for the faith, his suffering – both mental and spiritual – during his pontificate have earned him the title of martyr. (Ref. Berti in Sæc 3. Diss. 1.t. 2 p 158) During the reign of the
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    Rowan Williams

    Rowan Williams

    Rowan Douglas Williams, FBA, FRSL, FLSW (born 14 June 1950) is an Anglican bishop, poet and theologian. He is the 104th and current Archbishop of Canterbury, Metropolitan of the Province of Canterbury and Primate of All England, offices he has held since early 2003. Williams was previously Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales (making him the first Archbishop of Canterbury in modern times not to be appointed from within the Church of England) and had spent much of his earlier career as an academic at the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford successively. His primacy has been marked by much speculation that the Anglican Communion (in which the Archbishop of Canterbury is the leading figure) is on the verge of fragmentation and by Williams's attempts to keep all sides talking to one another. On 16 March 2012, it was announced that he has accepted the position of Master of Magdalene College at Cambridge University, beginning in January 2013. He is expected to stand down as Archbishop of Canterbury in December 2012. Williams was born on 14 June 1950 in Ystradgynlais, Swansea, Wales, into a Welsh-speaking family. He was the only child of Aneurin Williams and Delphine ("Del",
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    Pope Leo II

    Pope Leo II

    Pope Saint Leo II was Pope from 17 August 682 to 28 June 683. He was a Sicilian by birth (the son of a man named Paulus), and succeeded Agatho. Though elected pope a few days after the death of St. Agatho (10 January 681), he was not consecrated till after the lapse of a year and seven months (17 August 682). Leo was known as an eloquent preacher who was interested in music, and noted for his charity to the poor. Elected shortly after the death of Agatho, Leo was not consecrated for over a year and a half. The reason may have been due to negotiations regarding imperial control of papal elections. These negotiations were undertaken by Leo's predecessor Agatho between the Holy See and Emperor Constantine IV. They concerned the relations of the Byzantine Court to papal elections. Constantine had already promised Agatho to abolish or reduce the tax that the popes had had to pay to the imperial treasury on their consecration over the course of about a century. Leo's short-lived pontificate did not allow him to accomplish much, but there was one achievement of major importance: he confirmed the acts of the Sixth Ecumenical Council (680–1). This council had been held in Constantinople
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    Mordechai Eliyahu

    Mordechai Eliyahu

    Mordechai Tzemach Eliyahu Hebrew: מרדכי צמח אליהו‎) (March 3, 1929 – June 7, 2010) was a prominent rabbi, posek and spiritual leader. He served as the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1983 to 1993. Eliyahu was born in the Old City of Jerusalem, to Rabbi Salman Eliyahu, a Jerusalem Kabbalist from an Iraqi Jewish family and his wife Mazal. Salman died when Eliyahu was a child. In 1950–1951 Mordechai was among the leaders of Brit HaKanaim (Hebrew: בְּרִית הַקַנַאִים‎‎, lit. Covenant of the Zealots), a radical religious Jewish underground organisation which operated against the widespread trend of secularisation in the country. The underground burnt cars whose drivers drove on Shabbat, and butcher shops whose owners sold non-kosher meat. They plotted to throw a smoke bomb in the Knesset during a debate on drafting religious women to the IDF, and a member of the group was in the audience during the debate with a smoke bomb in his pocket, but did not have the opportunity to activate the bomb. On 14 May 1951 the group's members were arrested by the Shabak. Mordechai was sentenced to 10 months imprisonment for his part in the group's deeds. In 1960, Eliyahu became the youngest person
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    Pope Gregory I

    Pope Gregory I

    Pope Gregory I (Latin: Gregorius I) (c. 540 – 12 March 604), better known in English as Gregory the Great, was pope from 3 September 590 until his death. Gregory is well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope. Throughout the Middle Ages he was known as “the Father of Christian Worship” because of his exceptional efforts in revising the Roman worship of his day. He is also known as St. Gregory the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy because of his Dialogues. For this reason, English translations of Orthodox texts will sometimes list him as "Gregory Dialogus". He was the first of the popes to come from a monastic background. Gregory is a Doctor of the Church and one of the Latin Fathers. He is considered a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, and some Lutheran churches. Immediately after his death, Gregory was canonized by popular acclaim. The Protestant reformer John Calvin admired Gregory and declared in his Institutes that Gregory was the last good pope. He is the patron saint of musicians, singers, students, and teachers. The exact date of Gregory's birth is uncertain, but is usually
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    Hossein Vahid Khorasani

    Hossein Vahid Khorasani

    Grand Ayatollah Hossein Vahid Khorasani (Arabic: حسین وحید الخراسانی‎ Persian: حسین وحید خراسانی‎, born January 1, 1921) is an Iranian Twelver Shia Marja. He was born in Nishapur, Iran and moved to Najaf, Iraq in 1960 and studied in seminaries of Grand Ayatollah Khoei until he moved back to Iran in 1972 and currently resides and teaches in the Seminary of Qom, Iran. He is also the father in law of Sadeq Larijani.
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    Pope Anacletus

    Pope Anacletus

    Pope Saint Anacletus (very rarely written as Anencletus), also called Pope Cletus, was the third Roman Pope (after St. Peter and St. Linus). The 14 February 1961 Instruction of the Congregation for Rites on the application to local calendars of Pope John XXIII's motu proprio Rubricarum instructum of 25 July 1960 decreed that "the feast of 'Saint Anacletus', on whatever ground and in whatever grade it is celebrated, is transferred to 26 April, under its right name, 'Saint Cletus'. The Roman Martyrology mentions the Pope in question only under the name of "Cletus". The Annuario Pontificio gives both forms, as alternatives. Eusebius, Saint Irenaeus, Saint Augustine and Optatus all suggest that both names refer to the same individual. On the other hand, the Liberian Catalogue and the Liber Pontificalis both state that Anacletus and Cletus are two different persons. The name "Cletus" in Ancient Greek means "one who has been called", and "Anacletus" means "one who has been called back". Also "Anencletus" (Greek: Ανέγκλητος) means "unimpeachable". St Cletus/Anacletus was traditionally said to have been a Roman, and to have been pope for twelve years. The Annuario Pontificio states: "For
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    150
    Pope Honorius I

    Pope Honorius I

    Pope Honorius I (died 12 October 638) was pope from 625 to 638. Honorius, according to the Liber Pontificalis, came from Campania and was the son of the consul Petronius. He became pope on 27 October 625, two days after the death of his predecessor, Boniface V. The festival of the Elevation of the Cross is said to have been instituted during the pontificate of Honorius, which was marked also by considerable missionary enterprise. Much of this was centered on England, especially Wessex. He also succeeded in bringing the Irish Easter celebrations in line with the rest of the Catholic Church. Although Honorius never issued a dogmatic (ex cathedra) decree in regards to the controversy of Christ's wills , he favoured Monothelitism. He supported a formula proposed by the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius with the design of bringing about a reconciliation between Monothelites and the rest of the Catholic Church. Monothelitism is the teaching that Christ has only one will, the divine will, in contrast with the teaching that He has both a divine will and a human will. To this end, Honorius "sent his deacon Gaios" to a synod in Cyprus in 634 hosted by archbishop Arkadios II with additional
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    151
    Ayatullah Muhammad Hussain Najafi

    Ayatullah Muhammad Hussain Najafi

    Grand Ayatollah Allama Shaikh Muhammad Hussain Najafi (Arabic/Persian/Urdu: آية الله العظمی علامہ الشیخ محمد حسین النجفي) (born April 1932) is a Twelver Shi'a alim from Pakistan and has been elevated to the status of marjiyyat,. At present, there are two Marjas of Pakistani descent, the other one Ayatollah Sheikh Basheer Hussain Najafi. As Ayatollah Hafiz Bashir Najafi has chosen to reside in Najaf, Iraq, Muhammad Hussain Najafi is the only Marja on Pakistani soil running his Hawza in Sargodha. He was included in the lists "The 500 Most Influential Muslims" for the years 2010 and 2011. Muhammad Hussain was born in Jahanian Shah in district Sargodha (Punjab, Pakistan), in April 1932. He belongs to the Dhakku branch of Jat people. He had two paternal uncles, both of whom were Shia ulema: Maulana Imam Bakhsh was a religious teacher in Jahanian Shah, while Maulana Sohrab Ali Khan was a reputed alim of Uch Sharif. His father Rana Tajuddin was not an alim, but he had the wish of making his son a great alim. However, he died in 1944 when Muhammad Hussain was 12 years old, after which the family members persuaded the widow that Muhammad Hussain should look after the family lands, but she
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    152
    Gendun Gyatso, 2nd Dalai Lama

    Gendun Gyatso, 2nd Dalai Lama

    Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo (Wylie: dge 'dun rgya mtsho), also Gendun Gyatso ("Sublimely Glorious Ocean of Spiritual Aspirants", layname: Yonten Phuntsok) (1475–1542) was the second Dalai Lama. He was born near Shigatse at Tanak, in the Tsang region of central Tibet. His father, Kunga Gyaltsen (1432–1481) (Wylie: kun dga' rgyal mtshan), was a ngakpa (married tantric practitioner) of the Nyingma lineage, a famous Nyingma tantric master. His mother was Machik Kunga Pemo, they were a farming family. Legend has it that soon after he learned to speak, he told his parents his name was Pema Dorje, the birth name of Gendun Drup (1391–1474) and that his father was Lobsang Drakpa, which was Tsongkapa's ordination name. When he was four, he reportedly told his parents he wished to live in the Tashilhunpo monastery (next to Shigatse and founded in 1447 by Gendun Drup) to be with his monks. He was proclaimed the reincarnation of Gendun Drup as a young boy - according to some sources at four years old, and to others at eight. He received his novice vows from Panchen Lungrig Gyatso in 1486, at the age of ten, and his vows of an ordained monk from Ghoje Choekyi Gyaltsen who gave him his ordination
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    153
    Obadiah

    Obadiah

    Obadiah (pronounced /ˌoʊbəˈdaɪ.ə/, Hebrew: עבדיה‎ ʿObhadyah or עבדיהו `oḆaDYaHOo, or in Modern Hebrew Ovadyah) is a Biblical theophorical name, meaning "servant of Yahweh" or "worshipper of Yahweh." It is related to "Abdeel", "servant of God", which is also cognate to the Arabic name "Abdullah" or "Obaidullah". Turkish name Abdil or Abdi. The form of Obadiah's name used in the Septuagint is Obdios; in Latin it is Abdias. The Bishops' Bible has it as Abdi. According to the Talmud, Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism from Edom, a descendant of Eliphaz, the friend of Job. He is identified with the Obadiah who was the servant of Ahab, and it is said that he was chosen to prophesy against Edom because he was himself an Edomite. Moreover, having lived with two such godless persons as Ahab and Jezebel without learning to act as they did, he seemed the most suitable person to prophesy against Esau (Edom), who, having been brought up by two pious persons, Isaac and Rebekah, had not learned to imitate their good deeds. Obadiah is supposed to have received the gift of prophecy for having hidden the "hundred prophets" from the persecution of Jezebel. He hid the prophets in two
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    154
    Pope Anicetus

    Pope Anicetus

    Pope Saint Anicetus was Pope of the Catholic Church from about 150 to about 167 (the Vatican's list cites 150 to 167 or 153 to 168). His name is Greek for unconquered (ἀ-νίκητος). He was a Syrian from the city of Emesa (modern-day Homs). According to Irenaeus, it was during his pontificate that the aged Polycarp of Smyrna, a disciple of John the Evangelist, visited Rome to discuss the celebration of Passover with Anicetus. Polycarp and his Church of Smyrna celebrated the crucifixion on the fourteenth day of Nisan, which coincides with Pesach (or Passover) regardless of which day of the week upon this date fell, while the Roman Church celebrated the Pasch on Sunday—the weekday of Jesus' resurrection. The two did not agree on a common date, but Anicetus conceded to St Polycarp and the Church of Smyrna the ability to retain the date to which they were accustomed. The controversy was to grow heated in the following centuries. The Christian historian Hegesippus also visited Rome during Anicetus' pontificate. This visit is often cited as a sign of the early importance of the Roman See. St Anicetus was the first Roman Bishop to condemn heresy by forbidding Montanism. He also actively
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    155
    Pope Benedict V

    Pope Benedict V

    Pope Benedict V (died 4 July 966), of Roman birth, was Pope in 964, elected by the Romans on the death of Pope John XII. However the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I (936–973) did not approve of the choice and had him deposed after only a month with his acquiescence. The ex-Pope was carried off to Hamburg and placed under the care of Adaldag, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. There he became a deacon, dying in 966. He was first buried in the cathedral in Hamburg. At a later date his remains were transferred to Rome. At the synod which deposed him in July 964, the pastoral staff was broken over him by Pope Leo VIII; this is the first mention of the papal sceptre.
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    156
    Pope Eleuterus

    Pope Eleuterus

    Pope Saint Eleuterus, or Eleutherius, (Greek: Ελευθέριος) was Bishop of Rome from about 174 to 189 (the Vatican cites 171 or 177 to 185 or 193). He was born in Nicopolis in Epirus. His name is Greek for free. His contemporary Hegesippus wrote that he was a deacon of the Roman Church under Pope Anicetus (c. 154–164), and remained so under Pope Soter, whom he succeeded in about 174. The Montanist movement, which originated in Asia Minor, made its way to Rome and Gaul in the second half of the 2nd century, around the reign of Eleuterus. Its nature did not diverge so much from the orthodoxy of the time for it to initially be labeled heresy. During the violent persecution at Lyon, in 177, local confessors wrote from their prison concerning the new movement to the Asiatic and Phrygian communities, and also to Pope Eleuterus. The bearer of their letter to the pope was the presbyter Irenaeus, soon to become Bishop of Lyon. It appears from statements of Eusebius concerning these letters that the Christians of Lyon, though opposed to the Montanist movement, advocated patience and pleaded for the preservation of ecclesiastical unity. Exactly when the Roman Catholic Church took its definite
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    157
    Pope Eugene I

    Pope Eugene I

    Pope Saint Eugene I or Eugenius I, was pope from 10 August 654 to 1 June 657. He was a native of Rome, born to one Rufinianus. He was elected pope on 10 August 654, ascended in 655, and died on 1 June 657 of natural causes. Little is known of Pope Eugene's early life other than that he was a Roman from the Aventine and was known for his holiness, gentleness, and charity. He had been a cleric from his youth and held various positions within the Church of Rome. On the banishment of Pope Martin I by Byzantine Empire Constans II, he showed greater deference than his predecessor to the emperor's wishes and made no public stand against the Monothelitism of the patriarchs of Constantinople. Martin I was carried off from Rome on 18 June 653 and was kept in exile until his death in September 655. Little is known about what happened in Rome after Pope Martin's departure, but it was typical in those days for the Holy See to be governed by the archpriest and archdeacon. After a year and two months, a successor was found to Martin in Eugene. Almost immediately after his election, Eugene was forced to deal with the heresy of Monothelitism , i.e., that Christ had only one will. One of the first
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    158
    Pope Evaristus

    Pope Evaristus

    Pope Saint Evaristus is accounted the fifth Pope, holding office from c. 99 to 107 AD or from 99 to 108. He was also known as Aristus. Little is known about St Evaristus. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he came from a family of Hellenic Jewish origin. He was elected during the reign of the Roman Emperor Domitian, the time of the second general persecution. Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History IV, I, stated that Evaristus died in the 12th year of the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan, after holding the office of bishop of the Romans for eight years. It was once supposed that all the early Popes were martyrs. There is no confirmation of this in the case of Pope Evaristus, who is listed without that title in the Roman Martyrology, with a feast day on 26 October. St Evaristus succeeded St Clement in the See of Rome during the reign of Trajan and governed the Church for about eight years, as the fourth successor of St. Peter. The Liber Pontificalis says that he was the son of a Hellenic Jew of Bethlehem, and, certainly incorrectly, that he divided Rome into several "titles" or Parishes, assigning a priest to each, and appointed seven deacons for the city. He is usually accorded
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    159
    Pope Hyginus

    Pope Hyginus

    Pope Saint Hyginus was bishop of Rome from about 136 or 138 to about 140 or 142. Tradition holds that during his papacy he determined the various prerogatives of the clergy and defined the grades of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. However, modern scholars tend to doubt this claim and view the governance of the church of Rome during this period as still more or less collective. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Hyginus was a Greek born in Athens. The source further states that he previously was a philosopher, probably founded on the similarity of his name with that of two Latin authors. Irenaeus says that the Gnostic Valentinus came to Rome in Hyginus's time, remaining there until Anicetus became pontiff (Against Heresies, III, iii). Cerdo, another Gnostic and predecessor of Marcion, also lived at Rome in the reign of Hyginus; by confessing his errors and recanting he succeeded in obtaining readmission into the bosom of the Church, but eventually he fell back into the heresies and was expelled from the Church. How many of these events took place during the time of Hyginus is not known. The Liber Pontificalis also relates that this pope organized the hierarchy and established the
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    160
    Trinley Gyatso, 12th Dalai Lama

    Trinley Gyatso, 12th Dalai Lama

    Trinley Gyatso (26 January 1857 – 25 April 1875), also spelled Trinle Gyatso and Thinle Gyatso, was the 12th Dalai Lama of Tibet. His short life coincided with a time of major political unrest and wars among Tibet's neighbours. Tibet particularly suffered from the weakening of the Qing Dynasty which had previously provided it with some support against the British Empire, which was aiming to influence Tibet as an expansion from its colonisation of India. He was recognised as a reincarnation of the Dalai Lama in 1858 and enthroned in 1860. During his period of training as a child, Tibet banned Europeans from entering the country because of wars Britain was fighting against Sikkim and Bhutan, both of whom were controlled to a considerable degree by the lamas in Lhasa. These wars were seen as efforts to colonise Tibet - something seen as unacceptable by the lamas. Also, with missionaries threatening to enter Tibet via the Mekong and Salween Rivers, Tibetans tried to emphasize the Qing Dynasty's authority over Tibet in the 1860s. Trinley Gyatso was fully enthroned as Dalai Lama on 11 March 1873 but could not stamp his full authority on Tibet because he died of a mysterious illness on 25
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    161
    Barry Black

    Barry Black

    Barry C. Black (born November 1, 1948) is the 62nd Chaplain of the United States Senate. He was elected to this position on June 27, 2003, becoming the first African-American and the first Seventh-day Adventist to hold this office. The Senate elected its first chaplain in 1789. He served for over 27 years as a chaplain in the United States Navy, rising to the rank of Rear Admiral and ending his career as the Chief of Chaplains of the United States Navy, the senior chaplain of the United States Navy Chaplain Corps. He officially retired from the Navy on August 15, 2003. Commissioned as a Navy Chaplain in 1976, Black’s first duty station was the Fleet Religious Support Activity in Norfolk, Virginia. Subsequent assignments include: His military awards include the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, the Legion of Merit Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal (two medals), Meritorious Service Medals (two awards), Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medals (two awards), and numerous unit awards, campaign, and service medals. Black is a native of Baltimore, Maryland, and an alumnus of Oakwood University, Andrews University, North Carolina Central University, Eastern Baptist Theological
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    162
    Javad Gharavi Aliari

    Javad Gharavi Aliari

    Grand Ayatollah Javad Gharavi Aliari(born in 1935) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja. He was born in Tabriz, Iran. He migrated to Najaf to study in Grand Ayatollah al-Khoei's seminaries. He currently teaches in the Seminary of Tehran, Iran. He is seen as being close to Iranian reformists.
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    163
    Ayatollah Bashir Najafi

    Ayatollah Bashir Najafi

    Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Basheer Hussain Najafi (Arabic: آية الله بشير النجفي‎) (born 1942) is one of the six Grand Ayatollahs in Iraq. He was born in Jalandhar, a city in then British India. After the division of British India in 1947, his family moved to Pakistan and settled in the city of Gujranwala. In Gujranwala he had his initial education in religion. He was then able to move to Iraq for studies in the early 1960s. He is one of many individuals from the Indian Subcontinent to have ever been elevated to the highest rank of Grand Ayatollah in Shia Islam. He was one year senior to Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani. Al Najafi could be a possible successor to Sistani, who has undergone two heart bypass surgeries in London in less than five years, if he passes away. Al Najafi was attacked on 6 January 1999 by a group of armed men, reportedly members of Fedayeen Saddam, while he and members of his seminary were performing religious duties. The attack, which included use of a hand grenade, resulted in the death of three persons and injury to a number of members of the seminary, including the Grand Ayatollah. He is from a family of religious background, born in Jalinder a city in British
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    164
    Pope-elect Stephen

    Pope-elect Stephen

    Stephen was a priest of Rome elected Pope in March 752 to succeed Pope Zachary; he died of a stroke a few days later, before being ordained a bishop. He was a cardinal presbyter, with the titulus of San Crisogono (the same titulus as Cardinal Frederick of Lorraine, later Pope Stephen IX), chosen by Pope Zachary in 745. The Annuario Pontificio included this Stephen in its list of popes as Pope Stephen II until the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) declared that he was not a pope, and gave all papal Stephens that followed dual numberings to reflect this change. Accordingly his successor, who was also called Stephen (752–757), was originally referred to as Stephen III in the Annuario Pontificio, which now lists him as Stephen II (III). The Annuario Pontificio attaches to its mention of Stephen II (III) the footnote: "On the death of Zachary the Roman priest Stephen was elected; but, since four days later he died, before his consecratio, which according to the canon law of the time was the true commencement of his pontificate, his name is not registered in the Liber Pontificalis nor in other lists of the Popes." From 752 to 942, seven popes reigned bearing the name of Stephen.
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    165
    Avraham Shapira

    Avraham Shapira

    Avraham Elkanah Kahana Shapira (Hebrew: אברהם אלקנה כהנא שפירא‎; 20 May 1914, Jerusalem– 27 September 2007) was a prominent rabbi in the Religious Zionist world. Shapira had been the head of the Rabbinical court of Jerusalem, and both a member and the head of the Supreme Rabbinic Court. He served as the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1983 to 1993. Shapira was the rosh yeshiva of Mercaz haRav in Jerusalem, a position he held since Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook died in 1982. His son, Rabbi Yaakov Shapira, became the successive rosh yeshiva. Avraham Shapira was born to a Jerusalemite family; his father was Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Shapira. As a child, he studied at Etz Chaim Yeshiva in Jerusalem, later moving to the Hebron Yeshiva, where he studied under Rabbis Moshe Mordechai Epstein and Yechezkel Sarna. After his marriage, he was invited to join the Mercaz haRav yeshiva, where he has remained ever since. Even in his youth, Shapira succeeded in establishing connections with great rabbis such as the Chazon Ish, Rabbi Zvi Pesach Frank, Rabbi Yitzchak Zev Soloveitchik and Rabbi Isser Zalman Meltzer, with whom he corresponded for many years, later publishing the correspondences in a book, Even
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    166
    Ayatollah Kazem Shariatmadari

    Ayatollah Kazem Shariatmadari

    Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Azerbaijani: Məhəmməd Kazım Şəriətmədari, Persian: محمد کاظم شریعتمداری‎), also spelled Shariat-Madari (1905, Tabriz – 3 April 1986, Tehran), was an Iranian Grand Ayatollah. Born to an Azerbaijani family in Tabriz, he was among the most senior leading Twelver Shi'a clerics in Iran and Iraq and was known for his forward looking and liberal views. After the death of Supreme and Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi (Marja' Mutlaq) in 1961 he became one of the leading marjas, with followers in Iran, Pakistan, India, Lebanon, Kuwait and the southern Persian Gulf states. In 1963, he prevented the Shah from executing Ayatollah Khomeini by recognizing him as a Grand Ayatollah, since according to the Iranian constitution a Marja' could not be executed. Khomeini was exiled instead. As the leading Mujtahid he was the head of Qom's seminary until Khomeini's arrival. He was in favour of the traditional Shiite view of keeping clerics away from governmental positions and a vehement critic of Khomeini. He headed the Centre for Islamic Study and Publications and was the administrator of the Dar al-Tabligh and the Fatima Madrasa in Qum. At the time of the
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    167
    Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche

    Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche

    Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (born 1961), also known as Khyentse Norbu, is a Bhutanese lama, filmmaker, and writer. His two major films are The Cup (1999) and Travellers and Magicians (2003). He is the author of the book What Makes You Not a Buddhist (Shambhala, 2007). He is also a prominent tulku associated with Dzongsar Monastery in Derge, Eastern Tibet. Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche was born in Bhutan in 1961. At the age of seven he was recognized as the third 'mindstream emanation' (Wylie sprul sku) of the founder of Khyentse lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. The first incarnation was Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820–1892), who helped found the Rimé or ecumenical school of Tibetan Buddhism, centred in Dzongsar Monastery in Sichuan. Followers of this non-sectarian school sought to identify and make use of the best methods from the various long-competing and isolated schools of Tibetan Buddhism. This approach led to a blossoming of scholarship and writing beginning in the 1880s. The second incarnation was the renowned lama Dzongsar Khyentse Chokyi Lodro (1893–1959), who figured prominently in the export of Tantric Buddhism to the West as the root-teacher of a generation of
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    168
    John Whitgift

    John Whitgift

    John Whitgift (c. 1530 – 29 February 1604) was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death. Noted for his hospitality, he was somewhat ostentatious in his habits, sometimes visiting Canterbury and other towns attended by a retinue of 800 horsemen. Whitgift's theological views were often controversial. He was the eldest son of Henry Whitgift, a merchant, of Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire, where he was born. His date of birth was probably somewhere between 1530 and 1533. His early education was entrusted to his uncle, Robert Whitgift, abbot of the neighbouring monastery of Wellow, by whose advice he was afterwards sent to St Anthony's School, London. In 1549 he matriculated at Queens' College, Cambridge, and in May 1550 he moved to Pembroke Hall, where the martyr John Bradford was his tutor. In May 1555 he became a fellow of Peterhouse. Dr. Whitgift is believed to have taught Francis Bacon at Cambridge University in the 1570s. Having taken orders in 1560, he became chaplain to Richard Cox, Bishop of Ely, who collated him to the rectory of Teversham, Cambridgeshire. In 1563 he was appointed Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity at Cambridge, and his lectures gave such
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    169
    Pope Benedict IV

    Pope Benedict IV

    Pope Benedict IV (died July 903) was Pope from 900 to 903. He was the son of Mammalus, a native of Rome. The tenth-century historian Frodoard, who nicknamed him the Great, commended his noble birth and public generosity. He succeeded Pope John IX (898–900) and was followed by Pope Leo V (903). Benedict IV upheld the ordinances of Pope Formosus, whose rotting corpse had been exhumed by Pope Stephen VI and put on trial in the Cadaver Synod of 897. In 901, after the Carolingian Emperors had disappeared, Benedict followed the example of Pope Leo III and crowned Louis of Provence as Holy Roman Emperor. In his reign, he also excommunicated Baldwin II of Flanders for murdering Fulk, Archbishop of Reims. He died in the summer of 903 and was buried in front of St Peter's Basilica, by the gate of Guido. This article incorporates text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia article "Pope Benedict IV" by Horace K. Mann, a publication now in the public domain.
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    170
    Hongren

    Hongren

    Daman Hongren (Chinese: 弘忍) (Wade-Giles:Shih Hung-jen; Japanese: Daiman Konin) (601–674) was the 5th Chan Chán (Buddhist) Patriarch in the traditional lineage of Chinese Chan. Hongren is said to have received Dharma transmission from Daoxin and passed on the symbolic bowl and robe of transmission to Huineng, the Sixth and last Chan Patriarch. As with all the early Chan patriarchs, many of the details of Hongren’s life are uncertain and much of his biography is layered with legend added well after his death. The following biography is based on Chan traditional sources. Hongren was born in Huangmei with the family name Chou. His father abandoned the family but Hongren displayed exemplary filial duty in supporting his mother. Although the Records of the Teachers and Disciples of the Lankavatara claim that Hongren’s father abandoned the family, Chan scholar John McRae points out that Hongren’s residence was converted to a monastery, implying that Hongren’s family was probably wealthy and prominent locally. Furthermore, mention of Hongren doing menial labour would only be of significance if this were unusual, indicating that Hongren was of upper-class birth. At the age of either seven
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    171
    Pope Alexander I

    Pope Alexander I

    Pope Saint Alexander I was Bishop of Rome from about 106 to 115. The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio (2012) identifies him as a Roman who reigned from 108 or 109 to 116 or 119. Some believe he suffered martyrdom under the Roman Emperor Trajan or Hadrian, but this is improbable. According to the Liber Pontificalis, it was Alexander I who inserted the narration of the Last Supper (the Qui pridie) into the Catholic celebration of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. However, in the article on Saint Alexander I in the 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia, Thomas Shahan judges this tradition to be inaccurate. Both Catholic and non-Catholic experts regard this tradition as inaccurate. It is viewed as a product of the agenda of Liber Pontificalis—this section of the book was probably written in the late fifth century—to show an ancient pattern of the earliest bishops of Rome ruling the church by papal decree. The introduction of the customs of using blessed water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences, and of mixing water with the sacramental wine are attributed to Pope Alexander I. Some sources consider these attributions unlikely. It is certainly possible, however,
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    172
    Pope Caius

    Pope Caius

    Pope Saint Caius or Gaius was Pope from 17 December 283 to 22 April 296. Christian tradition makes him a native of the Dalmatian city of Salona, today Solin near Split, the son of a man also named Caius, and a member of a noble family related to the Emperor Diocletian. Little information on Caius is available except that given by the Liber Pontificalis, which relies on a legendary account of the martyrdom of St. Susanna for its information. According to legend, Caius baptized the men and women who had been converted by Saint Tiburtius (who is venerated with St. Susanna) and Saint Castulus. His legend states that Caius took refuge in the catacombs of Rome and died a martyr. About 280, an early Christian house of worship was established on the site of Santa Susanna, which, like many of the earliest Christian meeting places, was in a house (domus ecclesiae). The domus belonged, according to the sixth-century acta, to brothers named Caius and Gabinus, prominent Christians. Caius may be this Pope, or Caius the Presbyter. Gabinus is the name given to the father of Saint Susanna. Thus, sources state that Caius was the uncle of Saint Susanna. As pope, he decreed that before someone could
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    173
    Pope Leo I

    Pope Leo I

    Pope Saint Leo I, also known as Leo the Great (c. 391 or 400 – 10 November 461) was the Bishop of Rome—the Pope—of the Christian Church from 29 September 440 to his death on 10 November 461. He was an Italian aristocrat, and was the first pope to have been called "the Great". He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun in 452 and persuading him to turn back from his invasion of Italy. He is also a Doctor of the Church, most remembered theologically for issuing the Tome of Leo, a document which was foundational to the debates of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. The Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council, dealt primarily with Christology, and elucidated the orthodox definition of Christ's being as the hypostatic union of two natures—divine and human—united in one person, "with neither confusion nor division". The Council of Chalcedon gave rise to the first major schism in Christian history, the Monophysite schism. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was a native of Tuscany. By 431, as a deacon, he occupied a sufficiently important position for Cyril of Alexandria to apply to him in order that Rome's influence should be thrown against the claims of
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    174
    Pope John VI

    Pope John VI

    Pope John VI was a Greek pope from Ephesus who reigned during the Byzantine Papacy from 30 October 701 to 11 January 705. His papacy was noted for military and political breakthroughs on the Italian peninsula. He succeeded to the papal chair two months after the death of Pope Sergius I, and his election occurred after a vacancy of less than seven weeks. He was succeeded by Pope John VII after a vacancy of less than two months. The body of the pope is buried in Old St. Peter's Basilica. During his reign, he assisted the Exarch Theophylactos, who had been sent to Italy by the emperor Justinian II, and prevented him from using violence against the Romans. John VI's interventions prevented Theophylactos from being injured, having come to Rome to "cause trouble for the pontiff". Aside from this, he also succeeded in inducing Gisulf, the Lombard duke of Benevento, to withdraw from the territories of the empire, through tactics of persuasion and bribery. According to some sources, he "single-handedly convinced the Lombard duke Gisulf of Benevento to withdraw his forces and return home" after the duke had devastated the neighboring Campanian countryside and constructed an encampment within
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    175
    Pope John VIII

    Pope John VIII

    Pope John VIII was pope from 13 December 872 to 16 December 882. He is often considered one of the ablest pontiffs of the ninth century. He was born in Rome. Among the reforms achieved during his pontificate was a notable administrative reorganisation of the papal Curia. He asked for military aid from Charles the Bald and later Count Boso of Provence, in response to Saracens who were raiding Campania and the Sabine Hills. His efforts failed and he was forced to pay tribute to the Saracens. In 873, John VIII learned of St. Methodius' imprisonment. Methodius had been imprisoned by his German enemies, who objected to his use of the Slavonic language in the liturgy. John forbade the celebration of Mass in Bavaria until Methodius was released. Following Methodius' release John allowed him to resume his episcopal duties in Illyricum, but forbid him to celebrate Mass in the Slavonic language. In 879 he recognised the reinstatement of Photius as the legitimate patriarch of Constantinople; Photius had been condemned in 869 by Pope Adrian II. In 878 John crowned Louis II, king of France. He also anointed two Holy Roman Emperors: Charles II and Charles III. He was assassinated in
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    176
    Ali

    Ali

    Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب, Transliteration: ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Arabic pronunciation: [ʕæliː ibn ʔæbiː t̪ˤæːlib]; 13 Rajab, 24 BH – 21 Ramaḍān, 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661) was the cousin and son-in-law of Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661. A son of Abu Talib, Ali was also the first male convert to Islam. Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shias regard Ali as the first Imam and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of which are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shia branches. Muslim sources, especially Shia ones, state that Ali was the only person born in the Kaaba sanctuary in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam. His father was Abu Talib and his mother was Fatima bint Asad, but he was raised in the household of Muhammad, who himself was raised by Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle, and Ali's father. When Muhammad reported receiving a divine revelation, Ali was the first male to accept his message,
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    177
    Ezekiel

    Ezekiel

    Ezekiel ( /ɨˈziːki.əl/; Hebrew: יְחֶזְקֵאל‎‎, Y'ḥez'qel, Hebrew pronunciation: [jəħezˈqel]), Arabic:حزقيال Hazqiyal, 'God will strengthen' (from חזק, ḥazaq, [ħaˈzaq], literally 'to fasten upon,' figuratively 'strong,' and אל, el, [ʔel], literally 'God', and so figuratively 'The Almighty') is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Ezekiel is acknowledged as a Hebrew prophet. In Judaism and Christianity, he is also viewed as the author of the Book of Ezekiel that reveals prophecies regarding the destruction of Jerusalem and the Millennia Temple visions, or the Third Temple. The author of the Book of Ezekiel shows himself as Ezekiel, the son of Buzi,[Ezekiel 1:3] born into a priesthood (Kohen) lineage of the patrilineal line of Ithamar, and resident of Anathoth. The author dates ages, prophecies and visions by making references to the lengths of time King Jehoiachin of Judah was in exile. Under the direction of Nebuchadnezzar II, Babylonian armies exiled three thousand Jews from Judah, deposing King Jehoiachin in 597 BCE. In reference to Ezekiel being in his "thirtieth year... during the fifth year of King Jehoiachin’s
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    178
    Husayn ibn Ali

    Husayn ibn Ali

    Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (also spelled Hussayn) (Arabic: حسين بن علي بن أبي طالب‎)‎ (8 January 626 CE – 10 October 680 CE) (3rd Sha'aban 4 AH – 10th Muharram 61 AH) was the son of Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib (final Rashidun Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatimah Zahra (daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) and the younger brother of Hasan ibn Ali. Hussein is an important figure in Islam as he is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahl al-Kisa, as well as being an Imam. Hussein is highly regarded by Shia as a martyr because he refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph. He rose up to create a regime that would reinstate a "true" Islamic polity as opposed to what he considered the unjust rule of the Umayyads. As a consequence, he was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala in 680 (61 AH) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan. The annual memorial for him, his family, his children and his As'haab (companions) is called Ashura (tenth day of Muharram) and is a day of mourning for Shia Muslims. Anger at Hussein's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad Caliphate and gave impetus to the rise of a powerful Shia
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    179
    Jacob

    Jacob

    Jacob (Arabic: يَعْقُوب‎, Yaʿqūb), or Israel (Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل, Isrāʾīl), is a prophet in Islam who is mentioned in the Qur'an. He is acknowledged as a patriarch of Islam. Muslims believe that he preached the same monotheistic faith as his forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael. Jacob is mentioned 16 times in the Qur'an. In the majority of these references, Jacob is mentioned alongside fellow Hebrew prophets and patriarchs as an ancient and pious prophet who remained in the "company of the elect". Muslims hold that Jacob was the son of Isaac and that he preached the Oneness of God throughout his life. As in Christianity and Judaism, Islam holds that Jacob had twelve sons, each of which would go on to father the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Jacob plays a significant role in the story of his son, Joseph, and is referenced around twenty-five times throughout the narrative. The Qur'an further makes it clear that God made a covenant with Jacob and Jacob was made a faithful leader by God's command. Jacob is mentioned by name in the Qur'an around sixteen times.Although many of these verses praise him rather than recount an instance from his narrative, the Qur'an nonetheless records several
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    180
    Pope John I

    Pope John I

    Pope Saint John I (c. 470 – 18 May 526) was Pope from 523 to 526. He was a native of Siena (or the "Castello di Serena"), near Chiusdino. He is the first pope known to have visited Constantinople while in office. While a deacon in Rome, he is known to have been a partisan of the Antipope Laurentius, for in a libellus written to Pope Symmachus in 506, John confessed his error in opposing him, anathematized Peter of Altinum and Laurentius, and begged pardon of Symmachus. He would then be the deacon John who signed the acta of the Roman synod of 499 and 502; the fact the Roman church only had seven deacons at the time makes identifying him with this person very likely. He may also be the deacon John to whom Boethius dedicated three of his five religious tractates written between 512 and 520. John was very frail when he was elected to the papacy. Despite his protests, he was sent by the Arian King Theodoric the Great of the Ostrogoths to Constantinople to secure a moderation of Emperor Justin's decree of 523 against the Arians. Theodoric threatened that if John should fail in his mission, there would be reprisals against the orthodox Catholics in the West. John proceeded to
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    181
    Pope John V

    Pope John V

    Pope John V was pope from July 685 to 2 August 686. John V was the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy allowed to be consecrated by the Byzantine Emperor without prior consent, and the first in a line of ten consecutive popes of Eastern origin. His papacy was marked by reconciliation between the city of Rome and the Empire. John was a Syrian by birth, born in the province of Antioch. On account of his knowledge of Greek, he was named papal legate to the Third Council of Constantinople in 680. John V was the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy consecrated without the direct approval of the Byzantine Emperor. Constantine IV had done away with the requirement during the reign of Pope Benedict II, John V's predecessor, providing that "the one elected to the Apostolic See may be ordained pontiff from that moment and without delay". In a return to the "ancient practice", John V was selected "by the general population" of Rome. John was elected in July 685. Constantine IV doubtlessly trusted that the population and clergy of Rome had been sufficiently Easternized, and indeed the next ten pontiffs were of Eastern descent. John V's papacy saw a continuation of improving relations with
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    182
    Pope Miltiades

    Pope Miltiades

    Pope Saint Miltiades, also called Melchiades (Μελχιάδης ὁ Ἀφρικανός in Greek), was Pope from 2 July 311 to 10 January 314. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Miltiades was African, although McBrien states he was probably Roman. His elections marked the end of a period sede vacante lasting from the death of Pope Eusebius on 17 August 310 or, according to others, 309, soon after the Emperor Maxentius had exiled Eusebius to Sicily. During his pontificate, in October 312, Constantine defeated Maxentius and assumed control over Rome. Constantine presented the pope with the Lateran Palace which became the papal residence and seat of Christian governance. Early in 313, Constantine and fellow Emperor Licinius reached an agreement at Milan that they would grant freedom of religion to the Christians and other religions and restore church property. Later in 313, Miltiades presided over the Lateran Synod in Rome, which acquitted Caecilian of Carthage and condemned Donatus as a schismatic (see Donatism). He was then invited to the Council of Arles but died before it was held. The Liber Pontificalis, compiled from the 5th century onwards, attributed the introduction of several later customs to
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    183
    Pope Pontian

    Pope Pontian

    Pope Pontian or Pontianus was Pope from 21 July 230 to 29 September 235. A little more is known of Pontian than his predecessors, apparently from a lost papal chronicle that was available to the compiler of the Liberian Catalogue of bishops of Rome, made in the fourth century. During his pontificate the schism of Hippolytus of Rome came to an end. Pontian and other church leaders (among them Hippolytus) were exiled by the emperor Maximinus Thrax to Sardinia, and in consequence of this sentence he resigned on 25 or 28 September 235. It is unknown how long he lived in exile: according to Liber Pontificalis he died due to the inhuman treatment and hardships he received in the Sardinian mines. According to tradition, he died on the island of Tavolara. His feast day was 19 November, but he is now celebrated jointly with Hippolytus on 13 August. His remains were brought to Rome by Pope Fabian and buried in the Catacomb of Pope Callixtus I. His epitaph was rediscovered in 1909 in the Catacomb of Callixtus, near the papal crypt, reading "PONTIANOS, EPISK.". The inscription "MARTUR" had been added in another hand.
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    184
    Randall Davidson, 1st Baron Davidson of Lambeth

    Randall Davidson, 1st Baron Davidson of Lambeth

    Randall Thomas Davidson, 1st Baron Davidson of Lambeth GCVO, PC (7 April 1848 – 25 May 1930) was an Anglican bishop of Scottish origin who served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1903 to 1928. Davidson was the son of Henry Davidson, a grain merchant, of Edinburgh and Henrietta, daughter of John Campbell Swinton of Kimmerghame; his parents were Scottish Presbyterians. His education was mostly in small private schools that he later described as unsatisfactory and long lamented his lack of proficiency in Latin and Greek. Later he studied at Harrow, where Brooke Westcott was his final year housemaster, and Trinity College, Oxford. In his final year of schooling he was involved in a shooting accident that threatened the loss of his leg. According to his own account, it was only much later in his life, after the discovery and use of X-ray technology, that it was found that he had a considerable number of shot gun pellets still in his body. The accident left him with a hernia and he was a lifelong truss wearer, this caused him continuous difficulty as the hernia regularly dropped, especially when he was preaching. Davidson served as chaplain to Archibald Campbell Tait when Tait was
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    185
    Elisha

    Elisha

    Elisha ( /ɨˈlaɪʃə/; Hebrew: אֱלִישָׁע, Modern Elisha Tiberian ʼĔlîšāʻ ; "My God is salvation", Greek: Ἐλισσαῖος, Elissaîos or Ἐλισαιέ, Elisaié, Arabic: الْيَسَع‎ Elyasaʻ) is a prophet and a wonder-worker mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an. His name is commonly transliterated into English as Elisha via Hebrew, Eliseus via Greek and Latin, or Alyasa via Arabic. Elisha was a prophet and a wonder-worker of the Northern Kingdom of Israel who was active during the reign of Joram, Jehu, Jehoahaz, and Jehoash (Joash). Elisha was the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah; he became the attendant and disciple of Elijah (1 Kings 19:16–19), and after Elijah was taken up into the whirlwind, he was accepted as the leader of the sons of the prophets, and became noted in Israel. He possessed, according to his own request, "a double portion" of Elijah's spirit (2 Kings 2:9); and for sixty years (892–832 BC) held the office of "prophet in Israel" (2 Kings 5:8). His name first occurs in the command given to Elijah to anoint him as his successor. (1 Kings 19:16 After learning, in the cave on Mount Horeb, that Elisha, the son of Shaphat, had been selected by God as his successor in the prophetic
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    186
    Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr

    Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr

    Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr (Arabic: محمد محمّد صادق الصدر‎; Muḥammad Muḥammad Ṣādiq aṣ-Ṣadr) (March 23, 1943 – February 19, 1999), often referred to as Muhammad Sadiq as-Sadr which is his father's name, was a prominent Iraqi Twelver Shi'a cleric of the rank of Grand Ayatollah. He called for government reform and the release of detained Shi'a leaders. The growth of his popularity, often referred to as the followers of the Vocal Hawza, also put him in competition with other Shi'a leaders, including Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim who was exiled in Iran. Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr was born in al-Kazimiya in the Kingdom of Iraq. His father, Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr (1906–1986), was the grandson of Ismail as-Sadr, the patriarch of the Iraqi Sadr family and a first cousin of Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and Bint al-Huda. Following the Gulf War, Shi'ites in Southern Iraq went into open rebellion. A number of provinces overthrew the Baathist entities and rebelled against Saddam Hussein and the Baath Party. The leadership of the Shi'ite rebellion as well as the Shi'ite doctrine in Iraq was split between Ayatollah Ali Sistani and Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr. Sadr,
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    187
    Charles Manners-Sutton

    Charles Manners-Sutton

    Charles Manners-Sutton (17 February 1755 – 21 July 1828) was a priest in the Church of England who served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1805 to 1828. Manners-Sutton was the fourth son of Lord George Manners-Sutton, third son of John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland. His younger brother was Thomas Manners-Sutton, 1st Baron Manners, Lord Chancellor of Ireland. His father had assumed the additional surname of Sutton in 1762 on inheriting the estates of his maternal grandfather Robert Sutton, 2nd Baron Lexinton. Manners-Sutton was educated at Charterhouse and Cambridge. He married at age 23, and probably eloped with, his cousin Mary Thoroton, daughter of Col. Thomas Thoroton and his wife Mary (Levett) Thorton of Screveton Hall, Nottinghamshire, in 1778. (Col. Thomas Blackborne Thoroton later moved to Flintham Hall, Flintham, near Screveton, Nottinghamshire. He was later known as Thomas Thoroton Hildyard. Both Thoroton and his stepbrother Levett Blackborne, Esq., a Lincoln's Inn barrister, had long acted as advisers to John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland, and Col. Thoroton was often resided at Belvoir Castle, the ancestral seat of the Dukes of Rutland.) In 1785, Manners-Sutton was
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    188
    Kelzang Gyatso, 7th Dalai Lama

    Kelzang Gyatso, 7th Dalai Lama

    Kelzang Gyatso (Wylie: bskal bzang rgya mtsho) (1708–1757), also spelled Kalzang Gyatso, Kelsang Gyatso and Kezang Gyatso, was the 7th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Kelzang Gyatso was born in Lithang of Eastern Tibet, in the present-day Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of present-day Sichuan province. At that time, the Dalai Lama's throne in Lhasa was occupied by Ngawang Yeshey Gyatso, who had been installed by Lha-bzang Khan as "the real 6th Dalai Lama" in place of Tsangyang Gyatso. Ngawang Yeshey Gyatso still held this position (though most Tibetans did not consider him to be a legitimate Dalai Lama) when a monk at Litang monastery, spontaneously channeling the Nechung Oracle, identified Kelzang Gyatso as the reincarnation of Tsangyang Gyatso. Since this presented a contradiction of Lha-bzang Khan's Dalai Lama, it was a controversial matter and potentially dangerous to the child. Subsequently, the Tibetan leader of a delegation from Lhasa covertly confirmed that the child was Tsangyang Gyatso's reincarnation. The child was quietly taken into Litang monastery for protection and training. In 1715, the Qing emperor Kangxi sponsored Kelzang Gyatso's entrance into Kumbum Monastery. This
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    189
    Pope Severinus

    Pope Severinus

    Pope Severinus was pope in the year 640 who became caught up in a power struggle with the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius over the ongoing Monothelite controversy. He was a Roman. His father was named Avienus, according to the Liber Pontificalis. The name of the father suggests descent from members of the Roman Senate. A previous Avienus was Roman consul in 501. Severinus was elected on the third day after the death of his predecessor, Honorius I, and the Papal apocrisiarii went to Constantinople to obtain imperial confirmation of his election in October 638. But Emperor Heraclius refused to grant his confirmation unless Severinus signed his Ecthesis, a Monothelite profession of faith. The envoys were unwilling to agree to this demand, but they were also unwilling to allow the Roman See to remain vacant indefinitely, so they offered to show Severinus the document and ask him to sign it if he thought it was correct. This offer was apparently satisfactory, and imperial recognition of the papal election was granted. Before his death, however, Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople had drawn up the Ecthesis in response to the orthodox synodical letter of Sophronius, the Patriarch of
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    190
    Pope Urban I

    Pope Urban I

    Pope Saint Urban I was Pope from 14 October 222 to 230. He was born in Rome, Roman Empire and succeeded St. Callixtus I who had been martyred. For centuries it was believed that Urban too was martyred. However, recent historical discoveries now lead scholars to believe that he died of natural causes. Much of Urban's life is shrouded in mystery, leading to many myths and misconceptions. Despite the lack of sources he is the first Pope whose reign can be definitely dated. Two prominent sources do exist for Urban's pontificate: Eusebius' history of the early Church and also an inscription in the Coemeterium Callisti which names the Pope. Urban ascended to the Chair of Saint Peter in the year of the Roman Emperor Elagabalus' assassination and served during the reign of Alexander Severus. It is believed that Urban's pontificate was during a peaceful time for Christians in the Empire as Severus did not promote the persecution of Christianity. Urban is a canonized saint of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is believed that the schismatic Hippolytus was still leading a rival Christian Congregation in Rome, and that he published the Philosophumena, an attack on
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    191
    Tsultrim Gyatso, 10th Dalai Lama

    Tsultrim Gyatso, 10th Dalai Lama

    Tsultrim Gyatso (29 March 1816–1837) was the 10th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Born to a modest family in Chamdo (eastern Tibet), he was recognised as the reincarnation of Lungtok Gyatso, the 9th Dalai Lama, in 1820. At the time his family did not even have an heir to their land, but he took the name Tsultrim Gyatso and was enthroned at the Potala Palace in 1822. After Lungtok Gyatso died in 1815, eight years had passed before the new Dalai Lama was chosen. The political events in this period are murky, but finally Palden Tenpai Nyima intervened and used the Golden Urn (from which names of candidates were picked) for the first time as part of the tests for the choice of the new Dalai Lama. In 1822 the 10th Dalai Lama was placed upon the Golden Throne and soon after his enthronement received his pre-novice ordination from Palden Tenpai Nyima, who gave him the name of Tsultrim Gyatso. He administered the Gelong vows (full ordination) to Tsultrin Gyatso in 1831. In 1826, he was enrolled at Drepung Monastery and mastered both sutra and tantra. He studied Tibetan Buddhist texts extensively during the rest of his life. In 1831 he reconstructed the Potala Palace and, at the age of nineteen, he
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    192
    Yonten Gyatso, 4th Dalai Lama

    Yonten Gyatso, 4th Dalai Lama

    Yonten Gyatso or Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho (1589–1617) was the 4th Dalai Lama, born in Mongolia on the 30th day of the 12th month of the Earth-Ox year of the Tibetan calendar. (Other sources, however, say he was born in the 1st month of the Earth Ox Year). As the son of the chieftain of the Chokur tribe, Tsultrim Choeje, and great-grandson of Altan Khan of the Tümed Mongols and his second wife PhaKhen Nula, Yonten Gyatso was a Mongolian, making him the only non-Tibetan to be recognized as Dalai Lama other than the 6th Dalai Lama, who was a Monpa—but Monpas can be seen either as a Tibetan subgroup or a closely related people. The Nechung, state oracle of Tibet, and Lamo Tsangpa, another oracle, had both predicted the next reincarnation would be born in Mongolia. About this time, the chief attendant of the Third Dalai Lama, Tsultrim Gyatso, sent a letter informing the authorities in Tibet that the reincarnation had been born and details of some of the wonders accompanying his birth. Yonten Gyatso left for Tibet in 1599 when he was already ten years old, with his father, Tibetan monks and officials, and a thousand Mongol cavalry. They arrived in 1603 after stopping at all the major
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    193
    Pope Stephen VII

    Pope Stephen VII

    Pope Stephen VII (?– c. 15 March 931) was pope from February 929 through to March 931. A candidate of the infamous Marozia, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum. Stephen was a Roman by birth, the son of Theodemundus, and perhaps a member of the Gabrielli family. He was elected—probably handpicked—by Marozia from the Tusculani family, as a stop-gap measure until her own son John was ready to assume the chair of Saint Peter. Prior to his election, Stephen had been the cardinal-priest of St Anastasia in Rome. Very little is known about Stephen’s pontificate. During his two years as pope, Stephen confirmed the privileges of a few religious houses in France and Italy. As a reward for helping free Stephen from the oppression of Hugh of Arles, Stephen granted Cante di Gabrielli the position of papal governor of Gubbio, and control over a number of key fortresses. Stephen was also noted for the severity with which he treated clergy who strayed in their morals. He was also, apparently, according to a hostile Greek source from the twelfth century, the first pope who went around clean shaved whilst pope. Stephen died around 15 March 931, and was succeeded
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    194
    George Carey

    George Carey

    George Leonard Carey, Baron Carey of Clifton, PC, FRSA, FKC (born 13 November 1935) is a former Archbishop of Canterbury, holding the office from 1991 to 2002. During his time as archbishop the Church of England ordained its first women priests and the debate over attitudes to homosexuality became more prominent, especially at the 1998 Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops. George Carey was born on 13 November 1935 in the East End of London in the United Kingdom. He attended Bonham Road Primary School in Dagenham, then failed his eleven plus. He then attended Bifrons Secondary Modern School in Barking before leaving at the age of 15. He worked for the London Electricity Board as an office boy before starting his National Service at age 18 in the Royal Air Force as a wireless operator, during which time he served in Iraq. Carey became a committed Christian at age 17 when he attended a church service with some friends. He said that "I had a conversion experience which was very real ... There were no blinding lights, simply a quiet conviction I had found something." During his National Service, Carey decided to seek ordination and after his discharge he studied intensely, gaining six
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    195
    Micah

    Micah

    Micah, meaning “who is like Jah", was a prophet who prophesied from approximately 737-690 BC in Judah and is the author of the Book of Micah. He was a contemporary of the prophets Isaiah, Amos and Hosea and is considered one of the twelve minor prophets of the Tanakh (Old Testament). Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah. Micah’s messages were directed chiefly toward Jerusalem. He prophesied the future destruction of Jerusalem and Samaria, the destruction and then future restoration of the Judean state, and he rebuked the people of Judah for dishonesty and idolatry. His prophecy that the Messiah would be born in the town of Bethlehem is recalled in the Book of Matthew. Micah was active in Judah from before the fall of Samaria in 722 BC and experienced the devastation brought by Sennacherib’s invasion of Judah in 701 BC. He prophesied from approximately 737-690 BC. Micah was from Moresheth, also called Moresheth-Gath, a small town in southwest Judah. Micah lived in a rural area, but often rebuked the corruption of city life in Israel and Judah. Micah prophesied during the reigns of kings
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    196
    Orson Pratt

    Orson Pratt

    Orson Pratt, Sr. (September 19, 1811 – October 3, 1881) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and an original member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles. He was born in Hartford, New York, USA, the son of Jared and Charity Dickenson Pratt. Orson Pratt died of complications from diabetes on October 3, 1881, the last surviving member of the original Council of the Twelve. Orson Pratt was the younger brother of Parley P. Pratt, who introduced him to Latter Day Saint church and baptized him on his nineteenth birthday, September 19, 1830 in Canaan, New York. Pratt was ordained an Elder several months later, on April 26, 1831, by the Prophet Joseph Smith, Jr. and immediately set out for Colesville, New York, his first mission. This was the first of a number of short missions in which Orson visited New York, Ohio, Missouri, and the Eastern States. On February 2, 1832, he was ordained a High Priest by Sidney Rigdon and as a High Priest he continued his missions, preaching in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. Orson Pratt was a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles under Joseph Smith. He was ordained to this
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    197
    Pope Felix I

    Pope Felix I

    Pope Saint Felix I was Pope from 5 January 269 to 30 December 274. A Roman by birth, Felix was chosen as Pope on 5 January 269, in succession to Pope Dionysius, who had died on 26 December 268 Felix was the author of an important dogmatic letter on the unity of Christ's Person. He received the emperor Aurelian's aid in settling a theological dispute between the anti-Trinitarian Paul of Samosata, who had been deprived of the bishopric Antioch by a council of bishops for heresy and the orthodox Domnus, Paul's successor. Paul refused to give way, and in 272 the emperor Aurelian was asked to decide between the rivals. He ordered the church building to be given to the bishop who was "recognized by the bishops of Italy and of the city of Rome" (Felix). See Eusebius, Hist. Ecc. vii. 30. The text of that letter was later interpolated by a follower of Apollinaris in the interests of his sect. The notice about Felix in the Liber Pontificalis ascribes to him a decree that Masses should be celebrated on the tombs of martyrs ("Hic constituit supra memorias martyrum missas celebrare"). The author of this entry was evidently alluding to the custom of celebrating Mass privately at the altars near
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    198
    Pope Felix IV

    Pope Felix IV

    Pope Saint Felix IV was pope from 526 to 530. He came from Samnium, the son of one Castorius. Following the death of Pope John I at the hands of the Ostrogoth King Theodoric the Great, the papal voters gave in to the king's demands and chose Cardinal Felix as Pope. Felix's favor in the eyes of the king caused him to push for greater benefits for the Church. He was elected after a gap of nearly two months after the death of John I. During his reign, an Imperial edict was passed granting that cases against clergy should be dealt with by the Pope. He defined church teaching on grace and free will in response to a request of Faustus of Riez, in Gaul, on opposing Semi-Pelagianism. Felix attempted to designate his own successor: Pope Boniface II. The reaction of the Senate was to forbid the discussion of a pope’s successor during his lifetime or to accept such a nomination. The majority of the clergy reacted to Felix's activity by nominating Dioscorus as Pope. Only a minority supported Boniface. Felix built the Santi Cosma e Damiano in the Imperial forums. When regnal numbering of the Popes began to be used, Antipope Felix II was counted as one of the Popes of that name. The second true
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    199
    Pope John XII

    Pope John XII

    Pope John XII (c. 937 – 14 May 964), born Octavianus, was Pope from 16 December 955 to 14 May 964. The son of Alberic II, Patrician of Rome, and his stepsister Alda of Vienne, he was a seventh generation descendant of Charlemagne on his mother's side. Before his death in 954, Alberic administered an oath to the Roman nobles in St. Peter's providing that the next vacancy for the papal chair would be filled by his son Octavianus. He succeeded his father as Patrician of Rome in 954 at only seventeen years of age. After the death of Agapetus II in November 955, Octavianus was actually chosen his successor on 16 December 955 at the age of eighteen. His adoption of the apostolic name of John XII was the third example of taking a regnal name upon elevation to the papal chair, the first being John II (533–535) and the second John III (561–574). Pope John XII was depicted as a coarse, immoral man in the writings which remain about his papacy, whose life was such that the Lateran was spoken of as a brothel, and the moral corruption in Rome became the subject of general disgrace. Liudprand of Cremona gives an account of the charges leveled against him: Enemies defeated him in battle and
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    200
    Pope Nicholas I

    Pope Nicholas I

    Pope Nicholas I (c. 800 – 13 November 867), or Saint Nicholas the Great, reigned from 24 April 858 until his death. He is remembered as a consolidator of papal authority and power, exerting decisive influence upon the historical development of the papacy and its position among the Christian nations of Western Europe. Nicholas asserted that the pope should have suzerain authority over all Christians, even royalty, in matters of faith and morals. He is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, with a feast day on 13 November. He refused to grant an annulment to King Lothair II of Lotharingia from Teutberga so that Lothar could marry his mistress Waldrada. When a Council pronounced in favor of annulment, Nicholas I declared the Council to be deposed, its messengers excommunicated, and its decisions void. Despite pressure from the Carolingians, who laid siege to Rome, his decision held. During his reign, relations with the Byzantine Empire soured over his support for Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had been removed from his post in favor of Photius. Born to a distinguished family in Rome, son of the Defensor Theodore, Nicholas received excellent training.
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    201
    William Wake

    William Wake

    William Wake (26 January 1657 – 24 January 1737) was a priest in the Church of England and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1716 until his death in 1737. Wake was born in Blandford Forum, Dorset, and educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He took orders, and in 1682 went to Paris as chaplain to the ambassador Richard Graham, Viscount Preston (1648–1695). Here he became acquainted with many of the savants of the capital, and was much interested in French clerical affairs. He also collated some Paris manuscripts of the Greek New Testament for John Fell, bishop of Oxford. He returned to England in 1685; in 1688 he became preacher at Gray's Inn, and in 1689 he received a canonry of Christ Church, Oxford. In 1693 he was appointed rector of St James's, Westminster. Ten years later he became Dean of Exeter, and in 1705 he was consecrated bishop of Lincoln. He was translated to the see of Canterbury in 1716 on the death of Thomas Tenison. During 1718 he negotiated with leading French churchmen about a projected union of the Gallican and English churches to resist the claims of Rome. In dealing with nonconformity he was tolerant, and even advocated a revision of the Prayer Book if that would allay
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    Pope Sabinian

    Pope Sabinian

    Pope Sabinian (died 22 February 606) was pope from 604 to 606. He was born at Blera (Bieda) near Viterbo. Pope during the Byzantine Papacy, he was fourth former apocrisiarius to Constantinople elected pope. He had been sent by Pope Gregory I as Apostolic nuncio, to Constantinople, but he apparently was not entirely satisfactory in that office. He returned to Rome in 597. He was probably consecrated pope on 13 September 604. He incurred unpopularity by his unseasonable economies, although the Liber Pontificalis states that he distributed grain during a famine at Rome under his pontificate. The erudite Italian Augustinian Onofrio Panvinio (1529–1568), in his Epitome pontificum Romanorum (Venice, 1557), attributes to him the introduction of the custom of ringing bells at the canonical hours and the celebration of the Eucharist. The first attribution was this was in Guillaume Durand's thirteenth-century Rationale Divinorum Officiorum. During his reign, Sabinian was seen as a counterfoil to his predecessor Pope Gregory I. Whereas Gregory distributed grain to the Roman populace as invasion loomed, Sabinian sold it for high prices (though this may be a later interpolation by Gregory's
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    Gordon B. Hinckley

    Gordon B. Hinckley

    Gordon Bitner Hinckley (June 23, 1910 – January 27, 2008) was a religious leader and author who served as the 15th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from March 12, 1995 until his death. Considered a prophet, seer, and revelator by church members, Hinckley was the oldest person to preside over the church in its history. Hinckley's presidency was noted for the building of temples, with more than half of existing temples being built under his leadership. He also oversaw the reconstruction of the historic Nauvoo Illinois Temple and the building of the 21,000 seat Conference Center. During his tenure, the Proclamation on the Family was issued and the Perpetual Education Fund was established. At the time of Hinckley's death, approximately one-third of the church's membership had joined the church under Hinckley's leadership. Hinckley was awarded ten honorary doctorate degrees, and in 2004, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by George W. Bush. Hinckley also received the Boy Scouts of America's highest award, the Silver Buffalo, and served as chairman of the Church Boards of Trustees/Education. Hinckley died of natural causes on January
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    Malachi

    Malachi

    Malachi, Malachias or Mal'achi ( /ˈmæləkaɪ/; Hebrew: מַלְאָכִי, Modern Mal'akhi Tiberian Malʼāḵî ; "My Messenger", see malakh) was a Jewish prophet in the Hebrew Bible. He had two brothers, Nathaniel and Josiah. Malachi was the writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (prophets) section in the Jewish Tanakh. In the Christian Old Testament, the Prophetic Books are placed last, making Book of Malachi the last Old Testament book before the New Testament. No allusion is made to him by Ezra, however, and he does not directly mention the restoration of the temple. The editors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia implied that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah (Malachi 1:10; 3:1, 3:10) and speculated that he delivered his prophecies about 420 BC, after the second return of Nehemiah from Persia (Book of Nehemiah13:6), or possibly before his return, comparing Malachi 2:8 with Nehemiah 13:15; Malachi 2:10-16 with Nehemiah 13:23). According to the 1897 Easton's Bible Dictionary, it is possible that Malachi is not a proper name, but simply means "messenger of YHWH". The Septuagint superscription is ὲν χειρὶ ἀγγήλου αὐτοῦ, (by the hand of his messenger). Because Malachi's
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    Pope Gelasius I

    Pope Gelasius I

    Pope Saint Gelasius I (died 21 November 496) was pope from 492 until his death in 496. He was the third and last Bishop of Rome of Berber origin in the Catholic Church. Gelasius was a prolific writer whose style placed him on the cusp between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Gelasius had been closely employed by his predecessor Felix III, especially in drafting papal documents. His reign was characterized by a call for strict orthodoxy, a more assertive push for papal authority, and increasing tension between the churches in the West and the East. Gelasius' election on 1 March 492 was a gesture for continuity: Gelasius inherited Felix's struggles with Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I and the patriarch of Constantinople and exacerbated them by insisting on the removal of the name of the late Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, from the diptychs, in spite of every ecumenical gesture by the current, otherwise quite orthodox patriarch Euphemius (q.v. for details of the Acacian schism). The split with the emperor and the patriarch of Constantinople was inevitable, from the western point of view, because they had embraced a view of a single, Divine ("Monophysite") nature of
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    Shlomo Amar

    Shlomo Amar

    Rabbi Shlomo Moshe Amar (Hebrew: שלמה משה עמאר‎; born in 1948) has been the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel and the Rishon LeZion since his appointment in 2003. His colleague is Rabbi Yona Metzger, the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel. Rabbi Amar was born in Casablanca, Morocco and immigrated to Israel in 1962 at age 14. He is a close associate of the spiritual leader of the Shas Party and former Sephardi Chief Rabbi Ovadia Yosef. Before his appointment as co-Chief Rabbi of Israel Rabbi Amar had served as the head of the Petah Tikva Rabbinical Court. He was elected chief rabbi of Tel Aviv in 2002, the first sole Chief Rabbi of the city. In 2002 Amar was sent by then Interior Minister Eli Yishai to Ethiopia to meet with the Falash Mura community, a group of Ethiopian Jews whose ancestors converted to Christianity. He subsequently recommended that they undergo a conventional conversion to Judaism, which provoked an angry reaction. Later in 2003, as Chief Rabbi, he reversed himself, saying that anyone related to a member of Beta Israel through matrilineal descent qualified as Jewish and should be brought to Israel by the government (and then undergo a formal conversion ceremony after a
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    207
    Jamphel Gyatso, 8th Dalai Lama

    Jamphel Gyatso, 8th Dalai Lama

    Jamphel Gyatso (1758–1804) was the 8th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Born in 1758 at Lhari Gang (Tob-rgyal Lha-ri Gang) in the Upper Ü-Tsang region of southwestern Tibet his father, Sonam Dhargye, and mother, Phuntsok Wangmo, were originally from Kham. They were distant descendants of Dhrala Tsegyal, who was one of the major heroes of the Gesar epic. When Jamphel Gyatso was conceived, the village was given a major harvest with each stalk of barley bearing three, four and five ears, which has never been seen before throughout Tibet. When Jamphel's mother, Phuntosk Wangmo and a relative were having their supper in the garden, a giant rainbow appeared, one end of which touched the mother's shoulder. This is a key sign associated with the birth of a holy being. Soon after birth, in the 6th month of the Fire Bull Year (1758), the holy baby often attempted to sit in a meditative posture looking up to the heavens. When Lobsang Palden Yeshi, the Sixth Panchen Lama, heard about this boy, he pronounced that he was indeed the authentic reincarnation of the Dalai Lama. At the age two and a half years old, Jamphel was taken under a large contingent of lamas and officials to Tashilhunpo Monastery in
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    Pope Vitalian

    Pope Vitalian

    Pope Saint Vitalian was Pope of the Catholic Church from 30 July 657 until 27 January 672. He was born in Segni, Lazio, the son of Anastasius. After the death of Pope Eugene I on 2 or 3 June 657, Vitalian was elected his successor, and was consecrated and enthroned on 30 July. Like Eugene, Vitalian tried to restore the connection with Constantinople by making friendly advances to the Eastern Emperor Constans II and to prepare the way for the settlement of the Monothelite controversy. He sent letters (synodica) announcing his elevation to the Emperor and to Patriarch Peter of Constantinople, who was inclined to Monothelitism. The Emperor confirmed the privileges of the Holy See as head of the Catholic Church and sent to Rome a codex of the Gospels in a cover of gold richly ornamented with precious stones as a good-will gesture. The Patriarch Peter also replied, although his answer was somewhat noncommittal as to Monothelitism, a belief he defended. In his letter, he gave the impression of being in accord with the pope, whose letter to Peter had expounded the Catholic Faith. Thus ecclesiastical intercourse between Rome and Constantinople was restored, but the mutual reserve over the
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    Archibald Campbell Tait

    Archibald Campbell Tait

    Archibald Campbell Tait (21 December 1811 – 3 December 1882) was an Archbishop of Canterbury in the Church of England. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, Tait was educated at the Royal High School and at the Edinburgh Academy, where he was twice elected dux. His parents were Presbyterians but he early turned towards the Scottish Episcopal Church. He was confirmed in his first year at Oxford, having entered Balliol College in October 1830 as a Snell Exhibitioner from the University of Glasgow. He won an open scholarship, took his degree with a first-class in literis humanioribus in 1833 and became a fellow and tutor of Balliol. He was ordained deacon in 1836 and priest in 1838 and served a curacy at Baldon. Rapid changes among the fellows found him, at age 26, "the senior and most responsible of the four Balliol tutors." The experience gained during this period stood him in good stead afterwards as a member of the first Oxford University Commission (1850–52). He never sympathised with the principles of the Oxford Movement and, on the appearance of Tract XC in 1841, he drafted the famous protest of the "Four Tutors" against it; but this was his only important contribution to the
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    David

    David

    David (Hebrew: דָּוִד, דָּוִיד, Modern David Tiberian Dāwîḏ; ISO 259-3 Dawid; Arabic: داود‎ Dāwūd) was, according to the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and, according to Christian scripture (Matthew and Luke), an ancestor of Jesus. His life is conventionally dated to c. 1040–970 BC, his reign over Judah c. 1010–1002 BC, and his reign over the United Kingdom of Israel c. 1002–970 BCE. The Books of Samuel, 1 Kings, and 1 Chronicles are the only sources of information on David, although the Tel Dan stele records "House of David", which some take as confirmation of the existence in the mid-9th century BCE of a Judean royal dynasty called the "House of David". David is very important to Jewish, Christian and Islamic doctrine and culture. In the Bible, David, or David HaMelekh, is the King of Israel, and the Jewish people. Biblical tradition maintains that a direct descendant of David will be the Messiah. In Islam he is considered to be a prophet and the king of a nation. He is depicted as a righteous king, though not without faults, as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician, and poet, traditionally credited for composing many of the psalms
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    Phinehas, son of Eleazar

    Phinehas, son of Eleazar

    According to the Hebrew Bible, "'Phinehas or Phineas ( /ˈfɪniəs/; Hebrew: פִּינְחָס, Modern Pinəḥas Tiberian Pinchas) was a High Priest of Israel in the wilderness, the grandson of Aaron, and son of Eleazar the High Priest (Exodus 6:25), who distinguished himself as a youth at Shittim by his zeal against the Heresy of Peor: the immorality with which the Moabites and Midianites had successfully tempted the people (Numbers 25:1-9) to worship Baal-peor where Phineas personally executed an Israelite man and a Midianite woman while they were together in the man's tent, running a spear or lance through the man and the belly of the woman ending a plague said to have been sent by God to punish the Israelites for sexually intermingling with the Midianites. Phineas is commended for having stopped Israel's fall to idolatrous practices brought in by Midianite women, as well as for stopping the desecration of God's sanctuary. He is commemorated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church on September 2. The Oxford Guide to the Bible and Brown-Driver-Briggs' Hebrew and English Lexicon identify it as a variant of the Egyptian name Pa-nehasi. According to the former, "The Bible also uses Egyptian
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    Pope Agatho

    Pope Agatho

    Saint Agatho was a Catholic pope from 26 June 678 to 10 January 681 and is venerated as a saint by both Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. Little is known of Agatho before his papacy. A letter written by St. Gregory the Great to the abbot of St. Hermes in Palermo mentions an Agatho, a Greek born in Sicily to wealthy parents. He wished to give away his inheritance and join a monastery, and in this letter Gregory advises that he may do so as long as his wife was willing to enter a convent. There is a possibility that Pope Agatho is this monk, but this would make him over 100 years old at the time of his election, and as such must be considered unlikely without further evidence to support a connection. Shortly after Agatho became Pope, St Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, arrived at Rome to invoke the authority of the Holy See on his behalf. Wilfrid had been deposed from his see by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, who had carved up Wilfrid's diocese and appointed three bishops to govern the new sees. At a synod which Pope Agatho convoked in the Lateran to investigate the affair, it was decided that Wilfrid's diocese should indeed be divided, but that Wilfrid himself should
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    Pope Benedict VI

    Pope Benedict VI

    Pope Benedict VI was pope from January 973 to June 974. His brief pontificate came in the political context of the founding of the Holy Roman Empire, during the transition between the reigns of German emperors Otto I and Otto II and the struggle for power of aristocratic families such as the Crescentii and Tusculani in the region of Rome. Benedict VI was born in Rome, the son of Hildebrand. He was elected and installed as pope under the protection of Otto I, whose dominance in Roman and ecclesial affairs was resisted by local aristocracy. Record of his reign as pope is scant, though he is known to have confirmed privileges assumed by certain monasteries and churches. Otto I died soon after Benedict's election in 973, and in 974 Benedict was imprisoned in the Castel Sant'Angelo, at that time a stronghold of the Crescentii. When Otto II sent an imperial representative, Count Sicco, to secure his release, Crescentius I and Cardinal-Deacon Franco Ferrucci, who would subsequently become Boniface VII, an antipope, had Benedict murdered while still in prison.
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    Pope Gregory IV

    Pope Gregory IV

    Pope Gregory IV was Pope from October 827 to 25 January 844. His pontificate was notable for the papacy’s attempts to intervene in the quarrels between the emperor Louis the Pious and his sons. It also saw the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in 843. The son of a Roman patrician called John, Gregory was apparently an energetic but mild churchman, renowned for his learning. Consecrated a priest during the pontificate of Pope Paschal I, at the time of Pope Valentine’s death in 827, Gregory was the Cardinal priest of the Basilica of St Mark in Rome. Like his predecessor, Gregory was nominated by the nobility, and the electors unanimously agreed that he was the most worthy to become the Bishop of Rome. They found him at the Basilica of Saints Cosmas and Damian where, despite his protestations, he was taken and installed at the Lateran Palace, after which he was enthroned as Pope-elect sometime in October 827. Gregory’s elevation to the papal see is believed to represent a continuation of the attempts to control the local political situation in Rome which had begun during Pope Eugene II’s pontificate. His consecration was delayed, however, until March 29, 828, when he received notice
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    Pope Marcellinus

    Pope Marcellinus

    Pope Saint Marcellinus, according to the Liberian Catalogue, became bishop of Rome on 30 June 296; his predecessor was Pope St Caius Marcellinus’ pontificate began at a time when Diocletian was Roman Emperor, but had not yet started to persecute the Christians. He left Christianity rather free and so the church’s membership grew. Caesar Galerius led the pagan movement against Christianity and arrived to bring up Diocletian against Christianity in the year 302: first Christian soldiers had to leave the army, later the Church's property was confiscated and Christian books were destroyed. After two fires in Diocletian’s palace he took harder measures against Christians: they had either to apostatize or they were sentenced to death. Marcellinus is not mentioned in the Martyrologium hieronymianum, or in the Depositio episcoporum, or in the Depositio martyrum. The Liber Pontificalis, basing itself on the Acts of St Marcellinus, the text of which is lost, relates that during Diocletian’s persecution Marcellinus was called upon to sacrifice, and offered incense to idols, but that, repenting shortly afterwards, he confessed the faith of Christ and suffered martyrdom with several companions.
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    Pope Romanus

    Pope Romanus

    Pope Romanus was Pope from August to November 897. He was born in Gallese, Italy near Civita Castellana. He was elected to succeed the murdered Pope Stephen VI and was deposed a few months later by one of the factions, which then governed Rome. His short rule was regarded as a virtuous one by the historian Frodoard. He ended his days as a monk, although this may mean simply that he was deposed. His date of death is unknown.
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    Pope Simplicius

    Pope Simplicius

    Pope Saint Simplicius was Pope from 468 AD to 10 March 483 AD. He was born in Tivoli, Italy, the son of a citizen named Castinus. Most of what is known of him is derived from the Liber Pontificalis. Simplicius defended the action of the Council of Chalcedon against the Eutychian heresy, labored to help the people of Italy against the marauding raids of barbarian invaders, and saw the Heruli mercenaries revolt and proclaim Odoacer king of Italy in 476, having deposed Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman Emperor. Odoacer made few changes in the administration in Rome, firmly in the hands of its Bishop, St. Simplicius. He worked to maintain the authority of Rome in the West. Simplicius is credited for the construction of a church named in memory of the virgin and martyr St. Bibiana. St. Simplicius's feast day is celebrated on 10 March, the day of his death.
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    Pope Stephen I

    Pope Stephen I

    Pope Saint Stephen I served as Bishop of Rome from 12 May 254 to 2 August 257. Of Roman birth but of Greek ancestry, he became bishop of Rome in 254, having served as archdeacon of Pope Lucius I, who appointed Stephen his successor. Following the Decian persecution of 250–251, there was disagreement about how to treat those who had lapsed from the faith, and Stephen was urged by Faustinus, Bishop of Lyon, to take action against Marcian, Bishop of Arles, who denied penance and communion to the lapsed who repented, the position called Novatianism, after Novatian, later declared a heretic, who held for the strictest approach. Stephen held that converts who had been baptized by splinter groups did not need re-baptism, while Cyprian and certain bishops of the Roman province of Africa held rebaptism necessary for admission to the Eucharist. Stephen's view eventually won broad acceptance. He is also mentioned as having insisted on the restoration of the bishops of León and Astorga, who had been deposed for unfaithfulness during the persecution but afterwards had repented. The Depositio episcoporum of 354 speaks of Pope Stephen I as not a martyr. In 257 Emperor Valerian resumed the
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    William Temple

    William Temple

    William Temple (15 October 1881 – 26 October 1944) was a bishop in the Church of England. He served as Bishop of Manchester (1921–29), Archbishop of York (1929–42) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1942–44). A renowned teacher and preacher, Temple is perhaps best known for his 1942 book Christianity and Social Order, which set out an Anglican social theology and a vision for what would constitute a just post-war society. He is also noted for being one of the founders of the Council of Christians and Jews in 1942. Temple was born in 1881 in Exeter, England, the second son of Archbishop Frederick Temple (1821–1902). From an early age, he suffered from gout and a cataract which left him blind in his right eye at age 40. He was educated at Rugby School and Balliol College, Oxford, where he obtained a double first in classics and served as president of the Oxford Union. After graduation, he became fellow and lecturer in philosophy at Queen's College, Oxford from 1904 to 1910 and was ordained priest in 1909. Between 1910 and 1914 he was Headmaster of Repton School after which he returned to being a full-time cleric, becoming Bishop of Manchester in 1921 and Archbishop of York in 1929. During
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    Pope Boniface I

    Pope Boniface I

    Pope Saint Boniface I was pope from 28 December 418 to 4 September 422. He was a contemporary of Saint Augustine of Hippo, who dedicated to him some of his works. On the day of the funeral for Pope Zosimus, which was held at San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, partisans of Eulalius occupied the Lateran. Later that day, he proceeded thither with a crowd consisting of deacons, laity and a few priests, and was elected bishop. The new Pope and his supporters remained at the church until Sunday, 29 December, for the formal ordination customarily took place on a Sunday. Meanwhile, on the Saturday after Eulalius had been elected, a majority of the priests of the church elected Boniface, who had previously been a councilor of Pope Innocent, and was also ordained on 29 December at the Church of Saint Marcellus in the Campus Martius. The Urban Prefect Aurelius Anicius Symmachus warned both parties to keep the peace, and wrote to the Emperor Honorius that Eulalius, who had been elected first and in due order, was in the right. The Emperor answered on 3 January 419, recognizing Eulalius as the rightful Bishop of Rome. Despite these official acts, violence broke out between the two groups, and Boniface
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    Pope Paul I

    Pope Paul I

    Pope Paul I (700 – 28 June 767) was pope from 29 May 757 to 28 June 767. He first served as a Roman deacon and was frequently employed by his brother, Pope Stephen II, in negotiations with the Lombard kings. After Stephen's death on 26 April 757, Paul prevailed over a faction that wanted to place the Archdeacon Theophylact on the Holy See and was chosen his brother's successor by the majority that wished a continuation of the late pope's policy. The new pope's reign was dominated by relations with the Frankish and Lombard kings and with the Eastern emperor. He adopted an independent tone in informing the imperial Exarch in Ravenna of his election, but wrote to Pepin the Younger that the Frankish alliance should be maintained unimpaired, being possibly forced to this course by the Lombard king Desiderius. The Lombards held the cities of Imola, Osimo, Bologna, and Ancona, which were claimed by Rome, and in 758 seized upon the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. The same year he visited Rome and compelled Paul to write to Pepin asking him to concede all the Lombard Direct claims except that to Imola; another letter of exactly opposite tenor was sent by the same messenger. Pepin found it
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    Frederick Temple

    Frederick Temple

    Frederick Temple (30 November 1821 – 23 December 1902) was an English academic, teacher, churchman and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1896 until his death. Temple was born in Santa Maura, one of the Ionian Islands, the son of Major Octavius Temple, who was subsequently appointed lieutenant-governor of Sierra Leone. On his retirement, Major Temple settled in Devon and contemplated a farming life for his son Frederick, giving him a practical training to that end. Temple's grandfather was the Rev. William Johnson Temple, Rector of Mamhead in Devon, who is mentioned several times in Boswell's Life of Johnson. The boy was sent to Blundell's School, Tiverton, and soon showed signs of being suited to a different career. He retained a warm affection for the school, where he did well both academically and at physical activities, especially walking. The family was not wealthy, and Frederick knew he would have to earn his own living. He took the first step by winning a Blundell scholarship at Balliol College, Oxford, before he was seventeen. The Tractarian Movement had begun five years earlier, but the memorable Tract 90 had not yet been written. In the intellectual and religious excitement,
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    Ja'far al-Sadiq

    Ja'far al-Sadiq

    Quotations related to Jafar Us-Sadiq at Wikiquote Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد الصادق‎) (702–765 C.E. or 17th Rabī‘ al-Awwal 83 AH – 25th Shawwāl 148 AH) was a descendant of Ali and a prominent Muslim jurist. He is revered as an Imam by the adherents of Shi'a Islam and as a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Sunni Muslims. The Shi'a Muslims consider him to be the sixth Imam or leader and spiritual successor to Muhammad. The internal dispute over who was to succeed Ja'far as Imam led to schism within Shi'a Islam. Al-Sadiq was celebrated among his brothers and peers and stood out among them for his great personal merits. He is highly respected by both Sunni and Shi'a Muslims for his great Islamic scholarship, pious character, and academic contributions. Although he is perhaps most famous as the founder of Shi'a Islamic fiqh, known as Ja'fari jurisprudence, he had many other accomplishments. He was the teacher of many subsequent Muslim scholars such as the founders of both Sunni and Shi'a Islamic schools of jurisprudence. As well as being considered an Imam of the Shi'a, he is revered by the Naqshbandi Sunni Sufi chain. He was a polymath: an astronomer,
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    John of Patmos

    John of Patmos

    John of Patmos is the name given by some modern scholars to the author of the Book of Revelation, the apocalyptic text forming part of the New Testament. The text of Revelation states that the author is called John and that he lives on the Greek island of Patmos, where by some, he is considered to be in exile as a result of anti-Christian persecution under Roman emperor Domitian. Traditionally, the John who is the author of Revelation is considered to be John the Apostle, author of all the Johanine works, that is the Gospel of John, the first, second, and third epistles of John, as well as Revelation. However, in the case of Revelation, many modern scholars agree that it was written by a separate, otherwise unknown, author, to whom they have given the name John of Patmos. In most Christian traditions, he is considered a saint and is also referred to as John the Divine, John the Revelator, John the Theologian, Eagle of Patmos and John the Seer. The author of the Book of Revelation identifies himself as "John" Traditionally, this named author is believed to be the same person as both John the apostle of Jesus and John the author of the Fourth Gospel. The early 2nd century writer,
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    Pope John XIII

    Pope John XIII

    Pope John XIII of the Crescenzi family (died 6 September 972) served as Pope from 1 October 965 until his death. Born in Rome, he spent his career in the papal court. He was the brother of Crescenzio II, patricius romanorum, and Stefania, lady of Palestrina. After a period as bishop of Narni, he was elected Pope John XIII five months after the death of Pope Leo VIII as a compromise candidate with the agreement of Emperor Otto I (936–973). John XIII's behaviour and foreign backing made him disliked in Rome. There was a revolt that resulted in his temporary banishment in December 965, but he returned to Rome in November 966. After John XIII's restoration, he worked with the Emperor on ecclesiastical improvements, including the creation of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg. On Christmas 967, John XIII crowned Otto I's son Otto II as co-Emperor. Otto II afterwards married the niece of the Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimisces, princess Theophanu, as part of the ongoing attempt to reconcile Eastern and Western Churches. John XIII created new Latin archbishoprics in southern Italy, thus reducing the influence of the Byzantine Empire and Eastern Orthodox Church there.
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    Pope Lando

    Pope Lando

    Pope Lando (also known as Landus) was elected pope in either July or August 913. He died about six months later, in either February or March 914. He was born in Sabina, Italy. His father was reportedly named Taino. He did not change his name on his accession. Lando is thought to have had powerful friends who helped him to be elected pope. Little more is known about him. He was the last pope to use a papal name which had not been previously used until Pope John Paul I did so in 1978. Lando was pope during the period later known as the Saeculum obscurum, which lasted from 904 to 964.
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    Pope Silverius

    Pope Silverius

    Pope Saint Silverius was Pope from 8 June 536 until March 537. He was a legitimate son of Pope Hormisdas, born before his father entered the priesthood. Silverius was probably consecrated 8 June 536. He may have been married to a woman called Antonia before receiving holy orders, however this remains debated by historians. He was a subdeacon when king Theodahad of the Ostrogoths forced his election and consecration. Jeffrey Richards interprets his low rank prior to becoming pope as an indication that Theodahad was eager to put a pro-Gothic candidate on the throne on the eve of the Gothic War and "had passed over the entire diaconate as untrustworthy". The Liber Pontificalis alleges that Silverius had purchased his elevation from King Theodahad. On 9 December 536, the Byzantine general Belisarius entered Rome with the approval of Pope Silverius. Theodahad's successor Witiges gathered together an army and besieged Rome for several months, subjecting the city to privation and starvation. In the words of Richards, "What followed is as tangled a web of treachery and double-dealing as can be found anywhere in the papal annals. Several different versions of the course of events following
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    Pope Vigilius

    Pope Vigilius

    Pope Vigilius (died 7 June 555) reigned as pope from 537 to 555, is considered the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy. He belonged to an aristocratic Roman family; his father Johannes is identified as a consul in the Liber pontificalis, having received that title from the emperor. According to Procopius, his brother Reparatus was one of the senators taken hostage by Witigis, but managed to escape before the Ostrogothic king ordered their slaughter in 537. Vigilius entered the service of the Roman Church and was ordained a deacon in 531, in which year the Roman clergy agreed to a decree empowering the pope to determine the succession to the Papal See (something theologians now consider invalid). Vigilius was chosen by Pope Boniface II as his successor and presented to the clergy assembled in St. Peter's Basilica. The opposition to such a procedure led Boniface in the following year to withdraw his designation of a successor and to burn the decree respecting it. The second successor of Boniface, Pope Agapetus I (535–536), appointed Vigilius papal representative (apocrisiary) at Constantinople. Empress Theodora sought to win him as a confederate to revenge the deposition of the
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    Thomas Secker

    Thomas Secker

    Thomas Secker (1693 – 3 August 1768), Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire. In 1699, Secker went to Richard Brown's free school in Chesterfield, staying with his half-sister and her husband, Elizabeth and Richard Milnes. According to a story in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1768, Brown congratulated Secker for his successful studies by remarking, ‘If thou wouldst but come over to the Church, I am sure thou wouldst be a bishop’. Under Brown's teaching, Secker believed that he had attained a competency in Greek and Latin. He attended Timothy Jollie's dissenting academy at Attercliffe from 1708, but was frustrated by Jollie's poor teaching, famously remarking that he lost his knowledge of languages and that 'only the old Philosophy of the Schools was taught there: and that neither ably nor diligently. The morals also of many of the young Men were bad. I spent my time there idly & ill'. He left after one and a half years. In 1710, he moved to London, staying in the house of the father of John Bowes, who had been one of Jollie's students and would one day become Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Whilst here, he studied geometry, conic sections, algebra, French, and
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    Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili

    Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili

    Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili (Persian: عبدالکریم موسوی اردبیلی‎) (born 28 January 1926) is an Iranian politician and Twelver shi'a marja. He was born on 28 January 1926 in City of Ardabil. His father, Mir-Abdul Rahim was a cleric and his mother died when he was a child. His father sent him to Mula-Ebrahim School in 1940. He went for High Education to Qom in 1943 and was there until 1946. His teachers were Grand Ayatollah Kazem Haeeri and Mohammad-Reza Golpayegani. He travelled to Najaf in 1946 for cleric studies and studied about Islam and Religion. He was in Najaf until 1948 when his father died and he returned to Qom. He had also established Mofid University in 1989 and is its president now. Mousavi Ardebili was a supporter of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and was a friend of his. He spoke for Support of Khomeini in 1970's. Khomeini appointed him as Chief Justice of Iran in 1981 after the assassination of Mohammad Beheshti. He was also Acting President of Iran for 2 Months after the impeachment of Abulhassan Banisadr. When Ruhollah Khomeini died in 1989 Mousavi Ardebili resigned as Chief Justice and returned to Qom. He was followed by Ayatollah Mohammad Yazdi. He was married in
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    Elijah

    Elijah

    Elijah ( /ɨˈlaɪdʒə/ or /ɨˈlaɪʒə/; also Elias /ɨˈlaɪ.əs/; Hebrew: אֱלִיָּהוּ, Eliyahu, meaning "My God is Yahweh"; Arabic:إلياس, Ilyās), was a famous prophet and a wonder-worker in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of Ahab (9th century BC), according to the Qur'an and the Books of Kings. According to the Books of Kings, Elijah defended the worship of Yahweh over that of the Phoenician god Baal; he raised the dead, brought fire down from the sky, and was taken up in a whirlwind (either accompanied by a chariot and horses of flame or riding in it). In the Book of Malachi, Elijah's return is prophesied "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord," making him a harbinger of the Messiah and the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. Derivative references to Elijah appear in the Talmud, Mishnah, the New Testament, and the Qur'an. In Judaism, Elijah's name is invoked at the weekly Havdalah ritual that marks the end of Shabbat, and Elijah is invoked in other Jewish customs, among them the Passover seder and the Brit milah (ritual circumcision). He appears in numerous stories and references in the Haggadah and rabbinic literature, including
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    Jonah

    Jonah

    Jonah (Hebrew: יוֹנָה, Modern Yona Tiberian Yônā ; dove; Arabic: يونس‎ Yūnus, Yūnis or يونان Yūnān ; Greek/Latin: Ionas) is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BC, the eponymous central character in the Book of Jonah, famous for being swallowed by a fish or a whale, depending on translation. The Biblical story of Jonah is also repeated, with minor differences, in the Qur'an. Jonah son of Amittai appears in 2 Kings as a prophet from Gath-hepher (a few miles north of Nazareth) active during the reign of Jeroboam II (c.786-746 BC), where he predicts that Jeroboam will recover certain lost territories. Jonah is also the central character in the Book of Jonah. Ordered by God to go to the city of Nineveh to prophesy against it "for their great wickedness is come up before me," Jonah seeks instead to flee from "the presence of the Lord" by going to Jaffa and sailing to Tarshish, which, geographically, is in the opposite direction. A huge storm arises and the sailors, realizing this is no ordinary storm, cast lots and learn that Jonah is to blame. Jonah admits this and states that if he is thrown
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    Joshua

    Joshua

    Joshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ‎‎ Yĕhôshúa‘; Greek: Ἰησοῦς, Arabic: يوشع بن نون‎ Yūshaʿ ibn Nūn), is a figure in the Torah, being one of the spies for Israel (Num 13–14) and in few passages as Moses' assistant. He is the central character in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua. According to the books Exodus, Numbers and Joshua, he became the leader of the Israelite tribes after the death of Moses; his name was Hoshe'a the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses called him Yehoshu'a (Joshua) (Numbers 13:16) the name by which he is commonly known; and he was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus, and was probably the same age as Caleb, with whom he is occasionally associated. He was one of the twelve spies of Israel sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. (Numbers 13:1-16) After the death of Moses, he led the Israelite tribes in the conquest of Canaan, and allocated the land to the tribes. According to Biblical chronology, Joshua lived between 1500–1390 BCE, or sometime in the late Bronze Age. According to Joshua 24:29, Joshua died at the age of 110. Joshua also holds a position of respect to Muslims. According to the Qur’ān, he was, along with Caleb, one of the two believing spies
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    Matthew Hutton

    Matthew Hutton

    Matthew Hutton (3 January 1693 – 18 March 1758) was a high churchman in the Church of England, serving as Archbishop of York (1747–1757) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1757 to 1758). He was a direct descendant of Matthew Hutton, who served as Archbishop of York in the 17th century. Hutton was born at Kirby Hill near Richmond in Yorkshire, and was educated at Ripon Grammar School and Jesus College, Cambridge, graduating in 1713. He was a fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, from 1717 to 1727, and became a Doctor of Divinity in 1728. Hutton became a royal chaplain to George II in 1736. He became Rector of Trowbridge and of Spofforth, in Yorkshire, and held prebends at York and Westminster. In 1743 he became Bishop of Bangor, and in 1747, Archbishop of York, before finally, in 1757, becoming Archbishop of Canterbury, but died the next year without having ever lived in Lambeth Palace.
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    Michael Ramsey

    Michael Ramsey

    Arthur Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury PC (14 November 1904 – 23 April 1988) was the 100th Archbishop of Canterbury. He was appointed on 31 May 1961 and was in office from June 1961 to 1974. Michael Ramsey was born in Cambridge in 1904. His parents were Arthur Stanley Ramsey (1867 - 1954) and Mary Agnes Ramsey (1875 - 1927); his father was a Congregationalist and mathematician and his mother was a socialist and suffragette. He was educated at Repton School (where the headmaster was another future Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Francis Fisher) and Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he was President of the Cambridge Union Society and where his support for the Liberal Party won him praise from Herbert Asquith. His elder brother, Frank P. Ramsey (1903–1930), was a mathematician and philosopher (of, incidentally, atheist convictions) and something of a prodigy, who when only 19 translated into English Wittgenstein's Tractatus. During his time in Cambridge the young Michael came under the influence of the Anglo-Catholic dean of Corpus Christi College, Edwyn Clement Hoskyns. On the advice of Eric Milner-White he trained at Cuddesdon, where he became friends with Austin
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    Miriam

    Miriam

    Miriam (Hebrew: מִרְיָם, Modern Miryam Tiberian Miryām ; Arabic: مريم (Maryam); see Miriam (given name)) was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed. She appears first in the Book of Exodus in the Hebrew Bible. At her mother Jochebed's request, Miriam hid her baby brother Moses by the side of a river to evade the Pharaoh’s order that newborn Hebrew boys be killed. She watched as the Pharaoh’s daughter discovered the infant and decided to adopt him. Miriam then suggested that the princess take on a nurse for the child, and suggested Jochebed; as a result, Moses was raised to be familiar with his background as a Hebrew. (Exodus 2:1-10) Miriam is called a prophetess, and is traditionally believed to have sung a brief victory song after Pharaoh’s army was drowned in the Red Sea (Exodus 15:20-21). “Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; Horse and rider he has thrown into the sea.” It is considered by many that this poetic couplet is one of the oldest parts of the Biblical account. She raised a Timbrel in her hand in joy. Later, she objected to the marriage of Moses to a Cushite woman, which made her guilty of speaking Lashon hara (gossiping, or
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    Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr

    Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr

    Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr (آية الله العظمى السيد محمد باقر الصدر) (March 1, 1935 – April 9, 1980) was an Iraqi Shia cleric, a philosopher, and also ideological founder of Islamic Dawa Party born in al-Kazimiya, Iraq. He is the father-in-law of Muqtada al-Sadr and cousin of both Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr and Imam Musa as-Sadr. His father Haydar al-Sadr was a well-respected high-ranking Shi'a cleric. His lineage goes back to Muhammad, through the seventh Shia Imam, Musa al-Kazim. (See Sadr family for more details.) His father died in 1937, leaving the family penniless. In 1945 the family moved to the holy city of Najaf, where al-Sadr would spend the rest of his life. He was a child prodigy who, at ten, was delivering lectures on Islamic history, and at eleven, he studied logic. At 24 he wrote a book to refute materialistic philosophy. Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr completed his religious teachings at religious seminaries under al-Khoei and Muhsin al-Hakim at the age of 25 and began teaching. While teaching he was introduced to the ideas and worked with the global Islamic political party Hizb ut-Tahrir. He was already a prominent member of the Iraqi Shia community by this point. After which he was
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    Moses

    Moses

    Moses (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה‎, Modern Moshe Tiberian Mōšéh ISO 259-3 Moše ; Arabic: موسى‎ Mūsā ) was, according to the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, Lit. "Moses our Teacher/Rabbi"), he is the most important prophet in Judaism, and is also considered an important prophet in Christianity and Islam, as well as a number of other faiths. The existence of Moses as well as the veracity of the Exodus story is disputed amongst archaeologists and Egyptologists, with experts in the field of biblical criticism citing logical inconsistencies, new archaeological evidence, historical evidence, and related origin myths in Canaanite culture. Other historians maintain that the biographical details, and Egyptian background, attributed to Moses imply the existence of a historical political and religious leader who was involved in the consolidation of the Hebrew tribes in Canaan towards the end of the Bronze Age. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Children of Israel, were increasing in number and the Egyptian
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    Pope Adeodatus II

    Pope Adeodatus II

    Pope Adeodatus II or Pope Deodatus II reigned as Pope from 11 April 672 to 17 June 676. Little is known about him. Most surviving records indicate that Adeodatus was known for his generosity, especially when it came to the poor and to pilgrims. Born in Rome, he became a Benedictine and was a monk of the Roman cloister of St Erasmus on the Caelian Hill. He was active in improving monastic discipline and in the repression of Monothelitism and gave Venice the right to choose the doge itself. Pope Adeodatus II was already an elderly man when he was elected pope and, even though he reigned for four years, not a great deal was accomplished during his pontificate. He is sometimes referred to as Adeodatus (without a number) since Pope Adeodatus I is sometimes known as Pope Deusdedit.
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    Pope Agapetus I

    Pope Agapetus I

    Pope Saint Agapetus I (died 22 April 536) reigned as pope from 13 May 535 to 22 April 536. He is not to be confused with another Saint Agapetus, an Early Christian martyr with the feast day of 6 August. Agapetus was born in Rome, although his exact date of birth is unknown. He was the son of Gordianus, a Roman priest who had been slain during the riots in the days of Pope Symmachus (term 498–514). The name of his father might point to a familial relation with two other Popes: Felix III (483–492) and Gregory I (590–604). Gregory was a descendant of Felix. Gregory's father, Gordianus, held the position of Regionarius in the Roman Church. Nothing further is known about the position. Agapetus collaborated with Cassiodorus in founding at Rome a library of ecclesiastical authors in Greek and Latin and helped Cassiodorus with the project of translating the standard Greek philosophers into Latin. Jeffrey Richards describes him as "the last survivor of the Symmachan old guard", having been ordained as a deacon perhaps as early as 502, during the Laurentian schism. He was elevated from archdeacon to pope in 535. His first official act was to burn, in the presence of the assembled clergy, the
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    Pope Anastasius III

    Pope Anastasius III

    Pope Anastasius III (died June 913) was Pope from April 911 to June 913, was a Roman by birth. A Roman nobleman, Lucian, is sometimes recognized as his father, although other sources assert that he was the illegitimate son of his predecessor Pope Sergius III (904–911). Practically nothing is recorded of Pope Anastasius III, his pontificate falling in the period when Rome and the Papacy were in the power of Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, and his wife Theodora, who approved Anastasius III's candidacy. Under his reign the Normans of Rollo were evangelized. He was buried in St. Peter's Basilica.
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    Pope Anterus

    Pope Anterus

    Pope Saint Anterus was Pope from 21 November 235 to 3 January 236. He succeeded Pope Pontian, who had been deported from Rome to Sardinia (along with the antipope Hippolytus). Anterus was the son of Romulus, born in Petilia Policastro, Calabria. He is thought to have been of Greek origin, and his name may indicate that he was a freed slave. He created one bishop, for the city of Fondi. Some scholars believe he was martyred, because he ordered greater strictness in searching into the acts of the martyrs exactly collected by the notaries appointed by Saint Clement. Other scholars doubt this and believe it is more likely that he died in undramatic circumstances during the persecutions of Emperor Maximinus the Thracian. He was buried in the papal crypt of the Catacomb of Callixtus, on the Appian Way in Rome. The site of his sepulchre was discovered by De Rossi in 1854, with some broken remnants of the Greek epitaph engraved on the narrow oblong slab that closed his tomb and only the Greek term for bishop readable. His ashes had been removed to the Church of Saint Sylvester in the Campus Martius and were discovered on 17 November 1595 when Pope Clement VIII rebuilt that church.
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    Pope Boniface V

    Pope Boniface V

    Pope Boniface V (died 25 October 625) was pope from 619 to 625. He was consecrated as pope on 23 December 619. He did much for the Christianising of England and enacted the decree by which churches became places of refuge for criminals. Boniface V was a Neapolitan who succeeded Pope Adeodatus I after a vacancy of more than a year. Before his consecration, Italy was disturbed by the rebellion of the eunuch Eleutherius, Exarch of Ravenna. The patrician pretender advanced towards Rome, but before he could reach the city, he was slain by his own troops. The Liber Pontificalis records that Boniface made certain enactments relative to the rights of sanctuary, and that he ordered the ecclesiastical notaries to obey the laws of the empire on the subject of wills. He also prescribed that acolytes should not presume to translate the relics of martyrs and that, in the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, they should not take the place of deacons in administering baptism. Boniface completed and consecrated the cemetery of Saint Nicomedes on the Via Nomentana. In the Liber Pontificalis, Boniface is described as "the mildest of men", whose chief distinction was his great love for the
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    Pope Eutychian

    Pope Eutychian

    Pope Saint Eutychian or Eutychianus was pope from 4 January 275 to 7 December 283 (according to the Annuario Pontificio of 2012). His original epitaph was discovered in the catacomb of Callixtus (see Kraus, Roma sotterranea, p. 154 et seq.), but almost nothing more is known of him. Even the date of his reign is uncertain. Liber Pontificalis gives a reign of 8 years and 11 months, from 275 to 283. Eusebius, on the other hand says his reign was only 10 months. He is said to have allowed the blessing of grapes and beans on the altar and to have buried 324 martyrs with his own hands. Some historians doubt these traditions, since there was no persecution after the death of Aurelian in 275 and blessing the produce of the fields is believed to belong to a later period. His feast is kept on 8 December.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Eutychianus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
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    Pope Hormisdas

    Pope Hormisdas

    Pope Saint Hormisdas (c. 450 – 6 August 523) was Pope of Rome from 20 July 514 to 523. His papacy was dominated by the Acacian schism, started in 484 by Acacius of Constantinople's efforts to placate the Monophysites. His efforts to resolve this schism was successful, and on 28 March 519, the reunion of the Greek Church with Rome was ratified in the cathedral of Constantinople before a large crowd. Jeffrey Richards explains Hormisdas' Persian name as probably in honor of an exiled Persian noble, Hormizd, "celebrated in the Roman martyrology (8 August) but not so honoured in the East." The names of his father and son suggest he had an otherwise "straightforward Italian pedigree." He was born at Frosinone, Campagna di Roma, Italy. Before becoming a Roman deacon, Hormisdas was married, and his son became pope under the name of Silverius. During the Laurentian schism, Hormisdas was one of the most prominent clerical partisans of Pope Symmachus. He was notary at the synod held at St. Peter's in 502. Two letters of Magnus Felix Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, survive addressed to him, written when the latter tried to regain horses and money he had lent the pope. Unlike his predecessor
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    Pope Leo VII

    Pope Leo VII

    Pope Leo VII (died 13 July 939) was Pope from 3 January 936 until his death in 939. He was preceded by Pope John XI and followed by Pope Stephen VIII. Leo VII's election to the papacy was secured by Alberic II of Spoleto, the ruler of Rome at the time. Alberic wanted to choose the pope so that the papacy would continue to yield to his authority. Leo was the priest of the church of St. Sixtus in Rome, thought to be a Benedictine monk. He had little ambition towards the papacy, but consented under pressure. As pope, Leo VII reigned for only three years. Most of his bulls were grants of privilege to monasteries, especially including the Abbey of Cluny. Leo called for Odo of Cluny to mediate between Alberic and Hugh of Italy, Alberic's stepfather, the King of Italy. Odo was successful in negotiating a truce after arranging a marriage between Hugh's daughter Alda and Alberic. Leo VII also appointed Frederick, Archbishop of Mainz, as a reformer in Germany. Leo allowed Frederick to drive out Jews that refused to be baptized, but he did not endorse the forced baptism of Jews. After his death in July 939, Leo VII was interred at St. Peter's Basilica.
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    Pope Liberius

    Pope Liberius

    Pope Liberius, pope from 17 May 352 to 24 September 366, was consecrated according to the Catalogus Liberianus on 22 May as the successor of Pope Julius I. He is not mentioned as a saint in the Roman Martyrology. His first recorded act was, after a synod had been held at Rome, to write to Emperor Constantius II, then in quarters at Arles (353–354), asking that a council might be called at Aquileia with reference to the affairs of Athanasius of Alexandria, but his messenger Vincentius of Capua was compelled by the emperor at a conciliabulum held in Arles to subscribe against his will to a condemnation of the orthodox patriarch of Alexandria. At the end of an exile of more than two years in Thrace, the emperor recalled him, but, as the Roman See was officially occupied by Antipope Felix II, a year passed before Liberius was sent to Rome. It was the emperor's intention that Liberius should govern the Church jointly with Felix, but on the arrival of Liberius, Felix was expelled by the Roman people. Neither Liberius nor Felix took part in the Council of Rimini (359). After the death of the Emperor Constantius in 361, Liberius annulled the decrees of that assembly but, with the
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    Pope Soter

    Pope Soter

    Pope Saint Soter (died 174) was the Bishop of Rome during the latter half of the 2nd Century with his pontificate, according to the Annuario Pontificio, beginning between 162 and 168 then ending between 170 and 177. Although his name is derived from the Greek word "σωτήρ" (sōtēr), meaning a "saviour" or "deliverer", he was born in Fondi, Campania, today Lazio region, Italy. Soter is known for declaring that marriage was valid only as a sacrament blessed by a priest and he also formally inaugurated Easter as an annual festival in Rome. Saint Soter's feast day is celebrated on 22 April, as is that of Saint Caius. The Roman Martyrology, the official list of recognized saints, references Soter: "At Rome, Saint Soter, Pope, whom Dionysius of Corinth praises for his outstanding charity towards needy exiled Christians who came to him, and towards those who had been condemned to the mines." It has often been supposed that all the earliest Popes suffered martyrdom; but the Roman Martyrology does not give Pope Soter the title of Martyr. The book detailing the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar states: "There are no grounds for including Saint Soter and Saint Caius among the
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    Robert Runcie

    Robert Runcie

    Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie, Baron Runcie, PC, MC (2 October 1921 – 11 July 2000) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1980 to 1991. Runcie was born and spent his early life in Great Crosby, Merseyside, to middle class and rather non-religious parents. He initially attended St Luke's Church, Crosby (where he was confirmed in 1936), before switching to the Anglo-Catholic St Faith's Church about a mile down the road. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Crosby, before going up to Brasenose College, Oxford. He earned a commission in the Scots Guards during World War II, serving as a tank commander and earning the Military Cross for two feats of bravery in March 1945: he rescued one of his men from a crippled tank under heavy enemy fire, and the next day took his own tank into an exceptionally exposed position in order to knock out three anti-tank guns. As a result, he is unique among modern Archbishops of Canterbury in having killed fellow human beings. In May 1945, he was among the first British troops to enter Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. After the surrender of Nazi Germany, Runcie served with the occupying forces in Cologne and then with the boundary commission
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    Tsunesaburo Makiguchi

    Tsunesaburo Makiguchi

    Tsunesaburō Makiguchi (牧口 常三郎, Makiguchi Tsunesaburō 1871–1944) was a Japanese educator who founded and became the first president of Sōka Gakkai. He was born in Kashiwazaki, a small village in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, on June 6, 1871. Adopted by the Makiguchi family, he moved to Hokkaidō, Japan's northernmost island, at the age of 14. Working his way through school, he graduated from Sapporo Normal School (today's Hokkaidō University of Education). First employed as an assistant teacher at a primary school affiliated with his alma mater, he later taught high school and served as a dormitory superintendent. Although he was recognized as an able teacher, Makiguchi’s uncompromising attitude toward the authorities created problems. His clashes with officials of the Ministry of Education, school inspectors, ward assemblymen, city councilmen, and top officials of the city of Tokyo were frequent and resulted in his frequent transfers from one school to another. After moving to Tokyo, he served as principal in a succession of six primary schools, from 1913 to 1932. During those years, he devoted much consideration to the relationship between life and education, developing his theories
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