The role that someone has played as part of a project.
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A deep foundation is a type of foundation distinguished from shallow foundations by the depth they are embedded into the ground. There are many reasons a geotechnical engineer would recommend a deep foundation over a shallow foundation, but some of the common reasons are very large design loads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints (like property lines). There are different terms used to describe different types of deep foundations including the pile (which is analogous to a pole), the pier (which is analogous to a column), drilled shafts, and caissons. Piles are generally driven into the ground in situ; other deep foundations are typically put in place using excavation and drilling. The naming conventions may vary between engineering disciplines and firms. Deep foundations can be made out of timber, steel, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete.
Prefabricated piles are driven into the ground using a pile driver. Driven piles are either wood, reinforced concrete, or steel. Wooden piles are made from the trunks of tall trees. Concrete piles are available in square, octagonal, and round cross-sections (like Franki Piles). They are reinforced with rebar and are
Structural engineers analyze, design, plan, and research structural components and structural systems to achieve design goals and ensure the safety and comfort of users or occupants. Their work takes account mainly of safety, technical, economic and environmental concerns, but they may also consider aesthetic and social factors.
Structural engineering is usually considered a specialty discipline within civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right. In the US, most practicing structural engineers are currently licensed as civil engineers, but the situation varies from state to state. In the UK, most structural engineers in the building industry are members of the Institution of Structural Engineers rather than the Institution of Civil Engineers.
Typical structures designed by a structural engineer include buildings, towers, stadia and bridges. Other structures such as oil rigs, space satellites, aircraft and ships may also be designed by a structural engineer. Most structural engineers are employed in the construction industry, however there are also structural engineers in the aerospace, automobile and shipbuilding industries. In the construction industry, they
Dredging is an excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater, in shallow seas or fresh water areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and disposing of them at a different location. This technique is often used to keep waterways navigable.
It is also used as a way to replenish sand on some public beaches, where sand has been lost because of coastal erosion. Dredging is also used as a technique for fishing for certain species of edible clams and crabs, see fishing dredge.
A dredger (or “dredge” as is the general usage in the Americas) is any device, machine, or vessel that is used to excavate and remove material from the bottom of a body of water. For example, a scoop attached to the end of a rope or pole by which a man can draw sediments up from the bottom of a pond is a dredger. Developing this idea further, a motorized crane equipped with a drag bucket or clamshell (grabber) that is used to scoop material from the bottom of a body of water is also a dredger. The crane could be located on the bank, or perhaps mounted on a barge. If the crane is mounted on a barge, the entire vessel is referred to as a dredger.
The process of dredging
An independent contractor is a natural person, business, or corporation that provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract or within a verbal agreement. Unlike an employee, an independent contractor does not work regularly for an employer but works as and when required, during which time he or she may be subject to the Law of Agency. Independent contractors are usually paid on a freelance basis. Contractors often work through a limited company or franchise, which they themselves own, or may work through an umbrella company.
In the United States, any company or organization engaged in a trade or business that pays more than $600 to an independent contractor in one year is required to report this to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) as well as to the contractor, using Form 1099-MISC. This form is merely a report of the money paid; independent contractors do not have income taxes withheld from their pay as regular employees do.
Sometimes, it is not a straightforward matter to determine who is an independent contractor and who should be classified as an employee. To make a determination, the IRS in the USA advises taxpayers to look at three aspects
In the world of academia, a visiting scholar or visiting academic is a scholar from an institution who visits a host university, where he or she is projected to teach (visiting professor), lecture (visiting lecturer), or perform research (visiting researcher or visiting research associate) on a topic the visitor is valued for. The position is often not salaried and typically for one year, though it can be extended.
The purpose of the visiting scholars programs is generally to bring to the school or educational institution in question an exceptional senior scholar who can contribute to and enrich the community's intellectual and research endeavors and international projection. Hence, in addition to conducting their own research, visitors are often expected to actively participate in a number of productive institutional activities, such as:
A designer is a person who designs. More formally, a designer is an agent that "specifies the structural properties of a design object". In practice, anyone who creates tangible or intangible objects, such as consumer products, processes, laws, games and graphics, is referred to as a designer.
Classically, the main areas of design were only painting, sculpture and architecture, which were understood as the major arts. The design of clothing, furniture and other common artifacts were left mostly to tradition or artisans specializing in hand making them.
With the increasing complexity of today’s society, and due to the needs of mass production where more time is usually associated with more cost, the production methods became more complex and with them the way designs and their production is created. The classical areas are now subdivided in smaller and more specialized domains of design (landscape design, urban design, exterior design, interior design, industrial design, furniture design, cloth design, and many more) according to the product designed or perhaps its means of production.
The education, experience and genetic blocks that form the base of a competent designer is
The concertmaster (from German Konzertmeister) is the spalla or leader of the first violin section of an orchestra. In the UK, the term commonly used is leader. Any violin solo in an orchestral work is played by the concertmaster (except in the case of a concerto, in which case a guest soloist usually plays). It is usually required that the concertmaster be the most skilled musician in the section, experienced at learning music quickly, and counting and observing the conductor for the rest of the section to follow. The concertmaster is the leader of not only the string section, but of the entire orchestra, subordinate only to the conductor.
The concertmaster sits to the director's left, closest to the audience, and makes decisions regarding bowing and other technical details of violin playing for the violins, and sometimes all of the string players. The concertmaster leads the orchestra in tuning before concerts and rehearsals, and other technical aspects of orchestra management.
The concertmaster in a standard wind band is the first-chair clarinet or oboe, and leads the ensemble's tuning. The first-chair clarinet concertmaster will, in common practice, play all solos for their
A railway electrification system supplies electrical energy to railway locomotives and multiple units as well as trams so that they can operate without having an on-board prime mover. Railway electrification has many advantages over alternative forms of traction, but it requires significant capital expenditure for installation. In this article "system" refers to the technical configuration and details adopted; "network" refers to the geographical extent of a system actually installed at a location.
Railway electrification provides traction energy to trains; the energy is typically generated in large-scale commercial generating stations, where the fuel efficiency of generation can be optimised. The electrical energy is conveyed to the trains by transmission lines to the railway, and then distributed within the railway network to the various trains. There is usually an internal energy distribution system and voltage transformation provided by the railway infrastructure manager.
The energy is transferred to moving trains through a continuous or nearly continuous contact conductor. In the case of overhead systems this is usually a contact wire suspended in a catenary wire system to
Steel frame usually refers to a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame. The development of this technique made the construction of the skyscraper possible.
The rolled steel "profile" or cross section of steel columns takes the shape of the letter "H". The two wide flanges of a column are thicker and wider than the flanges on a beam, to better withstand compressive stress in the structure. Square and round tubular sections of steel can also be used, often filled with concrete. Steel beams are connected to the columns with bolts and threaded fasteners, and historically connected by rivets. The central "web" of the steel "I "-beam is often wider than a column web to resist the higher bending moments that occur in beams.
Wide sheets of steel deck can be used to cover the top of the steel frame as a "form" or corrugated mold, below a thick layer of concrete and steel reinforcing bars. Another popular alternative is a floor of precast concrete flooring units with some form of concrete topping. Often in office
A chief executive officer (CEO) is the highest-ranking corporate officer (executive) or administrator in charge of total management of an organization. An individual appointed as a CEO of a corporation, company, organization, or agency typically reports to the board of directors. In British English, terms often used as synonyms for CEO are managing director (MD) and chief executive (CE). In American English, the title executive director (ED) is sometimes used for non-profit organizations.
The responsibilities of an organization's CEO (Chief Executive Officer, US) or MD (Managing Director, UK) are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure. They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are typically enshrined in a formal delegation of authority.
Typically, the CEO/MD has responsibilities as a communicator, decision maker, leader, manager and executor. The communicator role can involve the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as the organization's management and employees; the decision-making role involves high-level decisions about policy and strategy. As a leader, the CEO/MD advises the board of
A president is a leader of an organization, company, club, trade union, university, or country.
Etymologically, a president is one who presides, (from Latin pre- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an official. Among other things, "President" today is a common title for the heads of state of most republics, whether popularly elected, chosen by the legislature or by a special electoral college.
Presidents in countries with a democratic or representative form of government are usually elected for a specified period of time and in some cases may be re-elected by the same process by which they are appointed, i.e. in many nations, periodic popular elections. The powers vested in such presidents vary considerably. Some presidencies, such as that of Ireland, are largely ceremonial, whereas other systems vest the President with substantive powers such as the appointment and dismissal of Prime Ministers or cabinets, the power to declare war, and powers of veto on legislation. In many nations the President is also the Commander-in-Chief of
A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution and closing of any project, typically relating to construction industry, architecture, Aerospace and Defence, computer networking, telecommunications or software development.
Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project managers.
A project manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the stated project objectives. Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the constraints of the project management triangle, which are cost, time, scope, and quality.
A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.
The term and title
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight/supervision of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, itself derived from the Greek arkhitekton (arkhi-, chief + tekton, builder), i.e. chief builder.
Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. The practical, technical, and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction (see below).
The terms architect and architecture are also used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture and often information technology (for example a software architect). In most of the world's jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms "architect" and
Mechanical engineers are a class of engineer who deal with anything related to machine. These machines range from internal combustion engine, refrigerator and air conditioner and automobile to production equipment like lathes, drilling machines and milling machines.
Mechanical engineering is divided into three fields: design, thermal and production. Design deals with the design of various machine elements. Thermal deals with the basics of heat work conversion and the machines related to it. Production deals with the various methods needed to produce various components ranging from computer chip to aircraft bodies.
Design engineer is a general term that covers multiple engineering disciplines including electrical, mechanical, industrial design and civil engineering, architectural engineers in the U.S. and building engineers in the UK.
The design engineer is distinguished from the designer/drafter by virtue of the fact that a design engineer takes care of the total system as well as inner workings/engineering of a design. While industrial designers may be responsible for the conceptual aesthetic and ergonomic aspects of a design, the design engineer usually works with a team of engineers and designers to develop the conceptual, preliminary and detail design and the most critical parts. He/she may work with industrial designers and marketing to develop the product concept and specifications, and he/she may direct the design effort from that point. Products are usually designed with input from a number of sources such as marketing, manufacturing, purchasing, tool making and packaging engineering. In addition design engineers deal with much more complex technological and scientific systems (aircraft, spacecraft, rockets, trains, ships, dams, bridges, building structures, urban infrastructure,
Financier ( /fɪnənˈsɪər/; French: [finɑ̃ˈsje]) is a term for a person who makes their living from investments, typically involving large sums of money and usually involving private equity and venture capital, mergers and acquisitions, leveraged buyouts, corporate finance, investment banking and/or large-scale asset management. The term is French, and derives from finance or payment.
A financier today can be someone who makes their living from investing in up and coming companies and businesses. A financier makes money through this process when his or her investment is paid back with interest or from part of the company's equity awarded to them as specified by the business deal.
Officially, there are no degrees or schooling needed to be called a financier as it is a term to describe someone who handles money. Certain financier avenues do require degrees and licenses including venture capitalists, hedge fund managers, trust fund managers, accountants, stockbrokers, or even public treasurers. Investing, on the other hand, has no requirements and is open to all by means of the stock market or by word of mouth requests for money.
The term financier can also refer to a member of the
Real estate is "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; (also) an item of real property; (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings or housing."
It is a legal term used in jurisdictions such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia.
In the laws of the United States of America, the 'real' in 'real estate' means relating to a thing (res/'rei', thing, from O.Fr. 'reel', from L.L. 'realis' 'actual', from Latin. 'res', 'matter, thing'), as distinguished from a person. Thus the law broadly distinguishes between 'real' property (land and anything affixed to it) and 'personal' property or chattels (everything else, e.g., clothing, furniture, money). The conceptual difference was between 'immovable property', which would transfer title along with the land, and 'movable property', which a person could lawfully take and would retain title to on disposal of the land.
In British usage, "real property", often shortened to just
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes.
To accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of mathematics (geometry and trigonometry), physics, engineering and law.
An alternative definition, per the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points or details.
Furthermore, as alluded to above, a particular type of surveying known as "land surveying" (also per ACSM) is the detailed study or inspection, as by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing of property
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that has shaped it. Geologists usually engage in studying geology. Geologists, studying more of an applied science than a theoretical one, must approach Geology using physics, chemistry and biology as well as other sciences. Geologists, compared to scientists engaged in other fields, are generally more exposed to the outdoors than staying in laboratories; although some geologists prefer to perform most of their studies in the lab.
Geologists are engaged in exploration for mining companies in search of metals, oils, and other Earth resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters warning and mitigation, studying earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, weather storms, and the like; their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Currently, geologists are also engaged in the discussion of climate change, as they study the history and evidence for this Earth process.
Their training typically includes significant coursework in physics, mathematics, and chemistry, in addition to classes offered
In military science, engineering refers to the practice of designing, building, maintaining and dismantling military works, including offensive, defensive and logistical structures, to shape the physical operating environment in war. It most often deals with fortifications and earthworks, the laying and clearing minefields, and the construction and destruction of bridges.
According to NATO, "Military Engineering is that engineer activity undertaken, regardless of component or service, to shape the physical operating environment.' Military Engineering incorporates support to manoeuvre and to the force as a whole, including military engineering functions such as engineer support to Force Protection, Counter - Improvised Explosive Devices, Environmental Protection, Engineer Intelligence and Military Search. Military Engineering does not encompass the activities undertaken by those 'engineers' who maintain, repair and operate vehicles, vessels, aircraft, weapon systems and equipment."
Military engineering is an important academic subject taught in military academies. The construction and demolition tasks related to military engineering are usually performed by military engineers
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest. In law a witness is someone who, either voluntarily or under compulsion, provides testimonial evidence, either oral or written, of what he or she knows or claims to know about the matter before some official authorized to take such testimony.
A percipient witness or eyewitness is one who testifies what they perceived through his or her senses (e.g. seeing, hearing, smelling, touching). That perception might be either with the unaided human sense or with the aid of an instrument, e.g., microscope or stethoscope, or by other scientific means, e.g.,a chemical reagent which changes color in the presence of a particular substance.
A hearsay witness is one who testifies what someone else said or wrote. In most court proceedings there are many limitations on when hearsay evidence is admissible. Such limitations do not apply to grand jury investigations, many administrative proceedings, and may not apply to declarations used in support of an arrest or search warrant. Also some types of statements are not deemed
A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering; the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.
Originally, a civil engineer worked on public works projects and was contrasted with the military engineer, who worked on armaments and defenses. Over time, various branches of engineering have become recognized as distinct from civil engineering, including chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering, while much of military engineering has been absorbed by civil engineering.
In some places, a civil engineer may perform land surveying; in others, surveying is limited to construction surveying, unless an additional qualification is obtained. On some U.S. military bases, the personnel responsible for building and grounds maintenance, such as grass mowing, are called civil engineers and are not required to meet any minimum educational requirements.
Civil engineers usually practice in a particular specialty, such as construction engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural
A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep out the weather. As the curtain wall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. The curtain wall façade does not carry any dead load weight from the building other than its own dead load weight. The wall transfers horizontal wind loads that are incident upon it to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, sway induced by wind and seismic forces acting on the building, and its own dead load weight forces.
Curtain Wall Systems are typically designed with extruded aluminum members, although the first curtain walls were made of steel. The aluminium frame is typically infilled with glass, which provides an architecturally pleasing building, as well as benefits such as daylighting. However, parameters related to solar gain control such as thermal comfort and visual comfort are more difficult to
Ironworker is a class of machines that can shear, notch, and punch holes in steel plate. Ironworkers generate force using mechanical advantage or hydraulic systems. Modern systems use hydraulic rams powered by a heavy alternating current electric motor. High strength carbon steel blades and dies of various shapes are used to work the metal. The machine itself is made of very heavy steel to handle the enormous force that can be generated during use. Ironworkers are rated according to the force they can generate in tons; ratings usually start at 20 tons and go as high as 150 tons.
Ironworkers are tools just like hammers and wrenches but they provide many more safety hazards that must be addressed and thoroughly thought out before they are purchased. Most of them have at least 4 stations that require boundaries around them to safely produce parts. They can shear flat plate, angle iron, round and square stock as well as punch plates, angles, I-beam and channel. Some have a station for notching and forming of different materials. The area around each station should be at least 20 feet since that is the common stock length of most materials used on ironworkers. This creates problems for
In computer science, program optimization or software optimization is the process of modifying a software system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources. In general, a computer program may be optimized so that it executes more rapidly, or is capable of operating with less memory storage or other resources, or draw less power.
Although the word "optimization" shares the same root as "optimal", it is rare for the process of optimization to produce a truly optimal system. The optimized system will typically only be optimal in one application or for one audience. One might reduce the amount of time that a program takes to perform some task at the price of making it consume more memory. In an application where memory space is at a premium, one might deliberately choose a slower algorithm in order to use less memory. Often there is no "one size fits all" design which works well in all cases, so engineers make trade-offs to optimize the attributes of greatest interest. Additionally, the effort required to make a piece of software completely optimal — incapable of any further improvement — is almost always more than is reasonable for the benefits that would
A construction worker or builder is a professional, tradesman, or labourer who directly participates in the physical construction of infrastructure.
The division of labour of construction encompasses a diverse range of specialized skills, as well as manual labour.
Construction is the most dangerous in the land-based,military industry. In the European Union, the rate of fatal accidents is nearly 56,000 per 100,000 workers, compared with an average of 27,000 per 100,000 workers across all work sectors.
Hard hats and steel-toe boots are perhaps the most common personal protective equipment worn by construction workers around the globe. A risk assessment may deem that other protective equipment is appropriate, such as gloves, goggles, or high-visibility clothing.
Media related to Construction workers at Wikimedia Commons
This topic is for the profession "Painter", which is a specialization of "Artist", also written "Artiste" yes with an "e", in England in order to show that the artist painter is a professional, like Artiste Langdonart, Ronald Belanger and others are in 2012, and like were van Gogh, Monet and Manet were in the past.
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical, social and economic problems. Engineers design materials, structures and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, safety and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin roots ingeniare ("to contrive, devise") and ingenium ("cleverness").
Engineers are grounded in applied sciences, and their work in research and development is distinct from the basic research focus of scientists. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human needs and quality of life.
Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems, conducting and narrowing research, analyzing criteria, finding and analyzing solutions, and making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating, applying, and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various different information behaviours,
Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary —and more ambitious— challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives.
Until 1900 civil engineering projects were generally managed by creative architects,
In marine transportation, the chief engineer is a licensed mariner in charge of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. "Chief engineer" is the official title of someone qualified to oversee the entire engine department; the qualification is colloquially called a "chief's ticket".
A chief engineer (commonly referred to as "The Chief" or just "Chief") is responsible for all operations and maintenance that has to do with any and all engineering equipment throughout the entire ship.
Under many jurisdictions the Chief Engineer is of equal rank to the Captain, with responsibility being split between the two posts. The Chief Engineer taking responsibility for engine room and maintenance and the Captain taking responsibility for navigation and deck operations.
The chief engineer also determines the fuel, lube oil, and other consumables required for a voyage. The chief engineer also compiles an inventory for spare parts, oversees fuel, lube, and slop oil transfers, all major maintenance, prepares the engine room for inspection by local marine/safety authorities (e.g. U.S. Coast Guard) and is in charge of the engine room during emergency situations. This is the short list of a
EPC is an acronym which stands for Engineering, Procurement and Construction. It is a common form of contracting arrangement within the construction industry.
Under an EPC contract, the contractor designs the installation, procures the necessary materials and builds the project, either directly or by subcontracting part of the work. In some cases, the contractor carries the project risk for schedule as well as budget in return for a fixed price, called lump sum or LSTK depending on the agreed scope of work.
When the scope is restricted to engineering and procurement, this is referred to as an EP, E and P or E+P contract. This is often done in situations where the construction risk is too great for the contractor or when the owner does the construction.
The EPC contractor (EPCC) agrees to deliver the keys of a commissioned plant (Perhaps should recognise that some EPC contracts take the work to Mechanical Completion but EXCLUDE Commissioning while LSTK contracts always INCLUDE Commissioning) to the owner for an agreed amount, just as a builder hands the keys of a flat to the purchaser. EPC is gaining importance worldwide. It requires good understanding by the EPCC to return a
A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design and graphic arts industry who assembles together images, typography or motion graphics to create a piece of design. A graphic designer creates the graphics primarily for published, printed or electronic media, such as brochures (sometimes) and advertising. They are also sometimes responsible for typesetting, illustration, user interfaces, web design, or take a teaching position. A core responsibility of the designer's job is to present information in a way that is both accessible and memorable.
A degree or certificate from an accredited trade school is usually considered essential for a graphic design position. After a career history has been established, though, the graphic designer's experience and number of years in the business are considered the primary qualifications. A portfolio, which is the primary method for demonstrating these qualifications, is usually required to be shown at job interviews, and is constantly developed throughout a designer's career.
One can obtain an AAS, BA, BFA, MFA or an MPhil / PhD in graphic design. Degree programs available vary depending upon the institution, although typical U.S.
A rolling mill is a machine or factory used to shape and process metal by passing it between a pair of working rolls. The metal is passed between two tough cylinders numerous times, with the distance between the cylinders being decreased with each pass so the metal becomes thinner and thinner. Depending on the temperature of the metalworking application rolling mills are typically hot or cold rolling mills.
The earliest rolling mills were slitting mills, which were introduced from what is now Belgium to England in 1590. These passed flat bars between rolls to form a plate of iron, which was then passed between grooved rolls (slitters) to produce rods of iron. The first experiments at rolling iron for tinplate took place about 1670. These were followed by the erection by 1697 by Major John Hanbury of a mill at Pontypool to roll 'Pontypool plates'—blackplate. Later this began to be rerolled and tinned to make tinplate. The earlier production of plate iron in Europe had been in forges, not rolling mills.
The slitting mill was adapted to producing hoops (for barrels) and iron with a half-round or other sections by means that were the subject of two patents of c. 1679.
Some of the
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works produced from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture.
Modern vernacular usage has often extended the term "stained glass" to include domestic leadlight and objets d'art created from came glasswork exemplified in the famous lamps of Louis Comfort Tiffany.
As a material stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, held together (traditionally) by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design. The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln.
Stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic
An athletic director (commonly "athletics director" or "AD") is an administrator at many American colleges and universities, as well as in larger high schools and middle schools, who oversees the work of coaches and related staff involved in intercollegiate or interscholastic athletic programs. At some colleges, the athletic director may hold academic rank but this practice is on the wane. At most colleges, he/she is not a faculty member but a full-time administrator.
Modern athletic directors are often in a precarious position, especially at the larger institutions. Although technically in charge of all of the coaches, they are often far less well-compensated and also less famous, with few having their own television and radio programs as many coaches now do. In attempting to deal with misconduct by coaches, they often find their efforts trumped by a coach's powerful connections, particularly if he is an established figure with a long-term winning record. However, in the case of severe coaching misconduct being proven, often the athletic director will be terminated along with the offending coach.
Formerly, especially at major football-playing institutions, particularly in the
Building Services Engineering, technical building services, Building Services Architect, architectural engineering, or building engineering is the engineering of the internal environment and environmental impact of a building. It essentially brings buildings and structures to life.
Building services engineers are responsible for the design, installation, operation and monitoring of the mechanical, electrical and public health systems required for the safe, comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of modern buildings. The term "building services engineering" is widely used in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, but in the United States of America, the field is also known as architectural engineering or building engineering, though these terms can also have other meanings, even in the United States.
A Building Services Architect is an engineer with experience in the integration of all Building Services.
Building services engineering comprises mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and plumbing or public health (MEP) engineering, all of which are further sub-divided into the following:
Building services engineers work closely with other construction
A musician usually plays a musical instrument, especially (although not necessarily) as a profession. Musicians can be classified by their roles in performing music and writing music. A person who makes music a profession, anyone (professional or not) who's skilled in making music or performing music creatively, or one who composes, conducts, or performs music (especially instrumental music) is a musician.
Musicians can be of any music style not limited to classical, orchestral or choral, and musicians can have skills in many different styles outside of their professional experience. Examples of musicians' skills are the orchestration of music, improvisation, conducting, singing, composing, arranging, and/or being an instrumentalist.
For further information, see Medieval Music
During this time period, instrumental musicians mostly improvised and with soft ensembles with soft (bas) or loud (haut) instruments, categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor). Most musicians during this time period catered to the influences of the Roman Catholic Church, providing arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts.
For further information, see Renaissance
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process. Their work includes researching, designing, implementing, and testing software. A software developer may take part in design, computer programming, or software project management. They may contribute to the overview of the project on the application level rather than component-level or individual programming tasks. Software developers are often still guided by lead programmers but the description also encompasses freelance software developers.
In the US, a software developer is classified into one of 3 titles (all under the 15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations Major Group):
A person who develops stand-alone software (that is more than just a simple program) and got involved with all phases of the development (design and code) is a software developer. Some of the notable software people include Peter Norton (developer of Norton Utilities), Richard Garriott (Ultima-series creator), and Philippe Kahn (Borland key founder), all of whom started as entrepreneurial individual or small-team software developers before becoming rich and famous.
Other names which are often used in the same
Executive director is a term sometimes applied to the chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an organization, company, or corporation. It is widely used in North American non-profit organizations, though in recent decades many U.S. nonprofits have adopted the title "President/CEO".
Confusion can arise because the words "executive" and "director" occur both in this title and in those of various members of some organizations' Board of directors. The precise meanings of these terms are discussed in the "Directors" section of the article on Board of directors.
The role of the Executive Director is to design, develop and implement strategic plans for their organization in a cost-effective and time-efficient manner. The Executive Director is also responsible for the day-to-day operation of the organization, including managing committees and staff and developing business plans in collaboration with the board for the future of the organization. In essence, the board grants the executive director the authority to run the organization. The Executive Director is accountable to the Chairman of the Board and reports to the board on a regular basis - quarterly, semiannually, or
For the engineering of communications and computer networks, see Teletraffic engineering.
Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways. It focuses mainly on research for safe and efficient traffic flow, such as road geometry, sidewalks and crosswalks, segregated cycle facilities, shared lane marking, traffic signs, road surface markings and traffic lights. Traffic engineering deals with the functional part of transportation system, except the infrastructures provided.
Traffic engineering is closely associated with other disciplines:
Typical traffic engineering projects involve designing traffic control device installations and modifications, including traffic signals, signs, and pavement markings. However, traffic engineers also consider traffic safety by investigating locations with high crash rates and developing countermeasures to reduce crashes. Traffic flow management can be short-term (preparing construction traffic control plans, including detour plans for pedestrian and vehicular traffic) or long-term (estimating the impacts of proposed commercial developments
A businessperson (also businessman, business man, businesswoman, or business woman) is someone involved in a particular undertaking of activities, commercial or industrial, for the purpose of generating revenue from a combination of human, financial, and physical capital. An entrepreneur is an example of a business person. Sometimes the term can mean someone who is involved in the management of a company, especially as an owner or an executive. Sometimes it can also mean someone employed in a (usually) profit-oriented enterprise. The term businessperson/man/woman almost always refers to someone with a "white collar" occupation.
Interior design describes a group of various yet related projects that involve turning an interior space into an "effective setting for the range of human activities" that are to take place there. An interior designer is someone who conducts such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, liaising with the stakeholders of a project and the management and execution of the design.
Interior design as carried out in the US is an almost entirely different practice to that carried out in the UK. What follows relates mainly to the US.
In the past, Interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building. The profession of interior design has been a consequence of the development of society and the complex architecture that has resulted from the development of industrial processes. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the contemporary interior design profession.
In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers. This can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the Gods in Indian mythology. Additionally,
A consultant (from Latin: consultare "to discuss") is a professional who provides professional or expert advice in a particular area such as security (electronic or physical), management, accountancy, law (tax law, in particular), human resources, marketing (and public relations), finance, engineering, or any of many other specialized fields.
Consulting guru, Peter Block, defines a consultant as "someone who has influence over an individual, group, or organization, but who has no direct authority to implement changes." He contrasts this with a surrogate manager who is a person who "acts on behalf of, or in place of, a manager." The key difference is that a consultant never makes decisions for the individual or group, whereas a surrogate manager does make decisions.
A consultant is usually an expert or a professional in a specific field and has a wide knowledge of the subject matter. The role of consultant outside the medical sphere (where the term is used specifically for a grade of doctor) can fall under one of two general categories:
The overall impact of a consultant is that clients have access to deeper levels of expertise than would be feasible for them to retain in-house, and
A subcontractor is an individual or in many cases a business that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract.
A subcontractor is hired by a general contractor (or prime contractor, or main contractor) to perform a specific task as part of the overall project and is normally paid for services provided to the project by the originating general contractor. While the most common concept of a subcontractor is in building works and civil engineering, the range of opportunities for subcontractor is much wider and it is possible that the greatest number now operate in the information technology and information sectors of business.
The incentive to hire subcontractors is either to reduce costs or to mitigate project risks. In this way the general contractor receives the same or better service than the general contractor could have provided by itself, at lower overall risk. Many subcontractors do work for the same companies rather than different ones. This allows subcontractors to further specialize their skills.
In the United Kingdom economy, the need to respond to a rapidly changing environment and service a diverse infrastructure has encouraged
This article is about the cooking technique. For other uses, see Dredge (disambiguation).
Dredging is a cooking technique used to coat wet or moist foods with a dry ingredient prior to cooking. Put most simply, dredging involves little more than pulling/rolling the wet food through the dry material to provide an even coating. The technique is particularly common with breaded foods, such as fried fish.
A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking. They are generally employed by wineries or wine companies, where their work includes:
Today, these duties require an increasing amount of scientific knowledge, since laboratory tests are gradually supplementing or replacing traditional methods. Winemakers can also be referred to as oenologists as they study oenology - the science of wine.
A vigneron is someone who cultivates a vineyard for winemaking. The word connotes or emphasizes the critical role that vineyard placement and maintenance has in the production of high-quality wine. The term, French for someone who grows grapes or makes wine , is often used in Australia to describe a winemaker who is also involved as an owner or manager as opposed to a person who is employed only to make wine, who is generally referred to as a winemaker. It is also used when referring to a winemaker from France.
Vincent of Saragossa is the patron saint of vignerons.
The systems architect establishes the basic structure of the system, defining the essential core design features and elements that provide the framework for all that follows, and are the hardest to change later. The systems architect provides the architects view of the users' vision for what the system needs to be and do, and the paths along which it must be able to evolve, and strives to maintain the integrity of that vision as it evolves during detailed design and implementation.
In systems design, the architects and engineers are responsible for:
Large systems architecture was developed as a way to handle systems too large for one person to conceive of, let alone design. Systems of this size are rapidly becoming the norm, so architectural approaches and architects are increasingly needed to solve the problems of large systems.
Architects are expected to understand human needs and develop humanly functional and aesthetically pleasing products. A good architect is also the principal keeper of the user's vision of the end product— and of the process of deriving requirements from and implementing that vision.
An architect does not follow an exact procedure. S/he communicates with
An author is broadly defined as "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created.
Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work.
In copyright law, there is a necessity for little flexibility as to what constitutes authorship. The United States Copyright Office defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U.S. Code) to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, [or] certain other intellectual works" give rights to this person, the owner of the copyright, exclusive right to do or authorize any production or distribution of their work. Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, and often will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright law has been amended time and time again since the inception of the
A general contractor is responsible for thenformation to involved parties throughout the course of a building project.
The General contractor is employed by the client, on the advice of the Architect or the Architectural technologist. A general contractor must first assess the project-specific documents (referred to as tender documents). In the case of renovations, a site visit is required to get a better understanding of the project. The contractor will then calculate a price, also called an estimate. The general contractor considers the cost of materials and equipment as well as the cost of labor to provide the owner with an approximate price for the project.
Contract documents include a budget, any general and special conditions, and blueprints and specifications prepared by a design professional such as an architect. In many instances the general contractor is the project engineer or project manager for construction projects.
A general contractor is responsible for providing all of the material, labor, equipment (such as engineering vehicles and tools) and services necessary for the construction of the project. The general contractor hires specialized subcontractors to perform
Small wind turbines intended for installation on an individual home have been on the market in the United Kingdom for many years, but their popularity and public awareness is now increasing substantially.
Claims about their efficiency and productivity are under some debate due to the disparity of manufacturer's forecasts with case study results. The prime problem is that they are routinely being installed in areas with wind speeds much too low to realise a useful level of energy return. Wind-powered electricity generation requires wind speeds above those found in the great majority of inhabited areas.
The regulations are expected to change in 2007 with wind turbines coming under the same permitted development rights as satellite dishes. A consultation period on the proposed changes ended on June 27, 2007.
Many of the manufacturer's examples rely on assumptions about average wind speed which, in practice, is very variable. This is particularly important because power available from the wind is proportional to the cube of the wind-speed (the kinetic energy of a moving mass, air in this case, is proportional to the square of the speed, the power is the rate of delivery of this energy
A private investigator (often abbreviated to PI and informally spelled private eye), private detective or inquiry agent, is a person who can be hired by individuals or groups to undertake investigatory law services. Private detectives/investigators often work for attorneys in civil cases. A handful of very skilled private detectives/investigators work with defense attorneys on capital punishment and criminal defense cases. Many work for insurance companies to investigate suspicious claims. Before the advent of no-fault divorce, many private investigators were hired to search out evidence of adultery or other conduct within marriage to establish grounds for a divorce. Despite the lack of legal necessity for such evidence in many jurisdictions, according to press reports collecting evidence of adultery or other "bad behaviour" by spouses and partners is still one of the most profitable activities investigators undertake, as the stakes being fought over now are child custody, alimony, or marital property disputes.
Private investigators can also be used to perform due diligence for an investor who may be considering investing money with a investment group, fund manager or other high
Rolling stock comprises all the vehicles that move on a railway. It usually includes both powered and unpowered vehicles, for example locomotives, railroad cars, coaches and wagons. However, in some countries (including the United Kingdom), the term is usually used to refer only to unpowered vehicles, specifically excluding locomotives which may be referred to as running stock, traction or motive power. Rolling stock is considered to be a liquid asset, or close to it, since the value of the vehicle can be readily estimated and then shipped to the buyer without much cost or delay.
Additional definition with the above as the derivation: The road vehicles of a trucking company.
The term contrasts with fixed stock (infrastructure), which is a collective term for the track, signals, stations, other buildings, electric wires, etc., necessary to operate a railway.
In Great Britain, types of rolling stock were given code names, often of animals. For example "Toad" was used as a code name for the Great Western Railway goods brake van, while British Railways wagons used for track maintenance were named after fish, such as "Dogfish" for a ballast hopper. These codes were telegraphese,
Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the practice, the theory, the science, the technology, and application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.
Mineral extraction is essential to modern society. Mining activities by their nature cause a disturbance of the environment in and around which the minerals are located. Mining engineers must therefore be concerned not only with the production and processing of mineral commodities, but also with the mitigation of damage to the environment as a result of that production and processing.
Since the beginning of civilization people have used stone and ceramics and, later, metals found on or close to the Earth's surface. These were used to manufacture early tools and weapons. For example, high quality flint found in northern France and southern England were used to set fire and break rock. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries. The oldest known mine on archaeological record is the "Lion Cave" in Swaziland. At this site, which
An artist is a person engaged in one or more of any of a broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other performers (less often for actors). "Artiste" (the French for artist) is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is certainly valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like criticism.
Wiktionary defines the noun 'artist' (Singular: artist; Plural: artists) as follows:
The Oxford English Dictionary defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist":
A definition of Artist from Princeton.edu: creative person (a person whose creative work shows sensitivity and imagination).
Although the Greek word "techně" is often mistranslated as "art," it actually implies mastery of any sort of craft. The Latin-derived form of the word is "tecnicus", from which the English words technique, technology, technical are derived.
In Greek culture each of
A landscape architect is a person involved in the planning, design and sometimes direction of a landscape, garden, or distinct space. The professional practice is known as landscape architecture.
The term "landscape designer" is sometimes used to refer to those who are not officially qualified or licensed as landscape architects. Others individuals who practice landscape design, but have yet to attain professional licensure (if it is available under a particular state or jurisdiction) refer to themselves as garden artisans, planting designers, environmental designers, or site planners. Landscape architecture was not commonly recognized in developed nations as a distinct profession until the early twentieth century. The term landscape architect has different meaning depending on location; however, in general the title (like architect or engineer) is usually protected, and to practice landscape architecture one requires licensure or registration. This varies by location, for example some U.S. states offer "practice acts" and some offer "title acts". Each refers to the limitations placed on persons who are and are not licensed.
The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects states
A quantity surveyor (QS) is a professional working within the construction industry concerned with building costs.
The profession is one that provides a qualification gained following formal education, specific training and experience that provides a general set of skills that are then applied to a diverse variety of problems. Predominantly these relate to costs and contracts on construction projects.
There are around 75,000 professional QSs working in the UK.
In the United States, QSs are called cost engineers.
The profession developed during the 19th century from the earlier "measurer", a specialist tradesman (often a guild member), who prepared standardised schedules for a building project in which all of the construction materials, labour activities and the like were quantified, and against which competing builders could submit priced tenders. Because all tenders were based on the same schedule of information, they could be easily compared so as to identify the best one. As a profession quantity surveying emerged around the 1820s with one of the earliest QSs being Sir Henry Arthur Hunt who was involved in work on the Houses of Parliament. After the fire in 1834 that destroyed
A research assistant is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract, by a university or a research institute, for the purpose of assisting in academic research. Research assistants are not independent and not directly responsible for the outcome of the research and are responsible to a supervisor or principal investigator. Research assistants are often educated to degree level and might be enrolled in a postgraduate degree programme.
Although a research assistant is normally appointed at graduate level, undergraduate research assistant are also sometimes appointed to support research.
Similarly a postdoctoral research assistant who has recently been awarded a doctoral degree, may hold a temporary appointment as a research assistant, especially for position without any autonomy and research independence that requires a high degree of reliability.
A clinical research assistant is employed by a hospital or medical research centre, who is involved in the administration of clinical trials. He or she may assist a senior investigator with recruiting and enrolling research subjects, as well as with correspondence and grant applications.
An urban planner or city planner is a professional who works in the field of urban planning/land use planning for the purpose of optimizing the effectiveness of a community's land use and infrastructure. They formulate plans for the development and management of urban and suburban areas, typically analyzing land use compatibility as well as economic, environmental and social trends. In developing their plan for a community (whether commercial, residential, agricultural, natural or recreational), urban planners must also consider a wide array of issues such as sustainability, air pollution, traffic congestion, crime, land values, legislation and zoning codes. The importance of the urban planner is increasing throughout the 21st century, as we begin to face issues of increased population growth, climate change and unsustainable development. An urban planner could be considered as a green collar profession.
Urban planners are usually hired by developers, private property owners, private planning firms and local/regional governments to assist in the large-scale planning of communal and commercial developments, as well as public facilities and transportation systems. Urban planners in
A composer (Latin com+ponere, literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates music, either by musical notation or oral tradition, for interpretation and performance, or through direct manipulation of sonic material through electronic media. The level of distinction between composers and other musicians varies, which affects issues such as copyright and the deference given to individual interpretations of a particular piece of music. In the development of European music, the function of composing music initially did not have much greater importance than that of performing it. The preservation of individual compositions did not receive enormous attention and musicians generally had no qualms about modifying compositions for performance. Over time, however, the written notation of the composer came to be treated as strict instructions from which performers should not deviate without good practical or artistic reason. Performers do, however, play the music and interpret it in a way that is all their own. In fact, in the concerto form, the soloist would often compose and perform a cadenza as a way to express their individual interpretation of the piece.
Inasmuch as the role
A mathematician is a person with an extensive knowledge of mathematics who use this knowledge in their work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, data, collection, quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mathematicians involved with solving problems outside of pure mathematics are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their specialized knowledge and professional methodology, approach many of the imposing problems presented in related scientific fields. With professional focus on a wide variety of problems, theoretical systems, and localized constructs, applied mathematicians work regularly in the study and formulation of mathematical models.
The discipline of applied mathematics concerns itself with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry; thus, "applied mathematics" is a mathematical science with specialized knowledge. The term "applied mathematics" also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on problems, often concrete but sometimes abstract. As professionals focused on problem solving, applied
A principal investigator (PI) is the lead scientist or engineer for a particular well-defined science (or other research) project, such as a laboratory study or clinical trial. It is often used as a synonym for "head of the laboratory" or "research group leader", not just for a particular study.
In the context of USA federal funding from agencies such as the NIH or the NSF, the PI is the person who takes direct responsibility for completion of a funded project, directing the research and reporting directly to the funding agency. For small projects (which might involve 1-5 people) the PI is typically the person who conceived of the investigation, but for larger projects the PI may be selected by a team to obtain the best strategic advantage for the project.
In the context of a clinical trial a PI may be an academic working with grants from NIH or other funding agencies, or may be effectively a contractor for a pharmaceutical company working on testing the safety and efficacy of new medicines.
The Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP) provides a certification, specific to physician investigators/principal investigators (PIs). ACRP offers the designation "Certified
An architectural firm is a company which employs one or more licensed architects and practices the profession of architecture.
Architects (master builders) have existed since early in recorded history. The earliest recorded architects include Imhotep (c. 2600 BCE) and Senemut (c. 1470 BCE). No writings exist to describe how these architects performed their work. However, as nobles it is reasonable to assume they had staffs of assistants and retainers to help refine and implement their work. The oldest surviving book on architecture, De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius describes the design and construction of buildings, towns, clocks, and machines, but provides no information about the organization of the architect's assistants. It is generally accepted that throughout most of human history, most architects were wealthy individuals who derived their primary income from activities other than design and who practiced design as a part-time pursuit, employing assistants on a project-by-project basis.
It was only in the 19th century that architecture began to be practiced as a full-time profession. In the United States, Charles Bulfinch is the first person believed to have
A Chief Operating Officer (or Chief Operations Officer; COO) or Director of Operations (or Operations Director) can be one of the highest-ranking executives in an organization and comprises part of the "C-Suite". The COO is responsible for the daily operation of the company, and routinely reports to the highest ranking executive, usually the Chief Executive Officer (CEO). The COO may also carry the title of President which makes him or her the clear number-two in command at the firm, especially if the highest ranking executive is the Chairman and CEO.
Unlike other C-suite positions, which tend to be defined according to commonly designated responsibilities across most companies, the COO job tends to be defined in relation to the specific CEO with whom he/she works, given the close working relationship of these two individuals. In many ways, the selection of a COO is similar to the selection of a Vice President of the United States: the role (including the power and responsibilities therein) can vary dramatically, depending on the style and needs of the President of the United States. Thus, the COO role is highly contingent and situational, as the role changes from company to
When a notable new building is constructed, normally, a VIP of the organization, or a local celebrity or community leader, will be invited to conduct the ceremony of figuratively beginning the foundations of the building, with the person's name and official position and the date usually being recorded on the stone. This person is usually asked to place their hand on the stone or otherwise signify its laying.Often still, and certainly until the 1970s, most ceremonies involved the use of a specially manufactured and engraved trowel that had a formal use in laying mortar under the stone. Similarly, a special hammer was often used to ceremonially tap the stone into place.The foundation stone often has a cavity into which is placed a time capsule containing newspapers of the day or week of the ceremony plus other artifacts that are typical of the period of the construction: Coins of the year may also be immured in the cavity or time capsule.
General manager (sometimes abbreviated GM) is a descriptive term for certain executives in a business operation. It is also a formal title held by some business executives, most commonly in the hospitality industry.
A manager may be responsible for one functional area, but the General Manager is responsible for all areas. Sometimes, most commonly, the term General Manager refers to any executive who has overall responsibility for managing both the revenue and cost elements of a company's income statement. This is often referred to as profit & loss (P&L) responsibility. This means that a General Manager usually oversees most or all of the firm's marketing and sales functions as well as the day-to-day operations of the business. Frequently, the General Manager is responsible for effective planning, delegating, coordinating, staffing, organizing, and decision making to attain desirable profit making results for an organization (Sayles 1979).
In many cases, the general manager of a business is given a different formal title or titles. Most corporate managers holding the titles of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or President, for example, are the General Managers of their respective
A Project Architect is a term used to define a specific role in an Architect's office. The Project Architect (PA) role usually indicates the individual who is responsible for overseeing the Architectural aspects of the development of the design, production of the construction documents ("plans") and specifications. The position generally involves coordinating the needs of a client, possibly and designer and technical staff, and outside consultants such as structural engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Civil Engineers and Landscape architects.
Additionally, the Project Architect may take on the additional responsibility to perform the managerial tasks related to the running of an Architectural project. On larger projects, or in large offices, a separate Project manager may be assigned to assist in the non-technical or accounting tasks related to the delivery of the work.
The specific tasks of a project architect (PA) are usually associated with architectural design, construction materials & methods and the production of construction documents (floor plans, elevations, etc.). Other responsibilities range from client relations to zoning and building code management, material
One who designs or plan the movements of (a dance, esp. a ballet). A person who composes or arranges dances or other movements (e.g., "master of swords") for a musical or dramatic presentation or entertainment.
A curator (from Latin: curare meaning "take care") is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a cultural heritage institution (e.g., gallery, museum, library or archive) is a content specialist responsible for an institution's collections and involved with the interpretation of heritage material. The object of a traditional curator's concern necessarily involves tangible objects of some sort, whether it be inter alia artwork, collectibles, historic items or scientific collections. More recently, new kinds of curators are emerging: curators of digital data objects and biocurators.
In smaller organizations, a curator may have sole responsibility for the acquisition and care of objects. The curator will make decisions regarding what objects to collect, oversee their care and documentation, conduct research based on the collection, provide proper packaging of art for transport, and share that research with the public and scholarly community through exhibitions and publications. In very small volunteer-based museums, such as local historical societies, a curator may be the only paid staff member.
In larger institutions, the curator's primary function is as a subject
An investment banker is a person representing a financial institution that is in the business of raising capital for corporation and governments (municipalities and state authorities). Investment bankers are the people who put together the financing ideas and then the paperwork for IPO, regular corporate financings as equity and bond issues; and financings for governments.An investment bank or investment banker does not accept deposits or make commercial loans.
(In earlier years of Wall Street (1800-1935), commercial banks as JP Morgan functioned then as Investment Banks; but, after Glass Steagall Act (c. 1933) this function was required to be split off from those commercial banks.
This requirement blurred in 1980s to the present, as commercial banks again sought and obtained permission to enter arena of Wall Street business and the Glass Steagall Act was repealed..
'''Allen & Company
A. G. Becker & Co.
Bache & Co.
Blyth & Co.
new name Blyth Eastman Dillon & Co.- see next listing
Blyth Eastman Dillon & Co.
Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.
Cowen Group/Cowen & Co LLC
Dillon, Read & Co.
A managing director or MD (UK English) or chief executive officer (U.S. English) is the director of a company given special powers by its articles of association. In most companies, the managing director is the senior executive director, subordinate only to the chairman of the board.
The MD is usually the most senior manager of the company, heading the organisation, and so may have a title such as Chief Executive Officer or CEO. This person may be responsible for the routine operation of the company or this role may be delegated to a separate Chief Operating Officer, leaving the CEO free to plan and direct the company's strategy. However some companies have joint managing directors or a managing director in charge of each separate division. In some Wall Street firms, such as Goldman Sachs, managing director is the second highest title after partner.
The managing director is a leadership role for an organisation and the MD may fulfill a motivational role for the workforce, in addition to an operational role in the running of the business. MDs motivate and mentor members of the management team and chair meetings. The MD leads the company and develops the corporate culture for the
Signage is any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience. This is typically manifested in the form of wayfinding information in places such as streets or inside/outside of buildings.
The French enseigne indicates its essential connection with what is known in English as a flag, and in France, banners not infrequently took the place of signs or sign boards in the Middle Ages. Signs, however, are best known in the form of painted or carved advertisements for shops, inns, etc. They are one of various emblematic methods used from time immemorial for publicly calling attention to the place to which they refer.
The ancient Egyptians and Romans were known to use signs. In ancient Rome, signboards were usually made from stone or terracotta, and Greeks are known to have used signs also. Many Roman examples are preserved, among them the widely-recognized bush to indicate a tavern, from which is derived the proverb "Good wine needs no bush". In some cases, such as the bush, or the three balls of pawnbrokers, certain signs became identified with certain trades and some of these later evolved into trademarks. Other signs can be grouped according to their
In geotechnical engineering, a caisson ( /ˈkeɪsən/ or /ˈkeɪsɒn/) is a retaining, watertight structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships. These are constructed such that the water can be pumped out, keeping the working environment dry. When piers are to be built using an open caisson and it is not practical to reach suitable soil, friction pilings may be driven to form a suitable sub-foundation. These piles are connected by a foundation pad upon which the column pier is erected.
Shallow caissons may be open to the air, whereas pneumatic caissons, which penetrate soft mud, are sealed at the top and filled with compressed air to keep water and mud out at depth. An airlock allows access to the chamber. Workers move mud and rock debris (called muck) from the edge of the workspace to a water-filled pit, connected by a tube (called the muck tube) to the surface. A crane at the surface removes the soil with a clamshell bucket. The water pressure in the tube balances the air pressure, with excess air escaping up the muck tube. The pressurized air flow must be constant to ensure regular air
In patent law, an inventor is the person, or persons in United States patent law, who contribute to the claims of a patentable invention. In some patent law frameworks, however, such as in the European Patent Convention (EPC) and its case law, no explicit, accurate definition of who exactly is an inventor is provided. The definition may slightly vary from one European country to another. Inventorship is generally not considered to be a patentability criterion under European patent law.
Under U.S. case law, an inventor is the one with "intellectual domination" over the inventive process, and not merely one who assists in its reduction to practice. Since inventorship relates to the claims in a patent application, knowing who an inventor is under the patent law is sometimes difficult. In fact, inventorship can change during the prosecution of a patent application as claims are deleted or amended.
"Joint inventors", or "co-inventors", exist when a patentable invention is the result of inventive work of more than one inventor. Joint inventors exist even where one inventor contributed a majority of the work.
Absent a contract or license, the inventors are individuals who own the rights
Real estate development, or property development, is a multifaceted business, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of improved land or parcels to others. Developers are the coordinators of the activities, converting ideas on paper into real property. Real estate development is different from construction, although many developers also construct. Developer Louis Lesser drew the distinction in a 1963 New York Times article, "Developing is the key word. 'We don't build ourselves', Mr. Lesser stresses. 'We buy the land, finance the deal, and then we have the best builders build under bond at a fixed cost.'"
Developers buy land, finance real estate deals, build or have builders build projects, create, imagine, control and orchestrate the process of development from the beginning to end. Developers usually take the greatest risk in the creation or renovation of real estate—and receive the greatest rewards. Typically, developers purchase a tract of land, determine the marketing of the property, develop the building program and design, obtain the necessary public approval and financing, build the