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John Whitton (1820, near Wakefield, Yorkshire, England – 20 February 1898), an Anglo–Australian railway engineer, was the Engineer-in-Charge for the New South Wales Railways, serving between 1856 and 1899, considered the Father of New South Wales Railways. Under his supervision, it is estimated that 2,171 miles (3,494 km) of railway around New South Wales and Victoria were completed. Whitton was responsible for the construction of the Blue Mountains railway line and parts of the Main Western railway line, in particular the Great Zig Zag near Lithgow, and much of the Great Southern line.
Indentured in England, Whitton gained extensive railway engineering experience prior to his arrival in the Colony of New South Wales in 1856. He was engineer for the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincoln railway line (1847), and supervised the building of the Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton line from 1852 to 1856.
Appointed in March 1856 as Engineer-in-Charge, Whitton arrived in Sydney and found the Colony with 23 miles (37 km) of 4 feet 8.5 inches (143.5 cm) standard gauge railway, four locomotives, 12 passenger carriages and 40 trucks. An advocate of the 5 feet 3 inches (160 cm) broad gauge
Sir Charles Fox (11 March 1810, Derby, United Kingdom – 11 June 1874) was an English civil engineer and contractor. His work focused on railways, railway stations and bridges.
Born in Derby in 1810, he was the youngest of five sons of Dr. Francis Fox. Initially trained to follow his father's career, he abandoned medical training at the age of 19 and became articled to John Ericsson of Liverpool, working with him and John Braithwaite on the Novelty locomotive, which he drove in the Rainhill trials on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. He acquired a taste for locomotive driving and was employed on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, being present at its opening.
In 1830 Fox married Mary, second daughter of Joseph Brookhouse, by whom he had 3 sons and a daughter.
One of his earliest inventions, patented in 1832, was the railway switch (points in the UK), which superseded the sliding rail used up to that time.
In 1837 Robert Stephenson appointed him as one of the engineers on the London and Birmingham Railway, where he was responsible for Watford tunnel and the incline down from Camden Town to Euston. He presented an important paper on the correct principles of skew arches to the
Henry Laurence Gantt, A.B., M.E. (1861 – 23 November 1919) was an American mechanical engineer and management consultant who is mostly known for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s.
Gantt charts were employed on major infrastructure projects including the Hoover Dam and Interstate highway system and continue to be an important tool in project management.
Gantt was born in Calvert County, Maryland. He graduated from McDonogh School in 1878 and then went on to Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey.
He then worked as a teacher and draughtsman before becoming a mechanical engineer. In 1887, he joined Frederick W. Taylor in applying scientific management principles to their work at Midvale Steel and Bethlehem Steel—working there with Taylor until 1893. In his later career as a management consultant—following the invention of the Gantt chart—he also designed the 'task and bonus' system of wage payment and additional measurement methods worker efficiency and productivity.
In 1916, influenced by Thorsten Veblen he set up the New Machine, an association which sought to apply the criteria of industrial efficiency to the political process. With the MarxistWalter Polakov he led a
Riccardo Morandi (1 September 1902 – 25 December 1989) was an Italian civil engineer best known for his interesting use of reinforced concrete. Amongst his best known works were the General General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge, an 8 km crossing of Lake Maracaibo incorporating seven cable-stayed bridge spans with unusual piers, and the Subterranean Automobile Showroom in Turin.
Morandi was born in Rome.
Following graduation in 1927, Morandi gained experience in Calabria working with reinforced concrete in earthquake damaged areas. On his return to Rome to open his own office, he continued with his technical exploration of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures and embarked on the design of a series of novel cinema structures and bridges. His numerous later works include his work on the Fiumicino Airport, Rome, in 1970 and a bridge in Barranquilla, Colombia in 1972.
Morandi was also appointed professor in bridge design both at the University of Florence and the University of Rome.
Other key works include:
Morandi's cable-stayed bridges are characterised by very few stays, often as few as two per span, and often with the stays constructed from prestressed concrete rather than the
Captain James Buchanan Eads (May 23, 1820 – March 8, 1887) was a world-renowned American civil engineer and inventor, holding more than fifty patents.
Eads was born in Lawrenceburg, Indiana, and named for his Mother's cousin, then Congressman and subsequent President of the United States James Buchanan. He grew up in St. Louis, Missouri.
Eads was largely self-educated; at the age of thirteen, he left school to take up work to help support the family. One of his first jobs was at the Williams & Duhring dry-goods store run by Barrett Williams. Williams allowed the young Eads to spend time in his library, located above the store. In Eads's spare time, he was read books on physical science, mechanics, machinery, and civil engineering.
Eads made his initial fortune in salvage, by creating a diving bell for retrieving goods from the bottom of rivers that were sunk there by riverboat disasters, especially along the busy Mississippi River. He also devised special boats for raising the remains of sunken ships from the river bed. Because of his detailed knowledge of the Mississippi (the equal of any professional river pilot), his exceptional ability at navigating the most treacherous parts
James Henry Greathead (6 August 1844 – 21 October 1896) was an engineer renowned for his work on the London Underground railway.
Greathead was born in Grahamstown, South Africa; of English descent, Greathead's grandfather had emigrated to South Africa in 1820. He was educated at St Andrew's College, Grahamstown, and the Diocesan College private school in Cape Town. After migrating to England in 1859, he completed his education from 1859 to 1863 at the Westbourne Collegiate School, Westbourne Grove. He returned briefly to South Africa before finally moving to London in 1864 to serve a three-year pupillage under the civil engineer Peter W. Barlow, from whom he became acquainted with the shield system of tunnelling. He spent some time (around 1867) as assistant engineer on the Midland Railway between Bedford and London (working with Barlow's brother, William Henry Barlow).
Soon after, in 1869, he rejoined Barlow and they began work on designs for the Tower Subway, only the second tunnel to be driven under the river Thames in central London. Barlow was the engineer for the tunnel and Greathead was in charge of the actual drive. The tunnelling shield for driving the Tower Subway, while
Willis Haviland Carrier (November 26, 1876 – October 6, 1950) was an American engineer who invented modern air conditioning.
He was born on November 26, 1876, in Angola, New York, the son of Duane Williams Carrier (1836–1908) and Elizabeth R. Haviland (1845–1888).
The first Carrier in the United States was Thomas, who arrived in Massachusetts around 1663. There is historical evidence that Thomas was born in Wales in 1622 and that he was a political refugee who assumed the name "Carrier" upon coming to America. Thomas married Martha Allen, daughter of Andrew Allen, a first settler of Andover, MA. After standing up against the Andover town fathers in a boundary dispute, she was accused of being a witch. Two of her sons, aged 13 and 10, were hung by their heels until they, too, testified against her. Cotton Mather denounced her as a "rampant hag" whom the Devil had promised "should be the queen of Hell." She was arrested, convicted and, on August 19, 1692, hanged on Salem's Gallows Hill. Later it was recorded that of all the New Englanders charged with witchcraft, "Martha Carrier was the only one, male or female, who did not at some time or other make an admission or confession."
Pedro Macedo Camacho, born September 4, 1979, in the city of Funchal, Portugal, is an award-winning film and video game composer also known for his Requiem to Inês de Castro.
Pedro Macedo Camacho started learning composition with Argentinean composer Roberto Pérez in his home city's Conservatoire and Arts School.
After three years, Camacho moved to Lisbon, where he continued his studies in the National Conservatoire for another four years with composer and teacher Eurico Carrapatoso. Under his guidance, Camacho received an A+ classification every year, becoming the only student ever to achieve this score.
As a pianist, Camacho started with teacher and musicologist, Robert Andres, and then with the Portuguese teacher, Melina Rebelo. He got an A in the final exam in Lisbon. Camacho was one of the very few students to finish the eight years' learning program in four years' time.
Camacho claims that composing has been an important part of his life since he was ten years old, when he started composing short musical pieces on the vintage OctaMED program, a tracker for Amigas 500.
Side by side with this classical learning process, Camacho started learning Jazz Theory, Composition and
Carlile Pollock Patterson (August 24, 1816–August 15, 1881) was the fourth superintendent of the United States Coast Survey. He was born in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, the son of Commodore Daniel Todd Patterson. He was appointed a midshipman in the United States Navy in 1830. He studied Civil Engineering at Georgetown College, graduating in 1838, and returned to the Navy, assigned to work with the Coast Survey. He left the Navy in 1853 and captained mail steamers in the Pacific Ocean. In 1861, as a civilian, he was appointed as Hydrographic Inspector of the Coast Survey. In 1874, he was made Superintendent of the Coast Survey (and then the successor United States Coast and Geodetic Survey), a position he held until his death.
Patterson was born in Shieldsboro (now Bay St. Louis, Mississippi), the son of Captain Daniel Patterson. He was the brother of Admiral Thomas H. Patterson, of Elizabeth Catherine Patterson who married George Mifflin Bache (brother of Alexander Dallas Bache) and of George Ann Patterson who married Admiral David Dixon Porter.
Patterson married Elizabeth Pearson (daughter of Congressman Joseph Pearson of North Carolina) in 1837. They had several children; at
Francis William Webb (21 May 1836–4 June 1906) was a British engineer responsible for the design and manufacture of locomotives for the London and North Western Railway (LNWR). Webb was born in Tixall Rectory, near Stafford, the second son of William Webb, Rector of Tixall.
Showing early interest in mechanical engineering, on 11 August 1851 at the age of fifteen he was articled as a pupil of Francis Trevithick at Crewe Works. Webb joined the drawing office in 1856, at the end of his training. He became Chief Draughtsman on 1 March 1859. On 1 September 1861 he was appointed Works Manager at Crewe and Chief Assistant to John Ramsbottom. Whilst Works Manager Webb was responsible for the installation of Bessemer converters and the start of steel production at Crewe.
In July 1866 Webb resigned from the LNWR and moved to the Bolton Iron and Steel Co. as the manager. It has been suggested that this move was arranged by the LNWR management to enable him to gain experience of steel making.
Ramsbottom gave 12 months notice of his resignation in September 1870. Shortly afterwards the Works Manager, Thomas Stubbs, died aged 34. Stubbs may have been Ramsbottom's intended successor. The Chairman
Thomas Telford FRS, FRSE (1757–1834) was a Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a noted road, bridge and canal builder. After establishing himself as an engineer of road and canal projects in Shropshire, he designed numerous infrastructure projects in his native Scotland, as well as harbours and tunnels. Such was his reputation as a prolific designer of highways and related bridges, he was dubbed The Colossus of Roads, and, reflecting his command of all types of civil engineering in the early 19th century, he was elected as the first President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, a post he retained for 14 years until his death.
Telford was born on 9 August 1757 at Glendinning, a hill farm 3 miles west of Eskdalemuir Kirk, in the rural parish of Westerkirk, in Eskdale, Dumfriesshire. His father John Telford, a shepherd, died soon after Thomas was born. Thomas was raised in poverty by his mother Janet Jackson (d.1794).
At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a stonemason, and some of his earliest work can still be seen on the bridge across the River Esk in Langholm in the Scottish borders. He worked for a time in Edinburgh and in 1782 he moved to London where
Maurice Koechlin (March 8, 1856 - January 14, 1946) was a French structural engineer.
Born in Buhl, Haut-Rhin, he studied at the lycée in Mulhouse then at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology under Carl Culmann.
Much of his work was in the service of Gustave Eiffel's company Compagnie des Establissments Eiffel. Koechlin became the Managing Director of the company when Eiffel retired from the engineering profession in 1893.
He married to Emma Rossier in 1886, they had six children. Maurice and Emma were lifelong members of the Plymouth Brethren. He died in Veytaux, Switzerland.
Major structural designs include:
Though named after a project of Gustave Eiffel, the Eiffel Tower – symbol of Paris – has its structural concept and form from the responsible chief engineer Maurice Koechlin. Koechlin was an engineer of outstanding ingenuity and well versed in the structural techniques of his time. He possessed therefore the best qualifications for evolving such technically innovative conceptions for which Eiffel and his firm were renowned.
— Trautz (2002)
Johann Georg Specht (December 20, 1721 – December 30, 1803) was born in Lindenberg im Allgäu. He was a civil engineer and architect in the south of Germany.
Johann Georg Specht trained as a civil engineer with Peter Thumb in Vorarlberg.
Specht planned and had a vast number of edifices and other constructions built in Upper Swabia and the Allgäu, amongst which are as varied constructions as water works, bridges, mills, residential buildings, industrial buildings and even castles and churches.
His main and most famous project was the monastery church St. Martin at Wiblingen Abbey in 1771. He planned and designed the church but was not allowed to execute the building works when the Bavarian painter and civil engineer Januarius Zick was contracted in 1778 to complete the building works after Specht had been dismissed in December 1777.
A street in Lindenberg im Allgäu is has been named Baumeister-Specht-Strasse.
Richard Roberts (22 April 1789 – 11 March 1864) was a British patternmaker and engineer whose development of high-precision machine tools contributed to the birth of production engineering and mass production.
Roberts was born at Llanymynech, on the border between England and Wales. He was the son of William Roberts, a shoemaker, who also kept the New Bridge tollgate. Roberts was educated by the parish priest, and early found employment with a boatman on the Ellesmere Canal and later at the local limestone quarries. He received some instruction in drawing from Robert Bough, a road surveyor, who was working under Thomas Telford.
Roberts then found employment as a patternmaker at Bradley Iron works, Staffordshire, and, probably in 1813, moved to a supervisory position in the pattern shop of the Horsely Iron works, Tipton. He had gained skills in turning, wheel-wrighting and the repair of mill work. He was drawn for the militia and to avoid this made for Liverpool, but finding no work there shifted to Manchester, where he found work as a turner for a cabinet-maker. He then moved to Salford working at lathe- and tool-making. Because the militia was still seeking him, he walked to
Charles Alexander Stevenson (1855, Edinburgh – 1950) was a Scottish lighthouse engineer who built twenty three lighthouses in and around Scotland.
Born into the famous Stevenson family of lighthouse engineers, son of David Stevenson, brother of David Alan Stevenson, and nephew of Thomas Stevenson, he was educated at Edinburgh University. Between 1887 and 1937 he built twenty three lighthouses with his brother, David, and is noted for his experiments with optics. His cousin was Robert Louis Stevenson, and grandfather was Robert Stevenson. His son Alan (1891-1971) was the last of the family to enter the trade.
William Albert Fairhurst CBE (21 August 1903, Alderley Edge, England – 13 March 1982, Howick, New Zealand) was an English-born bridge designer and international chess master. He was highly accomplished in both disciplines and for many years successfully divided his time between two careers. He was awarded the CBE for his services to engineering, and in chess gained the title of International Master in 1951.
Born in Alderley Edge, Cheshire, Fairhurst was thirteen when he taught himself to play chess from a collection of books at the family home. During this developmental stage, he was inspired by the teachings of Siegbert Tarrasch and consequently his playing style was based, for the most part, on dogmatic strategic concepts. By eighteen, he was Cheshire County Champion and a little later, moved to Lancashire, where he established a reputation as one of the leading players in the North of England. As an amateur, he had little opportunity to play in international tournaments, but he did compete at Scarborough in 1927, finishing second, tied with Frederick Yates, ahead of several recognised masters including Efim Bogoljubov, Sir George Thomas and Victor Buerger. Notably, he defeated
William Mackenzie (20 March 1794 – 29 October 1851) was a British civil engineer and civil engineering contractor who was one of the leading European contractors in the 1840s.
Mackenzie was born near Nelson, Lancashire, England, the eldest of the 11 children of Alexander Mackenzie, a Scottish contractor, and Mary née Roberts. He started his career as an apprentice weaver but changed to civil engineering, becoming a pupil of a lock carpenter on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1811. He continued his training on a dry dock at Troon harbour, on Craigellachie Bridge and as an agent on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal.
In 1822 he became an agent for the completion of the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal. Soon after this he was appointed resident engineer for Thomas Telford's Mythe Bridge at Tewkesbury, then resident engineer to the improvements to the Birmingham canals, again under Telford. Following this he returned to contracting, his profitable contracts including tunnels on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway between Edge Hill and Lime Street, and contracts for the Grand Union, North Union, Midland Counties and Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock railways. Non-railway contracts
Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis or Gustave Coriolis (French pronunciation: [ɡaspaʁ ɡystav də kɔʁjɔlis]; 21 May 1792 – 19 September 1843) was a French mathematician, mechanical engineer and scientist. He is best known for his work on the supplementary forces that are detected in a rotating frame of reference. See the Coriolis Effect. Coriolis was the first to coin the term "work" for the transfer of energy by a force acting through a distance.
Coriolis was born in Paris in 1792. In 1816 he became a tutor at the École Polytechnique, where he did experiments on friction and hydraulics.
In 1829 Coriolis published a textbook, Calcul de l'Effet des Machines ("Calculation of the Effect of Machines"), which presented mechanics in a way that could readily be applied by industry. In this period the correct expression for kinetic energy, ½mv, and its relation to mechanical work became established.
During the following years Coriolis worked to extend the notion of kinetic energy and work to rotating systems. The first of his papers, Sur le principe des forces vives dans les mouvements relatifs des machines (On the principle of kinetic energy in the relative motion in machines), was read to the
Sir Ralph Freeman (3 February 1911 – 24 August 1998) was an English civil engineer, responsible for the design of the Humber Suspension Bridge - the longest in the world until 1998. He was the son of Sir Ralph Freeman, designer of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
He was educated at Uppingham School, Rutland and Worcester College, Oxford. Sir Ralph worked on bridges in South Africa and Rhodesia, where he met his wife Joan Rose, before returning to England in 1939 and joining Freeman Fox & Partners, a firm of consulting engineers (called Douglas Fox & Partners before changing its name in 1938 in honour of Sir Ralph's father, a senior partner there).
Freeman served in the Royal Engineers during the Second World War as a Captain in the Experimental Bridging Establishment in Christchurch, Hampshire, England. He was involved in the development of a propped military suspension bridge. Freeman served in the volunteer Engineer and Railway Staff Corps, providing engineering expertise to the army, and was gazetted at the rank of Major in that corps on 6 October 1953.
He then returned to Freeman Fox & Partners, eventually retiring in 1979, having worked on a variety of large projects: the M2 and M5
Sir William Heerlein Lindley (30 January 1853 in Hamburg - 30 December 1917 in London) was a British civil engineer.
One of three sons of the famous British engineer William Lindley, WH Lindley worked together with his father on a number of projects and was a respected engineer in his own right. Between 1881 and 1889 he oversaw the construction of Warsaw waterworks, designed by his father in 1876-8. He oversaw the construction of the sewage system in Prague, built between 1895 and 1906, which is still in use today, and Sewage plant in Bubeneč in Prague, which was in use from 1907 until 1967 and currently it's building serves as a museum of Prague's sewage system and is higly dedicated to Lindley. He also coordinated the project for Baku's water supply system, working from 1899 up until his death in 1917. In 1909 he also designed a water and sewerage system for Łódź, Poland, although the expense of the system meant the project was shelved until the 1920s.
Henry French Hollis (August 30, 1869 – July 7, 1949) was a United States Senator from New Hampshire, and regent of the Smithsonian Institution.
He attended the public schools and studied under private tutors. He engaged in civil engineering for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad in 1886 and 1887, and graduated from Harvard University in 1892. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1893 and commenced practice in Concord.
Hollis was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1900 to the Fifty-seventh Congress and an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Governor of New Hampshire in 1902 and 1904. He was elected to the U.S. Senate for the term beginning March 4, 1913, and served from March 13, 1913, until March 4, 1919; he declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1918. While in the Senate he was chairman of the Committee on Enrolled Bills (Sixty-third through Sixty-fifth Congresses).
From 1914 to 1919, Hollis was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution, and in 1918 was United States representative to the Interallied War Finance Council. He was a member of the United States Liquidation Commission for France and England in 1919 and commenced the practice of international
Sir Herbert Nigel Gresley (19 June 1876 – 5 April 1941) was one of Britain's most famous steam locomotive engineers, who rose to become Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER). He was the designer of some of the most famous steam locomotives in Britain, including the LNER Class A1 and LNER Class A4 4-6-2 Pacific engines. An A1, Flying Scotsman, was the first steam locomotive officially recorded over 100 mph in passenger service, and an A4, number 4468 Mallard, still holds the record for being the fastest steam locomotive in the world (126 mph).
Gresley's engines were considered elegant, both aesthetically and mechanically. His invention of a three-cylinder design with only two sets of Walschaerts valve gear, the Gresley conjugated valve gear, produced smooth running and power at lower cost than would have been achieved with a more conventional three sets of Walschaerts gear.
Gresley was born in Edinburgh (due to his mother's ante-natal complications), but was raised in Netherseal, Derbyshire, a member of the cadet branch of a family long seated at Gresley, Derbyshire. After attending school in Sussex and at Marlborough College, Gresley served
Sir Herbert John Baptista Manzoni CBE MICE (21 March 1899 – 18 November 1972) was a British civil engineer known for holding the position of City Engineer and Surveyor of Birmingham from 1935 until 1963. This position put him in charge of all municipal works and his influence on the city, especially following World War II, completely changed the image of Birmingham.
Manzoni was born in Birkenhead, the son of a Milanese sculptor, and was educated both in Birkenhead and Liverpool. He moved to Birmingham in 1923 and became an engineering assistant to the Sewers and Rivers Department. He became Chief Engineer for the department four years later. Unlike many other cities, planning and architectural issues came largely under the control of the city's Chief Engineer.
In 1935, Herbert Humphries retired from his post as City Surveyor and Manzoni took over the post at the age of 36. In 1941, Manzoni anticipated the damage that would be caused by the Birmingham Blitz and, in October 1941, announced the creation of four advisory panels within the council to focus upon Housing, Traffic, Redevelopment Areas and Limitation of the city. A 1938 report identified that there was a serious housing
Robert Bald FRSE (1776–1861) was a Scottish surveyor, civil and mining engineer, and antiquarian. He was born in Culross, Scotland, the son of Alexander Bald (1753–1823), a colliery agent of Alloa. Robert Bald was one of the earliest and most eminent mining engineers and land surveyors in Scotland, and by the late Nineteenth Century he was referred to as "the acknowledged father of mining engineering in Scotland". His brother was Alexander Bald, poet and friend of James Hogg.
Robert Bald apprenticed to his father Alexander, the superintendent and manager of the Mar collieries. The pair can be seen as forming 'something of a "school" of viewers', and a Scottish equivalent of the Buddle family of viewers of northern England. He combined two qualities vital for colliery direction: a deep practical knowledge with a respect for scientific enquiry (he contributed to the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal among other learned publications). Bald seems to have begun his consultative work around the turn of the century, by 1805 his advice was in great demand throughout Scottish coalfields, and he was called upon by both parties of dispute in court and by judges. In 1808 Bald travelled with
John Braithwaite, the younger (March 19, 1797 – September 25, 1870) was an English engineer who invented the first steam fire engine.
Braithwaite was third son of John Braithwaite the elder. He was born at 1 Bath Place, New Road, London, on 19 March 1797, and, after being educated at Mr. Lord's school at Tooting in Surrey, attended in his father's manufactory, where he made himself master of practical engineering, and became a skilled draughtsman. In June 1818 his father died, leaving the business to his sons Francis and John. Francis died in 1823, and John Braithwaite carried on the business alone. He added to the business the making of high-pressure steam-engines. In 1817 he reported before the House of Commons upon the Norwich steamboat explosion, and in 1820 he ventilated the House of Lords by means of air-pumps. In 1822 he made the donkey engine, and in 1823 cast the statue of the Duke of Kent by sculptor Sebastian Gahagan that was erected in Portland Place, London.
He was introduced to George and Robert Stephenson in 1827, and about the same time became acquainted with Captain John Ericsson, who then had many schemes in view. In 1829 Braithwaite and Ericsson constructed for
Karl von Terzaghi (October 2, 1883 – October 25, 1963) was an Austrian civil engineer and geologist, called the father of soil mechanics.
Karl von Terzaghi was born the first child of Army Lieutenant-Colonel Anton von Terzaghi and Amalia Eberle in Prague. Upon Anton Terzaghi's retirement from the army, the family moved to Graz, Austria. At the age of ten, Terzaghi was sent to a military boarding school. He developed an interest in astronomy and geography. At age fourteen, Terzaghi entered a different military school, in Hranice, the Crown of Bohemia. He was an excellent student, especially in geometry and mathematics, and graduated with honors at the age of seventeen.
In 1900, Terzaghi entered the Technical University in Graz to study mechanical engineering. He became interested in theoretical mechanics, but Terzaghi was nearly expelled at one point. He graduated with honors in 1904. Terzaghi then fulfilled a compulsory one year military service. While fulfilling his military obligations, Terzaghi translated and greatly expanded a popular English geology field manual into German. He returned to the university for one year and combined the study of geology with courses on subjects
Thomas Hawksley (12 July 1807(1807-07-12) – 15 September 1893(1893-09-15)) was an English civil engineer of the 19th century, particularly associated with water and gas engineering projects.
The son of John Hawksley and Mary Whittle, and born in Arnold, near Nottingham on 12 July 1807(1807-07-12), Hawksley was largely self-taught from the age of 15 onwards, having at that point become articled to a local firm of architects that also undertook a variety of water-related engineering projects.
He remains particularly associated with schemes in his home county. He was engineer to the Nottingham Gas Light and Coke Company and Nottingham Waterworks Company for more than half a century, having, early in his career, completed the Trent Bridge waterworks (1831). This scheme delivered Britain's first high pressure 'constant supply', preventing contamination entering the supply of clean water mains.
This achievement led him to be appointed to many major water supply projects across England, including schemes for Liverpool, Sheffield, Leicester, Leeds, Derby, Darlington, Oxford, Cambridge, Sunderland, Wakefield and Northampton. He also undertook drainage projects, including schemes for
Henry Peter Bosse (1844-1903) German-American photographer, cartographer and civil engineer.
Henry Peter Bosse was a prescient photographer in that he foresaw and adhered to aesthetic values which have come to define the work of German photo-journalists around the world. Straight forward composition and a concern for the efforts of man characterize Bosse's photographic point-of-view, as it would come to be the basis of foto-reportage. Bosse took great care when making his presentation albums. He foresaw the need for color: the intense moody blues of his refined cyanotypes reflect this concern. His cyanotypes were exposed with large glass plates and printed on the finest French cyanotype paper, each sheet off-white measuring 14.5" x 17.2" and bearing the watermark Johannot et Cie. Annonay, aloe's satin. The albums are leather bound. Beyond technique, in his appreciation for railroad bridges and structural steel, Bosse stood at the forefront of German appreciation for photographic look books concerned with the hand of man, modern architecture and urban design.
Henry Peter Bosse was one of the highest paid technical people of his day in the United States. The 1880s were the beginning
Francis Trenholm Crowe (October 12, 1882(1882-10-12) – February 26, 1946(1946-02-26)) was the chief engineer of the Hoover Dam. During that time, he was the superintendent of Six Companies, the construction company that oversaw the construction project.
Born in Trenholmville, Quebec, Crowe attended the Governor Dummer Academy, matriculating to the University of Maine where he graduated in 1905 with a degree in civil engineering. The University's Francis Crowe Society is named in his honor. Crowe became interested in the American west during a lecture from Frank Weymouth, a guest speaker from the United States Bureau of Reclamation. He signed up for a summer job before the end of the lecture. That summer job began a 20 year career with the reclamation service that would change the face of the American west. In 1924, Frank Crowe left the United States Bureau of Reclamation to join the construction firm of Morrison-Knudsen in Boise, Idaho. Morrison-Knudsen had recently signed a partnership with the larger Utah Construction Company to build dams.
While working on the Arrowrock Dam in Idaho, Crowe pioneered two practices that are crucial to the construction of large dams. The first was
Frank E. Winsor, civil engineer, was the chief engineer for the Boston Metropolitan District Water Supply Commission, now the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, from 1926 until his death in 1939 and was closely involved in the design and construction of Winsor Dam and Goodnough Dike which were built by the Commission to create the Quabbin Reservoir in Massachusetts. Winsor Dam was named for him.
Frank Edward Winsor was born November 16, 1870, in Providence, Rhode Island and died on January 30, 1939, a resident of West Newton, Massachusetts, where he had lived for many years at 189 Mt. Vernon Street. He received a Ph.B in 1892, an A.M. in 1896 an Sc.D. in 1929, all from Brown University. He later sat on Brown's Board of Trustees. He was licensed as a Civil Engineer in 1892.
On October 25, 1893, Frank E. Winsor married Catherine Holbrook Burton, who later taught at Brown. They had two daughters and a son. Their oldest child, Lucy, (April 16, 1897-October 9, 1989), was a professor of economics at Wellesley College. She was married to Hugh B. Killough, (December 30, 1892-December 13, 1976) who was a professor of economics at Brown. Together they wrote many books on business,
Jamie Reed Kovac is an American actress, body builder and civil engineer. She is best known for playing 'Fury' on American Gladiators. Born Jamie Reed, she holds a B.S. in Civil Engineering and a Masters in Engineering Management from Cornell's College of Engineering, and played varsity softball and competed in pole vault on the varsity track and field team. She has also competed in National Physique Committee Figure events, and in 2007 she placed 4th at the NPC National Figure Championships in New York and 3rd at the NPC USA Figure Championships in Las Vegas. In 2010, she won the title America's Strongest Middleweight Woman. She is married to former Cornell Big Red hockey player Frank Kovac.
John Rennie FRSE FRS (7 June 1761 – 4 October 1821) was a Scottish civil engineer who designed many bridges, canals, and docks.
Rennie, a farmer's younger son, was born at Phantassie, near East Linton, East Lothian, Scotland, and showed a taste for mechanics at a very early age, and was allowed to spend much time in the workshop of Andrew Meikle, millwright, the inventor of the threshing machine, who lived at Houston Mill on the Phantassie estate. After receiving a rudimentary education at the parish school of Prestonkirk Parish Church, he was sent to the burgh school at Dunbar, and in November 1780 he matriculated at the University of Edinburgh, where he remained until 1783. His older brother George remained to assist in the family agricultural business, achieving notability in this arena.
He seems to have employed his vacations in working as a millwright, and so to have established a business on his own account. At this early date the originality of his mind was exhibited by the introduction of cast iron pinions instead of wooden trundles. In 1784 he took a journey south for the purpose of enlarging his knowledge, visiting James Watt at Soho, Staffordshire. Watt offered him an
Konrad Zuse (German: [ˈkɔnʁat ˈtsuːzə]; 1910–1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer. His greatest achievement was the world's first functional program-controlled Turing-complete computer, the Z3, which became operational in May 1941.
Zuse was also noted for the S2 computing machine, considered the first process-controlled computer. He founded one of the earliest computer businesses in 1941, producing the Z4, which became the world's first commercial computer. From 1943 to 1945 he designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül. In 1969, Zuse suggested the concept of a computation-based universe in his book Rechnender Raum (Calculating Space).
Much of his early work was financed by his family and commerce, but after 1939 he was given resources by the Nazi German government. Due to World War II, Zuse's work went largely unnoticed in the United Kingdom and the United States. Possibly his first documented influence on a US company was IBM's option on his patents in 1946.
There is a replica of the Z3, as well as the original Z4, in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. The Deutsches Technikmuseum in Berlin has an exhibition devoted to Zuse, displaying
John Augustus Roebling (born Johann August Röbling, June 12, 1806 – July 22, 1869) was a German-born American civil engineer. He is famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge.
Roebling was the youngest of four children. He was baptized in the Lutheran church Divi Blasii in Mühlhausen. As a young boy he played the bass clarinet and the french horn. He also exhibited great artistic talent for sketches and paintings. His father owned a small tobacco shop, but the business was insufficient to provide livelihood for all three sons. Roebling's sister Friederike Amalie married Carl August Meissner, a poor merchant in the town, and his oldest brother Herman Christian Roebling prepared to take over the tobacco shop.
At first John attended the gymnasium in Mühlhausen. Recognizing his intelligence at a young age, Roebling's mother, Friederike Dorothea Roebling arranged for him to be tutored in mathematics and science at Erfurt by Ephraim Salomon Unger. He went to Erfurt when he was 15. In 1824 he passed his Surveyor's examination and returned home for a year. In 1824 he enrolled for two semesters at the Bauakademie in Berlin where he
Jules Dupuit (18 May 1804 – 5 September 1866) was an Italian-born French civil engineer and economist.
He was born in Fossano, Italy then under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte. At the age of ten he emigrated to France with his family where he studied in Versailles — winning a Physics prize at graduation. He then studied in the Ecole Polytechnique as a civil engineer. He gradually took on more responsibility in various regional posts. He received a Légion d'honneur in 1843 for his work on the French road system, and shortly after moved to Paris. He also studied flood management in 1848 and supervised the construction of the Paris sewer system. He died in Paris.
Engineering questions led to his interest in economics, a subject in which he was self-taught. His 1844 article was concerned with deciding the optimum toll for a bridge. It was here that he introduced his curve of diminishing marginal utility. As the quantity of a good consumed rises, the marginal utility of the good declines for the user. So the lower the toll (lower marginal utility), the more people who would use the bridge (higher consumption). Conversely as the quantity rises (people allowed on the bridge), the
Louis Favre (26 January 1826 – 19 July 1879) was a Swiss engineer, remembered as the builder of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel between 1872 and his death in the tunnel in 1879.
He was born the son of a carpenter at Chêne, a small village some 3 kilometers from Geneva. At eighteen, he left to tour France and developed a career undertaking the design and direction of civil engineering works. He was not well schooled, but studied the principal bases of such sciences as were to be useful to him, and took evening classes to make up for what was lacking in his early instruction; not that he hoped to make a complete study for an engineer, but only to learn the indispensable. He was, according to a colleague "before all things, a practical man, who made up for the enforced insufficiency of his technical knowledge by a coup d'œil (glance) of surprising accuracy".
In 1872 he was invited to build a tunnel through the Gotthard massif, connecting Switzerland to the Italian border. The project was, for the time, a vast undertaking, verging on folly according to many critics. Construction of the tunnel was accompanied by very considerable loss of life and escalation of cost, arising out of the novelty
Alexandre Gustave Eiffel ( /ˈaɪfəl/ French pronunciation: [efɛl]) (15 December 1832 – 27 December 1923) was a French civil engineer and architect. A graduate of the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, he made his name with various bridges for the French railway network, most famously the Garabit viaduct. He is best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, France. After his retirement from engineering, Eiffel concentrated his energies on research into meteorology and aerodynamics, making important contributions in both fields.
Gustave Eiffel was born in Dijon, in the Côte-d'Or department of France, the first child of Alexandre and Catherine Eiffel. The family was originally from Germany, being descended from Jean-René Bönickhausen, who emigrated from Marmagen and settled in Paris at the beginning of the eighteenth century. The family adopted the name Eiffel as a reference to the Eifel mountains in the region from which it had come. Although the family always used the name Eiffel, Gustave's name was registered at birth as Bönickhausen, and was not formally changed to Eiffel until 1880.
At the time of Gustave's birth his father,
Charles Kinnaird Graham (June 3, 1824 – April 15, 1889) was a sailor in the antebellum United States Navy, attorney, and later a brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. As a civil engineer, he helped plan and lay out Central Park in New York City.
Graham was born in New York City. He entered the Navy when he was 17 and later served as a midshipman in the Gulf of Mexico during the Mexican-American War in the late 1840s. Later he studied engineering and was for several years after 1857 constructing engineer of the Brooklyn Navy Yard.
At the outbreak of the American Civil War he entered the Union Army as colonel of the 74th New York Volunteer Infantry, of one of the regiments of the "Excelsior Brigade". He resigned in 1862 but was restored to the colonelcy of the regiment during the Peninsula Campaign. On November 29, 1862 he was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers and assumed command of the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps. At the Battle of Chancellorsville he commanded the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps. Upon the mortal wounding of Amiel W. Whipple, Graham assumed command of the 3rd Division, III Corps on the last day of the battle. He
George Frederick Deacon ((1843-07-26)26 July 1843 – 17 June 1909(1909-06-17)) was an English Civil Engineer. He was a pupil and lifelong friend of William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin. He was Lord Kelvin's assistant on the SS Great Eastern cable-laying expedition. He was both borough engineer and water engineer to Liverpool from 1871 to 1880, and water engineer to the city from 1880 to 1890. During this latter period jointly with Thomas Hawksley he designed the Lake Vyrnwy scheme to supply Liverpool's water. In 1890 he established a consultancy in Westminster which designed waterworks for many UK towns. This merged with another firm to become Alexander Binnie & Sons, Deacon.
Amongst his inventions were the Deacon waste-water meter to locate water leakage, and electrical meters to measure river flow.
At the time of his death he was working on a scheme to provide water to Birkenhead from the River Alwen.
Henry Ward Poole (1825–1890) was an American surveyor, civil engineer, educator and writer on and inventor of systems of musical tuning. He was brother of the famous librarian William Frederick Poole, and cousin of the celebrated humorist, journalist and politician Fitch Poole.
Poole was born 13 September 1825 in Salem, Massachusetts (renamed Peabody 1868), son of Ward Poole (1799–1864) and Elizabeth Wilder (1801–1864). He attended Leicester Academy, and Yale University in 1841 and 1842..
He worked up to 1850 at Newburyport, Massachusetts with organ maker Joseph Alley and minister Henry James Hudson (b.1821-) developing a euharmonic, or enharmonic organ which they patented and solicited by mail, and which was awarded a gold medal at the 1850 Exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. It was installed at Indiana Place Chapel, Boston, Massachusetts and remained in use for fifteen years. Poole patented a special keyboard to be used with his extended tuning system in 1868.
In 1851 and 1852 Poole assisted August A. Dalson under Pennsylvania state geologist Henry D. Rogers, based in Pottsville, on the state survey organized by Geological Society of Pennsylvania. He
Joseph Locke (9 August 1805 – 18 September 1860) was a notable English civil engineer of the 19th century, particularly associated with railway projects. Locke ranked alongside Robert Stephenson and Isambard Kingdom Brunel as one of the major pioneers of railway development.
Locke was born in Attercliffe, Sheffield in Yorkshire, moving to nearby Barnsley when he was five. By the age of 17, Joseph had already served an apprenticeship under William Stobart at Pelaw, on the south bank of the Tyne, and under his own father, William. He was an experienced mining engineer, able to survey, sink shafts, to construct railways, tunnels and stationary engines. Joseph’s father had been a manager at Wallbottle colliery on Tyneside when George Stephenson was a fireman there. In 1823, when Joseph was 17, Stephenson was involved with planning the Stockton and Darlington Railway. He and his son Robert Stephenson visited William Locke and his son at Barnsley and it was arranged that Joseph would go to work for the Stephensons. The Stephensons established a locomotive works near Forth Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, to manufacture locomotives for the new railway. Joseph Locke, despite his youth, soon
Paulo Salim Maluf (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpawlu saˈʎĩ maˈlufi]; born September 3, 1931 in São Paulo) is a Brazilian politician with a career spanning over four decades and many functions, including those of State Governor of São Paulo, Mayor of the City of São Paulo, Congressman and Presidential candidate. As of 2011, Maluf is on a second consecutive term as Federal Deputy. His political base is founded on populism, conservatism and the provision of major public works.
His career has been plagued with substantial allegations of corruption, although he was never convicted by the Brazilian courts. He is the president of the local branch, in the state of São Paulo, of the right-wing Progressive Party of Brazil (PP), heir to the old National Renewal Alliance Party (ARENA). Maluf is currently listed in the Interpol Red notice on charges of fraud, thefts, counterfeiting/forgery and money laundering.
Paulo Salim Maluf, the son of Lebanese Christian immigrants Salim Farah Maluf and Maria Stephan Maluf, was born in São Paulo, and graduated 1954 in engineering at the University of São Paulo (USP), where coincidentally he was a colleague of the late Mário Covas, another important
Charles Edward Fairburn (5 September 1887 — 12 October 1945) was Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway. Born in Bradford in 1887, Fairburn won a scholarship to Brasenose College, Oxford University, in 1905, gaining first class honours and being the first graduate to graduate from Oxford's new Engineering School.
Fairburn served two years under the tutelage of Henry Fowler at the Midland Railway.
In 1912 Fairburn joined the Siemens Dynamo Works of Stafford, as a researcher. Between 1913 and 1916 he was assistant to the Resident Engineer on the Shildon-Newport electrification of the North Eastern Railway, being responsible for the design of overhead line electrification equipment and electric locomotives.
Fairburn served as an Experimental Officer in the Royal Flying Corps in the First World War. Afterwards, he joined English Electric as head of their railway electrification department. By 1931 he had risen to Chief Engineering Manager of the Traction Department of EE and had been involved in electrification schemes in forty-nine countries and helped the development of diesel locomotives.
In 1934 Fairburn joined the London, Midland and Scottish Railway
James Clerk Maxwell FRS FRSE (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematical physicist. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory. This unites all previously unrelated observations, experiments, and equations of electricity, magnetism, and optics into a consistent theory. Maxwell's equations demonstrate that electricity, magnetism and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon, namely the electromagnetic field. Subsequently, all other classic laws or equations of these disciplines became simplified cases of Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's achievements concerning electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics", after the first one realised by Isaac Newton.
Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in the form of waves and at the constant speed of light. In 1865, Maxwell published A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. It was with this that he first proposed that light was in fact undulations in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. His work in producing a unified model of electromagnetism is one of the greatest advances in
Lieutenant-Colonel John By (7 August 1779 – 1 February 1836) was a British military engineer, best remembered for supervising the construction of the Rideau Canal and, in the process, founding what would become the city of Ottawa. Born in Lambeth in London, England in 1779 to George By and Mary Bryan. By studied at the Royal Military Academy. He was commissioned in the Royal Artillery on 1 August 1799 but transferred to the Royal Engineers on 20 December the same year. In 1802 he was posted to Canada for the first time, where he worked on the fortification of Quebec City and on improving the navigability of the Saint Lawrence River. During the Napoleonic wars he returned to Europe, where he served in Spain under the Duke of Wellington from 1811 until 1815.
With the end of the war By retired from the military but in 1826, in view of his engineering experience in Canada, he was recalled and returned to Canada to supervise the construction of the Rideau Canal. Since the canal was to begin in the wild and sparsely populated Ottawa River valley, his first task was the construction of a town to house the men who were to work on the canal, and associated services. The resulting
Joseph Smith Harris (April 29, 1836 – June 1, 1910) was an American surveyor, civil engineer, and railroad executive. Largely self-taught, he worked on several projects for the U.S. government, including the Coast Survey of the Mississippi Sound in 1854–56 and the Northwest Boundary Survey of 1857–61. He worked his way through a considerable number of adventures to become President of the Reading Railroad, which he brought back from its 1893 bankruptcy.
Joseph Smith Harris was born on the family farm in East Whiteland Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania; the house has burned down, but the barn and springhouse still stand on what is now the Chester Valley Golf Club. His father, Stephen Harris (September 4, 1798 – November 18, 1851), was the local physician; his mother was Marianne Smith (April 2, 1805 – March 12, 1890). Stephen Harris' brothers (Joseph's uncles) included Thomas Harris and John Harris, who became career military officers. Joseph's paternal grandfather, William Harris (1757 – 1812), had been an army officer in the American Revolutionary War and thereafter, and his great-grandfather (on his mother's side) was Persifor Frazer, a figure in the Revolution who had some
Mariano di Jacopo detto il Taccola (1382 – c. 1453), called Taccola ('Crow'), was an Italian administrator, artist and engineer of the early Renaissance. Taccola is known for his technological treatises De ingeneis and De machinis, which feature annotated drawings of a wide array of innovative machines and devices. Taccola’s work was widely studied and copied by later Renaissance engineers and artists, among them Francesco di Giorgio, and perhaps even Leonardo da Vinci.
Mariano Taccola was born in Siena in 1382. Practically nothing is known of his early years of training or apprenticeship. As an adult, he pursued a varied career in Siena, working in such diverse jobs as notary, university secretary, sculptor, superintendent of roads and hydraulic engineer. In the 1440s, Taccola retired from his official positions, receiving a pension from the state. He is known to have joined the fraternal order of San Jacomo by 1453 and presumably died around that date.
Taccola left behind two treatises, the first being De ingeneis (Concerning engines), work on its four books starting as early as 1419. Having been completed in 1433, Taccola continued to amend drawings and annotations to De
Edward Woods (28 April 1814 – 14 June 1903) was a British civil engineer.
Woods was born in London on 28 April 1814, the son of Samuel Woods, a merchant. After education at private schools, and some training at Bristol, he became in 1834 an assistant to John Dixon, recently appointed chief engineer of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Woods was placed in charge of the section, 15 miles in length, between Liverpool and Newton-le-Willows, including Wapping Tunnel, then under construction, between Crown Street and Park Lane goods stations; and in 1836 he succeeded Dixon as chief engineer, taking also charge of the mechanical department. The Liverpool and Manchester railway was amalgamated with the Grand Junction Railway in 1845. Woods remained until the end of 1852 in charge of the works appertaining to the Liverpool and Manchester section, including the construction of the Victoria Tunnel (completed 1848) between Edge Hill station and the docks, a large goods station adjoining the West Waterloo Dock, and a line between Patricroft and Clifton, opened in 1850. In 1853 he established himself in London as a consulting engineer.
During his eighteen years' work on the Liverpool and
Hans Monderman (19 November 1945 – 7 January 2008) was a Dutch road traffic engineer and innovator. He was recognized for radically challenging criteria used to evaluate engineering solutions for street design. His work compelled transportation planners and highway engineers to look afresh at the way people and technology relate to each other.
His most famous design approach is Shared Space, also known as designing for negotiation or Shared Streets. Monderman found that the traffic efficiency and safety of urban streets improved when the street and surrounding public space was redesigned to encourage each person to negotiate their movement directly with others. Shared Space designs typically call for removing regulatory traffic control features (such as kerbs, lane markings, signs and lights) and replacing intersections with roundabouts.
Monderman took it as a given that motorized traffic will remain an essential feature of European economies and their spatial fabric for several generations – and in effect has taken this as his technical and policy target: a problem that simply will not go away. Against this background, he reviewed technologies and practices of street design, and
Oliver Vaughan Snell Bulleid (19 September 1882 – 25 April 1970) was a British railway and mechanical engineer best known as the Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the Southern Railway between 1937 and the 1948 nationalisation, developing many well-known locomotives.
He was born in Invercargill, New Zealand to William Bulleid and his wife Marian Pugh, both British immigrants. On the death of his father, Bulleid returned to Llanfyllin, Wales in 1889 with his mother, where the family home had been. In 1901, after a technical education at Accrington, at age 18 he joined the Great Northern Railway (GNR) at Doncaster as an apprentice under H. A. Ivatt, the CME. After a four-year apprenticeship he became the assistant to the Locomotive Running Superintendent, and a year later the Doncaster Works manager. In 1908, he left to work in Paris with the French division of Westinghouse Electric Corporation as a Test Engineer, soon promoted to Assistant Works Manager and Chief Draughtsman. Later that year he married Marjorie Ivatt, Ivatt's youngest daughter.
A brief period working for the Board of Trade followed from 1910 arranging exhibitions in Brussels, Paris and Turin. During this time, he
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden ( /oʊˈsɑːmə bɪn moʊˈhɑːmɨd bɪn əˈwɑːd bɪn ˈlɑːdən/; Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن, ʾUsāmah bin Muḥammad bin ʿAwaḍ bin Lādin; March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011) was the founder of al-Qaeda, the jihadist organization responsible for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets. He was a member of the wealthy Saudi bin Laden family, and an ethnic Yemeni Kindite.
Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings. From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the War on Terror, with a US$25 million bounty by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. On May 2, 2011, bin Laden was shot and killed inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, by members of the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group and Central Intelligence Agency operatives in a covert operation ordered by United States President Barack Obama.
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a son of Mohammed
Peter Crerar (1785 Breadalbane, Scotland – 5 November 1856 Pictou, Nova Scotia) was a Scottish-Nova Scotian civil engineer. He designed the first railway in British North America, and the first standard gauge railroad in North America, at Stellarton, near Pictou, Nova Scotia.
Crerar had shown an early interest in railways as early as 3 February 1836 when he wrote a lengthy letter concerning a proposed railway between Halifax and Windsor. Later in 1836 the General Mining Association of London, England, owners of the Albion Mines, now Stellarton, decided to build a railway from the Albion Mines to its loading grounds on the East River. At that time there were few construction engineers in the area. Peter Crerar, a government land surveyor, was given the task. The plans were sent to the head office of the Mining Association in London, with the request that an engineer be sent out to execute them. When the plans were submitted to George Stephenson, builder of the locomotive who had engineered the construction of the Stockton and Darlington, England’s first railroad, he reported to the Mining Association that, in his opinion, the person who prepared the drawings was capable of executing
Robert Maitland Brereton (2 January 1834 – 7 December 1911) was an English railway engineer in India. In the United States he helped secure the first Act of Congress for the irrigation of California.
In 1853 Brereton studied practical mechanics at King's College London, entering the field of civil engineering upon graduating. He joined Brunel's design team, of which Brereton's second cousin R.P. Brereton was also a member. He worked on the Royal Albert Bridge across the River Tamar at Saltash, and the construction of the Cornish railway.
Brereton was first employed in Brunel's office in Duke St, London from 1854 to 1855 where he witnessed the building of the SS Great Eastern. In 1856 he worked on the engineering of the new Paddington Station, including bridges, warehouses, iron girder work, rail laying, and hydraulic and other machinery.
Brereton went to India in 1857 to work under Robert Graham as an assistant engineer. While there, he started work on the construction of the Bombay to Calcutta Railway, which was to form the backbone of the Indian Railways.
In January 1858 Brereton escaped death twice when his camp at the Sake River was attacked and looted by a band of 500 Bhils,
Walter Moberly (1832–1915) was a civil engineer and surveyor who played a large role in the early exploration and development of British Columbia, Canada, including discovering Eagle Pass, now used by the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Trans-Canada Highway.
He was born in Steeple Aston, Oxfordshire, England in 1832. In 1834 Walter moved with his family to Penetanguishene, Ontario, where his father, Capt. John Moberly, R. N. was appointed Post Commander. Walter received his primary education at the Base and later went to grammar school in Barrie. During the construction of the railway to Collingwood, Walter worked clearing bush and following that, chose a career of Lumberman, with timber holdings in Essa and Tossorontio, near Angus, and on the Severn River, in Muskoka. Most of his survey work was in British Columbia, and Utah.
His first survey work was laying out the streets for the community of New Westminster, now a suburb of Vancouver. Between 1861 and 1864 he worked on several government road building contracts. With Edgar Dewdney, Moberly helped construct the Dewdney Trail across the Coast Range from the town of Hope into the Okanagan. Also under contract from the government,
Vladimir Andreevich Steklov (Russian: Влади́мир Андре́евич Стекло́в; 9 January 1864 – 30 May 1926) was a Soviet/Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist.
Steklov was born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. In 1887, he graduated from the Kharkov University, where he was a student of Aleksandr Lyapunov. In 1889–1906 he worked at the Department of Mechanics of this University. He became a full professor in 1896. During 1893–1905 he also taught theoretical mechanics in the Kharkov Technological Institute (now known as Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute). In 1906 he started working at Petersburg University. In 1921 he petitioned for the creation of the Institute of Physics and Mathematics. Upon his death the institute was named after him. The Mathematics Department split from the Institute in 1934. It is now known as Steklov Institute of Mathematics.
Steklov's primary scientific contribution is in the area of orthogonal functional sets. He introduced a class of closed orthogonal sets, developed asymptotic Liouville–Steklov method for orthogonal polynomials, proved theorems on generalized Fourier series, and developed an approximation technique later named Steklov function. He also worked
Charles Blacker Vignoles (31 May 1793 – 17 November 1875) was an influential early railway engineer, and eponym of the Vignoles rail.
He was born at Woodbrook, County Wexford, Ireland. Having been orphaned when very young, he was brought to England and raised by his grandfather, Professor of Mathematics at the Woolwich Royal Military Academy. He trained in mathematics and law and was articled to a proctor in Doctors' Commons. However he decided to give up the practice of law and left home in 1813.
Because his parents died while his father was a serving officer, he had been gazetted as an ensign on half pay from the age of eighteen months. He entered Sandhurst as the private pupil of Thomas Leybourn, one of the lecturers who was also guardian of Mary Griffiths. Charles and she became engaged in secret and later married.
In 1814 gained a commission in the Royal Scots regiment, serving at Bergen op Zoom and then in Canada. He was promoted to lieutenant in 1815 and, after a spell in Scotland became aide-de-camp at Valenciennes to General Sir Thomas Brisbane under the command of Wellington following the Peninsular War.
The war being over, he was put on half pay in 1816 and needed
Sir Charles Hutton Gregory KCMG (14 October 1817 – 10 January 1898) was a British civil engineer. He was president of the Institution of Civil Engineers between December 1867 and December 1869.
Charles was the son of Dr Olinthus Gilbert Gregory a master of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. The chair of mathematics at that time was held by Charles Hutton, who acted as Dr. Gregory's patron. It was in Hutton's honour that Charles was named.
Gregory was consulting engineer of several major railway construction works, including those in Ceylon, Trinidad, Cape Colony, Perak and Selangor. He was the first to use railway semaphore signalling which he employed on the London and Croydon and the South Eastern Railways in 1842-3. This method later superseded all others and was dominant from 1870. In 1882 he was a member of the Channel Tunnel Committee and in 1886 was a Royal Commissioner for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George in November 1884. In 1894 he married Fanny Stirling, an actress who died the following year. Gregory died in London on 10 January 1898, and is buried in Brompton
George Hennet (1799–1857) was a railway engineer and contractor. He undertook many contracts for Isambard Kingdom Brunel's broad gauge railways in the South West of England and funded the provision of extra facilities on the South Devon Railway, these formed the basis of a general trading business that he conducted.
George Hennet was born in May 1799 in York. His early career was as a school master but he developed a talent for surveying. In 1829 he married Rosamond Follet, daughter of a timber merchant from Topsham, Devon.
During his work for Brunel he was living in London, close to Brunel's offices, but later moved to an address in Bristol near Temple Meads station. About 1849 he moved further west to Teignmouth in Devon from where he could better manage his contracts with the South Devon Railway. He owned a house called "Fonthill" in Shaldon, on the other side of the River Teign, and took an active part in the life of Teignmouth.
In 1853 he was declared bankrupt, owing about £350,000. His trading business continued for some years but his railway maintenance contract was cancelled and he had to sell much of his property in Dawlish and Teignmouth.
He died following a heart attack
Henri Giffard (8 February 1825 – 14 April 1882) was a French engineer. In 1852, he invented the steam injector and the powered airship.
Baptiste Henri Jacques Giffard was born in Paris in 1825. He invented the injector and the Giffard dirigible, an airship powered with a steam engine, and weighing over 180 kg (400 lb); it was the world's first passenger-carrying airship (then known as a dirigible). Both practical and steerable, the hydrogen-filled airship was equipped with a 3 hp steam engine that drove a propeller. The engine was fitted with a downward-pointing funnel. The exhaust steam was mixed in with the combustion gases and it was hoped by these means to stop sparks rising up to the gas bag; he also installed a vertical rudder.
On 24 September 1852 Giffard made the first powered and controlled flight travelling 27 km from Paris to Trappes. The wind was too strong to allow him to make way against it, so he was unable to return to the start. However, he was able to make turns and circles, proving that a powered airship could be steered and controlled.
Giffard was granted a patent for the injector on 8 May 1858. Unusually, he had thoroughly worked out the theory of this
John Frank Stevens (25 April 1853 – 2 June 1943) was an American engineer who built the Great Northern Railway in the United States and was chief engineer on the Panama Canal between 1905 and 1907.
Stevens was born in rural Maine, near West Gardiner to John Stevens, a tanner and farmer, and Harriet Leslie French. He attended Maine State Normal School (now the University of Maine at Farmington) for two years. At the conclusion of his schooling in 1873, bleak economic conditions held little promise of a job, and he chose to go west. Entry into the field of civil engineering evolved from his experience in the Minneapolis city engineer's office. For two years he carried out a variety of engineering tasks, including surveying and building railroads, and at the same time gained experience and an understanding of the subject. He became a practical engineer, self-taught and driven by a self-described "bull-dog tenacity of purpose." In 1878 Stevens married Harriet T. O'Brien. They had five children, two of whom died in infancy.
By the age of 33, in 1886, Stevens was principal assistant engineer for the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway, and in charge of building the line from Duluth,
Antonio da Ponte (1512–1595) was a Swiss-born Venetian architect and engineer, most famous for his rebuilding the Rialto Bridge in that city.
Da Ponte was head architect of the rebuilding of the Ducal Palace that was badly damaged by fire in 1574. After the original wooden structure of the Rialto Bridge had collapsed repeatedly, it was decided that a stone bridge was necessary. Between 1588 and 1591 da Ponte rebuilt the Rialto Bridge to a design to which he had contributed.
The design was selected in a contest held by the local authorities under Doge of Venice Pasquale Cicogna. Though Da Ponte is relatively unknown otherwise, the design for the Venice landmark defeated submissions by noted architects of the time, including Michelangelo. Plans were offered by famous architects such as Jacopo Sansovino, Andrea Palladio and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, but all involved a Classical approach with several arches, which was judged inappropriate to the situation.
The engineering of the bridge throws considerable weight on its foundations. It was considered so audacious that architect Vincenzo Scamozzi predicted future ruin. However the bridge has defied its critics to become one of the
John Metcalf (1717–1810), also known as Blind Jack of Knaresborough or Blind Jack Metcalf, was the first of the professional road builder to emerge during the British Industrial Revolution.
Blind from the age of six, John had an eventful life, which was well documented by his own account just before his death. In the period 1765 to 1792 he built about 180 miles (290 km) of turnpike road, mainly in the north of England.
John was born in Knaresborough, in the English county of Yorkshire, on 15 August 1717 into a poor family, the son of a horse breeder. At the age of six, he lost his sight to a smallpox infection. The child was given fiddle lessons as a way of making provision for him to earn a living later in life. He became an accomplished fiddler and made this his livelihood in his early adult years. In 1732, Metcalf succeeded The Queen's Head (Harrogate) fiddler: "Morrison" at the age of fifteen. Morrison had played there for the past seventy years. Metcalf had also an affinity for horses, and added to his living with some horse trading. Though blind, he took up swimming and diving, fighting cocks, playing cards, riding, and even hunting. He knew his local area so well he got paid
Fazlur Rahman Khan (Bengali: ফজলুর রহমান খান, Fozlur Rôhman Khan) (April 3, 1929 - March 27, 1982) was a Bangladeshi structural engineer and architect, who initiated structural systems that form the basis of tall building construction today. Considered the Father of tubular designs for high-rises, Khan became an icon in both architecture and structural engineering. He is the designer of Willis Tower – the tallest building in the United States (and tallest in the world for many years), John Hancock Centre a 100-story tall building, and etc. He also designed structures that are not high rises such as the Hajj Terminal and helped in initiating the widespread usage of computers for structural engineering. Khan, more than any other individual, ushered in a renaissance in skyscraper construction during the second half of the twentieth century and made it possible for people to live and work in "cities in the sky". Khan in his short life created a legacy of innovations that is without peer and left an unprecedented and lasting influence on the profession, both nationally and internationally. He has been called the "Einstein of structural engineering" and the Greatest Structural Engineer
Harrison Hayter (10 April 1825 – 5 May 1898) was a British engineer, participating in many significant railway construction projects in Britain and many harbour and dock constructions worldwide.
Hayter was born at Flushing near Falmouth, Cornwall the second son of Henry Hayter and his wife Eliza Jane Heylyn. He became a Civil Engineer, and began his professional training on the Stockton and Darlington Railway and then in the construction of the Great Northern Railway. In 1856 he was living in Anglesey, while working on the construction of Holyhead Harbour.
In 1857 he joined Sir John Hawkshaw and was associated with most of his projects until Sir John retired in 1888. These including the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, Charing Cross and Cannon Street Lines, East London Railway, completion of Inner Circle, the Severn Tunnel Railway and many overseas railways. The bridges he helped build included the Charing Cross Railway Bridge, the Cannon Street Railway Bridge and the Clifton Suspension Bridge. Harbours were at Alderney, IJmuiden (Holland) and Mornungao (India) and docks at Hull, Penarth, Maryport, Fleetwood, Dover and the South dock of the West India Docks. Other works included
Edilberto Evangelista (February 24, 1862 – February 17, 1897) was a Filipino civil engineer who trained in the University of Ghent, Belgium. His popularity by the time of the Philippine Revolution could have made him president rather than Emilio Aguinaldo, lest he was killed by a bullet in the head.
He was born in Sta. Cruz, Manila, on February 24, 1862. Evangelista finished his Bachelor of Arts at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in 1878. He was awarded a medal of excellence in Mathematics. Poor health made him to drop his idea of studying medicine. After this, he became a teacher, a cattle dealer, a tobacco merchant between Cebu and Manila, and later a contractor of public works. He soon went to Madrid in 1890. It was during this time that he befriended many Filipino patriots, including Dr. Jose Rizal, who advised him to study engineering in Belgium. He therefore enrolled at the University of Ghent, one of the world’s top engineering schools, and finished civil engineering and architecture with highest honors. He then received profitable offers of employment from several institutions in Europe but he declined because of his zeal to serve his country.
He returned to the
John Charles Walsham Reith, 1st Baron Reith, KT, GCVO, GBE, CB, TD, PC (20 July 1889 – 16 June 1971) was a Scottish broadcasting executive who established the tradition of independent public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom. In 1922 he was employed by the BBC (British Broadcasting Company Ltd.) as its General Manager; in 1923 he became its Managing Director and in 1927 he was employed as the Director-General of the British Broadcasting Corporation created under a Royal Charter. His concept of broadcasting as a way of educating the masses marked for a long time the BBC and similar organizations around the world.
Born at Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, Reith was the youngest, by ten years, of the seven children of the Revd Dr George Reith, a minister of the United Free Church of Scotland (later amalgamated with Church of Scotland, and not to be confused with the Free Church of Scotland). He was to carry the strict Presbyterian religious convictions of the Kirk forward into his adult life. Reith was educated at The Glasgow Academy then at Gresham's School, Holt, Norfolk. He was an indolent child who had used his intelligence to escape hard work but he was genuinely disappointed
Millard Evelyn Tydings (April 6, 1890 – February 9, 1961) was an attorney, author, soldier, state legislator, and served as a Democratic Representative and Senator in the United States Congress from Maryland.
Tydings was born in Havre de Grace, located in Harford County. He attended the public schools of Harford County and graduated from Maryland Agricultural College (now the University of Maryland, College Park) in 1910. He engaged in civil engineering with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in West Virginia in 1911. He studied law at the University of Maryland School of Law, in Baltimore, and was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Havre de Grace in 1913.
Tydings was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates in 1916, and was Speaker of the House from 1920-1922. He served in the Maryland State Senate during 1922-1923.
Tydings served in the U.S. Army during World War I and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and Division Machine-gun Officer in 1918. He served in Germany with the Army of Occupation and was discharged from the service in 1919.
Tydings was elected as a Democrat to the 68th and 69th sessions of the U.S. Congress from the second district of Maryland (March 4,
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (25 September 1725 – 2 October 1804) was a French inventor. He is believed to have built the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle. This claim is disputed by some sources, however, which suggest that Ferdinand Verbiest, as a member of a Jesuit mission in China, may have been the first to build, around 1672, a steam-powered vehicle but was too small to carry passenger.
Cugnot was born in Void-Vacon, Lorraine, (now departement of Meuse), France. He trained as a military engineer. He experimented with working models of steam-engine-powered vehicles for the French Army, intended for transporting cannons, starting in 1765.
Cugnot was one of the first to employ successfully a device for converting the reciprocating motion of a steam piston into rotary motion by means of a ratchet arrangement. A small version of his three-wheeled fardier à vapeur ("steam dray") ran in 1769. (A fardier was a massively built two-wheeled horse-drawn cart for transporting very heavy equipment such as cannon barrels).
The following year, a full-size version of the fardier à vapeur was built, specified to be able to carry 4 tons and cover 2 lieues (7.8 km or 4.8 miles) in one hour, a
Richard Henry Brunton FRGS MICE (26 December 1841 – 24 April 1901) was the so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses". Brunton was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland. He was employed by the Japanese Government as a foreign advisor (o-yatoi gaikokujin) to build lighthouses in Japan.
Brunton was born in the Coastguard House (now 11 Marine Terrace) at Muchalls, Fetteresso in The Mearns. After training as a railway engineer he joined the Stevenson brothers (David and Thomas Stevenson) who were engaged by the British government to build lighthouses.
Under pressure from British minister Sir Harry Parkes to fulfil its obligations to make the waters and harbors of Japan safe for shipping, the Japanese government hired the Edinburgh-based firm of D. and T. Stevenson to chart coastal waters and to build lighthouses where appropriate. The project had already begun under French foreign advisor Léonce Verny, but was not proceeding fast enough for the British.
Brunton was sent from Edinburgh in August 1868 to head the project after being recommended to the Japanese government by the Stevensons, and over seven and a half years designed and supervised the building of 26 Japanese
Thomas Stevenson PRSE MInstCE FRSSA FSAScot (1818–1887) was a pioneering Scottish lighthouse designer and meteorologist, who designed over thirty lighthouses in and around Scotland, as well as the Stevenson screen used in meteorology. His designs, celebrated as ground breaking, ushered in a new era of lighthouse creation.
He served as president of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts (1859–60), as president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1884-6), and was a co-founder of the Scottish Meteorological Society.
The youngest son of engineer Robert Stevenson, and brother of the lighthouse engineers Alan and David Stevenson, between 1854 and 1886 he designed many lighthouses, with his brother David, and then with David's son David Alan Stevenson. He married Margaret Balfour and their son was the writer Robert Louis Stevenson, who caused him much disappointment by failing to follow the engineering interests of his family.
Thomas Stevenson was a devout and regular attender at St. Stephen's Church in St Stephen's Place, Silvermills, at the north end of St Vincent Street, Edinburgh.
He was involved in regrettable efforts to rubbish the inventions of John Richardson Wigham.
William Jessop (23 January 1745 – 18 November 1814) was an English civil engineer, best known for his work on canals, harbours and early railways in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Jessop was born in Devonport, Devon, the son of Josias Jessop, a foreman shipwright in the Naval Dockyard. Josias Jessop was responsible for the repair and maintenance of Rudyerd’s Tower, a wooden lighthouse on the Eddystone Rock. He carried out this task for twenty years until 1755, when the lighthouse burnt down. John Smeaton, a leading civil engineer, drew up plans for a new stone lighthouse and Josias became responsible for the overseeing the building work. The two men became close friends, and when Josias died in 1761, two years after the completion of the lighthouse, William Jessop was taken on as a pupil by Smeaton (who also acted as Jessop’s guardian), working on various canal schemes in Yorkshire.
Jessop worked as Smeaton’s assistant for a number of years before beginning to work as an engineer in his own right. He assisted Smeaton with the Calder and Hebble and the Aire and Calder navigations in Yorkshire.
The first major work that Jessop is known to have carried out was the Grand Canal
Alexander Bain (October 1811 – 2 January 1877) was a Scottish inventor and engineer who was first to invent and patent the electric clock. Bain installed the railway telegraph lines between Edinburgh and Glasgow.
Bain was born in Watten, Caithness, Scotland. Bain's father was a crofter. Bain had a twin sister, Margaret, and, in total, he had six sisters and six brothers;. Bain did not excel in school and was apprenticed to a clockmaker in Wick.
Having learned the art of clockmaking, he went to Edinburgh, and in 1837 to London, where he obtained work as a journeyman in Clerkenwell. Bain frequented the lectures at the Polytechnic Institution and the Adelaide Gallery and later constructed his own workshop in Hanover Street.
In 1840, desperate for money to develop his inventions, Bain mentioned his financial problems to the editor of the Mechanics Magazine, who introduced him to Sir Charles Wheatstone. Bain demonstrated his models to Wheatstone, who, when asked for his opinion, said "Oh, I shouldn't bother to develop these things any further! There's no future in them." Three months later Wheatstone demonstrated an electric clock to the Royal Society, claiming it was his own invention.
Sir Gilbert Roberts (18 Feb 1899 - 1 Jan 1978) was a British civil engineer.
He was born in Hampstead, London to Henry William Roberts, a pharmacist and educated at Bromley High School. He then went to Gresham College to study engineering but on the outbreak of war he joined the Royal Flying Corps. After being shot in the knee in 1918 on a bombing raid he was invalided back to England and awarded an Army Scholarship to attend City and Guilds College of Imperial College, where he obtained his degree in 1923. He became a civil engineer and worked on the Sydney Harbour Bridge (1932) and Otto Beit suspension bridge (1938) across the Zambezi river.
As a senior partner with the British firm Freeman Fox & Partners he designed, in collaboration with William Brown, the Volta River Bridge (1957), the Auckland Harbour Bridge (1959–1971), the Forth Road Bridge (1964), the Severn Bridge (1966), the Bosphorus Bridge (1973) and the Humber Bridge (1981).
He was knighted in 1965. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in Mar 1965. His application citation read "Distinguished for his contributions to civil engineering by advancing the design of structures, particularly long span bridges.
Harry Francis Anstey (24 July 1847 – 6 July 1927) was a metallurgist and gold prospector who led the prospecting expedition that discovered gold in the Yilgarn, leading to the gold rush that established Western Australia's Eastern Goldfields.
Born in England in 1847, Anstey was educated at Rugby from 1863 to 1865. In 1877, he was living in Earl's Court, Kensington, Middlesex and working as a civil engineer; that year he married Edith Euphemia Carnegie. Anstey arrived in Western Australia on the Yeoman in June 1887, and set up a metallurgical laboratory in Perth.
Shortly afterwards, Anstey was invited to join the prospectors Dick Greaves and Ted Payne in a prospecting expedition to Bindoon. Soon after their return, news reached Perth that a Yilgarn farmer had found a nugget while sinking a bore. In response to this news, a prospecting syndicate was formed, and the party was sent to the Yilgarn, with Anstey in command. On about 20 October, the party discovered a rich reef in the Yilgarn Ranges, near the present day site of the town of Southern Cross. The discovery prompted the gold rush that established Southern Cross and the Yilgarn Goldfield, and led to the subsequent rich finds at
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (/ˈɪzəmbɑrd bruːˈnɛl/; 9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English mechanical and civil engineer who built bridges and dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship and numerous important bridges and tunnels. His designs revolutionised public transport and modern engineering.
Though Brunel's projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. During his short career, Brunel achieved many engineering "firsts", including assisting in the building of the first tunnel under a navigable river and development of SS Great Britain, the first propeller-driven ocean-going iron ship, which was at the time (1843) also the largest ship ever built.
Brunel set the standard for a very well built railway, using careful surveys to minimise grades and curves. This necessitated expensive construction techniques and new bridges and viaducts, and the two-mile-long Box Tunnel. One controversial feature was the wide gauge, a "broad gauge" of 7 ft 0 ⁄4 in (2,140 mm), instead of what was later to be known as 'standard gauge' of
John Ericsson (July 31, 1803 – March 8, 1889) was a Swedish-American inventor and mechanical engineer, as was his brother Nils Ericson. He was born at Långbanshyttan in Värmland, Sweden, but primarily came to be active in England and the United States. He is remembered best for designing the steam locomotive Novelty (in partnership with engineer John Braithwaite) and the ironclad ship USS Monitor.
John's and Nils's father Olaf Ericsson who worked as the supervisor for a mine in Värmland had lost money in speculations and had to move his family from Värmland to Forsvik in 1810. There he worked as a 'director of blastings' during the excavation of the Swedish Göta Canal. The extraordinary skills of the two brothers were discovered by Baltzar von Platen, the architect of the Göta Canal. The two brothers were dubbed cadets of mechanics of the Swedish Royal Navy and engaged as trainees at the canal enterprise. At the age of fourteen, John was already working independently as a surveyor. His assistant had to carry a footstool for him to reach the instruments during surveying work.
At the age of seventeen he joined the Swedish army in Jämtland, serving in the Jämtland Field Ranger
Squire Whipple C.E. (September 16, 1804 – March 15, 1888) was a civil engineer born in Hardwick, Massachusetts, USA. His family moved to New York when he was thirteen. He studied at Fairfield Academy. He graduated from Union College after only one year. He has become known as the father of iron bridge building in America.
He died March 15, 1888 in Albany, New York, USA and was buried in Albany Rural Cemetery, Menands, New York.
Constructed by S. DeGraff of Syracuse, NY, 1867-'69, the bridge over Norman's Kill in Albany, NY is a very well preserved example of a Whipple Bowstring (tied) Arch, still in daily use, with no posted weight limits. Due to the sleek appearance, many users think it is a modern bridge. Norman's Kill bridge. (The Delaware Turnpike once ran through both neighborhoods until 1929 with the construction of a new much higher, longer, and wider Delaware Avenue Bridge over the Normans Kill. This allowed commuters to and from Albany to bypass both Normansvilles. The original Whipple Bowstring bridge still stands, though it has been closed to vehicular traffic since January 1990.)
His designs were implemented in numerous bridges, both large through truss bridges, as well
Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, CB (28 March 1819 – 15 March 1891) was an English civil engineer of the 19th century. As chief engineer of London's Metropolitan Board of Works his major achievement was the creation (in response to the "Great Stink" of 1858) of a sewer network for central London which was instrumental in relieving the city from cholera epidemics, while beginning the cleansing of the River Thames.
Joseph William Bazalgette was born at Hill Lodge, Clay Hill, Enfield, London, England, the son of Joseph William Bazalgette (1783–1849), a retired captain of the Royal Navy and Theresa Philo, née Pilton (1796–1850) and was grandson of a French Protestant immigrant. He began his career working on railway projects, articled to noted engineer Sir John MacNeill and gaining sufficient experience (some in Ireland) in land drainage and reclamation works for him to set up his own London consulting practice in 1842. By the time he married, in 1845, Bazalgette was deeply involved in the expansion of the railway network, working so hard that he suffered a nervous breakdown two years later.
While he was recovering, London's short-lived Metropolitan Commission of Sewers ordered that all
Sir Thomas Bouch ( /ˈbaʊtʃ/; 25 February 1822 – 30 October 1880) was a British railway engineer in Victorian Britain.
He was born in Thursby, near Carlisle, Cumberland, England and lived in Edinburgh. As manager of the Edinburgh and Northern Railway he introduced the first roll-on/roll-off train ferry service in the world. Subsequently as a consulting engineer, he helped develop the caisson and popularised the use of lattice girders in railway bridges. He was knighted after the successful completion of the first Tay Railway Bridge but his name is chiefly remembered for the subsequent Tay Bridge Disaster, in which 75 people are believed to have died as a result of defects in design, construction and maintenance, for all of which Bouch was held responsible. He died within 18 months of being knighted, with his reputation destroyed.
Bouch’s father (a retired sea-captain) kept the Ship Inn at Thursby and Thomas was educated locally (Thursby and then Carlisle) before at the age of 17 beginning his civil engineering career as assistant to one of the engineers constructing the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway. After a short spell working in Leeds (1844-5) he was for four years one of the
Henry Larcom Abbot (August 13, 1831 – October 1, 1927) was a military engineer and career officer in the United States Army. He served in the Union Army during the American Civil War and was appointed brevet brigadier general of volunteers for his contributions in engineering and artillery. In 1866 he received additional brevet appointments as major general of volunteers and brigadier general in the Regular Army. He conducted several scientific studies of the Mississippi River with Captain, later Major General Andrew A. Humphreys. After his retirement, Abbot served as a consultant for the locks on the Panama Canal. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1863.
Henry Larcom Abbot was born in Beverly, Massachusetts. Abbot attended West Point and graduated second in his class (which included Jeb Stuart and G. W. Custis Lee) with a degree in military engineering in 1854. Initially he had wanted to join the Artillery, but shortly after graduation, a classmate convinced him to choose the Engineers. He was commissioned as a brevet second lieutenant in the U.S. Army on July 1, 1854, second lieutenant on October 2, 1855 and first lieutenant on July 1,
James Meadows Rendel FRS (December 1799 – 21 November 1856) was a British civil engineer.
Rendel, the son of a farmer and surveyor, was born near Okehampton, Devon, in 1799. He was initiated into the operations of a millwright under an uncle at Teignmouth, while from his father he learnt the rudiments of civil engineering. At an early age he went to London as a surveyor under Thomas Telford, by whom he was employed on the surveys for the proposed suspension bridge across the Mersey at Runcorn. About 1822 he settled at Plymouth, and commenced the construction of roads in the north of Devon. In August 1824 he was employed by the Earl of Morley in making a bridge across the Catwater, an estuary of the Plym within the harbour of Plymouth at Laira. To guard against the undermining effects of the current, he formed an artificial bottom. The bridge, which cost £27,126, was opened on 14 July 1827. With the exception of 1819 John Rennie Southwark Bridge over the Thames, it was the largest iron structure then existing, and in 1836 Rendel received a Telford Medal from the Institution of Civil Engineers for a paper describing its construction. .
He soon entered into partnership at Plymouth
William Dargan (1799–1867) was arguably the most important Irish engineer of the 19th century and certainly the most important figure in railway construction. Dargan designed and built Ireland's first railway line from Dublin to Dún Laoghaire in 1833. In total he constructed over 1,300 km (800 miles) of railway to important urban centres of Ireland. He was a member of the Royal Dublin Society and also helped establish the National Gallery of Ireland. He was also responsible for the Great Dublin Exhibition held at Leinster lawn in 1853. His achievements were honoured in 2004 when Dargan Bridge, Dublin a new cable stayed bridge for Dublin's Light Railway Luas was named after him.
Dargan was born near Carlow town, Ireland on 28 February 1799. He was the eldest in a large family of tenant farmers on the Earl of Portarlington's estate. He attended a local hedge school in Graiguecullen near Carlow, where he excelled in mathematics and accounting. He subsequently worked on his father’s 101-acre farm before securing a position in a surveyor’s office in Carlow. With the assistance of prominent local people, particularly John Alexander, a prominent Carlow miller, and Henry Parnell MP for
William Lindley (September 7, 1808 in London – May 22, 1900 in Blackheath, London), was a famous English engineer who together with his sons designed water and sewerage systems for over 30 cities across Europe.
As a young engineer he worked together with Marc Isambard Brunel and Francis Giles. In 1834 he went to Germany as Giles' assistant to survey the railway route from Lübeck to Hamburg. Few years later, in 1838, he was commissioned to build the Hamburg-Bergedorf Railway Company (German: Hamburg-Bergedorfer Eisenbahn), the first railway line which was carried out in northern Germany. The official opening had to be cancelled as a catastrophic fire in May 1842 left a third of the town in ruins. Lindley became member of the Technische Commission for the reconstruction of the town centre (with Alexis de Chateauneuf, Gottfried Semper etc.) and designed the first fundamental plan for the "Wiederaufbau". For the engineer, who had already been commissioned to design a new sewer system for Hamburg, the destruction was an opportunity to modernise the city.
His designs, influenced by English social reformer and public health inspector Edwin Chadwick, included the first underground sewers
Sir Donald Coleman Bailey, OBE (15 September 1901 – 5 May 1985) was an English civil engineer who invented the Bailey bridge. Field Marshal Montgomery is recorded as saying that without the Bailey bridge, we should not have won the war.
Bailey attended Rotherham Grammar School and The Leys School in Cambridge and then studied for a period at Sheffield University.
Bailey was a civil servant in the War Office when he designed his bridge. Another engineer, A.M. Hamilton, successfully demonstrated that the Bailey bridge breached a patent on the Callender-Hamilton bridge, though the Bailey bridge was generally regarded as being superior for temporary use.
Bailey was knighted in 1946 for his bridge design. By this time he was living quietly in Southbourne in Bournemouth. Dorothy Barnes, one of the girls at the Southbourne Crossroads bank, which he used regularly was surprised to learn that her unassuming customer had been knighted. Sir Donald died in Bournemouth in 1985. His 1940s home was demolished c 2004 and replaced by flats, however he also had other addresses in Bournemouth, being recorded in 1974 at 14 Viking Close, as Bailey, Sir Donald C. OBE, JP. The house in which Bailey was
Federico Cantero Villamil (Madrid, 22 June 1874 - 1946) was a Spanish civil engineer known for the dams he constructed and planned along the river Duero and for his research on the aeronautical field, which is summarized in the Libélula española, a helicopter constructed by him.
His parents were the civil engineer Federico Cantero Seirullo and Isabel Villamil Olivares. He married Tránsito Cid, and they had two children. A few years later she died. Later, Cantero married Concepción García-Arenal Winter, a granddaughter of Concepción Arenal, and they had six children.
He became an engineer 30 September 1896, with the first mark. He did his working practice during 1897 in Zamora, and in 1900 he began to work at the "Jefatura de Obras Públicas de Zamora". In May 1900 he asked and obtained a leave in order to work in hydraulics. At that moment, the governments of Spain and Portugal were planning how to exploit the hydroelectric potential of the river Duero.
In 1899 founds the society "El porvenir de Zamora" (The Prospect of Zamora), with the aim of funding and exploiting the dam of San Roman, near Zamora. Its construction lasted until 1903. This dam took profit of a "hoz" (meander) of
Gustav Lindenthal (May 21, 1850 – July 31, 1935) was a civil engineer who designed the Hell Gate Bridge in New York City, among other bridges. Lindenthal's work was greatly affected by his pursuit for perfection and his love of art. His structures not only serve the purpose they were designed for, but are aesthetically pleasing to the public eye. Having received little formal education and no degree in civil engineering, Lindenthal based his work on his prior experience and techniques used by other engineers of the time.
Lindenthal was born in Brünn, Austro-Hungarian Empire, now Brno, Czech Republic in 1850. Lindenthal began to receive practical training in 1866 when he was employed as a mason and carpenter. At the age of 18, Lindenthal left his family to set out to make a life of his own in Vienna, Austria.
When he arrived in Vienna he became an assistant in the engineering department for the Empress Elisabeth Railway of Austria. Two years later he joined the Union Construction Company, where he gained experience in building incline planes and railroads. Then a year later he decided to join the Swiss National Railroad, where he was hired on as a division engineer in charge of
Sir Samuel Bentham (11 January 1757 in England – 31 May 1831 in London, England) was a noted English mechanical engineer and naval architect credited with numerous innovations, particularly related to naval architecture, including weapons. He was the only surviving sibling of philosopher Jeremy Bentham, with whom he had a close bond.
Samuel Bentham was the only surviving sibling of Jeremy Bentham, five other siblings having died in infancy or early childhood, and their mother dying in 1759. At the age of 14, Bentham was apprenticed to a shipwright at Woolwich Dockyard, serving there for 7 years.
In 1780 he moved to Russia, where he was employed in the service of Prince Potemkin, who had an establishment designed to promote the introduction of various arts of civilization. Initially hired as a shipbuilder, he soon discovered other opportunities to use his talents as an engineer and inventor, constructing industrial machinery and experimenting with steel production. He also designed and constructed many novel inventions, including an amphibious vessel and an articulated barge built for Catherine the Great, and the first Panopticon.
He was also decorated for his part in a decisive
Walter Hohmann (18 March 1880, Hardheim, Germany – 11 March 1945, Essen, Germany) was a German engineer who made an important contribution to the understanding of orbital dynamics. In a book published in 1925, Hohmann demonstrated a very fuel-efficient path to move a spacecraft between two different orbits, now called a Hohmann transfer orbit. He received his Ph.D. from the RWTH Aachen University in 1920.
Hohmann was born in Hardheim, the son of a doctor. Whilst a boy, he lived with his family in Port Elizabeth, South Africa for a time, before returning to Germany. He studied civil engineering at the Technical University of Munich, graduating in 1904. He then worked for the municipal councils of Vienna, Hanover and Breslau before settling in Essen, where he eventually held the post of chief architect.
Between 1911 and 1915, Hohmann became interested the problem of interplanetary spaceflight. He later realised that minimising the amount of fuel that the spacecraft had to carry would be an important consideration, and plotted a variety of orbits until he found the one that now bears his name. He published his findings in Die Erreichbarkeit der Himmelskörper (The Attainability of the
Dr. Joseph Philip Colaco, USA, is a well known Indian American structural engineer and author. Dr. Colaco, known as Joe, is noted for his contributions to the supertall skyscrapers in the United States and in Middle East. He received his PhD. in civil structural engineering from the University of Illinois in 1965.
In 1965, employed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, he began working in Chicago, Illinois. In 1969 he joined Ellisor Engineers Inc., Houston, Texas. Dr. Colaco established his own company, CBM Engineers Inc. in 1975 and has been serving as the President of the company.
Dr. Colaco's design innovations improved the construction of high-rise buildings, enabling them to withstand enormous forces generated on these super structures. These new designs opened an economic door for contractors, engineers, architects, and investors, providing vast amounts of real estate space on minimal plots of land.
He is noted for his contributions to the designs for some of the multi-billion dollar projects in the United States, Middle East and India including Chicago's 100-story John Hancock Center, 75-story JPMorgan Chase Tower in Houston, 160-story Burj Khalifa Tower in Dubai (present tallest
David Bernard Steinman (June 11, 1886 - August 21, 1960) was an American structural engineer. He was the designer of the Mackinac Bridge and many other notable bridges, and a published author. He grew up in New York City's lower Manhattan, and lived with the ambition of making his mark on the Brooklyn Bridge that he lived under. In 1906 he earned a bachelor's degree from City College and in 1909, a Master of Arts from Columbia University and a Doctorate in 1911. He was awarded the Franklin Institute's Louis E. Levy Medal in 1957.
David Steinman built bridges in the United States, Thailand, England, Italy, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Canada, Korea, and Iraq. He had a literary bent, and was a published author with several books, articles in advancement of his craft, and even had children's books and poetry to his credit.
Steinman was the child of immigrant workers. Little is known of his family and early childhood other than that he had 6 siblings. There is some controversy about where and when he was born. Some sources have him born in Khomsk, Brest, Belarus in 1886, and emigrating to the United States with his family in 1890. However other sources, including Ratigan, and Steinman himself
Elias Abi Shaheen is a Lebanese Kouranian, Greek Orthodox civil engineer. He has several projects in the gulf region (Iraq), the previous USSR (Turkmenistan) and Lebanon.
The most prominent plan Shaheen initiated and developed was the University of Balamand (UOB), in his home region of El-Koura. This project, begun in 1983, is still in development under the supervision of Ignatius IV of Antioch, primate of the autocephalous Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch.
After the end of the Lebanese civil war, Shaheen started a huge sport city project in Beirut.
John Hidalgo Moya (May 5, 1920–1994), sometimes known as Jacko Moya, was an American-born architect who worked largely in England. Moya was a native of California where he was born to an English mother and Mexican father but lived in England since he was an infant. He formed the architectural practice Powell & Moya Architect Practice with Philip Powell.
Among other projects, Powell and Moya designed Chichester Festival Theatre, the Skylon tower, Churchill Gardens in Pimlico, Northbrooks in Harlow, St Paul's School, London, the Museum of London, Christ Church Picture Gallery, Oxford and Wolfson College, Oxford.
Sir John Wolfe-Barry (7 December 1836 – 22 January 1918) was an English civil engineer of the late 19th and early 20th century. His most famous project was the construction of Tower Bridge over the River Thames in London.
Wolfe-Barry, the youngest son of architect Sir Charles Barry, added "Wolfe" to his inherited name in 1898. He was educated at Glenalmond and King's College London, where he was a pupil of civil engineer Sir John Hawkshaw, as was Henry Marc Brunel, son of the great Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Barry and Hawkshaw worked on railway bridge crossings across the Thames, among other projects (Brunel pursued his own business from 1871, but in 1878 went into partnership with Barry). Barry began his own practice in 1867, and carried out more work for the railways.
However, it was Tower Bridge that made Wolfe-Barry's name. In 1878, architect Horace Jones first proposed a bascule bridge. An Act of Parliament allowing the Corporation of the City of London to build it was passed in 1885. Jones was appointed architect, and developed an initial scheme for which he was knighted in 1886. Wolfe-Barry, already well-established with experience of bridges across the Thames, was introduced
Eduardo Alfredo Juan Bernardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (Spanish pronunciation: [eˈðwaɾðo alˈfɾeðo ˈxwan verˈnaɾðo ˈfɾej ˈrwis ˈtaɣle]; born June 24, 1942) is a Chilean politician and civil engineer who was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. He is currently Senator for Los Ríos and was President of the Senate from 2006 to 2008. He attempted a comeback as the candidate of the ruling Concertación coalition for the 2009 presidential election, but was narrowly defeated. His father was Eduardo Frei Montalva who was President of Chile from 1964 to 1970.
Frei was born in Santiago to Eduardo Frei Montalva and María Ruiz-Tagle Jiménez. He received all his schooling at the Luis Campino Institute. He then attended the University of Chile, where he graduated as a Civil Engineer, specializing in hydraulics. After graduation, he followed advanced courses in management in Italy.
Frei, whose grandfather Eduardo Frei Schlinz emigrated to Chile from Switzerland, obtained Swiss citizenship in February 2009.
Frei took his first steps in politics while at the university, where he was a student leader. In 1958, he joined the Christian Democrat party, and in 1964 participated actively in his father's successful
Frederick Palmer (1860–19??) was a British civil engineer.
Palmer was born in Carmarthenshire, Wales in 1860. Palmer undertook several projects at the West India Docks. The first was the construction of several sheds at the Import Dock between 1912 and 1917. Between 1926 and 1930 he built five more sheds at the South Dock and between 1929 and 1930 he constructed four more at the Export Dock.
Palmer served as president of the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) between November 1926 and November 1927. His son, John Palmer, made a bequest of an endowment fund to the ICE in 1960 to mark the centenary of his father's birth. The fund provides for a monetary prize and certificate for a paper submitted to the ICE on the subject of the economic and financial aspects of civil engineering.
Joshua Field (1786 – 11 August 1863) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer.
Field was born in Hackney in 1786, his father was John Field a corn and seed merchant who was later to become Master of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors. Field was a pupil of dockyard engineer Simon Goodrich from 1803 to 1805. Commissioned by Samuel Bentham, the Inspector-general of naval works, he worked with Samuel Goodrich to develop tools for mass producing ships' blocks at Portsmouth Dockyard. The block mills they designed required ten unskilled men to take the place of 110 skilled craftsmen, and have been recognised as the first use of machine tools for mass production. They were built by Henry Maudslay between 1802 and 1806, and represented the first steam-powered manufactory in any dockyard.
He then joined Maudslay to form the firm of Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field of Lambeth. One of their projects was to build engines for the SS Great Western's Atlantic crossing of 1838.
He was a prolific engineer working with the Atlantic Telegraph Company on machinery for cable laying, the Metropolitan Board of Works on sewage systems and Isambard Kingdom Brunel on his steamships.
Terence Patrick O'Sullivan BSc, PhD, FICE, MSocCE (France), was a civil engineer. He specialised initially in steel and reinforced concrete structures. Later he founded a firm of consulting engineers, T. P. O’Sullivan & Partners, which grew to have offices on four continents and made a reputation in the field of infrastructure development, particularly in the developing world.
O'Sullivan was born on 25 September 1913 in Shoreditch in London, to Patrick Joseph O'Sullivan, an Irish Catholic doctor formerly in the British army medical service in India, and his third wife, Emma Agnes Callingham.
Terence O'Sullivan was educated by the Jesuits at St Ignatius College in Stamford Hill. He was the youngest child but had six sisters, and in the climate of the period was left with burdensome family responsibilities when his father died in 1923.
On leaving school he chose to go into engineering. Though still supporting his widowed mother, he combined studying at the Regent Street Polytechnic between 1929 and 1932, for a degree as an external student of the University of London, with working on the Shenington to Gidea Park railway line in Essex, the last new railway to be built in England
Mat Roy Thompson (February 8, 1874–June 8, 1962), known also as Matt Roy Thompson, Matthew R. Thompson, Mathew R. Thompson, M. Roy Thompson, Roy Thompson, and Leroy Thompson, was a civil engineer and architect who worked on a great variety of construction and development projects across the United States, most notably on Scotty's Castle, the Death Valley mansion of eccentric millionaire Albert Mussey Johnson.
Mat Roy Thompson was born Leroy Thompson in Dunlap, Iowa, in 1874, the son of George Washington Thompson, a real estate broker of comfortable, if moderate, means, and his wife Susan Forrer. Mat Roy's father moved his real estate business to Tacoma, Washington while Mat Roy was still very young, and so it was in the state of Washington that Mat Roy grew up. In 1890, upon reaching the age of sixteen, Mat Roy graduated from high school and promptly enrolled in the Rose Polytechnic Institute of Technology, an engineering and technical school in Terre Haute, Indiana.
When Stanford University opened its doors to students for the first time one year later in 1891, Mat Roy happily enrolled as a sophomore, one of only eleven upper classmen of a total 559 students. While continuing his
Benjamin Outram (1 April 1764 – 22 May 1805) was an English civil engineer, surveyor and industrialist. He was a pioneer in the building of canals and tramways.
Born at Alfreton in Derbyshire, he began his career assisting his father Joseph Outram, who described himself as an "agriculturalist", but was also a land agent, an enclosure commissioner arbitrating in the many disputes which arose from the enclosures acts, an advisor on land management, a surveyor for new mines and served as a turnpike trustee.
In 1803 he had a son, James Outram, who became a general in the Indian Army and was later knighted.
He died of a "brain fever" (stroke) while visiting London in 1805. After his death, and some considerable litigation, in 1807 Benjamin Outram and Company was renamed the Butterley Company.
After his death, his wife Margaret (1778–1863), daughter of James Anderson, wrote that Outram "was hasty in his temper, feeling his own superiority over others. Accustomed to command, he had little toleration for stupidity and slowness, and none for meanness or littleness of any kind." In spite of his prowess, Outram's wife and family were for a while reduced to near poverty after his death until
Fulgence Bienvenüe (27 January 1852 – 3 August 1936) was a noted French civil engineer. He is best known for his role in the construction of the Paris Métro, and had been called "Le Pere du Metro" (Father of the Metro).
A native of Uzel in Brittany and son of a notary, he graduated as a civil engineer in 1872 from the Ecole Polytechnique. He began working for the Department of Bridges and Roads at Alencon in 1872. His first assignment was the construction of various railway lines in the Mayenne area. In the course of this work, his left arm was crushed in a construction accident and had to be amputated. He relocated to Paris in 1886. That year, he designed and supervised the construction of aqueducts for the city of Paris, drawing water from the Aube and Loire Rivers. Then, he built a cable railway near the Place de la Republique and created the Buttes-Chaumont Park. In 1891, he became Engineer-in-Chief of Bridges and Roads, the most prestigious engineering post in France.
Paris city officials selected Bienvenüe to become chief engineer for the Paris Métro in 1896. He designed a special procedure of building the tunnels to allow the swift repaving of surface roads; this
Hardy Cross, 1885–1959, born in Nansemond County, Virginia, was a U.S. structural engineer and the developer of the moment distribution method for structural calculation of large buildings. The method was in general use from c.1935 until c.1960 when it was gradually superseded by other methods. It made possible the efficient and safe design of many reinforced concrete buildings during an entire generation.
Cross was born to Virginia planter Thomas Hardy Cross and his wife Eleanor Elizabeth Wright. He had an elder brother, Tom Peete Cross, who would later become a Celtic studies scholar. Both studied at Norfolk Academy. He obtained a BS in civil engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1908, and then joined the bridge department of the Missouri Pacific Railroad in St. Louis, where he remained for a year, after which he returned to Norfolk Academy in 1909. After a year of graduate study at Harvard he was awarded the MCE degree in 1911. Hardy Cross developed the moment distribution method while working at Harvard university.
Cross next became an assistant professor of civil engineering at Brown University, where he taught for seven years. After a brief return to
Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet (21 December 1803 – 22 January 1887) was an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist. In 1841, he devised the British Standard Whitworth system, which created an accepted standard for screw threads. Whitworth also created the Whitworth rifle, often called the 'sharpshooter' because of its accuracy and is considered one of the earliest examples of a sniper rifle.
Upon his death in 1887, he bequeathed much of his fortune for the people of Manchester, with the Whitworth Art Gallery and Christie Hospital partly funded by Whitworth's money. Whitworth Street and Whitworth Hall in Manchester are named in his honour. Whitworth was created a baronet on 7 October 1869.
Whitworth was born in Stockport, the son of Charles Whitworth, a teacher and Congregational minister, and at an early age developed an interest in machinery. He was educated at Idle, near Bradford; his aptitude for mechanics became apparent when he began work for his uncle.
After leaving school Whitworth became an indentured apprentice to his uncle, Charles Hulse, a cotton spinner at Amber Mill, Oakerthorpe in Derbyshire. This was for a four year term after which he worked
Othmar Hermann Ammann (March 26, 1879 – September 22, 1965) was a Swiss-American structural engineer whose designs include the George Washington Bridge, Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and Bayonne Bridge.
Othmar Ammann was born in Schaffhausen, Switzerland in 1879. His father was a manufacturer and his mother was a hat maker. He received his engineering education at the Polytechnikum in Zürich, Switzerland. He studied with Swiss engineer Wilhelm Ritter. In 1904, he emigrated to the United States, spending his career working mostly in New York City. In 1905 he briefly returned to Switzerland to marry Lilly Selma Wehrli. Together they had 3 children- Werner, George, and Margaret- before she died in 1933. In 1924, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He then married Karly Vogt Noetzli in 1935 in California.
Ammann wrote two reports about bridge collapses, the collapse of the Quebec Bridge and the collapse of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge (Galloping Gertie). It was the report that he wrote about the failure of the Quebec Bridge in 1907 that first earned him recognition in the field of bridge design engineering. Because of this report, he was able to obtain a position
Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, KCB, FRS, FRAeS (13 April 1892 – 5 December 1973) is considered by many to be the "inventor of radar". (The hyphenated name is used herein for consistency, although this was not adopted until he was knighted in 1942.) Development of radar, initially nameless, was first started elsewhere but greatly expanded on 1 September 1936 when Watson-Watt became Superintendent of a new establishment under the British Air Ministry, Bawdsey Research Station located in Bawdsey Manor, near Felixstowe, Suffolk. Work there resulted in the design and installation of aircraft detection and tracking stations called Chain Home along the East and South coasts of England in time for the outbreak of World War II in 1939. This system provided the vital advance information that helped the Royal Air Force win the Battle of Britain.
Born in Brechin, Angus, Scotland, Watson-Watt was a descendant of James Watt, the famous engineer and inventor of the practical steam engine. After attending Damacre Primary School and Brechin High School, he was accepted to University College, Dundee (which was then part of the University of St Andrews but became the University of Dundee in 1967).
Sir William Arrol (1839–1913) was a Scottish civil engineer, bridge builder, and Liberal Party politician.
The son of a spinner, he was born in Houston, Renfrewshire, and started work in a cotton mill at only 9 years of age. He started training as a blacksmith by age 13, and went on to learn mechanics and hydraulics at night school. In 1863 he joined a company of bridge manufacturers in Glasgow, but by 1872 he had established his own business, the Dalmarnock Iron Works, in the east end of the city. In the late 1870s he went on to found Sir William Arrol & Co., a leading international civil engineering business.
In 1878, he secured the contract for the Caledonian Railway Bridge over the Clyde, and in 1882 he was awarded the reconstruction contract for the Tay Rail Bridge, which had collapsed in 1879. His company went on to construct the Forth Bridge which was completed in 1890. At the time, the Tay and Forth bridges were the largest of their type in the world. They were notable not just for their size but also the use of steel in the Forth bridge, and the riveting method developed by Arrol to attach the girders to one another.
The bridge is, even today, regarded as an engineering
Bob Lyon, an American politician, is a former Kansas State Senator from the city of Winchester. A civil engineer, Lyon is a graduate of the University of Virginia and George Washington University.
A Republican, Lyon was elected to the Third District seat of the Kansas Senate in 2000. He defeated two Leavenworth residents to win the Republican nomination, and he beat Democratic nominee Mike Gibbens by somewhat more than 1,500 votes in the general election. In his term in the Senate, he served on four committees:
He served a single four-year term, being succeeded by Roger Pine in 2005.
With his wife Rita, Lyon has three daughters. He is an elder in the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, serving on the session of the denomination's Winchester congregation.
Clarence Decatur "C. D." Howe, PC (15 January 1886 – 31 December 1960) was a powerful Canadian Cabinet minister, representing the Liberal Party. Howe served in the governments of Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King and Louis St. Laurent continuously from 1935 to 1957. He is credited with transforming the Canadian economy from agriculture-based to industrial.
Born in Massachusetts, Howe moved to Nova Scotia as a young adult to take up a professorship at Dalhousie University. After working for the Canadian government as an engineer, he began his own firm, and became a wealthy man. In 1935, he was recruited as a Liberal candidate for the Canadian House of Commons by then Opposition leader Mackenzie King. The Liberals won the election in a landslide, and Howe won his seat. Mackenzie King appointed him to the Cabinet. There, he took major parts in many new enterprises, including the founding of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) and Trans-Canada Air Lines (today Air Canada). When World War II began in 1939, Howe played a crucial role in Canada's war effort, and recruited many corporate executives to serve in wartime enterprises.
Howe's impatience with the necessity for
Christian Menn (born March 3, 1927 in Meiringen, Canton of Bern) is a bridge designer from Switzerland. He owned his own Engineering Company in Chur, Switzerland from 1957-1971. From 1971 until his retirement in 1992 he became a professor of Structural Engineering at ETH Zurich specializing in Bridge design. In his retirement years, he continues to be a consulting engineer in private practice.
Menn’s bridges had to be designed for the times. "Structural Analysis found itself at the time in the transition from descriptive graphical analysis to abstract analytical statics." (Menn, 2002) Menn worked very closely with Professor Pierre Lardy during the beginning of his career. Together, Menn and Lardy emphasized the design of structures based on aesthetics and economy. Menn believed that economy, serviceability and safety of the bridge would revolve around aesthetics. Menn stated that an engineer achieves safety and serviceability by understanding the underlying scientific principles. Also, that economy and elegance are achieved through nonscientific ideas. Meaning the engineer depends entirely on his creativity. Menn described his bridges with abstract designs. This allowed Menn the
Colonel Colin Mackenzie (1754–1821) was Surveyor General of India, and an art collector and orientalist.
Mackenzie was born in Stornoway, Outer Hebrides, Scotland. He produced many of the first accurate maps of India, and his research and collections contributed significantly to the field of Asian studies.
He began his career as a customs officer in Stornoway, but at age 28, joined the British East India Company as an officer in the engineers. In 1799, he was part of the British force in the Battle of Seringapatam, where Tipu Sultan, Maharaja of Mysore was defeated by the British. He led the Mysore survey between 1800 and 1810. The survey consisted of a team of draftsmen and illustrators who collected material on the natural history, geography, architecture, history, customs, and folk tales of the region.
He later spent two years in Java, during the period of British occupation during the Napoleonic Wars.
He used his military career and salary to support his research into the history, religion, philosophy, ethnology, folklore, art, and mathematics of India and Java. He hired learned Brahmins to assist him with surveys and translations of manuscripts. He researched Indian
John Calloway “Jack” Walton (March 6, 1881 – November 25, 1949) was an American politician and the fifth Governor of Oklahoma. Walton would serve the shortest term of any Governor of Oklahoma, being the first Governor in the state’s history to be removed from office.
John Calloway Walton was born on March 6, 1881, in Indianapolis, Indiana. He spent six years in Indianapolis before his family moved to Lincoln, Nebraska. At the age of sixteen, Walton joined the United States Army in 1897 where he spent the next six years. Despite his enlistment, Walton did not see active duty during the Spanish-American War; however he did serve at a post in Mexico for some time.
Following his discharge from the military in 1903, Walton traveled to Oklahoma Territory to make his life as a contractor in the field of civil engineering. Walton set up his practice in the thriving metropolis of Oklahoma City. Walton lived in Oklahoma City when Oklahoma was officially admitted to the Union on November 16, 1907, and saw the capital moved from Guthrie, Oklahoma to Oklahoma City in 1910.
Walton joined the Democratic Party and became an active participant in the state’s political matters. In 1917, under the
John Muir (21 April 1838 – 24 December 1914) was a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. One of the most well-known hiking trails in the U.S., the 211-mile (340 km) John Muir Trail, was named in his honor. Other places named in his honor are Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, John Muir College, Mount Muir, Camp Muir and Muir Glacier.
In his later life, Muir devoted most of his time to the preservation of the Western forests. He petitioned the U.S. Congress for the National Park bill that was passed in 1890, establishing both Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks. Because of the spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings, he was able to inspire readers, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves, Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II. As the son of a United States Army chaplain, Groves lived at a number of Army posts during his childhood. He graduated fourth in his class at the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1918 and was commissioned into the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1929, he went to Nicaragua as part of an expedition whose purpose was to conduct a survey for the Inter-Oceanic Nicaragua Canal. Following the 1931 Nicaragua earthquake, Groves took over responsibility for Managua's water supply system, for which he was awarded the Nicaraguan Presidential Medal of Merit. He attended the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1935 and 1936, and the Army War College in 1938 and 1939, after which he was posted to the War Department General Staff.
In 1940 Groves, who "had a reputation as a doer, a driver, and a stickler for duty", became special assistant for construction to the Quartermaster General, tasked with
Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, FRS FRSE (25 April 1769 – 12 December 1849) was a French-born engineer who settled in England. He preferred the name Isambard, but is generally known to history as Marc to avoid confusion with his more famous son Isambard Kingdom Brunel. His most famous achievement was the construction of the Thames Tunnel.
Brunel was the second son of Jean Charles Brunel and Marie Victoire Lefebvre. Jean Charles was a prosperous farmer in Hacqueville, Normandy, and Marc was born on the family farm. It was customary for the first son to inherit the farm and the second son to enter the priesthood. His father therefore started Marc on a classical education, but he showed no liking for Greek or Latin and instead showed himself proficient in drawing and mathematics. He was also very musical from an early age. At the age of eleven he was sent to a seminary in Rouen. The superior of the seminary allowed him to learn carpentry and he soon achieved the standards of a cabinetmaker. He also sketched ships in the local harbour. As he showed no desire to become a priest, his father sent him to stay with relatives in Rouen, where a family friend tutored him on naval matters. In 1786,
Everard Richard Calthrop (3 March 1857 – 30 March 1927) was a British railway engineer and inventor. Calthrop was a notable promoter and builder of narrow gauge railways, especially of 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge, and was especially prominent in India. His most notable achievement was the Barsi Light Railway; however he is best known in his home country for the Leek and Manifold Valley Light Railway. Later in life he took an interest in aviation, patenting some early designs for parachutes.
Calthrop was born on 3 March 1857, the eldest son of farmer Everard Calthrop. He had 6 brothers, one of whom was Sir Guy Calthrop, general manager of the London & North Western Railway. The family lived at Deeping Fen, Lincolnshire, where Calthrop was born, and later at Sutton in the Isle of Ely. Calthrop was educated at Uppingham School.
Calthrop started work with Robert Stephenson & Co and then was apprenticed to the London & North Western Railway at Crewe in 1874. In 1879 he joined the Great Western Railway, where he rose to assistant manager of the Carriage and Wagon Works. In 1882 he went to India to join the Great Indian Peninsula Railway as a locomotive inspector.
Once in India, Calthrop
James Watt, FRS, FRSE (19 January 1736 – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
While working as an instrument maker at the University of Glasgow, Watt became interested in the technology of steam engines. He realised that contemporary engine designs wasted a great deal of energy by repeatedly cooling and re-heating the cylinder. Watt introduced a design enhancement, the separate condenser, which avoided this waste of energy and radically improved the power, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of steam engines. Eventually he adapted his engine to produce rotary motion, greatly broadening its use beyond pumping water.
Watt attempted to commercialise his invention, but experienced great financial difficulties until he entered a partnership with Matthew Boulton in 1775. The new firm of Boulton and Watt was eventually highly successful and Watt became a wealthy man. In his retirement, Watt continued to develop new inventions though none were as significant as his steam engine work. He
Remi Clair is an actor, model and an Engineer who was born in District Jalandhar of Punjab state in Northern India. Ancestrally he belongs to Punjabi descent and Indo-European / Indo-Scythian and Aryan ethnic group. He is an actor and has recently starred in the cult favorite Sweet Amerika, which was released on 19 September 2008 in Canada.
He was fond of doing extra-curricular activities and acting since his childhood. Being a unique and idealistic type of person he has always been trying to do something different from others with honesty and integrity. He learned the basics of acting while studying theater during his college days. He participated in many stage activities like skits, plays and Bhangra in college. He won best item award on stage during a get together party and won first prize in a music event by dramatic club of Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh. He had not only kept himself busy in doing courses in hiking & trekking, swimming, karate and snow skiing etc. but was also a member of National Cadet Corps (India) (army wing) & was holding senior most rank of Senior Under Officer (SUO). He led all India twice as Camp Cadet Commander & was adjudged Best Cadet in All
Alfred Lamert Dickens (March 1822–1860) was a younger brother of the Victorian novelist Charles Dickens and a railway engineer.
As a boy Alfred attended a school in Hampstead with his brother Frederick Dickens for two years, until his father John Dickens could no longer afford the fees. At the end of the school day the boys would be collected by their older brother, Charles. On 20 February 1824 John Dickens was imprisoned in the Marshalsea Debtors' Prison for debt under the Insolvent Debtor's Act of 1813, because he owed a baker, James Kerr, £40 and 10 shillings. His wife Elizabeth Dickens, and her four youngest children, including the two year-old Alfred, joined her husband in the Marshalsea in April 1824. John Dickens was released after three months, on 28 May 1824.
Some years later, John Dickens was again briefly imprisoned for debt and was released only when his son Charles borrowed money from his friends based on the security of his salary. However, on his release from prison John Dickens immediately wrote begging letters to those same friends of his son's also asking for money. He wrote to Thomas Beard claiming that his son Alfred "is walking to and from Hampstead daily in
Robert Arthur "Robin" Riddles, CBE, MIMechE, MinstLE (23 May 1892 — 18 June 1983) was a British locomotive engineer.
Riddles was born in 1892 and entered the Crewe Works of the London and North Western Railway as a premium apprentice in 1909, completing his apprenticeship in 1913. While attending the Mechanics Institute classes he took a course in electrical engineering, feeling there would be a future for electric traction. During the 1914-1918 Great War he served with the Royal Engineers mainly in France, during which time he was badly wounded.
He returned to the LNWR at Crewe, and in 1920 became the "bricks and mortar assistant" with responsibility for the new erecting shop. When work on this was stopped, Riddles was placed in charge of a small production progress department and was sent to Horwich to study the methods used by the L&Y. From this Riddles gained some backing, and had significant influence in the re-organisation of Crewe which took place between 1925 and 1927. In 1923 the LNWR became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway thus on completion of the work at Crewe, Riddles was sent to the ex-Midland Railway works at Derby, now part of the LMS, to initiate a
Esteban Terrades i Illa (born Barcelona, 15 September 1883; died Madrid, 9 May 1950) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist and engineer. He researched and taught widely in the fields of mathematics and the physical sciences, working not only in his native Catalonia, but also in the rest of Spain and in South America. He was also active as a consultant in the Spanish aeronautics, electric power, telephone and railway industries.
He held two doctorates (in mathematics and physics) on 1904, as well as two degrees in engineering, from the ETSEIB school. He was professor of mathematical analysis (teaching differential equations) and later of mathematical physics at Barcelona Central University. He also taught acoustics, optics, electricity, magnetism and classical mechanics at the University of Barcelona, teaching mechanics also at the University of Zaragoza, University of Buenos Aires and the universities of La Plata (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay). He was a Member of the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language and active in the Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences and the Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. He was granted honorary doctorates by the
Eugène Belgrand (1810–1878) was a French engineer who made significant contributions to the modernization of the Parisian sewer system during the 19th century rebuilding of Paris. Much of Belgrand's work remains in use today.
Prior to 1850, the water system in Paris was inadequate for its growing population. Waste water was discharged into the Seine, a primary source of the critically limited supply of drinking water. Baron Haussmann, tasked by Napoléon III to modernize the city, appointed Belgrand as Director of Water and Sewers of Paris in March 1855. Hausmann had been impressed by the École Polytechnique graduate's application of geology to water engineering during the design of a fountain in Avallon.
Belgrand embarked on an ambitious project. The tunnels he designed were intended to be clean, easily accessible, and substantially larger than the previous Parisian underground. Under his guidance, Paris's sewer system expanded fourfold between 1852 and 1869. He also addressed the city's fresh water needs, constructing a system of aqueducts that nearly doubled the amount of water available per person per day and quadrupled the number of homes with running water.
Public reaction to
Sir George Barclay Bruce (1 October 1821 – 25 August 1908) was a British civil engineer. Bruce was primarily a railway engineer who worked for many railway companies in Britain, Europe, Asia and South America. He was closely involved with the Institution of Civil Engineers, serving at various times as a member, council member, vice-president and president. He received a knighthood from the British Government and was made an officer of the Legion of Honour by the French in recognition of his services to construction. Bruce was a Presbyterian and committed himself to spreading the church in England and to improve public education, to which end he gave his time and money generously.
Bruce was born in Newcastle-on-Tyne to John Bruce, the founder of Percy Street Academy. Amongst his father's pupils at the academy was Robert Stephenson, the railway engineer, to whom George was apprenticed for five years from 1836. He then spent two years working on the construction of the Newcastle and Darlington Railway followed by two further years as resident engineer on the Northampton and Peterborough line. Robert Stephenson then appointed him to work on the Royal Border Bridge, after it opened in
Linus Yale, Jr. (4 April 1821 - 25 December 1868) was an American mechanical engineer and manufacturer, best known for his inventions of locks, especially the cylinder lock. His locks are still widely distributed in today’s society, and constitute a majority of personal locks and safes. Linus Yale, Jr. was born in Salisbury, NY. Yale’s father, Linus Yale, Sr. opened a lock shop in the 1840s in Newport, NY, specializing in bank locks. Yale soon joined his father in his business and introduced some revolutionary locks that utilized permutations and cylinders. He later founded a company with Henry Robinson Towne called the Yale Lock Manufacturing Company in the South End section of Stamford, CT. Throughout his career in lock manufacturing, Yale acquired numerous patents for his inventions and received widespread acclaim from clients regarding his products.
Linus Yale’s family are of Welsh descent, and his ancestors were of the same family as Elihu Yale, the benefactor to and namesake of the well known Yale University. Yale’s father was a successful inventor who specialized in locks and mechanical engineering, and who held eight patents for locks and another half dozen for threshing
Christian Otto Mohr (October 8, 1835 – October 2, 1918) was a German civil engineer.
He was born on October 8, 1835 to a landowning family in Wesselburen in the Holstein region. At the age of 16 attended the Polytechnic School in Hanover.
Starting in 1855, his early working life was spent in railroad engineering for the Hanover and Oldenburg state railways, designing some famous bridges and making some of the earliest uses of steel trusses.
Even during his early railway years, Mohr had developed an interest in the theories of mechanics and the strength of materials. In 1867, he became professor of mechanics at Stuttgart Polytechnic, and in 1873 at Dresden Polytechnic. Mohr had a direct and unpretentious lecturing style that was popular with his students.In addition to a lone textbook, Mohr published many research papers on the theory of structures and strength of materials.
In 1874, Mohr formalised the idea of a statically indeterminate structure.
Mohr was an enthusiast for graphical tools and developed the method, for visually representing stress in three dimensions, previously proposed by Carl Culmann. In 1882, he famously developed the graphical method for analysing stress known
Robert Mallet FRS (3 June 1810–5 November 1881), Irish geophysicist, civil engineer, and inventor who distinguished himself in research on earthquakes and is sometimes called the father of seismology.
Mallet was born in Dublin, on 3 June 1810, the son of factory owner John Mallet. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, entering it at the age of 16 and graduating in science and mathematics in 1830 at the age of 20.
Following his graduation, he joined his father's iron foundry business and helped build the firm into one of the most important engineering works in Ireland, supplying ironwork for railway companies, the Fastnet Rock lighthouse, and a swing bridge over the River Shannon at Athlone. He also helped manufacture the characteristic iron railings that surround Trinity College and which bear his family name at the base.
Mallet was elected to the Royal Irish Academy in 1832 at the early age of 22. He also enrolled in the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1835 which helped finance much of his research in seismology.
In 1838 he became a life member of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland, and acted as its President from 1846–48.
From 1848-1849 he
Stefan Bryła (b. 17 August 1886 in Kraków - 3 December 1943 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish construction engineer and welding pioneer.
He was a Professor at the Lwów University of Technology from 1927 and at the Warsaw University of Technology from 1934.
Bryła was the author of basic methods of welding steel structures.
In 1927 he designed the first welded road bridge in the world. The bridge was later built across the river Słudwia in Maurzyce near Łowicz, Poland in 1929. It was still in use in 1977 but plans were to replace it with a wider structure. Eventually the bridge was installed at a site slightly upstream as a historical monument. In 1995, the American Welding Society presented a Historic Welded Structure Award for the bridge to Poland.
He also designed high rise buildings: Drapacz Chmur in Katowice and the Prudential in Warsaw in 1932.
During the World War II he taught at the Secret Universities. Secret teaching was the cause of arrest of Stefan Bryła.
He was arrested on 16 November 1943 together with his family and murdered during Action AB by the Germans in Warsaw on 3 December 1943.
Wendel Bollman (January 21, 1814 – 1884) was an American self-taught civil engineer, best known for his iron railway bridges. Only one of his patented "Bollman truss" bridges survives, the Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge in Savage, Maryland. The Wells Creek Bollman Bridge near Meyersdale, Pennsylvania is also standing, although that bridge features a "Warren truss" system.
Bollman was born in Baltimore, Maryland to German immigrants, and was the seventh of eight children. His father died when Wendell was 11, and he quit school to support his family. Bollman began his career with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) as a carpenter in 1828, just as the B&O began laying track. He left shortly thereafter to build houses. During this period he married Ann Smith; the couple would have 10 children. In 1837 he returned to the B&O as a carpenter, but was soon promoted to line foreman by Benjamin H. Latrobe, II. Although the early B&O bridges in central Maryland were stone arch types (the Thomas Viaduct is perhaps the most impressive), wood bridges became common on the line west of Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and Bollman began to design some of them. In 1848 he was made responsible for all
William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (3 August 1860 – 28 September 1935) was a Scottish inventor who devised an early motion picture camera under the employment of Thomas Edison (post-dating the work of Louis Le Prince).
Dickson was born on 3 August 1860 in Le Minihic-sur-Rance, Brittany, France. His mother was Elizabeth Kennedy-Laurie (1823?–1879) who may have been born in Virginia and was of Scottish descent. His father was James Waite Dickson, a Scottish artist, astronomer and linguist. James claimed direct lineage from the painter Hogarth, and from Judge John Waite, the man who sentenced King Charles I to death. A gifted musician, his mother, Elizabeth Kennedy-Laurie Dickson, was related to the Lauries of Maxwellton (immortalised in the ballad Annie Laurie) and connected with the Duke of Atholl and the Royal Stuarts.
In 1879 Dickson, his mother, and two sisters moved from Britain to Virginia. In 1888, American inventor and entrepreneur Thomas Alva Edison conceived of a device that would do "for the Eye what the phonograph does for the Ear". In October, Edison filed a preliminary claim, known as a caveat, with the U.S. Patent Office outlining his plans for the device. In March 1889, a
William Tierney Clark FRS (23 August 1783 – 22 September 1852) was an English civil engineer particularly associated with the design and construction of bridges. He was among the earliest designers of suspension bridges.
Born in Bristol, he was initially apprenticed to a local millwright and – guided by noted engineers Thomas Telford and John Rennie – he progressed to practice as a consulting civil engineer, moving to London where, from 1811, he was also engineer to the West Middlesex Waterworks Company (the engine house and other buildings involved in a scheme to pump water from reservoirs at Barnes to Hammersmith and other parts of London were designed by him).
He designed the first suspension bridge to span the River Thames in London: Hammersmith Bridge, opened in 1827. He also designed the Marlow Bridge, a suspension bridge across the Thames in Marlow, Buckinghamshire (built 1829–32) and Norfolk Bridge, a suspension bridge over the River Adur in Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex (designed with Captain Samuel Brown, opened in 1834, replaced in 1923).
Internationally, he is revered for his design of the Széchenyi Chain Bridge across the Danube in Budapest, Hungary, for which Marlow
Robert Mylne (4 January 1733 – 5 May 1811) was a Scottish architect and civil engineer, particularly remembered for his design for Blackfriars Bridge in London. Born and raised in Edinburgh, he travelled to Europe as a young man, studying architecture in Rome under Piranesi. In 1758 he became the first Briton to win the triennial architecture competition at the Accademia di San Luca, which made his name known in London, and won him the rivalry of fellow Scot Robert Adam.
On his return to Britain, Mylne won the competition to design the new Blackfriars Bridge over the Thames in London, his design being chosen over those of established engineers, such as John Smeaton. He was appointed surveyor to the New River Company, which supplied drinking water to London, and to St Paul's Cathedral, where he was responsible for maintaining the building designed by Sir Christopher Wren. Both positions he held for life. Mylne designed a number of country houses and city buildings, as well as bridges. As his career progressed he concentrated more on engineering, writing reports on harbours and advising on canals, and appearing as an expert witness in lawsuits and trials.
Mylne was one of the founder
Egbert Ludovicus Viele (Vee-lee) (June 17, 1825 – April 22, 1902) was a civil engineer and United States Representative from New York from 1885–1887, as well as an officer in the Union army during the American Civil War.
Viele was born in Waterford, New York (Saratoga County), a son of Kathline Schuyler (Knickerbacker) and State Senator John L. Viele. He graduated with honors from The Albany Academy and studied law briefly before entering the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. He graduated on July 1, 1847, and was commissioned as a brevet second lieutenant in the Second United States Infantry.
He served in the Mexican-American War and was promoted to second lieutenant in the First United States Infantry on September 8, 1847. From 1848 to 1849 he was assigned to establish a military camp at Laredo, Texas, which was named "Camp Crawford." Viele married Teresa Griffin on June 3, 1850, and was promoted to first lieutenant on October 26 the same year. He resigned from the service in 1853 to become a civil and military engineer.
He received an appointment as State Engineer of New Jersey in 1855 with a commission to conduct a topographical survey of the state. He also
Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos, GCMG (born March 18, 1928), popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.
Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the Cabinet of President Corazon Aquino first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), chief of Integrated National Police, and later on, as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991.
During the historic 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos upon the invitation of then Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, was hailed as a hero even though he was not part of the plan by many Filipinos for his decision to breakaway from the administration of the late strongman Ferdinand Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly established government of President Aquino.
Under Ramos, the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion, as a result of his policies and programs designed to foster national reconciliation and unity. Ramos was able to secure major peace
Giovanni Battista Piatti (Milan, February 10, 1812 - Milan, September 4, 1867) was an Italian civil engineer.
Civil engineer from Milan, inventor of the pneumatic rock-drilling machine that, with small modifications, was used in the Mont Cenis Tunnel. On the February 12, 1853 he conceived how to face the excavation work, being based on the application of the compressed air, and published: Proposal for the railroad between Susa and Modane of a new system of propulsion with air compressed hydraulic motors (system experimented in England) and first draft of plan for excavation of the Alps.
He was disowned while still alive, since the invention was patented by Germain Sommeiller, but its work was recognized, especially by the architect Luca Beltrami and thanks to the admirers who constructed a monument dedicated to him in Milan, at Largo La Foppa, remembering that: «in February 1853 he was the first to propose for the Mont Cenis Tunnel original and practical applications of compressed air, [thus] distinguishing himself in that demanding enterprise».
Dr. Kishor C. Mehta is recognized worldwide as an authority on Wind Engineering. He is the first person from the Texas Tech University selected as a member of the National Academy of Engineering for his systematic studies of structural damage caused by windstorms and leadership in the development of structural design standards for wind loads. Dr. Mehta has chaired the American Society of Civil Engineers' task committee on wind loads and organized the 11th International Conference on Wind Engineering, held at Lubbock, Texas in June, 2003. He is also the past chairman of the National Research Council Committee on Natural Disasters.
Dr. Mehta is a P.W. Horn Professor of Civil Engineering at Texas Tech University. He is the founder and the former director of the Wind Science and Engineering Research Center at TTU, which is recognized internationally for its cutting edge windstorm research.
Mário Covas Júnior (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈmaɾju ˈkɔvɐz ˈʒunjoɾ] or [ˈkɔvɐˈʒːunjoʁ]; 21 April 1930 – 6 March 2001) was a Brazilian politician.
Covas studied engineering at the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo. He entered politics in his native city of Santos, in the state of São Paulo.
He was elected federal representative, mayor of São Paulo City (1983–1985), senator and twice Governor of the state of São Paulo (1994-1998/1998-2001). He was a founder and member of PMDB (Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement) and later PSDB (Brazilian Social Democracy Party). In 1989, he was the PSDB presidential candidate, receiving 11% of the votes. In the run-off of that election, he supported, like his party, Luís Inácio Lula da Silva.
He took a medical leave of absence on 22 January 2001, due to bladder cancer found during an operation to remove a prostate tumor . He died later the same year. His successor was his deputy, Geraldo Alckmin.
Robert Stevenson FRSE, FGS, FRAS, MSA Scot, MWS, MInstCE (8 June 1772 – 12 July 1850) was a Scottish civil engineer and famed designer and builder of lighthouses.
One of his finest achievements was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse.
Stevenson was born in Glasgow; his father was Alan Stevenson, a partner in a West India trading house in the city. He died of an epidemic fever on the island of St. Christopher when Stevenson was an infant; at much the same time, Stevenson's uncle died of the same disease, leaving Alan's widow, Jane Lillie, in straitened financial circumstances. As a result, Stevenson was educated as an infant at a charity school.
His mother intended Robert for the ministry and to this end sent him to the school of a famous linguist of the day, Mr. Macintyre. However, in Stevenson's fifteenth year, Jane Lillie married Thomas Smith a tinsmith, lampmaker and ingenious mechanic who had in 1786 been appointed engineer to the newly formed Northern Lighthouse Board.
Stevenson served as Smith's assistant, and was very successful that at age 19 he was entrusted with the supervision of the erection of a lighthouse on the island of Little Cumbrae in the River Clyde. He
Robert Stirling Newall FRS (27 May 1812 – 21 April 1889) was a Scottish engineer and astronomer.
Born in Dundee, he was befriended by civil engineer L.D.B. Gordon. In 1838, whilst studying at the Freiburg School of Mines, Germany, Gordon visited the mines at Clausthal, and met Wilhelm Albert. Impressed by what he saw, he wrote to Newall, urging him to "Invent a machine for making wire ropes". On receipt of Gordon's letter, Newall designed a wire rope machine, consisting of four strands and four wires to a strand. On Gordon's return to the UK in 1839, he formed a partnership with Newall and Charles Liddell, registering R.S. Newall and Company in Dundee. On 17 August 1840, Newall took out a patent for "certain improvements in wire rope and the machinery for making such rope."
R.S. Newall and Company established a factory in Gateshead, England, and commenced making wire ropes for "Mining, Railway, Ships' Rigging, and other purposes". From this point forward, Newall was instrumental in developing substantial improvements to submarine telegraph cables, devising a method involving the use of gutta percha surrounded by strong wires.
The first successful Dover-Calais cable, laid in 1851,
Süleyman Gündoğdu Demirel, better known as Süleyman Demirel (Turkish pronunciation: [sylejˈman demiˈɾel]; born November 1, 1924), is a Turkish politician who served as Prime Minister seven times and was the ninth President of Turkey.
Demirel was born in İslamköy, Atabey, a town in Isparta Province. Upon completion of his elementary school education in his hometown, he attended middle school and high school in Isparta and Afyon, respectively. He graduated from the school of civil engineering at the Istanbul Technical University in 1949. Demirel worked in the state department for electrical power planning in 1949. He undertook postgraduate studies on irrigation, electrical technologies and dam construction in the United States, first in 1949–1950, then in 1954–1955. During the construction of the Seyhan Dam, Demirel worked as a project engineer and in 1954 was appointed Head of the Department of Dams. As of 1955, he served as Director General of the State Hydraulic Works (DSİ). In this capacity, Demirel was to supervise the construction of a multitude of dams, power plants, and irrigation facilities.
After the 1960 coup d'état, he was drafted to the Turkish Army for compulsory
Captain Thomas Drummond (10 October 1797 – 15 April 1840), from Edinburgh, Scotland, was an army officer, civil engineer and senior public official. Drummond used the Drummond light which was employed in the trigonometrical survey of Great Britain and Ireland. He is sometimes mistakenly given credit for the invention of limelight, at the expense of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney. However, it was Drummond who realised their value in surveying.
Drummond was the second of three sons. Despite his father dying when he was young, he credited his mother with getting him through his education at Edinburgh High School and then on to be a Royal Engineer cadet at Woolwich Academy in 1813. He showed an early gift for mathematics. After Woolwich he was stationed in Edinburgh and was involved with public works. He was bored with this and had enrolled at Lincolns Inn when he was recruited to use his trigonometry to help conduct a survey in the Highlands.
This new work was done in the summer with the more difficult months being passed in London. Drummond took this opportunity to improve his knowledge of mathematics and science. He attended lectures by Sir Michael Faraday. At these he learned of the
Bahaedin Adab (Persian: بهاالدين ادب), also spelt Bahaeddin or Bahaoddin Adab, Kurdish "Baha Adab"(1945 – 16 August 2007) was a prominent Iranian Kurdish politician and engineer. He was born in Sanandaj and had a civil engineering master degree from Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnique). He died on August 16, 2007, after a long battle with cancer. He has been buried in "Bahasht Mhamadi" Behesht-e Mohammadi cemetery in Sanandaj.
He had been elected as a member of the Iranian Parliament (Majlis of Iran) for two consecutive terms (1996–2004) from Sanandaj, Kamyaran and Diwandarreh. However, he was disqualified by the Guardian Council for the 7th parliament elections, as many other independent and/or reformist candidates, because of his open critics to the system. After his name has been barred from the elections, with some other individuals he founded the Kurdish United Front, as a new political movement, in early 2006.
Adab served as the chairman of the Syndicate of Iranian Construction Contractors, CEO of Abej Construction Company, CEO of Ravagh Construction Company, deputy chairman of the Confederation of Iranian Industries, member of the Board of Directors of
Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of scientific management and was one of the first management consultants. Taylor was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era.
Taylor was born in 1856 to a wealthy Quaker family in Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Taylor's father, Franklin Taylor, a Princeton-educated lawyer, built his wealth on mortgages. Taylor's mother, Emily Annette Taylor (née Winslow), was an ardent abolitionist and a coworker with Lucretia Mott. His father's ancestor, Samuel Taylor, settled in Burlington, New Jersey, in 1677. His mother's ancestor, Edward Winslow, was one of the fifteen original Mayflower Pilgrims who brought servants or children, and one of eight who had the honorable distinction of Mister. Winslow served for many years as the Governor of the Plymouth colony.
Educated early by his mother, Taylor studied for two years in France and Germany and traveled Europe for 18 months. In 1872, he entered Phillips Exeter Academy in
George Washington Goethals (pronounced gō-thülz; June 29, 1858 – January 21, 1928) was a United States Army officer and civil engineer, best known for his supervision of the construction and the opening of the Panama Canal. The Goethals Bridge between Staten Island, New York City and Elizabeth, New Jersey is named in his honor, as is the Goethals Medal and the troop ship USNS George W. Goethals (T-AP-182).
Goethals was born in Brooklyn, New York to Flemish (Stekene-Flanders-Belgium) immigrants Johannes Baptista (John Louis) Goethals, a carpenter, and wife Marie Le Barron. Aged 14, he entered the College of the City of New York. In April 1876, after three years of college, he won an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point. There, he was a member of the Delta Upsilon fraternity. He graduated second in his class in 1880, a distinction that led that year to a commission as second lieutenant in the Army Corps of Engineers.
Goethals remained at the military academy during the summer and fall of 1880 as an assistant instructor in practical astronomy. In 1881 he attended the Engineer School of Application at Willets Point, New York. His first field assignment came
Gudmundur Svavar (Bo) Bodvarsson (November 11, 1952 – November 29, 2006) was director of the Laboratory’s Earth Sciences Division since 2001 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr. Bodvarsson was a pioneer in 3-D mathematical modeling of unsaturated zone flow and transport. He led efforts to ensure a Nevada desert mountain, Yucca Mountain, would be the federal government's proposed disposal site for high-level nuclear waste, could safely store the most radioactive nuclear wastes for tens of thousands of years (see Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository). He was a pioneer in many aspects of the management of the division, from the promotion of a safety culture to the strengthening of the intellectual depth and reach of Earth Sciences. He was especially admired for his honest and straightforward way of dealing with all people and how he was carrying out his vision for the Division, according to Berkeley Lab Director Steven Chu. As well, Bodvarsson published a number of popular and technical books on hydrology.
He was born Gudmundur Bodvarsson in Ljosafoss, Iceland, a town of about 100 people. He was valedictorian of a school built on his grandfather's land. He came to the
John Logie Baird FRSE (13 August 1888 – 14 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer and inventor of the world's first practical, publicly demonstrated television system, and also the world's first fully electronic colour television tube. Although Baird's electromechanical system was eventually displaced by purely electronic systems (such as those of Vladimir Zworykin, Marconi-EMI and Philo Farnsworth), Baird's early successes demonstrating working television broadcasts and his colour and cinema television work earn him a prominent place in television's invention. In 2002, Logie Baird was ranked number 44 in the BBC's list of the "100 Greatest Britons" following a UK-wide vote. In 2006, Logie Baird was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history, having been listed in the National Library of Scotland's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'. The "Baird" brand name was first owned by Thorn-EMI and was sold off to a small Chinese manufacturer when Thorn-EMI was dissolved.
Baird was born in Helensburgh, Argyll and Bute (then Dunbartonshire). He was educated at Larchfield Academy (now part of Lomond School) in Helensburgh; the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College
John Smeaton, FRS, (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. He was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer, and often regarded as the "father of civil engineering".
He was associated with the Lunar Society.
Smeaton was born in Austhorpe, Leeds, England. After studying at Leeds Grammar School he joined his father's law firm, but left to become a mathematical instrument maker (working with Henry Hindley), developing, among other instruments, a pyrometer to study material expansion and a whirling speculum or horizontal top (a maritime navigation aid).
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1753, and in 1759 won the Copley Medal for his research into the mechanics of waterwheels and windmills. His 1759 paper "An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills and Other Machines Depending on Circular Motion" addressed the relationship between pressure and velocity for objects moving in air (Smeaton noted that the table doing so was actually contributed by "my friend Mr Rouse"
Leif Johan Sverdrup (11 January 1898 – 2 January 1976) was a Norwegian born, American civil engineer and general with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the first half of the 20th century. He is best known for his service in the Southwest Pacific Area during World War II where he was Chief Engineer under General of the Army Douglas MacArthur.
The son of a distinguished Norwegian family, Sverdrup emigrated to the United States in 1914. After serving with the US Army in World War I, he earned a degree in civil engineering at the University of Minnesota in 1921. He worked for a time for the Missouri State Highway Department before founding Sverdrup & Parcel, a civil engineering firm specializing in bridge construction, with John Ira Parcel, his former University of Minnesota engineering professor. His firm was involved in the construction of a number of important bridges, including the Washington Bridge and Amelia Earhart Bridge over the Missouri River and the Hurricane Deck Bridge over the Lake of the Ozarks.
In 1941, Sverdrup became involved with the construction of a chain of airstrips across the Pacific Ocean to enable heavy bombers to be delivered to the Philippines. He was
London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London, throughout its 1889–1965 existence, and the first London-wide general municipal authority to be directly elected. It covered the area today known as Inner London and was replaced by the Greater London Council. The LCC was the largest, most significant and ambitious municipal authority of its day.
By the 19th century the City of London Corporation covered only a small fraction of metropolitan London. From 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) had certain powers across the metropolis, but it was appointed rather than elected. Many powers remained in the hands of traditional bodies such as parishes and the counties of Middlesex, Surrey and Kent. The creation of the LCC in 1889, as part of the Local Government Act 1888, was forced by a succession of scandals involving the MBW, and was also prompted by a general desire to create a competent government for the city, capable of strategising and delivering services effectively. While the Conservative government of the day would have preferred not to create a single body covering the whole of London, their electoral pact with Liberal Unionists
Sir Samuel Morland, 1st Baronet (1625 – 30 December 1695), or Moreland, was a notable English academic, diplomat, spy, inventor and mathematician of the 17th century, a polymath credited with early developments in relation to computing, hydraulics and steam power.
The son of Thomas Morland, the rector of Sulhamstead Bannister parish church in Berkshire, he was educated at Winchester School and Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he became a Fellow in 1649. Devoting much time to the study of mathematics, Morland also became an accomplished Latinist and was proficient in Greek, Hebrew and French – then the language of culture and diplomacy. While a tutor at Cambridge, he first encountered Samuel Pepys who became a lifelong acquaintance.
A keen follower of public affairs, he left Cambridge and entered public service. He undertook a trip to Sweden in 1653, and in 1655 was sent by Oliver Cromwell on a mission to Italy to protest at actions taken against the Waldensians by the Duke of Savoy. He remained in Geneva for some time in an ambassadorial role, and also wrote a book: The History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piemont (1658).
However, while serving as secretary to
Albert Fink (October 27, 1827 – April 3, 1897) was a German-born civil engineer who worked in the United States. He is best known for his railroad bridge designs, and devising the Fink truss.
Born in Lauterbach, Hesse, Germany, he studied architecture and engineering at the polytechnic school in Darmstadt, and graduated in 1848. In 1849 he emigrated to the United States. He soon found work with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad as a draftsman, and became chief office assistant to Benjamin H. Latrobe. In this position he oversaw the design and construction of buildings and bridges. With the construction of the road between Cumberland, Maryland and Wheeling, West Virginia (then in the state of Virginia). Fink supervised much of the design, and oversaw the building of some of the first iron bridges in the nation, including that over the Monongahela River in Fairmont, West Virginia. It was this bridge that first implemented his design of the Fink truss, and was in fact in its time the longest iron railroad bridge. With the completion of this portion of road, the section between Grafton and Parkersburg, West Virginia was commenced, and many of the bridges and tunnels of this route were
Sir Benjamin Baker KCB KCMG FRS FRSE (31 March 1840 – 19 May 1907) was an eminent English civil engineer who worked in mid to late Victorian era. He helped develop the early underground railways in London with Sir John Fowler, but he is best known for his work on the Forth Bridge. He made many other notable contributions to civil engineering, including his work as an expert witness at the public inquiry into the Tay Rail Bridge disaster. Later, he helped design and build the first Aswan dam.
He was born in Keyford, which is now part of Frome, Somerset in 1840, educated at Cheltenham Grammar School and, at the age of 16, became an apprentice at Messrs Price and Fox at the Neath Abbey Iron Works. After his apprenticeship he spent two years as an assistant to Mr. W.H. Wilson. Later, he became associated with Sir John Fowler in London. He took part in the construction of the Metropolitan Railway (London). He was also a key expert witness in the Tay rail bridge disaster of 1879.
He designed the cylindrical vessel in which Cleopatra's Needle, now standing on the Thames Embankment, London, was brought over from Egypt to England in 1877-1878.
He obtained an extremely large professional
Henry John Kaiser (May 9, 1882 – August 24, 1967) was an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He established the Kaiser Shipyard which built Liberty ships during World War II, after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel. Kaiser organized Kaiser Permanente health care for his workers and their families. He led Kaiser-Frazer followed by Kaiser Motors, automobile companies known for the safety of their designs. Kaiser was involved in large construction projects such as civic centers and dams, and invested in real estate. With his acquired wealth, he initiated the Kaiser Family Foundation, a non-profit, non-partisan, charitable organization.
Kaiser was born on May 9, 1882 in Sprout Brook, New York.
He worked as an apprentice photographer early in life, and was running the studio by the age of twenty. He used his saved earnings to move to Washington state where he started a construction company that fulfilled government contracts.
After moving to the West Coast in 1906, he founded in 1914 a paving company, one of the first to use heavy construction machinery. His firm expanded significantly in 1927 when it received a
Sir John Rennie (30 August 1794 in England – 3 September 1874) was the second son of engineer John Rennie and brother of George Rennie.
John Rennie was born at 27 Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road, London, on 30 August 1794. He was educated by Dr. Greenlaw at Isleworth, and afterwards by Dr. Charles Burney at Greenwich. He subsequently entered his father's manufactory in Holland Street, Blackfriars Road, where he acquired a practical knowledge of his profession, and in 1813 he was placed under Mr. Hollingsworth, resident engineer of Waterloo Bridge, the foundations of which he personally superintended. In 1815 he assisted his father in the erection of Southwark Bridge, and in 1819 he went abroad for the purpose of studying the great engineering works on the continent.
On the death of his father in 1821, John remained in partnership with his brother George, the civil engineering portion of the business being carried on by him, whereas the mechanical engineering was supervised by George.
Rennie along with Philip Richards designed Royal William Victualling Yard, Plymouth, (1823–33). Covering 14 acres (57,000 m), this grand classical style ensemble built from Plymouth limestone and
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Along with Enrico Fermi, he is often called the "father of the atomic bomb" for his role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II project that developed the first nuclear weapons. The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico; Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."
After the war he became a chief advisor to the newly created United States Atomic Energy Commission and used that position to lobby for international control of nuclear power to avert nuclear proliferation and an arms race with the Soviet Union. After provoking the ire of many politicians with his outspoken opinions during the Second Red Scare, he had his security clearance revoked in a much-publicized hearing in 1954, and was effectively stripped of his direct political influence; he continued to lecture, write and work in physics. A decade later President John F. Kennedy awarded (and Lyndon B. Johnson presented) him
Truman Heminway Aldrich (October 17, 1848 in Palmyra, New York – April 28, 1932 in Birmingham, Alabama) was a civil engineer, a mining company executive, and a paleontologist, and briefly served in the United States House of Representatives and as Postmaster of Birmingham.
Aldrich was born in Palmyra and suffered from poor health as a young boy. He attended public schools and a military academy at Westchester, Pennsylvania before enrolling at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. He graduated in 1869 with a degree in mining and civil engineering and took a job with the railroads in New York and New Jersey. In 1870 he married Anna Morrison of Newark.
Aldrich's career was characterized by innovation and long-term vision. His strength was in finding new resources, developing them and then moving on to the next discovery. He was an honorable man in science as well as in business.
In 1872, Aldrich became a partner in a banking enterprise in Selma, Alabama. While in the region, he investigated the existing coal-mining operations at Montevallo and around the Cahaba coalfield. The next year he secured a lease on the Montevallo coal mines and set to work extracting coal
Zhang Heng (simplified Chinese: 张衡; traditional Chinese: 張衡; pinyin: Zhāng Héng; Wade–Giles: Chang Hêng; AD 78–139) was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, inventor, geographer, cartographer, artist, poet, statesman, and literary scholar from Nanyang, Henan. He lived during the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 25–220) of China. He was educated in the capital cities of Luoyang and Chang'an, and began his career as a minor civil servant in Nanyang. Eventually, he became Chief Astronomer, Prefect of the Majors for Official Carriages, and then Palace Attendant at the imperial court. His uncompromising stances on certain historical and calendrical issues led to Zhang being considered a controversial figure, which prevented him from becoming an official court historian. His political rivalry with the palace eunuchs during the reign of Emperor Shun (r. 125–144) led to his decision to retire from the central court to serve as an administrator of Hejian, in Hebei. He returned home to Nanyang for a short time, before being recalled to serve in the capital once more in 138. He died there a year later, in 139.
Zhang applied his extensive knowledge of mechanics and gears in several of his inventions.
Badi'al-Zaman Abū al-'Izz ibn Ismā'īl ibn al-Razāz al-Jazarī (1136–1206) (Arabic: بديع الزمان أَبُو اَلْعِزِ بْنُ إسْماعِيلِ بْنُ الرِّزاز الجزري, Kurdish: Ebûlizê Cizîrî , به کوردی ئەلجەزەری) was an Arab or a Kurdish Muslim polymath: a scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, craftsman, artist, and mathematician from Jazirat ibn Umar (current Cizre), who lived during the Islamic Golden Age (Middle Ages). He is best known for writing the al-Jāmiʿ bain al-ʿilm wa al-ʿamal al-nāfiʿ fī ṣināʿat al-ḥiyal (The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices) in 1206, where he described 100 mechanical devices, some 80 of which are trick vessels of various kinds, along with instructions on how to construct them.
Little is known about al-Jazari, and most of that comes from the introduction to his Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. He was named after the area in which he was born (the city of Jazirat ibn Umar). Like his father before him, he served as chief engineer at the Artuklu Palace, the residence of the Mardin branch of the Turkish Artuqid dynasty which ruled across eastern Anatolia as vassals of the Zangid rulers of Mosul and later Ayyubid general Saladin. He was
Captain Sir Samuel Brown of Netherbyres KH FRSE (1776 – 13 March 1852) was an early pioneer of chain design and manufacture and of suspension bridge design and construction. He is best known for the Union Bridge of 1820, the first vehicular suspension bridge in Britain.
Brown was born in London, the son of William Brown of Borland, Galloway, Scotland. He joined the Royal Navy in 1795, serving initially on the Newfoundland and North Sea stations. He served as lieutenant on HMS Royal Sovereign (1803) and in 1805 joined HMS Phoenix as first lieutenant. The following year he was appointed to HMS Imperieuse, followed by periods of service aboard the HMS Flore and HMS Ulysses.
During his service, he carried out tests on wrought iron chain cables, using them as rigging for HMS Penelope in 1806 on a voyage to the West Indies. This so impressed the Admiralty that on his return in 1808 it immediately ordered four vessels of war to be fitted with chain cables.
In 1808 Brown took out patents for twisted open chain links, joining shackles and swivels. His shackle and swivel designs were scarcely improved on for the next 100 years.
By 1811, he was promoted to Commander (in 1842 he accepted the
Fredrik Rosing Bull (Oslo, 25 December 1882 – 7 June 1925) was an Information technology pioneer, known for his works on improved punched card machines.
In 1907 he finished his studies in civil engineering in the Technical School of Kristiania (Kristiania Tekniske Skole). In 1916 he was hired as a technical inspector of the insurance company Storebrand. Here is where his interest for the punched card machines technology started, and took over the task of developing his own punched card machine. In 1919 he obtained his patent, and in 1921, he prepared a team that took over the introduction of its new machine in the company where Bull worked at that time, Storebrand. This team provided several and more effective new ideas the Bull machine, causing it to be superior to the Hollerith's one used then, the IBM precursor. Bull will continue to develop his ideas, improving the machine, which was a huge success throughout Europe. He was diagnosed with cancer at a very early age and died in 1925 when he was just 42 years old. His patents were later sold in 1931 and constituted the basis for the founding of the French company Groupe Bull, currently one of the largest companies operating in
Fritz Todt (4 September 1891, Pforzheim – 8 February 1942) was a German engineer and senior Nazi figure, the founder of Organisation Todt. He died in a plane crash during World War II.
Todt was born in Pforzheim to a father who owned a small factory. He studied engineering in Karlsruhe and the School for Advanced Technical Studies at the Technical University Munich.
In World War I, he initially served with the infantry and then as front line reconnaissance observer within the Luftstreitkräfte (the German Air Forces - DLSK), winning the Iron Cross. After his military service, he finished his studies in 1920 and joined at first the "Grün & Bilfinger AG, Mannheim" company and, later, the civil engineering company Sager & Woerner (1921).
He joined the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) (better known as the Nazi Party) on 5 January 1922. In 1931, he became an Oberführer (a rank equivalent to senior Colonel) in the Sturmabteilung (SA), which was then commanded by Ernst Röhm: that year, Todt also completed his doctorate (on "Fehlerquellen beim Bau von Landstraßendecken aus Teer und Asphalt" – "Sources of defects in the construction of tarmac and asphalt road
Sir Henry Fowler, KBE (29 July 1870 – 16 October 1938) was a Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Midland Railway and subsequently the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.
Fowler was born in Evesham, Worcestershire, on 29 July 1870. His father, also called Henry was a furniture dealer, and his family were Quakers. He was educated at Prince Henry's High School, Evesham, and at Mason Science College, Birmingham between 1885 and 1887 where he studied metallurgy. He served an apprenticeship under John Aspinall at the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (L&YR)'s Horwich Works from 1887 to 1891. He then spent four years in the Testing Department under George Hughes, whom he succeeded as Head of the Department.
Between 1895 and 1900 he was Gas Engineer of the L&YR, moving on 18 June 1900 to the Midland Railway (MR). On 1 November 1905 he became Assistant Works Manager, being promoted to Works Manager two years later. In 1909 he succeeded Richard Deeley as Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the MR.
Between 1915 and 1919 Fowler was employed on war work and James Anderson became acting CME. In 1919, Fowler was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) for his contributions
Henry Petroski (February 6, 1942) is an American engineer specializing in failure analysis. A professor both of civil engineering and history at Duke University, he is also a prolific author. Petroski has written over a dozen books – beginning with To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design (1985) and including a number of titles detailing the industrial design history of common, everyday objects, such as pencils, paper clips, and silverware. He is a frequent lecturer and a columnist for the magazines American Scientist and Prism. His most recently published book is To Forgive Design: Understanding Failure.
Petroski was born in Brooklyn, New York, and was raised in Park Slope and Cambria Heights, Queens. In 1963, he received his bachelor's degree from Manhattan College. He graduated with his Ph.D. in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1968.
Before beginning his work at Duke in 1980, Petroski worked at the University of Texas at Austin from 1968–74 and for the Argonne National Laboratory from 1975-80. Petroski is the Aleksandar S. Vesic Professor of Civil Engineering and a professor of history at Duke
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Drs. h.c. Jörg Schlaich (born 1934) is a German structural engineer and is known internationally for his ground-breaking work in the creative design of bridges, long-span roofs, and other complex structures. He is a co-founder of the leading firm Schlaich Bergermann & Partner.
Jörg Schlaich studied architecture and civil engineering from 1953 to 1955 at Stuttgart University before completing his studies at the Technical University of Berlin in 1959. He spent 1959-60 at the Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, USA.
In 1963 he joined the firm Leonhardt & Andrä, the firm founded by Fritz Leonhardt.
Schlaich was made a partner and was responsible for the Olympic Stadium, Munich. He stayed with the firm until 1969.
In 1974 he became an academic at Stuttgart University, and in 1980 he founded his own firm, Schlaich Bergermann & Partner.
In 1993, with the roof of the Gottlieb-Daimler-Stadion (since 2008 Mercedes-Benz-Arena) in Stuttgart, he introduced the "speichenrad" principle to structural engineering. Indeed, this principle was employed the first time in the history of Structural Engineering by the Italian engineer Massimo Majowiecki, the designer of the roof
Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (German: [ˈʁuːdɔlf ˈkʁɪstjan ˈkaʁl ˈdiːzəl]; March 18, 1858 – September 29, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the Diesel engine.
Diesel was born in Paris, France in 1858 the second of three children of Elise (née Strobel) and Theodor Diesel. His parents were Bavarian immigrants living in Paris. Theodor Diesel, a bookbinder by trade, left his home town of Augsburg, Bavaria, in 1848. He met his wife, a daughter of a Nuremberg merchant, in Paris in 1855 and became a leather goods manufacturer there.
Rudolf Diesel spent his early childhood in France, but as a result of the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, his family (as were many other Germans) was forced to leave. They settled in London. Before the war's end in 1871, however, Diesel's mother sent 12-year-old Rudolf to Augsburg to live with his aunt and uncle, Barbara and Christoph Barnickel, to become fluent in German and to visit the Königliche Kreis-Gewerbsschule (Royal County Trade School), where his uncle taught mathematics.
At age 14, Rudolf wrote a letter to his parents stating that he wanted to become an engineer. After finishing his basic
Sir Alexander Richardson Binnie (1839–1917) was a civil engineer responsible for several major engineering projects, including several associated with crossings of the River Thames in London.
As chief engineer for the London County Council, his design feats included the first Blackwall Tunnel (1897) and Greenwich foot tunnel (1902) (both in Greenwich, London) and, further upstream, Vauxhall Bridge (1906).
By then knighted by Queen Victoria for services to engineering, he was elected President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1905.
He also designed, with Sir Benjamin Baker, major parts of London's drainage system, including east London sewage treatment works at Crossness and Barking on the south and north sides of the Thames respectively (these were sited at the ends of the sewer outfalls created by Sir Joseph Bazalgette during the late 19th century). Further afield, he also designed water works in Bradford, West Yorkshire.
Like several other notable engineers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries (e.g.: Sir William Halcrow, Sir Alexander Gibb), Binnie founded a firm under his name, which his son William took over on his father's retirement. in 1909 Sir Alexander Binnie
Sir Alexander Blackie William Kennedy, LLD, FRS, FRGS (17 March 1847 – 1 November 1 1928), better known as Alexander Kennedy, was a leading British civil and electrical engineer and academic. A member of many institutions and the recipient of three honorary doctorates, Kennedy was also an avid mountaineer and a keen amateur photographer being one of the first to document the archeological site of Petra in Jordan following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
Kennedy was born in Stepney, London to Reverend John Kennedy, MA, and Helen Stodart Blackie who were both from Aberdeen. His uncle on his mother's side was John Stuart Blackie the Scottish scholar. He received his early education at the City of London School, before taking a short course at the Royal School of Mines, Jermyn Street to give him a basic grounding in engineering. In 1864, Kennedy was apprenticed into the shipbuilding firm of J & W Dudgeon of Cubitt Town. He spent the next four years there working as a draughtsman and had a hand in the construction of the first ships with compound engines and twin screws. By the time he left in 1868 he was one of a few draughtsmen in the country with a thorough understanding of the
Sir Robert Hogg Matthew, OBE, FRIBA (1906–1975) was a Scottish architect and a leading proponent of modernism.
Robert Matthew was the son of John Matthew (also an architect, and the partner of Sir Robert Lorimer). He was born and brought up in Edinburgh, and attended the Edinburgh College of Art.
Robert was apprenticed with his father's firm. Then in 1936, he joined the Department of Health (Scotland), where by 1945 he had risen to become their Chief Architect and Planning Officer.
In 1946, Matthew moved to London, becoming Chief Architect and Planning Officer to the London County Council, where he served from 1946 to 1953, working on the post-war reconstruction of Greater London and masterminding the Festival of Britain including such buildings as the Royal Festival Hall, 1951. It was during these formative postwar years that the LCC’s housing and town planning policy established an international reputation, and many housing schemes (including the famous Roehampton housing estate) were created, as well as many schools.
In 1956, with Stirrat Johnson Marshall, Robert Matthew established the firm of RMJM (Robert Matthew, Johnson Marshall) in Edinburgh and London. Their first project
Charles Joseph Minard (27 March 1781 – 24 October 1870 in Bordeaux) was a French civil engineer noted for his inventions in the field of information graphics.
Minard was born in Dijon and studied science and mathematics at the École Polytechnique, then civil engineering at École nationale des ponts et chaussées.
After working as a civil engineer on dam, canal and bridge projects throughout Europe for many years, he was appointed superintendent of the École nationale des ponts et chaussées (School of Bridges and Roads) in 1830, a position he held until 1836. He became an inspector in the Corps des Ponts (Corps of Bridges) from which he retired in 1851, dedicating himself to private research thereafter.
Minard was a pioneer of the use of graphics in engineering and statistics. He is famous for his Carte figurative des pertes successives en hommes de l'Armée Française dans la campagne de Russie 1812-1813, a flow map published in 1869 on the subject of Napoleon's disastrous Russian campaign of 1812.
The graph displays several variables in a single two-dimensional image:
Étienne-Jules Marey first called notice to this dramatic depiction of the fate of Napoleon's army in the Russian
Fritz Leonhardt (12 July 1909 – 30 December 1999) was a German structural engineer who made major contributions to 20th century bridge engineering, especially in the development of cable-stayed bridges. His book Bridges: Aesthetics and Design is well known throughout the bridge engineering community.
Born in Stuttgart in 1909, Leonhardt studied at Stuttgart University and Purdue University. In 1934 he joined the German Highway Administration, working with Paul Bonatz amongst others. He was appointed at the remarkably young age of 28 as the Chief Engineer for the Cologne-Rodenkirchen Bridge.
In 1954 he formed the consulting firm Leonhardt und Andrä, and from 1958 to 1974 taught the design of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete at Stuttgart University. He was President of the University from 1967 to 1969.
He received Honorary Doctorates from six universities, honorary membership of several important engineering universities, and won a number of prizes including the Werner von Siemens Ring, the Honorary Medal Emil Mörsch, the Freyssinet Medal of the FIP, and the Gold Medal of the Institution of Structural Engineers. In 1988, he was awarded an Honorary Degree (Doctor of
Gerald Wayne Clough (born September 24, 1941) is President Emeritus of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, a position he has held since July 2008. A graduate of Georgia Tech, in civil engineering, he was the first Georgia Tech alumnus to be the president of Georgia Tech.
Clough was president of Georgia Tech from 1994 to 2008, during which he oversaw dramatic changes in the institute, including $1 billion in new construction, increased retention and graduation rates, a higher nationwide ranking and a much larger student body. His administration championed programs to encourage undergraduate research, international experiences, and to make college more affordable for low-income students.
The Clough Undergraduate Learning Commons, which officially opened its doors in August 2011, is named in his honor. Clough has garnered many other awards and honors, including but not limited to the title of President Emeritus, two Norman Medals, eight honorary degrees and membership in the National Science Board.
Clough was born on September 24, 1941 in Douglas, Georgia to Bessie Johnson and Daniel Clough, the youngest of three children.
Henry Croft (January 15, 1856 - July 28, 1917) was an Australian-born lumber and mining magnate on Vancouver Island in the early 1900s. He founded the town of Crofton, British Columbia in 1902 as a place to house the smelter for his coal mine on Mount Sicker.
Born at Sydney, New South Wales, Australia at Darling Point, in a place called Mount Adelaide, he migrated to England at the age of one, after the death of his mother. He moved back to Australia after finishing school in 1879, but then went to the United States, where his brother was living. Soon after in 1882, he again moved, this time to Canada, staying at Victoria, British Columbia. It was here he met Mary Jean Dunsmuir, daughter of Robert Dunsmuir. They married on June 29, 1885.
In 1890, Croft was elected to the British Columbia Legislature with 146 votes, or 34.27% of the ballots, representing the Cowichan region. He served this post for the next four years.
He had developed the prosperous Lenora mine at nearby Mount Sicker in 1898. By 1902, his mine was producing more ore than railway cars could load and haul away to the Ladysmith and Nanaimo, Nanaimo ports. Inspired by significant profits, Croft bought the townsite of
James Finley (1756 – 1828), aka Judge James Finley, is widely recognized as the first designer and builder of the modern suspension bridge. Born in Ireland, Finley moved to a 287-acre (1.16 km) farm in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, near Uniontown. Elected a justice of the peace in 1784, he went on to become county commissioner in 1789, and a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and Senate. From 1791 until his death, he was an Associate Judge for Fayette County.
His Jacob's Creek Bridge, built in 1801 for US$600, and demolished in 1833, was the first example of a suspension bridge using wrought iron chains and with a level deck. It connected Uniontown to Greensburg, spanning 70 feet (21 metres), and was 12 feet 6 inches (3.81 m) wide.
Finley is also credited with designing and constructing a chain suspension bridge across Dunlap's Creek in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in 1809. In 1820, however, the bridge collapsed under a heavy snow combined with the loads from a six-horse wagon team. The bridge was replaced by the Dunlap's Creek Bridge, the country's first cast-iron bridge, in 1835.
Other bridges built in accord with his patent include:
Although he has been credited
James Hall Nasmyth (sometimes spelled Naesmyth, Nasmith, or Nesmyth) (19 August 1808 – 7 May 1890) was a Scottish engineer and inventor famous for his development of the steam hammer. He was the co-founder of Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company manufacturers of machine tools. He retired at the age of 48, and moved to Penshurst, Kent where he developed his hobbies of astronomy and photography.
His father Alexander Nasmyth was a landscape and portrait painter in Edinburgh, where James was born. One of Alexander's hobbies was mechanics and he employed nearly all his spare time in his workshop where he encouraged his youngest son to work with him in all sorts of materials. James was sent to the Royal High School where he had as a friend, Jimmy Patterson, the son of a local iron founder. Being already interested in mechanics he spent much of his time at the foundry and there he gradually learned to work and turn in wood, brass, iron, and steel. In 1820 he left the High School and again made great use of his father's workshop where at the age of 17, he made his first steam engine.
From 1821 to 1826, Nasmyth regularly attended the Edinburgh School of Arts (today Heriot-Watt University, making
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Italian pronunciation: [leoˈnardo da ˈvintʃi] pronunciation (help·info)) (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519, Old Style) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote". Marco Rosci states that while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time.
Born out of wedlock to a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman,
Simon Stevin (1548 – 1620) was a Flemish mathematician and military engineer. He was active in a great many areas of science and engineering, both theoretical and practical. He also translated various mathematical terms into Dutch, making it one of the few European languages in which the word for mathematics, wiskunde ("the art of what is certain"), was not derived from Greek (via Latin).
Stevin was born in Bruges, Flanders (now Belgium) around the year 1548, to unmarried parents, Antheunis (Anton) Stevin and Catelyne van der Poort. His father is believed to have been a cadet son of a mayor of Veurne, while his mother Cathelijne (or Catelyne) was the daughter of a burgher family from Ypres. Simon's mother Cathelijne was later married to a man who was involved in the carpet and silk trade. Through her marriage Cathelijne became a member of a family who were Calvinists and it is presumed that Simon was brought up in the Calvinist faith. Very little has been recorded about his life. Even the exact date of birth and the date and place of his death (The Hague or Leiden) are uncertain. It is known that he left a widow with two children; and one or two hints scattered throughout his works
Arthur Vierendeel (10 April 1852 – 8 November 1940) was a civil engineer born in Leuven, Belgium. He had a career as a university professor, and civil engineer. The structure known as the Vierendeel truss is named after him.
He obtained an MSc in construction and mining engineering in 1874 at the Université catholique de Louvain, after which he worked as an engineer for the company Nicaise et Delcuve in La Louvière, Belgium. In 1885 he became Director for the Ministry of Public Works in West Flanders, and four years afterward also achieved the post of Professor of Construction, Material Strength, and Structural Engineering at the Université catholique de Louvain.
The idea of a bridge without trusses came to him in 1895; the design later became known as a Vierendeel bridge. For the 1897 World Fair at Brussels he built a 31.5m span bridge at his own expense and loaded to show the correlation between measurement and his numerical analysis.
His work, Cours de stabilité des constructions (1889) was an important reference during more than half a century. His first bridge was built in Avelgem in 1902, crossing the Scheldt river. The construction of this bridge became famous through the
William Henry Barlow FRS FRSE FICE MIMechE (10 May 1812 –12 November 1902) was an English civil engineer of the 19th century, particularly associated with railway engineering projects. In his long life Barlow was involved in many engineering enterprises. He was engineer for the Midland Railway on its London extension and designed the company's London terminus at St Pancras.
With John Hawkshaw, he completed Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Clifton Suspension Bridge. Following the Tay Bridge disaster he sat on the commission which investigated the causes and designed the replacement Tay Bridge. Barlow was also an inventor and experimenter, patenting a design for a rail and carrying out investigations on the use and design of steel structures.
Barlow was born on 10 May 1812 in Woolwich, Kent (now in south-east London), the son of mathematician and physist Professor Peter Barlow, who taught at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich. William Barlow was the younger brother of Peter William Barlow. After a private education, Barlow began to study civil engineering with his father at the age of sixteen. After a year he, went on to a pupillage at the machinery department of the Royal Navy's
William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) (21 August 1754 – 15 November 1839) was a Scottish engineer and long-term inventor.
Murdoch was employed by the firm of Boulton and Watt and worked for them in Cornwall, as a steam engine erector for ten years, spending most of the rest of his life in Birmingham, England.
Murdoch was the inventor of the oscillating cylinder steam engine, and gas lighting is attributed to him in the early 1790s, also the term "gasometer". However, Archibald Cochrane, ninth Earl of Dundonald, had already in 1789 used gas for lighting his family estate. Murdoch also made innovations to the steam engine, including the sun and planet gear and D slide valve. He invented the steam gun and the pneumatic tube message system, and worked on one of the first British paddle steamers to cross the English Channel. Murdoch built a prototype steam locomotive in 1784 and made a number of discoveries in chemistry.
Murdoch remained an employee and later a partner of Boulton & Watt until the 1830s, and his reputation as an inventor has been obscured by the reputations of Boulton and Watt and the firm they founded.
William Murdoch was born in Lugar near Cumnock, East Ayrshire,
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (Arabic: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (Arabic: أبو عمار, 'Abū `Ammār) was a Palestinian leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and leader of the Fatah political party and former paramilitary group, which he founded in 1959. Arafat spent much of his life fighting against Israel in the name of Palestinian self-determination. Originally opposed to Israel's existence, he modified his position in 1988 when he accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242. Arafat and his movement operated from several Arab countries. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Fatah faced off with Jordan in a brief civil war. Forced out of Jordan and into Lebanon, Arafat and Fatah were major targets of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions of that country.
Arafat remains a highly controversial figure whose legacy has been widely disputed. He was "revered by many Arabs," and most Palestinians, regardless of political
William Sanford "Bill" Nye (born November 27, 1955), popularly known as Bill Nye the Science Guy, is an American science educator, comedian, television host, actor, mechanical engineer, writer, and scientist. He is best known as the host of the Disney/PBS children's science show Bill Nye the Science Guy (1993–1998) and for his many subsequent appearances in popular media as a science educator.
William Sanford Nye was born in Washington, D.C., to Jacqueline (née Jenkins; 1921–2000), a codebreaker during World War II, and Edwin Darby "Ned" Nye (1917–1997), also a World War II veteran, whose experience in a Japanese prisoner of war camp led him to become a sundial enthusiast. Nye is a fourth-generation Washington resident through his father's side of the family. After attending Lafayette Elementary and Alice Deal Junior High in the city, he was accepted to the private Sidwell Friends School on a partial scholarship and graduated in 1973. He studied mechanical engineering at Cornell University (where one of his professors was Carl Sagan) and graduated with a Bachelor of Science in 1977.
Nye began his career in Seattle at Boeing, where, among other things, he starred in training films
George Robert Stephenson (20 October 1819 – 26 October 1905) was a British civil engineer.
Stephenson was born to Robert Stephenson Senior in Newcastle upon Tyne. He was born into a great family of civil engineers, his father was engineer of Pendleton Colliery and Nantlle Railway, his elder brother George Stephenson was a prolific railway engineer as were his uncle George Stephenson and cousin Robert Stephenson. He was educated at King William's College, Isle of Man. It was with Robert that he collaborated most, working together on the South Eastern Railway. Upon Robert's death in 1859 he took over his locomotive works and several collieries.
In the 1860s, Stephenson travelled to New Zealand to supervise the survey and arrangements for the construction of a railway from Christchurch, through Mount Pleasant to Lyttelton Harbour. The Lyttelton rail tunnel is still in use today as the country’s oldest operational rail tunnel. Stephenson enjoyed a long association with the country, for which he designed several other works in the mid-nineteenth century.
He is perhaps most famous for his close relationship with the Institution of Civil Engineers. He became a member in 1853 and was
Sir Hugh Myddelton (or Middleton), 1st Baronet (1560 – 10 December 1631) was a Welsh clothmaker, entrepreneur, mine-owner, goldsmith, banker and self-taught engineer. The spelling of his name is inconsistently reproduced, but Myddelton appears to be the earliest, and most consistently used in place names associated with him.
The sixth son of Richard Myddelton, governor of Denbigh Castle in Wales and MP for Denbigh Boroughs, he travelled to seek his fortune in London and after being apprenticed to a goldsmith became so successful in that trade that he was appointed Royal Jeweller by King James I. In the meantime he became an alderman and then recorder of Denbigh, and in 1603 succeeded his father as MP for Denbigh Boroughs, which he remained until 1628. He also become a very wealthy merchant and clothmaker.
He is, however, best remembered as the driving force behind the construction of the New River, an ambitious engineering project to bring clean water from the River Lea, near Ware, in Hertfordshire to New River Head, London. After the initial project encountered financial difficulties, Myddelton helped fund the project through to completion, obtaining the assistance of King James
Povl Ahm CBE FICE FREng (26 September 1926 – 15 May 2005) was an eminent structural engineer and former chairman of Ove Arup & Partners.
Born in Aarhus, Denmark, Povl Ahm attended the Polyteknisk Læreanstalt in Copenhagen, from where he graduated in 1949.
Ahm married Birgit Moller in 1953, with whom he had two sons, Carsten Ahm and Peter Ahm.
He was a keen sportsman, and a good footballer. He played for the London amateur team Corinthian Casuals and played in the 1956 Amateur Cup Final at Wembley Stadium.
He died of cancer on 15 May 2005.
He joined the firm Ove Arup and Partners in London in 1952, where he worked on Coventry Cathedral with Basil Spence. In his own words:
Ahm was given great responsibility on this project, working directly with Ove Arup.
He also worked on early conceptual design schemes for the Sydney Opera House, and worked on other projects, including Smithfield Market, London and Centre Pompidou, Paris – some of Ove Arup & Partners' most prestigious projects.
The architect of Sydney Opera House, Jørn Utzon, later went on to design a house for Ahm in Hertfordshire - a project which avoided the many problems of Sydney Opera House.
In 1957 Ahm was made an associate
Theodor Becker (23 June 1840 in Plön - 30 June 1928 in Liegnitz) was a German civil engineer and entomologist primarily known for his work with flies.
He worked with Paul Stein, Mario Bezzi, and Kálmán Kertész on Katalog der Paläarktischen dipteren published in Budapest from 1903.
Becker’s collection is in the Humboldt Museum, Berlin.
Thomas Davis "Tom" Rust (born July 21, 1941) is an American politician of the Republican Party. He is currently a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, representing the 86th District since 2002. Previously, he was mayor of Herndon, Virginia for 19 years (1976–84, 1990–2001).
Rust is married to Ann Rust. They have a daughter, Robin Mullet, two sons, Douglas and James and two grandchildren, Abbey and Ross Mullet.
Rust is a civil engineer, and is currently the Chairman of Patton Harris Rust & Associates, one of the mid-Atlantic region's leading engineering and surveying firms.
Rust was first elected to the Herndon Town Council in 1971 where he served until he was elected Mayor of the Town of Herndon in 1976, a position he held until 1984. He was elected Mayor again in 1990 and served until 2001 .
In 2001, Rust was elected Delegate for the 86th District with 63% of the vote against Jim Kelly . A civil engineer, Rust has served on the Committees on Transportation, Education, Science and Technology, and Commerce and Labor. His notable legislation includes allowing the Commonwealth Transportation Board to establish a Statewide Transportation plan using highway corridors for
David Lennox (1788 – 12 November 1873) was a Scottish-Australian bridge-builder and master stonemason born in Ayr, Scotland.
Trained as a stonemason, Lennox worked on Telford's Menai Suspension Bridge at Anglesey in Wales and on Over Bridge at Gloucester before emigrating to Australia following the death of his wife. He arrived in August 1832 aboard the ship Florentia.
Prior to this time, the young colony of New South Wales had no skilled stonemasons, and so it was almost fate that a chance meeting with the Surveyor-General, Major Thomas Mitchell should result in Lennox—by now a Master Stonemason with twenty years' experience—becoming, provisionally, Sub-Inspector of Bridges and later Superintendent of Bridges.
Lennox moved to Melbourne in 1844, to take up a position responsible for bridges in the Port Phillip district.
Lennox retired in November 1853 and returned to New South Wales two years later where he lived in Parramatta. He died on 12 November 1873, and was buried in old St John's cemetery, Parramatta. His gravestone was never marked so it is not known exactly where he was interred.
He was commissioned in 1832, the year of his arrival in the colony, to oversee the
James Trubshaw (13 February 1777 – 28 October 1853) was an English builder, architect and civil engineer. His civil engineering works include the construction of the Grosvenor Bridge in Chester, Cheshire, then the longest stone span. He also pioneered the technique of underexcavation with the straightening the leaning tower of St Chad's in Wybunbury, Cheshire.
He was born to stonemason, builder and engineering contractor, James Trubshaw and his second wife Elizabeth (née Webb), at the Mount near Colwich in Staffordshire, the second son in a family of seven sons and two daughters. He was educated in Rugeley, but left school aged only eleven to start work in his father's business. His earliest experience included working on buildings such as Sandon Hall, Fonthill Abbey, Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle. In 1795, he worked on Wolseley Bridge near Colwich, and many of his early projects were bridges.
On the death of his father in 1808, Trubshaw started a building business in Stone; an early commission was to build Ashcombe Hall. He worked for a time in partnership with the Lichfield architect Thomas Johnson (1794–1865), who was to become his son-in-law. In 1827, Trubshaw became a
Michael Faraday, FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include those of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.
Although Faraday received little formal education he was one of the most influential scientists in history, and historians of science refer to him as having been the best experimentalist in the history of science. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.
As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British Labour politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951, and as the Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955. He was also the first person to hold the office of Deputy Prime Minister, under Winston Churchill in the wartime coalition government, before leading the Labour Party to a landslide election victory over Churchill's Conservative Party in 1945. He was the first Labour Prime Minister to serve a full Parliamentary term, and the first to command a Labour majority in Parliament.
The government he led put in place the post-war settlement, based upon the assumption that full employment would be maintained by Keynesian policies, and that a greatly enlarged system of social services would be created – aspirations that had been outlined in the wartime Beveridge Report. Within this context, his government undertook the nationalisation of major industries and public utilities as well as the creation of the National Health Service. After initial Conservative opposition to Keynesian fiscal policy, this settlement was broadly accepted by all
Henry George Ivatt (4 May 1886 – 4 October 1976) known as George Ivatt, was the post-war Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London Midland and Scottish Railway. He was the son of the Great Northern Railway locomotive engineer Henry Ivatt. George Ivatt was born in Dublin, Ireland, and educated at Uppingham School, England.
In 1904, he started an apprenticeship at the Crewe Works of the London and North Western Railway (LNWR). After working in the drawing office, he became head of experimental locomotive work. He was appointed as Assistant Foreman at Crewe North Shed in 1909, and a year later became Assistant Outdoor Machinery Superintendent.
During the 1914–1918 World War I Ivatt served on the staff of the Director of Transport in France. After the war, he became Assistant Locomotive Superintendent of the North Staffordshire Railway (NSR) at Stoke-on-Trent in 1919.
Under the Railways Act 1921, the NSR was absorbed (in 1923) into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS). He was transferred to Derby Works in 1928 and appointed Locomotive Works Superintendent in 1931. At the end of 1932 Ivatt moved to Glasgow, becoming Divisional Mechanical Engineer, Scotland. He returned to
John Loudon McAdam (21 September 1756 – 26 November 1836) was a Scottish engineer and road-builder. He invented a new process, "macadamisation", for building roads with a smooth hard surface that would be more durable and less muddy than soil-based tracks.
Modern road construction still reflects McAdam's influence. Of subsequent improvements, the most significant was the introduction of tar (originally coal tar) to bind the road surface's stones together – "tarmac" (for Tar Macadam) – followed later by the use of hot-laid tarred aggregate or tar-sprayed chippings to create better road metalling. More recently, oil-based asphalt laid on reinforced concrete has become a major road surface, but its use of granite or limestone chippings still recalls McAdam's innovation.
McAdam was born in Ayr, Scotland. He was the youngest of ten children and second son of the Baron of Waterhead. The family name had traditionally been McGregor, but was changed to McAdam (claiming descent from the Biblical Adam) for political reasons in James I's reign. He moved to New York in 1770 and, as a merchant and prize agent during the American Revolution, made his fortune working at his uncle's counting house.
Renato de Albuquerque is a Brazilian civil engineer and entrepreneur in the construction and real state businesses. He was the founder of a pioneering construction firm, Albuquerque & Takaoka in 1951 together with his fellow architect and friend Yojiro Takaoka. Both had studied at the University of São Paulo Polytechnic School, graduating in 1949.
Together with Takaoka, Albuquerque is responsible for the creation of the first vertical and the first horizontal walled condominiums in Brazil. The Alphaville concept was widely copied throughout Brazil and is a very successful enterprise, currently with more than 20 locations in Brazil and Portugal. In October 2006, Alphaville was purchased by Gafisa S.A.
He is also the editor-in-chief of the Alpha Magazine and president of the Alphaville Foundation, a charity and not-for-profit NGO. He is an honorary citizen of Campinas and Barueri.
Clifford Milburn Holland (March 13, 1883 – October 7, 1924) was born in Somerset, Massachusetts. He was the only child of Edward John Holland and Lydia Frances Hood. He graduated from Harvard University with a B.A. in 1905 and a B.S. in Civil Engineering in 1906. On November 5, 1908 he married Anna Coolidge Davenport (1885–1973). They had four daughters.
Holland began his career in New York City working as an assistant engineer on the construction of the Joralemon Street Tunnel, after which he served as the engineer-in-charge of construction of the Clark Street Tunnel, 60th Street Tunnel, Montague Street Tunnel and 14th Street Tunnel.
Holland was the first chief engineer on the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel project. Holland died of a heart attack on the operating table while undergoing a tonsillectomy at a health center in Battle Creek, Michigan at the age of 41. The project was renamed the Holland Tunnel in his memory by the New York State Bridge and Tunnel Commission and the New Jersey Interstate Bridge and Tunnel Commission on November 12, 1924.
Daniel-Charles Trudaine (3 January 1703 – 19 January 1769) was a French administrator and civil engineer. He was one of the primary developers of the present French road system.
He is also known for the monumental Atlas de Trudaine ("Trudaine Atlas", also known as "Trudaine Road Maps"), made under his direction.
Trudaine was born in Paris, the son of Charles Trudaine, prévôt des marchands de Paris (provost of the merchants of Paris). Daniel-Charles was a conseiller in the Parlement of Paris, then intendant of the Auvergne from 1730 to 1734. In 1743, he was named an honorary member of the Académie des sciences. In the following year, he was made director of the Assemblée des inspecteurs généraux des ponts et chaussées (Assembly of General Inspectors of Bridges and Roads), a title he held until his death. He founded the École nationale des ponts et chaussées (School of Civil Engineering) in 1747, with Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, engineer of the généralité of Alençon, as its head.
As head of civil engineering for the French state, Trudaine demonstrated his brilliance, creating several thousand kilometres of royal routes (now known as the "routes nationales") linking Paris to France's
Sir John Benjamin MacNeill FRS (1793 – 2 March 1880) was an eminent Irish civil engineer of the 19th century, closely associated with Thomas Telford. His most notable projects were railway schemes in Ireland. He was born in Mountpleasant near the town of Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland.
MacNeill started initially as a surveyor and was employed practically in laying out roads and other engineering works since 1816. During a trip to England in the 1820s he met engineer Thomas Telford who inspired him to become a civil engineer. Indeed, he became Telford’s chief assistant for 10 years, eventually succeeding Telford as chief engineer on the massive London-Holyhead road project. He developed Macneill's road indicator in the late 1820s, an instrument for ascertaining the force necessary to draw a carriage over different kinds of roads and pavements, and consequently, the actual condition of the road.
After Telford’s death in 1834, MacNeill established his own consultancy, based in London and Glasgow, and turned his attention towards railways – his first projects were freight schemes in the Scottish coal and ironfields near Wishaw and Motherwell. He was also consulting engineer at
Nikolay Nikitkin (Russian: Николай Васильевич Никитин; 15 December 1907 - 3 March 1973) was a structural designer and construction engineer of the Soviet Union, best known for his monumental structures.
Nikolay was born in Tobolsk, Siberia to the family of a typographical engineer who later worked as a judicial clerk. When Nikolay was 17 a snake bite left him with a permanent foot injury. In 1930, Nikolay graduated from the Tomsk Technological Institute with training in construction.
In 1932, he designed the train station of Novosibirsk. By 1937, he was living and working in Moscow. He turned his attention to calculations for the foundation of the monumental Palace of Soviets which was to be constructed at the site of the dynamited Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
In 1957 he was appointed chief designer of Mosproekt-2 - Institute for the Planning of Housing and Civil Engineering Construction in the City of Moscow. Nikolay died on 3 March 1973 and is buried in Novodevichy Cemetery.
James Green (1781–1849) was a noted civil engineer and canal engineer, who was particularly active in the South West of England, where he pioneered the building of tub boat canals, and inventive solutions for coping with hilly terrain, which included tub boat lifts and inclined planes. Although dismissed from two schemes within days of each other, as a result of construction problems, his contribution as a civil engineer was great.
James Green was born in Birmingham, the son of an engineering family. He learned much from his father, by whom he was employed until the age of 20. He then worked with John Rennie on a number of projects around the country, until 1808, when he moved to Devon, and established a base at Exeter. He submitted plans for the rebuilding of Fenny Bridges, in East Devon, which had collapsed only 18 months after their previous reconstruction. The plans were accepted, and Green became the Bridge Surveyor for the County of Devon. By 1818 he had been promoted to Surveyor of Bridges and Buildings for the county, and held this position until 1841. These official duties did not prevent him from involvement in many private projects.
His initial involvement with canals in
Sir John Leslie Martin KBE (Manchester, 17 August 1908 – 28 July 2000) was an English Architect. A leading advocate of the International Style.
Martin's most famous building is the Royal Festival Hall. Martin's work was especially influenced by Alvar Aalto.
After studying at Manchester University Leslie Martin taught at the University of Hull. In 1937 he co-edited with Ben Nicholson and Naum Gabo the journal Circle that reviewed avant-garde abstract art and architecture.
During the Second World War Martin was assigned to the pre-nationalisation Railway companies to supervise re-building of bomb damaged regional rail stations. In this capacity Martin developed pre-fabricated designs to speed construction. Following the war Martin was made a Deputy Architect to the London County Council and in 1948 Hugh Casson selected him to lead the design team for the Royal Festival Hall the most prestigious building project of the Festival of Britain. In part in recognition of his achievement Martin was made Chief Architect of the LCC in 1953 and used his position to promote emerging younger architects Colin St. John Wilson, James Stirling, and Alison and Peter Smithson. Martin was involved
"Colonel" Thomas F. Breslin (1885–1942) was a civil engineer and a civilian contractor for the United States Army. He was pinned as a Colonel at the outbreak of the Battle of the Philippines and died during the Bataan Death March, the brutal POW march in the aftermath of the Battle of Bataan.
Thomas Breslin was born in Summit Hill, Pennsylvania on July 6, 1885, the son of Francis Breslin and Mary Malloy. He was baptized 6 days later at the Church of St. Joseph. Francis was a Justice of the Peace in Summit Hill. Francis' family had immigrated from Glenties County Donegal, Ireland in 1865. Mary was also born in Summit Hill. They were married at St. Anthony's Church in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York. Thomas was the oldest of six children and grew to be 5' 11".
He received dual degrees in Civil Engineering and Mining Engineering from Pennsylvania State College, now called Pennsylvania State University, graduating at the age of 22 in 1907.
Thomas received a contract with the U.S. Government to survey large portions of the island of Cebu in the Philippines which was then under American rule following the Spanish-American war. While in Cebu, he married Maria Mata Laurel who was born in
William Sooy Smith (July 22, 1830 – March 4, 1916) was a West Point graduate and career United States Army officer who rose through the ranks to become a brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
In civilian life, he was a renowned engineer involved in bridge construction that included the building of the first large all steel bridge in the world.
Smith was born in Tarlton, Ohio, and graduated from Ohio University in 1849 with an engineering degree. He furthered this degree at West Point as soon as he left the university, graduating sixth in his class from the U.S. Military Academy in 1853. Smith resigned from the Army on June 19, 1854 to accept a position with the Illinois Central Railroad.
Smith established the engineering company Parkinson & Smith in 1857, and was involved in the first surveys for a bridge between the United States and Canada across the Niagara River near Niagara Falls.
In 1861 at the outbreak of the Civil War, Smith joined the 13th Ohio Infantry, and by June he was commissioned as its colonel. After serving in western Virginia, he was promoted to brigadier general ( volunteers) in April 1862 during the Battle of Shiloh. Smith
David Joseph Macpherson (born January 12, 1854 in Ontario, Canada – died October 16, 1927 in Pasadena, California, USA), was a civil engineer graduate from Cornell University.
His first work was as a city planner for San Antonio, Texas, but he is more recognized for his work on railroads, specifically the one from Ciudad Juárez to Mexico City, and the Santa Fe Railroad.
He was the sole survivor of six children who died from consumption or other diseases. This prompted his move to Pasadena, California, in 1885. Pasadena was known for its climate conducive to good health. There he moved into a Dutch Colonial home in the unincorporated area of the Pasadena Highlands.
Though he spent time in developments in Pasadena, and was even once the Chairman of the Pasadena Board of Education, he wandered extensively about the foothills conjuring ideas about the development of a scenic mountain railroad to the crest of the San Gabriel Mountains. This idea had been brought up many times by the locals of Pasadena and Sierra Madre alike. It was not until he was introduced to the millionaire Professor Thaddeus S. C. Lowe by Perry M. Green, president of the Pasadena First National Bank, that any idea
Sir Brodie Haldane Henderson (1869 – 28 September 1936) was a British civil engineer. Henderson was primarily a railway engineer who worked for many railroad corporations across South America, Australasia and Africa. He was the consultant for the Dona Ana Bridge which, when it was built in 1935, was the longest railway bridge in the world with a length of 2.24 miles. He volunteered for service with the Royal Engineers at the outbreak of the First World War and was put in charge of railway lines used to tranposrt Allied troops and supplies. In this capacity he held the rank of a Brigadier-General of the British Army and his success in this role resulted in him being decorated by the British, French and Belgian governments.
After the war Henderson worked with the Imperial War Graves Commission, as High Sheriff of Hertfordshire in 1924 and as president of the Institution of Civil Engineers. He was an important patron of John William Waterhouse, the pre-Raphaelite painter, and was the original owner of Gather Ye Rosebuds While Ye May.
Henderson was born in Ealing, Middlesex to George and Eliza Henderson, his elder brother was Alexander Henderson the businessman and politician. He
Charles Ellet, Jr. (1 January 1810 – 21 June 1862) was a civil engineer and a colonel during the American Civil War, mortally wounded at the Battle of Memphis.
Ellet was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, brother of Alfred W. Ellet, also a civil engineer and a brigadier general in the Union Army during the war.
Charles studied civil engineering at École nationale des Ponts et Chaussées in Paris, France, and in 1832 submitted proposals for a suspension bridge across the Potomac River. In 1842, he designed and built the first major wire-cable suspension bridge in the United States, spanning 358 feet over the Schuylkill River at Fairmount, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He designed the record-breaking Wheeling suspension bridge over the Ohio River at Wheeling, West Virginia in 1848, and a 770-foot suspension footbridge at Niagara Falls at the same time.
His other civil engineering accomplishments include supervising both the James River & Kanawha Canal in Virginia and the Schuylkill Navigation improvements in Pennsylvania, and also constructing railroads in those states. Ellet developed theories for improving flood control and navigation of mid-western rivers. In 1849 he had advocated
George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public railway line in the world to use steam locomotives. Renowned as being the "Father of Railways", the Victorians considered him a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement, with self-help advocate Samuel Smiles particularly praising his achievements. His rail gauge of 4 feet 8+⁄2 inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.
George Stephenson was born in Wylam, Northumberland, 9.3 miles (15.0 km) west of Newcastle upon Tyne. He was the second child of Robert and Mabel, neither of whom could read or write. Robert was the fireman for Wylam Colliery pumping engine, earning a very low wage, so that there was no money for schooling. At 17, Stephenson became an engineman at Water Row Pit, Newburn. George realised the value of education and paid to study at night school to learn reading, writing and arithmetic—he was illiterate till the age of 18. In 1801 he began work at Black Callerton colliery as a 'brakesman', controlling the winding gear of the pit. In 1802 he married Frances (Fanny) Henderson
Guillaume-Henri Dufour (15 September 1787, Konstanz – 14 July 1875, Geneva) was a Swiss army officer, bridge engineer and topographer. He served under Napoleon I and held the office of General to lead the Swiss forces to victory against the Sonderbund. He presided over the First Geneva Convention which established the International Red Cross. He was founder and president of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography from 1838 to 1865.
The Dufourspitze (the highest mountain in Switzerland) in the Monte Rosa Massif is named after him.
Dufour was born in Konstanz, where his parents were temporarily exiled from Geneva. His father Bénédict was a Genevan watchmaker and farmer, who sent his son to school in Geneva, where he studied drawing and medicine. In 1807, Dufour travelled to Paris to join the École Polytechnique, then a military academy. He studied descriptive geometry under Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette, and graduated fifth in his class in 1809, going on to study military engineering at the École d'Application. In 1810, he was sent to help defend Corfu against the British, and spent his time mapping the island's old fortifications.
By 1814, he had returned to France, and was awarded
Sir James Alfred Ewing KCB FRS FRSE MInstitCE (27 March 1855 - 7 January 1935) was a Scottish physicist and engineer, best known for his work on the magnetic properties of metals and, in particular, for his discovery of, and coinage of the word, hysteresis.
It was said of Ewing that he was 'Careful at all times of his appearance, his suits were mostly grey, added to which he generally wore - whatever the fashion - a white piqué stripe to his waistcoat, a mauve shirt, a white butterfly collar and a dark blue bow tie with white spots.' he was regarded as brilliant and successful, but was conscious of his dignity and position. On appointment to head the newly created Admiralty codebreaking department, the Director of Naval Intelligence, Henry Oliver, described him as 'too distinguished a man to be placed officially under the orders of the Director of Intelligence or Chief of Staff'. His first wife, Annie, was an American, a great great niece of George Washington.
Born in Dundee, Scotland, Ewing was the third son of the Reverend James Ewing a minister of the Free Church of Scotland. He was educated at West End Academy and the High School of Dundee, Ewing showed an early interest in
John Bloomfield Jervis (December 14, 1795 – January 12, 1885) was an American civil engineer. He was America's leading consulting engineer of the antebellum era (1820 – 1860). Jervis was a pioneer in the development of canals and railroads for the expanding United States. He designed and supervised the construction of five of America's earliest railroads, was chief engineer of three major canal projects, designed the first locomotive to run in America, designed and built the forty-one mile Croton Aqueduct – New York City's fresh water supply from 1842 to 1891 – and was a consulting engineer for the Boston water system.
Working as chief engineer for the Delaware and Hudson Canal and Railroad, he designed the Stourbridge Lion, as well as the first steam locomotives with a leading bogie that became the 4-2-0 locomotive type. The 4-2-0 type is called Jervis in his honor.
Jervis authored a book on economics, The Question of Labor and Capital (1877), helped found the Rome Iron Mills in upstate New York industry, and is the founder of the Rome, New York public library.
Jervis was born at Huntington, New York, on Long Island, and was raised in Rome, New York, which was then called Fort
Pier Luigi Nervi (June 21, 1891 – January 9, 1979) was an Italian engineer. He studied at the University of Bologna and qualified in 1913. Dr. Nervi taught as a professor of engineering at Rome University from 1946-61. He is widely known as a structural engineer and an architect, and for his innovative use of reinforced concrete.
Pier Luigi Nervi was born in Sondrio and attended the Civil Engineering School of Bologna, from which he graduated in 1913. After graduation, Nervi joined the Society for Concrete Construction. Nervi spent several years in the Italian army during World War I from 1915–1918, when he served in the Corps of Engineering. His formal education was quite similar to that experienced by today's civil engineering student in Italy.
From 1961-1962 Nervi was the Norton professor at Harvard University.
Nervi began practicing civil engineering after 1923, and built several airplane hangars amongst his contracts. During 1940s he developed ideas for a reinforced concrete which helped in the rebuilding of many buildings and factories throughout Western Europe, and even designed and created a boat hull that was made of reinforced concrete as a promotion for the Italian
Thomas Harrison (7 August (baptised) 1744 – 29 March 1829) was an English architect and bridge engineer who trained in Rome, where he studied classical architecture. Returning to England, he won the competition in 1782 for the design of Skerton Bridge in Lancaster. After moving to Lancaster he worked on local buildings, received commissions for further bridges, and designed country houses in Scotland. In 1786 Harrison was asked to design new buildings within the grounds of Lancaster and Chester castles, projects that occupied him, together with other works, until 1815. On both sites he created accommodation for prisoners, law courts, and a shire hall, while working on various other public buildings, gentlemen's clubs, churches, houses, and monuments elsewhere. His final major commission was for the design of Grosvenor Bridge in Chester.
Some of Harrison's designs, including his buildings at Lancaster Castle, were Gothic in style, but most were Neoclassical, particularly those at Chester Castle. He was regarded at the time, and since, as a major influence in the emergence of the Greek Revival in British architecture. A bridge he designed at the start of his career, and another
Washington Augustus Roebling (May 26, 1837 – July 21, 1926) was an American civil engineer best known for his work on the Brooklyn Bridge, which was initially designed by his father John A. Roebling.
The eldest son of John Roebling, Washington was born in Saxonburg, Pennsylvania, a town co-founded by his father and his uncle, Karl Roebling. His early schooling consisted of tutoring by Riedel and under Henne in Pittsburgh. He eventually attended the Trenton Academy and acquired further education at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, from 1854-57. While attending Rensselaer, Roebling became a member of the Pi Eta Scientific Society, now known as the Rensselaer Society of Engineers. Following his graduation as civil engineer (C.E.), he joined his father to work as a bridge builder. From 1858 to 1860, he assisted his father on the Allegheny Bridge project, living in a boarding house on Penn Street. Following the completion of the bridge, he returned to Trenton to work in his father's wire mill.
On April 16, 1861, during the American Civil War, Roebling enlisted as a private in the New Jersey Militia. Seeking more than garrison duty, he resigned after two months and
William John Macquorn Rankine FRSE FRS (5 July 1820 – 24 December 1872) was a Scottish civil engineer, physicist and mathematician. He was a founding contributor, with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson (1st Baron Kelvin), to the science of thermodynamics, particularly focusing on the first of the three thermodynamic laws.
Rankine developed a complete theory of the steam engine and indeed of all heat engines. His manuals of engineering science and practice were used for many decades after their publication in the 1850s and 1860s. He published several hundred papers and notes on science and engineering topics, from 1840 onwards, and his interests were extremely varied, including, in his youth, botany, music theory and number theory, and, in his mature years, most major branches of science, mathematics and engineering. He was an enthusiastic amateur singer, pianist and cellist who composed his own humorous songs. He was born in Edinburgh and died in Glasgow, a bachelor.
Born in Edinburgh to British Army lieutenant David Rankine and Barbara Grahame, of a prominent legal and banking family. Rankine was initially educated at home but he later attended Ayr Academy (1828-9) and, very
Sir William Arthur Stanier, FRS (27 May 1876 - 27 September 1965) was Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.
He was born in Swindon, where his father worked for the Great Western Railway (GWR) as William Dean's Chief Clerk, and educated at Swindon High School and also, for a single year, at Wycliffe College.
In 1891 he followed his father into a career with the GWR, initially as an office boy and then for five years as an apprentice in the workshops. Between 1897 and 1900 he worked in the Drawing Office as a draughtsman, before becoming Inspector of Materials in 1900. In 1904, George Jackson Churchward appointed him as Assistant to the Divisional Locomotive Superintendent in London. In 1912 he returned to Swindon to become the Assistant Works Manager and in 1920 was promoted to the post of Works Manager.
In late 1931, he was "headhunted" by Sir Josiah Stamp, chairman of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) to become the Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of that railway from 1 January 1932. He was charged with introducing modern and more powerful locomotive designs, using his knowledge gained at Swindon with the GWR. Stanier built many other
Ithiel Town (October 3, 1784 – June 13, 1844) was a prominent American architect and civil engineer. One of the first generation of professional architects in the United States, Town made significant contributions to American architecture in the first half of the 19th century. His work, in the Federal and revivalist Greek and Gothic architectural styles, was influential and widely copied.
Town was born in Thompson, Connecticut to Archelaus Town, a farmer, and Martha (Johnson) Town. He trained with the eminent Asher Benjamin in Boston and began his own professional career with the Asa Gray House (1810).
His earliest important architectural works include Center Church (1812–1815), and Trinity Church (1813–1816, both on the New Haven Green in New Haven, Connecticut. He demonstrated his virtuosity as an engineer by constructing the spire for Center Church inside the tower and then raising it into place in less than three hours using a special windlass. Trinity Church, built from local seam-faced trap rock and topped with a square tower, was one of the earliest Gothic Revival churches in America.
In 1825, Town became one of the original members of the National Academy of Design and was
Sir James Nicholas Douglass, FRS, (16 October 1826 – 19 June 1898), was an English civil engineer, a prolific lighthouse builder and designer, most famous for the design and construction of the fourth Eddystone Lighthouse, for which he was knighted.
James Nicholas Douglass was born in Bow, London, in 1826, the eldest son of Nicholas Douglass, also a civil engineer. After serving an apprenticeship with the Hunter and English company, he joined the engineering department of Trinity House, the United Kingdom's lighthouse authority.
Along with his brother William, James worked as an assistant to his father during the construction of James Walker's Bishop Rock Lighthouse, earning the nickname 'Cap'n Jim' during the process. After a brief period working for the Newcastle carriage builders R J & R Laycock, he returned in 1854 to assist in the lighthouse's final completion and to marry his fiancee Mary Tregarthen. Trinity House then engaged him as Resident Engineer to design the Smalls Lighthouse off the coast of Pembrokeshire, his first solo project.
Douglass based his plans on the proven design of John Smeaton for the third Eddystone lighthouse, which had used dovetailed granite blocks
Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an English civil engineer. He was the only son of George Stephenson, the famed locomotive builder and railway engineer; many of the achievements popularly credited to his father were actually the joint efforts of father and son.
He was born on the 16th of October, 1803, at Willington Quay, east of Newcastle Upon Tyne, the only son of George Stephenson and his wife, Fanny. At the time, George and Fanny were living in a single room and George was working as a brakesman on a stationary colliery engine. In 1804, the family moved to a cottage in West Moor when George was made brakeman at West Moor Colliery. In 1805 Fanny gave birth to a daughter who died after a few weeks. The next year Robert’s mother died of consumption. George then went and worked in Scotland for a short time, leaving the infant Robert with a local woman. However, George soon returned to West Moor, and his sister Nelly came to live at the cottage to look after Robert.
George had received virtually no formal education and he was determined that his son would have the education that he lacked. At a young age, George expected Robert to read books that were
William Symington (1764–1831) was a Scottish engineer and inventor, and the builder of the first practical steamboat, the Charlotte Dundas.
Symington was born in Leadhills, South Lanarkshire, Scotland to a family he described as being "respectable but not wealthy." His father worked as a practical mechanic at the Leadhills mines.
Although his parents intended for him to enter the ministry, he intended to use his good education to make a career as an engineer. So, in 1785, he joined his brother George in his attempts to build a steam engine at Wanlockhead, Dumfriesshire. While there, he impressed the manager of a local mining company, Gilbert Meason, so much that he was sent to the University of Edinburgh in 1786 to spend a few months attending science lectures.
By the time William joined his brother, George had already succeeded in building the second engine using James Watt's design to be built in Scotland.
William Symington quickly saw a way to marry the efficiency of the Watt engine with the simplicity of that devised by Thomas Newcomen. Encouraged by Gilbert Meason, Symington demonstrated the practicality of his idea and his improved atmospheric engine was patented in 1787.
Carl Culmann (July 10, 1821 – December 9, 1881) was a German structural engineer.
Born in Bad Bergzabern, Rhenish Palatinate, in modern-day Germany, Culmann's father, a pastor, tutored him at home before enrolling him at the military engineering school at Metz to prepare for entry to the École Polytechnique. Culmann's ambitions were frustrated by an attack of typhoid and, after a long convalescence, he attended the Karlsruhe Polytechnic School. He joined the Bavarian civil service in 1841 as an apprentice engineer in the design of railroad bridges.
Continuing his mathematical studies, in particular under L. C. Schnürlein, in 1847 Culmann transferred to Munich so that he could improve his English in anticipation of a study tour to the United Kingdom and the United States. His tour lasted from 1849 to 1851, studying the comparative designs of truss bridges and developing new analytical techniques to facilitate his investigations.
In 1855, he took up the chair of engineering sciences at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, holding the post until his death.
Inspired by the work of Jean-Victor Poncelet, Culmann was a pioneer of graphical methods in engineering, publishing
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French physicist. He is best known for developing Coulomb's law, the definition of the electrostatic force of attraction and repulsion. The SI unit of electric charge, the coulomb, was named after him.
Coulomb graduated in November 1761 from Ecole du Génie at Mézières. Over the next twenty years he was posted to a variety of locations where he was involved in engineering, in structural, fortifications, soil mechanics, as well as other fields of engineering. His first posting was to Brest but in February 1764 he was sent to Martinique, in the West Indies, where he was put in charge of building the new Fort Bourbon and this task occupied him until June 1772.
On his return to France, Coulomb was sent to Bouchain. However, he now began to write important works on applied mechanics and he presented his first work to the Académie des Sciences in Paris in 1773. In 1779 Coulomb was sent to Rochefort to collaborate with the Marquis de Montalembert in constructing a fort made entirely from wood near Ile d'Aix. During his period at Rochefort, Coulomb carried on his research into mechanics, in particular using the shipyards in
Ferdinand Gottlob Schichau (30 January 1814 – 23 January 1896) was a German mechanical engineer and businessman.
Schichau was born in Elbing, West Prussia (modern Elbląg, Poland) to a smith and iron worker. He studied engineering in Berlin and visited the Rhineland and England. In 1837 he started his own company in Elbing. He also built a shipyard in Pillau near Königsberg (East Prussia) (today Baltiysk, Kaliningrad Oblast).
The Schichau-Werke became a large industrial complex, which employed several thousand people. Schichau made hydraulic presses, industrial machines and steam engines. For his workers he erected a large living quarter section in Elbing. The Borussia, constructed by him, was the first screw-vessel in Germany.
Schichau gained an associate when his daughter married around 1873 Carl H. Ziese (1848 -1917) the constructor in 1874 of the first Compound engine to be integrated in a German gunship.
The company had so many orders that it became necessary to construct another large shipyard in nearby Danzig (Gdańsk) as well. In 1896 Schichau employed about 4,000 labourers his private assets were appraised at 30 million German gold mark. Schichau died in Elbing on 23 January
Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov (Russian: Влади́мир Григо́рьевич Шу́хов; August 28 [O.S. August 16] 1853 – February 2, 1939) was a Russian engineer-polymath, scientist and architect renowned for his pioneering works on new methods of analysis for structural engineering that led to breakthroughs in industrial design of world's first hyperboloid structures, lattice shell structures, tensile structures, gridshell structures, oil reservoirs, pipelines, boilers, ships and barges.
Besides the innovations he brought to the oil industry and the construction of numerous bridges and buildings, Shukhov was the inventor of a new family of doubly curved structural forms. These forms, based on non-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry, are known today as hyperboloids of revolution. Shukhov developed not only many varieties of light-weight hyperboloid towers and roof systems, but also the mathematics for their analysis. Shukhov is particularly reputed for his original designs of hyperboloid towers such as the Shukhov Tower.
Vladimir Shukhov was born in a town of Graivoron, Belgorod uezd, Kursk gubernia (in present-day Belgorod Oblast) into a petty noble family. His father Grigory Ivanovich Shukhov was a
Benjamin Henry Latrobe, II (December 19, 1806 – October 19, 1878) was an American civil engineer, best known for his railway bridges.
He was the son of Benjamin Latrobe, architect of the United States Capitol and the Basilica of the Assumption. The junior Latrobe was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was educated in Baltimore, Maryland, and later at Georgetown College. He married Maria Eleanor "Ellen" Hazlehurst on March 12, 1833.
Around 1820 Latrobe worked with his father to establish a water supply for New Orleans, Louisiana.
Between 1833 and 1835, as assistant engineer for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, he saw his design for the Thomas Viaduct take shape. The viaduct spans the Patapsco River between Relay and Elkridge, Maryland. Early on it was nicknamed "Latrobe's Folly" as many doubted the massive structure could support itself. The fact that it remains in use as of 2010, carrying far heavier loads than ever envisioned, is a testament to his skill.
Among the construction projects that Latrobe worked on was the Hoosac Tunnel in Massachusetts. He was a consulting engineer for the Troy and Greenfield Railroad, served as chief engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
James Simpson (1799–1869) was a British civil engineer. He was president of the Institution of Civil Engineers from January 1853 to January 1855.
James Simpson was the fourth son of Thomas Simpson, engineer of the Chelsea Waterworks. James succeeded his father in both this post and that of engineer of the Lambeth Waterworks Company. It was under Simpson's instruction that the Chelsea Waterworks became the first in the country to install a slow sand filtration system to purify the water they were drawing from the River Thames. This filter consisted of successive beds of loose brick, gravel and sand to remove solids from the water.
He also designed waterworks at Windsor Castle and Bristol as well as The Wooden Pier at Southend on Sea.
Sir Arnold Joseph Philip Powell (15 March 1921 – 5 May 2003 in London), usually known as Philip Powell, was an English post-war architect.
He was educated at Epsom College and then the Architectural Association.
He was the father of "Humane modernism", and is famous for designing the Chichester Festival Theatre. He also designed the Skylon, the Churchill Gardens apartment complex in Pimlico and the main House at Chichester.
He founded a practice with Hidalgo Moya, Powell & Moya Architect Practice. Peter Skinner joined the practice in 1948 and later became a partner. They won a competition to build Churchill Gardens, Pimlico, a complex that houses 5,000 people in 1,800 flats. They were aged 24 and 23 respectively. They were then invited by Frederick Gibberd to design a housing project in Harlow New Town. Northbrooks sits imposingly above a valley to the South of the town centre, affording good views from and to the four-storey slab blocks. However, arguments with Harlow Design Corporation over the use of flat roofs led to the pair terminating their involvement prior to completion. They undertook no more work in the town, much to the disappointment of Gibberd, who had lectured them
Wendell Fertig (16 December 1900 – 24 March 1975) was an American civil engineer, in the American-administered Commonwealth of the Philippines, who organized and commanded an American-Filipino guerrilla force on the Japanese-occupied, southern Philippine island of Mindanao during World War II.
Fertig held a U.S. Army reserve commission and was called into military service before the war in the Pacific began. Ordered from Corregidor before its surrender to the Japanese, he was sent to Mindanao to assume command of engineer activities there. Almost as soon as he arrived, the U.S. Army forces on Mindanao surrendered, but Fertig refused to do so. Fertig used his knowledge of the Filipino people to organize them into a guerrilla army and civilian government. He also used his engineering knowledge to solve problems in supply and construction.
Fertig led the guerrillas against the Japanese and their collaborators, mostly in hit-and-run raids and vital coast watching activities. After making contact with U.S. forces in the Pacific, the guerrillas began to receive supplies, but never enough to stage large scale attacks. More than once, the Japanese tried to destroy Fertig and his guerrilla
William Barclay Parsons (April 15, 1859 – May 9, 1932) was an American civil engineer. He founded the firm that became Parsons Brinckerhoff, one of the largest American civil engineering firms.
William Parsons was the son of William Barclay Parsons and Eliza Livingston Glass. He was the great-grandson of Henry Barclay, second Rector of Trinity Church (Manhattan). In 1871 he went to school in Torquay, England, and for the four years following studied under private tutors while traveling in France, Germany and Italy.
Parsons received a bachelor's degree from Columbia College in 1879, and a second from Columbia's School of Mines in 1882. He later served as chairman of the University's board of trustees.
From 1882 to the end of 1885, he was in the maintenance of way department of the New York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad. His first books had to do with railroad problems (Turnouts; Exact Formulae for Their Determination, 1884, and Track, A Complete Manual of Maintenace of Way, 1886), and this interest in rail transportation continued throughout his life.
Parsons designed the Cape Cod Canal as Chief Engineer. He was also Chief Engineer of the New York Rapid Transit Commission, and as
Sir William Fairbairn, 1st Baronet (of Ardwick) (19 February 1789 – 18 August 1874) was a Scottish civil engineer, structural engineer and shipbuilder.
Born in Kelso to a local farmer, Fairbairn showed an early mechanical aptitude and served as an apprentice millwright in Newcastle upon Tyne where he befriended the young George Stephenson. He moved to Manchester in 1813 to work for Adam Parkinson and Thomas Hewes. In 1817, he launched his mill-machinery business with James Lillie as Fairbairn and Lillie Engine Makers.
Fairbairn was a lifelong learner and joined the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1830. In the 1820s and 30s, he and Eaton Hodgkinson conducted a search for an optimal cross section for iron-beams. They designed, for example, the bridge over Water Street for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830. In the 1840s, when Robert Stephenson, the son of his youthful friend George, was trying to develop a way of crossing the Menai Strait, he retained both Fairbairn and Hodgkinson as consultants. It was Fairbairn who conceived of the idea of a rectangular tube or box girder to bridge the large gap between Anglesey and North Wales. He conducted many tests on
Edwin Clark (1814–1894) was an English civil engineer, specialising in hydraulics. He is chiefly remembered as the designer of the Anderton Boat Lift (1875) near Northwich in Cheshire, which links the navigable stretch of the River Weaver with the Trent and Mersey Canal.
Clark was at one time a mathematical master at Brook Green, then became a surveyor in the west of England. In 1846 Clark went to London where he met Robert Stephenson, who appointed him superintending engineer of the Menai Bridge. When this opened on 5 March 1850 Clark published a book The Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges (3 vols), and by August of that year he had moved on to become an engineer with the Electric and International Telegraph Company, where he took out the first of several patents for telegraph apparatus; the London and North Western Railway used Clark's telegraph between London and Rugby from 1855.
In 1857 Clark became engineer to the Thames Graving Dock Limited, for which he designed a graving dock in which the ships to be repaired were lifted from the water by hydraulic presses, based on his experience of lifting the tubular sections of Stephenson's Britannia and Conwy tubular bridges over the
George Wilson (Molly) Malone (August 7, 1890 - May 19, 1961) was an American civil engineer and Republican politician.
Malone was born in Fredonia, Kansas. As a young man he moved to Reno, Nevada and worked as a civil and hydraulic engineer there while attending the University of Nevada, Reno.
Malone graduated from college in 1917, and he enlisted in the military when the United States entered World War I. At first he served in the artillery, but he eventually became a regimental intelligence officer and served in England and France until 1919.
Malone then returned to work in engineering. He served as the state engineer of Nevada from 1927 to 1935.
Malone entered politics in 1934 when he made his first attempt to be elected to the United States Senate from Nevada. He was defeated by the Democratic incumbent Key Pittman, receiving 33 percent of the vote. During World War II Malone worked for the Senate as an engineering consultant on war materials. Malone ran again for a seat in the United States Senate in 1944, this time against Democratic incumbent Pat McCarran. Malone was defeated again, receiving 41 percent of the vote.
Malone successfully campaigned for a seat in the Senate in
James Harrison (April 1816 - 3 September 1893) was an Australian newspaper printer, journalist, politician, and pioneer in the field of mechanical refrigeration.
James Harrison was born at St Johns (near Renton), Dunbartonshire, Scotland, the son of a fisherman. He trained as a printing apprentice in Glasgow and worked in London before emigrating to Sydney, Australia in 1837 to set up a printing press for the English company Tegg & Co. Moving to Melbourne in 1839 he found employment with John Pascoe Fawkner as a compositor and later editor on Fawkner's Port Phillip Patriot. When Fawkner acquired a new press, Harrison offered him 30 pounds for the original old press to start Geelong's first newspaper. The first weekly edition of the Geelong Advertiser appeared November 1840: edited by 'James Harrison and printed and published for John Pascoe Fawkner (sole proprietor) by William Watkins...'. By November 1842, Harrison became sole owner.....
Harrison was a member of Geelong's first town council in 1850 and represented Geelong and Geelong West in the Victorian Legislative Assembly in 1859-60. As an editor he was an early advocate for tariff protection which later he brought to
Wilfred George Kenneth Fleming (known as Ken) was an influential piling engineer and former chairman of the Federation of Piling Contractors.
Born in Maguiresbridge, County Fermanagh Ken Fleming was the son of a Church of Ireland minister.
In July 1945, he won the Seale Scholarship to Portora Royal School.
He graduated from Queen's University Belfast (1955) and became an assistant lecturer, later being awarded a PHD in 1958.
In 1958 Ken Fleming joined J. Laing and Sons (in Mill Hill, London, NW7). When Laing’s joined up to form McKinney Foundations, Fleming was involved as a technical advisor for the piling foundations for London's Centre Point. He also travelled to America where he spent time with company founder Jack McKinney who encouraged his interest in developing improved piling techniques.
McKinney Foundations was bought by Cementation Foundations in 1968 and Ken Fleming became chief engineer. At Cementation, Fleming was involved in the development of a series of new systems for improving the receptiveness of the ground to secure piles and to provide reliable information on the settlement of piles. Ken Fleming created the “Cemset” system which forecasts pile settlement under
Archie Alphonse Alexander (14 May 1888 – 4 January 1958) was an African-American mathematician and engineer and an early African-American graduate of the University of Iowa and he was the first to graduate from the University of Iowa's College of Engineering. He was also a governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Alexander was born in Ottumwa, Iowa, the son of Price and Mary Alexander. When the family moved to a farm outside Des Moines, Price became head custodian at the Des Moines National Bank, which at the time was a prestigious job for a black man Attending, Oak Park Grammar School, Oak Park High School and Highland Park College for one year, Archie began his engineering education at the State University of Iowa (The University of Iowa). "Although, he initially went to Des Moines College and attempted to join the white-only American football team there, he was declined. As a result, he played tackle from 1910 to 1912 and the nickname "Alexander the Great. " During the summer Alexander worked as a draftsman for Marsh Engineers, a Des Moines bridge-designing firm and in 1912, he received a bachelor of science degree becoming The University of Iowa's first black football player and
Charles Baird (1766–1843) was a Scottish engineer who played an important part in the industrial and business life of 19th century St. Petersburg. His company specialised in steam-driven machinery and was responsible for Russia's first steamboat.
Born at Westerton, Bothkennar, Stirlingshire, Charles was one of the nine children of Nicol Baird, superintendent of the Forth and Clyde Canal. His younger brother Hugh Baird also became an engineer. Charles Baird started his working life in 1782 as an apprentice at the Carron Ironworks near Falkirk.
By the age of 19 Baird had a supervisory post in the gun department, and in 1786 he accompanied a Carron Company manager, Charles Gascoigne, to Russia to establish the Aleksandrovsk gun factory at Petrozavodsk, and a cannon ball foundry at Kronstadt. Gascoigne had been invited to Russia by Samuel Greig, a Scot who was an admiral in the Russian Navy.
In 1792 Baird entered into partnership with Francis Morgan, whose daughter Sophia he married in June 1794. Their St. Petersburg business became known as the Baird Works (Russian: Завод Берда) and specialised in steam-driven machinery. It supplied machinery for the Imperial Arsenal, Mint, and
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Collier Michell, (29 March 1793 Exeter - 28 March 1851 Eltham, London), later known as Charles Cornwallis Michell, was a British soldier, first surveyor-general in the Cape, road engineer, architect, artist and naturalist.
Born in Exeter, Devon, and called Charles Cornwallis Michell later in his life because of the proximity to Cornwall of his birthplace, Michell was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich and commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1809. He headed a brigade at the battles of Vittoria and Toulouse, took part in Waterloo and was appointed teacher of military drawing at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst on 24 March 1824 and professor of military fortification at Woolwich on 25 December 1825 and promoted to the brevet rank of major shortly thereafter. He was fluent in Spanish, Portuguese and French.
Michell was appointed as surveyor-general at the Cape in 1828, (having probably heard of the post through his cousin Rufane Donkin) at the same time holding the positions of superintendent of public works and civil engineer. For performing these functions, he received an annual salary of £800. The surveyor-general's duties included
Clarkson Nott Potter (April 25, 1825 – January 23, 1882) was an American civil engineer, then (1848-1868) a practising lawyer in New York City, and in 1869-1875 and in 1877-1881 a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives. He was President of the American Bar Association from 1881 to 1882.
Potter was the son of Bishop Alonzo Potter of Pennsylvania. He had at least five brothers:
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Potter, Henry Codman". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
François Hennebique (26 April 1842 – 7 March 1921) was a French engineer and self-educated builder who patented his pioneering reinforced-concrete construction system in 1892, integrating separate elements of construction, such as the column and the beam, into a single monolithic element. The Hennebique system was one of the first appearances of the modern reinforced-concrete method of construction.
Hennebique had first worked as a stonemason, later becoming a builder, with a particular interest in restoration of old churches. Hennebique's Béton Armé system started out by using concrete as a fireproof protection for wrought iron beams, on a house project in Belgium in 1879. He realised however, that the floor system would be more economic if the iron were used only where the slab was in tension, relying on the concrete in the compression areas. His solution was reinforced concrete – a concrete slab with steel bars in its bottom face.
His business developed rapidly, expanding from five employees in Brussels in 1896, to twenty-five two years later when he moved to Paris. In addition, he had a rapidly expanding network of firms acting as agents for his system. These included L.G.
George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. (February 14, 1859–November 22, 1896) was an American engineer. He is most famous for creating the original Ferris Wheel for the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition.
Ferris was born on February 14, 1859, in Galesburg, Illinois, the town founded by his namesake, George Washington Gale. His parents were George Washington Gale Ferris Sr. and Martha Edgerton Hyde. He had an older brother named Frederick Hyde who was born in 1843. In 1864, five years after Ferris was born, his family sold their dairy farm and moved to Nevada. For two years, they lived in Carson Valley.
From 1868 to 1890, his father, George Washington Gale Ferris Sr., owned Sears-Ferris House, at 311 W. Third, Carson City, Nevada. Originally built in about 1863 by Gregory A. Sears, a pioneer Carson City businessman, the house was added to the National Register of Historic Places for Carson City on February 9, 1979.
Ferris Senior was an agriculturalist/horticulturalist, noteworthy in Carson City's development for much of the city's landscaping during the 1870s, and for importing a large number of the trees from the east that were planted throughout the city.
Ferris left Nevada in
Karl Gustaf Patrik de Laval (May 9, 1845 - February 2, 1913) was a Swedish engineer and inventor who made important contributions to the design of steam turbines and, more importantly, dairy machinery.
De Laval was born at Orsa in Dalarna. He enrolled at the Institute of Technology in Stockholm (later the Royal Institute of Technology) in 1863, receiving a degree in mechanical engineering in 1866, after which he matriculated at Uppsala University in 1867. He was then employed by the Swedish mining company, Stora Kopparberg. From there he returned to Uppsala University and completed his doctorate in 1872. He as further employed in Kloster Iron works in Husby parish, Sweden. Gustaf de Laval was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1886. He was a successful engineer and businessman. He also held the national office, being elected to Swedish parliament, from 1888–1890 and later became a member of senate. De Laval died in Stockholm in 1912 at the age of 67.
In 1882 he introduced his concept of an impulse steam turbine and in 1887 built a small steam turbine to demonstrate that such devices could be constructed on that scale. In 1890 Laval developed a nozzle to increase
Colonel Holman Fred Stephens (1868 - 23 October 1931) was a British light railway civil engineer and manager. During his lifetime he was engaged in engineering and building, and later managing, 16 light railways in England and Wales.
Stephens was the son of Frederic George Stephens, Pre-Raphaelite artist and art critic, and his wife, the artist Rebecca Clara (née Dalton). He was apprenticed in the workshops of the Metropolitan Railway in 1881. From there he went on to become an assistant engineer during the building of the Cranbrook and Paddock Wood Railway, which was opened in 1892. In 1894 he became an associate member of the Institution of Civil Engineers which allowed him to design and build railways in his own right.
He immediately set about his lifetime's project of building light railways for rural areas. Most of his projects were to be planned and built under the terms of the 1896 Light Railways Act. His first two independently built railways, the Rye and Camber Tramway and the Hundred of Manhood and Selsey Tramway, predated this but he built the first railway under that Act: the Rother Valley Railway (later to become the Kent and East Sussex Railway).
The railways were
James Abernethy FRSE (12 June 1814 – 8 March 1896) was a Scottish civil engineer.
Abernethy was born in Aberdeen to George Abernethy and Isabella Johnston. In 1823, the family moved to South Wales, where his father managed the Dowlais Ironworks, and in 1826 moved to Southwark in London, because his father obtained a job as a foundry manager. While there, he watched the construction of London Bridge. In 1827, he was sent with his brothers to Cotherstone Boarding School in the North Riding of Yorkshire, but was removed by his uncle, Revd. John Abernethy, two years later, when he discovered the awful conditions at the school. His uncle took him to London and then to Haddington, East Lothian where he spent two years at the Grammar School. He then went to work under his father, who was working on the construction of the Eastern Dock, which was part of the London Docks complex.
His next move with his father was in 1832 to Herne Bay, where a timber pier was being constructed. However, he sailed to Sweden in 1833, to lay out new roads for a manganese mine near Jönköping which a friend had bought. He spent much of his spare time sketching the architecture and scenery of the area, until he
Sir James Brunlees (1816–1892) was a Scottish civil engineer. He was born in Kelso in the Scottish Borders in 1816.
In 1850, Brunlees worked on the Londonderry and Coleraine Railway. For this job he was obliged to build an embankment over Rosse’s Bay on the River Foyle, surmounting great difficulties.
Brunlees was the Construction Engineer for the Ulverston and Lancaster Railway. This was a short but difficult and important railway to link the Furness Railway network to the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway line and thence to all points further south in the British network. The route was planned by McClean and Stileman at 19 miles in length of which ten miles comprised embankments and viaducts across tidal water. Much of this was sand running to a depth of 30 to 70 feet. This made it very challenging to build. In business terms the Manchester-based railway contractors John Brogden and Sons were the prime movers of this railway.
The Ulverstone and Lancaster Railway Act received the Royal Assent on 24 July 1851 but work was not in full progress until September 1853 because workers and accommodation for them were not readily available. McClean and Stileman had resigned as engineers in
James Walker, FRS, (14 September 1781 – 8 October 1862) was an influential Scottish civil engineer of the first half of the 19th century.
Walker was born in Falkirk and was apprenticed to his uncle Ralph Walker in approximately 1800, with whom he gained experience working on the design and construction of the West India and East India Docks in London. Also in London, he worked on the Surrey Commercial Docks from about 1810 onwards, remaining as engineer to the Surrey Commercial Dock Company until his death in 1862.
An associate of Thomas Telford, he succeeded him as President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, serving from 1834 to 1845. He was also chief engineer of Trinity House, hence his considerable involvement with coastal engineering and lighthouses. He was conferred with Honorary Membership of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland in 1857.
James Walker worked on various engineering projects, including:
Walker was also involved in the design of a dock harbour in Hamburg (1845, with William Lindley and Heinrich Hübbe). He was also involved in the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, preparing a report on the merits of stationary and locomotive engines
Gerald "Jerry" Francis Oberholtzer (born March 10, 1959) is an American politician and a member of the Republican Party. Oberholtzer was the mayor of Snellville, Georgia from 2003 to 2011.
Originally from Allentown, Pennsylvania, Oberholtzer received a bachelor of science degree in Civil Engineering from Clemson University in 1981
His election as mayor was his third run for public office. He had previously lost a bid to become a city councilman in 1997 but was subsequently elected in 1999. He was previously the Treasurer of the Gwinnett County Water and Sewer Board.
On November 6, 2007, Oberholtzer won re-election over as mayor by a 19 vote margin out of 2183 ballots cast.
John Alexander Low Waddell (1854 – March 3, 1938, often shortened to J.A.L. Waddell and sometimes known as John Alexander Waddell) was an American civil engineer and prolific bridge designer, with more than a thousand structures to his credit in the United States, Canada, as well as Mexico, Russia, China, Japan, and New Zealand. Waddell’s work set standards for elevated railroad systems and helped develop materials suitable for large span bridges. His most important contribution was the development of the steam-powered high-lift bridge. His design was first used in 1893 for Chicago's South Halsted Street Lift-Bridge over the Chicago River; he went on to design more than 100 other movable bridges, and the company he founded continues to make movable bridges of various types. Waddell was a widely respected writer on bridge design, and an advocate of quality training of engineers. Many of Waddell's surviving bridges are now considered historic landmarks.
One of his most notable works is the ASB Bridge in Kansas City Missouri. It is only one of two of this design ever built, and is in use as a railroad bridge for the BNSF.
Waddell was born in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada in 1854. He
John Gwynn (Shrewsbury 1713 – Shrewsbury 28 February 1786) was an English architect and civil engineer, who became one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768. He advocated greater control over planning in London, for which he produced detailed suggestions. His buildings include Magdalen Bridge and the Covered Market in Oxford, and several bridges over the River Severn.
Gwynn was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire. He worked initially as a carpenter, but then decided to practice as a (largely self-taught) architect and town planner, moving to London, where he became a friend of Samuel Johnson.
In 1749, when Sir Christopher Wren's drawings were sold, Gwynn obtained Wren's plan for the rebuilding of the City of London, and published it, adding some comments of his own. Seventeen years later, in 1776, he published London and Westminster Improved, in which he criticised the loose control over building in the West End, saying that "the finest part of town is left to ignorant and capricious persons", and called for development to be controlled by a general plan. He made more than a hundred suggestions for improvements to the capital. They included the rebuilding of London Bridge,
Kalpana Chawla (July 1, 1961 – February 1, 2003) was an Indian-American astronaut who, was a mission specialist on the space shuttle Columbia. She first flew on the Columbia in 1997 as a mission specialist and primary robotic arm operator. Chawla was one of seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
Chawla completed her earlier schooling at Tagore Public School, Karnal and her Bachelor of Engineering degree in Aeronautical Engineering at Punjab Engineering College at Chandigarh in 1982. She moved to the United States in 1982 and obtained a M.S. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington in 1984. Chawla went on to earn a second M.S. degree in 1986 and a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering in 1988 from the University of Colorado at Boulder. Later that year she began working at the NASA Ames Research Center as vice president of Overset Methods, Inc. where she did CFD research on Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing concepts. Chawla held a Certificated Flight Instructor rating for airplanes, gliders and Commercial Pilot licenses for single and multi-engine airplanes, seaplanes and gliders.
Chawla joined the NASA 'Astronaut Corps' in March
Dr. Michel Virlogeux (born 1946, La Flèche, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire) is a French structural engineer and bridge specialist.
Virlogeux graduated from the École Polytechnique in 1967 and from the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées in 1970. From 1970 to 1973 he served in Tunisia on road projects and at the same time gained his Engineering Doctorate from the Pierre et Marie Curie University (Sixth Arrondissement, Paris). In January 1974 he joined the Bridge Department of SETRA, the technical service of the French Highway Administration.
In 1980 he became Head of the Large Concrete Bridge Division, and in 1987 of the large Bridge Division, Steel and Concrete. During twenty years he designed more than 100 bridges, including the Normandy Bridge which held the world record for longest cable-stayed bridge for four years. In 1995 he left the French Administration and set up as independent consulting engineer; his major achievements include his participation in the construction of the 'Second Tagus Crossing', the Vasco da Gama Bridge in Lisbon, and the design of the Millau Viaduct in France. Several of his bridges have received architectural awards.
Since 1977 Dr Virlogeux has been a
Robert Maillart (February 6, 1872 – April 5, 1940) was a Swiss civil engineer who revolutionized the use of structural reinforced concrete with such designs as the three-hinged arch and the deck-stiffened arch for bridges, and the beamless floor slab and mushroom ceiling for industrial buildings. His completed Salginatobel (1929–1930) and Schwandbach (1933) bridges changed the aesthetics and engineering of bridge construction dramatically and influenced decades of architects and engineers after him. In 1991 the Salginatobel Bridge was declared an International Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Robert Maillart was born in Berne, Switzerland. He attended the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. Maillart did not excel in academic theories, but understood the necessity to make assumptions and visualize when analyzing a structure. A traditional method prior to the 1900s was to use shapes that could be analyzed easily using mathematics.
This overuse of mathematics annoyed Maillart, as he greatly preferred to stand back and use common sense to predict full-scale performance. Also, as he rarely tested his bridges prior to construction,
Samuel Clegg (1781–1861) was a British civil engineer.
Clegg was born at Manchester on 2 March 1781, received a scientific education under the care of Dr. Dalton. He was then apprenticed to Boulton and Watt, and at the Soho Manufactory witnessed many of William Murdoch's earlier experiments in the use of coal gas. He profited so well by his residence there that he was soon engaged by Mr. Henry Lodge to adapt the new lighting system to his cotton mills at Sowerby Bridge, near Halifax; and finding the necessity for some simpler method of purifying the gas, he invented the lime purifiers.
After removing to London, he lighted in 1813 with gas the establishment of Mr. Rudolph Ackermann, printseller, 101 Strand. Here his success was so pronounced that it brought him prominently forward, and in the following year he became the engineer of the Chartered Gas Company. He made many unsuccessful attempts to construct a dry meter which would register satisfactorily; but in 1815 and again in 1818 he patented a water meter, — the basis of all the subsequent improvements in the method of measuring gas.
For some years he was actively engaged in the construction of gasworks, or in advising on the
Sextus Julius Frontinus (ca. 40–103 AD) was one of the most distinguished Roman aristocrats of the late 1st century AD: he was grandson of Aulus Julius Frontinus and Cornelia Africana, the only child of Publius Cornelius Scipio. He is best known to the post-Classical world as an author of technical treatises, especially one dealing with the aqueducts of Rome.
In 70 AD, he was praetor, and five years later was sent into Britain to succeed Quintus Petillius Cerialis as governor of that island. He subdued the Silures and other tribes of Wales hostile to Roman invasion, establishing a new base at Caerleon or Isca Augusta for Legio II Augusta and a network of smaller forts fifteen to twenty kilometres apart for his auxiliary units. One of these forts would have been Luentinum, which controlled the gold mine of Dolaucothi, worked by numerous aqueducts. He was succeeded by Gnaeus Julius Agricola in 78. Agricola was the father-in-law of the famous historian Tacitus.
In 95, he was appointed Water Commissioner of the aqueducts (curator aquarum) at Rome by the emperor Nerva, an office only conferred upon persons of very high standing. He was also a member of the College of Augurs. He produced
Simon James Dawson (June 13, 1818 – October 30, 1902) was a Canadian civil engineer and politician.
Born in Redhaven, Banffshire, Scotland, Dawson emigrated to Canada as a young man and began his career as an engineer. In 1857, as a member of a Canadian government expedition, he surveyed a line of road from Prince Arthur’s Landing (later Port Arthur, now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) to Fort Garry and further explored that area in 1858 and 1859. His report greatly stimulated Canadian interest in the West. In 1868, he was placed in charge of construction of a wagon and water route following his earlier survey by the newly formed federal Department of Public Works. The Dawson road was traversed in 1870 by the Wolseley Expedition under the command of Colonel Garnet Wolseley sent to preserve order during the first Riel uprising, the Red River Rebellion.
Dawson represented Algoma in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1875 to 1878 and in the Canadian House of Commons from 1878 to 1891. As a politician, he was a consistent advocate for native rights. He died in Ottawa in 1902, virtually forgotten.
In 1875, he proposed that the riding of Algoma, then the only riding in the region of
Thomas Penson (1790–1859) was the County Surveyor of Montgomeryshire from 1817, and designer of a number of masonry arch bridges over the River Severn and elsewhere.
Penson's father had been County Surveyor of Flintshire, responsible for a bridge at Overton-on-Dee which collapsed. Thomas Penson designed its replacement.
Penson was a pupil, along with Thomas Telford, of the architect and bridge designer Thomas Harrison. He relied on contractors to build his bridges, such as David Davies, who built Llandinam Bridge in 1846.
In February 1852, the Severn flooded, damaging a number of bridges for which Penson went on to design replacements.
Penson designed a two-span cast iron arch bridge at Caer Howell in 1858 to replace a timber structure destroyed by floods. Against his advice, a suspension bridge designed by James Dredge had been built in 1854, only to collapse four years later under the weight of three lime wagons, killing one man. He also designed a church at Newtown, Powys, and Montgomery jail.
Other structures credited to Thomas Penson include:
Sir William Cubitt (1785–1861) was an eminent English civil engineer and millwright. Born in Norfolk, England, he was employed in many of the great engineering undertakings of his time. He invented a type of windmill sail and the prison treadwheel, and was employed as chief engineer, at Ransomes of Ipswich, before moving to London. He worked on canals, docks, and railways, including the South Eastern Railway and the Great Northern Railway. He was the chief engineer of Crystal Palace erected at Hyde Park in 1851.
He was president of the Institution of Civil Engineers between 1850 and 1851.
The son of Joseph Cubitt of Bacton Wood, near Dilham, Norfolk, a miller, by his wife, Miss Lubbock, he was born at Dilham and attended the village school. His father moved to South Repps, and William at an early age was employed in the mill, but in 1800 was apprenticed to James Lyon, a cabinet-maker at Stalham, from whom he parted after four years. At Bacton Wood Mills he again worked with his father in 1804, and also constructed a machine for splitting hides. He then joined an agricultural machine maker named Cook, at Swanton, where they constructed horse threshing machines and other implements.