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Best Project focus of All Time

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    1
    Craigellachie Bridge

    Craigellachie Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Craigellachie Bridge
    The Craigellachie Bridge is a cast iron arch bridge located at Craigellachie which is near to the village of Aberlour in Moray, Scotland. It was designed by the renowned civil engineer Thomas Telford and built from 1812–1814. The bridge has a single span of approximately 46 metres (151 ft) and was revolutionary for its time, in that it used an extremely slender arch which was not possible using traditional masonry construction. The ironwork was cast at the Plas Kynaston iron foundry at Cefn Mawr, near Ruabon in Denbighshire by William Hazledine, who cast a number of Telford bridges. The ironwork was transported from the foundry through the Ellesmere Canal and Pontcysyllte Aqueduct then by sea to Speymouth, where it was loaded onto wagons and taken to the site. Testing in the 1960s revealed that the cast-iron had an unusually high tensile strength. This was likely specified by Telford because, unlike in traditional masonry arch bridges, some sections of the arch are not in compression under loading. At each end of the structure there are two 15 m (49 ft) high masonry mock-medieval towers, featuring arrow slits and miniature crenellated battlements. The bridge was in regular use
    8.29
    7 votes
    2
    Bank of China Tower

    Bank of China Tower

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Bank of China Tower
    The Bank of China Tower (abbreviated BOC Tower) is one of the most recognisable skyscrapers in Admiralty, Hong Kong. It houses the headquarters for the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited. The building is located at 1 Garden Road, in Central and Western District on Hong Kong Island. Designed by I. M. Pei, the building is 315.0 m (1,033.5 ft) high with two masts reaching 367.4 m (1,205.4 ft) high. It was the tallest building in Hong Kong and Asia from 1989 to 1992, and it was the first building outside the United States to break the 305 m (1,000 ft) mark. It is now the fourth tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong, after International Commerce Centre, Two International Finance Centre and Central Plaza. The 6,700m² site on which the building is constructed was formerly the location of Murray House. After its brick-by-brick relocation to Stanley, the site was sold by the Government for "only HK$1 billion" in August 1982 amidst growing concern over the future of Hong Kong in the run-up to the transfer of sovereignty. Once developed, gross floor area was expected to be 100,000 m². The original project was intended for completion on the auspicious date of 8 August 1988. However, owing to project
    7.83
    6 votes
    3
    Centre Georges Pompidou

    Centre Georges Pompidou

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Centre Georges Pompidou
    Centre Georges Pompidou (French pronunciation: [sɑ̃tʁ ʒɔʁʒ pɔ̃pidu]; also known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil and the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture. It houses the Bibliothèque publique d'information, a vast public library, the Musée National d'Art Moderne which is the largest museum for modern art in Europe, and IRCAM, a centre for music and acoustic research. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as the Beaubourg (IPA: [bobuʁ]). It is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who decided its creation, and was officially opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. The Centre Pompidou has had over 150 million visitors since 1977. The idea for a multicultural complex sprouted from André Malraux, the first minister of cultural affairs, was the western prophet of art and culture as centralized political power. The idea for the Centre Pompidou as a nerve centre of the French art and culture, bringing together in one place the different forms of expression, can be traced back in a
    7.83
    6 votes
    4
    Sheppey Crossing

    Sheppey Crossing

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Sheppey Crossing
    The Sheppey Crossing is a four-lane road bridge which crosses The Swale at a height of 35m (115 ft), linking the Isle of Sheppey with mainland Kent. It was opened on July 3, 2006 by Minister for Transport, Stephen Ladyman and provides an alternative to the old Kingsferry Bridge for road users. The pre-existing Kingsferry Bridge, in place since 1959, suffers from two major drawbacks. Firstly, it has only one lane in each direction and as traffic to and from the island increased over time it became a bottleneck. Secondly, it is a vertical-lift bridge and needs to be raised regularly to allow marine traffic to pass under it, leading to lengthy traffic delays. Prior to its opening it was estimated that 26,000 vehicles a day would use the new crossing. The bridge was designed by Cass Hayward and Capita Symonds, and won the 2007 IStructE Award for Transportation Structures. It has been built from steel and concrete, with around 10,000 tonnes of British Steel being used. Construction, which was carried out by Carillion under a Private Finance Initiative contract, was made more difficult because many of the bridge's piers had to be built on marshland. A jacking mechanism was employed to
    7.83
    6 votes
    5
    Idukki Dam

    Idukki Dam

    The Idukki Dam, located in Kerala, India, is a 168.91 m (554 ft) tall arch dam. The dam stands between the two mountains - Kuravanmala (839)m and Kurathimala (925)m. It was constructed and is owned by the Kerala State Electricity Board. It supports a 780 MW hydroelectric power station. It is built on the Periyar River, in the ravine between the Kuravan and Kurathi Hills in Kerala, India. At 167.68 metres, it is one of the highest arch dams in Asia and third tallest arch dam. It started generating power on 4 October 1975. Technically, the dam type is a concrete double, curvature parabolic, thin arc dam. This dam was constructed along with two other dams at Cheruthony and Kulamavu. Together, the three dams have created an artificial lake that is 60 km² in area. The stored water is used to produce electricity at the Moolamattom Power house, which is located inside nearby rocky caves. The Government of Canada aided in the building of the dam with long term loans and grants. The idea of constructing a dam for power generation was first conceived in 1919. As per history, Shri Kolumban, the head of 'Araya' race during 1922, showed the way to the Malankara Estate Superintendent and his
    8.60
    5 votes
    6
    Verzasca Dam

    Verzasca Dam

    The Contra Dam, commonly known as the Verzasca Dam and the Locarno Dam, is an arch dam on the Verzasca River in the Val Verzasca of Ticino, Switzerland. The dam creates Lago di Vogorno 2 km (1.2 mi) upstream of Lake Maggiore and supports a 105 MW hydroelectric power station. It was constructed between 1961 and 1965 and starting shortly after its reservoir was filled, a series of earthquakes related to its water load occurred until 1971. The dam is owned and operated by Verzasca SA and is the fourth tallest in Switzerland. The dam became a popular bungee jumping venue after a James Bond stuntman jumped off it in the opening scene of the 1995 film GoldenEye; a stunt voted as the best movie stunt of all time in a 2002 Sky Movies poll. On May 6, 1960, Verzasca SA was formed to construct the dam as the center-piece of the Verzasca Hydroelectric Complex. Construction in the dam began in 1961. The dam was designed and its construction supervised by Lombardi & Gellaro Ltd. Because the Contra Dam is at a lower elevation compared to other Swiss dams, warmer weather allowed construction to be carried out year-round. To divert the river and prepare a dry work-site for the dam, cofferdams were
    7.00
    6 votes
    7
    Col de Tende Road Tunnel

    Col de Tende Road Tunnel

    Col de Tende Road Tunnel is a 3182 metre long road tunnel running under Col de Tende between France and Italy. It was inaugurated in 1882 and it was until 1964 the longest road tunnel in the Alps. At its opening time it was the world's longest road tunnel. (From France, 44°8′20″N 7°34′14″E / 44.13889°N 7.57056°E / 44.13889; 7.57056, to Italy, 44°10′3″N 7°34′18″E / 44.1675°N 7.57167°E / 44.1675; 7.57167)
    7.80
    5 votes
    8
    Mohale dam

    Mohale dam

    Mohale Dam is a rock-fill dam in Lesotho. It is part of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, which will eventually include 5 large dams in remote rural areas of Lesotho and South Africa. The potential of the project was identified by the South African Civil Engineer Ninham Shand (now Aurecon) as a possible means to supplement the water supply to South Africa. The World Bank arranged for a treaty between the then-Apartheid government of South Africa and its much smaller neighbor, Lesotho, allowing execution of the project to proceed. The dam was built by a consortium of Balfour Beatty, Campenon Bernard, LTA, Spie Batignolles and E.D. Zublin. It was completed in 2002.
    6.67
    6 votes
    9
    Garabit viaduct

    Garabit viaduct

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Garabit viaduct
    The Garabit Viaduct (Viaduc de Garabit in French) is a railway arch bridge spanning the River Truyère near Ruynes-en-Margeride (Fr), Cantal, France, in the mountainous Massif Central region. The bridge was constructed between 1882 and 1884 by Gustave Eiffel, with structural engineering by Maurice Koechlin, and was opened in 1885. It is 565 m (1,854 ft) in length and has a principal arch of 165 m (541 ft) span. By the end of the 1870s Eiffel & Cie, the company formed by Gustave Eiffel in partnership with Theophile Seyrig, had an established position among the leading French engineering companies. Between 1885 and 1887 the company had built the Maria Pia Bridge over the Douro at Porto, and when it was proposed to construct a railway between Marvejols and Neussargues in the Cantal department the work of constructing a viaduct to cross the River Truyère was given to Eiffel without the usual process of competitive tendering at the recommendation of the engineers of the state Highways Department since the technical problems involved were similar to those of the Maria Pia Bridge; indeed, it was Eiffel & Cie's success with this project that had led to the proposal for a viaduct at
    7.60
    5 votes
    10
    Woodhead Tunnel

    Woodhead Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Woodhead Tunnel
    The Woodhead Tunnels are three parallel trans-Pennine 3-mile long railway tunnels on the Woodhead Line, a former major rail link from Manchester to Sheffield in Northern England. The western portals of the tunnels are at Woodhead in Derbyshire and the eastern portals are at Dunford Bridge, near Penistone, South Yorkshire. Woodhead 1 was one of the world's longest railway tunnels when it opened in 1845. Woodhead 2 was completed in 1853 and Woodhead 3 opened almost exactly 100 years later in 1953. Passenger services ended in 1970 and the last train passed through in 1981. The tunnels are currently owned by National Grid plc who initially used Woodhead 1 and 2 to carry power cables and in 2008 started to install new cables in Woodhead 3. The use of Woodhead 3 for power cables was controversial as it would make it very much more difficult to restart rail services on the line, and it was resisted by a sizeable campaign. The first of the earlier twin tunnels (Woodhead 1 and 2) were completed by the Sheffield, Ashton-Under-Lyne and Manchester Railway in 1845, engineered by Charles Vignoles and Joseph Locke. At the time of its completion in 1845, Woodhead 1 was one of the world's longest
    7.60
    5 votes
    11
    New Melones Dam

    New Melones Dam

    New Melones Dam is an earth and rock filled embankment dam on the Stanislaus River, about 5 mi (8.0 km) west of Jamestown, California in the United States. The water impounded by the 625-foot (191 m)-tall dam forms New Melones Lake, California's fourth largest, in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada east of the San Joaquin Valley. The dam serves mainly for irrigation water supply, and also provides hydropower generation, flood control and recreation benefits. New Melones was authorized in 1944 as a unit of the Central Valley Project, a system designed to provide irrigation water to the fertile agricultural region of the Central Valley. The dam would be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and transferred to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) upon completion. In 1966, work began to clear the foundations for a high dam that would replace an earlier structure built by two irrigation districts. Construction of the main embankment began in 1976, and was topped out in late 1978. Water storage in New Melones Lake commenced in 1978, and the dam's hydroelectric station produced its first power in mid-1979. The dam was the focus of a long environmental controversy and was one
    8.75
    4 votes
    12
    Srisailam Dam

    Srisailam Dam

    The Srisailam Dam is a dam constructed across the Krishna River at Srisailam in the Kurnool district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India and is the 2nd largest capacity hydroelectric project in the country. The dam was constructed in a deep gorge in the Nallamala Hills, 300 m (980 ft) above sea level. It is 512 m (1,680 ft) long, 145 m (476 ft) high and has 12 radial crest gates. It has a reservoir of 800 km (310 sq mi). The left bank power station houses 6 × 150 MW reversible Francis-pump turbines (for pumped-storage) and the right bank contains 7 × 110 MW Francis-turbine generators. The Srisailam project began in 1960, initially as a power project, across the Krishna, near Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh. After several delays, the main dam was finally completed twenty years later in 1981. In the meantime the project was converted into a multipurpose facility with a generating capacity of 770 MW by its second stage which was expected to be completed in 1987. The dam is to provide water for an estimated 2,000 km (770 sq mi) with its catchment area of 206,040 km (79,552 sq mi) and water spread of 1,595 km (616 sq mi). Under the right branch canal 790 km (310 sq mi) in Kurnool and
    8.75
    4 votes
    13
    Claverton Pumping Station

    Claverton Pumping Station

    Claverton Pumping Station in the village of Claverton, in the English county of Somerset, pumps water from the River Avon to the Kennet and Avon Canal using power from the flow of the River Avon. It is a grade II listed building. The pumping station was built by John Rennie between 1809 and 1813 to overcome water supply problems on the canal. It uses a 24-foot (7 m) wide wooden breastshot water wheel to drive two Boulton and Watt 18-foot (5 m) long cast iron rocking beams, which power lift pumps to raise water 48 feet (15 m) up to the canal. The pumping station has undergone several modifications since its initial construction, including revising the wheel into two sections each 12 feet (3.7 m) wide separated by a 9-inch (23 cm) gap. The station's operational life ended in 1952, by which time its maintenance and repair had become uneconomical in the light of falling traffic on the canal. In the 1960s and '70s restoration was carried out by students from the University of Bath and the Kennet and Avon Canal Trust, who replaced and repaired the buildings and equipment and returned the pumping station to a functional state by 1978. It is now operated by volunteers from the Trust, open
    7.40
    5 votes
    14
    Asprokremmos dam

    Asprokremmos dam

    Asprokremmos dam is the second largest dam in Cyprus. It is built at an altitude of about 100 m above sea level and is located 16 km, (10 miles) east of the city of Pafos. Due to poor rainfall it is a rare event that the dam overflows. On 27th January 2012 the dam did overflow, for the first time since 2004. It is considered an important wetland for endemic and migratory birds
    8.50
    4 votes
    15
    W. A. C. Bennett Dam

    W. A. C. Bennett Dam

    The W. A. C. Bennett Dam is a large hydroelectric dam on the Peace River in northern British Columbia, Canada. At 183 m (660 ft) high, it is one of the world’s highest earth fill dams. Construction of the dam began in 1961 and culminated in 1968. At the dam, the Finlay, the Parsnip and the Peace Rivers feed into Williston Lake, also referred to as Williston Reservoir. It is the third largest artificial lake in North America (after the Smallwood Reservoir and Manicouagan) as well as the largest body of fresh water in British Columbia. Williston Lake runs 250 kilometers north-south and 150 kilometers east-west. The construction of the dam cost $750 million, making it the largest project of its kind in the province of BC. The dam was named after the premier because his vision played a major role in the project initiation, development and realization; the reservoir was named after the premier’s trusted cabinet colleague Ray Williston. The Gordon M. Shrum Generation Station at the W.A.C. Bennett Dam has the capacity to generate more than 13 billion kWh annually. At the time of its construction the powerhouse was the largest of its kind worldwide. In addition to the benefits related to
    6.33
    6 votes
    16
    Hungry Horse Dam

    Hungry Horse Dam

    Hungry Horse Dam is an arch dam on the South Fork Flathead River in the Rocky Mountains of the U.S. state of Montana. It is located in Flathead National Forest, in Flathead County, about 15 miles (24 km) south of the west entrance to Glacier National Park, 9 miles (14 km) southeast of Columbia Falls, and 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Kalispell. The Hungry Horse project, dam, and powerplant are operated by the United States Bureau of Reclamation. At 564 feet (172 m) in height, the dam was the third largest dam, and second highest concrete dam, in the world at the time of its completion in 1953, with a volume of 3,100,000 cubic yards (2,400,000 m). The dam's spillway is the highest morning glory structure in the world. The spillway is controlled by a 64-by-12-foot (20 by 3.7 m) ring gate. Construction of Hungry Horse Dam was authorized by the Act of June 5, 1944 (58 Stat. 270, Public Law 78-329). Construction begain in April 1948 and completed in July 16, 1953. The purposes of the Hungry Horse Project authorized by law are irrigation, flood control, navigation, streamflow regulation, hydroelectric generation, and other beneficial uses such as recreation. However, no irrigation
    8.25
    4 votes
    17
    Fenghuoshan tunnel

    Fenghuoshan tunnel

    The Fenghuoshan Tunnel (simplified Chinese: 风火山隧道; traditional Chinese: 風火山隧道; pinyin: Fēnghuǒshān Suìdào) is the highest railway tunnel in the world. It is 1,338 metres (4,390 feet) long, and stands 4,905 meters (16,093 feet) above sea level. It is part of the recently-completed Qinghai–Tibet Railway, linking Qinghai and Tibet. The tunnel is located in the western, sparsely populated part of Zadoi County, Qinghai (the eastern edge of the Hoh Xil mountainous region between the Kunlun and Tanggula mountain ranges). "Fenghuoshan" is Chinese for "Wind Volcano".
    7.00
    5 votes
    18
    St. Clair Tunnel

    St. Clair Tunnel

    The St. Clair Tunnel is the name for two separate rail tunnels which were built under the St. Clair River between Sarnia, Ontario and Port Huron, Michigan. It was the first full-size subaqueous tunnel built in North America. (By full-size it is meant that it allowed a railroad to run through it.) The St. Clair Tunnel Company opened the first tunnel in 1891. The company was a subsidiary of the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR), which used the new route to connect with its subsidiary Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway predecessor to the Grand Trunk Western Railroad (GTW). Before the tunnel's construction, Grand Trunk was forced to use time-consuming rail ferries to transfer cargo. The tunnel was an engineering marvel in its day, achieved through the development of original techniques for excavating in a compressed air environment. The Beach tunneling shield, designed by Alfred Ely Beach, was used to assist workmen in removing material from the route of the tunnel. Freight trains used the tunnel initially with the first passenger trains using it in 1892. The tunnel measured 6,025 feet (1,836 m) from portal to portal. The actual width of the St. Clair River at this crossing is only 2,290 feet
    9.33
    3 votes
    19
    Teton Dam

    Teton Dam

    The Teton Dam was a federally-built earthen dam in Idaho in the United States, put up by the Bureau of Reclamation, one of eight federal agencies authorized to construct dams. Located on the Teton River in the eastern part of the state between Fremont and Madison counties, it suffered a catastrophic failure on June 5, 1976, when it was being filled for the first time. The collapse of the dam resulted in the deaths of 11 people and 13,000 head of cattle. The dam cost about $100 million to build, and the federal government paid over $300 million in claims related to its failure. Total damage estimates have ranged up to $2 billion. The dam has not been rebuilt. There had been interest in building a dam in the eastern Snake River Plain for many years, to control spring runoff and provide a more constant water supply in the summer. The area had suffered a severe drought in 1961, followed by serious flooding in 1962. The Bureau of Reclamation proposed the Teton Dam in 1963, and Congress passed without opposition an authorizing bill the following year. The planned dam was to be an earthen structure 310 feet high and 0.6 miles long which would create a reservoir 17 miles long. The
    8.00
    4 votes
    20
    High Museum of Art

    High Museum of Art

    The High Museum of Art (colloquially the High), located in Atlanta, is the leading art museum in the Southeastern United States and one of the most-visited art museums in the world. Located on Peachtree Street in Midtown, the city's arts district, the High is a division of the Woodruff Arts Center. In 2010, the High Museum of Art had 509,000 visitors, 95th most among world art museums. The Museum was founded in 1905 as the Atlanta Art Association. In 1926, the High family, for whom the museum is named, donated their family home on Peachtree Street to house the collection following a series of exhibitions involving the Grand Central Art Galleries organized by Atlanta collector J. J. Haverty. Many pieces from the Haverty collection are now on permanent display in the High. A separate building for the Museum was built adjacent to the family home in 1955. On June 3, 1962, 106 Atlanta arts patrons died in an airplane crash at Orly Airport in Paris, France, while on a museum-sponsored trip. Including crew and other passengers, 130 people were killed in what was, at the time, the worst single plane aviation disaster in history. Members of Atlanta's prominent families were lost including
    6.80
    5 votes
    21
    Waterbury Dam

    Waterbury Dam

    The Waterbury Dam was built between 1935-1938 by 2,000 men working for the Corps of Engineers, United States Army, to serve as one of three dams to control the flow of Little River, Vermont, Winooski River and its tributaries. In 1927, flood waters from the Winooski River killed over 55 people and caused an estimated $13,000,000 in damage. Along with flood control, the dam also generates electric energy, generating an average of 15,000,000 kilowatt-hours (54,000,000 MJ) annually. The 1,845 feet (562 m) long dam is filled with 2,200,000 cubic yards (1,700,000 m) of material, including 3,490 cubic yards (2,668 m) of clay in its center portion. The rocks, which serve as the dams walls, were hand placed during the dam's original construction in 1938. The dam was modified in 1957 and 1958 to provide for increased security. The dam and the reservoir it creates, the Waterbury Reservoir, are located in the town of Waterbury in northwestern Washington County.
    6.80
    5 votes
    22
    Lærdalstunnelen

    Lærdalstunnelen

    Lærdal Tunnel (Norwegian: Lærdalstunnelen) is a 24.51-kilometre (15.23 mi) long road tunnel connecting Lærdal and Aurland in Sogn og Fjordane, Norway and located approximately 175–200 kilometres (109–120 mi) north-east of Bergen. It is the longest road tunnel in the world succeeding the Gotthard Road Tunnel. The tunnel carries two lanes of European Route E16 and represents the final link on the new main highway connecting Oslo and Bergen without ferry connections and difficult mountain crossings during winter. In 1975, the Parliament of Norway decided that the main road between Oslo and Bergen would run via Filefjell. In 1992, Parliament confirmed that decision, took a further decision that the road should run through a tunnel between Laerdal and Aurland and passed legislation to build the tunnel. Construction started in 1995 and the tunnel opened in 2000. It cost 1,082 million Norwegian krone ($113.1M USD), although unlike most tunnels in Norway it is not subject to tolls. A total of 2,500,000 cubic metres (3,300,000 cu yd) of rock was removed from the tunnel during its construction from 1995 to 2000. The tunnel begins just east of Aurlandsvangen in Aurland and goes through a
    9.00
    3 votes
    23
    Start Point Lighthouse

    Start Point Lighthouse

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Start Point Lighthouse
    Start Point lighthouse was built in 1836 to protect shipping off Start Point in south Devon England. Open to the public in summer months, it is a grade II listed building owned and operated by Trinity House. Start Point is one of twenty nine towers designed by James Walker. The lighthouse is in the gothic style, topped by a crenellated parapet. The main tower is built of tarred and white-painted granite ashlar with a cast-iron lantern roofed in copper. The tall circular tower is 28 metres (92 ft) high with a moulded plinth and pedestal stage and two diminishing stages above that. There are two entrances porches, on the north and south sides. The porch on the south side is blocked and has a 4-centred arch hoodmould, whilst the doorway to the north porch has a Tudor arch. Both have raised parapets with Trinity House arms. The inside of the tower includes a cantilevered granite staircase around the inside well of the tower with an iron balustrade completed by a cast-iron newelan. The lighthouse originally had the keepers' living accommodation on the ground and first floors but this was removed in 1871 when new keepers' houses were built nearby. It has been designated by English
    9.00
    3 votes
    24
    Hasan Uğurlu Dam

    Hasan Uğurlu Dam

    The Hasan Uğurlu Dam is a rock-fill dam for hydro power purposes, located on the River Yeşilırmak 23 km south of Çarşamba town and 25 km east of Samsun in northern Turkey. Originally, it was named the Ayvacık Dam. Completed in 1979, it generates 4x125=500 MW of power giving an annual electricity production of 1,217 GWh. Hasan Uğurlu was an engineer, who died together with his wife following an accident while working at this dam's project. His wife’s name Suat Uğurlu is given to another dam project 24 km downstream of Hasan Uğurlu Dam at the same times. Having a dam volume of 9,600,000 m³, Hasan Uğurlu Dam was completed in 1979. It has a storage volume of 1,074 billion m³ in a reservoir area at normal water surface elevation of 22.7 km².
    7.75
    4 votes
    25
    Helgeland Bridge

    Helgeland Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Helgeland Bridge
    Helgeland Bridge (Norwegian: Helgelandsbrua) is a cable-stayed bridge that crosses the Leirfjorden between the mainland and the island Alsta in Nordland county, Norway. The town of Sandnessjøen is located just southwest of the bridge on the island. Helgeland Bridge was designed by Holger S. Svensson. Construction began in 1989 and it was finished in 1991. The bridge officially opened in July 1991. Construction cost was 200 million NOK. The bridge was a toll bridge until 23 June 2005. The 1,065-metre (3,494 ft) long bridge is made up of 12 spans—the longest of which is 425 metres (1,394 ft) long. The maximum clearance to the sea below the bridge is 45 metres (148 ft). The foundations extend to a depth of 31 metres (102 ft). The bridge is built out of pre-stressed and reinforced concrete and steel cables.
    7.75
    4 votes
    26
    Kariba Dam

    Kariba Dam

    The Kariba Dam is a hydroelectric dam in the Kariba Gorge of the Zambezi river basin between Zambia and Zimbabwe. It is one of the largest dams in the world, standing 128 m (420 ft) tall and 579 m (1,900 ft) long. The double curvature concrete arch dam was constructed between 1955 and 1959 by Impresit of Italy at a cost of $135,000,000 for the first stage with only the Kariba South power cavern. Final construction and the addition of the Kariba North Power cavern by Mitchell Construction was not completed until 1977 due to largely political problems for a total cost of $480,000,000. 86 men lost their lives during construction.. The Kariba Dam supplies 1,266 MW of electricity to parts of both Zambia (the Copperbelt) and Zimbabwe and generates 6,400 GW·h (23 PJ) per annum. Each country has its own power station on the north and south bank of the dam respectively. The south station belonging to Zimbabwe has been in operation since 1960 and has six generators of 117.5 MW capacity each. The north station belonging to Zambia has been in operation since 1976, and has four generators of 153.5 MW each for a total of 615 MW; work to expand this capacity to 1,080 MW is expecting completion in
    7.75
    4 votes
    27
    Villa d'Este

    Villa d'Este

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Villa d'Este
    The Villa d'Este is a villa in Tivoli, near Rome, Italy. Listed as a UNESCO world heritage site, it is a fine example of Renaissance architecture and the Italian Renaissance garden. The Villa d'Este was commissioned by Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este, son of Alfonso I d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia and grandson of Pope Alexander VI. He had been appointed Governor of Tivoli by Pope Julius III, with the gift of the existing villa, which he had entirely reconstructed to plans of Pirro Ligorio carried out under the direction of the Ferrarese architect-engineer Alberto Galvani, court architect of the Este. The chief painter of the ambitious internal decoration was Livio Agresti from Forlì. From 1550 until his death in 1572, when the villa was nearing completion, Cardinal d'Este created a palatial setting surrounded by a spectacular terraced garden in the late-Renaissance mannerist style, which took advantage of the dramatic slope but required innovations in bringing a sufficient water supply, which was employed in cascades, water tanks, troughs and pools, water jets and fountains, giochi d'acqua. The result is one of the series of great 17th century villas with water-play structures in the
    7.75
    4 votes
    28
    Ferrari World Abu Dhabi

    Ferrari World Abu Dhabi

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Ferrari World
    Ferrari World is a Ferrari themed amusement park on Yas Island in Abu Dhabi. The central park is situated under a 200,000 m (2,152,782 sq ft) roof making it the largest indoor amusement park in the world. Ferrari World officially opened on 4 November 2010. The theme park is home to Formula Rossa, the world's fastest roller coaster. In late 2005, it was reported that Ferrari and Aldar Properties signed an agreement to build the world's first Ferrari theme park in Abu Dhabi. At the time, it was expected that the park was to open in 2008, however, delays saw it bumped back until 2010. Construction began in November 2008 and was completed in under two years. In mid 2010, it was announced that Ferrari World would open on 28 October 2010. However, it was delayed by a week due to the passing of Ras al-Khaimah's Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi the day prior. Ferrari World officially opened to the public on the 4th of November 2010. On December 2011, after one year of operation, Ferrari World shortened its operating hours due to perceived visitor population trends. This resulted in 100 positions eliminated with remaining staff receiving salary and benefit adjustments. The iconic roof of
    5.83
    6 votes
    29
    Williamsburg Bridge

    Williamsburg Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Williamsburg Bridge
    The Williamsburg Bridge is a suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancey Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn at Broadway near the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278). It once carried New York State Route 27A and was planned to carry Interstate 78, though these plans were aborted by the cancellation of the Lower Manhattan Expressway and Bushwick Expressway. No tolls are charged for the use of the bridge. Construction on the bridge, the second to cross this river, began in 1896, with Leffert L. Buck as chief engineer, Henry Hornbostel as architect and Holton D. Robinson as assistant engineer, and the bridge opened on December 19, 1903 at a cost of $24,200,000. At the time it was constructed, the Williamsburg Bridge set the record for the longest suspension bridge span on Earth. The record fell in 1924, when the Bear Mountain Bridge was completed. It is an unconventional structure, as suspension bridges go; though the main span hangs from cables in the usual manner, the side spans leading to the approaches are supported by trusswork, drawing no support from the cables above. The main span of
    6.60
    5 votes
    30
    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt to one side. It is situated behind the Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in Pisa's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo) after the Cathedral and the Baptistry. The tower's tilt began during construction, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structure's weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed, and gradually increased until the structure was stabilized (and the tilt partially corrected) by efforts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The height of the tower is 55.86 m (183.27 ft) from the ground on the low side and 56.70 m (186.02 ft) on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m (13.42 ft) and at the top 2.48 m (8.14 ft). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons). The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between
    5.67
    6 votes
    31
    Braunston Tunnel

    Braunston Tunnel

    Braunston Tunnel is situated on the Grand Union Canal just past Braunston, Northamptonshire, England. Braunston Tunnel is 2042 yards in length. Built by Jessop and Barnes, the tunnel has no towpath and is 4.8m wide by 3.76m high. The tunnel passes near another Grand Union Canal feature, Drayton Reservoir. Media related to Braunston Tunnel at Wikimedia Commons
    7.50
    4 votes
    32
    Dworshak Dam

    Dworshak Dam

    Dworshak Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the North Fork Clearwater River in Clearwater County, Idaho, in the United States. The dam is located approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of Orofino and impounds the Dworshak Reservoir for flood control and hydroelectricity generation. At 717 feet (219 m) high, Dworshak is the third tallest dam in the United States and the tallest straight-axis concrete dam in the Western Hemisphere. Construction of the dam by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) began in 1966 and was completed in 1973. The proposal for Dworshak Dam originated in a 1953 USACE survey of the lower Snake River drainage basin for suitable sites to develop reservoir storage and hydroelectric power generation. Dworshak was one of seven dam sites considered on the Snake, Salmon and Clearwater River systems. The final site for Dworshak Dam was chosen at a point on the North Fork of the Clearwater 1.9 miles (3.1 km) above its confluence with the larger Clearwater River. The project was authorized on October 23, 1962 as Bruce's Eddy Dam; the name was later changed to honor late Idaho Senator Henry C. Dworshak, who was instrumental in gaining congressional approval for the
    7.50
    4 votes
    33
    New Bullards Bar Dam

    New Bullards Bar Dam

    New Bullards Bar Dam is a variable radius concrete arch dam in California on the North Yuba River. Located near the town of Dobbins in Yuba County, the dam forms the New Bullards Bar Reservoir, which can hold about 969,600 acre·ft (1,196,000 dam³) of water. The dam serves for irrigation, drinking water and hydroelectric power generation. New Bullards Bar Dam was constructed by the Yuba County Water Agency. The agency was created through an act of the state legislature in 1959 specifically to construct a flood control reservoir in response to a flooding event in 1955. The bulk of the financing for the dam came from the issuance of revenue bonds. The dam was completed in 1969. New Bullards Bar Reservoir provides flood control space between September 15 and May 31 of each year. There are 170,000 acre feet (210,000,000 m) of flood control storage space between October 31 and March 31. The dam furnishes water to the New Colgate Powerhouse, which is located 5 miles (8.0 km) downstream. The added distance increases the head (i.e. elevation change). Its two Pelton wheels have a combined capacity of 315 megawatts and are some of the largest ever made. The small Fish Release powerhouse was
    7.50
    4 votes
    34
    Woolwich foot tunnel

    Woolwich foot tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Woolwich foot tunnel
    The Woolwich foot tunnel is a tunnel crossing under the River Thames in East London from Woolwich in the Royal Borough of Greenwich to North Woolwich in the London Borough of Newham. The tunnel offers pedestrians an alternative way to cross the river when the Woolwich Free Ferry service is not operating. Both entrances to the tunnel are Grade II listed buildings. Greenwich Council started work to upgrade both this tunnel and the Greenwich foot tunnel on 19 April 2010. The works were to reduce leakage, improve drainage and to install new lifts, CCTV, communication facilities and signage, with an original completion date of March 2011. During the works, the tunnel closed on Monday to Friday daytimes, when the Woolwich Free Ferry was available as an alternative crossing. On 24 September 2010, Greenwich Council closed the Woolwich foot tunnel to all users, due to structural weaknesses discovered in the stairways and tunnel itself. The tunnel was originally expected to re-open in August 2011, but this target was missed and a new expected re-opening date was not provided by Greenwich Council. The tunnel eventually reopened to the public in December 2011, though initially access to the
    7.50
    4 votes
    35
    Almendra Dam

    Almendra Dam

    The Almendra Dam, also known as Villarino Dam, in Salamanca, Spain, interrupts the course of the River Tormes five kilometres from the village from which it takes its name: Almendra (literally, almond). It was constructed between 1964 and 1970. The dam forms part of the hydroelectric system known as the Duero Drops, along with the Castro, Ricobayo, Saucelle and Villalcampo dams of Spain, and the Bemposta, Miranda and Picote dams of nearby Portugal. The reservoir that backs up behind the dam covers 86.5 square kilometres and contains 2.5 billion cubic metres of water as well as several drowned villages, among them Argusinos. The dam is more than half a kilometre wide and, at a height of 202 metres, one of Spain's tallest structures. The water is used by the Villarino I Power Station for electricity generation. It has a generation capacity of 810 MW.
    8.67
    3 votes
    36
    Blisworth Tunnel

    Blisworth Tunnel

    Blisworth Tunnel is a canal tunnel on the Grand Union Canal in Northamptonshire, England between the villages of Stoke Bruerne at the southern end and Blisworth at the northern end. The northern end is about 18 miles (29.0 km) from the northern end of the Grand Junction Canal at Braunston, Northamptonshire and the southern end about 20 miles (32.2 km). At 3,076 yards (2,813m) long it is the third-longest navigable canal tunnel on the UK canal network after Standedge Tunnel and Dudley Tunnel (and the ninth-longest canal tunnel in the world). At its deepest point it is ca.143 feet (ca.43m) below ground level. Work began in 1793, but errors by contractor left a wiggle in the tunnel, and after three years work it collapsed due to quicksand, claiming the lives of 14 men. It was then decided to begin again with a new tunnel. By the time the rest of the Grand Junction Canal had opened between London and Braunston, Northamptonshire in 1800, apart from the crossing of the River Great Ouse, the section of canal from Blisworth to the lower end of Stoke Bruerne locks was the only section unfinished. This was despite the tunnel having been under construction for seven years: the gap was filled
    8.67
    3 votes
    37
    Lincoln Tunnel

    Lincoln Tunnel

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Lincoln Tunnel
    The Lincoln Tunnel is a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) long tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey and Manhattan, New York City. An integral conduit within the New York Metropolitan Area, it was designed by Ole Singstad and named after U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. It is one of two automobile tunnels built under the river, the other being the Holland Tunnel. The tunnel was originally to be named the Midtown Vehicular Tunnel, but the planners eventually decided that the new tunnel deserved a name that was of similar importance to that of the George Washington Bridge, and named it after Abraham Lincoln. Designed by Ole Singstad, the tunnel was funded by the New Deal's Public Works Administration. Construction began on the first tube in March 1934. It opened to traffic on December 22, 1937, charging $0.50 per passenger car. The cost of construction was $85,000,000. The original design called for two tubes. Work on the second was halted in 1938 but resumed in 1941. Due to war material shortages of metal, completion was delayed for two years. It opened on February 1, 1945 at a cost of $80 million, with Michael Catan, brother of Omero Catan (known as Mr. First, attending
    8.67
    3 votes
    38
    Dunsmuir Tunnel

    Dunsmuir Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Dunsmuir Tunnel
    Dunsmuir Tunnel is a subway tunnel beneath Downtown Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Part of the Expo and Millennium SkyTrain lines, the tunnel is served by two stations: Burrard and Granville. The tunnel's west portal is located midway between Waterfront and Burrard Stations, while the east portal is immediately adjacent to Stadium–Chinatown Station. The tunnel was originally built by the Northern Construction Company in 1932 connecting the Canadian Pacific Railway railyards on Burrard Inlet and False Creek at a cost of $1.6 million. The tunnel's east portal is located further south than the current portal, easing trains into the False Creek yards on a gentle southward curve. The former east portal is still present. It was clearly visible until about 2005 and is now almost completely hidden next to an outdoor storage area behind the Costco. There is now an abandoned portion of tunnel unused by SkyTrain at the former east portal. The tunnel was taken over by BC Transit in the early 1980s when the SkyTrain system was built in conjunction with Expo 86. Because the tunnel is only wide enough to accommodate a single railway track but with sufficiently high clearance, a
    10.00
    2 votes
    39
    Tour Daewoo

    Tour Daewoo

    The Tour La Villette(previously know as the Tour Daewoo, Tour Pariphérique and Tour Olympe) is an office skyscraper located in Aubervilliers, in the inner suburbs of Paris, France. Built in 1974 and with a height of 125 meters, the tower has been renovated in the 1990s. It is built at Porte de la Villette nearby Paris périphérique, and hosts the European headquarters of the Korean automotive corporation Daewoo.
    10.00
    2 votes
    40
    Shasta Dam

    Shasta Dam

    Shasta Dam (called Kennett Dam before its construction) is an arch dam across the Sacramento River in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, at the north end of the Sacramento Valley. The dam mainly serves long-term water storage and flood control in its reservoir, Shasta Lake, and also generates hydroelectric power. At 602 feet (183 m) high, it is the ninth-tallest dam in the United States and forms the largest reservoir in California. Envisioned as early as 1919 because of frequent floods and droughts troubling California's largest agricultural region, the Central Valley, the dam was first authorized in the 1930s as a state undertaking. However, this coincided with the Great Depression and building of the dam was transferred to the federal Bureau of Reclamation as a public works project. Construction started in earnest in 1937 under the supervision of Chief Engineer Frank Crowe. During its building, the dam provided thousands of much-needed jobs; it was finished twenty-six months ahead of schedule in 1945. When completed, the dam was the second-tallest in the United States after Hoover, and was considered one of the greatest engineering feats of all time. Even before
    6.40
    5 votes
    41
    Brooklyn Bridge

    Brooklyn Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge
    The Brooklyn Bridge is a bridge in New York City and is one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States. Completed in 1883, it connects the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn by spanning the East River. With a main span of 1,595.5 feet (486.3 m), it was the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and the first steel-wire suspension bridge. Originally referred to as the New York and Brooklyn Bridge and as the East River Bridge, it was dubbed the Brooklyn Bridge, a name from an earlier January 25, 1867, letter to the editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, and formally so named by the city government in 1915. Since its opening, it has become an icon of New York City, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1972. The Brooklyn Bridge was initially designed by German immigrant John Augustus Roebling, who had previously designed and constructed shorter suspension bridges, such as Roebling's Delaware Aqueduct in Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania, Waco Suspension Bridge in Waco, Texas, and the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge in Cincinnati, Ohio. While conducting surveys for the bridge project,
    7.25
    4 votes
    42
    Dudley Tunnel

    Dudley Tunnel

    Dudley Tunnel is a canal tunnel on the Dudley Canal Line No 1, England. At about 3,172 yards (2,900.5 m) long, it is now the second longest canal tunnel on the UK canal network today. (Standedge Tunnel is the longest, at 5,456 yards (4,989.0 m), and the 3,931 yards (3,594.5 m) Higham and Strood tunnel is now rail only). However, since the Dudley Tunnel is not continuous this status is sometimes questioned: (the main tunnel is 2,942 yards (2,690.2 m), Lord Ward's tunnel is 196 yards (179.2 m) and Castle Mill basin is 34 yards (31.1 m)). In 1959 the British Transport Commission sought to close the tunnel but this led to an Inland Waterways Association-organised massed protest cruise in 1960. The tunnel was however closed in 1962; and was further threatened with permanent closure by British Railways who wished to replace a railway viaduct at the Tipton portal with an embankment and a culvert. However, this never happened as the railway was closed in 1968 and the disused bridge demolished in the 1990s. The tunnel was reopened in 1973, as a result of restoration, which had been a collaboration between local volunteers (originally the Dudley Canal Tunnel Preservation Society, later the
    7.25
    4 votes
    43
    Gateway Arch

    Gateway Arch

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Gateway Arch
    The Gateway Arch, or Gateway to the West, is an arch that is the centerpiece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis, Missouri. It was built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States. At 630 feet (192 m), it is the tallest man-made monument in the United States, Missouri's tallest accessible building, and the largest architectural structure designed as a weighted or flattened catenary arch. The arch is located at the site of St. Louis' foundation, on the west bank of the Mississippi River where Pierre Laclède, just after noon on February 14, 1764, told his aide, Auguste Chouteau, to build a city. The Gateway Arch was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and German-American structural engineer Hannskarl Bandel in 1947. Construction began on February 12, 1963, and ended on October 28, 1965, costing US$13 million at the time (approximately $95,900,000 in 2012). The monument opened to the public on June 10, 1967. Around late 1933, civic leader Luther Ely Smith, returning to St. Louis from the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park in Vincennes, Indiana, beheld the crumbling St. Louis riverfront area and envisioned that building
    7.25
    4 votes
    44
    Grand Coulee Dam

    Grand Coulee Dam

    Grand Coulee Dam is a gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington built to produce hydroelectric power and provide irrigation. It was constructed between 1933 and 1942, originally with two power plants. A third power station was completed in 1974 to increase its energy production. It is the largest electric power-producing facility in the United States and one of the largest concrete structures in the world. The proposal to build the dam was the focus of a bitter debate during the 1920s between two groups. One wanted to irrigate the ancient Grand Coulee with a gravity canal and the other supported a high dam and pumping scheme. Dam supporters won in 1933, but for fiscal reasons the initial design was for a "low dam" 290 ft (88 m) high which would generate electricity, but not support irrigation. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and a consortium of three companies called MWAK (Mason-Walsh-Atkinson Kier Company) began construction that year. After visiting the construction site in August 1934, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began endorsing the "high dam" design which, at 550 ft (168 m) high, would provide enough electricity to pump water to irrigate the
    7.25
    4 votes
    45
    Kurobe dam

    Kurobe dam

    The Kurobe Dam (黒部ダム) or Kuroyon Dam (黒四ダム), is a variable-radius arch dam on the Kurobe River in Toyama Prefecture on the island of Honshū, Japan. It supports the 335 MW Kurobe No. 4 Hydropower Plant and is owned by Kansai Electric Power Company. At 186 metres (610 ft) high, it is the tallest dam in Japan. It was constructed between 1956 and 1963 at a cost of ¥51.3 billion yen. The project was a difficult engineering feat for the rapidly growing post–World War II Japan, and claimed the lives of 171 people. In 1951, the Kansai Electric Power Company was formed to provide electric power for the Kansai region of Japan. Shortly after their formation, the area suffered from drought which caused power rationing. The drought along with the rapid growth of post–World War II Japan pushed the company to increase their generating capacity. After a series of geological and hydrological studies of the Kurobe River and Gorge, it was announced in late 1955 that the Kurobe Dam would be constructed. In July 1956, construction on the dam began. Problems quickly arose while transporting material to the construction site as only one small railway existed through the narrow gorge. Kansai decided to
    7.25
    4 votes
    46
    Marple Aqueduct

    Marple Aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Marple Aqueduct
    Marple Aqueduct, also known as the Grand Aqueduct, carries the lower level of the Peak Forest Canal across the River Goyt at Marple, Greater Manchester, in north-west England. Benjamin Outram and Thomas Brown jointly designed it and the contract for its construction was placed with William Broadhead, Bethel Furness and William Anderson. The first stone was laid without ceremony in May 1794. The three arches were keyed in during 1799 and it was filled with water in 1800. The aqueduct contains some 8,000 cubic yards (6,000 m³) of masonry and the arches are semi-circular in form and are on 72 feet 4 inches (22.05 m) centres. The lower part is of red sandstone, rough hewn from the nearby Hyde Bank quarry, and the upper part is of white-hewn masonry. The abutments widen in well-proportioned curves and batter or diminish upwards in the same manner. The skilful use of architectural features, such as pierced spandrels and string courses, arch rings and pilasters of ashlar stone, oval piers and stone of different type and colour have created a graceful structure, which is superlative in its class. Its position, amidst the wooded valley of the river Goyt at Marple, gives it a bold and
    7.25
    4 votes
    47
    Millennium Tower

    Millennium Tower

    The Millennium Tower, located at Handelskai 94-96 in the 20th district of Brigittenau in Vienna, is currently the tallest building and 3rd tallest structure in Austria at 171 metres (561 feet) after the Donauturm. An antenna mounted on top of the tower brings the architectural height to 202 metres (663 feet) but does not count to its overall height. However DC Tower 1 which is under construction at the moment, will be higher than Millenium Tower when completed and will then be Austria's tallest building. This is expected to take place in summer 2013. Millenium Tower was designed by the architects Gustav Peichl, Boris Podrecca and Rudolf Weber. The tower has 51 floors, serves both commercial and residential purposes, and is the focal point of a complex known as "Millennium City". It was completed in 1999 for the coming of the third millennium. The office tower has a gross floor area of 47,200 m (508,000 sq ft), of which 38,500 m (414,000 sq ft)is used as office space. The remaining area is to 2 levels are generally available and is used for a shopping center (Millennium City), restaurants and a multiplex cinema (UCI). The Millennium Tower was built in an extremely short construction
    7.25
    4 votes
    48
    Vajiralongkorn Dam

    Vajiralongkorn Dam

    Vajiralongkorn Dam, formerly named the Khao Laem Dam, is a concrete-face rock-fill dam (CFRD) in Thong Pha Phum district in Kanchanaburi, Thailand. The dam lies across the Khwae Noi River (River Kwai) and was renamed Vajiralongkorn Dam after Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn on July 13, 2001. Vajiralongkorn Dam is Thailand's first CFRD and supplies a 300 MW hydroelectric power station with water. Dam construction began in 1979 and took five years to complete. Its reservoir started filling with water in June, 1984. Three 100MW hydropower generators came on line in October and December, 1984 and February 1985 respectively. The reservoir created by the dam has a maximum storage capacity of 8,860 million cubic meters covering a total catchment area of 3,720 square kilometers. Average runoff into the reservoir is approximately 5,500 million cubic meters per year.
    7.25
    4 votes
    49
    Williamson's tunnels

    Williamson's tunnels

    • Projects: Design and Construction of Williamson's Tunnels
    The Williamson Tunnels consist of a labyrinth of tunnels in the Edge Hill area of Liverpool, England, which were built under the direction of the eccentric businessman Joseph Williamson between the early 19th century and 1840. They remained derelict, filled with rubble and refuse, until archaeological investigations were carried out in 1995. Since then excavations have been carried out and part of the labyrinth of tunnels has been opened to the public as a heritage centre. In 1805 Joseph Williamson acquired an area of land in Mason Street, Edge Hill, Liverpool, which was then a largely undeveloped outcrop of sandstone with a scattering of scars from small-scale quarrying. He started to build houses on the site. These houses were eccentric in design "of the strangest description" without any rational plans. The ground behind the houses dropped sharply and in order to provide large gardens, which was the fashion at the time, Williamson built arches over some of the quarrying, and arched terraces over which the gardens could be extended. When these were complete he continued to employ his workmen, sometimes to carry out apparently pointless tasks, such as moving rubble from one place
    7.25
    4 votes
    50
    Beijing National Stadium

    Beijing National Stadium

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Beijing National Stadium
    Beijing National Stadium, officially the National Stadium, also known as the Bird's Nest (鸟巢 Niǎocháo), is a stadium in Beijing, China. The stadium was designed for use throughout the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. Located in the Olympic Green, the stadium cost US$423 million. The design was awarded to a submission from the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron in April 2003 after a bidding process that included 13 final submissions. The design, which originated from the study of Chinese ceramics, implemented steel beams in order to hide supports for the retractable roof; giving the stadium the appearance of a bird's nest. Leading Chinese artist Ai Weiwei was the artistic consultant on the project. The retractable roof was later removed from the design after inspiring the stadium's most recognizable aspect. Ground was broken on 24 December 2003 and the stadium officially opened on 28 June 2008. A shopping mall and a hotel are planned to be constructed to increase use of the stadium, which has had trouble attracting events, football and otherwise, after the Olympics. In 2001, before Beijing had been awarded the right to host the 2008 Summer Olympics, the city held a
    8.33
    3 votes
    51
    Circle Line

    Circle Line

    The Circle line of the London Underground is coloured yellow on the tube map. Before December 2009 it had a circular route around the centre of London on the north side of the River Thames linking the main line railway termini. In December 2009 it was extended to Hammersmith on its north-western side; trains from Hammersmith call at Edgware Road before travelling around the loop and terminating at Edgware Road. It is the seventh busiest line on the system with over 114,000,000 passengers a year. In 1863 the Metropolitan Railway opened the world's first underground line between Paddington and Farringdon Street with wooden carriages and steam locomotives. The same year a select committee report recommended an 'inner circle' of railway lines connecting the London railway termini, and the Metropolitan District Railway was formed the next year to build the southern portion of the line. Due to conflict between the two companies it took an Act of Parliament before the inner circle was completed in October 1884. Further conflict delayed electrification, but a full electric circle line service started on 24 September 1905. In July 1933 the two companies were amalgamated when the London
    8.33
    3 votes
    52
    Harecastle Tunnel

    Harecastle Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Harecastle Tunnel
    Harecastle Tunnel is a canal tunnel on the Trent and Mersey Canal at Kidsgrove in Staffordshire. It is made up of two separate, parallel, tunnels described as Brindley (2,880 yards) and the later Telford (2,926 yards) after the engineers that constructed them. Today only the Telford tunnel is navigable. The tunnel is only wide enough to carry traffic in one direction at a time and boats are sent through in groups, alternating northbound and southbound. Ventilation is handled by a large fan at the south portal. The Brindley tunnel was constructed by James Brindley between 1770 and 1777. Brindley died during its construction. At the time of its construction it was twice the length of any other tunnel in the world. To construct the canal, the line of the tunnel was ranged over the hill and then fifteen vertical shafts were sunk into the ground. It was from these that heads were driven on the canal line. A major problem was the change in the rock type which ranged from soft earth to Millstone Grit. The construction site was also subject to flooding regularly, a problem which was overcome by the construction of steam engines to operate the pumps. Stoves were installed at the bottom of
    8.33
    3 votes
    53
    Newport Tower

    Newport Tower

    The Newport Tower (also known as Newport Office Center II and 525 Washington Boulevard) in Newport, Jersey City, New Jersey is the third tallest building in Jersey City. It has 37 floors, it is 531 ft (162 m) tall and is connected to a mall (called the Newport Centre Mall) within the complex. The mall is one of the few enclosed, regional shopping facilities in Hudson County. The building was developed by Melvin Simon & Associates in 1990. The Newport Tower is next to the Hudson River and is almost exactly across from the World Financial Center in Manhattan. The Newport Tower is a modern-style building. The tower got a facelift in the summer of 2005; wooden panels have been installed on the lobby walls, and LCD advertisement screens added to the elevators. The colonnade in front of the building has been removed in July 2008. A new elevator management system, Schindler ID, was installed in the building in September 2009. On October 19, 2011, Multi-Employer Property Trust purchased the Newport Tower from Brookfield Properties for $377.5 million. Brookfield Properties took ownership of the Newport Tower in June 2006 after the $4.8 billion acquisition of Trizec Properties.
    8.33
    3 votes
    54
    Tehri dam

    Tehri dam

    The Tehri Dam is a multi-purpose rock and earth-fill embankment dam on the Bhagirathi River near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India. It is the primary dam of the THDC India Ltd. and the Tehri hydroelectric complex. Phase 1 was completed in 2006, the Tehri Dam withholds a reservoir for irrigation, municipal water supply and the generation of 1,000 MW of hydroelectricity. One more project of the installed capacity of 1,000 MW pumped storage hydroelectricity are under construction. A preliminary investigation for the Tehri Dam Project was completed in 1961 and its design was completed in 1972 with a 600 MW capacity power plant based on the study. Construction began in 1978 after feasibility studies but was delayed due to financial, environmental and social impacts. In 1986, technical and financial assistance was provided by the united nation of india The dam is a 260.5 metres (855 ft) high rock and earth-fill embankment dam. Its length is 575 metres (1,886 ft), crest width 20 metres (66 ft), and base width 1,128 metres (3,701 ft). The dam creates a reservoir of 2.6 cubic kilometres (2,100,000 acre·ft) with a surface area of 52 square kilometres (20 sq mi). The installed hydrocapacity is
    8.33
    3 votes
    55
    Dnieper Hydroelectric Station

    Dnieper Hydroelectric Station

    The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station (Ukrainian: ДніпроГЕС - DniproHES, Russian: ДнепроГЭС - DneproGES, also known as Dneprostroi Dam) is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, placed in Zaporizhia, Ukraine. In the lower current of the Dnieper River there were almost 100 km long part of the river filled with rapids. Now this is the distance between the modern cities Dnepropetrovsk and Zaporozhie In the 19th century engineers worked on the projects to make the river navigable. The projects for the flooding of the rapids were proposed by N. Lelyavsky in 1893, V. Timonov in 1894, S. Maximov and G. Graftio in 1905, A. Rundo and D. Yuskevich in 1910, I. Rozov and L. Yurgevich in 1912, Mohylko. While the main objective of these projects was to improve navigation, hydropower generation appeared concurrently, in terms of "utiliztion of the freely flowing water". G. Graftio's project of 1905 included three dams with a small area of flooding. Lenin's slogan "Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country" became a motto for Soviet industrialization. On February 7, 1920, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets announced the
    9.50
    2 votes
    56
    Semington Aqueduct

    Semington Aqueduct

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Semington Aqueduct
    Semington Aqueduct (grid reference ST896609) is an aqueduct at Semington, Wiltshire, England, UK. It carries the Kennet and Avon Canal over the Semington Brook. The Kennet and Avon Canal was the realisation of a plan to link the River Avon to the River Thames and hence Bristol to London, which had first been suggested in the late 1500s, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The canal was surveyed by John Rennie and following a change of route, which resulted in the canal passing through Devizes and hence Semington, rather than Marlborough and Calne, an Act of Parliament was obtained in 1794 to authorise the plan and work began. The eastern section opened first, with the line from Newbury and the River Kennet to Hungerford opening in 1798, and from there to Great Bedwyn opening the following year. The western section through Semington was partially complete by this time, and was finished by 1804, but there were two gaps to be filled. These were the locks at Bath which connected the canal to the River Avon, and those at Devizes, which overcame a difference in level of 237 feet (72 m), both of which were completed in 1810, enabling the canal to open throughout on 28
    9.50
    2 votes
    57
    The Copenhagen Opera House

    The Copenhagen Opera House

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the The Copenhagen Opera House
    The Copenhagen Opera House (in Danish usually called Operaen) is the national opera house of Denmark, and among the most modern opera houses in the world. It is also one of the most expensive opera houses ever built with construction costs well over 500 million U.S. dollars. It is located on the island of Holmen in central Copenhagen. The Opera House was donated to the Danish state by the A.P. Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller Foundation in August 2000 (A.P. Møller was a co-founder of the company now known as Mærsk). Some politicians were offended by the private donation, in part because the full cost of the project would be tax deductible, thus virtually forcing the government to buy the building; but it was accepted by the Folketing and the government in the autumn of 2000. It was designed by the architect Henning Larsen and engineers Ramboll and Buro Happold and Theatre Consultant Theatreplan. The acoustics were designed by Arup Acoustics and architectural lighting design by Speirs and Major Associates. A.P. Møller had the final say in the design of the building, however, adding steel to the glass front, among other things. Construction began in June 2001 and was completed on
    9.50
    2 votes
    58
    Dome of Discovery

    Dome of Discovery

    • Projects: Design and Construction of The Dome of Discovery
    The Dome of Discovery was a temporary exhibition building designed by architect Ralph Tubbs for the Festival of Britain celebrations which took place on London's South Bank in 1951. The consulting engineers were Freeman Fox and Partners, in particular Oleg Kerensky (later Dr. Oleg) and Gilbert Roberts (later Sir Gilbert) Like the adjacent Skylon tower, the dome became an iconic structure for the public and helped popularise modern design and architectural style in a Britain still suffering through post-war austerity. As twin icons, the forms of the Skylon and Dome of Discovery were related to those of the Trylon and Perisphere of the 1939 New York World's Fair. Controversially, after the Festival closed, the dome was demolished and its materials sold as scrap. The site was cleared for reuse, and is now the location of the Jubilee Gardens, near the London Eye. The dome had a diameter of 365 feet and stood 93 feet tall, making it at the time the largest dome in the world. It was constructed by Costain Group from concrete and aluminium in a modernist style and housed many of the festival attractions. Internally the dome included a number of galleries on various levels housing
    7.00
    4 votes
    59
    Montgomery Bell Tunnel

    Montgomery Bell Tunnel

    The Montgomery Bell Tunnel, also known as the 'Patterson Forge Tunnel, in Cheatham County, Tennessee, is a 290-foot (88 m) long tunnel through limestone rock which was the first "full-scale" water diversion tunnel built in the United States. It is also apparently the first "full-scale" tunnel of any type in the United States, according to histories of tunneling. It was built in 1819 by Montgomery Bell using the labor of slaves. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1994. It is now included in Harpeth River State Park. It was built at about the same time, but apparently slightly before, the 450-foot (140 m) Auburn Tunnel of Pennsylvania's Schuylkill Navigation Canal, which began use in 1821.
    7.00
    4 votes
    60
    Barton Swing Aqueduct

    Barton Swing Aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Barton Swing Aqueduct
    The Barton Swing Aqueduct is a moveable navigable aqueduct in Barton upon Irwell in Greater Manchester, England. It carries the Bridgewater Canal across the Manchester Ship Canal. The swinging action allows large vessels using the Manchester Ship Canal to pass underneath and smaller narrowboats to cross over the top. The aqueduct, which is the first and only swing aqueduct in the world, is a Grade II* listed building and is considered a major feat of Victorian civil engineering. Designed by Sir Edward Leader Williams and built by Andrew Handyside of Derby, the swing bridge opened in 1894 and remains in regular use. The Barton Swing Aqueduct was a direct replacement for the earlier Barton Aqueduct, a stone structure crossing the River Irwell. The original stone aqueduct was designed by James Brindley and dated from 1761; it was described as "one of the seven wonders of the canal age". The construction of the Manchester Ship Canal in the 1890s necessitated the replacement of this structure, as the height of ships using the new ship canal would make them too large to pass under the original aqueduct. An alternative scheme involving the use of a double lock flight was not used, because
    8.00
    3 votes
    61
    Highpoint I

    Highpoint I

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Highpoint I
    Highpoint I was the first of two apartment blocks erected in the 1930s on one of the highest points in London, England at Highgate. The architectural design was by Russian-born architect Berthold Lubetkin, the structural design by Danish engineer Ove Arup and the construction by Kier. Highpoint I was built in 1935 for the entrepreneur Sigmund Gestetner, but was never used for its intended purpose of housing Gestetner staff. One of the best examples of early International style architecture in London, this block of 64 flats was very innovative in its day. When the building was completed, it became widely renowned as the finest example of this form of construction for residential purposes. When Corbusier himself visited Highpoint in 1935 he said, "This beautiful building .... at Highgate is an achievement of the first rank." And American critic Henry Russell Hitchcock called it, "One of the finest, if not absolutely the finest, middle-class housing projects in the world." In 1970 this reputation gained official recognition when both Highpoint blocks were classified Grade I within the historic buildings listing programme. The second Lubetkin building in the same style, Highpoint II,
    8.00
    3 votes
    62
    Southwark Bridge

    Southwark Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of Southwark Bridge
    Southwark Bridge is an arch bridge for traffic linking Southwark and the City across the River Thames, in London, England. It was designed by Ernest George and Basil Mott. It was built by Sir William Arrol & Co. and opened in 1921. The bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. A previous bridge on the site, designed by John Rennie, opened in 1819, and was originally known as Queen Street Bridge, as shown on the 1818 John Snow Map of London. The bridge consisted of three large cast-iron spans supported by granite piers. It was known as the "Iron Bridge" in comparison to London Bridge, the "Stone Bridge". The bridge was notable for having the longest cast iron span, 240 feet (73 m), ever made. Halfway along the bridge on the Western side is a plaque which is inscribed: Re-built by the Bridge House Estates Committee of the Corporation of London 1913-1921 Opened for traffic by their Majesties King George V and Queen Mary 6th June 1921 Sir Ernest Lamb CMG, JP Chairman Basil Mott, CB Engineer Sir Ernest George RA Architect The bridge provides access to Upper Thames Street on the north bank and, due to the ring
    8.00
    3 votes
    63
    Humber Bridge

    Humber Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Humber Bridge
    The Humber Bridge, near Kingston upon Hull, England, is a 2,220 m (2,428 yards) single-span suspension bridge, which opened to traffic on 24 June 1981. It is the sixth-largest of its type in the world. It spans the Humber (the estuary formed by the rivers Trent and Ouse) between Barton-upon-Humber on the south bank and Hessle on the north bank, connecting the East Riding of Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire – both of which were previously in the non-metropolitan county of Humberside. As of 2006, the bridge carried an average of 120,000 vehicles per week. The toll was £3.00 each way for cars (higher for commercial vehicles), which made it the most expensive toll crossing in the United Kingdom. As of 1 April 2012, the toll was reduced to £1.50 each way after the UK government cut £150 million from the bridge's current debt. Before the bridge opening, commuters would go from one bank to the other either by using the ferry that ran between Hull and New Holland, Lincolnshire or driving via the M62, M18 and M180 motorways, crossing the River Ouse near Goole (connected to the Humber) in the process. There was also a short-lived hovercraft service; Minerva and Mercury linked Hull Pier and
    6.75
    4 votes
    64
    Hungerford Bridge

    Hungerford Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Hungerford Bridge
    The Hungerford Bridge crosses the River Thames in London, and lies between Waterloo Bridge and Westminster Bridge. It is a steel truss railway bridge—sometimes known as the Charing Cross Bridge—flanked by two more recent, cable-stayed, pedestrian bridges that share the railway bridge's foundation piers, and which are properly named the Golden Jubilee Bridges. The north end of the bridge is Charing Cross railway station, and is near Embankment Pier and the Victoria Embankment. The south end is near Waterloo station, County Hall, the Royal Festival Hall, and the London Eye. Each pedestrian bridge has steps and lift access. The first Hungerford Bridge, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, opened in 1845 as a suspension footbridge. It was named after the then Hungerford Market, because it went from the South Bank to Hungerford Market on the north side of the Thames. In 1859 the original bridge was bought by the railway company extending the South Eastern Railway into the newly opened Charing Cross railway station. The railway company replaced the suspension bridge with a structure designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, comprising nine spans made of wrought iron lattice girders, which opened in
    6.75
    4 votes
    65
    Blackwall Tunnel

    Blackwall Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Blackwall Tunnel
    The Blackwall Tunnel is a pair of road tunnels underneath the River Thames in east London, linking the London Borough of Tower Hamlets with the Royal Borough of Greenwich, and part of the A102 road. The northern portal lies just south of the East India Dock Road (A13) in Blackwall; the southern entrances are just south of The O2 (a.k.a. the North Greenwich Arena during London 2012 and formerly the Millennium Dome) on the Greenwich Peninsula. Before the opening of the Dartford Tunnel in 1963, the Blackwall Tunnel was the easternmost Thames crossing for vehicles, excluding ferries. The northern approach takes traffic from the A12 and the southern approach takes traffic from the A2, making the tunnel crossing a key link for both local and longer-distance traffic between the north and south sides of the river. It forms part of a key route into Central London from South East London and Kent. The tunnels are not open to pedestrians, cyclists or other non-motorised traffic. One bus route, the Transport for London (TfL) 108 (Stratford-Lewisham) route, runs through the tunnels. The older western tunnel was designed by Sir Alexander Binnie and built by S. Pearson & Sons, between 1892 and
    9.00
    2 votes
    66
    Festival of Britain

    Festival of Britain

    • Projects: Preparation for the Festival of Britain
    The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition held throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951. It was organised by the government to give Britons a feeling of recovery in the aftermath of war and to promote the British contribution to science, technology, industrial design, architecture and the arts. The Festival's centrepiece was in London on the South Bank of the Thames. There were events in Poplar (Architecture), Battersea (The Festival Pleasure Gardens), South Kensington (Science) and Glasgow (Industrial Power). Festival celebrations took place in Cardiff, Stratford-upon-Avon, Bath, Perth, Bournemouth, York, Aldeburgh, Inverness, Cheltenham, Oxford and elsewhere and there were touring exhibitions by land and sea. The Festival became associated with the post-war Labour government of Clement Attlee and was rapidly demolished by the incoming Conservative administration of Winston Churchill. The first idea for an exhibition in 1951 came from the Royal Society of Arts in 1943, which considered that an international exhibition should be held to commemorate the centenary of the 1851 Great Exhibition. In 1945, the government appointed a committee under Lord Ramsden to
    9.00
    2 votes
    67
    Itaipu Dam

    Itaipu Dam

    The Itaipu Dam (Guarani: Itaipu, Portuguese: Itaipu, Spanish: Itaipú; Portuguese pronunciation: [ita.iˈpu], Spanish pronunciation: [itaiˈpu]) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The name "Itaipu" was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. In the Guaraní language, Itaipu means "the singing stone". The dam is the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual energy generation, generating 94.7 TWh in 2008 and 91.6 TWh in 2009, while the annual energy generation of the Three Gorges Dam was 80.8 TWh in 2008 and 79.4 TWh in 2009. The dam's 14,000 MW installed capacity is second to the Three Gorges Dam's 22,500 MW, though. It is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the Paraná River on the border section between the two countries, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of the Friendship Bridge. The project ranges from Foz do Iguaçu, in Brazil, and Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, in the south to Guaíra and Salto del Guairá in the north. The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW, with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 m. In 2008 the plant
    9.00
    2 votes
    68
    London Bridge

    London Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the New London Bridge (John Rennie) 1831
    London Bridge refers to several bridges that have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London. The current crossing, which opened to traffic in 1973, is a box girder bridge constructed from concrete and steel. It replaced a 19th-century stone-arched bridge, which in turn superseded a 600-year-old medieval structure. This was preceded by a succession of timber bridges; the first was built by the Roman founders of London. The current bridge still stands at the western end of the Pool of London but it is positioned 30 metres (98 ft) upstream from the original alignment. The traditional ends of the medieval bridge were marked by St Magnus-the-Martyr on the northern bank and Southwark Cathedral on the southern shore. Until Putney Bridge opened in 1729, London Bridge was the only road-crossing of the Thames downstream of Kingston-upon-Thames. The modern bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, an independent charity overseen by the City of London Corporation. The A3, which it carries, is maintained by the Greater London Authority. The crossing also delineates an area along the southern bank of the River Thames, between London
    9.00
    2 votes
    69
    Sydney Harbour Tunnel

    Sydney Harbour Tunnel

    The Sydney Harbour Tunnel is a twin-tube road tunnel in Sydney, Australia. The tunnel was completed and opened to traffic in August 1992 to provide a second vehicular crossing of Sydney Harbour to alleviate congestion on the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The tunnel joins the Warringah Freeway at North Sydney, and the Cahill Expressway at the entrance to the Domain Tunnel. It has two lanes in each direction, and runs at an angle of approximately thirty degrees (North to South) to the Sydney Harbour Bridge, which has eight lanes, with a tidal flow operation. In 2008, the tunnel was carrying around 90,000 vehicles per day. The tunnel is made up of three sections: twin 900-metre land tunnels on the north shore, twin 400-metre land tunnels on the south shore and a 960-metre immersed tube (IMT) structure. The tunnel falls about 55 metres from the northern entrance and about 35 metres from the southern entrance to its deepest point, 25 metres below sea level. The IMT structure consists of eight precast concrete units. The units were constructed over 100 kilometres away in a casting basin at Port Kembla and then towed to Sydney Harbour. A trench was dredged before the arrival of the IMTs and then
    9.00
    2 votes
    70
    Tay Rail Bridge

    Tay Rail Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Tay Rail Bridge
    The Tay Bridge (sometimes unofficially the Tay Rail Bridge) is a railway bridge approximately 2.75 miles (3.5 kilometres) long that spans the Firth of Tay in Scotland, between the city of Dundee and the suburb of Wormit in Fife (grid reference NO391277). As with the Forth Bridge, the Tay Bridge has also been called the Tay Rail Bridge since the construction of a road bridge over the firth, the Tay Road Bridge. The rail bridge replaced an early train ferry. "Tay Bridge" was also the codename for the funeral plans for Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother. The original Tay Bridge was designed by noted railway engineer Thomas Bouch, who received a knighthood following the bridge's completion. It was a lattice-grid design, combining cast and wrought iron. The design was well known, having been used first by Kennard in the Crumlin Viaduct in South Wales in 1858, following the innovative use of cast iron in The Crystal Palace. However, the Crystal Palace was not as heavily loaded as a railway bridge. A previous cast iron design, the Dee bridge which collapsed in 1847, failed due to poor use of cast-iron girders. Later, Gustave Eiffel used a similar design to create several large viaducts in
    9.00
    2 votes
    71
    Box Tunnel

    Box Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Box Tunnel
    Box Tunnel is a railway tunnel in Western England, between Bath and Chippenham, dug through Box Hill, and is one of the most significant structures on the Great Western Main Line. It was originally built for the Great Western Railway under the direction of the GWR's engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The tunnel is 1.83 miles (2,937 m) in length, straight, and descends a 1 in 100 gradient from the east. Construction started in 1836, and opened in 1841. The lives of about 100 navvies (railway construction workers) were lost during construction. At the time of opening it was the longest railway tunnel in the world, though the Standedge Tunnel and several other canal tunnels were longer. The dramatic western portal, near Box, is designed in a grand classical style, while the eastern portal, at Corsham, has a more modest brick face with rusticated stone. When the two ends of the tunnel were joined underground there was found to be less than 2 inches (50 mm) error in their alignment. Box Tunnel is to be electrified with catenary as part of the GWML electrification scheme which includes service to Bristol Temple Meads and is scheduled for completion around 2016. There is a story which
    5.80
    5 votes
    72
    Avon Aqueduct

    Avon Aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Avon Aqueduct
    The Avon Aqueduct is a navigable aqueduct on the Union Canal near Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland, United Kingdom. It is 810 feet (250 m) long and 86 feet (26 m) high; it is the longest and tallest aqueduct in Scotland, and the second longest in Britain (after the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in Wales). It can be viewed from Muiravonside Country Park. The aqueduct was built after a design by Thomas Telford, there are twelve arches, and the water is carried in a cast iron trough. There is a towpath along one side.
    7.67
    3 votes
    73
    Bell Rock Lighthouse

    Bell Rock Lighthouse

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse
    Bell Rock Lighthouse is the world's oldest surviving sea-washed lighthouse and was built on Bell Rock (also known as Inchcape) in the North Sea, 11 miles (18 km) off the coast of Angus, Scotland, east of the Firth of Tay. It was built by Robert Stevenson between 1807 and 1810, and standing at 35 m high, the light is visible from 35 statute miles (56 km) inland. The masonry work on which the lighthouse rests was constructed to such a high standard that it has not been replaced or adapted in 200 years. The lamps and reflectors were replaced in 1843, with the original equipment being used in the lighthouse at Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland where they are currently on display. The working of the lighthouse has been automated since 1988. The lighthouse operated in tandem with a shore station, the Bell Rock Signal Tower, built in 1813 at the mouth of Arbroath harbour. Today this building houses the Signal Tower Museum, a visitor centre detailing the history of the lighthouse. The challenges faced in the building of the lighthouse have led to it being described as one of the Seven Wonders of the Industrial World. According to legend, the rock is called Bell Rock because of a 14th century
    7.67
    3 votes
    74
    Campos Novos Dam

    Campos Novos Dam

    The Campos Novos Dam (also known as Barragem de Campos Novos locally) is a hydroelectric dam in Santa Catarina province in southern Brazil. In 2006, at 200m dam height, it was regarded as the third highest dam of this type (concrete-faced rockfill dam or CFRD) in the world, but, in June 2006, the water which it held back ran out following a break in the dam wall. Built at the cost of $671 million USD, it is located on the Canoas River, Brazil. It is part of a hydro-electric complex intended to provide 880 MW. A second dam is below this one, and together they can hold a little more than 2 cubic kilometers of water. Campos Novos' 35 years build and operate concession was awarded in 1998. It is owned by Enercan, a consortium made up of Brazilian power company CPFL Energia with 48.7%, Brazilian aluminium maker CBA with 22.7%, metallurgy company CNT with 20%, state-controlled companies Rio Grande do Sul with 6.5% and Santa Catarina Celesc with 2%. The dam builder was a consortium led by Brazilian construction company Camargo Correa and engineering consultants Engevix. Funding is by Inter-American Development Bank and Brazilian state-owned National Bank for Economic and Social
    7.67
    3 votes
    75
    KVLY-TV mast

    KVLY-TV mast

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the KVLY-TV mast
    The KVLY-TV mast (formerly the KTHI-TV mast) is a 628.8 m (2,063 ft) tall television-transmitting mast in Blanchard, Traill County, North Dakota, United States, used by Fargo station KVLY-TV channel 11. Completed in 1963, it was the tallest structure ever built until succeeded by the Warsaw radio mast in 1974; that mast collapsed in 1991, making the KVLY-TV mast again the tallest structure in the world until the Burj Khalifa overtook it in 2010. It remains the third-tallest structure in the world (since the construction of the Tokyo Skytree), and the tallest structure in the United States. It is a guyed mast, not a self-supporting structure, and is therefore not included in lists of tallest buildings. The height of the transmitting antenna itself is 113 feet (34 m) and is included in the height of the tower as the lattice tower itself ends around 1,950 feet (590 m). The tower weighs 864,500 pounds (392.1 t) altogether and takes up 160 acres (0.65 km) of land with its guy anchors. The 113' antenna alone weighs 9,000 pounds. In 1989, daredevils climbed the tower and BASE jumped from it. The tower is located 3 miles (4.8 km) west of Blanchard, North Dakota, halfway between Fargo and
    7.67
    3 votes
    76
    Norwood Tunnel

    Norwood Tunnel

    Norwood Tunnel was a 2,884-yard-long (2,637 m), 9.25-foot-wide (2.82 m) and 12-foot-high (3.7 m) brick (3 million of them) lined canal tunnel on the line of the Chesterfield Canal with its Western Portal in Norwood, Derbyshire and its Eastern Portal in Kiveton, South Yorkshire, England. The Chesterfield Canal's Act of Parliament was passed in 1771. James Brindley was the chief engineer and John Varley the Clerk of the Works. John Varley was left to continue alone as acting chief engineer after the death of James Brindley in 1772. In 1774, Hugh Henshall, James Brindley's brother-in-law was made chief engineer, with John Varley keeping the position of resident engineer. John Varley's father and brothers were implicated when Hugh Henshall discovered that some of the work on the Norwood Tunnel was sub-standard but John Varley avoided sharing the blame. The Norwood Tunnel was opened on 9 May 1775 and at the time held the record for Britain's longest canal tunnel jointly with James Brindley's Harecastle Tunnel. The Norwood Tunnel forms a large part of the summit pound of the canal, with Norwood Locks descending from the Western Portal and Thorpe Locks descending to the East of the
    7.67
    3 votes
    77
    Royal Albert Bridge

    Royal Albert Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Royal Albert Bridge
    The Royal Albert Bridge is a railway bridge that spans the River Tamar in the United Kingdom between Plymouth, on the Devon bank, and Saltash on the Cornish bank. Its unique design consists of two 455 feet (138.7 m) lenticular iron trusses 100 feet (30.5 m) above the water, with conventional plate-girder approach spans. This gives it a total length of 2,187.5 feet (666.8 m). It carries the Cornish Main Line railway in and out of Cornwall. It was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Surveying started in 1848 and construction commenced in 1854. The first main span was positioned in 1857 and the completed bridge was opened by Prince Albert on 2 May 1859. Brunel died later that year and his name was then placed above the portals at either end of the bridge as a memorial. Work was carried out during the twentieth century to replace the approach spans and strengthen the main spans. It has attracted sightseers since its construction and has appeared in many paintings, photographs and guidebooks. Anniversary celebrations took place in 1959 and 2009. Two rival schemes for a railway to Falmouth, Cornwall were proposed in the 1830s. The 'central' scheme was a route from Exeter around the
    7.67
    3 votes
    78
    Standedge Tunnels

    Standedge Tunnels

    The Standedge Tunnels (Standedge is normally pronounced Stannige) are four parallel tunnels that run beneath the Pennines at the traditional Standedge crossing point between Marsden and Diggle, on the edges of the conurbations of West Yorkshire and Greater Manchester respectively, in northern England. There are three railway tunnels and a canal tunnel (on the Huddersfield Narrow Canal). The canal tunnel is the longest and oldest of the tunnels, and holds the record as the longest and highest canal tunnel in Britain. All four tunnels are linked by cross-tunnels or adits at strategic locations within the tunnels. The adits allowed the railway tunnels to be built much more quickly by allowing 'waste spoil' (sic) to be removed by boat and reducing the need for shafts for construction. Of the railway tunnels, only the tunnel built in 1894 is currently used for rail traffic. Closed in 1943, the canal tunnel was re-opened in May 2001. The Standedge Tunnel Visitor Centre, at the Marsden end of the tunnel, serves as a base for boat trips into the canal tunnel and hosts an exhibition which depicts the various crossings. The Standedge Tunnel is the longest, deepest and highest canal tunnel in
    7.67
    3 votes
    79
    Underfall Yard

    Underfall Yard

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Underfall Yard
    The Underfall Yard is a historic boatyard on Spike Island serving Bristol Harbour, the harbour in the city of Bristol, England. Underfall Yard was commonly referred to as "The Underfalls" and takes its name from the underfall sluices. The original construction was in the early 19th century with revisions by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in the 1830s. Following restoration in the 1990s, this Victorian work yard is now a Scheduled Monument that includes several listed buildings. The harbour and its equipment are still actively maintained, and host a cooperative of boat builders. In the early nineteenth century, the engineer William Jessop was engaged by the Bristol Dock Company to create a non-tidal Floating Harbour to combat continuing problems with ships being grounded at low tide. With his system, which was completed in 1809, water was trapped behind lock gates so ships could remain floating at all times, unaffected by the state of the tide on the river. Part of the project included building a dam at the Underfall Yard with a weir to allow surplus river water to flow into the New Cut, an excavation that by-passed the Floating Harbour and joined the River Avon near Temple Meads. The
    7.67
    3 votes
    80
    CN Tower

    CN Tower

    • Projects: Construction of CN Tower
    The CN Tower (French: Tour CN) is a communications and observation tower in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Standing 553.33 metres (1,815.4 ft) tall, it was completed in 1976, becoming the world's tallest free-standing structure and world's tallest tower at the time. It held both records for 34 years until the completion of Burj Khalifa and Canton Tower in 2010. It remains the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, a signature icon of Toronto's skyline, and a symbol of Canada, attracting more than two million international visitors annually. Its name "CN" originally referred to Canadian National, the railway company that built the tower. Following the railway's decision to divest non-core freight railway assets, prior to the company's privatization in 1995, it transferred the tower to the Canada Lands Company, a federal Crown corporation responsible for real estate development. Since the name CN Tower became common in daily usage, the abbreviation was eventually expanded to Canadian National Tower or Canada's National Tower. However, neither of these names is commonly used. In 1995, the CN Tower was declared one of the modern Seven Wonders of the World by the
    10.00
    1 votes
    81
    Empire State Building

    Empire State Building

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Empire State Building
    The Empire State Building is a 102-story skyscraper located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. It has a roof height of 1,250 feet (381 meters), and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 1,454 ft (443.2 m) high. Its name is derived from the nickname for New York, the Empire State. It stood as the world's tallest building for 40 years, from its completion in 1931 until construction of the World Trade Center's North Tower was completed in 1972. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Empire State Building was again the tallest building in New York (although it was no longer the tallest in the US or the world). The Empire State Building was once again demoted to second-tallest building in New York on April 30, 2012, when the new One World Trade Center reached a greater height. The Empire State Building is currently the third-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States (after the Willis Tower and Trump International Hotel and Tower, both in Chicago), and the 15th-tallest in the world (the tallest now is Burj Khalifa, located in Dubai). It is also the fourth-tallest freestanding structure in the
    10.00
    1 votes
    82
    Karakaya Dam

    Karakaya Dam

    The Karakaya Dam is one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey, built on the Euphrates River and completed in 1987. The hydroelectric dam generates power with six units of 300 MW, totalling the installed capacity to 1,800 MW. The Euphrates River is an important water source for both Syria and Iraq, thus both countries expressed concerns about the Karakaya Dam construction project. A treaty guaranteed a minimum water flow of 500 m (18,000 cu ft) through the dam.
    10.00
    1 votes
    83
    Kihansi Dam

    Kihansi Dam

    Kihansi Dam is a hydroelectric dam located on the Kihansi River at the end of the Kihansi Gorge before the convergence with the Ulanga River in Tanzania approximately 450 km southwest of the capital Dar Es Salaam. The Kihansi Dam is a concrete gravity dam owned by the Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited. Its construction began in July 1995 and was opened by President Benjamin W. Mkapa on 10 July 2000. It cost $36 million. Its installed capacity is 180 MW, and it helps provide aproximently 13% of the total electrical power in Tanzania. The Kihansi Dam destroyed an 800m-high waterfall, affected over 20,000 villagers, and was directly responsible for the extinction in the wild of the Kihansi Spray Toad. The dam reduced the amount of silt and water coming down from the waterfall into the gorge by 90 percent. This led to the spray toad's microhabitat being compromised, as it reduced the amount of water spray, which the toads were directly reliant on for oxygen. This also meant that the toad may have been more susceptible to a chytrid fungus, which was believed to have been transported to the area by conservationists' boots. This chytridiomycosis, which in 2003 was confirmed to be
    10.00
    1 votes
    84
    Revelstoke Dam

    Revelstoke Dam

    The Revelstoke Dam, also known as Revelstoke Canyon Dam, is a hydroelectric dam spanning the Columbia River, 5 km (3.1 mi) north of Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. The powerhouse was completed in 1984 and has an installed capacity of 2480 MW. Four generating units were installed initially, with one additional unit (#5) having come online in 2010. The reservoir behind the dam is named Lake Revelstoke. The dam is operated by BC Hydro. Areas inundated by the dam include the Dalles des Morts or "Death Rapids", which was the stretch of canyon just above the dam's location, and various small localities along the pre-inundation route of the Big Bend Highway, which was the original route of the Trans-Canada Highway until the building of its Rogers Pass section. Just below the dam was the location of La Porte, one of the boomtowns of the Big Bend Gold Rush and the head of river navigation via the Arrow Lakes and Columbia River from Marcus, Washington. The Revelstoke Dam Visitor Centre is located 5 km (3.1 mi) north of Revelstoke and is open seasonally. The centre features interactive exhibits, activities about the dam and hydroelectricity and a First Nations gallery opened in 2009,
    10.00
    1 votes
    85
    Three World Financial Center

    Three World Financial Center

    Three World Financial Center also known as American Express Tower, is one of the thirty tallest skyscrapers in New York City. Located on West Street between Liberty Street and Vesey Street in Lower Manhattan the building is the tallest, 739 feet (225 m), of the four buildings in the World Financial Center complex that stands in southwest Manhattan. It is similar in design to Two World Financial Center, except that it is capped by a solid pyramid where 2 WFC is capped by a dome. Three World Financial Center was severely damaged by the falling debris when the World Trade Center towers collapsed on September 11, 2001. The building's southeast corner took heavy structural damage, though the effects were not enough to create a threat of collapse. The building had to be closed for repairs from September 11, 2001 until May 2002 as a result of damage sustained in the terrorist attacks. 3 World Financial Center is today World headquarters of American Express, and was once World Headquarters of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. The building is an example of postmodern architecture, as designed by Cesar Pelli & Associates, and contains over 2.1 million square feet (195,000 m²) of rentable office
    10.00
    1 votes
    86
    Vajont Dam

    Vajont Dam

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Vajont Dam
    The Vajont Dam (or Vaiont Dam) is a disused dam, completed in 1959 in the valley of the Vajont River under Monte Toc, 100 km north of Venice, Italy. A 1963 landslide caused the overtopping of the dam and around 2,000 deaths. One of the tallest dams in the world, it is 262 m (860 ft) high, 27 m (89 ft) thick at the base and 3.4 m (11 ft) at the top. Its 1963 overtopping was caused when the designers ignored the geological instability of Monte Toc on the southern side of the basin. Warning signs and negative appraisals during the early stages of filling were disregarded, and the attempt to safely control the landslide into the lake created a 200 metre tall wave (ten times higher than predicted) that brought massive flooding and destruction to the Piave valley below, wiping out several villages completely. On 12 February 2008, while launching the International Year of Planet Earth, UNESCO cited the Vajont Dam tragedy as one of five "cautionary tales", caused by "the failure of engineers and geologists". The dam was built by SADE (Società Adriatica di Elettricità, English: Adriatic Energy Corporation), the electricity supply and distribution monopolist in North-Eastern Italy. The
    10.00
    1 votes
    87
    Dry Bridge

    Dry Bridge

    Dry Bridge (Serbian: Мост на сувом, Суви мост) is a bridge in Zrenjanin, Serbia. It is a unique bridge because it currently does not span any physical obstacle, since the flow of the river under it was diverted. The bridge was built in 1962 by the project of engineer Rada Janjatov, as a suspension bridge. Its purpose was to connect Zrenjanin city center with Mala Amerika quarter. Two holding towers, one on the north side and the other on the south side, are made of steel and concrete. The northern tower is an 23-meter-high pylon, while the southern tower is A-shaped and 16 meters high. The suspension cable is made of 102 steel wires. In 1985, city authorities decided to fill in the secondary bed of the Begej river. A dike between two lakes of the former Begej bed was built at the bridge site, and 23 years after being built, Dry Bridge lost its purpose. As of 2008, 23 years since the filling of the river, the bridge still stands, although rusty and in bad condition. City authorities plan to demolish Dry Bridge since it does not have any purpose and for safety reasons. Some residents claim that Dry Bridge has become an ironic symbol of Zrenjanin, and should not be demolished, on the
    6.50
    4 votes
    88
    Fontana Dam

    Fontana Dam

    Fontana Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Little Tennessee River in Swain and Graham counties, North Carolina, USA. The dam is operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority, which built the dam in the early 1940s to accommodate the skyrocketing electricity demands in the Tennessee Valley at the height of World War II. At 480 feet (150 m) high, Fontana is the tallest dam in the Eastern United States, and at the time of its construction, it was the fourth tallest dam in the world. The dam impounds the 10,230-acre (4,140 ha) Fontana Lake, which spreads across a scenic stretch of the Little Tennessee along the southwestern boundary of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The Appalachian Trail crosses the top of the dam. Fontana is named for the now-inundated town of Fontana, a lumber and copper-mining hub once located at the mouth of Eagle Creek. The town's name was derived from the Italian word for "fountain." The Little Tennessee River flows for 135 miles (217 km) from its source in the mountains of northern Georgia to its mouth along the Tennessee River opposite Lenoir City, Tennessee. Fontana is located 61 miles (98 km) above the mouth of the Little Tennessee, in a remote area
    6.50
    4 votes
    89
    Nurek Dam

    Nurek Dam

    The Nurek Dam (Tajik: Нерӯгоҳи обии Норак, Nerūgohi obii Norak, Tajiki for Nurek Hydro-electric Station) is an earth fill embankment dam on the Vakhsh River in the central Asian nation of Tajikistan. Construction of the dam began in 1961 and was completed in 1980, when Tajikistan was still a republic within the Soviet Union. At 300 m (984 ft) it is currently the tallest dam in the world. The Rogun Dam, also along the Vakhsh also in Tajikistan, may exceed it if completed. The Nurek Dam was constructed by the Soviet Union between the years of 1961 and 1980. It is uniquely constructed, with a central core of cement forming an impermeable barrier within a 300 m (980 ft)-high rock and earth fill construction. The volume of the mound is 54 million m³. The dam includes nine hydroelectric generating units, the first commissioned in 1972 and the last in 1979. The dam is located in a deep gorge along the Vakhsh River in western Tajikistan, about 75 km (47 mi) east of the nation's capital of Dushanbe. A town near the dam, also called Nurek, houses engineers and other workers employed at the dam's power plant. A total of nine hydroelectric Francis turbines are installed in the Nurek Dam.
    6.50
    4 votes
    90
    Sapperton Canal Tunnel

    Sapperton Canal Tunnel

    The Sapperton Canal Tunnel is a tunnel on the Thames and Severn Canal near Cirencester in Gloucestershire, England. With a length of 3,817 yards it was the longest canal tunnel, and the longest tunnel of any kind, in England from 1789 to 1811. Although the Thames and Severn Canal was authorised by an Act of Parliament on 17 April 1783, the details of the tunnel had not been worked out, and arguments about its size continued for two or three months. Boats on the Severn were trows and were 15 feet (4.6 m) wide, while those on the Thames were Thames barges, which were 12 feet (3.7 m) wide. The only long tunnel in the country at the time was Harecastle Tunnel, which was suitable for narrow boats just 7 feet (2.1 m) wide. A party of Commissioners from the Thames thought that the cost of a wide tunnel would be prohibitive, and that it should be built for narrow-beam boats, with the trows or barges unloading their cargos at each end of the tunnel. By late summer, the decision had been taken to build a broad tunnel, 15 feet (4.6 m) high and 15 feet (4.6 m) wide, and the company advertised for tunnellers in September. The tunnel would be 3,817 yards (3,490 m) long, and was expected to take
    6.50
    4 votes
    91
    Cosgrove aqueduct

    Cosgrove aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Cosgrove aqueduct
    Cosgrove aqueduct is a navigable cast iron trough aqueduct that carries the Grand Union Canal over the River Great Ouse, on the borders between Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire at the northwest margin of Milton Keynes in England. The present structure was built in 1811, to replace a previous brick structure that had failed. When the present structure was erected, it was known as the "Iron Trunk". The structure has two cast iron trough spans, with a single central masonry pier. The abutments were constructed in masonry but have been refaced in brick during the twentieth century. The trough is 15 feet (4.6 m) wide, 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) deep, with a total length of 101 feet (31 m). The canal surface is about 40 feet (12 m) above the surface of the river. There are large approach earthworks about 36 feet (11 m) high above the valley floor and 150 feet (46 m) wide, with a total length of half a mile (800m). The Grand Junction Canal (later absorbed into the Grand Union Canal) required to cross the course of the River Great Ouse, the lowest point between the summits at Tring and Braunston. Initially flights of locks, four at the southeast and five at the northwest, were used to allow
    8.50
    2 votes
    92
    Slateford Aqueduct

    Slateford Aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Slateford Aqueduct
    The Slateford Aqueduct is a navigable aqueduct in Slateford, Edinburgh, Scotland. It was built by Hugh Baird and completed in 1822 with advice from Thomas Telford. It has eight arches, is 600 feet (180 m) long and 60 feet (18 m) tall, and carries the Union Canal across Inglis Green Road and the Water of Leith at Longstone (just at the edge of Slateford) in south-west Edinburgh. The canal runs over a contour line of 73m and is very popular with cyclists and dogwalkers.
    8.50
    2 votes
    93
    Willis Tower

    Willis Tower

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Sears Tower
    Willis Tower (formerly named and still commonly referred to as Sears Tower) is a 108-story, 1,451-foot (442 m) skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. At the time of its completion in 1973, it was the tallest building in the world, surpassing the World Trade Center towers in New York, and it held this rank for nearly 25 years. The Willis Tower is the tallest building in the United States and the seventh-tallest freestanding structure in the world. The skyscraper is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Chicago, and over one million people visit its observation deck each year. Although Sears' naming rights expired in 2003, the building continued to be called the Sears Tower for several years. In March 2009, London-based insurance broker Willis Group Holdings agreed to lease a portion of the building, and obtained the building's naming rights. On July 16, 2009, the building was officially renamed the Willis Tower. On August 13, 2012, United Airlines announced it will be moving its corporate headquarters from 77 West Wacker Drive to the Willis Tower. In 1969, Sears, Roebuck & Co. was the largest retailer in the world, with approximately 350,000 employees. Sears executives decided
    8.50
    2 votes
    94
    30 St Mary Axe

    30 St Mary Axe

    • Projects: Design and Construction of 30 St Mary Axe
    30 St Mary Axe (formerly the Swiss Re Building, and informally also known as "the Gherkin") is a skyscraper in London's financial district, the City of London, completed in December 2003 and opened at the end of May 2004. With 41 floors, the tower is 180 metres (591 ft) tall, and stands on the site of the former Baltic Exchange, which was extensively damaged in 1992 by the explosion of a bomb placed by the Provisional IRA. After the plans to build the Millennium Tower were dropped, 30 St Mary Axe was designed by Norman Foster and Arup engineers, and was erected by Skanska in 2001–2003. The building has become an iconic symbol of London and is one of the city's most widely recognised examples of modern architecture. The building stands on the former site of the Baltic Exchange, the headquarters of a global marketplace for ship sales and shipping information. On 10 April 1992 the Provisional IRA detonated a bomb close to the Exchange, causing extensive damage to the historic building and neighbouring structures. The United Kingdom government's statutory adviser on the historic environment, English Heritage, and the City of London governing body, the City of London Corporation, were
    7.33
    3 votes
    95
    Akosombo Dam

    Akosombo Dam

    The Akosombo Dam (also referred to as the Akosombo Hydroelectric Project), is a hydroelectric dam on the Volta River in southeastern Ghana in the Akosombo gorge and part of the Volta River Authority. The construction of the dam flooded part of the Volta River Basin, and the subsequent creation of Lake Volta. Lake Volta is the world's largest man-made lake, covering 8,502 square kilometres (3,283 sq mi), which is 3.6% of Ghana's land area. The primary purpose of the Akosombo Dam was to provide electricity for the aluminum industry. The Akosombo Dam was called "the largest single investment in the economic development plans of Ghana." Its original electrical output was 912 MW, which was upgraded to 1,020 MW in a retrofit project that was completed in 2006. The flooding that created the Lake Volta reservoir displaced many people and had a significant impact on the environment. The dam was conceived in 1915 by geologist Albert Ernest Kitson, but no plans were drawn until the 1940s. The development of the Volta River Basin was proposed in 1949, but because there was not sufficient funds, the American company Volta Aluminum Company (Valco) loaned money to Ghana so that the dam could be
    7.33
    3 votes
    96
    Engine Arm

    Engine Arm

    The Engine Arm or Birmingham Feeder Arm near Smethwick, West Midlands, England, is a short canal built by Thomas Telford in 1825 to carry water from Rotton Park Reservoir (now called Edgbaston Reservoir) to the Old Main Line of the BCN Main Line Canal. The nearby Smethwick Engine (1779) was built to pump water from below the six locks (Smethwick flight) at the eastern end of the Smethwick Summit back to the summit level. Another engine at the western end reclaimed water from use at the Spon Lane locks. In the 1780s, a cutting was constructed by John Smeaton, enabling three of the six locks on each side of the Smethwick Summit to be removed. When, in the 1820s, Thomas Telford cut his deeper, straighter New Main Line of the Birmingham Canal it ran close to the existing James Brindley and John Smeaton Old Main Line near Smethwick Summit. The Engine Arm was built to bring water from Rotton Park Reservoir and also to connect the Smethwick Engine, which was used to pump water from the Birmingham Level of the canal to the Smethwick Summit (Wolverhampton Level) of the Old Main Line. The Engine Arm was made navigable in 1830 between the Smethwick Summit of the Old Main Line canal and Engine
    7.33
    3 votes
    97
    Maidenhead Railway Bridge

    Maidenhead Railway Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Maidenhead Railway Bridge
    Maidenhead Railway Bridge (aka Maidenhead Viaduct, The Sounding Arch) is a railway bridge carrying the main line of the Great Western Railway over the River Thames between Maidenhead, Berkshire and Taplow, Buckinghamshire, England. It crosses the Thames on the reach between Bray Lock and Boulter's Lock at the downstream end of Guards Club Island. The bridge was designed by the Great Western's engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, and it was completed in 1838, but not brought into use until 1 July 1839. Brunel's first plan envisaged a triple-arch viaduct, but he then developed the design that is still used today. The railway is carried across the river on two brick arches, which at the time of building were the widest and flattest in the world. Each span is 128 feet (39 m), with a rise of only 24 feet (7 m). The flatness of the arches was necessary to avoid putting a "hump" in the bridge, which would have gone against Brunel's obsession with flat, gentle gradients (1 in 1,320 on this stretch). The Thames towpath passes under the right-hand arch (facing upstream), which is also known as the Sounding Arch, because of its spectacular echo. It has been claimed that the board of the Great
    7.33
    3 votes
    98
    Columbia Station

    Columbia Station

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Columbia Station
    Columbia Station is located in the short underground section of the Expo Line in New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada. It is a part of Metro Vancouver's SkyTrain rapid transit system, and one of two transfer points to the newer Millennium Line. Columbia Station is located near the corner of 4th Street and Carnarvon Street in New Westminster, and is named after Columbia Street one block south. The station was built horizontally on a slope, so that the inbound platform in the north is underground while the outbound platform in the south is predominantly at grade. The track at both ends of the station dips underground below Clarkson Street. Columbia Station was built between 1988 and 1989, and served as the system’s temporary terminus (replacing New Westminster Station) until it was extended to Scott Road the following year, following the completion of the Skybridge. During planning and construction, it was known as 4th Street Station. Originally, the station served as a secondary transfer point for regional buses from Port Moody, Coquitlam, and Port Coquitlam. After the opening of Millennium Line in 2002, the station became a major transfer point between the two SkyTrain lines
    7.00
    3 votes
    99
    Eguzon dam

    Eguzon dam

    The Eguzon dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Creuse River in central France. Construction took place from 1922 to 1926 and, at the time, was the largest dam in Europe. The dam is 61 metres high and 300 metres across, with the thickness varying from 54 metres at the base to 5 metres at the top. The water behind the dam creates the Eguzon Lake (also known as the Chambon Lake) which, at 312 hectares, is the largest body of water in the region, and is popular with watersports enthusiasts. Electricity generation is via six valves, with a power of 12 MW each, giving an annual electricity production of 101 million kWh.
    7.00
    3 votes
    100
    Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

    Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
    The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct (Welsh pronunciation: [ˌpɔntkəˈsəɬtɛ], full name in Welsh: Traphont Ddŵr Pontcysyllte) is a navigable aqueduct that carries the Llangollen Canal over the valley of the River Dee in Wrexham County Borough in north east Wales. Completed in 1805, it is the longest and highest aqueduct in Britain, a Grade I Listed Building and a World Heritage Site. When the bridge was built it linked the villages of Froncysyllte, at the southern end of the bridge in the Cysyllte township of Llangollen parish (from where it takes its name), and Trevor, at the northern end of the bridge in the Trevor Isaf township of Llangollen parish. Both townships were later transferred to Wrexham County Borough following local government reorganisation. The name is in the Welsh language and means "Cysyllte Bridge". For most of its existence it was known as Pont y Cysyllte ("Bridge of Cysyllte"). Other translations such as "Bridge of the Junction" or "The Bridge that links" are modern, and incorrect, inventions, from the literal English translation of cysyllte being "junctions" or "links". The aqueduct, built by Thomas Telford and William Jessop, is 1,007 ft (307 m) long, 11 ft (3.4 m) wide
    7.00
    3 votes
    101
    Keban Dam

    Keban Dam

    The Keban Dam (Turkish: Keban Barajı) is a hydroelectric dam on the Euphrates, located in the Elazığ Province of Turkey. The dam was the first and uppermost of several large-scale dams to be built on the Euphrates by Turkey. Although the Keban Dam was not originally constructed as a part of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), it is now a fully integrated component of the project, which aims to stimulate economic development in Southeastern Turkey. Construction of the dam commenced in 1966 and was completed in 1974. Keban Dam Lake (Turkish: Keban Baraj Gölü), the reservoir created by Keban Dam, has a surface area of 675 square kilometres (261 sq mi) and is reputedly the fourth-largest lake in Turkey after Lake Van, Lake Tuz, and the reservoir created by the Atatürk Dam. Construction of the Keban Dam was first proposed in 1936 by the newly established Electric Affairs Survey Administration, but not started before 1966. Construction was carried out by the French-Italian consortium SCI-Impreglio and completed in 1974. Estimates of the total construction cost vary between US$85 million and US$300 million. At that time, archaeological rescue missions had also been carried out at
    6.00
    4 votes
    102
    Rotherhithe Tunnel

    Rotherhithe Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Rotherhithe Tunnel
    The Rotherhithe Tunnel is a road tunnel crossing beneath the River Thames in East London. It connects the Ratcliff district of Limehouse in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets north of the river to Rotherhithe in the London Borough of Southwark south of the river. It is designated as the A101. It was formally opened in 1908 by George Prince of Wales (later King George V), and Richard Robinson, Chairman of the London County Council. It should not be confused with the nearby but earlier and much more historic Thames Tunnel, designed and built under the supervision of Marc Isambard Brunel and his son Isambard Kingdom Brunel, which is currently used by London Overground for the East London Line. Designed by Sir Maurice Fitzmaurice, the Engineer to the London County Council, the tunnel's construction was authorised by the Thames Tunnel (Rotherhithe and Ratcliff) Act of 1900 despite considerable opposition from local residents, nearly 3,000 of whom were displaced by the tunnel works. The work took place between 1904 and 1908, executed by the resident engineer Edward H. Tabor and the contractors Price and Reeves at a cost of about £1 million. The tunnel was excavated partly using a
    6.00
    4 votes
    103
    Statue of Liberty

    Statue of Liberty

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Statue of Liberty
    The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886. The statue, a gift to the United States from the people of France, is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue is an icon of freedom and of the United States: a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad. Bartholdi was inspired by French law professor and politician Édouard René de Laboulaye, who commented in 1865 that any monument raised to American independence would properly be a joint project of the French and American peoples. Due to the troubled political situation in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the Americans provide the pedestal and the site. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm
    6.00
    4 votes
    104
    Store Street Aqueduct

    Store Street Aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Store Street Aqueduct
    The Store Street Aqueduct in central Manchester, England was built in 1798 by Benjamin Outram on the Ashton Canal. A Grade II* listed building it is built on a skew of 45 degrees across Store Street, and is believed to be the first major aqueduct of its kind in Great Britain and the oldest still in use today. The aqueduct was constructed to cross the Shooters Brook. It is built of stone with large voussoirs and retaining walls of coursed masonry and is 7.4 metres (24 ft) wide with triangular buttresses. The brook was culverted in about 1805 and Store Street was built over it. The canal is about 4.6 metres (15 ft) wide and 1.45 metres (4 ft 9 in) deep. The arch has a 7.6-metre (25 ft) square span and a 10.5-metre (34 ft) skew span rising 2.75 metres (9 ft 0 in) above road level. Generally, where a canal (or later a railway) crossed a road, or vice versa, the road would be diverted to cross at right angles. It had not always been acceptable but attempts to build masonry arch bridges at an angle, or "skew" of greater than about 15 degrees, had proved unsatisfactory. The method up to that time had been to build the voussoir arch with the stone course work parallel to the abutments.
    6.00
    4 votes
    105
    Sydney Opera House

    Sydney Opera House

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Sydney Opera House
    The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was conceived and largely built by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, opening in 1973 after a long gestation that had begun with his competition-winning design in 1957. Joseph Cahill's New South Wales Government gave the go-ahead for work to begin in 1958. The government's bold decision to select Utzon's design is often overshadowed by the scandal that followed. The Sydney Opera House was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 28 June 2007. It is one of the 20th century's most distinctive buildings and one of the most famous performing arts centres in the world. The Sydney Opera House is on Bennelong Point in Sydney Harbour, close to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. It sits at the northeastern tip of the Sydney central business district (the CBD), surrounded on three sides by the harbour (Sydney Cove and Farm Cove) and inland by the Royal Botanic Gardens. Contrary to its name, the building houses multiple performance venues. The Sydney Opera House is among the busiest performing arts centres in the world, hosting over 1,500 performances each year attended by some 1.2 million people. It
    6.00
    4 votes
    106
    Avon Bridge

    Avon Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Avon Bridge
    The Avon Bridge is a railway bridge over the River Avon in Brislington, Bristol, England. It was built in 1839 by Isambard Kingdom Brunel has been designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building. The bridge carries the Great Western Main Line into Bristol Temple Meads railway station over the River Avon, approximately 300 metres (980 ft) west (downstream) of Netham Weir.
    8.00
    2 votes
    107
    Chirk Aqueduct

    Chirk Aqueduct

    • Projects: Construction of Chirk Aqueduct
    Chirk Aqueduct is a 70-foot (21 m) high and 710-foot (220 m) long navigable aqueduct that carries what is now the Llangollen Canal across the Ceiriog Valley near Chirk, on the England-Wales border. The aqueduct was designed by Thomas Telford for the Ellesmere Canal and completed in 1801. It possesses a cast iron trough within which the water is contained. The masonry walls effectively hide the cast iron interior. The aqueduct followed Telford's innovative Longdon-on-Tern Aqueduct on the Shrewsbury Canal, and was a forerunner of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct also on the Llangollen Canal. Telford pioneered the use of cast iron in bridges as well as aqueducts, and cast iron troughs were widely used elsewhere on the British canal network, especially where a secure and watertight crossing or bridge was needed. Another famous example is the Cosgrove Aqueduct on the Grand Junction Canal at Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire. The aqueduct consists of ten arches, each with a span of 40 feet (12 m). The water level is 65 feet (20 m) above the ground and 70 feet (21 m) above the River Ceiriog. The first stone was laid on 17 June 1796. William Hazledine provided the ironwork for the aqueduct. Side
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    El Cajón Dam

    El Cajón Dam

    The El Cajón Dam (Spanish: Dique El Cajón) is a dam in Córdoba, Argentina, near Capilla del Monte. It is built on the course of the Dolores River, at about 910 m (2,986 ft) MSL. The wall of the dam is 39 m (128 ft) tall, and creates a reservoir with a surface area of 1.45–1.8 km (0.6–0.7 sq mi) and a volume of 8,000,000 m (280,000,000 cu ft). El Cajón was built between 1987 and 1993. It is made of concrete and lies on granite terrain. The dam is used as a reservoir of fresh water, to regulate the flow of the river, for fishing (carp and silverside), sailing, canoeing, and windsurfing. The dam cost a total of approximately US$800 million to construct.
    8.00
    2 votes
    109
    Millau Viaduct

    Millau Viaduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Millau Viaduct
    The Millau Viaduct (French: le Viaduc de Millau, IPA: [vjadyk də mijo]) is a cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the river Tarn near Millau in southern France. Designed by the French structural engineer Michel Virlogeux and British architect Norman Foster, it is the tallest bridge in the world with one mast's summit at 343.0 metres (1,125 ft) above the base of the structure. It is the 12th highest bridge deck in the world, being 270 metres (890 ft) between the road deck and the ground below. The viaduct is part of the A75-A71 autoroute axis from Paris to Montpellier. Construction cost was approximately €400 million. It was formally dedicated on 14 December 2004, inaugurated on the 15th, and opened to traffic on the 16th. The bridge received the 2006 IABSE Outstanding Structure Award. Problems with traffic on the route from Paris to Spain along the stretch passing through the valley near the town of Millau, especially during the summer when the roads became jammed with holiday traffic, necessitated the building of a bridge across the valley. The first plans were discussed in 1987 by CETE, and by October 1991 the decision was made to build a high crossing of the Tarn
    8.00
    2 votes
    110
    Paddington station

    Paddington station

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Paddington station
    Paddington railway station, also known as London Paddington, is a central London railway terminus and London Underground complex. The site is a historic one, having served as the London terminus of the Great Western Railway and its successors since 1838. Much of the current mainline station dates from 1854, and was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The site was first served by Underground trains in 1863, as the original western terminus of the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground railway. The complex has recently been modernised, and now has an additional role as the London terminal for the dedicated Heathrow Express airport service. Paddington is in Travelcard Zone 1. The station is the terminus for services from Reading, Bristol, Cardiff, Swansea, Oxford, Newbury, Taunton, Exeter, Plymouth, Penzance, Cheltenham, Worcester and Hereford, as well as for various inner and outer suburban services. The station complex is bounded at the front by Praed Street and at the rear by Bishop's Bridge Road, which crosses the throat of the mainline station on the recently replaced Bishop's Bridge. On the west side of the station is Eastbourne Terrace, while the east side is
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    Wapping Tunnel

    Wapping Tunnel

    • Projects: Construction of Wapping Tunnel
    Wapping or Edge Hill Tunnel in Liverpool, England, was constructed to enable goods services to operate between Liverpool docks and Manchester, and all points between, as part of the planned Liverpool and Manchester Railway. It was the first tunnel in the world to be bored under a metropolis. The tunnel is 6,660 feet (2,030 m) m long, and runs downhill from Edge Hill cutting, near the Crown Street Station goods yard in the east of the city, to Park Lane Goods Station near Wapping Dock. It now passes beneath the Merseyrail Northern Line approximately a quarter of a mile south of Central Station. The original proposal for the railway out of Liverpool ran north along the docks, but this route proved very unpopular with local landowners. The new route required considerable engineering works in addition to the tunnel. The 1 in 48 gradient was much too steep for the steam locomotives of the day. A stationary steam engine was installed at Edge Hill cutting in a short tunnel bored into the rock near the Moorish Arch to haul goods wagons by rope up from the Park Lane good station at the south end docks. The goods wagons were connected to locomotives at Edge Hill for the continuing journey to
    8.00
    2 votes
    112
    Embassy of the United States in London

    Embassy of the United States in London

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Embassy of the United States in London
    The Embassy of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's has been located since 1960 in the American Embassy London Chancery Building, in Grosvenor Square, Westminster, London. The London embassy is the largest American embassy in Western Europe, and is the focal point for events relating to the United States held in the United Kingdom. The first American Embassy in London was situated in Great Cumberland Place, later moving to Piccadilly, Portland Place and Grosvenor Gardens. In 1938, the embassy was moved to 1 Grosvenor Square (which now hosts part of the Canadian High Commission). During this time, Grosvenor Square began to accommodate many U.S. government offices, including the headquarters of General Dwight D. Eisenhower and the European headquarters of the United States Navy. Following World War II, the Duke of Westminster donated land for a memorial to wartime President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The American Embassy London Chancery Building was constructed in the late 1950s, opening in 1960. It was designed by Finnish American modernist architect Eero Saarinen. The building has nine stories, three of which are below ground. A large gilded aluminum Bald Eagle by
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Eupalinian aqueduct

    Eupalinian aqueduct

    The Tunnel of Eupalinos or Eupalinian aqueduct (Modern Greek: Efpalinio orygma, Ευπαλίνειο όρυγμα) is a tunnel of 1,036 m (3,399 ft) length in Samos, Greece, built in the 6th century BC to serve as an aqueduct. The tunnel is the second known tunnel in history which was excavated from both ends (Ancient Greek: αμφίστομον, amphistomon, "having two openings"), and the first with a geometry-based approach in doing so. Today it is a popular tourist attraction. In the sixth century BC, Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates. During his reign, two groups working under the direction of the engineer Eupalinos from Megara dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos (today called Pythagoreion) with fresh water. This was of utmost defensive importance, as the aqueduct ran underground it was not easily found by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the water supply. The Eupalinian aqueduct was used for a thousand years, as proved from archaeological findings. It was rediscovered in 1882-1884 and today is open to visitors. The Eupalinian aqueduct or ditch, is cited by Herodotus (Histories 3.60), without whom it would not have been
    9.00
    1 votes
    114
    George Massey Tunnel

    George Massey Tunnel

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of George Massey Tunnel
    The George Massey Tunnel (often referred to simply as the Massey Tunnel) is a highway traffic tunnel in the Metro Vancouver region of southwestern British Columbia. It is located approximately 20 km (12 mi) south of the city centre of Vancouver, British Columbia, and approximately 30 km (20 mi) north of the Canada-U.S. Border at Blaine, Washington. Construction, costing approximately $25 million, began on the tunnel in March 1957, and it was opened to traffic on May 23, 1959, as the Deas Island Tunnel. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II attended the official opening ceremony of the tunnel on July 15, 1959. It carries a four lane divided highway under the south arm of the Fraser River estuary, joining the City of Richmond to the north with the Corporation of Delta (a municipality) to the south. It is the only road tunnel below sea level in Canada, making its roadway the lowest road surface in Canada. The tunnel forms part of Highway 99. It is named for Nehamiah "George" Massey, a former Member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. He represented Delta between 1956 and 1960, and was a long-time advocate of a permanent crossing to replace an existing ferry that crossed the
    9.00
    1 votes
    115
    Golden Gate Bridge

    Golden Gate Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge
    The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. As part of both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1, the structure links the city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to Marin County. It is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and the United States. It has been declared one of the modern Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommers travel guide considers the Golden Gate Bridge "possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world". Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. Ferry service began as early as 1820, with regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for purposes of transporting water to San Francisco. The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service, launched in 1867, eventually became the Golden Gate Ferry Company, a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s. Once for
    9.00
    1 votes
    116
    Grande Dixence Dam

    Grande Dixence Dam

    The Grande Dixence Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Dixence River at the head of the Val d'Hérens in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. At 285 m (935 ft) high, it is the tallest gravity dam in the world and is part of the Cleuson-Dixence Complex. With the primary purpose of hydroelectric power generation, the dam fuels four power stations, totaling the installed capacity to 2,069 MW, generating approximately 2,000 GWh annually, enough to power 400,000 Swiss households. The dam withholds Lac des Dix (Lake Dix), its reservoir. With a surface area of 4 km², it is the second largest lake in Valais and the largest lake above 2,000 m in the Alps. The reservoir receives its water from four different pumping stations; the Z’Mutt, Stafel, Ferpècle and Arolla. At peak capacity, it contains approximately 400,000,000 m (1.4×10 cu ft) of water, with depths reaching up to 284 m (932 ft). Construction on the dam began in 1950 and was completed in 1964, before officially commissioning in 1965. In 1922, Energie Ouest Suisse (EOS) became established with a few small power stations. To generate substantial amount of electricity, EOS looked to the Valais canton which contains 56% of
    9.00
    1 votes
    117
    Katse Dam

    Katse Dam

    The Katse Dam, a concrete arch dam on the Malibamat'so River in Lesotho, is Africa's second largest dam. (The Tekezé Dam, completed in early 2009, is now Africa's largest double curvature dam). The dam is part of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, which will eventually include five large dams in remote rural areas. The potential of the project was identified by the South African civil engineer Ninham Shand (now Aurecon) as a possible means to supplement the water supply to South Africa. The World Bank arranged for a treaty between the then-Apartheid government of South Africa and its much smaller neighbor, Lesotho, allowing execution of the project to proceed. The dam was built by a consortium of Bouygues, Concor, Group 5, Hochtief, Impregilo, Kier Group and Sterling International. The dam was completed in 1996 and the reservoir filled with water by 1997. The mass of water gave rise to induced seismicity. Farmers who lost land to the project have had trouble re-establishing new livelihoods. There is little arable land in the mountains to replace all that was lost, and efforts to help them with new livelihoods have by no means been as successful as the engineering works. A local
    9.00
    1 votes
    118
    Latyan Dam

    Latyan Dam

    Latyan Dam (Persian: سد لتيان sad-de latyān) is a dam located less than 25 km from Tehran. It is one of the main sources of water for Tehran metropolitan region. Jajrood River basin is located in the southern part of central Alborz mountain range, the rocks of which date from the Palaeozoic era up to the Quaternary period, as below:
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Papplewick Pumping Station

    Papplewick Pumping Station

    Papplewick Pumping Station, in the Nottinghamshire village of Papplewick, was built by Nottingham Corporation Water Department between 1881 and 1884 to pump water from the Bunter sandstone to provide drinking water to the City of Nottingham, in England. Two beam engines, supplied with steam by six Lancashire boilers, were housed in Gothic Revival buildings. Apart from changes to the boiler grates, the equipment remained in its original form until the station was decommissioned in 1969, when it was replaced by four submersible electric pumps. A Trust was formed in 1974 to conserve the site as a static museum, but the plans soon developed to include the refurbishment and regular steaming of the engines. One of the beam engines was operated in 1975, using the only boiler that was certified to be safe at the time. Since then, the second engine has been reconditioned, and both are steamed several times a year. New visitor facilities were built in 1991, and a major restoration of the structures was completed in 2005, following a grant of £1.6 million by the Heritage Lottery Fund. As well as the beam engines, the site houses several other engines, which are also demonstrated on steam
    9.00
    1 votes
    120
    Canary Wharf tube station

    Canary Wharf tube station

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Canary Wharf tube station
    Canary Wharf tube station is a London Underground station on the Jubilee Line, between Canada Water and North Greenwich. It is in Travelcard Zone 2 and was opened by Ken Livingstone setting an escalator in motion on 17 September 1999 as part of the Jubilee Line Extension. It is maintained by Tube Lines. Over 40 million people pass through the station each year, making it not only the busiest station on the London Underground outside Central London but also the busiest that serves only a single line. (The DLR station is completely separate.) Before the arrival of the Jubilee Line, London's Docklands had suffered from relatively poor public transport. Although the Docklands Light Railway station at Canary Wharf had been operating since 1987, by 1990 it was obvious that the DLR's capacity would soon be reached. The Jubilee Line's routing through Canary Wharf was intended to relieve some of this pressure. The tube station was intended from the start to be the showpiece of the Jubilee Line Extension, and the contract for its design was awarded in 1990 to the renowned architect Sir Norman Foster. It was constructed, by a Tarmac Construction / Bachy UK Joint Venture, in a drained arm of
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    Cassiar Tunnel

    Cassiar Tunnel

    The Cassiar Connector is a highway traffic tunnel on the Trans-Canada Highway. It is located in the north-east corner of Vancouver, British Columbia, near the Vancouver-Burnaby border. Travelling northward, the tunnel begins underneath Adanac Street, passing under the interchange between East Hastings Street and the Highway 1 offramps. It ends underneath Triumph Street, with the highway continuing north to the McGill Street interchange (to the Port of Vancouver) and the Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing towards the District of North Vancouver. The tunnel is 730 metres long. In 1959, the Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing (known at the time as the Second Narrows Bridge) was opened to traffic. This was followed in 1964 by the completion of the Trans Canada Highway. However, the portion of the highway passing through Vancouver was not built to highway standards. Instead, it used an existing portion of Cassiar Street, including the intersection of Cassiar and Hastings Street. This meant that traffic on the highway was controlled by a traffic light, contributing to congestion especially during peak periods. The Cassiar Connector was completed in January 1992; at the
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    Kilburn Dam

    Kilburn Dam

    The Kilburn Dam, part of the Tugela-Vaal Water Project and Drakensberg Pumped Storage Scheme, is located 500 metres (1,600 ft) lower than the Sterkfontein Dam, on the Mnjaneni River, near Bergville, KwaZulu-Natal, province of South Africa. The dam was commissioned in 1981, has a capacity of 35,577 cubic metres (1,256,400 cu ft), and a surface area of 1.947 square kilometres (0.752 sq mi), the dam wall is 51 metres (167 ft) high.
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Petronas Twin Towers

    Petronas Twin Towers

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Petronas Twin Towers
    The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas) are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the CTBUH's official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 until surpassed by Taipei 101. The buildings are the landmark of Kuala Lumpur with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower. Designed by Argentine architect César Pelli and Filipino-Malaysian Engineer Deejay Cerico under the consultancy of J. C. Guinto, and Filipino Designer Dominic "Minick" Saibo, planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed, beginning with excavators digging down 30 metres (98 ft) below the surface of the site on 1 March 1993. The work required moving over 500 truckloads of earth every night. The next stage was the single largest and longest concrete pour in Malaysian history. 13,200 cubic metres (470,000 cu ft) of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. This record-breaking slab with 104 piles forms the foundation for each
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    Seagram Building

    Seagram Building

    The Seagram Building is a skyscraper, located at 375 Park Avenue, between 52nd Street and 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, in collaboration with Philip Johnson. Severud Associates were the structural engineering consultants. The building stands 516 feet tall with 38 stories, and was completed in 1958. It stands as one of the finest examples of the functionalist aesthetic and a masterpiece of corporate modernism. It was designed as the headquarters for the Canadian distillers Joseph E. Seagram's & Sons with the active interest of Phyllis Lambert, the daughter of Samuel Bronfman, Seagram's CEO. This structure, and the International style in which it was built, had enormous influences on American architecture. One of the style's characteristic traits was to express or articulate the structure of buildings externally. It was a style that argued that the functional utility of the building’s structural elements when made visible, could supplant a formal decorative articulation; and more honestly converse with the public than any system of applied ornamentation. A building's structural elements should be visible, Mies thought.
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    Turning Torso

    Turning Torso

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Turning Torso
    HSB Turning Torso is the tallest skyscraper in Sweden and the Nordic countries, situated in Malmö, Sweden, located on the Swedish side of the Öresund strait. Upon completion, it was the tallest building in Scandinavia. Now the third tallest residential building in Europe, after the 264‑metre (866 ft) Triumph Palace in Moscow and the 212‑metre Sky Tower in Wrocław. A similar, taller skyscraper featuring a 90° twist is the Infinity Tower, currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Prior to the construction of Turning Torso, the 86‑metre (282 ft) Kronprinsen had been the city's tallest building. It was designed by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and officially opened on 27 August 2005. The tower reaches a height of 190 metres (623 feet) with 54 stories. The vision of HSB Turning Torso is based on a sculpture called Twisting Torso. The sculpture is a white marble piece based on the form of a twisting human being, created by Santiago Calatrava, a trained sculptor, architect and engineer. In 1999, HSB Malmö's former Managing Director, Johnny Örbäck, saw the sculpture in a brochure which presented Calatrava in connection with his contribution to the
    6.67
    3 votes
    126
    Zhongnanshan Tunnel

    Zhongnanshan Tunnel

    Zhongnanshan Tunnel, or Qinling Zhongnanshan Tunnel (Chinese: 秦岭终南山公路隧道) in Shaanxi province, China, is the longest two-tube road tunnel in the world. It is also the second longest road tunnel overall in the world, after the Lærdal Tunnel in Norway. The 18,040-metre (11.21 mi) long tunnel, crosses under the Zhongnan Mountain (Zhongnanshan). It opened on 20 January 2007, becoming part of the Xi'an-Ankang Highway between the Changan and Zhashui counties. The cost to build the tunnel was 3.2 billion yuan (US$410 million). The maximum embedded depth of the tunnel is 1640 metres below surface level.
    6.67
    3 votes
    127
    Gariep Dam

    Gariep Dam

    Gariep Dam is a dam in South Africa, near the town of Norvalspont, Free State province, South Africa. The Gariep Dam was originally named the Hendrik Verwoerd Dam after the first Prime Minister of the Republic of South Africa Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd on its commission in 1971. However after the end of apartheid the name was considered unsuitable, and the name was officially changed to Gariep Dam on 4 October 1996. Gariep is San for "Great water", and is the original name of the Orange River. The dam is located on the Orange River between the Eastern Cape to the south and the Free State to the north and about 30 km north east of Colesberg. It is situated in a gorge at the entrance to the Ruigte Valley some 5 km east of Norvalspont. The wall is 88 m high and has a crest length of 914 m and contains approximately 1.73 million m³ of concrete. The Gariep Dam is the largest storage reservoir in South Africa. In South African English, dam refers both to the structure and the lake it impounds. Gariep Dam has a total storage capacity of approximately 5,340,000 megalitres (5,340 hm³) and a surface area of more than 370 square kilometres (140 sq mi) when full. The hydro-electrical power
    5.75
    4 votes
    128
    Millennium Line

    Millennium Line

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Millennium Line
    The Millennium Line is the second rapid transit line built in the SkyTrain light metro rapid transit system in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The line is owned and operated by TransLink. Millennium Line uses the colour yellow on route maps, wayfinding and station signage. When the Expo Line opened in 1985, an extension to Lougheed Mall in east Burnaby was proposed. The most likely junction point for the spur to Lougheed Mall would have been from Royal Oak Station, up Edmonds Street to Lougheed Mall, although early SkyTrain route maps also suggested an extension northeast from New Westminster. Neither plan was ever realized, although the extension of Expo Line tracks to Columbia Station in 1989 and the completion of the Skybridge to Surrey in 1988 resulted in a short spur east of Columbia Station, which was ultimately incorporated into the new Millennium Line. In the late 1990s, the British Columbia government announced that an entirely new line would be built from VCC–Clark Station to Columbia Station via Lougheed Mall (served by Lougheed Town Centre Station), as the first phase of the "T-Line" outlined in the GVRD's Livable Region Strategic Plan that extended into
    5.75
    4 votes
    129
    Three Gorges Dam

    Three Gorges Dam

    The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China. The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW) but is second to Itaipu Dam with regard to the generation of electricity annually. Except for a ship lift, the dam project was completed and fully functional as of July 4, 2012, when the last of the main turbines in the underground plant began production. Each main turbine has a capacity of 700 MW. The dam body was completed in 2006. Coupling the dam's 32 main turbines with two smaller generators (50 MW each) to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW. As well as producing electricity, the dam is intended to increase the Yangtze River's shipping capacity and reduce the potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space. The Chinese government regards the project as a historic engineering, social and economic success, with the design of state-of-the-art large turbines, and a move toward limiting greenhouse gas emissions. However, the dam flooded archaeological and
    5.75
    4 votes
    130
    Bureya Dam

    Bureya Dam

    The Bureya Dam (locally referred to as Bureyskaya, Russian: Бурейская ГЭС) is a hydroelectric dam on the Bureya River in the Russian Far East. Bureya hydroelectric power station was built by Bureyagesstroy. Construction started in 1976, but was halted until 1999. In 1999, RAO UES restarted the project. The dam was completed and the first unit was launched in 2003. The construction of the whole complex was completed in 2009. The reservoir reached its specified level during the summer-autumn monsoon season of 2009. It was accompanied with first use of spillways during planned tests. Despite the fact that all primary construction works on power station was completed, it will be officially commenced for exploitation by government commission in 2011. Therefore, officially, the complex is still under construction. Bureya Dam is a gravity dam with height of 139 metres (456 ft) and crest length of 810 metres (2,660 ft). The power station has an installed capacity of 2010 MW, the full capacity. Power is generated by utilizing six turbines, each with a capacity of 335 MW. The facility is owned by RusHydro.
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    Edgbaston Waterworks

    Edgbaston Waterworks

    Edgbaston Waterworks (Edgbaston Pumping Station) (grid reference SP0455386465) lies to the east of Edgbaston Reservoir, two miles west of the centre of Birmingham, England. The buildings were designed by John Henry Chamberlain and William Martin around 1870. The engine house, boiler house, and chimney are Grade II listed buildings. The site is operated by Severn Trent Water. Despite the close proximity to Edgbaston Reservoir there is no current or historical connection of the water. This waterworks manages domestic water supply whereas the reservoir was built to feed the canal system. It has been suggested, but not proven, that the towers of Perrott's Folly and Edgbaston Waterworks may have influenced references to towers in the writings of J. R. R. Tolkien, who lived nearby as a child.
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Forth Bridge

    Forth Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Forth Bridge
    The Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway bridge over the Firth of Forth in the east of Scotland, to the east of the Forth Road Bridge, and 14 kilometres (9 mi) west of central Edinburgh. It was opened on 4 March 1890, and spans a total length of 2,528.7 metres (8,296 ft). It is often called the Forth Rail Bridge or Forth Railway Bridge to distinguish it from the Forth Road Bridge, although it has been called the "Forth Bridge" since its construction, and was for over seventy years the sole claimant to this name. The bridge connects Scotland's capital city, Edinburgh, with Fife, leaving the Lothians at Dalmeny and arriving in Fife at North Queensferry; it acts as a major artery connecting the north-east and south-east of the country. Described by the Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland as "the one immediately and internationally recognised Scottish landmark", it is a Category A listed building and was nominated by the British government in May 2011 for addition to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Scotland. Until 1917, when the Quebec Bridge was completed, the Forth Bridge had the longest single cantilever bridge span in the world. It still has the world's second-longest single span.
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Lipno Dam

    Lipno Dam

    The Lipno Dam ((Czech) přehrada Lipno) is a dam with hydroelectric plant constructed along the Vltava River in the Czech Republic. Due to frequent flooding and subsequent damage, the Vltava River in Southern Bohemia had been problematic for the Český Krumlov and other settlements, through which it flowed. To harness the power of the river, and to prevent continued catastrophe, it was decided that a hydroelectric plant would be built high on the Vltava. Preparatory work at the town of Lipno began in 1951. Construction proper on the dam began in 1952, and the dam was completed in 1960. The stream bed of the Vltava near Lipno was chosen because it has a slight incline, facilitating the construction of a reservoir there. The dam is built along the highest-elevated stage of the Vltava River's cascade (roughly 726 metres above sea level), thus enabling large amounts of hydropower out-put. This area is mountainous, and borders the Šumava National Park and Nature Reserve. A smaller reservoir near Vyšší Brod is linked to the main reservoir by an artificial underground waterway. This smaller reservoir, labeled 'Lipno II', serves to level the water of the main reservoir. Lipno Hydro Power
    7.50
    2 votes
    134
    Monastery of São Vicente de Fora

    Monastery of São Vicente de Fora

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora
    The Church or Monastery of São Vicente de Fora; meaning "Monastery of St. Vincent Outside the Walls" is a 17th century church and monastery in the city of Lisbon, Portugal. It is one of the most important monasteries and mannerist buildings in the country. The monastery also contains the royal pantheon of the Braganza monarchs of Portugal. The original Monastery of São Vicente de Fora was founded around 1147 by the first Portuguese King, Afonso Henriques, for the Augustinian Order. The Monastery, built in Romanesque style outside the city walls, was one of the most important monastic foundations in mediaeval Portugal. It is dedicated to Saint Vincent of Saragossa, patron saint of Lisbon, whose relics were brought from the Algarve to Lisbon in the 12th century. The present buildings are the result of a reconstruction ordered by King Philip II of Spain, who had become King of Portugal (as Philip I) after a succession crisis in 1580. The church of the monastery was built between 1582 and 1629, while other monastery buildings were finished only in the 18th century. The author of the design of the church is thought to be the Italian Jesuit Filippo Terzi and/or the Spaniard Juan de
    7.50
    2 votes
    135
    Queensway Tunnel

    Queensway Tunnel

    The Queensway Tunnel is a road tunnel under the River Mersey, in the north west of England, between Liverpool and Birkenhead. It is often called the Birkenhead Tunnel, to distinguish it from the Kingsway Tunnel, which serves Wallasey. The first tunnel under the River Mersey was for the Mersey Railway in 1886. The first tunnel crossing was proposed in 1825 and, again in 1827. A report in 1830 rejected the road tunnel due to concerns about building damage. During the 1920s there were concerns about the long queues of cars and lorries at the Mersey Ferry terminal so once Royal Assent to a Parliamentary Bill was received construction of the first Mersey Road Tunnel started in 1925, to a design by consulting engineer Sir Basil Mott. Mott supervised the construction in association with John Brodie, who, as City Engineer of Liverpool, had co-ordinated the feasibility studies made by consultant Engineers Mott, Hay and Anderson. The main contractor was Edmund Nuttall. In 1928 the two pilot tunnels met to within less than 25 millimetres (1.0 in). The tunnel entrances, toll booths and ventilation building exteriors were designed by architect Herbert James Rowse, who is frequently but
    7.50
    2 votes
    136
    Wapping Hydraulic Power Station

    Wapping Hydraulic Power Station

    The Wapping Hydraulic Power Station (built 1890) was originally run by the London Hydraulic Power Company in Wapping, London, England. Originally it operated using steam and later it was converted to use electricity. It was used to power machinery, including lifts (elevators), across London. The Tower Subway was used to transfer the power, and steam, to districts south of the river. After its closure as a pumping station in 1977, the building was converted and reopened as an arts centre (the Wapping Project) and restaurant (Wapping Food). Exhibitions are held in the basement and the main ground floor hall houses the restaurant. Some of the original equipment is still in place. The building was designated a grade II* listed building in December 1977. On the opposite side of the road (Wapping Wall) is a notable London public house, The Prospect of Whitby, on the northern bank of the River Thames.
    7.50
    2 votes
    137
    Canada Line

    Canada Line

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Canada Line
    Canada Line is a rapid transit line in the Metro Vancouver region of British Columbia, Canada. Opened in August 2009, it is the third line in TransLink's SkyTrain metro network, servicing Vancouver, Richmond, and the Vancouver International Airport. It is coloured turquoise on route maps. The Canada Line comprises 19.2 kilometres (11.9 mi) of track; the main line goes from Vancouver to Richmond, while a 4 km (2.5 mi) spur line from Bridgeport Station connects to the airport. Originally scheduled to open on November 30, 2009, it opened fifteen weeks ahead of the original schedule, well in advance of the 2010 Winter Olympics in the following February. The Canada Line was anticipated to see 100,000 boardings per day in 2013, and 142,000 boardings per day by 2021, but it has consistently exceeded early targets. Ridership has grown steadily since opening day, with average ridership of 83,000/day in September 2009; 105,000/day in March 2010, and 110,000/day in February 2011. During the 2010 Winter Olympics, the line's ridership increased a further 118 per cent to an average of 228,190 per day over the 17-day event. Governance of the project was through Canada Line Rapid Transit Inc.
    5.50
    4 votes
    138
    Burlington Tunnel

    Burlington Tunnel

    The Burlington Tunnel (also known as the North Avenue Rail Tunnel) is a railroad tunnel located in Burlington, Vermont and is currently owned and operated by the New England Central Railroad (NECR). The tunnel was constructed as part of an eight-mile (13 km) spur connecting Lake Champlain with the main rail route, which passed through Essex Junction. According to the inscription on its southern entrance, the Burlington Tunnel was constructed beginning on 1 November 1860, and completed on 17 May 1861 for a predecessor railroad to the Central Vermont Railway. The tunnel runs in a northeast/southwest curve, while the external approach trackage runs from south to east. The steet overpassing the Burlington Tunnel is North Avenue (Functional classification of 16; Urban Minor Arterial) which has an Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) of about 12,000 vehicles. The Burlington Rail Tunnel, located at Milepost 1.15 of the NECR Winooski spur line, is a 340-foot (100 m) long brick masonry horseshoe shaped tunnel that passes through the sandy ridge supporting North Avenue (Burlington) on a curve of approximately four degrees. North Avenue runs in a north to south direction while the tunnel runs
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    139
    Clyde Tunnel

    Clyde Tunnel

    The Clyde Tunnel is a crossing beneath the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. Two parallel tunnel tubes connect the districts of Whiteinch to the north and Govan to the south in the west of the city. Efforts to improve the transport infrastructure of Glasgow post-World War II were hit by the problem of crossing the Clyde. Downstream of Jamaica Street in the city centre, it was perceived to be impossible to build a bridge due to the prevalence of shipping in what had been the second city of the British Empire still reliant on the sea. The solution — to build a tunnel beneath the river — was not a new one, with the Harbour Tunnel at Finnieston having been built in the 1890s. However, the Clyde Tunnel project was to be built in the boom of the car era and would be a much larger project. It was given the green light in 1948 but financial difficulties prevented work from beginning until 1957. A tunnelling shield, based on Marc Isambard Brunel's design used for the Thames Tunnel a century earlier, was used to dig the two tunnels. The tunnels were cut perfectly circular with the road deck sitting a third of the way up. Under each road deck is the pedestrian/cycle tunnel and ventilation
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    140
    Moffat Tunnel

    Moffat Tunnel

    The Moffat Tunnel is a railroad and water tunnel that cuts through the Continental Divide in north-central Colorado. Named after Colorado railroad pioneer David Moffat, the tunnel's first railroad traffic passed through in February 1928. Fifty miles (80 km) west of Denver, Colorado is the East Portal in the Front Range, about 10 miles (16 km) west of the town of Rollinsville, Colorado at 39°54′08″N 105°38′46″W / 39.90235°N 105.6461°W / 39.90235; -105.6461. The West Portal is near the Winter Park Resort ski area at 39°53′15″N 105°45′41″W / 39.887434°N 105.761347°W / 39.887434; -105.761347. The railroad tunnel is 24 feet (7.3 m) high, 18 feet (5.5 m) wide, and 6.2 miles (10.0 km) long. The apex of the tunnel is at 9,239 feet (2,816 m) above sea level. The Moffat Tunnel finally provided Denver with a western link through the continental divide, as both Cheyenne, Wyoming to the north and Pueblo, Colorado to the south already enjoyed rail access to the West Coast. It follows the right-of-way laid out by Moffat in 1902 while he was seeking a better and shorter route from Denver to Salt Lake City. The water tunnel and the railroad tunnel parallel each other; the water tunnel
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    141
    Spioenkop Dam

    Spioenkop Dam

    Spioenkop Dam' impounds the Tugela River in KwaZulu-Natal. It is located within a nature reserve by the same name. The dam was commissioned in 1973, has a capacity of 272,265 cubic metres (9,614,900 cu ft), and a surface area of 15.314 square kilometres (5.913 sq mi), the dam wall is 53 metres (174 ft) high. Spion Kop (hill) is located 2.5 km to the north of the dam.
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    142
    St Enoch railway station

    St Enoch railway station

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of St Enoch railway station
    St Enoch station was a mainline railway station in the city of Glasgow, Scotland between 1876 and 1966. It was demolished in 1977. Located on St Enoch Square in the city centre, it was opened by the City of Glasgow Union Railway, in 1876. The first passenger train stopped there on 1 May 1876 and the official opening took place on 17 October 1876. In 1883 it was taken over by the Glasgow and South Western Railway (G&SWR) and it became their head quarters. Services ran to most parts of the G&SWR system, including Ayr, Dumfries, Carlisle, Kilmarnock and Stranraer. In partnership with the Midland Railway, through services also ran to England, using the Settle and Carlisle Railway from Carlisle to Leeds, Sheffield, Derby and London St Pancras. It was the site of a rail crash in 1903 in which 16 passengers were killed and 64 injured when a train overran the buffers. In the 1923 grouping it was taken over and then operated by the London Midland and Scottish Railway. After the nationalisation of the United Kingdom rail network, the station was run by British Railways. It was a large station with 12 platforms and two impressive semi-cylindrical glass/iron roofed train sheds. The station was
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    3 votes
    143
    World Trade Center

    World Trade Center

    • Projects: Design and construction of the World Trade Center
    The World Trade Center is a site for various buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The original World Trade Center was a complex of seven buildings. It featured landmark twin towers, which opened on April 4, 1973 and were destroyed in the September 11 attacks of 2001. The other buildings in the complex were damaged in the attacks and eventually destroyed. The site is being rebuilt with five new skyscrapers and a memorial to the casualties of the attacks. As of November 2011, only one skyscraper has been completed; the other four are expected to be completed before 2020. One World Trade Center will be the lead building for the new complex, reaching more than 100 stories at its completion. It became the tallest building in New York City on April 30, 2012, and is expected to be finished by 2013. A sixth tower is awaiting confirmation. At the time of their completion, the original 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower) and 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower), known collectively as the Twin Towers, were the tallest buildings in the world. The other buildings included 3 WTC (the Marriott World Trade Center), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC (which housed United States
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    144
    Atatürk Dam

    Atatürk Dam

    The Atatürk Dam (Turkish: Atatürk Barajı), originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam with a central core on the Euphrates River on the border of Adıyaman Province and Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Built both to generate electricity and to irrigate the plains in the region, it was renamed in honour of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–1938), the founder of the Turkish Republic. The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after the upfilling of the reservoir was completed in 1992, are operated by the State Hydraulic Works (DSİ). The reservoir created behind the dam, called Lake Atatürk Dam (Turkish: Atatürk Baraj Gölü), is the third largest in Turkey. The dam is situated 23 km (14 mi) northwest of Bozova, Şanlıurfa Province, on state road D.875 from Bozova to Adıyaman. Centerpiece of the 22 dams on the Euphrates and the Tigris, which comprise the integrated, multi-sector, Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: Güney Doğu Anadolu Projesi, known as GAP), it is one of the world's largest dams. The Atatürk Dam, one of the five operational dams on the Euphrates as of
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    145
    Bhakra Dam

    Bhakra Dam

    Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River, and is near the border between Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in northern India. The dam, located at a gorge near the (now submerged) upstream Bhakra village in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh, is India's second tallest at 225.55 m (740 ft) high next to the 261m Tehri Dam. The length of the dam (measured from the road above it) is 518.25 m; it is 9.1 m broad. Its reservoir, known as the "Gobind Sagar", stores up to 9.34 billion cubic meters of water, enough to drain the whole of Chandigarh, parts of Haryana, Punjab and Delhi. The 90 km long reservoir created by the Bhakra Dam is spread over an area of 168.35 km. In terms of storage of water, it withholds the second largest reservoir in India, the first being Indira Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh with capacity of 12.22 billion cu m. Described as 'New Temple of Resurgent India' by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, the dam attracts tourists from all over India. Nangal dam is another dam downstream of Bhakra dam. Sometimes both the dams together are called Bhakra-Nangal dam though they are two separate dams. The Bhakra-Nangal multipurpose dams were among
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    146
    Bruce Tunnel

    Bruce Tunnel

    The Bruce Tunnel is on the summit pound of the Kennet and Avon Canal between Wootton Top Lock and Crofton Locks in Wiltshire, England. This is the only tunnel on the canal and it is 502 yards (459 m) long. It is named after Thomas Brudenell-Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury (1729–1814), the local landowner, who, when the canal was being built, would not allow a deep cutting through his land, and insisted on a tunnel instead. At the eastern end of the tunnel is a plaque commemorating its construction: The tunnel has red brick portals, capped with Bath Stone, each with a decorative stone plaque of Bristol Pennant Limestone. The tunnel was begun 1806, finished 1809. It is lined with English bond brickwork and has a wide bore to cope with the 'Newbury Barges' used on this canal. There is no towpath through the tunnel, and walkers and cyclists must walk across the top of the hill. When canal boats were still pulled by horses, the boatmen had to haul boats through the tunnel by hand, pulling on chains that ran along the inside walls. Above the tunnel is the Savernake Forest which is open to the public with footpaths, drives and picnic sites, therefore it is also sometimes known as the
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    147
    Brynglas Tunnels

    Brynglas Tunnels

    The Brynglas Tunnels carry the M4 motorway under Brynglas Hill in Newport. The 1,200-foot-long (370 m) twin-bored tunnels were the first tunnels in the British motorway network and are still the only bored tunnels. The tunnels and adjacent Usk bridge were originally planned by Newport Corporation in August 1959 in a plan submitted to the Ministry of Transport. Work started on 10 September 1962 and both structures were complete and open to traffic during the first week in May 1967. During the construction several houses on Brynglas Road (where the modern Newport Lodge Hotel now stands) had to be demolished due to structural weaknesses caused by the tunnelling. Almost as soon as the M4 Newport bypass (junctions 24-28) had opened, the traffic levels had grown to such a degree that the road had to be widened to three lanes in each direction. This was finished in 1982 but with the exception of the tunnels and Usk bridge which remained as dual two-lane sections (Junctions 25-26). The tunnels remain a bottleneck on the motorway. Partly due to regular tailbacks at the tunnels, a variable speed limit is in place between junctions 24 and 28. A New M4 bypass south of Newport was proposed, but
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    148
    Lar Dam

    Lar Dam

    Lar Dam (Persian: سد لار sad-de lār) is a dam located at the foot of Mount Damavand. The dam is located within the protected Lar National Park and situated just 70 kilometers northeast of the capital and the most populous city of the country, Tehran. The construction began on the dam in 1974, and ended four years later in 1981. With the population growth occurring in Amol, there was a need for more water and energy. The ideal place for the dam was over the Lar river, in the northeast section of the city, at the elevated heights of the Kalanbasteh mountain on the slope of Mount Damavand. The area is called Polour, and operations began in 1984. One of the aims for building the Lar dam was to supply part of Amol with drinking water; it was not possible initially to operate the dam at its nominal capacity, because of a water seepage problem. Water stored in the dam's reservoir is transferred to the Kalan and Lavark power plants, a distance of 3 kilometers from the Latyan Dam's reservoir, through the 20 kilometer long Kalan tunnel (3 meters in size). After electricity generation, the water joins and feeds the Latyan dam's reservoir. Uncontrolled growth and expansion of Tehran created a
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    149
    Mossyrock Dam

    Mossyrock Dam

    Mossyrock Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam on the Cowlitz River near Mossyrock in Lewis County, Washington. The reservoir created by the dam is called Riffe Lake and the primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric production while flood control is secondary. The dam is the tallest in Washington State and its hydroelectric power station supplies 40% of Tacoma Power's electricity. The Mossy Rock Dam was originally planned in the 1940s but opposition from local fishers and Washington State's Game Department delayed construction. During World War II, the city of Tacoma purchased its electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration and Seattle which would cost as much as $1 million a year. To generate its own electricity, Tacoma City Light, now known as Tacoma Power would build several dams including the Mossyrock Dam. Plans for the Mossyrock Dam were announced in 1948 but met stiff opposition. The Washington State Legislature enacted a fish sanctuary on the Cowlitz River that initially blocked the project. The City of Tacoma then went to court and after the case was before the U.S. Supreme Court three times, the dam was approved. Construction began in 1965 and ended in 1968. On
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    1 votes
    150
    St Pancras railway station

    St Pancras railway station

    • Projects: Design and Construction of St Pancras Railway Station
    St Pancras railway station, also known as London St Pancras and since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a terminus celebrated for its Victorian architecture. The Grade I listed building stands on Euston Road in St Pancras, London Borough of Camden, between the British Library, King's Cross station and the Regent's Canal. It was opened in 1868 by the Midland Railway as the southern terminus of its main line, which connected London with the East Midlands and Yorkshire. When it opened, the arched Barlow train shed was the largest single-span roof in the world. After escaping planned demolition in the 1960s, the complex was renovated and expanded during the 2000s at a cost of £800 million with a ceremony attended by the Queen and extensive publicity introducing it as a public space. A security-sealed terminal area was constructed for Eurostar services to Continental Europe via High Speed 1 and the Channel Tunnel, with platforms for domestic trains to the north and south-east of England. The restored station has 15 platforms, a shopping centre and a bus station, and is served by London Underground's King's Cross St Pancras tube station. St Pancras is owned by London and Continental
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    151
    Sutro Tower

    Sutro Tower

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Sutro Tower
    Sutro Tower is a 297.8 m (977 ft) three-pronged antenna tower near Clarendon Heights in San Francisco, California. Rising from a hill between Twin Peaks and Mount Sutro, it is a prominent part of the city skyline and a landmark for city residents and visitors. However, many local people opposed the tower even before it was completed, including criticism of the aesthetic effect the tower would have on the rest of San Francisco. San Francisco writer Herb Caen once wrote, “I keep waiting for it to stalk down the hill and attack the Golden Gate Bridge.” Acknowledging both displeasure and affection for its undeniable prominence on the city's skyline, it is sometimes referred to light-heartedly as the Sutro Monster. Before the construction of Sutro Tower, television reception in San Francisco was spotty because the many hills of the city would block the line-of-sight television signal. The great height of the new tower helped to resolve that problem. Transmitters had been scattered throughout the Bay Area, including at San Bruno Mountain, Mt. Allison, Monument Peak, and Mt. Diablo. By having all the main Bay Area television station transmitters in one location, reception was improved by
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    1 votes
    152
    Vauxhall Bridge

    Vauxhall Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of Vauxhall Bridge
    Vauxhall Bridge is a Grade II* listed steel and granite deck arch bridge in central London. It crosses the River Thames in a south–east north–west direction between Vauxhall on the south bank and Pimlico on the north bank. Opened in 1906, it replaced an earlier bridge, originally known as Regent Bridge but later renamed Vauxhall Bridge, built between 1809 and 1816 as part of a scheme for redeveloping the south bank of the Thames. The original bridge was itself built on the site of a former ferry. The building of both bridges was problematic, with both the first and second bridges requiring several redesigns from multiple architects. The original bridge, the first iron bridge over the Thames, was built by a private company and operated as a toll bridge before being taken into public ownership in 1879. The second bridge, which took eight years to build, was the first in London to carry trams and later one of the first two roads in London to have a bus lane. In 1963 it was proposed to replace the bridge with a modern development containing seven floors of shops, office space, hotel rooms and leisure facilities supported above the river, but the plans were abandoned because of costs.
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    153
    Willis Building

    Willis Building

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Willis Building
    The Willis Building is a skyscraper in London named after the primary tenant, insurance broker Willis. It is located at at 51 Lime Street in the City of London. The Willis Building was designed by architect Norman Foster and developed by British Land. It stands opposite the Lloyd's building and is 125 metres (410 ft) tall, with 26 storeys. The skyscraper features a "stepped" design, which was intended to resemble the shell of a crustacean, with setbacks rising at 97 m (318 ft) and 68 m (223 ft). In total, there are 475,000 square feet (44,128.9 m) of office floor-space, most of which was pre-let to risk management company and insurance broker Willis. Constructed between 2004 and 2008 under the management of Mace, the Willis Building was a significant addition to the City of London's skyline, becoming its fourth-tallest building after Tower 42, 30 St. Mary Axe and CityPoint. The core was topped out in July 2006 and the steelwork completed in September that year. Cladding began in July 2006 and the structure was externally completed by June 2007. It was internally fitted out and officially opened in April 2008. The building was the first in a wave of new tall towers planned for
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    154
    88 Wood Street

    88 Wood Street

    • Projects: Design and Construction of 88 Wood Street
    88 Wood Street is a commercial skyscraper in London, located on Wood Street in the City of London. The architect was the Richard Rogers Partnership, now known as Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, and the director in charge was Graham Stirk. The building was constructed between 1993 and 2001. The 18-storey structure has an office space of 33,000 m (355,209 sq ft). Media related to 88 Wood Street at Wikimedia Commons
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    155
    Bristol Temple Meads railway station

    Bristol Temple Meads railway station

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Bristol Temple Meads railway station
    Bristol Temple Meads railway station is the oldest and largest railway station in Bristol, England. It is an important transport hub for public transport in Bristol, with bus services to various parts of the city and surrounding districts, and a ferry service to the city centre in addition to the train services. Bristol's other main-line station, Bristol Parkway, is on the northern outskirts of the Bristol conurbation. It opened on 31 August 1840 as the western terminus of the Great Western Railway from London Paddington station. The whole railway including Temple Meads was the first one designed by the British engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Soon the station was also used by the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the Bristol and Gloucester Railway, the Bristol Harbour Railway and the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway. To accommodate the increasing number of trains the station was expanded in the 1870s by Francis Fox; and again in the 1930s by P E Culverhouse. Brunel's terminus is no longer part of the operational station. The historical significance of the station has been noted, and most of the site is Grade 1 listed. Temple Meads is now owned by Network Rail and is operated
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    2 votes
    156
    BT Tower

    BT Tower

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the BT Tower
    The BT Tower is a communications tower located in Fitzrovia, London, United Kingdom owned by BT Group. It has been previously known as the Post Office Tower, the London Telecom Tower and the British Telecom Tower. The main structure is 177 metres (581 ft) tall, with a further section of aerial rigging bringing the total height to 189 metres (620 ft). It should not be confused with the BT Centre (the global headquarters of BT). Its Post Office code was YTOW. In 1962, while still under construction, the BT Tower overtook St Paul's Cathedral to become the tallest building in London. Upon completion it overtook the Millbank Tower (which had been constructed faster) to once again become the tallest building in both London and the United Kingdom, titles it held until 1980, when it in turn was overtaken by the NatWest Tower. The tower was commissioned by the General Post Office (GPO). Its primary purpose was to support the microwave aerials then used to carry telecommunications traffic from London to the rest of the country, as part of the British Telecom microwave network. It replaced a much shorter steel lattice tower which had been built on the roof of the neighbouring Museum telephone
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    157
    Channel Tunnel

    Channel Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Channel Tunnel
    The Channel Tunnel (French: Le tunnel sous la Manche; also referred to as the Chunnel) is a 50.5-kilometre (31.4 mi) undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point, it is 75 m (250 ft) deep. At 37.9 kilometres (23.5 mi), the Channel Tunnel possesses the longest undersea portion of any tunnel in the world, although the Seikan Tunnel in Japan is both longer overall at 53.85 kilometres (33.46 mi) and deeper at 240 metres (790 ft) below sea level. The tunnel carries high-speed Eurostar passenger trains, Eurotunnel Shuttle roll-on/roll-off vehicle transport—the largest in the world—and international rail freight trains. The tunnel connects end-to-end with the LGV Nord and High Speed 1 high-speed railway lines. Ideas for a cross-Channel fixed link appeared as early as 1802, but British political and press pressure over compromised national security stalled attempts to construct a tunnel. The eventual successful project, organised by Eurotunnel, began construction in 1988 and opened in 1994. The project came in 80% over its predicted
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    2 votes
    158
    Glen Canyon Dam

    Glen Canyon Dam

    Glen Canyon Dam is a concrete arch dam on the Colorado River in northern Arizona in the United States, near the town of Page. The dam was built to provide hydroelectricity and flow regulation from the upper Colorado River Basin to the lower. Its reservoir is called Lake Powell, and is the second largest artificial lake in the country, extending upriver well into Utah. The dam is named for Glen Canyon, a colorful series of gorges, most of which now lies under the reservoir. The dam was proposed in the 1950s as part of the Colorado River Storage Project, a U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) federal water project that would develop reservoir storage on the upper Colorado River and several of its major tributaries. The project's main purpose was to allow the upper basin to better utilize its allocation of river flow as designated in the 1922 Colorado River Compact, and a second purpose was to provide water storage to ensure the delivery of sufficient water to the lower basin during years of drought. However, problems arose when the USBR proposed to build dams in the federally protected Echo Park canyon in Utah. After a long series of legal battles with environmentalist organizations
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    159
    Menai Suspension Bridge

    Menai Suspension Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Menai Suspension Bridge
    The Menai Suspension Bridge (Welsh: Pont Grog y Borth) is a suspension bridge between the island of Anglesey and the mainland of Wales. Designed by Thomas Telford and completed in 1826, it was the first modern suspension bridge in the world. Before the bridge was completed in 1826, the island had no fixed connection to the mainland and all movements to and from Anglesey were by ferry (or, with difficulty, on foot at low tide). The main source of income on Anglesey was from the sale of cattle, and to move them to the markets of the inland counties or London, they had to be driven into the water and swum across the Menai Straits. The Act of Union 1800 increased the need for transport to Ireland, and with Holyhead as one of the principal terminals to Dublin it was decided to build a bridge. Thomas Telford was assigned the task of improving the route from London to Holyhead, and one of the key improvements was his design of the suspension bridge over the Menai Strait between a point near Bangor on the mainland and the village of Porthaethwy (which is now also known as Menai Bridge) on Anglesey. The design of the bridge had to allow for Royal Navy sailing ships 100 feet (30 m) tall to
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    2 votes
    160
    Merowe Dam

    Merowe Dam

    The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe High Dam, Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large dam near Merowe Town in northern Sudan, about 350 km (220 mi) north of the capital Khartoum. Its dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydropower project in Africa. It is situated on the river Nile, close to the 4th Cataract where the river divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in between. Merowe is a city about 40 km (25 mi) downstream from the construction site at Hamdab. The main purpose for building the dam was the generation of electricity. The dam is designed to have a length of about 9 km (5.6 mi) and a crest height of up to 67 m (220 ft). It will consist of polystyrene-faced rockfill dams on each river bank, an earth-rock dam with a pepper core in the left river channel and a live water section in the right river channel (sluices, spillway and power intake dam with turbine housings). Once finished, it will contain a reservoir of 12.5 km (3.0 cu mi), or about 20% of the Nile's annual flow. The reservoir lake is planned to extend 174 km (108 mi) upstream. The powerhouse will be equipped with ten 125 MW Francis turbines, each one designed for a
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    161
    Park Avenue Tunnel

    Park Avenue Tunnel

    The Park Avenue Tunnel passes under Park Avenue in the New York City borough of Manhattan, leading towards Grand Central Terminal. It once carried the New York and Harlem Railroad and later that company's streetcar line and was called the Murray Hill Tunnel. Due to the construction of Grand Central Terminal and the removal of tracks, the north end has been reconstructed for a steeper approach. It is now under the jurisdiction of the New York City Department of Transportation, and carries one lane of northbound car traffic from East 33rd Street to East 40th Street. From 40th Street north, traffic can follow the Grand Central Terminal Park Avenue Viaduct. Prior to August 3, 2008, the tunnel carried two-way traffic, but was reconfigured to increase pedestrian safety. The tunnel was originally built as an open rock cut, completed in 1834, after which the NY&H Railroad was opened as far as Yorkville, to 85th Street. In the 1850s the cut was roofed over, using granite stringers from the original railroad bed south of 14th Street, thus creating the present tunnel. The vertical clearance is 8 feet 11 inches (2.71 m). The Lexington Avenue Line of the New York City Subway runs parallel to
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    162
    Plougastel Bridge

    Plougastel Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Plougastel Bridge
    The Plougastel Bridge, or Albert-Louppe Bridge, is a bridge over the Elorn River near Brest, France, connecting Plougastel-Daoulas and Le Relecq-Kerhuon. Construction on the Plougastel Bridge started in 1926 and was completed on 9 October 1930. Part of it was destroyed by the German army in 1944, and shortly after was closed for repair. It was reopened after the widening and construction five years later. Between 1991 and 1994 another bridge, the Pont de l'Iroise, was built parallel to this bridge. Today the Plougastel carries tractor, pedestrian and bicycle traffic and is a landmark on the route of the Paris–Brest–Paris bicycle event. The Plougastel Bridge is an arch bridge, or has a fixed, double deck structure. The arches are composed of concrete and have a total length of around 888m. The three major spans are 188 m but sometimes said to be 186 m. The engineer who constructed the bridge was named Eugène Freyssinet, and the president of the Council managing the bridge was named Jules Albert-Louppe, of which the bridge was named. Louppe died in 1927, one year after the bridge began constructing.
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    2 votes
    163
    Oresund Bridge

    Oresund Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Oresund Bridge
    The Öresund or Øresund Bridge (Danish: Øresundsbroen, Swedish: Öresundsbron, joint hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined twin-track railway and dual carriageway bridge-tunnel across the Øresund strait between Sweden and Denmark. The bridge runs nearly 8 km (5 miles) from the Swedish coast to the artificial island of Peberholm, which lies in the middle of the strait. The remainder of the link is by a 4 km (2.5 mile) tunnel from Peberholm to the Danish island of Amager. The Øresund Bridge is the longest combined road and rail bridge in Europe, and connects two major metropolitan areas: those of the Danish capital city Copenhagen and the major Swedish city Malmö. Furthermore, the Øresund Bridge connects the road and rail networks of Scandinavia with those of Central and Western Europe. The international European route E20 crosses this bridge-tunnel via the road, and the Oresund Line uses the railway. The construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link – which connects Zealand to Funen and thence to the Jutland Peninsula – and the Oresund Bridge have connected Central and Western Europe to Scandinavia by road and rail. The Oresund Bridge was designed by the Danish architectural practice
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    3 votes
    164
    Prestolee Aqueduct

    Prestolee Aqueduct

    Prestolee Aqueduct is a stone-built aqueduct in Prestolee in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Greater Manchester, England. The four-arch structure was constructed in 1793 to carry the Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal across the River Irwell. It is now preserved as a Grade II listed building. The aqueduct is one of two remaining major structures on the canal, the other being the Clifton Aqueduct. A third major aqueduct, Damside Aqueduct, was demolished in the 1950s. As of 2007, the aqueduct still carries water, although it is not currently navigable as adjoining sections of the canal are in need of restoration.
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    3 votes
    165
    Stadium of Light

    Stadium of Light

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Stadium of Light
    The Stadium Of Light is an all-seater football stadium in Sunderland, England. With space for 49,000 spectators, the Stadium of Light has the fifth-largest capacity of any English football stadium. The stadium primarily hosts Sunderland A.F.C. matches. The name Stadium of Light is a tribute to the traditional mining industry, which brought prosperity to the town; a Davy lamp monument stands at the entrance. As well as hosting Sunderland games, the stadium has hosted two matches for the England national football team, as well as one England under-20 football team match. With an original capacity of 42,000, it was expanded in 2002 to seat 49,000, and its simple design is expected to allow for redevelopments up to an eventual capacity of 66,000. The attendance record at the Stadium of Light is 48,353 set on 13 April 2002, when Sunderland played Liverpool with the visitors running out 1-0 winners. Along with hosting football matches, the stadium has played host to performers such as Oasis, Take That, Kings of Leon and Coldplay. The ground also holds conference and banqueting suites, the Black Cats Bar, and a club shop selling Sunderland merchandise. The stadium is one of 17 stadiums
    6.00
    3 votes
    166
    Galton Bridge

    Galton Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Galton Bridge
    Galton Bridge (grid reference SP015894) is a canal bridge in Smethwick, West Midlands, England built by Thomas Telford in 1829. It spans Telford's Birmingham Canal Navigations New Main Line carrying Roebuck Lane. When it was constructed, its single span of 151 feet (46 metres) was the highest in the world (the Menai Suspension Bridge was longest). Originally a road bridge it is now restricted to pedestrians. It is a Grade I listed building, and lends its name to the adjacent Smethwick Galton Bridge railway station. It is similar to Holt Fleet Bridge, Telford's Grade II listed bridge over the River Severn at Holt in Worcestershire and was named after Samuel Galton, a member of the Lunar Society. It was cast by Horseley Ironworks.
    5.00
    4 votes
    167
    Bakun Hydroelectric Project

    Bakun Hydroelectric Project

    The Bakun Dam is an embankment dam located in Sarawak, Malaysia on the Balui River, a tributary or source of the Rajang River and some sixty kilometers west of Belaga. As part of the project, the second tallest concrete-faced rockfill dam in the world would be built. It is planned to generate 2,400 megawatts (MW) of electricity once completed. The purpose for the dam was to meet growing demand for electricity. However, most of this demand said to lie in Peninsular Malaysia and not East Malaysia, where the dam is located. Even in Peninsular Malaysia, however, there is an over-supply of electricity, with Tenaga Nasional Berhad being locked into unfavourable purchasing agreements with Independent Power Producers. The original idea was to have 30% of the generated capacity consumed in East Malaysia and the rest sent to Peninsular Malaysia. This plan envisioned 730 km of overhead HVDC transmission lines in East Malaysia, 670 km of undersea HVDC cable and 300 km of HVDC transmission line in Peninsular Malaysia. Future plans for the dam include connecting it to an envisioned Trans-Borneo Power Grid Interconnection, which would be a grid to supply power to Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei, and
    5.67
    3 votes
    168
    Berke Dam

    Berke Dam

    Berke Dam is concrete arch-gravity dam built on the Ceyhan river in southern Turkey. There is a hydroelectric power plant, established in 2001 at the dam, with a power output of 510 MW (four facilities at 128 MW each).
    5.67
    3 votes
    169
    Chrysler Building

    Chrysler Building

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Chrysler Building
    The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco style skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan in the Turtle Bay area at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. At 1,046 feet (319 m), the structure was the world's tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. It is still the tallest brick building in the world, albeit with an internal steel skeleton. After the destruction of the World Trade Center, it was again the second-tallest building in New York City until December 2007, when the spire was raised on the 1,200-foot (365.8 m) Bank of America Tower, pushing the Chrysler Building into third position. In addition, The New York Times Building, which opened in 2007, is exactly level with the Chrysler Building in height. Both buildings were then pushed into 4th position, when the under construction One World Trade Center surpassed their height. The Chrysler Building is a classic example of Art Deco architecture and considered by many contemporary architects to be one of the finest buildings in New York City. In 2007, it was ranked ninth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute
    5.67
    3 votes
    170
    Fox Plaza

    Fox Plaza

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Fox Plaza
    Fox Plaza is a 35-story , 150 m (490 ft) skyscraper in Century City, Los Angeles, California. Completed in 1987, the architects behind the design of the local landmark were Scott Johnson, Bill Fain and William L. Pereira. Owned by Orange County-based The Irvine Company, Fox Plaza is Twentieth Century Fox's official headquarters. Former President of the United States Ronald Reagan occupied a penthouse on the 34th floor for several years after leaving public office. The 34th floor is now occupied by global management consulting firm ZS Associates. Fox Plaza is the last building that Pereira worked on before his death in 1985. The building has featured in at least four major motion pictures released by Fox. Its most famous appearance was in the 1988 action movie Die Hard as the fictional Nakatomi Plaza in which its destruction was accomplished using a scale model. The plaza and a neighboring building are the main setting for rock & roll comedy Airheads, and the lobby is featured in the opening scene of Speed. Fox Plaza was also used as one of the buildings brought down at the end of Fight Club. The exterior of the building can also be seen in the 1987 Charlie Sheen film No Man's Land
    5.67
    3 votes
    171
    Belo Monte Dam

    Belo Monte Dam

    The Belo Monte Dam (formerly known as Kararaô) is a hydroelectric dam complex on the Xingu River in the state of Pará, Brazil, recently halted by the Brazilian Federal court. The planned installed capacity of the dam complex would be 11,233 megawatts (MW), which would make it the second-largest hydroelectric dam complex in Brazil and the world's third-largest in installed capacity, behind the Three Gorges Dam in China and the Brazilian-Paraguayan Itaipu Dam. Considering the oscillations of flow river, guaranteed minimum capacity generation from the Belo Monte Dam would measure 4,571 MW, 39% of its maximum capacity. Transmission lines would connect electricity generated by the dams' turbines to the main Brazilian power grid, which would distribute it throughout the country, both for residential and commercial consumption and to supply the growth of such industries as aluminium transformation and metallurgy. Brazil's rapid economic growth over the last decade has provoked a huge demand for new and stable sources of energy, especially to supply its growing industries. In Brazil, 46% of the energy consumed comes from renewable energy sources, and hydroelectric power plants produce over
    6.50
    2 votes
    172
    Euromast

    Euromast

    Euromast is an observation tower in Rotterdam, Netherlands, designed by Hugh Maaskant constructed between 1958 and 1960. It was specially built for the 1960 Floriade, and is a listed monument since 2010. The tower is a concrete stucture with an internal diameter of 9 m (30 ft) and a wall thickness of 30 cm (12 in). For stability it is built on a concrete block of 1,900,000 kg (4,200,000 lb) so that the centre of gravity is below ground. It has a "crow's nest" observation platform 96 m (315 ft) above-ground and a restaurant. Originally 101 m (331 ft) in height it was the tallest building in Rotterdam. It lost this position for a while, but regained it when the Space Tower was added to the top of the building in 1970, giving an additional 85 m (279 ft). Euromast is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers.
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Kouris dam

    Kouris dam

    Kouris dam is the largest of a network of 107 dams in Cyprus. It lies at an altitude of 250m and collects the water delivered by the rivers Kouris, Limnatis and Kryos. Furthermore, water from Diarizos river is diverted to Kouris dam via a 14.5 km long connecting tunnel. It has an overall catchment area of 300 km. The dam is located 15 km northwest of the city of Limassol and 6 km west of the village of Ypsonas. The dam has a central clay core zoned earthfill embankment with a height of 110 metres and a crest length of approximately 550 metres. For its construction the whole village of Alassa had to be relocated to a nearby site overlooking the reservoir (between the Kouris and Limnatis valleys) at a cost of around CYP£5,000,000. Its construction was opposed by environmental groups concerned about the effects of water diversion on the Limassol Salt Lake, a wetland located downstream to the rivers and used by migratory birds. The dam is part of the Southern Conveyor Project, which carries water from the SW side of Cyprus to the SE part of the island, over a distance of 120 km. The dam has a central clay core zoned earthfill embankment with a height of 110m and a crest length of
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    Magat Dam

    Magat Dam

    Magat Dam is a large rock-fill dam on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The dam is located on Magat River, a major tributary of Cagayan River. Construction of the dam started in 1975 and completed in 1982. Magat Dam is one of the largest dams in the Philippines and has two primary purposes: as a source of irrigation water and as a provider of hydroelectric power. The construction and appurtenant structures was authorized by P.D. 693 signed on May 7, 1975 by the late President Ferdinand E. Marcos. The Magat Dam was constructed in 1978 and inaugurated by the Late Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos on October 27, 1982 and started operations in 1983. Implementation of this multipurpose project was based on the preliminary study conducted in 1973 by the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) with the assistance of the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Subsequent detailed and extensive dam site investigation and engineering studies further confirmed the feasibility of what is now known as NIA's most daring infrastructure project and one of Asia's biggest dams today. It was Southeast Asia's first large
    6.50
    2 votes
    175
    Mazvikadei Dam

    Mazvikadei Dam

    Mazvikadei Dam is a dam in Zimbabwe which provides water for farm irrigation. It is the third largest dam in Zimbabwe. Construction of the dam started in 1985, the main contractor being CMC di Ravenna with local subcontractors K.W.Blasting doing tunneling and hard excavation. The wall, which is an earthfill embankment, is 63.5 metres in height making it the second highest dam wall entirely within Zimbabwe. The construction was completed in 1988 and the reservoir filled for the first time in 1990. Built on the Mukwadzi River north of Banket it has a storage capacity of 360 million cubic metres with a surface area of 2 300 hectares when full. The long term yield for irrigation purposes is estimated to be 100 million cubic metres per annum or 10 cubic metres per second for an irrigation season of 4 months. The primary irrigated crop when the farms were functioning was winter wheat, however small quantities were used to supplement rainfall on summer crops such as maize and tobacco. It is a popular weekend resort, with facilities for visitors.
    6.50
    2 votes
    176
    Scott Russell Aqueduct

    Scott Russell Aqueduct

    The Scott Russell Aqueduct is an aqueduct carrying the Union Canal over the A720 bypass, west of Edinburgh, Scotland. It is named after the Scottish naval engineer John Scott Russell who discovered the soliton or solitary wave near Bridge 11 on the Union Canal where a plaque in his memory can be found.
    6.50
    2 votes
    177
    Shanghai World Financial Center

    Shanghai World Financial Center

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Shanghai World Financial Center
    The Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC; Chinese: 上海环球金融中心) is a supertall skyscraper located in the Pudong district of Shanghai, China. It was designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and developed by the Japanese Mori Building Company. It is a mixed-use skyscraper, consisting of offices, hotels, conference rooms, observation decks, and ground-floor shopping malls. Park Hyatt Shanghai is the hotel component, containing 174 rooms and suites. Occupying the 79th to the 93rd floors, it is the second-highest hotel in the world, surpassing the Grand Hyatt Shanghai on the 53rd to 87th floors of the neighboring Jin Mao Tower. On 14 September 2007, the skyscraper was topped out at 492.0 meters (1,614.2 ft), making it, at the time, the second-tallest building in the world and the tallest structure in Mainland China. It also had the highest occupied floor and the highest height to roof, two categories used to determine the title of "world’s tallest building". The SWFC opened on 28 August 2008, with its observation deck opening on 30 August. This observation deck, the world's tallest at the time of its completion, offers views from 474 m (1,555 ft) above ground level. The SWFC has been lauded for its
    6.50
    2 votes
    178
    Vasco da Gama Bridge

    Vasco da Gama Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Vasco da Gama Bridge
    The Vasco da Gama Bridge (Portuguese: Ponte Vasco da Gama; pronounced: [ˈpõt(ɨ) ˈvaʃku dɐ ˈɡɐmɐ]) is a cable-stayed bridge flanked by viaducts and rangeviews that spans the Tagus River near Lisbon, capital of Portugal. It is the longest bridge in Europe (including viaducts), with a total length of 17.2 km (10.7 mi), including 0.829 km (0.5 mi) for the main bridge, 11.5 km (7.1 mi) in viaducts, and 4.8 km (3.0 mi) in dedicated access roads. Its purpose is to alleviate the congestion on Lisbon's other bridge (25 de Abril Bridge), and to join previously unconnected motorways radiating from Lisbon. Construction began on February 1995; the bridge was opened to traffic on 29 March 1998, just in time for Expo 98, the World's Fair that celebrated the 500th anniversary of the discovery by Vasco da Gama of the sea route from Europe to India. The bridge carries six road lanes, with a speed limit of 120 km/h (75 mph), the same as motorways, except on one section which is limited to 100 km/h (60 mph). On windy, rainy, and foggy days, the speed limit is reduced to 90 km/h (56 mph). The number of road lanes will be enlarged to eight when traffic reaches a daily average of 52,000. The $1.1bn
    6.50
    2 votes
    179
    Westminster Bridge

    Westminster Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Westminster Bridge
    Westminster Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames between Westminster on the north side and Lambeth on the south side, in London. The bridge is painted predominantly green, the same colour as the leather seats in the House of Commons which is on the side of the Palace of Westminster nearest the bridge. This is in contrast to Lambeth Bridge which is red, the same colour as the seats in the House of Lords and is on the opposite side of the Houses of Parliament. In 2005-2007 it underwent a complete refurbishment, including replacing the iron fascias and repainting the whole bridge. It links the Palace of Westminster on the west side of the river with County Hall and the London Eye on the east and was the finishing point during the early years of the London Marathon. The next bridge downstream is Hungerford footbridge and upstream is Lambeth Bridge. The bridge was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1981. For over 600 years, the nearest bridge to London Bridge was at Kingston. A bridge at Westminster was proposed in 1664, but opposed by the Corporation of London and the watermen. Despite further opposition in 1722 and after a new timber bridge was built
    6.50
    2 votes
    180
    Avoncliff Aqueduct

    Avoncliff Aqueduct

    Avoncliff Aqueduct (grid reference ST803599) carries the Kennet and Avon Canal over the River Avon and the Bath to Westbury railway line, at Avoncliff in Wiltshire, England. It was built by John Rennie and chief engineer John Thomas, between 1797 and 1801. The aqueduct consists of three arches and is 110 yards long with a central elliptical arch of 60 ft (18.3 m) span with two side arches each semicircular and 34 ft (10.4 m) across, all with V-jointed arch stones. The spandrel and wing walls are built in alternate courses of ashlar masonry, and rock-faced blocks. The central span sagged soon after it was built and has been repaired many times. As part of the restoration of the canal the aqueduct was lined with a concrete "cradle" and made water-tight in 1980.
    5.33
    3 votes
    181
    Melbourne Sports and Aquatic Centre

    Melbourne Sports and Aquatic Centre

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Melbourne Sports and Aquatic Centre
    The Melbourne Sports and Aquatic Centre (MSAC) is an international sporting venue located in Albert Park, Victoria, Australia. The centre was opened on the 24th of July 1997 at a construction cost of A$65 million. The cost was funded by the State Government of Victoria and the City of Port Phillip. The centre has hosted international events including the 2006 Commonwealth Games and the 2007 World Aquatics Championships. The centre has several swimming pools and international standard diving facilities. There is a large multi-purpose sports hall used for sports such as badminton, basketball, table tennis, and volleyball, and also squash courts and a gym. The centre is accessible by tram routes 96 and 112. The first part of MSAC's construction was completed in 1997. This included the majority of the facilities currently at MSAC including the indoor pools and the sports hall. In 2002 it was announced that the Melbourne Sports and Aquatic Centre would be expanded in time for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. A new hydrotherapy pool, a new 50 metre outdoor pool and improved transport links were some of the facilities added in the $51 million expansion. Work began on the Stage 2 project in
    5.33
    3 votes
    182
    Rose Rotana Suites

    Rose Rotana Suites

    • Projects: Initial design and construction of Rose Rotana Suites
    The Rose Tower, also known as Rose Rayhaan by Rotana, is a 72-storey, 333 m (1,093 ft) hotel on Sheikh Zayed Road in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It was the world's tallest hotel. The tower was originally to be 380 m (1,250 ft), but design modification reduced it to 333 m (1,093 ft). Construction began in 2004 and was completed in 2007. On 24 October 2006, the building reached its full height with the addition of the spire. By total height with spire the hotel surpassed the nearby 321 m (1,053 ft) Burj Al Arab. Although the building and its inner furnishings were in place in 2007, it did not open until December 23, 2009. Rose Rayhaan Rotana is one of the first major hotel brands to open in Dubai as alcohol-free. The hotel has two restaurants and a 24-hour coffee shop. Bonyan International Investment Group is the developer and invested $180 million. The building was officially completed with 482 rooms, suites and penthouses. The Rose Tower officially opened on 23 December 2009.
    5.33
    3 votes
    183
    Almond Aqueduct

    Almond Aqueduct

    The Almond Aqueduct is a navigable aqueduct in Scotland, west of Ratho. Measuring 420 feet (130 m) long, it carries the Union Canal 76 feet (23 m) above the River Almond, from Edinburgh into West Lothian. It can be reached by car and by cyclists on the Union Canal path.
    7.00
    1 votes
    184
    Burj al-Arab

    Burj al-Arab

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Burj al-Arab
    Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب‎,Tower of the Arabs) is a luxury hotel located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. At 321 m (1,053 ft), it is the fourth tallest hotel in the world. Burj Al Arab stands on an artificial island 280 m (920 ft) from Jumeirah beach and is connected to the mainland by a private curving bridge. The shape of the structure is designed to mimic the sail of a ship. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as "the world's only seven-Star hotel", its star rating has been often debated. The beachfront area where Burj Al Arab and Jumeirah Beach Hotel are located was previously called Chicago Beach. The hotel is located on an island of reclaimed land 280 meters offshore of the beach of the former Chicago Beach Hotel. The locale's name had its origins in the Chicago Bridge & Iron Company which at one time welded giant floating oil storage tankers on the site. The old name persisted after the old Hotel was demolished in 1997. Dubai Chicago Beach Hotel remained as the Public Project Name for the construction phase of Burj Al Arab Hotel until Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum announced the new name. Burj Al Arab was designed by architect Tom Wright of WS Atkins PLC. The
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    Clifton Aqueduct

    Clifton Aqueduct

    Clifton Aqueduct, built in 1796, carried the Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal across the River Irwell in Salford, England. It is preserved as a Grade II listed building. The construction is of dressed stone with brick arches. Three segmental arches with keystones rest on triangular-ended cutwaters. Above the cutwaters are flat Pilasters. A C20 brick parapet remains on the eastern side. There is a towpath on each side, and the aqueduct contains grooves for stop planks to be inserted, to drain the canal. The aqueduct was engineered by Charles Roberts and John Nightingale. The aqueduct is one of two remaining along the canal route, the other being Prestolee Aqueduct. The canal is currently undergoing restoration (at the time of writing, at the Salford end of the canal) and is hoped to be in operation around 2020. As of 2011, the aqueduct is currently not in water.
    7.00
    1 votes
    186
    Dundas Aqueduct

    Dundas Aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Dundas Aqueduct
    Dundas Aqueduct (grid reference ST785625) carries the Kennet and Avon Canal over the River Avon and the Wessex Main Line railway from Bath to Westbury, near Limpley Stoke in Wiltshire, England. It was built by John Rennie and chief engineer John Thomas, between 1797 and 1801 and completed in 1805. James McIlquham was appointed contractor. It is named after Charles Dundas, the first chairman of the Kennet and Avon Canal Company. The aqueduct is 150 yards (137.2 m) long with three arches built of Bath Stone, with Doric pilasters, and balustrades at each end. The central semicircular arch spans 64 feet (19.5 m); the two oval side arches span 20 feet (6.1 m). It is a grade I listed building, and was the first canal structure to be designated as an Scheduled Ancient Monument in 1951. Over many years leaks had developed and it was closed in 1954. For a while in the 1960s and 1970s, the canal was dry and it was possible to walk along the bed on each side of the river as well as through the aqueduct itself. The aqueduct was relined, with polythene and concrete and restored, reopening in 1984. Care was taken not to disturb a colony of bats living under the aqueduct. The aqueduct is also the
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Netherton Tunnel Branch Canal

    Netherton Tunnel Branch Canal

    Netherton Tunnel Branch Canal, in the English West Midlands, is part of the Birmingham Canal Navigations, (BCN). It was constructed at a 453–foot elevation, the Wednesbury or Birmingham level; it has no locks. The total length of the branch canal is 2.4 miles (3.9 km) and the canal tunnel is 9,081 feet (2,768 m) long. Netherton Tunnel was the last canal tunnel to be built in Britain during the Canal Age. The first sod was turned by Lord Ward on 31 December 1855 and the canal opened on 20 August 1858, providing a waterway connection between the Black Country towns of Netherton and Tipton. It was built to relieve the bottleneck of the adjacent Dudley Tunnel which is very narrow, has alternating blocks of one-way working, and had waiting times of eight hours or more, and sometimes several days. The Netherton tunnel was built with a width of 27 feet (8.2 m) to allow two-way working of narrowboats; and is brick lined throughout. It has towpaths running through it, one on each side, which enabled horse-drawn narrowboats to be pulled through it. Chainage (distance) markers are still visible on the Eastern wall. The tunnel was fitted, from the start, with gas lighting over the towpaths,
    7.00
    1 votes
    188
    Qanat

    Qanat

    A qanāt (from Arabic: قناة‎, in Persian: کاریز‎ kariz) is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. Qanats are also called kārīz (or kārēz from Persian: كاريز‎) (Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central Asia, derived from Persian: كاهریز‎), kahan (from Persian: کهن‎), khettara (Morocco); galería (Spain); falaj (United Arab Emirates and Oman); Kahn (Baloch) or foggara/fughara (North Africa). Alternative terms for qanats in Asia and North Africa are kakuriz, chin-avulz, and mayun. Common variants of qanat in English include kanat, khanat, kunut, kona, konait, ghanat, ghundat. The qanat technology is known to have been developed by Iranians sometime in the early 1st millennium BC spread from there slowly west- and eastward. The value of a qanat is directly related to the quality, volume and regularity of the water flow. Much of the population of Iran and other arid countries in Asia and North Africa historically depended upon the water from qanats; the areas of population corresponded closely to the areas where qanats are possible. Although a qanat was expensive to construct, its
    7.00
    1 votes
    189
    Rietvlei Dam

    Rietvlei Dam

    The Rietvlei dam is one of a number of dams supplying water to the Pretoria region of South Africa. It supplies around 41 million liters of drinking water daily, about 5.9% of the water requirement of Pretoria. Constructed as a brick dam wall in 1934, it was extended between 1988 and 1990 by raising the dam wall with the addition of a concrete wall on top of the original wall. The dam is fed by the Rietvlei, a river of the Crocodile River (West) basin, as well as by five fountains and five boreholes. The Rietvlei Nature Reserve occupies the area immediately surrounding the dam.
    7.00
    1 votes
    190
    Abbey Mills Pumping Station

    Abbey Mills Pumping Station

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Abbey Mills Pumping Station
    The original Abbey Mills Pumping Station, in Abbey Lane, London E15, is a sewerage pumping station, designed by engineer Joseph Bazalgette, Edmund Cooper, and architect Charles Driver. It was built between 1865 and 1868. It was designed in a cruciform plan, with an elaborate Byzantine style, described as The Cathedral of Sewage. Another of Bazalgette's designs, Crossness Pumping Station, is located south of the River Thames at Crossness, at the end of the Southern Outfall Sewer. The pumping station was built at the site of an earlier watermill owned by the local Abbey, from which it gained its name The pumps raised the sewage in the London sewerage system between the two Low Level Sewers and the Northern Outfall Sewer, which was built in the 1860s to carry the increasing amount of sewage produced in London away from the centre of the city. Two Moorish styled chimneys – unused since steam power had been replaced by electric motors in 1933 – were demolished in 1941, as it was feared that a bomb strike from German bombs might topple them on to the pumping station. The building still houses electric pumps – to be used in reserve for the new facility next door. The main building is
    6.00
    2 votes
    191
    Gateshead Millennium Bridge

    Gateshead Millennium Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Gateshead Millennium Bridge
    The Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a pedestrian and cyclist tilt bridge spanning the River Tyne in England between Gateshead's Quays arts quarter on the south bank, and the Quayside of Newcastle upon Tyne on the north bank. The award-winning structure was conceived and designed by architects Wilkinson Eyre and structural engineers Gifford. The bridge is sometimes referred to as the 'Blinking Eye Bridge' or the 'Winking Eye Bridge' due to its shape and its tilting method. In terms of height, the Gateshead Millennium Bridge is slightly shorter than the neighbouring Tyne Bridge, and stands as the sixteenth tallest structure in the city. The bridge was lifted into place in one piece by the Asian Hercules II, one of the world's largest floating cranes, on 20 November 2000. It was opened to the public on 17 September 2001, and was dedicated by Queen Elizabeth II on 7 May 2002. The bridge, which cost £22m to build, was part funded by the Millennium Commission and European Regional Development Fund. It was built by Volker Stevin. Six 45 cm (18 in) diameter Hydraulic rams (three on each side, each powered by a 55 kW electric motor) rotate the bridge back on large bearings to allow small
    6.00
    2 votes
    192
    Millennium Dome

    Millennium Dome

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Millennium Dome
    The Millennium Dome, colloquially referred to simply as The Dome, is the original name of a large dome-shaped building, originally used to house the Millennium Experience, a major exhibition celebrating the beginning of the third millennium. Located on the Greenwich Peninsula in South East London, England, the exhibition was open to the public from 1 January to 31 December 2000. The project and exhibition was the subject of considerable political controversy as it failed to attract the number of visitors anticipated, with recurring financial problems. All of the original exhibition and associated complex has since been demolished. The dome still exists, and it is now a key exterior feature of The O2. The Prime Meridian passes the western edge of the Dome and the nearest London Underground station is North Greenwich on the Jubilee Line. The dome is one of the largest of its type in the world. Externally, it appears as a large white marquee with twelve 100 m-high yellow support towers, one for each month of the year, or each hour of the clock face, representing the role played by Greenwich Mean Time. In plan view it is circular, 365 m in circumference — one metre for each day of the
    6.00
    2 votes
    193
    Chepstow Bridge

    Chepstow Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Chepstow Bridge
    Chepstow Railway Bridge was built to the instructions of Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1852. The "Great Tubular Bridge" over the River Wye at Chepstow, which at that point forms the boundary between Wales and England, is considered one of Brunel's major achievements, despite its appearance. It was economical in its use of materials, and would prove to be the design prototype for Brunel's Royal Albert Bridge at Saltash. Brunel had to take the two tracks of the South Wales Railway across the River Wye. The Admiralty had insisted on a 300-foot (91 m) clear span over the river, with the bridge a minimum of 50 feet (15 m) above high tide. The span would have to be self-supporting, since although the Gloucestershire side of the river consists of a limestone cliff, the Monmouthshire side is low-lying sedimentary deposit subject to regular flooding. Thus on that side, there was nowhere for an abutment capable of either resisting the outward push of an arch bridge, or the inward pull of a conventional suspension bridge. In any case, neither could be used: an arch bridge would not have met the height and width restrictions imposed by the Admiralty, and suspension bridges were notoriously unfit
    5.00
    3 votes
    194
    Hong Kong International Airport

    Hong Kong International Airport

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Hong Kong International Airport
    Hong Kong International Airport (IATA: HKG, ICAO: VHHH) is the main airport in Hong Kong. It is colloquially known as Chek Lap Kok Airport (赤鱲角機場), being built on the island of Chek Lap Kok by land reclamation, and also to distinguish it from its predecessor, the closed Kai Tak Airport. The airport opened for commercial operations in 1998, replacing Kai Tak, and is an important regional trans-shipment centre, passenger hub and gateway for destinations in Mainland China (with over 40 destinations) and the rest of Asia. HKIA also operates one of the world's largest passenger terminal buildings (the largest when opened in 1998) and operates 24 hours a day. The airport is operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong and is the primary hub for Cathay Pacific, Dragonair, Hong Kong Airlines, Hong Kong Express Airways and Air Hong Kong (cargo). The airport is also one of the Asian-Pacific cargo hubs for UPS Airlines. It is a focus city for many airlines, including China Airlines and China Eastern Airlines, which serves 18 flights to Hong Kong per day (one direction) from 15 cities. Virgin Atlantic, United and Air India use Hong Kong as a stopover point for flights respectively from London
    5.00
    3 votes
    195
    Dez Dam

    Dez Dam

    The Dez Dam (Persian: سد دز‎) is a large hydroelectric dam built in Iran in 1963 by an Italian consortium. The dam is on the Dez River in the Northwestern province of Khuzestan, the closest city being Dezful. It is 203 metres (666 ft) high, making it one of the highest in the world, and has a reservoir capacity of 3.340 million cubic meters. At the time of construction the Dez Dam was Iran's biggest development project. It is also possible to visit powerhouse which is located at the east side of the dam in the mountains. The powerhouse has eight vertical Francis turbines. The dam's current problem is the annual loss of reservoir capacity due to the erosion of soil in upstream areas. Impregilo was involved with building the Dez dam. The water from the reservoir went to irrigate 160 square kilometres (62 sq mi), only one-fifth of the area that the dam’s designers claimed would be irrigated. The irrigated land was largely for the benefit of foreign agribusiness corporations, including Mitsui, Chase Manhattan, Bank of America, Shell, John Deere and Transworld Agricultural Development Corporation. About 17,000 farmers lost their land to agribusinesses. Years later, many were still
    5.50
    2 votes
    196
    El Ferdan Railway Bridge

    El Ferdan Railway Bridge

    The El Ferdan Railway Bridge is a swing bridge that spans the Suez Canal near Ismailia, Egypt. It is the longest swing bridge in the world, with a span of 1100 ft (340 m). It replaced the 1963 bridge, which was destroyed in 1967 in the Six-Day War by the Engineering General Ahmed Hamdy. The El Ferdan Railway Bridge was part of a major drive to develop the areas surrounding the Suez Canal, including other projects such as the Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel under the Suez Canal (completed in 1983), the Suez Canal overhead line crossing, and the Suez Canal Bridge (completed in 2001, roughly 12 miles north of the El Ferdan Railway Bridge).
    5.50
    2 votes
    197
    Greenwich foot tunnel

    Greenwich foot tunnel

    • Projects: Construction of Greenwich Foot Tunnel
    The Greenwich foot tunnel is a pedestrian tunnel crossing beneath the River Thames in East London, linking Greenwich (Royal Borough of Greenwich) in the south with the Isle of Dogs (London Borough of Tower Hamlets) to the north. The tunnel is currently open while refurbishment works continue on the entrance shafts and domes. The works were due to be complete by June 2011, but delays mean that they are now scheduled to be complete some time in 2012. The tunnel was designed by civil engineer Sir Alexander Binnie for London County Council, and was constructed by contractor John Cochrane & Co; the project started in June 1899 and the tunnel was opened on 4 August 1902. The tunnel replaced an expensive and sometimes unreliable ferry service, and was intended to allow workers living on the south side of the Thames to reach their workplaces in the London docks and shipyards then situated in or near the Isle of Dogs. Its creation owed much to the efforts of working-class politician Will Crooks who had worked in the docks and, after chairing the LCC's Bridges Committee responsible for the tunnel, would later serve as Labour MP for nearby Woolwich. The entrance shafts at both ends lie
    5.50
    2 votes
    198
    Hammersmith & City Line

    Hammersmith & City Line

    The Hammersmith & City line is a subsurface London Underground line. It connects Hammersmith in the west with Barking in the east, running through the northern part of central London. It is coloured salmon pink on the Tube map. It was formerly part of the Metropolitan line and incorporates the oldest underground railway in the world, the section between Paddington and Farringdon, opened on 10 January 1863. The original Hammersmith & City line opened on 13 June 1864, although Hammersmith station itself moved to a different location in 1868. With the exception of the two-stop Waterloo & City line and the East London Line (now a London Overground service), it has been the least-used line on the Underground. It ranks 10th of the 11 lines in passenger numbers. Out of the 29 stations served, 10 have Hammersmith & City line platforms that are wholly or almost wholly below ground, all in cut-and-cover, while those at Paddington, Edgware Road, Farringdon, Barbican and Whitechapel are in cuttings, or under train-sheds but below street level. Between Hammersmith and a point between Ladbroke Grove and Westbourne Park stations, the line is an elevated railway built on brick viaducts. Since
    5.50
    2 votes
    199
    Päijänne Water Tunnel

    Päijänne Water Tunnel

    The Päijänne Water Tunnel (Finnish: Päijännetunneli, Swedish: Päijännetunneln), located in Southern Finland, is the world's second longest continuous rock tunnel (after the Delaware Aqueduct in the USA). It is 120 kilometers (75 mi) long and runs 30–100 meters under the surface in bedrock. The purpose of the tunnel is to provide fresh water for the million plus people in Southern Finland in the cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, Hyvinkää, Järvenpää, Kerava, Kauniainen, Kirkkonummi, Sipoo, and Tuusula. The former Porvoo Rural Municipality, now merged with the municipality of Porvoo, also took part in the building of the scheme but has never drawn water from it for domestic use. The tunnel starts at Asikkalanselkä in Lake Päijänne, which is the second largest lake in Finland, with an area of 1,080 square kilometres. The tunnel slopes slightly downhill so that water flows naturally. Water from the southern portion of Lake Päijänne is of rather good quality at the water tunnel intake and is usually drinkable without processing. The tunnel ends at the Silvola reservoir in Vantaa in the Greater Helsinki area. From the reservoir covering 0.5 square kilometres, water is pumped to water
    5.50
    2 votes
    200
    Thomson River Dam

    Thomson River Dam

    The Thomson Dam is located on the Thomson River about 130 km east of Melbourne in Gippsland near the former township of Beardmore and the Baw Baw National Park. Despite opposition from conservationists and farmers, plans for the dam were originally approved in late December 1975 to provide Melbourne with water security. A dam on the Thomson river was preferred because the river had a large flow, high water quality and was elevated high enough to provide water to the upper Yarra system by gravity flow. Early work in the early 1970s saw construction of a 19 km long tunnel through the Thomson Yarra divide to allow water from the Thomson River to flow into the Upper Yarra Reservoir. Work on the dam itself commenced in 1976 and the dam wall was ready to contain water by 1983. The tunnel, which is located at the northern end of the reservoir, allows water to be transferred west to Upper Yarra Reservoir and then on to Silvan Reservoir for distribution as drinking water in Melbourne. Since 1997, drought has resulted in depletion of much of the reservoir's water. 2006 in particular was a devastating year for Melbourne's water supply, where little rain and inflows resulted in a continuous
    5.50
    2 votes
    201
    Bullbridge Aqueduct

    Bullbridge Aqueduct

    The Bull Bridge Aqueduct was situated on the Cromford Canal, built in 1794, at Bullbridge east of Ambergate along the Amber Valley where it turned sharply to cross the valley and the Ambergate to Nottingham road. The Cromford canal is in Derbyshire, England. Known officially as the "Amber Aqueduct" it was actually an earthwork bank surmounted by masonry walls across the valley some thirty feet high in places. It was pierced by three arches. One was for the river. The second was an accommodation arch for the houses behind, which are now the small village known as Bullbridge. The main road passed through the third which was the original Bull Bridge. In 1840, George Stephenson engineered the North Midland Railway to intersect the canal at this point on its way from Ambergate to Wingfield and Stretton, towards Clay Cross and Chesterfield. The lines were laid in the space between the river and the road, but were carried on an embankment over the side road leading to Bullbridge village, which itself was carried by a bridge over the river. A Victorian commentator wrote "river, road, railway and canal were thus piled up, four stories high". To avoid paying compensation to the canal owners,
    6.00
    1 votes
    202
    Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge

    Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge
    The Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge is a steelsuspension bridge over the Rhine located in Cologne, Germany. Completed in 1954, it has a main span of 378 metres. It was named after the Cologne district of Rodenkirchen. It was built from 1938 to 1941, after the design of Paul Bonatz and the planning of Fritz Leonhardt, for the Autobahn Cologne-Aachen. Today the Bundesautobahn 4 is the southern wing of the Cologne Beltway. The bridge was destroyed due to an airstrike on 14 January 1945. It was rebuilt from 1952 to 1954, with the old pylons re-used. The new bridge was only built from 3350 tons of steel, unlike the old bridge with 6100 tons. Because of the increasing traffic on the bridge, in 1990 it was expanded with an equal bridge. The expansion was finished in 1995. Media related to Rodenkirchener Autobahnbrücke at Wikimedia Commons
    6.00
    1 votes
    203
    Hartbeespoort Dam

    Hartbeespoort Dam

    Hartbeespoort Dam also known as Harties (officially the Hartbeespoort Dam Reservoir) is a dam situated in the North West Province of South Africa . It lies in a valley to the south of the Magaliesberg mountain range and north of the Witwatersberg mountain range, about 35 kilometres west of Pretoria. The name of the dam means "pass of the hartebeest" (a species of antelope) in Afrikaans. The dam was originally designed for irrigation which is currently its primary use. The town of Hartbeespoort is situated close to the dam wall and the villages of Kosmos, Melodie, Ifafi and Meerhof can be found alongside its banks. Hartbeespoort was previously known as Schoemansville, after General Hendrik Schoeman. The dam was built on the farm Hartebeestpoort, once owned by the Boer General Hendrik Schoeman (1840–1901). The farm and adjacent land was acquired by the State, mainly through the facilitation of his son, Johan Schoeman (1887–1967), in about 1912. The dam was completed in 1923. Hartbeespoort Dam first overflowed the dam wall in March 1925. The completion of the dam made the agricultural land north of the Magaliesberg much more valuable, especially land close to canals and the Krokodil
    6.00
    1 votes
    204
    Hoover Dam

    Hoover Dam

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Hoover Dam
    Hoover Dam, once known as Boulder Dam, is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the US states of Arizona and Nevada. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Its construction was the result of a massive effort involving thousands of workers, and cost over one hundred lives. The dam was controversially named after President Herbert Hoover. Since about 1900, the Black Canyon and nearby Boulder Canyon had been investigated for their potential to support a dam that would control floods, provide irrigation water and produce hydroelectric power. In 1928, Congress authorized the project. The winning bid to build the dam was submitted by a consortium called Six Companies, Inc., which began construction on the dam in early 1931. Such a large concrete structure had never been built before, and some of the techniques were unproven. The torrid summer weather and the lack of facilities near the site also presented difficulties. Nevertheless, Six Companies turned over the dam to the federal government on March 1, 1936, more than two years
    6.00
    1 votes
    205
    Hyde Park Barracks, London

    Hyde Park Barracks, London

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Hyde Park Barracks, London
    The Hyde Park Barracks are located in Knightsbridge in central London, U.K. on the southern edge of Hyde Park. Historically they were often known as Knightsbridge Barracks and this name is still sometimes used informally. Hyde Park Barracks is three quarters of a mile from Buckingham Palace, close enough for the officers and men of the Household Cavalry to be available to respond speedily to any emergency at the Palace. The first buildings on the site were constructed for the Horse Guards in 1795, and a riding school and stables designed by Philip Hardwick were added in 1857. These buildings were replaced with new ones by Thomas Henry Wyatt in the 1880s, which in turn were demolished to make way for modern buildings designed by Sir Basil Spence, and completed in 1970. It was built to accommodate 23 officers, 60 warrant officers and non-commissioned officers, 431 rank and file, and 273 horses. The most prominent feature is a 33 storey, 94 metres (308 ft) tall residential tower, which is one of the two most prominent modern buildings as seen from Hyde Park along with The London Hilton on Park Lane. It has been described as "dramatically modern and uncompromising", but many people
    6.00
    1 votes
    206
    London Eye

    London Eye

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the London Eye
    The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel situated on the banks of the River Thames in London, England. The entire structure is 135 metres (443 ft) tall and the wheel has a diameter of 120 metres (394 ft). It is the tallest Ferris wheel in Europe, and the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom, visited by over 3.5 million people annually. When erected in 1999 it was the tallest Ferris wheel in the world, until surpassed first by the 160 m (520 ft) Star of Nanchang in 2006 and then the 165 m (541 ft) Singapore Flyer in 2008. Supported by an A-frame on one side only, unlike the taller Nanchang and Singapore wheels, the Eye is described by its operators as "the world's tallest cantilevered observation wheel". It provides the highest public viewing point, and is the 20th tallest structure, in London. The London Eye, or Millennium Wheel, was officially called the British Airways London Eye and then the Merlin Entertainments London Eye. Since 20 January 2011, its official name is the EDF Energy London Eye following a three-year sponsorship deal. The London Eye adjoins the western end of Jubilee Gardens, on the South Bank of the River Thames between Westminster Bridge and
    6.00
    1 votes
    207
    Nuclear weapon

    Nuclear weapon

    • Projects: Manhattan Project
    A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission ("atomic") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10,000,000 tons of TNT. A modern thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can produce an explosive force comparable to the detonation of more than 1.2 million tons (1.1 million tonnes) of TNT. Thus, even a small nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire and radiation. Nuclear weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction, and their use and control have been a major focus of international relations policy since their debut. Only two nuclear weapons have been used in the course of warfare, both by the United States near the end of World War II. On 6 August 1945, a uranium gun-type fission bomb code-named "Little Boy" was detonated over the Japanese city
    6.00
    1 votes
    208
    Oymapinar Dam

    Oymapinar Dam

    Oymapinar Dam is an arch dam built on the Manavgat river in Turkey in 1984. It is an arch dam in design, 185 m in height, built to generate hydroelectric power. Oymapınar Dam is located 12 km north of Manavgat Waterfall. It is an artificial, freshwater dam with a capacity of 300 million cubic meters. It is 23 km upstream of Manavgat town 40 km east of city of Antalya in southern Turkey and located on the Manavgat River which runs into the Mediterranean. The dam has four underground turbines with a total capacity of 540 megawatts. When built in 1984 it was the third largest dam in Turkey. As more dams have been built, it is the fifth largest. Because of the arch design, the force of water pushing against the dam compacts the dam and strengthens it. The weight of the dam structure pushes it down firmly into the underlying rock. This design is ideal for dams built in rocky narrow gorges. The dam was built by Bilfinger Berger and completed in 1984.
    6.00
    1 votes
    209
    Russia Tower

    Russia Tower

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Russia Tower
    The Russia Tower (Russian: Башня Россия; Bashnya Rossiya) was a skyscraper planned for Moscow International Business Centre of Moscow, Russia. Construction began in September 2007, and was planned to be completed in 2012. The total area of the structure would cover 520,000 m (5,600,000 sq ft), of which approximately 200,000 m (2,200,000 sq ft) would be located underground. The tower would have contain 118 floors, 101 elevators, and underground parking to accommodate 3,680 cars. Commercial retail shops would be located at the base of the building. The maximum people capacity of the building was projected to be around 30,000. Construction was halted in November 2008, in February 2009 the project was suspended, and in June 2009 the project was officially cancelled. Russia Tower was proposed for plots 2 and 3 of the Moscow International Business Centre in 1994 as the world's tallest building; a 648 m (2,126 ft), 125-story tower. It was designed by Chicago-based architectural firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. It was soon moved to plot 14. In the middle of 2003 an updated 648 m (2,126 ft), 134-story design had been moved to plots 17 and 18. In January 2004, the Moscow Development
    6.00
    1 votes
    210
    Waterloo Bridge

    Waterloo Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of Waterloo Bridge
    Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, England between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge. The name of the bridge is in memory of the Anglo-Dutch and Prussian victory at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Thanks to its location at a strategic bend in the river, the views of London (Westminster, the South Bank and London Eye to the west, the City of London and Canary Wharf to the east) from the bridge are widely held to be the finest from any spot at ground level. The first bridge on the site was designed in 1809-10 by John Rennie for the Strand Bridge Company and opened in 1817 as a toll bridge. The granite bridge had nine arches, each of 120 feet (36.6 m) span, separated by double Grecian-Doric stone columns and was 2,456 feet (748.6 m) long, including approaches. Before its opening it was known as 'Strand Bridge'. During the 1840s the bridge gained a reputation as a popular place for suicide attempts. In 1841 the American daredevil Samuel Gilbert Scott was killed while performing an act in which he hung by a rope from a scaffold on the bridge. In 1844 Thomas Hood wrote the poem The Bridge of Sighs about the suicide of a
    6.00
    1 votes
    211
    Capanda Dam

    Capanda Dam

    The Capanda Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Kwanza River in Malanje Province, Angola. The facility generates power by utilizing four turbines and 130 MW each, totalling the installed capacity to 520 MW. The dam was constructed by Gamek, a government body, for a total cost of US$4 billion. An additional cost of more than US$400 million was spent in repairing the damage caused during UNITA's occupation of the area at the time of the Angolan Civil War in 1992 and 1999.
    5.00
    2 votes
    212
    Guri Dam

    Guri Dam

    The Guri Dam is a concrete gravity and embankment dam in Bolívar State, Venezuela on the Caroni River. Its official name is Central Hidroeléctrica Simón Bolívar (previously named Central Hidroeléctrica Raúl Leoni from 1978 to 2000). It is 7,426 meters long and 162 m high. The Hydroelectric Power station Guri was constructed in the Necuima Canyon, 100 kilometers upstream from the mouth of the Caroní River in the Orinoco. There are two machine rooms with ten generators each, capable of producing a total of 87 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity per year. The walls in room number two were decorated by the Venezuelan kinetic artist Carlos Cruz-Díez. The first stage of development of Guri began in 1963 and was finished in 1978 with a capacity of 2,065 megawatts in 10 units and with the dam to a maximum level of 215 meters above sea level. The second stage of the dam concluded in 1986 and allows the water level to reach 272 m above sea level, and constructed the second power plant that houses 10 units of 630 MW each. As of 2009, the hydroelectric plant is the third-largest in the world, with 10,200 MW capacity. It was once the largest worldwide by installed capacity, replacing
    5.00
    2 votes
    213
    Karun-3 dam

    Karun-3 dam

    The Karun-3 dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Karun river in the province of Khuzestan, Iran. It was built to help meet Iran's energy demands as well as to provide flood control. The Karun has the highest discharge of Iran's rivers. The purpose of the dam is for power generation and flood control. The Karun III power generators are connected to the national power network as the peak power generation. With this power plant being operated, with the capacity of 2,280 MW, and an average annual electric power generation of 4,137 GWh, a major portion of the electric power shortage in the country will be met. The dam is a concrete double arch type, 205 m (673 ft) high from the foundation and 185 m (607 ft) high from the river bed. Its foundation width is 29.5 m (97 ft). The arch dam design is an ideal one for a dam built in a narrow, rocky gorge to hold back water in a reservoir. Because of the arch shape, the force of the backed up water presses downward against the dam and has the effect of strengthening the dam foundation.
    5.00
    2 votes
    214
    New Semington Aqueduct

    New Semington Aqueduct

    New Semington Aqueduct (grid reference ST904609) carries the Kennet and Avon Canal over the carriageway of the A350 road Trowbridge Bypass, at Semington in west Wiltshire, England. Although the construction of new canals is no longer common practice in England, new aqueducts such as this are sometimes built in relation to new roads or road widening schemes. The new aqueduct was built under the provisions of the The Wiltshire County Council (Semington Aqueduct) Scheme 2000, later confirmed on 17 July 2002, as Statutory Instrument No. 1868. It was part of a road-building scheme to provide a bypass for the villages of Semington, to the west of the new structure, and Berryfield to the north of the canal, ending on the southern edge of Melksham. In order to provide the necessary headroom of 18 feet (5.5 m), the road was built in a cutting at this point. The new structure is on the line of the original canal. In order to allow it to be built without closing the canal for the duration of the project, the canal was temporarily diverted to the south of its existing route, from the head of Semington Top Lock to a point 240 yards (220 m) to the east. Since the towpath is on the north bank of
    5.00
    2 votes
    215
    Butterley Tunnel

    Butterley Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Butterley Tunnel
    Butterley Tunnel is a one and three quarter mile long canal tunnel on the Cromford Canal below Ripley, in Derbyshire, England, opened to traffic in 1794. The tunnel was 2,966 yard (2712m) long, 9 ft (2.7 m) wide at water level, and 8 ft (2.4 m) from water to soffit (depending on the water level). At the time of building it was the third longest canal tunnel in the World after Sapperton and Dudley. Thirty-three shafts were sunk during construction with the workings dewatered using a Woodhouse steam engine. Water was provided for the Cromford Canal from the 50-acre (200,000 m) Butterley Reservoir situated on the hill above the tunnel. The Butterley Reservoir is itself crossed by a stone railway embankment currently used by the locomotives of the Midland Railway - Butterley's preserved steam railway. Water flowed from the reservoir directly into the tunnel via an adit 600 yards (550 m) along the tunnel from the Western Portal. Above the Eastern portal the Butterley Park Reservoir once provided water to the canal. This Reservoir was filled in during 1935. Both the tunnel and reservoirs were constructed by the Butterley Company, formed in 1790 by Benjamin Outram (1764–1805) and Francis
    4.50
    2 votes
    216
    Kouga Dam

    Kouga Dam

    The Kouga Dam(formerly: Paul Sauer Dam prior to 1995) supplies irrigations water to the Kouga and Gamtoos valleys as well as drinking water to the Port Elizabeth metropolitan area via the Lourie, South Africa balancing dam. The dam can be accessed by following the R330 and then the R331 from the N2 at Humansdorp. All but the last 4km is tarred road and there is a short tunnel just before the dam wall. There are three 1200 kVA hydroelectric turbines at the base of the dam, but they are currently not in use.
    4.50
    2 votes
    217
    Metropolitan Line

    Metropolitan Line

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Metropolitan Line
    The Metropolitan line is part of the London Underground. The line currently runs from Aldgate in the City of London to Amersham in Buckinghamshire, with branch lines to Uxbridge, Watford and Chesham, although before 1988 the Hammersmith & City line and the East London line were also branded as the Metropolitan line. The line is coloured in Transport for London's (TfL) Corporate Magenta on the Tube map and in other branding. The current line is below ground for much of the way on the southern section; north of Baker Street, at Finchley Road the line runs in the open. Of the 34 stations served, nine are below ground. It is the tenth busiest line on the network with just under 67,000,000 passengers annually. Baker Street is the central London terminus for many trains, while others continue into the City to terminate at Aldgate. On 10 January 1863 the Metropolitan Railway opened a line between Paddington and Farringdon. It was the world's first underground railway. The four-track section between Wembley Park and Moor Park allows express or "fast" services to the outer suburbs to overtake slower trains. The Metropolitan is the only Underground line with this feature; on the others the
    4.50
    2 votes
    218
    Skyper

    Skyper

    • Projects: Construction of Skyper
    Skyper is a building complex in the Bahnhofsviertel district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The tallest of the three buildings is a 38-storey, 154 m (505 ft) skyscraper. Its quadrant-shaped silhouette is a distinctive part of the Frankfurt cityscape. Completed in 2004, the tower is linked by a 9 m (30 ft) glass atrium to a neo-classical villa dating from 1915. The villa is listed as a building of historical importance and once belonged, along with the site as a whole, to the Philipp Holzmann construction group, which used the property as its corporate head office. A residential and commercial building with 52 one- to three-room apartments and ground-floor retail space completes the ensemble. The plans for the €480 million project originated from Frankfurt architects JSK, who were commissioned by Holzmann AG. With building approval granted, the architects subsequently realised their plans on behalf of general contractors ABG and the new owner, DekaBank, which had purchased the building for an open real estate fund of its real estate subsidiary, Deka Immobilien. Following completion in 2005, DekaBank moved into offices on the lower floors as the main tenant. The higher floors of the
    4.50
    2 votes
    219
    Thames Tunnel

    Thames Tunnel

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Thames Tunnel
    The Thames Tunnel is an underwater tunnel, built beneath the River Thames in London, United Kingdom, connecting Rotherhithe and Wapping. It measures 35 feet (11 m) wide by 20 feet (6 m) high and is 1,300 feet (396 m) long, running at a depth of 75 feet (23 m) below the river's surface (measured at high tide). It was the first tunnel known successfully to have been constructed underneath a navigable river, and was built between 1825 and 1843 using Thomas Cochrane and Marc Isambard Brunel's newly invented tunnelling shield technology, by him and his son Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The tunnel was originally designed for, but never used by, horse-drawn carriages and now forms part of the London Overground railway network. At the start of the 19th century, there was a pressing need for a new land connection between the north and south banks of the Thames to link the expanding docks on each side of the river. The engineer Ralph Dodd tried, but failed, to build a tunnel between Gravesend and Tilbury in 1799. In 1805–1809 a group of Cornish miners, including Richard Trevithick, tried to dig a tunnel farther upriver between Rotherhithe and Wapping/Limehouse but failed because of the difficult
    4.50
    2 votes
    220
    Burj Khalifa

    Burj Khalifa

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Burj Dubai
    Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة‎ "Khalifa Tower"), known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest manmade structure in the world, at 829.84 m (2,723 ft). Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010, and is part of the new 2 km (490-acre) flagship development called Downtown Dubai at the 'First Interchange' along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai's main business district. The tower's architecture and engineering were performed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill of Chicago, with Adrian Smith as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer. The primary contractor was Samsung C&T of South Korea. The total cost for the project was about US$1.5 billion; and for the entire "Downtown Dubai" development, US$20 billion. In March 2009, Mohamed Ali Alabbar, chairman of the project's developer, Emaar Properties, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m²) and the Armani Residences, also in Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m²). The
    5.00
    1 votes
    221
    Fallingwater

    Fallingwater

    • Projects: Design and Construction of Fallingwater
    Fallingwater or Kaufmann Residence is a house designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1935 in rural southwestern Pennsylvania, 43 miles (69 km) southeast of Pittsburgh. The home was built partly over a waterfall on Bear Run in the Mill Run section of Stewart Township, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, in the Laurel Highlands of the Allegheny Mountains. Hailed by Time shortly after its completion as Wright's "most beautiful job", it is listed among Smithsonian's Life List of 28 places "to visit before you die." It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. In 1991, members of the American Institute of Architects named the house the "best all-time work of American architecture" and in 2007, it was ranked twenty-ninth on the list of America's Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. Almost forgotten at age 70, Frank Lloyd Wright was given the opportunity to re-emerge on the architectural scene with his design and construction of three buildings. His three great works of the late 1930s--Fallingwater, the Johnson Wax Building in Racine, Wisconsin, and the Herbert Jacobs house in Madison, Wisconsin--brought him back to the front of the architectural pack. Edgar Kaufmann Sr.
    5.00
    1 votes
    222
    Lötschberg Base Tunnel

    Lötschberg Base Tunnel

    The Lötschberg Base Tunnel (LBT) is a 34.57-kilometre (21.48 mi) railway tunnel on the BLS Lötschbergbahn's Lötschberg Line cutting through the Alps of Switzerland some 400 m (1,312 ft) below the existing Lötschberg Tunnel. It is currently the world's longest land tunnel and accommodates passenger and freight trains. It runs between Frutigen, Berne (46°34′43″N 7°38′57″E / 46.5787°N 7.6491°E / 46.5787; 7.6491 (Lötschberg Base Tunnel, northern portal)), and Raron, Valais (46°18′33″N 7°49′54″E / 46.3091°N 7.8316°E / 46.3091; 7.8316 (Lötschberg Base Tunnel, southern portal)). Breakthrough was in April 2005 and construction ended in 2006. The opening ceremony was in June 2007. Full scale operation began in December 2007. Built to ease lorry traffic on Swiss roads, the LBT allows an increased number of lorries and trailers to be loaded onto trains in Germany, pass through Switzerland on rail and be unloaded in Italy. It also cuts down travel time for German tourists going to Swiss ski resorts and puts the Valais into commuting distance to Bern by reducing travel time by 50%. The total cost was SFr 4.3 billion (as of 2007, corrected to 1998 prices). This and the Gotthard Base
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    223
    Mica Dam

    Mica Dam

    The Mica Dam is a hydroelectric dam spanning the Columbia River 135 kilometres north of Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. Completed in 1973 under the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty, the Mica powerhouse has a generating capacity of 1,805 megawatts (MW). The dam is operated by BC Hydro. The Mica Dam, named after the nearby settlement (now drowned under the lake) of Mica Creek and its associated stream in turn named because of the abundance of mica minerals in the area, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world. The reservoir for the dam is Kinbasket Lake, which was created when the dam was built. Water below the dam flows south directly into Revelstoke Lake, the reservoir for the Revelstoke Dam. The dam's underground powerhouse was the second largest in the world at the time of its construction, and was the first installation of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) insulated switchgear in North America. It is also the dam farthest up the Columbia River. Mica Dam was operational on March 29, 1973. The dam was built to a height of 244 metres (801 ft) above bedrock, near the first location of the village Mica Creek. At the time, the dam was one of three storage dams built by
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    224
    One Liberty Plaza

    One Liberty Plaza

    • Projects: Construction of One Liberty Plaza
    One Liberty Plaza, formerly the U.S. Steel Building, is a skyscraper in lower Manhattan, New York City, at the location of the former Singer Building (tallest structure ever dismantled). One Liberty Plaza is currently owned and operated by Brookfield Office Properties. The building is 743 ft (226 m) tall and has 54 floors. It was completed in 1973. At 2,200,000 sq ft (200,000 m), each floor offers almost 1 acre (0.40 ha) of office space, making it one of the largest office buildings in New York. Its facade is black, consisting of a structural steel frame. The building was originally commissioned by U.S. Steel. It once housed the headquarters of Merrill Lynch. Currently, a variety of tenants occupy the space, from large law firms, such as Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, to public and not-for-profit agencies like the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation. The building is bordered by Broadway, Cortlandt Street, Church Street and Liberty Street. South of the building is Zucotti Park, formerly called Liberty Plaza Park. The building had a substantial renovation in 1989, which involved the creation of a new lobby and elevator system. The
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    225
    Seikan Tunnel

    Seikan Tunnel

    The Seikan Tunnel (青函トンネル Seikan Tonneru or 青函隧道 Seikan Zuidō) is a 53.85-kilometre (33.46 mi) railway tunnel in Japan, with a 23.3-kilometre (14.5 mi) long portion under the seabed. The track level is about 140 metres (460 ft) below the seabed and 240 m (790 ft) below sea level. It travels beneath the Tsugaru Strait — connecting Aomori Prefecture on the Japanese island Honshu and the island Hokkaido — as part of the Kaikyo Line of Hokkaido Railway Company. The name Seikan comes from combining the on'yomi readings of the first characters of Aomori (青森) and Hakodate (函館), the nearest major city on the Hokkaido side. Seikan is both the longest and the deepest operational rail tunnel in the world; the Gotthard Base Tunnel in Switzerland will be longer when it opens to traffic in 2016. It is also the longest undersea tunnel in the world, but the Channel Tunnel between the United Kingdom and France has a longer undersea portion. Connecting the islands Honshu and Hokkaido by a fixed link had been considered since the Taishō period (1912–1925), but serious surveying commenced only in 1946, induced by the loss of overseas territory at the end of World War II and the need to accommodate
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    226
    Holland Tunnel

    Holland Tunnel

    The Holland Tunnel is a highway tunnel under the Hudson River connecting the island of Manhattan in New York City with Jersey City, New Jersey at Interstate 78 on the mainland of the United States. Unusual for an American public works project, it is not named for a government official, politician, a local hero or a person of historical interest but for its first chief engineer. An integral conduit within the New York Metropolitan Area, the tunnel was originally known as the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel or the Canal Street Tunnel; it was the first of two automobile tunnels built under the river, the other being the Lincoln Tunnel. Begun in 1920 and completed in 1927, the tunnel is named after Clifford Milburn Holland (1883–1924), Chief Engineer on the project, who died before it was completed. Tunnel designer Ole Singstad finished Holland's work. The tunnel is one of the earliest examples of a mechanically ventilated design. 84 fans, in four ventilation buildings, create a floor to ceiling air flow across the roadway at regular intervals, via systems of ducts beneath and above the roadway. The fans can completely change the air inside the tunnel every 90 seconds. A forced
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    227
    Al Faisaliyah Center

    Al Faisaliyah Center

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Al Faisaliyah Center
    The Al Faisaliyah Center (or Al Faisaliah Center, Arabic: برج الفيصلية‎) is a commercial skyscraper located in the business district of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It is the third tallest building in Saudi Arabia after the Kingdom Centre and Abraj Al Bait . Immediately below it an outside viewing deck; at ground level, there is a shopping center with major world brands. The Al Faisaliyah Center is about 267 meters high and consists of 44 floors. The four corner beams of the Al Faisaliyah Complex join at the top above a golden ball. The design is said to be based on that of a ballpoint pen. Inside the golden ball is a luxurious revolving restaurant. There is a clear view of Saudi Arabia's other skyscraper, the Kingdom Centre, from the Al Faisaliyah Center and the two buildings create a silhouetted skyline in the evening. The tower was designed by UK based architects Foster and Partners and engineers Buro Happold. It is part of an Al Faisaliyah Complex, which consists of a hotel, the tower, and two other buildings. The tower features several restaurants like 11a and the Globe and also has a cigar lounge at the top floor.
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    228
    Allianz Arena

    Allianz Arena

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Allianz Arena
    The Allianz Arena is a football stadium in the north of Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The two professional Munich football clubs FC Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 München have played their home games at the Allianz Arena since the start of the 2005–06 season. Both clubs had previously played their home games at the Munich Olympic Stadium since 1972, where FC Bayern Munich played all of their games and TSV 1860 München most of their games. The Allianz Arena is the third biggest stadium in Germany behind Signal Iduna Park in Dortmund and the Olympiastadion in Berlin. The large financial services provider Allianz purchased the rights to name the stadium for 30 years. However this name cannot be used when hosting FIFA and UEFA events, since these governing bodies have policies forbidding corporate sponsorship from companies that are not official tournament partners. During the 2006 World Cup, the stadium was referred to as FIFA World Cup Stadium Munich. In UEFA club matches, it is known as Fußball Arena München, and it hosted the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final. The stadium has been nicknamed "Schlauchboot" (inflatable boat). The stadium is located at the northern edge of Munich's borough of
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    229
    Eiffel Tower

    Eiffel Tower

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Eiffel Tower
    The Eiffel Tower (French: La Tour Eiffel, [tuʁ ɛfɛl], nickname La dame de fer, the iron lady) is an iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Erected in 1889 as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair, it has become both a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest structure in Paris and the most-visited paid monument in the world; 7.1 million people ascended it in 2011. The third level observatory's upper platform is at 279.11 m the highest accessible to public in the European Union and the highest in Europe as long as the platform of the Ostankino Tower, at 360 m, remains closed as a result of the fire of August 2000. The tower received its 250 millionth visitor in 2010. The tower stands 320 metres (1,050 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to assume the title of the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years, until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. However,
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    230
    Lichfield Aqueduct

    Lichfield Aqueduct

    The Lichfield Canal Aqueduct is a navigable aqueduct built to carry the future Lichfield Canal over the M6 Toll Motorway, just to the west of Lichfield and north of Birmingham, England. The Lichfield Canal (originally part of the Wyrley and Essington Canal) is currently being restored. Restoration was threatened by the construction of the M6 Toll motorway around the north of Birmingham, which cut across the canal's route. Funds were raised to build an aqueduct to carry the canal over the motorway (the aqueduct has been finished but the canal has yet to reach it, giving it an odd appearance). Partly as a result of this incident the Government has promised that never again will a new road be built in the path of a waterway restoration scheme, unless an aqueduct or tunnel is provided.
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    231
    Millennium Bridge

    Millennium Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Millennium Bridge
    The Millennium Bridge (Irish: Droichead na Mílaoise) is a pedestrian bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin, joining Eustace Street in Temple Bar to the north quays. Installed in December 1999, to commemorate the new millennium (2000), the span was actually constructed 80 km from Dublin - in Carlow - as a portal frame structure made up of a slender steel truss and resting on reinforced concrete haunches. The bridge was designed by Howley Harrington Architects with Price & Myers as Consulting Engineers. The concrete base and steel structure for the bridge were provided by two Carlow firms: Formwork 2000+ and Thompson Engineering respectively. The Millennium Bridge is neighbour to the much older (and well known) pedestrian Ha'penny Bridge to the east, and Grattan Bridge to the west.
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    232
    Samford Hall

    Samford Hall

    William J. Samford Hall is a structure on the campus of Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama. It is an icon of Auburn University and houses the school's administration. The building is named for William J. Samford, the Governor of Alabama from 1900 to 1901. When Auburn University (as East Alabama Male College) opened in 1859, classes were held in a structure named "Old Main" on the current site of Samford Hall. On June 24, 1887, Old Main was destroyed by fire. The following year, Samford Hall (then simply known as the "Main Building") was constructed, using, in part, bricks salvaged from the ruins of Old Main. The design of Samford Hall roughly mirrored that of Old Main, except that Samford Hall had two main entrances instead of Old Main's one, and on Samford one of the two flanking towers was considerably taller and was constructed to contain a clock. In 1889, a clockworks and bell were added to the taller tower. Through the late 19th century, Samford Hall was the college's main classroom building and contained the library. In May 1929, the building was officially named for William J. Samford. In 1941, the tower's mechanical clock was converted to run on electricity, and in 1977,
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    233
    Windsor Dam

    Windsor Dam

    Windsor Dam was originally build to control flooding of Ladysmith, in KwaZulu-Natal by the Klip River, but silt buildup quickly reduced its efficiency. The Windsor Dam was commissioned in 1950, has a capacity of 772 cubic metres (27,300 cu ft), and a surface area of 0.826 square kilometres (0.319 sq mi), the dam wall is 17 metres (56 ft) high. The Qedusizi Dam further downstream in the Klip River was completed in 1997 to take over the task of flood management.
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    Bonnington Aqueduct

    Bonnington Aqueduct

    The Bonnington Aqueduct is an aqueduct on the Union Canal, to the west of Edinburgh, Scotland. The canal and the M8 motorway pass over the B7030 Cliftonhall Road, quite close to each other. On the canal, the aqueduct is located between Bridge 15 (Ratho Bridge) and Bridge 16 (Nellfield Bridge). The aqueduct is named after the village of Bonnington to the south, near the border with West Lothian. Grid Reference NT 117 710
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    235
    Clifton Suspension Bridge

    Clifton Suspension Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Clifton Suspension Bridge
    The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge which spans the Avon Gorge and links Clifton in Bristol to Leigh Woods in North Somerset, England. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the bridge is a grade I listed building and forms part of the B3129 road. The idea of building a bridge across the Avon Gorge originated in 1753. The original plans were for a stone bridge, and later plans were for a cast iron structure. An attempt to build Brunel's design in 1831 was stopped by the Bristol Riots, and the revised version of his designs was built after his death, and completed in 1864. Although similar in size, the bridge towers are not identical in design, the Clifton tower having side cut-outs, the Leigh tower more pointed arches atop a 110 feet (34 m) red sandstone clad abutment. Roller mounted "saddles" at the top of each tower allow movement of the three independent wrought iron chains on each side when loads pass over the bridge. The bridge deck is suspended by eighty-one matching vertical wrought-iron rods. Two men were killed during the bridge's construction; since opening it has gained a reputation as a suicide bridge. It now has plaques that advertise the telephone
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    236
    Cobble Hill Tunnel

    Cobble Hill Tunnel

    The Cobble Hill Tunnel (popularly the Atlantic Avenue Tunnel) of the Long Island Rail Road is an abandoned railroad tunnel beneath Atlantic Avenue in downtown Brooklyn, New York City. When open, it ran for about 2,517 feet (767 m) between Columbia Street and Boerum Place. It is the oldest railway tunnel beneath a city street in North America. Some also claim it to be the oldest subway tunnel in the world, as it was built by the cut and cover method under a city street, specifically for the purposes of improved public safety, attaining grade separation and enhanced railway operations. Construction began in May 1844. The tunnel opened for use on December 3, 1844, but was not completely finished until late Spring 1845. It was built mainly to satisfy public demand for creation of a grade-separated right of way for the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad (later Long Island Rail Road) on its way to the South Ferry at the foot of Atlantic Street (later Atlantic Avenue), where passengers could catch ferries to Manhattan. The construction of the tunnel also lowered the LIRR's grade through Cobble Hill. In exchange for building the tunnel, the City of Brooklyn granted the B&J permission to operate
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    237
    Crossness Pumping Station

    Crossness Pumping Station

    Crossness Pumping Station was a sewage pumping station designed by engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette and architect Charles Henry Driver. It was constructed between 1859 and 1865 as part of his redevelopment of the London sewerage system. It is located at Crossness, southeast London, England, at the eastern end of the Southern Outfall Sewer. The sewage was pumped up into a 27-million-imperial-gallon (120,000 m) reservoir, and was released into the Thames during the ebbing tide. The station contains the four original pumping engines, which are thought to be the largest remaining rotative beam engines in the world, with 52 ton flywheels and 47 ton beams. The engines are named: Prince Consort, Victoria, Albert Edward, and Alexandra. Although the engines are original, they are not in their original 1864 configuration as all four engines were converted from single cylinder to the current triple expansion operation in 1901 and 1902. Prince Consort was returned to steam in 2003 and now runs on Trust Open Days. The other engines are not in working order, although work has begun on the restoration of Victoria. It is adjacent to Erith Marshes, a grazing marsh, the northern part of which is
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    238
    Fernsehturm Stuttgart

    Fernsehturm Stuttgart

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Fernsehturm Stuttgart
    The Fernsehturm Stuttgart (TV Tower Stuttgart) is the world's first TV tower built from concrete (and prototype for many towers of that kind all over the world). It is located on the so-called "Hoher Bopser" hill in the southern Stuttgart district of Degerloch. After a construction period of 20 months it was placed in service February 5, 1956, by Süddeutscher Rundfunk (today: Südwestrundfunk – SWR). The tower broadcasts several public FM radio stations and transmitted the ARD TV network's analogue service until 2006. The digital television services have moved to nearby Fernmeldeturm Stuttgart, which also broadcasts private FM radio stations in the area. Although controversial at first, it quickly became a well known landmark of Stuttgart and tourist attraction. From the two observation decks there is a view of Stuttgart, from the forests and vineyards in and around Stuttgart to the Swabian Jura and the Black Forest. The tower can be reached by the Stuttgart public transport system (see Stuttgart external links) and is open for visitors from 9:00 until 23:00. The tower carries beside the conventional red air traffic warning lights three rotating Xenon-lamps similar to those used on
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    239
    Gatehampton Railway Bridge

    Gatehampton Railway Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Gatehampton Railway Bridge
    Gatehampton Railway Bridge is a railway bridge carrying the Great Western Main Line over the River Thames in Lower Basildon, Berkshire, England. It takes the line between the stations at Goring and Streatley and Pangbourne, and crosses the Thames on the reach between Whitchurch Lock and Goring Lock. The brick bridge was built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1838, at the same time as Maidenhead Railway Bridge and Moulsford Railway Bridge.
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    Inguri Dam

    Inguri Dam

    The Inguri Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Inguri River in Georgia. Currently it is the world's second highest concrete arch dam with a height of 272 metres (892 ft). It is located north of the town Jvari. It is part of the Inguri hydroelectric power station (HES) which is partially located in the partially recognised Abkhazia. Soviet President Nikita Khrushchev initially proposed a major dam and hydroelectric power scheme on the Bzyb River as his favourite resort was located near the mouth of the river at Pitsunda. However, his experts informed him that a dam built on the Bzyb River would have had catastrophic effects in causing beach erosion at Pitsunda, so in the end the dam was built on the Inguri River instead, where the impact upon the coastline was assessed to be considerably less pronounced. Construction of the Inguri dam began in 1961. The dam became temporarily operational in 1978, and was completed in 1987. In 1994, the dam was inspected by engineers of Hydro-Québec, who found that the dam was "in a rare state of dilapidation". In 1999, the European Commission granted €9.4 million to Georgia for urgent repairs at the EInguri HES, including replacing the stoplog at the
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    241
    Kilsby Tunnel

    Kilsby Tunnel

    • Projects: Construction of Kilsby Tunnel
    The Kilsby Tunnel is a railway tunnel on the West Coast Main Line railway in England. It was designed and engineered by Robert Stephenson. The tunnel is located near the village of Kilsby in Northamptonshire roughly 5 miles (8 km) south-east of Rugby and is 2,432 yards (2,224 m) long. The tunnel was opened in 1838 as a part of the London and Birmingham Railway. It is today the 18th longest tunnel on the British railway system. The tunnel took far longer, and cost far more money to build than had been anticipated. This was because the tunnel builders encountered unexpected quicksand which trial borings into the hill had not revealed. The excess water from the quicksand had to be pumped out, a process which took several years. Similar problems were encountered with nearby Blisworth tunnel on the Grand Union Canal a few decades earlier. The length of time it took to build the tunnel delayed the opening of the London and Birmingham Railway. It took three years, and cost £320,000 to build — three times the original estimate (£23,758,000 in 2005 pounds).
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    Oroville Dam

    Oroville Dam

    Oroville Dam is a rockfill embankment dam on the Feather River east of the city of Oroville, California in the United States. At 770 feet (230 m) high, it is the tallest dam in the U.S. as of 2012, and serves mainly for water supply, hydroelectricity generation and flood control. The dam impounds Lake Oroville, the second largest man-made lake in California, with a capacity of more than 3.5 million acre-feet (4.4 km), located in the Sierra Nevada foothills east of the Sacramento Valley. Built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Oroville is a principal feature of the California State Water Project (SWP), one of two major projects that comprise California's statewide water system. Construction started in 1961, and despite various difficulties including floods and a major train wreck on the rail line used to transport material to the site, the towering main embankment was topped out in 1967 and the entire project was ready to impound water in 1968. The dam began to generate electricity after completion of the Edward Hyatt Pump-Generating Plant, then the country's largest underground power station. Since its completion, Oroville Dam has controlled the flow of the Feather River
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    243
    Pak Mun dam

    Pak Mun dam

    The Pak Mun Dam (Thai: เขื่อนปากมูล) is a gravity dam located 5.5 km west of the confluence of the Mun and Mekong rivers in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. It was constructed by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) with support from the World Bank at a total cost of US$240 million, and completed in 1994. The project has been criticized for adverse effects on the fisheries of the Mun River, insufficient compensation payments to affected villagers, and failure to produce the projected power output. The immediate impact of the dam was to flood 117 square kilometres of land and displace around 3,000 families. In all around 25,000 villagers claim to have been affected by the dam. Protests have been staged at the dam site and outside Government House in Bangkok. EGAT has paid out US$44.24 million in relocation compensation, plus US$15.8 million for loss of fisheries. In response to concerns about the dam's likely impact on fisheries on the Mun River, a fish ladder was incorporated into the scheme to allow fish into the Mun River to spawn. However, the ladder appears to have been unsuccessful: a report from the World Commission on Dams found that of 265 fish
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    244
    Royal Festival Hall

    Royal Festival Hall

    • Projects: Initial Design and Construction of the Royal Festival Hall
    The Royal Festival Hall is a 2,900-seat concert, dance and talks venue within Southbank Centre in London. It is situated on the South Bank of the River Thames, not far from Hungerford Bridge. It is a Grade I listed building - the first post-war building to become so protected (in 1981). The London Philharmonic Orchestra and Philharmonia Orchestras perform the majority of their London concerts in the hall. The hall was built as part of the Festival of Britain for London County Council, and was officially opened on 3 May 1951. When the Greater London Council (LCC's successor) was abolished in 1986, the Hall was taken over by the Arts Council. Since the late 1980s the hall has operated an 'open foyers' policy, opening up the substantial foyer spaces to the public throughout the day, even if there are no performances. This has proved very popular and the foyers are now one of the most used public spaces in London. The closest tube stations are Waterloo and Embankment. The foundation stone was laid in 1949 by Clement Attlee, then Prime Minister, on the site of the former Lion Brewery, built in 1837. The building was constructed by Holland, Hannen & Cubitts and officially opened on 3 May
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    Royal Observatory, Greenwich

    Royal Observatory, Greenwich

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich
    The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (formerly the Royal Greenwich Observatory or RGO), in London played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and is best known as the location of the prime meridian. It is situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames. The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August. At this time the king also created the position of Astronomer Royal (initially filled by John Flamsteed), to serve as the director of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation." The building was completed in the summer of 1676. The building was often given the title "Flamsteed House". The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century, and the Greenwich site is now maintained as a tourist attraction. There had been significant buildings on this land since the reign of William I. Greenwich Palace,
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    246
    Stanley Ferry Aqueduct

    Stanley Ferry Aqueduct

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Stanley Ferry Aqueduct
    Stanley Ferry Aqueduct was built between 1836 and 1839 to take the Aire and Calder Navigation over the River Calder in West Yorkshire, England. It is one of the earliest through arch bridges in the world and is considered to be the largest aqueduct executed in cast iron. Designed by George Leather Sr. and built by H. McIntosh, the aqueduct has a span of 50.3 metres (165 ft), a width of 7.3 metres (24 ft) and a depth of 2.6 metres (8.5 ft). It is still in use today, though an additional wider concrete aqueduct was constructed alongside in 1981 and the bridge was then renovated. Stanley Ferry is also the place where the Tom Pudding tub boats were loaded with coal from local collieries between 1863 and 1985 and transported down to Goole in long trains by canal. The site is one of three historic fords crossing the River Calder near Wakefield. Because the water was deepened for navigation a ferry became necessary, but was replaced by the first bridge in 1879.
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    Sterkfontein Dam

    Sterkfontein Dam

    The Sterkfontein Dam, located just outside the town of Harrismith, in the Free State, province of South Africa, is part of the Tugela-Vaal Water Project, and located on the Nuwejaarspruit, a tributary of the Wilge River in the upper catchment area of the Vaal River. The dam receives its water via the Tugela-Vaal Project which is a pumped-storage scheme involving the net transfer of up to 630 million m of water from KwaZulu-Natal. This is stored in the Sterkfontein Dam and released to the Vaal Dam via the Wilge River when needed. The Sterkfontein Dam is a highly effective reservoir, since it has the depth to store a large amount of water, with very little loss to evaporation. The Vaal Dam lake (reservoir) by comparison has a large surface area and is relatively shallow, which results in a higher rate of evaporation. The Sterkfontein Dam was originally commissioned in 1977 and comprised 69 m high earthfill embankment 2 290 m long with no spillway. It was subsequently raised in 1980 to its current height of 93 m with a crest length of 3 060 m and a full supply capacity of 2 656 million m. At full supply, it has a surface area of no more than 70 km. The extended dam was commissioned in
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    Taipei 101

    Taipei 101

    Taipei 101 (Chinese: 台北101 / 臺北101), formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a landmark skyscraper located in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan. The building ranked officially as the world's tallest from 2004 until the opening of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai in 2010. In July 2011, the building was awarded LEED Platinum certification, the highest award in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system and became the tallest and largest green building in the world. Taipei 101 was designed by C.Y. Lee & partners and constructed primarily by KTRT Joint Venture. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever since its opening, and received the 2004 Emporis Skyscraper Award. Fireworks launched from Taipei 101 feature prominently in international New Year's Eve broadcasts and the structure appears frequently in travel literature and international media. Taipei 101 comprises 101 floors above ground and 5 floors underground. The building was architecturally created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition (see Symbolism). Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern
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    Westonzoyland Pumping Station Museum

    Westonzoyland Pumping Station Museum

    The Westonzoyland Pumping Station Museum is a small Industrial Heritage museum dedicated to steam powered machinery in Westonzoyland, Somerset, England. The museum is housed in the first of several similar pumping stations to be built on the Somerset Levels. The main attraction is the 1861 steam engine and pump, the only one still in its original location and in working order. The museum also displays a number of other steam engines and pumps, and even has a short length of narrow gauge railway. The first mechanical pumping station on the Somerset Levels in southwestern England was built in 1830 to drain the area around Westonzoyland, Middlezoy and Othery. The success of the drainage system led to the formation of other drainage boards and the construction of other pumping stations. The station itself is a brick-built property with a chimney rising to 71 feet in height. A cottage section was added alongside it in the 1860s, to provide accommodation for the station-keeper. The first keeper was appointed around 1845, named Robert Hurd. After him came the Thyer family, who remained keepers until closure. Originally given a Grade II listing, the property was upgraded to Grade II* by
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    250
    Windsor Railway Bridge

    Windsor Railway Bridge

    • Projects: Design and Construction of the Windsor Railway Bridge
    Windsor Railway Bridge is a wrought iron 'bow and string' bridge in Windsor, Berkshire, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. It carries the ex-GWR branch line from Slough to Windsor into Windsor and Eton Central station. It crosses the River Thames on the reach between Romney Lock and Boveney Lock. The bridge is a single-span structure comprising three bowstring trusses which created two bays for the original two GWR tracks. The bridge is the World's oldest wrought iron bridge still in regular service,, and is a forerunner of Brunel's final masterpiece, the Royal Albert Bridge, Saltash. The bridge was Grade II* listed in 1975. The line opened in 1849. The construction of the line was delayed and could not be included in the original Parliamentary Act because of objections from the Provost of Eton College. The brick viaduct was constructed between 1861-65 to replace the original wooden trestle viaduct. The bridge contractor was Mr George Hannet. Although the bridge was built to take two tracks, the track on the upstream side was removed when the line was rationalised in the 1960s. The trackbed on this side now carries a sewage or water main pipe.
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