A person's profession is the career or job which they perform for most of their working life, or for which they are best known. It is broader-ranging than a single instance of employment; one person might be a Software Engineer by profession but have differing titles ("Junior Programmer", "Lead Developer", "Chief Architect", etc) over the course of her working life.
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A blacksmith is a person who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal; that is, by using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (compare to whitesmith). Blacksmiths produce objects such as gates, grilles, railings, light fixtures, furniture, sculpture, tools, agricultural implements, decorative and religious items, cooking utensils, and weapons.
Despite common usage, the person who shoes horses is a farrier (though a blacksmith may fabricate the shoes). Many farriers have carried out both trades, but most modern or engineering smiths do not.
The term "blacksmith" comes from the activity of "forging" iron or the "black" metal - so named due to the color of the metal after being heated (a key part of the blacksmithing process). The term "forging" means to shape metal by heating and hammering.
Blacksmiths work primarily with wrought iron and steel. The "black" in "blacksmith" refers to the black fire scale, a layer of oxides that forms on the surface of the metal during heating. The word "smith" derives from an old word, "smite" (to hit). Thus, a blacksmith is a person who hits black metal.
Blacksmiths work by heating pieces of wrought iron or steel, until the metal
An almoner is a chaplain or church officer who originally was in charge of distributing cash to the deserving poor.
Historically, almoners were Christian religious functionaries whose duty was to distribute alms to the poor. Monasteries were required to spend one tenth of their income in charity to the poor (a tithe). Bishops kept their own almoners and almoners were attached to the courts of the Kings of France. Charles VIII of France had a Grand Almoner in his employ.
In the United Kingdom, the Marquess of Exeter also holds the title of hereditary Grand Almoner. Today, however, one of the most prominent such offices is that of the Anglican Lord High Almoner. The High Almoner (currently Rt Rev Nigel McCulloch, Bishop of Manchester) is responsible for organising the Queen's annual distribution of Maundy money on Maundy Thursday.
The "Almoner of His Holiness," the pope's official almoner, continues in office even after the pope dies. He "continues to carry out works of charity in accordance with the criteria employed during the pope's lifetime" (Universi Dominici Gregis, 22).
The name almoner was also used for a hospital official who interviews prospective patients to qualify them
A sex worker is a person who works in the sex industry. The term is used in reference to all those in all areas of the sex industry including those who provide direct sexual services as well as the staff of such industries. Some sex workers are paid to engage in sexually explicit behavior which involve varying degrees of physical contact with clients (prostitutes, escorts, some but not all professional dominants); pornography models and actors engage in sexually explicit behavior which are filmed or photographed. Phone sex operators have sexually-oriented conversations with clients, and do auditive sexual roleplay. Other sex workers are paid to engage in live sexual performance, such as web cam sex and performers in live sex shows. Some sex workers perform erotic dances and other acts for an audience (striptease, Go-Go dancing, lap dancing, Neo-burlesque, and peep shows).
Thus, although the term is sometimes viewed as a synonym or euphemism for prostitute, it is more general.
The term "sex worker" was coined in 1980 by sex worker activist Carol Leigh. Its use became popularized after publication of the anthology, Sex Work: Writings By Women In The Sex Industry in 1987. The term
A sportsperson (American English: Sports person), (gendered as sportsman or sportswoman) or athlete is a person trained to compete in a sport involving physical strength, speed or endurance. Sportspeople may be professional or amateur.
Most professional sportspeople have particularly well-developed physiques obtained by extensive physical training and strict exercise accompanied by a strict dietary regimen.
The word "athlete" is a romanization of the Greek: άθλητὴς, athlētēs, one who participates in a contest; from ἂθλος, áthlos, or ἂθλον, áthlon, a contest or feat. The term may be used as a synonym for sportspeople in general, but it also has stronger connotations of people who compete in athletic sports, as opposed to other sporting types such as horse riding and driving. In British English (as well as other variants in the Commonwealth) athlete can also have a more specific meaning of people who compete in the sport of athletics.
An "all-around athlete" is a person who competes in multiple sports at a high level, for instance, someone who plays both basketball and baseball professionally. Examples of people who played numerous sports professionally include Jim Thorpe, Lionel
A bartender, barman, or barmaid or bar attendant is a person who serves usually alcoholic drinks behind a counter in a bar, pub, tavern, or similar establishment. A bartender, in short, "tends the bar". The term barkeeper may suggest that the person is the bar's owner. Bartenders also usually maintain the supplies and inventory for the bar (though some establishments have barbacks who help with these duties). Where cocktails are served, bartenders are expected to be able to mix hundreds to thousands of different drinks. A mixologist is someone who is skilled in mixing cocktails.
Bartenders represent the bar they tend, contributing to and reflecting the atmosphere of the bar. Where food is the main focus, the bartender is all but invisible. Alternatively, the bartender may be part of the entertainment, expected to engage in flair bartending or other forms of entertainment, as portrayed in the films Cocktail and Coyote Ugly. Where tipping is a local custom, bartenders depend on tips for most of their income. Bartenders are also usually responsible for confirming that customers are old enough to drink before serving them alcohol. In some countries, bartenders are legally required to
A baker is someone who produces, bakes and sells breads, rolls, biscuits or cookies, and/or crackers using an oven or other concentrated heat source. Cakes and similar foods may also be produced, as the traditional boundaries between what is produced by a baker as opposed to a pastry chef have blurred in recent decades. The place where a baker works is called a bakery.
The first group of people to bake bread were ancient Egyptians, around 8000 BC. During the Middle Ages it was common for each landlord to have a bakery, which was actually a public oven; Housewives would bring dough that they had prepared to the baker, who would tend the oven and bake them into bread. As time went on, bakers would also sell their own goods, and in that some bakers acted dishonestly, tricks emerged: for example, a baker might have trap door(s) in the oven or other obscured areas, that would allow a hidden small boy or other apprentice to take off some of the dough brought in for baking. Then the dishonest baker would sell bread made with the stolen dough as their own. This practice and others eventually lead to the famous regulation known as Assize of Bread and Ale, which prescribed harsh penalties
A truck driver (commonly referred to as a trucker or driver in the United States and Canada; a truckie in Australia and New Zealand; a lorry driver or driver in Ireland and the United Kingdom), is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck, usually a semi truck, box truck, or dump truck.
Truck drivers provide an essential service to industrialized societies by transporting finished goods and raw materials over land, typically to and from manufacturing plants, retail and distribution centers. Truck drivers are also responsible for inspecting their vehicles for mechanical items or issues relating to safe operation. Others, such as driver/sales workers, are also responsible for sales and customer service.
There are three major types of truck driver employment:
Both owner operators/owner driver and company drivers can be in these categories.
In Australia, drivers of trucks and truck and trailer combinations with gross vehicle mass greater than 12 tonnes must rest for 30 minutes every 5 hours and stop for 10 hours of sleep for every 14 hours of work (includes driving and non-driving duties). After 72 working hours (not including time spent resting or sleeping) a driver must
An electrician is a tradesman specialising in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines and related equipment. Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical infrastructure. Electricians may also specialize in wiring ships, airplanes and other mobile platforms. In the film industry and on a television crew the Electrician is referred to as a Gaffer.
"Electrician" and "electrical contractor" are related terms. An electrician is an individual tradesperson; an electrical contractor is a business that employs electricians to design, install, and maintain electrical systems. In most of the United States, separate licensing requirements exist for electricians and electrical contractors. Electricians are typically not allowed to perform work for the public unless under the employment of an electrical contractor.
Also see main article Lineman-History
The trade is the newest of the traditional trades, beginning with the advent of telegraph lines in the 1800's.
In the United States, electricians are sometimes referred to as a electrical wire men as opposed to Electrical linemen, who work on electric
An archivist ("AR-kiv-ist" or "AR-kive-ist") is a professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to information determined to have long-term value. The information maintained by an archivist can be any form of media (photographs, video or sound recordings, letters, documents, electronic records, etc.). As Richard Pearce-Moses wrote, "Archivists keep records that have enduring value as reliable memories of the past, and they help people find and understand the information they need in those records."
Determining what records have enduring value can be challenging. Archivists must also select records valuable enough to justify the costs of storage and preservation, plus the labor intensive expenses of arrangement, description, and reference service. The theory and scholarly work underpinning archives practices is called archival science.
Archivists' duties include acquiring and appraising new collections, arranging and describing records, providing reference service, and preserving materials. In arranging records, archivists apply two important principles: provenance and original order, sometimes referred to as respect des
An illustrator is a narrative artist who specializes in enhancing writing by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicated concepts or objects that are difficult to describe textually.
Illustrations have been used in advertisements, greeting cards, posters, books, magazines and newspapers. A cartoon illustration can add humor to humorous essays.
Traditional illustration techniques include watercolor, pen and ink, airbrush art, oil painting, pastels, wood engraving and linoleum cuts. John Held, Jr. was an illustrator who worked in a variety of styles and media, including linoleum cuts, pen and ink drawings, magazine cover paintings, cartoons, comic strips and set design, while also creating fine art with his animal sculptures and watercolor landscapes.
There are no formal qualifications needed to become an illustrator. However, many established illustrators attended an art school or college of some sort and were trained in different painting and drawing techniques. Universities and art schools offer specific courses in illustration (for example in the UK, a BA (Hons) Degree) so this
A mechanic is a tradesman, craftsman, or technician who uses tools to build or repair machinery. Many mechanics are specialized in a particular field such as auto mechanics, bicycle mechanics, motorcycle mechanics, boiler mechanics, general mechanics, industrial maintenance mechanics (millwrights), air conditioning and refrigeration mechanics, aircraft mechanics, diesel mechanics, and tank mechanics in the armed services. Auto mechanics, for example, have many trades within. Some may specialize in the electrical aspects, while others may specialize in the mechanical aspects. Other areas include: brakes and steering, automatic or standard transmission, engine repairs or diagnosing customer complaints. An auto technician has a wide variety of topics to study. A mechanic is typically certified by a trade association or regional government power.
A jester, or fool was both a historical person employed to entertain a ruler in medieval times and is a modern entertainer who performs at mostly medieval themed events. Jesters in medieval times are often thought to have worn brightly coloured clothes and eccentric hats in a motley pattern and their modern counterparts usually mimic this costume. As performers jesters have used storytelling, acrobatics, music, juggling and other skills to entertain their audiences.
The Royal Shakespeare Company provides historical context for the role of the fool:
In ancient times courts employed fools and by the Middle Ages the jester was a familiar figure. In Renaissance times, aristocratic households in Britain employed licensed fools or jesters, who sometimes dressed as other servants were dressed, but generally wore a motley (i.e. parti-coloured) coat, hood with ass's (i.e. donkey) ears or a red-flannel coxcomb and bells. Regarded as pets or mascots, they served not simply to amuse but to criticise their master or mistress and their guests. Queen Elizabeth (reigned 1558-1603) is said to have rebuked one of her fools for being insufficiently severe with her. Excessive behaviour, however, could
A game programmer is a software engineer, programmer, or computer scientist who primarily develops codebase for video games or related software, such as game development tools. Game programming has many specialized disciplines all of which fall under the umbrella term of "game programmer". A game programmer should not be confused with a game designer, who works on game design.
In the early days of video games (from the early 1970s to mid-1980s), a game programmer also took on the job of a designer and artist. This was generally because the abilities of early computers were so limited that having specialized personnel for each function was unnecessary. Game concepts were generally light and games were only meant to be played for a few minutes at a time, but more importantly, art content and variations in gameplay were constrained by computers' limited power.
Later, as specialized arcade hardware and home systems became more powerful, game developers could develop deeper storylines and could include such features as high-resolution and full color graphics, physics, advanced artificial intelligence and digital sound. Technology has advanced to such a great degree that contemporary
A banduryst (Ukrainian: бандури́ст) is a person who plays the Ukrainian plucked string instrument known as the bandura.
There are a number of different types of bandurist who differ in their particular choice of instrument, the specific repertoire they play and manner in which they approach their vocation.
Evidence of ensemble playing prior to the 20th century is scarce, although there do exist accounts of two or sometimes three kobzars playing together at bazaars, especially in the area around Kharkiv.
The first documented performance by a bandura ensemble however took place in Kharkiv in 1902, at the XIIth Archeological conference. The performance had a very positive effect on the popularity of the bandura and ensemble bandura playing. Attempts were made by Hnat Khotkevych to repeat the performance and take the ensemble on tour throughout Ukraine, but permission was not obtained from the Russian authorities.
In 1905 there is evidence of the first performance of a bandura quartet of non-blind bandurists performing in Moscow. From 1906 small bandura ensembles began to form not just from kobzars who had participated in the Kharkiv performance of 1902 but also from non-blind
A stock trader refers to a person or entity engaging in the trading of equity securities, in the capacity of agent, hedger, arbitrageur, speculator, or investor. The majority of stock traders are technically stock speculators, synonym stockjobbers (LSE). Stock speculators are often ambiguously referred to as stock traders in the public eye, usually to appear less intrusive, as since the beginning of our capital markets, North America has a long and colorful history of persecuting wall street speculators, simply for being speculators. A stock investor is an individual or firm who puts money to use by the purchase of equity securities, offering potential profitable returns, as interest, income, or appreciation in value (capital gains). This buy-and-hold long term strategy is passive in nature, as opposed to speculation, which is typically active in nature. Many stock speculators will trade bonds (and possibly other financial assets) as well. Stock speculation is a risky and complex occupation because the direction of the markets are generally unpredictable and lack transparency, also financial regulators are sometimes unable to adequately detect, prevent and remediate irregularities
A grocer is a bulk seller of food. Beginning as early as the 14th century, a grocer (or "purveyor") was a dealer in comestible dry goods such as spices, peppers, sugar, and (later) cocoa, tea and coffee. These items were bought in bulk, hence the term grocer from the French "grossier" meaning wholesaler, this term derived from Medieval Latin "grossarius" from which we also derive the word gross (meaning a quantity of twelve dozen, or 144).
As increasing numbers of staple foodstuffs became available in cans and other less-perishable packaging, the trade expanded its province. Today, grocers deal in a wide-range of staple food-stuffs including such perishables as meats, produce and dairy products. Such goods are, hence, groceries.
In the United States and United Kingdom, supermarkets and convenience stores are sometimes described as grocery businesses, or simply grocers. The early supermarkets began as chains of grocer's shops. Clarence Saunders of Memphis, Tennessee invented the self-service grocery store with open stock in 1916, for which he received a US patent. Prior to this change in the way of doing business, the customer of a grocer would walk up to a counter or display and
A sniper is a highly trained marksman who operates in one- to two-man teams which maintain close visual contact with the enemy and engages targets from concealed positions or physical distances exceeding the detection capabilities of the enemy personnel, without being detected. These sniper teams operate independently, with little combat asset support from their parent units. Snipers typically have highly selective and specialized training and use high-precision rifles and optics, and often have sophisticated communication assets to feed valuable combat information back to their units.
In addition to marksmanship, military snipers are trained in camouflage, field craft, infiltration, reconnaissance and observation. Snipers are especially effective when deployed within the terrain of urban warfare, or jungle warfare.
The verb "to snipe" originated in the 1770s among soldiers in British India where a hunter skilled enough to kill the elusive snipe was dubbed a "sniper". The term sniper was first attested in 1824 in the sense of the word "sharpshooter".
Another term, "sharp shooter" was in use in British newspapers as early as 1801. In the Edinburgh Advertiser, 23 June 1801, can be
A cheesemaker is a person who makes cheese.
The craft of making cheese dates back at least 4,000 years. Archaeological evidence exists of cheesemaking by the ancient Egyptian civilizations.
The production of cheese, like many other food preservation processes allows the nutritional and economic value of a food material, in this case milk, to be preserved. It allows the consumer to choose (within limits) when to consume the food rather than have to consume it straight away, and it allows the product to be altered which gives it higher value.
Cheesemaking may originate from nomadic herdsmen who stored milk in vessels made from the sheeps' and goats' stomachs. Because their stomach linings contains a mix of lactic acid, wild bacteria as milk contaminants and rennet, the milk would ferment and coagulate. A product reminiscent of yogurt would have been produced, which, through gentle agitation and the separation of curds from whey would have resulted in the production of cheese; the cheese being essentially a concentration of the major milk protein, casein, and milk fat. The whey proteins, other minor milk proteins, and the lactose are all removed in the cheese whey.
The job of the
Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere, and the latter with craft that operate outside it.
Aerospace Engineering deals with the design, construction, and study of the science behind the forces and physical properties of aircraft, rockets, flying craft, and spacecraft. The field also covers their aerodynamic characteristics and behaviors, airfoil, control surfaces, lift, drag, and other properties. Aerospace engineering is not to be confused with the various other fields of engineering that go into designing elements of these complex craft. For example, the design of aircraft avionics, while certainly part of the system as a whole, would rather be considered electrical engineering, or perhaps computer engineering. Or an aircraft's landing gear system may be considered primarily the field of mechanical engineering. There is typically a combination of many disciplines that make up aerospace engineering.
An oboist (formerly hautboist) is a musician who plays the oboe or any oboe family instrument, including the cor anglais, oboe d'amore, shawm and oboe musette.
The following is a list of notable past and present professional oboists, with indications when they were/are known better for other professions in their own time. Oboists with an asterisk (*) have biographies in the online version of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
In golf, a caddy or caddie is the person who carries a player's bag and clubs, and gives insightful advice and moral support. A good caddy is aware of the challenges and obstacles of the golf course being played, along with the best strategy in playing it. This includes knowing overall yardage, pin placements and club selection. A caddy is not usually an employee of a private club or resort. He is classified as an "independent contractor," meaning that he is basically self-employed and does not receive any benefits from his association with the club. Some clubs and resorts do have caddy programs, although benefits are rarely offered. Particularly in Europe, the vast majority of clubs do not offer caddies, and amateur players will commonly carry their own bags.
The word caddie comes from the gascon Occitan capdèth or capdet, meaning chief then younger boy (became cadet in French and refers to the Cadets de Gascogne: the captains serving in the French army in the 15th century who were the youngest sons of the aristocratic families of Gascony). The term caddie or cadie first appeared in the English language in the year 1634.
Traditional caddying involves both the golfer and the caddie
A miller usually refers to a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour. Milling is among the oldest of human occupations. "Miller", "Milne" and other variants are common surnames, as are their equivalents in other languages around the world ("Müller" or "Mueller" in German, "Molnár" in Hungarian, "Molinari" in Italian etc.). Milling existed in hunter gatherer communities, and later millers were important to the development of agriculture.
The materials ground by millers are often foodstuffs and particularly grain. The physical grinding of the food allows for the easier digestion of its nutrients and saves wear on the teeth. Non-food substances needed in a fine, powdered form, such as building materials, may be processed by a miller.
The most basic tool for a miller was the quern-stone - simply a large, fixed stone as a base and another movable stone operated by hand, similar to a mortar and pestle. As technology and millstones (the bedstone and rynd) improved, more elaborate machines such as watermills and windmills were developed to do the grinding work. These mills harnessed available energy sources including animal, water, wind, and electrical
A lumberjack is a worker in the logging industry who performs the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term usually refers to a bygone era (before 1945 in the United States) when hand tools were used in harvesting trees. Because of its historical ties, the term lumberjack has become ingrained in popular culture through folklore, mass media and spectator sports. The actual work was difficult, dangerous, intermittent, low—paying, and primitive in living conditions, but the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength, masculinity, confrontation with danger, and resistance to modernization.
The term lumberjack is primarily historical; logger is used for workers in the 21st century. When lumberjack is used, it usually refers to a logger from an earlier time before the advent of chainsaws, feller-bunchers and other modern logging equipment. Other terms for the occupation include woodcutter, and the colloquial term woodhick (Pennsylvania, US). A logger employed in driving logs down a river was known locally in northern North America as a river pig, catty-man, river hog, or river rat. The term "lumberjill" has been known
In Judaism, a rabbi ( /ˈræbaɪ/) is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רַבִּי rabi [ˈʁäbi], meaning "My Master" (irregular plural רבנים rabanim [ʁäbäˈnim]), which is the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word "master" רב rav [ˈʁäv] literally means "great one".
The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. In more recent centuries, the duties of the rabbi became increasingly influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", and in 19th century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, and representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance.
Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, and differences in opinion regarding who is to be recognized as a rabbi. All types of Judaism except for Orthodox Judaism and some conservative strains ordain women and lesbian and gay people as rabbis and cantors.
The word rabbi derives from the Semitic root R-B-B, in Hebrew script רַב rav, which
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child. Wet nurses are employed when the mother is unable or chooses not to nurse the child herself. Wet-nursed children may be known as "milk-siblings", and in some cultures the families are linked by a special relationship of milk kinship. Mothers who nurse each other's babies are engaging in a reciprocal act known as cross-nursing or co-nursing.
A wet nurse can help when a baby's natural mother is unable or chooses not to feed her infant. Before the development of baby formulas in the 20th century, when a mother was unable to breastfeed her baby, the baby's life was put in danger if a wet nurse was not available. There are many reasons why a mother is unable to lactate or to produce sufficient breast milk. Reasons include the serious or chronic illness of the mother and her treatment which creates a temporary difficulty to nursing. Additionally, a mother's taking drugs (prescription or recreational) may necessitate a wet nurse if a drug in any way changes the content of the mother's milk. Some women choose not to breastfeed for social reasons.
Wet nurses have also been used when a mother cannot produce sufficient
A dental technologist is a member of the dental team who, upon prescription from a dental clinician, constructs custom made restorative and dental appliances.
There are four major disciplines within dental technology. These are fixed prosthesis including crowns, bridges and implants; removable prosthesis, including dentures and removable partial dentures; maxillofacial prosthesis, including ocular prosthesis and craniofacial prosthesis; and orthodontics and auxiliaries, including orthodontic appliances and mouthguards.
The dentist communicates with the dental technologist with prescriptions, drawings and measurements taken from the patient. The most important aspect of this is a dental impression in to which the technologist flows a gypsum dental stone to create a replica of the patients anatomy known as a dental model. A technologist can then use this model for the construction of custom appliances.
A fixed dental restoration is an appliance designed to replace a tooth or teeth that may have been lost or damaged by injury, caries or other oral diseases. These restorations are distinguished from other restorations by the fact that once they have been placed by a dentist the patient
A nun is a woman who has taken vows committing her life to her religion. She may be a woman who decided to dedicate her life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. The term "nun" is applicable to Catholics – both eastern and western traditions – Orthodox Christians, Anglicans, Lutherans, Jains, Buddhists, Taoists, and Hindus.
While in common usage the terms "nun" and "Sister" are often used interchangeably (especially as the same title of "Sister" for the individual member of both forms), they are considered different ways of life, with a "nun" being a religious woman who lives a contemplative and cloistered life of meditation and prayer for the salvation of others, while a "Religious Sister", in religious institutes like Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity, lives an active vocation of both prayer and service, often to the needy, sick, poor, and uneducated.
All Buddhist traditions have nuns, although their status is different among the various Buddhist countries. The Buddha is reported to have allowed women into the sangha only with great
A park ranger or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands – national, state, provincial, or local parks. Different countries use different names for the position. Ranger is the favored term in Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within the United States, the National Park Service refers to the position as a park ranger. The U.S. Forest Service refers to the position as a forest ranger. Other countries use the term park warden or game warden to describe this occupation. The profession has often been characterized as "help protect people from people, people from the natural resource and the natural resource from the people" The profession includes a number of disciplines and specializations, and park rangers are often required to be proficient in more than one.
The term ranger first appeared in 13th-century England.
The term ranger seems to correspond to the Medieval Latin word regardatores which appeared in 1217 in the Charter of the Forest. Regardatores was later rendered as rangers in the English translations of the Charter.
The earliest letter patent found mentioning the term refer to a commission of a ranger in 1341.
An announcer is a presenter who makes "announcements" in an audio medium or a physical location.
Some announcers work in television production , radio or filmmaking, usually providing narrations, news updates, station identification, or an introduction of a product in television commercials or a guest on a talk show.
Announcers usually are voice actors that read prepared scripts, but in some cases, they have to ad-lib commentary on the air when presenting news, sports, weather, time, and television commercials. Occasionally, announcers are also involved in writing the screenplay or scripts when one is required. Sometimes announcers also interview guests and moderate panels or discussions. Some provide commentary for the audience during sporting events known as sports announcers, parades, and other events.
Announcers perform a variety of tasks including but not limited to presenting news, sports, weather, traffic, and music. Other duties include interviewing guests, making public appearances at promotional events, announcing station programming information. Announcers are also sometimes responsible for operating studio equipment and producing/selling advertisements. It is becoming
A security guard (or security officer) is a person who is paid to protect property, assets, or people. Security guards are usually privately and formally employed civilian personnel. Often, security officers are uniformed and act to protect property by maintaining a high visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, observing (either directly, through patrols, or by watching alarm systems or video cameras) for signs of crime, fire or disorder; then taking action and reporting any incidents to their client and emergency services as appropriate.
Until the 1980s, the term watchman was more commonly applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe. This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security guards are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function.
Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the "detect, deter, observe and report" methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests, but have the authority to make a citizen's arrest, or otherwise act as an
A roofer specializes in roof construction, concentrating on the application of materials that water proof and / or weather proof buildings, designed material—as a substrate for the roofing materials to be installed on. The rafters, beams, and trusses are the frame or skeleton for the roof to be built upon. Naturally, a roofer must not be too scared of heights and have good balance as well as carpentry skills. In Australia this type of carpenter is called a roof carpenter and in that country a roofer is someone who puts on the roof cladding (tiles, tin, etc.). In the USA a well trained roofer is called a journeyman. In California, if a journeyman wishes and has three consecutive years working in the field, he is eligible to pass a state test for a contractors license.
The state of California has a particular licensing process for roofers. To get a state license and become a licensed roofing contractor in California, one needs to obtain a C-39 license before contracting any roofing jobs over the amount of $500.00. If the work is performed without a license, the homeowner may be stuck with unsatisfactory results and have no way to get assistance to correct the problems. If a licensed
Valet and varlet are terms for servants who serve as personal attendants to their employer.
In English, valet as "personal man-servant" is recorded since 1567, though use of the term in the French-speaking English medieval court is older, and the variant form varlet is cited from 1456 (OED). Both are French importations of valet (the t being silent in French) or varlet, Old French variants of vaslet "man's servant," originally "squire, young man," assumed to be from Gallo-Romance *vassellittus "young nobleman, squire, page," diminutive of Medieval Latin vassallus, from vassus "servant", possibly cognate to an Old Celtic root wasso- "young man, squire" (source of Welsh gwas "youth, servant," Breton goaz "servant, vassal, man," Irish foss "servant").
See yeoman, possibly derived from yonge man, a related term.
The modern use is usually short for the valet de chambre (French for 'valet of the chamber' - in modern terms the bedroom, though not originally so), described in the following section.
Since the 16th century, the word has traditionally been pronounced as rhyming with pallet, though an alternative pronunciation, rhyming with chalet, as in French, is now common.
An artisan or artizan (from Italian: artigiano) or craftsman (craftsperson) is a skilled manual worker who makes items that may be functional or strictly decorative, including furniture, sculpture, clothing, jewellery, household items, and tools or even machines such as the handmade devices of a watchmaker. An artisan is therefore a person engaged in or occupied by the practice of a craft, who may through experience and talent reach the expressive levels of an art in their work and what they create.
The adjective "artisanal" is sometimes used in describing hand-processing in what is usually viewed as an industrial process, such as in the phrase artisanal mining. Thus, "artisanal" is sometimes used in marketing and advertising as a buzz word to describe or imply some relation with the crafting of handmade food products, such as bread, beverages, or cheese. Many of these have traditionally been handmade, rural, or pastoral goods but are also now commonly made on a larger scale with automated mechanization in factories and other industrial areas.
Artisans were the dominant producers of consumer products prior to the Industrial Revolution. According to classical economics theory, the
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. Cardinals are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the pope if he requests their counsel. Most cardinals have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or running a department of the Roman Curia.
A cardinal's other main function is electing the pope whenever, by death or resignation, the seat becomes vacant. In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees. During the sede vacante, the period between a pope's death and the election of his successor, the day-to-day governance of the Church as a whole is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. The right to enter the conclave of cardinals who elect the pope is now limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years on the day of the pope's death or resignation.
The term cardinal at one time applied to any priest permanently
A stunt performer, often referred to as a stuntman, or daredevil, is someone who performs dangerous stunts, often as a career.
A stuntman typically performs stunts intended for use in a motion pictures or dramatized television. Stunts are sometimes rigged so that, while they look dangerous, safety mechanisms are built into the performance, however, often stunts are as dangerous as they appear to be. Stunts often seen in films and television include car crashes, falls from great height, drags (for example, behind a horse) and explosions. Film and television stunt performers are often trained in martial arts and stage combat. There is an inherent risk in the performance of all stunt work in film, television and stage work; the most risk exists when performing stunts in front of a live audience. In filmed performances, visible safety mechanisms can be removed by editing. In live performances the audience can better see if the performer is genuinely doing what they claim to be doing.
Daredevils are distinct from stunt performers and stunt doubles; their performance is of the stunt itself, without the context of a film or television show. Daredevils often perform for an audience. Live
A dentist, also known as a 'dental surgeon', is a health care practitioner that specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aides in providing oral health services. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and in some states, dental therapists.
All dentists in the U.S must graduate from high school and complete required courses such as general biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, and statistics/calculus. While most dental schools require at least a bachelors degree, a few schools may consider admitting exceptional students after only 3 years of college. To apply, students must take the DAT or Dental Admissions Test. Admission to dental school is competitive, and is generally determined based on factors such as GPA, DAT scores, recommendation letters, and extracurricular activities. To become a licensed dentist, one must then complete an accredited dental school curriculum and successfully master all clinical competencies and national board exams. Most dental school curriculums require four years of training, however, some states
A gemcutter, is a person who cuts, shapes, and polishes natural and synthetic gemstones. In historical use it usually refers to an artist who made hardstone carvings or engraved gems, a branch of miniature sculpture or ornament in gemstone.
Among a modern gemcutter's work are the following activities:
The term gemcutting is used to describe the process of shaping and polishing faceted gemstones.
While the gemstone in the rough state may be trimmed to remove undesirable material or to separate it on a cleavage line with a diamond bladed saw, accurately described as cutting and once done by the use of a chisel or similar tool to simply break off pieces that were usable as single gemstones.
The actual shaping and polishing of a gemstone is a grinding or sanding process. This grinding and sanding is done using a lap, a precision metal plate embedded with grit similar to the more familiar embedding of grit on paper the lap is of high precision particularly for flatness and turned by a motor. (See faceting equipment) The grit material is normally diamond and sometimes corundum for their hardness. Only diamond is hard enough on the Mohs scale to shape and polish a diamond.
A tinsmith, or tinner or tinker or tinplate worker, is a person who makes and repairs things made of light-coloured metal, particularly tinware. By extension it can also refer to the person who deals in tinware.
The tinsmith, or whitesmith, learned his trade, like many other artisans, by serving an apprenticeship of 4 to 6 years with a master tinsmith. He learned first to make cake stamps (cookie cutters), pill boxes and other simple items. Next, he formed objects such as milk pails, basins, cake and pie pans. Later he tackled more complicated pieces such as chandeliers and crooked-spout coffee pots.
After his apprenticeship was completed, he then became a journeyman, not yet being a master smith employing others. Many young tinsmiths took to the road as peddlers or tinkers in an effort to save enough money to open a shop in town.
Tinplate consists of sheet iron coated with tin and then run through rollers. This process was first discovered in the 16th century, but was hardly introduced to England until about the 1720s. Previously Great Britain had imported most tinplate from Hamburg.
The British Iron Act of 1750 prohibited (amongst other things) the erection of new rolling mills,
A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design and graphic arts industry who assembles together images, typography or motion graphics to create a piece of design. A graphic designer creates the graphics primarily for published, printed or electronic media, such as brochures (sometimes) and advertising. They are also sometimes responsible for typesetting, illustration, user interfaces, web design, or take a teaching position. A core responsibility of the designer's job is to present information in a way that is both accessible and memorable.
A degree or certificate from an accredited trade school is usually considered essential for a graphic design position. After a career history has been established, though, the graphic designer's experience and number of years in the business are considered the primary qualifications. A portfolio, which is the primary method for demonstrating these qualifications, is usually required to be shown at job interviews, and is constantly developed throughout a designer's career.
One can obtain an AAS, BA, BFA, MFA or an MPhil / PhD in graphic design. Degree programs available vary depending upon the institution, although typical U.S.
A jockey is someone who rides horses in horse racing or steeplechase racing, primarily as a profession. The word also applies to camel riders in camel racing.
The word is by origin a diminutive of "jock", the Northern English or Scots colloquial equivalent of the first name "John," which is also used generically for "boy, or fellow" (compare "Jack", "Dick"), at least since 1529. A familiar instance of the use of the word as a name is in "Jockey of Norfolk" in Shakespeare's Richard III. v. 3, 304.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the word was applied to horse-dealers, postilions, itinerant minstrels and vagabonds, and thus frequently bore the meaning of a cunning trickster, a "sharp", whence the verb to jockey, "to outwit", or "to do" a person out of something. The current usage which means a person who rides a horse in races was first seen in 1670.
Jockeys must be light to ride at the weights which are assigned to their mounts. There are horse carrying weight limits, that are set by racing authorities. The Kentucky Derby, for example, has a weight limit of 126 lb (57 kg) including the jockey's equipment. The average weight for a jockey is around 115 lb (52 kg). Despite their light
Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, imam, lay representative of a world view attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel. Though originally the word "chaplain" referred to representatives of the Christian faith, it is now applied to men and women of other religions or philosophical traditions–such as in the case of the humanist chaplains serving with military forces in the Netherlands and Belgium. In recent years many lay individuals have received professional training in chaplaincy and are now appointed as chaplains in schools, hospitals, universities, prisons and elsewhere to work alongside or instead of official members of the clergy. The concept of 'generic' and/or 'multifaith' chaplaincy is also gaining increasing support, particularly within healthcare and educational settings.
A chaplain provides pastoral (spiritual) and emotional support for service personnel, including the conduct of religious services at sea or in the field. Military chaplains have a long history; the first English military-oriented chaplains, for instance, were
A singer is a person who uses his or her voice to produce music. Singers are often accompanied by musicians and instruments, while other people sing to have fun. Vocal skill is usually a combination of innate talent and professional training. Singers are also referred to as vocalists.
A lead singer performs the primary vocals of a song, as opposed to a backing singer who sings backup vocals or harmonies.
Professional singers usually undergo voice training, provided by a voice teacher or coach.
In European classical music and opera, voices are treated like musical instruments. Composers who write vocal music must have an understanding of the skills, talents, and vocal properties of singers. A singer must know his or her vocal range. Most singers have a vocal range one or two octaves. Some singers like David Moni can have up to four. Singers usually build their careers around certain musical styles. Voice classification systems have evolved to classify singers by tessitura, vocal weight and timbre. Choral singers are classified by vocal range (see also musical range). Other categories are soubrette, heldentenor, coloratura, and basso buffo.
There are also categories for men who are
An ironmaster is the manager – and usually owner – of a forge or blast furnace for the processing of iron. It is a term mainly associated with the period of the Industrial Revolution, especially in Great Britain.
The ironmaster was usually a large scale entrepreneur and thus an important member of a community. He would have a large country house or mansion as his residence. The organization of operations surrounding the smelting, refining and casting of iron was labour intensive, and so there would be a large number of workers reliant on the furnace works.
There were ironmasters (though possibly not called such) from the 17th century onwards, but they became more prominent with the great expansion in the British iron industry during the Industrial Revolution.
Three successive generations of the same family all bearing the name Abraham Darby are renowned for their contributions to the development of the English iron industry. Their works at Coalbrookdale in Shropshire nurtured the start of improvements in metallurgy that allowed large-scale production of the iron that made the development of the steam engine and railways possible, although their most famous innovation was the
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. While generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.
Until 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military, or by civilian space agencies. With the sub-orbital flight of the privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.
The criteria for what constitutes human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) Sporting Code for astronautics recognizes only flights that exceed an altitude of 100 kilometers (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 50 miles (80 km) are awarded astronaut wings.
As of June 20, 2011, a total of 523 people from 38 countries have reached 100 km (62 mi) or more in altitude, of which 520 reached low Earth orbit or beyond. Of these, 24 people have traveled beyond Low Earth orbit, to either lunar or
A coppersmith, also known as a redsmith, is a person who makes artifacts from copper. The term redsmith comes from the colour of copper.
Examples of objects made by modern coppersmiths include jewellery, sculptures, plates and cookware, jugs, vases, trays, frames, rose bowls, cigarette cases, tobacco jars, overmantels, fenders, decorative panels, and challenge shields, tea and coffee pots, awnings, light fixtures, fountains, range hoods, cupolas, and stills. Famous copper styles in the UK include Newlyn in Cornwall and Keswick in Cumbria. Coppersmith work started waning in the late 1970s and early 1980s and those in the sheetmetal trade began doing the coppersmith's work, the practices used being similar to those in the plumbing trade. Coppermiths in recent years have turned to pipe work, not only in copper but also stainless steel and aluminium, particularly in the aircraft industry. They are one of the few trades that have a mention in the Bible.
Copper is generally considered to be a soft metal, meaning it can be worked without heating. Over a period of working the metal in this way it can 'work harden'. This means that the molecules within the copper are compressed and
Geisha (芸者), geiko (芸子) or geigi (芸妓) are traditional Japanese female entertainers who act as hostesses and whose skills include performing various Japanese arts such as classical music, dance and games.
Geisha ( /ˈɡeɪʃə/; Japanese: [ɡeːʃa]), like all Japanese nouns, has no distinct singular or plural variants. The word consists of two kanji, 芸 (gei) meaning "art" and 者 (sha) meaning "person" or "doer". The most literal translation of geisha into English would be "artist," "performing artist," or "artisan." Another name for geisha is geiko (芸子), which is usually used to refer to geisha from western Japan, which includes Kyoto.
Apprentice geisha are called maiko (舞子 or 舞妓), literally "dance child") or hangyoku (半玉), "half-jewel" (meaning that they are paid half of the wage of a full geisha), or by the more generic term o-shaku (御酌), literally "one who pours (alcohol)". The white make-up and elaborate kimono and hair of a maiko is the popular image held of geisha. A woman entering the geisha community does not have to begin as a maiko, having the opportunity to begin her career as a full geisha. Either way, however, usually a year's training is involved before debuting either as a
In Christian churches, a minister is someone who is authorized by a church or religious organization to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community. The term is taken from Latin minister “servant, attendant”, which itself was derived from minus “less.”
Ministers may perform some or all of the following duties:
Depending on the denomination the requirements for ministry vary. All denominations require that the minister has a sense of 'calling.' In regards to training, denominations vary in their requirements, from those that emphasize natural gifts to those that also require advanced tertiary education qualifications, for example, from a seminary, theological college or university.
There are a range of references to leadership in the New Testament.
Colossians 1:25 "I have become its servant by the commission God gave me to present to you the word of God in its fullness" (NIV-The Quest Study Bible, copyright 1994, p 1628).
One of the clearest references is found in 1 Timothy 3:1-16, which outlines the requirements of a minister or bishop (Episcopay Επισκωπη [Greek],
A clarinetist (also spelled clarinettist) is a musician who plays the clarinet. Some clarinetists also play other woodwind instruments, particularly the saxophone, and may therefore also be saxophonists and multireedists. Some other clarinetists also play the flute.
A journalist collects, writes and distributes news and other information. A journalist's work is referred to as journalism.
A reporter is a type of journalist who researches, writes, and reports on information to be presented in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, and make reports. The information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called "reporting," in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interview people. Reporters may be assigned a specific beat or area of coverage.
Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers, columnists, and visual journalists, such as photojournalists (journalists who use the medium of photography).
Journalism has developed a variety of ethics and standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are often considered important, some types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint.
The Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia has conducted its Annual Survey
A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person who is practicing law." Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political and social authority, and deliver justice. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who retain (i.e., hire) lawyers to perform legal services.
The role of the lawyer varies significantly across legal jurisdictions, and so it can be treated here in only the most general terms.
In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine who is recognized as being a lawyer. As a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place.
In most countries, particularly civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries, clerks, and scriveners. These countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services
A personal organizer, day planner, personal analog assistant, personal planner or year planner is a small book or binder that is designed to be portable. It usually contains a diary, calendar, address book,blank paper and other sections.
A personal organizer may also include pages with useful information, such as maps and telephone codes. It is related to the separate desktop stationery items that have one or more of the same functions, such as appointment calendars, rolodexes, notebooks, and almanacs..
For some the function of paper-and-binder personal organizers, a 20th century innovation, is being assumed by electronic personal digital assistants (PDAs) and personal information manager software on personal computers. Some personal organizers attempt to bridge the gap by featuring holders for PDAs.
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. They may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, or methods of treatment – known as specialist medical practitioners – or assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities – known as general practitioners. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology) underlying diseases and their treatment – the science of medicine – and also a decent competence in its applied practice – the art or craft of medicine.
Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world, including a wide variety of qualifications and degrees, but there are some common elements. For example, the ethics of medicine require that physicians show consideration, compassion and benevolence for their patients.
In modern English, the term physician is
One who designs or plan the movements of (a dance, esp. a ballet). A person who composes or arranges dances or other movements (e.g., "master of swords") for a musical or dramatic presentation or entertainment.
A cordwainer (or cordovan) is a shoemaker/cobbler who makes fine soft leather shoes and other luxury footwear articles. The word is derived from "cordwain", or "cordovan", the leather produced in Córdoba, Spain. The term cordwainer was used as early as 1100 in England. Historically, there was a distinction between a cordwainer, who made luxury shoes and boots out of the finest leathers, and a cobbler, who repaired them. This distinction gradually weakened, particularly during the twentieth century, when there was a predominance of shoe retailers who neither made nor repaired shoes.
In London, the occupation of cordwainers was historically controlled by the guild of the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers. There is a Cordwainer ward of the City of London, which is historically where most cordwainers lived and worked.
Until 2000, there had been a Cordwainer's Technical College in London. For over a hundred years the college has been recognised as one of the world's leading colleges for training cobblers and leather workers. The college produced some of the worlds' leading fashion designers, such as Jimmy Choo and Patrick Cox. Cordwainer's College was absorbed into the London College of
A guitarist (or a guitar player) is a person who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of guitar family instruments such as classical guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, and bass guitars. Some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar by singing or playing the harmonica.
The guitarist controls an extremely versatile instrument. By using techniques such as bending and vibrato, the guitarist can make the guitar express a near vocal quality.
While with an ensemble, a guitarist can take the role of rhythm (playing with bass in the ensemble) or lead (playing on top of the bass in the ensemble) guitar.
A guitarist can also play along with a harmonica as a second instrument. Examples include Bob Dylan and Neil Young. Other instruments can be played successfully by a guitarist, i.e.; hi-hat cymbals, organ pedals, bass drum, nose harp, etc. Many guitarists also can sing or whistle. Some guitarists are also adept at other instruments, such as the piano, hammer dulcimer, tuba, xylophone and tympani.
The guitarist has several ways of playing the guitar depending on the type of strings (see Nylon-string guitar or Steel-string acoustic guitar) and including the guitar
Rat-catching is the occupation of catching rats as a form of pest control. In developed countries the role may be merged with, or the title inflated to, pest control operative or pest technician.
Keeping the rat population under control was practiced in Europe to prevent the spread of diseases to man, most notoriously the Black Plague and to prevent damage to food supplies.
Anecdotal reports suggest that some rat-catchers in Europe would raise rats instead of catching them in order to increase their eventual payment from the town or city they were employed by. This, and the practice of rat-fights, could have led to rat-breeding and the adoption of the rat as a pet - the fancy rat.
A famous rat-catcher from Victorian England was Jack Black, who is known through Henry Mayhew's interview for London Labour and the London Poor.
Rat-catchers would capture rats by hand, often with specially-bred vermin terriers, or with traps. Rats are rarely seen in the open, preferring to hide in holes, haystacks and dark locations. Payment would be high for catching and selling rats to breeders. A rat-catcher's risk of being bitten is high, as is the risk of acquiring a disease from a rat bite.
A cook is a person who prepares food for consumption. In Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Canada this profession requires government approval (examination after three years apprenticeship).
A cook is sometimes referred to as a chef, although in the professional kitchen, the terms are not interchangeable. The executive chef or sous chef is generally never referred to as a "cook" (and in fact would likely be an insult).
The term "cook" within a restaurant kitchen usually refers to a person with little to no creative influence on a menu and little to no command over others within the kitchen, such as a line cook. These are usually all members of a restaurant kitchen that are underneath the sous chef in the brigade de cuisine. Other establishments may have a relatively constant menu, often only having people that can prepare food quickly and consistently, having little need for an executive chef or sous chef. The kitchens in these particular restaurants would thus be entirely run by cooks. An example would be a short order cook, who is a cook who prepares fast, easily-assembled meals to order, often working in a diner or cafe.
A head chef is a person in charge of one kitchen whereas
A physicist is a scientist who does research in physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic particles of which all ordinary matter is made (particle physics) to the behavior of the material Universe as a whole (cosmology).
The term "Physicist" was coined by English philosopher, priest, and historian of science William Whewell in 1840, to denote a cultivator of physics.
Most material a student encounters in the undergraduate physics curriculum is based on discoveries and insights of a century or more in the past. Alhazen's intromission theory of light was formulated in the 11th century; Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation were formulated in the 17th century; Maxwell's equations, 19th century; and quantum mechanics, early 20th century. The undergraduate physics curriculum generally includes the following range of courses: chemistry, classical physics, kinematics, astronomy and astrophysics, physics laboratory, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamics, optics, modern physics, quantum physics, nuclear physics, particle physics, and solid state physics. Undergraduate
A carpenter (builder) is a skilled craftsperson who works with timber to construct, install and maintain buildings, furniture, and other objects. The work, known as carpentry, may involve manual labor and work outdoors.
Carpentry skill is gained through experience and study. In some countries (such as the United States), there are no formal training requirements other than in trade unions, and the trade can be easy to enter. In other countries (such as Germany, Japan and Canada) there are strict standards.
The word "carpenter" is the English rendering of the Old French word carpentier (become charpentier) which is derived from the Latin carpentrius [artifex], "(maker) of a carriage. The Middle English and Scots word (in the sense of "builder") was wright (from the Old English wryhta), which could be used in compound forms such as wheelwright or boatwright. In British slang, a carpenter is sometimes referred to as a "chippy".
Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98.5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999.
A finish carpenter (North America) also called a joiner (traditional name now obsolete in
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties such as density and acidity. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties.
Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition, and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful naturally occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists. The work of chemists is often related to the work of chemical engineers, which are primarily concerned with the proper design, construction and evaluation of the most cost-effective large-scale chemical plants and work closely with industrial chemists on the development of new processes and methods for the commercial-scale manufacture of chemicals and related products.
The roots of
A gunsmith is a person who repairs, modifies, designs, or builds firearms. This occupation is different from an armorer. The armorer primarily maintains (disassembly, cleaning) weapons and limited repairs involving parts replacement and possibly work involving accurization. A gunsmith does factory level repairs, renovation (such as applying metal finishes), and makes modifications and alterations for special uses. Gunsmiths may also apply carvings, engravings and other decorative features to an otherwise finished gun.
Gunsmiths may be employed in:
To pursue the entirety of this trade, a gunsmith must possess skills as a mechanic, a metalworker, a woodworker, and an artisan; be knowledgeable in shop mathematics, ballistics, and chemistry; and be capable of working accurately and precisely. Those who are (self-) employed in small gunsmith shops must also possess skills as small business operators; work effectively with a wide variety of customers; and remain abreast of, and comply with federal, state, and local laws, ordinances, and requirements.
Due to the great breadth of subject matter to be mastered, many gunsmiths specialize in only a few of the skills required of the general
A personal trainer is a fitness professional involved in exercise prescription and instruction. They motivate clients by setting goals and providing feedback and accountability to clients. Trainers also measure their client's strengths and weaknesses with fitness assessments. These fitness assessments may also be performed before and after an exercise program to measure their client's improvements in physical fitness. They may also educate their clients in many other aspects of wellness besides exercise, including general health and nutrition guidelines. Qualified personal trainers recognize their own areas of expertise. If a trainer suspects that one of his or her clients has a medical condition that could prevent the client from safe participation in an exercise program, they must refer the client to the proper health professional for prior clearance.
The scope of practice for a personal trainer is to enhance the components of fitness for the general, healthy population.
Proper exercise prescription may result in improved body composition, physical performance, heart condition and health outcomes. The decision to hire a personal trainer may be related to a perceived ability to
A soldier is one who fights as part of an organized land-based armed force; if that force is for hire the person is generally termed a mercenary soldier, or mercenary. The majority of cognates of the word "soldier" that exist in other languages have a meaning that embraces both commissioned and non-commissioned officers in national land forces.
The word soldier entered modern English in the 14th century, from the equivalent Middle English word soudeour, from Anglo-French soudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling. The word is also related to the Medieval Latin soldarius, meaning soldier (literally, "one having pay"). These words were ultimately derived from the Late Latin word solidus, referring to an Ancient Roman coin used in the Byzantine Empire.
In most armed forces use of the word soldier has taken on a more general meaning, due to the increasing specialization of military occupations that require different areas of knowledge and skill-sets. As a result, "soldiers" are referred to by names or ranks which reflect an individual's military occupation specialty arm, service or branch of military employment,
A clockmaker is an artisan who makes and repairs clocks. Since almost all clocks are now factory-made, most modern clockmakers only repair clocks. Modern clockmakers may be employed by jewellers, antique shops, and places devoted strictly to repairing clocks and watches. Clockmakers must be able to read blueprints and instructions for numerous types of clocks and time pieces that vary from antique clocks to modern time pieces in order to fix and make clocks or watches. The trade requires fine motor coordination as clockmakers must frequently work on devices with small gears and fine machinery.
Originally, clockmakers were master craftsmen who designed and built clocks by hand. Since modern clockmakers are required to repair antique, handmade or one-of-a-kind clocks for which parts are not available, they must have some of the design and fabrication abilities of the original craftsmen. A qualified clockmaker can typically design and make a missing piece for a clock without access to the original component.
Clockmakers generally do not work on watches; the skills and tools required are different enough that watchmaking is a separate field, handled by another specialist, the
A coroner is a government official who confirms and certifies the death of an individual within a jurisdiction. A coroner may also conduct or order an investigation into the manner or cause of death, and investigate or confirm the identity of an unknown person who has been found dead within the coroner's jurisdiction. Responsibilities may include overseeing the investigation and certification of deaths related to mass disasters that occur within the coroner's jurisdiction. A coroner's office typically maintains death records of those who have died within the coroner's jurisdiction.
Depending on the jurisdiction, the coroner may adjudge the cause of death personally, or may act as the presiding officer of a special court (a "coroner's jury"). The office of coroner originated in medieval England and has been adopted in many countries whose legal systems have at some time been subject to English or United Kingdom law. The additional roles that a coroner may oversee in judicial investigations may be subject to the attainment of suitable legal and medical qualifications. The qualifications required of a coroner vary significantly between jurisdictions, and are described under the entry
A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, who raises living organisms for food or raw materials, generally including livestock husbandry and growing crops, such as produce and grain. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a labourer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are farm workers, farmhands, etc.
The term farmer usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. Their products might be sold either to a market, in a farmers' market, or directly from a farm. In a subsistence economy, farm products might to some extent be either consumed by the farmer's family or pooled by the community.
More distinct terms are commonly used to denote farmers who raise specific domesticated animals. For example, those who raise grazing livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, are known as ranchers (U.S.), graziers (Australia & U.K.), or simply stockmen. Sheep, goat, and cattle farmers might also be referred to respectively as shepherds, goatherds, and cowherds. The term dairy farmer is
A zookeeper is a worker in a zoo, responsible for the feeding and daily care of the animals. As part of their routine, they clean the exhibits and report health problems. They may also be involved in scientific research or public education, such as conducting tours and answering questions.
A zookeeper is a person who manages zoo animals that are kept in captivity for conservation or to be displayed to the public. They work very closely with all the animals in the zoos and have many responsibilities to maintain the health and wellness of each animal. They must have good record keeping skills since there is a lot of data that must be collected for each animal. Each species is different from the others and requires special attention and care that a zookeeper must give. Zookeepers also have a very interesting history that starts in B.C. and continues to the present day.
Someone wanting to become a zookeeper must want to care for other species and not be opposed to hard labor. Although Zookeepers require record keeping skills, this occupation is not an office job. Zoos are open to the public and are visited by all varieties of people and ages, and zookeepers must also entertain and
A cinematographer is one photographing with a motion picture camera (the art and science of which is known as cinematography). The title is generally equivalent to director of photography (DP), used to designate a chief over the camera and lighting crews working on a film, responsible for achieving artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The term "cinematographer" has been a point of contention for some time now; some professionals insist that it only applies when the director of photography and camera operator are the same person, although this is far from being uniformly the case. To most, "cinematographer" and "director of photography" are interchangeable terms.
In the English system, the director of photography is called the lighting cameraperson, and has responsibilities that differ from those of the camera operator to the point that the lighting cameraperson is consulted, but has no final say over more purely camera operating-based visual elements such as framing. This system means that the director consults the lighting cameraperson for lighting and filtration and the operator for framing and lens choices. The lighting cameraperson is responsible for lighting
An economist is a professional in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. Within this field there are many sub-fields, ranging from the broad philosophical theories to the focused study of minutiae within specific markets, macroeconomic analysis, microeconomic analysis or financial statement analysis, involving analytical methods and tools such as econometrics, statistics, economics computational models, financial economics, mathematical finance and mathematical economics.
The professionalization of economics, reflected in academia, has been described as "the main change in economics since around 1900." Economists debate the path they believe their profession should take. It is, primarily, a debate between a scholastic orientation, focused on mathematical techniques, and a public discourse orientation, which is more focused on communicating to lay people pertinent economic principles as they relate to public policy. Surveys among economists indicate a preference for a shift toward the latter. However, these preferences expressed in private often differ with
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical, social and economic problems. Engineers design materials, structures and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, safety and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin roots ingeniare ("to contrive, devise") and ingenium ("cleverness").
Engineers are grounded in applied sciences, and their work in research and development is distinct from the basic research focus of scientists. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human needs and quality of life.
Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems, conducting and narrowing research, analyzing criteria, finding and analyzing solutions, and making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating, applying, and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various different information behaviours,
A Barrister also termed as Barrister-at-Law or Bar-at-Law is a member of one of the two classes of lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions with split legal professions. Barristers specialise in courtroom advocacy, drafting legal pleadings and giving expert legal opinions. They can be contrasted with solicitors – the other class of lawyer in split professions – who have more direct access with clients, and may do transactional-type legal work. Barristers are rarely hired by clients directly but instead are retained (or instructed) by solicitors to act on behalf of clients.
The historical difference between the two professions – and the only essential difference in England and Wales today – is that a solicitor is an attorney, which means they can act in the place of their client for legal purposes (as in signing contracts) and may conduct litigation on their behalf by making applications to the court, writing letters in litigation to the client's opponent and so on. A barrister is not an attorney and is usually forbidden, either by law or professional rules or both, from "conducting" litigation. This means that while the barrister speaks on the client's behalf in court, he or
A chef is a person who cooks professionally for other people. Although over time the term has come to describe any person who cooks for a living, traditionally it refers to a highly skilled professional who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation.
The word "chef" is borrowed (and shortened) from the French term chef de cuisine (French pronunciation: [ʃɛf.də.kɥi.zin]), the director or head of a kitchen. (The French word comes from Latin caput and is cognate with English "chief".) In English, the title "chef" in the culinary profession originated in the haute cuisine of the 19th century. Today it is often used to refer to any professional cook, regardless of rank, though in most classically defined kitchens, it refers to the head chef; others, in North American parlance, are "cooks".
Below are various titles given to those working in a professional kitchen and each can be considered a title for a type of chef. Many of the titles are based on the brigade de cuisine (or brigade system) documented by Auguste Escoffier, while others have a more general meaning depending on the individual kitchen.
This person is in charge of all things related to the kitchen, which usually
A gladiator (Latin: gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals. Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their legal and social standing and their lives by appearing in the arena. Most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions, socially marginalized, and segregated even in death.
Irrespective of their origin, gladiators offered audiences an example of Rome's martial ethics and, in fighting or dying well, they could inspire admiration and popular acclaim. They were celebrated in high and low art, and their value as entertainers was commemorated in precious and commonplace objects throughout the Roman world.
The origin of gladiatorial combat is open to debate. There is evidence of it in funeral rites during the Punic Wars of the 3rd century BCE, and thereafter it rapidly became an essential feature of politics and social life in the Roman world. Its popularity led to its use in ever more lavish and costly games.
The games reached their peak between the 1st century BCE and the 2nd century CE,
A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict, who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar ranks and functions in the armed forces of that Party".
As a result of the assumption that a mercenary is essentially motivated by money, the term mercenary usually carries negative connotations. There is a blur in the distinction between a mercenary and a foreign volunteer, when the primary motive of a soldier in a foreign army is uncertain. For instance, the French Foreign Legion and the Gurkhas of the British and Indian armies are not mercenaries under the laws of war, since although they may meet many of the requirements of Article 47 of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, they are exempt under clauses 47(a)(c)(d)(e)&(f); some journalists describe them as mercenaries nevertheless.
The Protocol Additional GC 1977 (APGC77) provides the most widely accepted international definition of a mercenary, though not
A scientist, in a broad sense, is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms.
Philosophy can be seen as a distinct activity, which is aimed towards a more comprehensive understanding of intangible aspects of reality and experience that cannot be physically measured.
Scientists are also distinct from engineers, those who develop devices that serve practical purposes. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called applied science (short of the creation of new devices that fall into the realm of engineering). When science is done with an inclusion of intangible aspects of reality it is called natural philosophy.
Social roles that partly correspond with the modern scientist can be identified going back at least until 17th century natural philosophy, but the term scientist is much more recent. Until the late
Seaman is one of the lowest ranks in a navy. In the Commonwealth it is the lowest rank in the navy, followed by able seaman and leading seaman, and followed by the petty officer ranks.
In the United States, it means the lowest three enlisted rates of the U.S. Navy, followed by the higher petty officer ranks. The equivalent of the seaman, in French-speaking countries, is the matelot and Matrose, in German-speaking countries.
The term "seaman" is also a general-purpose for a man or a woman who works anywhere on board a modern ship, including in the engine spaces, which is the very opposite of sailing. Furthermore, "seaman" is a short form for the status of an "able-bodied seaman", either in the navies or in the merchant marines. An able-bodied seaman is one who is fully trained and qualified to work on the decks and superstructure of modern ships, even during foul weather, whereas less-qualified sailors are restricted to remaining within the ship during times of foul weather — lest they be swept overboard by the stormy seas or by the high winds.
There are 4 grades of seaman/matelot in the Royal Canadian Navy:
The rank of master seaman is unique because it was created only for the
A sexton is a church, congregation, or synagogue officer charged with the maintenance of its buildings and/or the surrounding graveyard. In smaller places of worship, this office is often combined with that of verger. In larger buildings, such as cathedrals, a team of sextons may be employed.
Historically in North America and the United Kingdom the "sexton" was sometimes a minor municipal official responsible for overseeing the town graveyard. In the United Kingdom the position still exists today, related to management of the community's graveyard, and the sexton is usually employed by the town/parish or community council.
The words "sexton" and "sacristan" both derive from the Medieval Latin word sacristanus meaning "custodian of sacred objects". "Sexton" represents the popular development of the word via the Old French "Segrestein".
Amongst the traditional duties of the sexton in small parishes was the digging of graves—the gravedigger in Hamlet refers to himself as sexton, for example. In modern times, grave digging is usually done by an outside contractor. The general duties of a modern sexton may include (but are not limited to):
In a public cemetery, duties tend to include:
The term supermodel (also spelled super-model, super model) refers to a highly-paid fashion model who usually has a worldwide reputation and often a background in haute couture and commercial modeling. The term became prominent in the popular culture of the 1980s. Supermodels usually work for top fashion designers and famous clothing brands. They have multi-million dollar contracts, endorsements and campaigns. They have branded themselves as household names and worldwide recognition is associated with their modeling careers. They have been on the covers of prestigious magazines such as French, British and Italian Vogue. Claudia Schiffer stated, "In order to become a supermodel one must be on all the covers all over the world at the same time so that people can recognise the girls."
An early use of the term "supermodel" appeared in 1891 in an interview with artist Henry Stacy Marks for The Strand Magazine, in which Marks told journalist Harry How, "A good many models are addicted to drink, and, after sitting a while, will suddenly go to sleep. Then I have had what I call the 'super' model. You know the sort of man; he goes in for theatrical effect;..." On 6 October 1942, a writer
A welder (also weldor, which term distinguishes the tradesman from the equipment used to make welds) is a tradesman who specializes in welding materials together. The materials to be joined can be metals (such as steel, aluminum, brass, stainless steel etc.) or varieties of plastic or polymer. Welders typically have to have good dexterity and attention to detail, as well as some technical knowledge about the materials being joined and best practices in the field.
Welding, without the proper precautions appropriate for the process, can be a dangerous and unhealthy practice. However, with the use of new technology and proper protection, the risks of injury and death associated with welding can be greatly reduced. Because many common welding procedures involve an open electric arc or flame, the risk of burns is significant. To prevent them, welders wear personal protective equipment in the form of heavy leather gloves and protective long sleeve jackets to avoid exposure to extreme heat and flames. Additionally, the brightness of the weld area leads to a condition called arc eye in which ultraviolet light causes the inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes. Full
A barista (from the Italian for "bartender") is a person, usually a coffee-house employee, who prepares and serves espresso-based coffee drinks.
The word barista is of Italian origin, and in Italian, a barista is a male or female "bartender", who typically works behind a counter, serving both hot drinks (such as espresso), and cold alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, not a coffee-maker specifically.
The native plural in English is baristas, while in Italian the plural is baristi for masculine or mixed sex (baristi: "barmen", "bartenders") or bariste for feminine (bariste: "barmaids").
While the title is not regulated, most coffee shops use the title to describe the preparer of coffee and operator of an espresso machine.
Baristas generally operate a commercial espresso machine, and their role is preparing the shot and pulling the shot; the degree to which this is automated or done manually varies significantly, ranging from push-button operation to an involved manual process. Machines range from manual (lever), where the pressure is applied by hand, to semi-automatic, where the pressure is applied automatically but brew time is selected by the barista, to automatic, where the
A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering; the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.
Originally, a civil engineer worked on public works projects and was contrasted with the military engineer, who worked on armaments and defenses. Over time, various branches of engineering have become recognized as distinct from civil engineering, including chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering, while much of military engineering has been absorbed by civil engineering.
In some places, a civil engineer may perform land surveying; in others, surveying is limited to construction surveying, unless an additional qualification is obtained. On some U.S. military bases, the personnel responsible for building and grounds maintenance, such as grass mowing, are called civil engineers and are not required to meet any minimum educational requirements.
Civil engineers usually practice in a particular specialty, such as construction engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural
Coaching, when referring to getting coached by a professional coach, is a teaching or training process in which an individual gets support while learning to achieve a specific personal or professional result or goal. The individual getting coached may be referred to as the client, the mentee or coachee, or they may be in an intern or apprenticeship relationship with the person coaching them. Coaching may also happen in an informal relationship between one individual who has greater experience and expertise than another and offers advice and guidance, as the other goes through a learning process.
The structures, models and methodologies of coaching are numerous, and may be designed to facilitate learning new behavior for personal growth, or professional advancement. There are also forms of coaching that help the coachee improve a physical skill, like in a sport or performing art form. Some coaches use a style in which they ask questions and offer opportunities that will challenge the coachee to find answers from within him/herself. This "socratic method" facilitates the learner to discover answers and new ways of being based on their values, preferences and unique perspective.
A Third Mate (3/M) or Third Officer is a licensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship. The third mate is a watchstander and customarily the ship's safety officer and fourth-in-command (fifth in some ocean liners). Other duties vary depending on the type of ship, its crewing, and other factors.
Duties related to the role of safety officer focus on responsibility for items such as firefighting equipment, lifeboats, and various other emergency systems.
In port, the watch focuses on duties such as cargo operations, fire watches, security watches, monitoring communications, and monitoring the anchor or mooring lines.
International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations require the officer be fluent in the English language. This is required for a number of reasons. Examples include the ability to read charts and nautical publications, understand weather and safety messages, communicate with other ships and coast stations, and to successfully interact with a multi-lingual crew.
Emergencies can happen at any time. The officer must be ready at all times to safeguard passengers and crew. After a collision or grounding, the mate must be able to take initial action, perform
The word abbot, meaning father, is a title given to the head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. This article is intended to present facts related to the role and history associated with abbots in Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not actually the head of a monastery. The female equivalent is abbess.
The title had its origin in the monasteries of Egypt and Syria, spread through the eastern Mediterranean, and soon became accepted generally in all languages as the designation of the head of a monastery. At first it was employed as a respectful title for any monk, but it was soon restricted by canon law to certain priestly superiors. At times it was applied to various priests, e.g. at the court of the Frankish monarchy the Abbas palatinus ('of the palace') and Abbas castrensis ('of the camp') were chaplains to the Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns’ court and army respectively. The title "abbot" came into fairly general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests.
An abbot (from Old English abbod, abbad, from Latin abbas (“father”), from Ancient Greek ἀββᾶς (abbas), from Aramaic ܐܒܐ/אבא
A cartoonist is a person who specializes in drawing cartoons. This work is usually humorous, mainly created for entertainment, political commentary or advertising. Throughout the 20th century, cartoons were widely published in print media of various kinds, featured in magazines such as The New Yorker and Punch and distributed to newspapers through such organization as King Features Syndicate. Today, both original and vintage cartoons can be found online.
Cartoonists may work in many different formats: animation, booklets, comic strips, comic books, editorial cartoons, graphic novels, manuals, single-panel gag cartoons or video game packaging. A cartoonist traditionally developed rough sketches into finished pencil drawings and then, for reproduction purposes, completed the artwork in black India ink, using either a brush or a metal-nibbed pen. Traditionally, cartoonists often used a Winsor & Newton #3, Series 7 brush in combination with a crowquill pen. Today, many cartoonists work with Micron pens, which are made in six different sizes, from .20 mm to .50 mm.
Cartoonists increasingly work in digital media. To illustrate the Blondie comic strip, the cartoonist John Marshall works
A bellhop, also bellboy ( pronunciation (help·info)) or bellman, is a hotel porter, who helps patrons with their luggage while checking in or out. Bellhops often wear a uniform (see Bell-boy hat), like certain other page boys or doormen. The job's name is derived from the fact that the hotel's front desk clerk rang a bell to summon an employee, who would "hop" (jump) to attention at the desk to receive instructions. The term "porter" is used in the United Kingdom and much of the English-speaking world. "Bellboy" or "bellhop" is an American English term.
This employee traditionally was a boy or adolescent male, hence the term bellboy. Today's bellman must be quick-witted, good with people, and outgoing. Bellhops will meet a variety of different people each day and must have the social skills to deal with them. Duties often include opening the front door, moving luggage, valeting cars, calling cabs, transporting guests, giving directions, performing basic concierge work, and responding to the guest's needs. They must be able to escort guests into their rooms while carrying luggage, or help move any baggage a customer needs. In many countries, such as the United States, it is
Firefighters (historically firemen) are rescuers extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten civilian populations and property and to rescue people from dangerous incidents, such as collapsed and burning buildings. The increasing complexity of modern industrialized life with an increase in the scale of hazards has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology and a broadening of the firefighter-rescuer's remit. They sometimes provide emergency medical services. The fire service, or fire and rescue service, also known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the main emergency services. Firefighting and firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world, from wildland areas to urban areas, and aboard ships.
According to Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, the English word "firefighter" has been used since 1903. In recent decades it has become the preferred term, replacing the older "fireman", since many women serve as firefighters, and also because the term "fireman" can have other meanings, including someone who sets or stokes fires - exactly the opposite of the firefighting role.
Flight attendants or cabin crew (also known as stewards/stewardesses, air hosts/hostesses) are members of an aircrew employed by airlines primarily to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard commercial flights, on select business jet aircraft, and on some military aircraft.
The role of a flight attendant derives from that of similar positions on passenger ships or passenger trains, but it has more direct involvement with passengers because of the confined quarters on aircraft. Additionally, the job of a flight attendant revolves around safety to a much greater extent than those of similar staff on other forms of transportation. Flight attendants on board a flight collectively form a cabin crew, as distinguished from pilots and engineers in the cockpit.
Heinrich Kubis was Germany's (and the world's) first flight attendant, in 1912.
Origins of the word "steward" in transportation are reflected in the term "chief steward" as used in maritime transport terminology. The term purser and chief steward are often used interchangeably describing personnel with similar duties among seafaring occupations. This lingual derivation results from the international British maritime
A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, and/or reputation to charitable causes. The term may apply to any volunteer or to anyone who makes a donation, but the label is most often applied to those who donate large sums of money or who make a major impact through their volunteering, such as a trustee who manages a philanthropic organization.
A philanthropist may not always find universal approval for his/her deeds. Common accusations include supporting an unworthy cause (such as funding art instead of fighting world hunger) or having selfish motivation at heart (such as avoiding taxes or attaining personal fame).
The following table orders the greatest philanthropists by estimated amount given to charity, corresponding to USD.
A monk (from Greek: μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary") is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decided to dedicate his life to serve the other living beings or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his life in prayer and contemplation. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy.
In the Greek language the term can apply to women; but in modern English it is mainly in use only for men, while nun is typically used for female monastics.
Although the term monachos (“monk”) is of Christian origin, in the English language it tends to be used analogously or loosely also for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds.
The term monk is generic and in some religious or philosophical traditions it therefore may be considered interchangeable with other terms such as ascetic. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable with terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as friar, cenobite, hermit, anchorite, hesychast, solitary.
In the Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy monasticism
A plasterer is a tradesman who works with plaster, such as forming a layer of plaster on an interior wall or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls. The process of creating plasterwork, called plastering, has been used in building construction for centuries.
Plasterwork is one of the most ancient of handicrafts employed in connection with building operations, the earliest evidence showing that the dwellings of primitive man were erected in a simple fashion with sticks and plastered with mud. Soon a more lasting and sightly material was found and employed to take the place of mud or slime, and that perfection in the compounding of plastering materials was approached at a very remote period is made evident by the fact that some of the earliest plastering which has remained undisturbed excels in its scientific composition that which we use at the present day.
The pyramids in Egypt contain plasterwork executed at least four thousand years ago, probably much earlier, and yet existing, hard and durable, at the present time. From recent discoveries it has been ascertained that the principal tools of the plasterer of that time were practically identical in design, shape and
In principle, a sheriff is a legal official with responsibility for a county. In practice, the specific combination of legal, political, and ceremonial duties of a sheriff varies greatly from country to country.
The word "sheriff" is a contraction of the term "shire reeve". The term, from the Old English scīrgerefa, designated a royal official responsible for keeping the peace (a "reeve") throughout a shire or county on behalf of the king. The term was preserved in England notwithstanding the Norman Conquest. From the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms the term spread to several other regions, at an early point to Scotland, latterly to Ireland, and to the United States.
Sheriffs exist in various countries:
In British English, the political or legal office of a sheriff is called a shrievalty.
The office of sheriff was first established in Australia in 1824. This was simultaneous with the appointment of the first Chief Justice of New South Wales. The role of the sheriff has not been static, nor is it identical in each Australian State. In the past his duties included: executing court judgements, acting as a coroner, transporting prisoners, managing the gaols, and carrying out executions (through
A butcher is a person who may slaughter animals, dress their flesh, sell their meat or do any combination of these three tasks. They may prepare standard cuts of meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments. A butcher may be employed by supermarkets, grocery stores, butcher shops and fish markets or may be self-employed.
An ancient trade, whose duties may date back to the domestication of livestock, butchers formed guilds in England as far back as 1272. Today, many jurisdictions offer trade certifications for butchers. Some areas expect a three-year apprenticeship followed by the option of becoming a master butcher.
Butchery is a traditional work. In the industrialized world, slaughterhouses use butchers (slaughtermen, in British English) to slaughter the animals, performing one or a few of the steps repeatedly as specialists on a semiautomated disassembly line. The steps include stunning (rendering the animal incapacitated), exsanguination (severing the carotid or brachial arteries to facilitate blood removal), skinning (removing the hide or pelt) or scalding and dehairing (pork), evisceration (removing the viscera) and splitting (dividing
A computer repair technician is a person who repairs and maintains computers and servers. The technician's responsibilities may extend to include building or configuring new hardware, installing and updating software packages, and creating and maintaining computer networks. Computer repair technicians work in a variety of settings, encompassing both the public and private sectors. Because of the relatively brief existence of the profession, institutions offer certificate and degree programs designed to prepare new technicians, but computer repairs are frequently performed by experienced and certified technicians who have little formal training in the field.
A repair technician might work in a corporate information technology department, a central service center, or a retail computer sales environment. A public sector technician might work in the military, national security or law enforcement communities, health or public safety field, or an educational institution. Despite the vast variety of work environments, all computer technicians perform similar physical and investigative processes, including technical support. Experienced technicians might specialize in fields such as data
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Historically goldsmiths have also made silverware, platters, goblets, decorative and serviceable utensils, and ceremonial or religious items, but the rising prices of precious metals have curtailed the making of such items to a large degree.
Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, soldering, sawing, forging, casting, and polishing metal. Traditionally, these skills had been passed along through apprenticeships, however, more recently Jewelry Arts Schools specializing solely in teaching goldsmithing and a multitude of skills falling under the jewelry arts umbrella are available. Many universities and junior colleges also offer goldsmithing, silversmithing and metal arts fabrication as a part of their fine arts curriculum.
Compared to other metals, gold is malleable, ductile, rare and it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color; it is easily melted, fused and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with bronzes, for example. It is fairly easy to "pressure weld", which is to say that two small pieces can be pounded together to make one
A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary greatly in different cultures and time periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced.
The English word "poet" is derived from the French poète, itself descended from the Latin first-declension masculine noun poeta, meaning "poet". The word "poetry" derives from the Latin feminine noun poetria, meaning not "poetry" but "poetess".
French poet Arthur Rimbaud summarized the "poet" by writing,
A poet makes himself a visionary through a long, boundless, and systematized disorganization of all the senses. All forms of love, of suffering, of madness; he searches himself, he exhausts within himself all poisons, and preserves their quintessences. Unspeakable torment, where he will need the greatest faith, a superhuman strength,
A veterinary physician, colloquially called a vet, shortened from veterinarian (American English, Australian English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating disease, disorder, and injury in non-human animals.
In many countries, the local nomenclature for a vet is a regulated and protected term, meaning that members of the public without the prerequisite qualifications and/or registration are not able to use the title. In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian (such as animal treatment or surgery) are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as vet. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered vets (with a few designated exceptions, such as paraveterinary workers), and it is illegal for any person who is not registered to call themselves a vet or perform any treatment.
Most vets work in clinical settings, treating animals directly. These vets may be involved in a general practice, treating animals of all types; may be specialised in a specific group of animals such as companion animals, livestock, zoo
A marksman, markswoman, or marksperson is a person who is skilled in precision, or a sharpshooter shooting, using projectile weapons, such as with a rifle but most commonly with a designated marksman rifle and/or a sniper rifle, to shoot at long range targets. The main difference between a marksman and a normal sniper is that a marksman is usually considered an organic part of a team of soldiers, whereas regular snipers tend to work alone or with other snipers. In the military, marksmen are sometimes attached to an infantry squad where they take accurate long-range shots at valuable targets as needed, thus extending the reach of the squad.
Another term for a marksman is a sharpshooter, which was used in the early 19th Century. It is derived from the German word Scharfschütze.
In the Middle Ages, in the first use of the term 'marksman' was given to the royal archers, or bowmen, of a palace guard, which was an elite group of troops chosen to guard a royal palace. This was approximately around the 10th century, although records of some 9th century English Kings show the listings of groups of marksmen specifically chosen for their militaries.
One of the first true appearances of units
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight/supervision of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, itself derived from the Greek arkhitekton (arkhi-, chief + tekton, builder), i.e. chief builder.
Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. The practical, technical, and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction (see below).
The terms architect and architecture are also used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture and often information technology (for example a software architect). In most of the world's jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms "architect" and
A barber (from the Latin barba, "beard") is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave males' hair. A barber's place of work is known as a "barber shop" or a "barber's".
In previous times, barbers also performed surgery and dentistry. Today, with the development of safety razors and the decreasing prevalence of beards, in American and Commonwealth cultures most barbers specialize in cutting men's hair. Many barbers may still deal with facial hair if requested.
In modern times, the term "barber" is used both as a professional title and to refer to hairdressers who specialize in men's hair. Historically, all hairdressers were considered barbers. In the 20th century, the profession of cosmetology branched off from barbering, and today hairdressers may be licensed as either barbers or cosmetologists. Barbers differ with respect to where they work, which services they are licensed to provide, and what name they use to refer to themselves. Part of this terminology difference depends on the regulations in a given location.
Different states in the US vary on their labor and licensing laws. For example, in Maryland, a cosmetologist cannot use a straight razor,
A bass player, or bassist is a musician who plays a bass instrument such as a double bass, bass guitar, keyboard bass or a low brass instrument such as a tuba or sousaphone. Different musical genres tend to be associated with one or more of these instruments. Since the 1960s, the electric bass is the standard bass instrument for rock and roll, jazz fusion, heavy metal, country, reggae and pop music. The double bass is the standard bass instrument for classical music, bluegrass, rockabilly, and most genres of jazz. Low brass instruments such as the tuba or sousaphone are the standard bass instrument in Dixieland and New Orleans-style jazz bands.
Despite the associations of different bass instruments with certain genres, there are exceptions. Some 1990s and 2000s rock and pop bands use a double bass, such as Barenaked Ladies; Indie band The Decemberists; and punk rock/psychobilly groups such as The Living End, Nekromantix, The Horrorpops, and Tiger Army. Some fusion jazz groups use a lightweight, stripped-down electric upright bass rather than a double bass. Some composers of modern art music use the electric bass in a chamber music setting. Some jazz big bands use electric bass.
In the field of engineering, a chemical engineer is the profession in which one works principally in the chemical industry to convert basic raw materials into a variety of products, and deals with the design and operation of plants and equipment to perform such work. In general, a chemical engineer is one who applies and uses principles of chemical engineering in any of its various practical applications; these often include 1) design, manufacture, and operation of plants and machinery in industrial chemical and related processes ("chemical process engineers"); 2) development of new or adapted substances for products ranging from foods and beverages to cosmetics to cleaners to pharmaceutical ingredients, among many other products ("chemical product engineers"); and 3) development of new technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen power and nanotechnology, as well as working in fields wholly or partially derived from Chemical Engineering such as materials science, polymer engineering, and biomedical engineering.
The term appeared in print in 1839, though from the context it suggests a person with mechanical engineering knowledge working in the chemical industry. In 1880, George E.
A courtier ( /ˈkɔːrtiə/; French: [kuʁtje]) is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a king or other royal personage. Historically the court was the centre of government as well as the residence of the monarch, and social and political life were often completely mixed together. A female courtier was called a courtesan, although today this name has come to be associated with female entertainers who served the upper classes (with or without sexual connotations).
Monarchs very often expected the more important nobles to spend much of the year in attendance on them at court. Courtiers were not all noble, as they included clergy, soldiers, clerks, secretaries, and agents and middlemen of all sorts with regular business at court. Those personal favorites without business around the monarch, sometimes called the camarilla, were also considered courtiers. Promotion to important positions could be very rapid at court, and for the ambitious there was no better place to be. As social divisions became more rigid, a divide, barely present in Antiquity or the Middle Ages, opened between menial servants and other classes at court, although Alexandre Bontemps, the head valet de
4 931 posts, of which nine are directorate officers, 3 804 are members of the Customs and Excise Department, 504 are Trade Controls Officers and 614 are staff of the General and Common Grades.
Hong Kong is one of the busiest container ports in the world. It handled 20.4 million TEUs (20-foot equivalent units) in 2003. Of these, 12.1 million TEUs were handled at the Kwai Chung Container Terminal. In 2003, 70 910 ocean-going ships and 365 190 coastal vessels entered and left Hong Kong.
Ships and vessels are subject to customs check. Cargoes are either examined on board sea freighters or after off-loading.
In 2004, a total of 8.6 million passengers arrived in Hong Kong from the Mainland and Macau by sea and by helicopters. They were processed at the China Ferry Terminal in Tsim Sha Tsui and the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal in Central. In addition, a daily average of 49 helicopter flights between Hong Kong and Macau are operated at the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal. Four Customs launches conduct maritime patrol in the territorial waters round the clock whereas four high-speed pursuit crafts and two shallow water patrol launches are employed to carry out interception at sea.
A disc jockey, also known as DJ, is a person who plays recorded music for an audience. Originally, "disc" (sometimes spelled "disk", although this is now uncommon) referred to phonograph records, not the later Compact Discs. Today, the term includes all forms of music playback, no matter the medium.
There are several types of disc jockeys. Radio DJs or radio personalities introduce and play music that is broadcast on AM, FM, shortwave, digital, or internet radio stations. Club DJs select and play music in bars, nightclubs, or discothèques, or at parties or raves, or even in stadiums. Hip hop disc jockeys select and play music using multiple turntables, often to back up one or more MCs, and they may also do turntable scratching to create percussive sounds. In reggae, the DJ (deejay) is a vocalist who raps, "toasts", or chats over pre-recorded rhythm tracks while the individual choosing and playing them is referred to as a selector. Mobile DJs travel with portable sound systems and play recorded music at a variety of events.
Club DJ equipment may consist of:
Other equipment could or can be added to the basic DJ setup (above), providing unique sound manipulations. Such devices
A priest or priestess is a person authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or multiple deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the priesthood, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively.
Priests and priestesses have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies. They exist in all or some branches of Judaism, Christianity, Shintoism, Hinduism and many other religions. They are generally regarded as having positive contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe, often interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. Priests are leaders to whom other believers will often turn for advice on spiritual matters.
In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest". As seen in the saga of Hrafnkell
A Saucier (French pronunciation: [sosje]) is a position in the classical brigade style kitchen, which is still used in large commercial kitchens such as some restaurants. It can be translated into English as sauce cook. This position prepares sauces, stews and hot hors d'œuvres and sautés food to order. Although it is the highest position of the station cooks, the saucier is still considered subordinate to the chef and the sous-chef.
In Georges Auguste Escoffier's system of the classic kitchen brigade, outlined in his book Le Guide Culinaire, a saucier is "responsible for all sautéed items and most sauces."
A saucier also refers to the type of dish that sauces are made in. A saucier (also called a chef's pan) is characterized by sloping sides. The sides allow easy whisking as well as pooling of liquids which help to mimic smaller pan sizes.
Frederic Forrest's character Jay 'Chef' Hicks in the 1979 film Apocalypse Now informs the protagonist Captain Benjamin Willard that he was "raised to be a saucier".
The term also received great popularity due to Kirk Lazarus in Tropic Thunder.
A second mate (2/M) or second officer is a licensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship holding a Second Mates Certificate of Competency, which is issued by the administration. The second mate is the third in command (or on some ocean liners fourth) and a watchkeeping officer, customarily the ship's navigator. Other duties vary, but the second mate is often the medical officer and in charge of maintaining distress signaling equipment. On oil tankers, the second mate usually assists the chief mate with the tank-cleaning operations.
The navigator role focuses on creating the ship's passage plans. A passage plan is a comprehensive, step by step description of how the voyage is to proceed from berth to berth. The plan includes undocking, departure, the en route portion of a voyage, approach, and mooring at the destination.
The GMDSS officer role consists of performing tests and maintenance, and ensuring the proper log-keeping on the ship's Global Maritime Distress Safety System equipment. Safety equipment includes Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons, a NAVTEX unit, INMARSAT consoles, various radios, Search and Rescue Transponders, and Digital Selective Calling
The inker (also sometimes credited as the finisher, embellisher, or tracer) is one of the two line artists in a traditional comic book or graphic novel. After a pencilled drawing (or copy of the pencilled drawing) is given to the inker, the inker uses black ink (usually India ink) to produce refined outlines over the pencil lines. The ink may be applied with a pen or a brush — many inkers use both — or even digitally, a process gaining in popularity. The inker is usually responsible for every black line on the page, except for letters, which are handled by a letterer. In many comic strips, as well as Japanese manga and European comics, a single artist takes responsibility for penciling, inking and sometimes even lettering, either doing it all (e.g., Charles M. Schulz) or hiring assistants. For comics printed in color, there is usually a separate colorist.
Inking was a necessity of the printing process used in comic books and other print publications; the presses could not reproduce pencilled drawings. It is now a recognized art in itself. As the last hand in the production chain before the colorist, the inker has the final word on the look of the page, and can help control a
A police officer (also known as a policeman, cop, policewoman, and constable in some forces, particularly in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth nations) is a warranted employee of a police force. In the United States, "officer" is the formal name of the lowest police rank. In many other countries, "officer" is a generic term not specifying a particular rank, and the lowest rank is often "constable". In many other countries there is no such title as "police officer", as the use of the rank "officer" is legally reserved for military personnel only and thus not applicable. Police officers are generally charged with the apprehension of criminals and the prevention and detection of crime, and the maintenance of public order. Police officers may be sworn to an oath, and have the power to arrest people and detain them for a limited time, along with other duties and powers.
Some police officers may also be trained in special duties, such as counter-terrorism, surveillance, child protection, VIP protection, and investigation techniques into major crime, including fraud, rape, murder and drug trafficking.
Responsibilities of a police officer are varied, and may differ greatly from
A governess is a girl or woman employed to teach and train children in a private household. In contrast to a nanny (formerly called a nurse) or a babysitter, she concentrates on teaching children, not on meeting their physical needs. Her charges are of school age, not babies.
The position is rarer now, except within large and wealthy households such as those of the Saudi royal family and in remote regions such as outback Australia. It was common in well-off European families before World War I, especially in the countryside where no suitable school existed nearby. Parents' preference to educate their children at home—rather than send them away to boarding school for months at a time—varied across time and countries. Governesses were usually in charge of girls and younger boys; when a boy was old enough, he left his governess for a tutor or a school.
There has been a recent resurgence amongst families worldwide to employ governesses or full-time tutors. This has been for a number of reasons including personal security, the benefits of a tailored education and the flexibility to travel or live in multiple locations.
Modern governesses occupy a slightly different role to their
A hawker is a vendor of merchandise that can be easily transported; the term is roughly synonymous with peddler or costermonger. In most places where the term is used, a hawker sells items or food that are native to the area. Whether stationary or mobile, hawkers usually advertise by loud street cries or chants, and conduct banter with customers, so to attract attention and enhance sales. When accompanied by a demonstration and/or detailed explanation of the product, the hawker is sometimes referred to as a demonstrator or pitchman.
The costermongers of London, England were at their peak in the 19th century. Organised, yet semi-criminal, they were ubiquitous, and their street cries could be heard everywhere.
In large cities across North America, hawkers are commonly known as street vendors, who sell snack items, such as popcorn, cotton candy, peanuts, beverages, and ice cream, along with non-edible items, such as jewelry, clothes, books, and paintings. Hawkers are also found selling various items to fans at a sports venue; more commonly, this person is simply referred to as a stadium vendor.
In the Caribbean hawkers are commonly referred to as higglers or informal commercial
A nursemaid or nursery maid, is mostly a historical term of employment for a female servant employed in the field of the care of children within the community of a large household, from the medieval castle, through the Georgian Manor house, to the Victorian townhouse or Great house.
The term 'nursemaid' has wide historical use, mostly related to servants charged with the actual care of children, including in many cases the duties of a wet nurse. In ancient usage the terms 'nursemaid' and 'nurse' (as, for example, the character in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet) are largely interchangeable. Everything that a parent ordinarily might do, especially the more onerous tasks, could be turned over to a nursemaid. Feeding very young children and supervising somewhat older children at meal times, seeing that the children are dressed properly, watching over the children as they play outside, and other such tasks could be left to a nursemaid.
The title 'Nursery Maid' refers to a specific role within the hierarchy of a great house. In the 21st century, the position is largely defunct, owing to the relatively small number of households who maintain large staffs with the traditional hierarchy. In
A pornographic actor or actress or a porn star is a person who appears in a pornographic film. Pornographic films tend to be made in a number of distinct pornographic sub-genres and attempt to present a sexual fantasy and the actors selected for a particular role are primarily selected on their ability to create or fit that fantasy. Depending on the genre of the film, the on-screen appearance and physical features of the main actors and their ability to create the sexual mood of the film is of critical importance. Most actors specialise in certain genres, such as lesbian sex, bondage, strap-on sex, anal sex, double penetration, semen swallowing, teenage women, interracial or MILFs. Irrespective of the genre, most actors are required to appear nude in pornographic films.
In pornographic films directed at a heterosexual male viewer, the primary focus is on the women in them, who are mostly selected for their willingness and ability to perform the required sex acts and on their on-screen appearance or physical appeal. Most male performers in heterosexual pornography are generally selected less for their looks than for their sexual prowess, namely their ability to do three things:
A sommelier (/ˈsɒməljeɪ/ or /sʌməlˈjeɪ/; French pronunciation: [sɔməlje]), or wine steward, is a trained and knowledgeable wine professional, normally working in fine restaurants, who specializes in all aspects of wine service as well as wine and food pairing. The role is more specialized and informed than that of a wine waiter.
The most important work of a sommelier is in the areas of wine procurement, wine storage, wine cellar rotation, and expert service to wine consumers.
A sommelier may also be responsible for the development of wine lists, and for the delivery of wine service and training for the other restaurant staff. Working along with the culinary team, they pair and suggest wines that will best complement each particular food menu item. This entails the need for a deep knowledge of how food and wine, beer, spirits and other beverages work in harmony. A professional sommelier also works on the floor of the restaurant and is in direct contact with restaurant patrons. The sommelier has a responsibility to work within the taste preference and budget parameters of the patron.
In modern times, a sommelier's role may be considered broader than working only with wines, and may
An accountant is a practitioner of accountancy or accounting, which is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and others make decisions about allocating resources.
The Big Four auditors are the largest employers of accountants worldwide. However, most accountants are employed in commerce, industry and the public sector.
In the Commonwealth of Nations, which includes the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong pre 1997 and several dozen other states, commonly recognised accounting qualifications are Chartered Accountant (CA or ACA), Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA), Chartered Management Accountant (ACMA) and International Accountant (AAIA). Other qualifications in particular countries include Certified Public Accountant (CPA – Ireland and CPA – Hong Kong), Certified Management Accountant (CMA – Canada), Certified General Accountant (CGA – Canada), Certified Practising Accountant (CPA – Australia) and members of the Institute of Public Accountants (Australia), and Certified Public Practising Accountant (CPPA – New Zealand).
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of
Air traffic controllers are people trained to maintain the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic in the global air traffic control system. The position of air traffic controller is one that requires highly specialized knowledge, skills, and abilities. Controllers apply separation rules to keep aircraft at a safe distance from each other in their area of responsibility and move all aircraft safely and efficiently through their assigned sector of airspace. Because controllers have an incredibly large responsibility while on duty (often in aviation, "on position"), the ATC profession is consistently regarded around the world as one of the most challenging careers, and can be notoriously stressful depending on many variables (equipment, configurations, weather, traffic volume, human factors, etc.). Many controllers, however, would cite high salaries and a very large and privileged degree of autonomy as major advantages of their jobs.
Although the media in the United States frequently refers to them as air controllers, or flight controllers, most air traffic professionals use the term air traffic controllers. They are also called air traffic control officers (ATCOs), air
A bricklayer or mason is a craftsman who lays bricks to construct brickwork. The term also refers to personnel who use blocks to construct blockwork walls and other forms of masonry. In British and Australian English, a bricklayer is colloquially known as a "brickie".
The training of a trade in European cultures has been a formal tradition for many centuries. A craftsman typically begins in an apprenticeship, working for and learning from a master craftsman, and after a number of years is released from his master's service to become a journeyman. After a journeyman has proven himself to his trade's guild (most guilds are now known by different names), he may settle down as a master craftsman and work for himself, eventually taking on his own apprentices.
A notable person who laid bricks (as a hobby) was Sir Winston Churchill.
The German word for a bricklayer is Maurer. In Germany bricklaying is one of the most traditional trades.
The aspirant bricklayers start their careers as apprentices (Lehrlinge) and learn from a master craftsmen (Meister) the skills necessary for the trade. They also attend a vocational school (Berufsschule) to gain theoretical knowledge.
After three years of
In the field of computer hardware, the term programmer, chip programmer or device programmer refers to a device that configures programmable non-volatile digital circuits such as EPROMs, EEPROMs, Flashs, PALs, FPGAs or programmable logic circuits.
For programming a circuit, it is either inserted into a socket (often ZIF) on top of the programmer, or the programmer is directly connected by an adapter to the circuit board (In-System Programming). Afterwards the data is transferred into the circuit by applying signals to the connecting pins. Some circuits have a serial interface for receiving the programming data (JTAG interface). Other circuits require the data on parallel pins, followed by a programming pulse with a higher voltage for programming the data into the circuit.
Usually device programmers are connected to a personal computer through a printer connector, USB port or LAN interface. A software program on the computer then transfers the data to the programmer, selects the circuit and interface type, and starts the programming process.
There are four general types of device programmers: Gang programmers for mass production, development programmers for development and
In patent law, an inventor is the person, or persons in United States patent law, who contribute to the claims of a patentable invention. In some patent law frameworks, however, such as in the European Patent Convention (EPC) and its case law, no explicit, accurate definition of who exactly is an inventor is provided. The definition may slightly vary from one European country to another. Inventorship is generally not considered to be a patentability criterion under European patent law.
Under U.S. case law, an inventor is the one with "intellectual domination" over the inventive process, and not merely one who assists in its reduction to practice. Since inventorship relates to the claims in a patent application, knowing who an inventor is under the patent law is sometimes difficult. In fact, inventorship can change during the prosecution of a patent application as claims are deleted or amended.
"Joint inventors", or "co-inventors", exist when a patentable invention is the result of inventive work of more than one inventor. Joint inventors exist even where one inventor contributed a majority of the work.
Absent a contract or license, the inventors are individuals who own the rights
Today, the term Ironmonger refers to a retailer (or wholesaler) of iron goods. This has often been expanded to include consumer goods made of aluminium, brass, or other metals, as well as plastics. In modern usage, it is thus synonymous with a hardware shop. Ironmongers often double as tinkers.
In many parts of England and Wales, the historical usage was similar. However in the areas where ironware and nails were manufactured, particularly the Black Country, it signified a manufacturer operating under the domestic system, who put out iron to smiths, nailers, or other metal workers, and then organised the distribution of the finished products to retailers.
In some areas, "Ironmonger" is also slang for an arms dealer, giving rise to numerous fictional characters by the name.
A musician usually plays a musical instrument, especially (although not necessarily) as a profession. Musicians can be classified by their roles in performing music and writing music. A person who makes music a profession, anyone (professional or not) who's skilled in making music or performing music creatively, or one who composes, conducts, or performs music (especially instrumental music) is a musician.
Musicians can be of any music style not limited to classical, orchestral or choral, and musicians can have skills in many different styles outside of their professional experience. Examples of musicians' skills are the orchestration of music, improvisation, conducting, singing, composing, arranging, and/or being an instrumentalist.
For further information, see Medieval Music
During this time period, instrumental musicians mostly improvised and with soft ensembles with soft (bas) or loud (haut) instruments, categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor). Most musicians during this time period catered to the influences of the Roman Catholic Church, providing arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts.
For further information, see Renaissance
A writer is a person who produces nonfictional writing or literary art such as novels, short stories, poetry, plays, screenplays, or essays—especially someone who writes professionally.
Skilled writers are able to use language to express ideas and images. A writer's work may contribute significantly to the cultural content of a society.
The term writer is customarily used as a synonym of author, although the latter term has a somewhat broader meaning.
A domestic worker is a person who works within the employer's household. Domestic workers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to cleaning and household maintenance, known as housekeeping. Responsibilities may also include cooking, doing laundry and ironing, food shopping and other household errands. Some domestic workers live within the household where they work.
The conditions faced by domestic workers have varied considerably throughout history and in the contemporary world. In the course of twentieth-century movements for labour rights, women's rights and immigrant rights, the conditions faced by domestic workers and the problems specific to their class of employment have come to the fore. In 2011, the International Labour Organization adopted the Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers which covers decent work conditions for domestic workers. Recent ILO estimates based on national surveys and/or censuses of 117 countries, place the number of domestic workers at around 53 million. But the ILO itself states that "experts say that due to the fact that this kind of work is
A magician is a practitioner of magic, the ability to attain objectives or acquire knowledge (and,or) wisdom using supernatural or nonrational means.
Some modern magicians, such as Aleister Crowley and those who follow the traditions of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and Ordo Templi Orientis, describe magic in rational terms, using definitions, postulates and theorems. Aleister Crowley said "the magician of the future will use mathematical formulas".
The paranormal kind of magician (unlike the stage illusionist) can also be referred to as an enchanter, wizard, mage, magus, or thaumaturgist. These overlapping terms may be distinguished by some traditions or some writers. When such distinctions are made, sorcerers are more often practitioners of evocations or black magic, and there may be variations on level and type of power associated with each name.
Some names, distinctions, or aspects may have more of a negative connotation than others, depending on the setting and the context. (See also Magic and Magic and religion, for some examples.)
Many illusionists attempting parlor tricks and sleight of hand receive the title of magician whether it be by label or self description
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send". The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach in his name. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology.
A Christian missionary can be defined as "one who is to witness across cultures." The Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement." Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world.
Jesus instructed the apostles to make disciples of all nations (Matthew 28:19–20). This verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work.
The New Testament missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul was
A businessperson (also businessman, business man, businesswoman, or business woman) is someone involved in a particular undertaking of activities, commercial or industrial, for the purpose of generating revenue from a combination of human, financial, and physical capital. An entrepreneur is an example of a business person. Sometimes the term can mean someone who is involved in the management of a company, especially as an owner or an executive. Sometimes it can also mean someone employed in a (usually) profit-oriented enterprise. The term businessperson/man/woman almost always refers to someone with a "white collar" occupation.
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police.
Historically, the title comes from the Latin comes stabuli (count of the stables) and originated from the Eastern Roman Empire; originally, the constable was the officer responsible for keeping the horses of a lord or monarch. The title was imported to the monarchies of medieval Europe, and in many countries developed into a high military rank and great officer of State (e.g., the Constable of France).
Most constables in modern jurisdictions are law enforcement officers; in the United Kingdom, Commonwealth of Nations and some European countries, a constable is the lowest rank of police officer (it is also, when preceded by the term 'sworn', used to describe any police officer with arrest and other powers), while in the United States a constable is generally an elected peace officer with lesser jurisdiction than a sheriff. However, in the Channel Islands a constable is an elected office-holder at the parish level.
Historically, a constable could also refer to
A construction worker or builder is a professional, tradesman, or labourer who directly participates in the physical construction of infrastructure.
The division of labour of construction encompasses a diverse range of specialized skills, as well as manual labour.
Construction is the most dangerous in the land-based,military industry. In the European Union, the rate of fatal accidents is nearly 56,000 per 100,000 workers, compared with an average of 27,000 per 100,000 workers across all work sectors.
Hard hats and steel-toe boots are perhaps the most common personal protective equipment worn by construction workers around the globe. A risk assessment may deem that other protective equipment is appropriate, such as gloves, goggles, or high-visibility clothing.
Media related to Construction workers at Wikimedia Commons
A friar, or occasionally fray, is a man who is a member of a mendicant religious order in Catholic Christianity. "Fray" is sometimes used in former Spanish colonies such as the Philippines or the American Southwest as a title, such as in Fray Juan de Torquemada.
Friars differ from monks in that they are called to live the evangelical counsels (vows of poverty, chastity and obedience) in service to a community, rather than through cloistered asceticism and devotion. Whereas monks live in a self-sufficient community, friars work among laypeople and are supported by donations or other charitable support. A monk or nun makes their vows and commits to a particular community in a particular place. Friars commit to a community spread across a wider geographical area known as a province, and so they will typically move around, spending time in different houses of the community within his province.
The English term Friar is derived from the Norman French word frere ("brother"), from the Latin frater ("brother"), which was widely used in the Latin New Testament to refer to members of the Christian community.
St. Francis of Assisi called his followers fratres minores, which G. K. Chesterton
A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant (also a lessee or renter). When a juristic person is in this position, the term landlord is used. Other terms include lessor and owner. The term landlady may be used for female owners, and lessor applies to both genders.
Landowner may be traced back to the Roman Empire and the manorial system (seignorialism), which began under it — peasants were bound to the land and dependent on their landlords for protection and justice. Under the feudalism such relations became widespread.
The two parties step into relationship under the law of real estate property by signing a contract called lease. With this contract the one party, which has superior title to the property, i.e. the landlord, grants possession and use of it for a limited period to the other party, i.e. the tenant. The landlord/landlady may not be the actual owner of the property but keeping in some way the right to sub-lease.
A rental agreement, or lease, is the contract defining such terms as the price paid, penalties for late payments, the length of the rental or lease,
Electrical Lighting Technicians (ELT) or simply Lighting Tech., are involved with rigging stage and location sets and controlling artificial, electric lights for art and entertainment venues (theater or live music venues) or in video, television, or film production. In a theater production, lighting technicians work under the lighting designer and master electrician. In video, television, and film productions, lighting technicians work under the direction of the Gaffer or Chief Lighting Technician whom takes their direction from the cinematographer. In live music, lighting technicians work under the Lighting Director. All heads of department report to the production manager.
Lighting technicians are responsible for the movement and set up of various pieces of lighting equipment for separation of light and shadow or contrast, depth of field and/or visual effects. Lighting Technicians may also lay electrical cables, wire fixtures, install color effects or image patterns, focus the lights, and assist in creating effects or programming sequences.
Most lighting technician work as riggers and install portable, temporary, electrical based modular, distribution units and portable cables.
A medical technologist is an allied health professional who exercises technical and scientific functions in medical laboratories. In some countries, medical technologists may be called biomedical scientists, medical laboratory scientists or clinical laboratory scientists.
Several countries provide information for medical technologists:
A model (from Middle French modèle//aew), sometimes called a mannequin, is a person who is employed to display, advertise and promote commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a subject of works of art.
Modelling ("modeling" in American) is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artist, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is almost never considered modelling.
There are several types of models including fashion models, commercial print models, glamour models, fit models, and fine arts models. In the fashion world, models are divided into two categories: editorial and commercial. While most fashion models do editorial work, editorial models are regarded as high fashion models. They most notably participate in fashion shows and are seen in magazines such as Vogue. A good example of an editorial model would be Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, and Kate Moss. Commercial fashion models, while they may also appear in fashion magazines and advertisements, they most notably advertise products. Some notable commercial fashion models are Irina Shayk, Bar Refaeli, and Josie Maran.
An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. In the United Kingdom, the term anaesthetist refers exclusively fully registered medical practitioners (university graduates in medicine). In a very few UK hospitals some duties are performed by non-physicians, but only under close physician anaesthetist supervision. Training of these physicians' assistants (anaesthesia) in the UK has effectively ceased. In the UK training in anaesthesia for a fully registered physician takes seven years full-time.
In the USA, anesthesiologists are physicians who complete an accredited residency program in anesthesiology, usually four years following medical school either with MD or DO degree.
Anesthesiologists (anaesthetists in the UK) are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. These can include delivering anaesthesia during surgical procedures, caring for critically ill patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), managing medical emergencies such as cardiac arrests and traumas either in-hospital or in the public domain (termed 'pre-hospital medicine'), the
A judicial executioner is a person who carries out a death sentence ordered by the state or other legal authority, which was known in feudal terminology as high justice.
The executioner was usually presented with a warrant authorizing or ordering him to execute the sentence. The warrant protects the executioner from the charge of murder. Common terms for executioners derived from forms of capital punishment—though they often also performed other physical punishments—include hangman (hanging) and headsman (beheading). In the military the role of executioner was usually performed by a soldier, such as the provost. A common stereotype of an executioner is a hooded medieval or absolutist executioner.
While this task can be an occasional one, it can be carried out in the line of more general duty by an officer of the court, the police, prison staff, or even the military. A special case is the tradition of the Roman fustuarium, continued in forms of running the gauntlet, where the culprit receives his punishment from the hands of the comrades his crime has gravely harmed, e.g. for failing in vital sentinel duty or stealing from a ship's limited food supply.
Many executioners were
A songwriter is an individual who writes songs. Although songwriters of the past commonly composed, arranged and played their own songs, more recently the pressure to produce popular hits has tended to distribute responsibility between a number of people. Popular culture songs may be written by group members, but are now usually written by staff writers: songwriters directly employed by music publishers.
Some songwriters serve as their own music publishers, while others have outside publishers. Furthermore, songwriters no longer need labels to support their music. Technology has advanced to the point where anyone can record at home.
The old-style apprenticeship approach to learning how to write songs is being supplemented by some universities and colleges and rock schools. A knowledge of modern music technology and business skills is seen as necessary to make a songwriting career, and music colleges offer songwriting diplomas and degrees with music business modules.
Since songwriting and publishing royalties can be a substantial source of income, particularly if a song becomes a hit record, legally, in the US, songs written after 1934 may only be copied by the authors. The legal
An actuary is a business professional who deals with the financial impact of risk and uncertainty. Actuaries provide expert assessments of financial security systems, with a focus on their complexity, their mathematics, and their mechanisms (Trowbridge 1989, p. 7).
Actuaries mathematically evaluate the probability of events and quantify the contingent outcomes in order to minimize financial losses associated with uncertain undesirable events. Since many events, such as death, cannot be avoided, it is helpful to take measures to minimize their financial impact when they occur. These risks can affect both sides of the balance sheet, and require asset management, liability management, and valuation skills. Analytical skills, business knowledge and understanding of human behavior and the vagaries of information systems are required to design and manage programs that control risk (BeAnActuary 2005a).
The profession has consistently ranked as one of the most desirable in various studies over the years. In 2006, a study by U.S. News & World Report included actuaries among the 25 Best Professions that it expects will be in great demand in the future (Nemko 2006). In 2010, a study published
A call girl or female escort is a sex worker who (unlike a street walker) is not visible to the general public; nor does she usually work in an institution like a brothel, although she may be employed by an escort agency. The client must make an appointment, usually by calling a telephone number. Call girls often advertise their services in small ads in magazines and via the Internet, although an intermediary advertiser, such as an escort agency, may be involved in promoting escorts, while, less often, some may be handled by a pimp. Call girls may work either incall, where the client comes to them, or outcall, where they go to the client.
Most call girl agencies and independent call girls today have their own websites. The internet has become the main medium through which customers find their desired escort. Generally, a picture of the girl is provided, and sometimes, the type of sexual services she is willing to offer. Some agencies also propose a higher fee for people of special interest, such as twins, former porn stars, B-List models, prodommes or even submissives.
The terms exotic dancer and exotic dance can have different meanings in different parts of the world and depending on context. In the erotic sense, "exotic dance" is often used to refer to practitioners of striptease. In a non-erotic sense, it can mean many forms of foreign or cultural dance.
In a non-erotic sense, the word "exotic" applies to the fact that something is out of the ordinary or perceived by spectators as unusual. It can also apply to those dancers who master a rare or largely lost art form, including whirling dervishes, shaman dancers and religious dancers. Middle Eastern dance is often referred to as exotic dance in this way, though its use of hip/pelvic movement and isolation often results in its conflation with exotic dance in the erotic sense.
Other forms of exotic dance are aerial dance, many forms of experimental dance, pogo, breakdance and all other dance forms with unconventional movements. Strictly speaking, many anarchistic dance forms in wild parties can be considered as exotic dance, when movements take place that are not used in standard or Latin dance.
In an erotic sense, the term "exotic dance" is used as a synonym for erotic dancing.
A film producer oversees and delivers a film project to the film studio or other financing entity, while preserving the integrity, voice and vision of the film. They will also often take on some financial risk by using their own money, especially during the pre-production period, before a film is fully financed. Many film producers also have competency in other fields (directors, screenwriters, actors) but that is not always the case.
The producer is often actively involved throughout all major phases of the filmmaking process, from inception and development to completion and delivery of a film project. However, an idea or concept for a film can originate with any individual, including a screenwriter, a director or a producer.
A producer begins by obtaining the rights to create or co-create a feature-length screenplay. The producer oversees the process, which includes coordinating, supervising and controlling major aspects of the project. This includes fundraising and hiring key roles such as the casting director or film director. They'll also influence the hiring of other personnel such as the UPM or line producer and accountant.
An executive producer may be a person representing
Flight engineers work in three types of aircraft: fixed-wing (airplanes), rotary wing (helicopters), and space flight (ISS).
As airplanes became even larger requiring more engines and complex systems to operate, the workload on the two pilots became excessive during certain critical parts of the flight regime, notably takeoffs and landings. Piston engines on airplanes required a great deal of attention throughout the flight with their multitude of gauges and indicators. Inattention or a missed indication could result in engine or propeller failure, and quite possibly cause loss of the airplane if prompt corrective action was not taken. In order to dedicate a person to monitoring the engines and other critical flight systems, the position of Flight Engineer was created. The Flight Engineer did not actually fly the airplane; instead, the Flight Engineer had his own specialized control panel allowing him to monitor and control the various aircraft systems. The Flight Engineer is therefore an integrated member of the flight deck crew who works in close coordination with the two pilots during all phases of flight. The Flight Engineer position was usually placed on the main flight deck
An investor is someone who allocates capital with the expectation of a financial return. The types of investments include, — equity, debt securities, real estate, currency, commodity, derivatives such as put and call options, etc. This definition makes no distinction between those in the primary and secondary markets. That is, someone who provides a business with capital and someone who buys a stock are both investors. Since those in the secondary market are considered investors, speculators are also investors. According to this definition there is no difference
The following classes of investors are not mutually exclusive:
Also, investors might be classified according to their styles. In this respect, an important distinctive investor psychology trait is risk attitude.
The term “investor protection” defines the entity of efforts and activities to observe, safeguard and enforce the rights and claims of a person in his role as an investor. This includes advise and legal action. The assumption of a need of protection is based on the experience that financial investors are usually structurally inferior to providers of financial services and products due to lack of professional
A jurist or jurisconsult is a professional who studies, develops, applies, or otherwise deals with the law. The term is widely used in American English, but in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries it has only historical and specialist usage. In most of continental Europe any person who possesses a degree in law and works professionally with the law is referred to with a word resembling jurist (e.g., Jurist, juriste, jurista, juristi, jurists etc.).
There is no alternative word for "jurist" in English-speaking countries outside the U.S. and Canada. Members of the general public are largely unaware of the term and are likely to confuse it with "juror". Although the word "jurist" can technically be applied to anyone having a thorough knowledge of law, American and Canadian lawyers usually use the word only to refer to a judge. The term "legal professional" may be used for convenience. Within the legal community usage of "jurist" is usually restricted to eminent judges or academics. Apart from this people working in law are usually described as "lawyers" or solicitors if they are practicing law, or as belonging to a more specific branch of the legal profession, such as
A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media.
Reporters gather their information in a variety of ways, including tips, press releases, sources (those with newsworthy information) and witnessing events. They perform research through interviews, public records, and other sources. The information-gathering part of the job is sometimes called "reporting" as distinct from the production part of the job, such as writing articles. Reporters generally split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interview people.
Most reporters working for major news media outlets are assigned an area to focus on, called a beat or patch. They are encouraged to cultivate sources to improve their information gathering.
Reporters working for major the Western news media usually have a university or college degree. The degree is sometimes in journalism, but in most countries, that is generally not a requirement. When hiring reporters, editors tend to give much weight to the reporter's previous work (such as newspaper clippings), even when written for a student newspaper or as part of an internship. They work long
An arborist, or (less commonly) arboriculturist, is a professional in the practice of arboriculture, which is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. Arborists generally focus on the health and safety of individual plants and trees, rather than managing forests (the domains of Forestry and Silviculture) or harvesting wood. An arborist's scope of work is therefore distinct from that of either a forester or a logger, though the professions share much in common.
To work near power wires either additional training is required for arborists or they need to be Certified Line Clearance trimmers or Utility Arborists (there may be different terminology for various countries). There is a variety of minimum distances that must be kept from power wires depending on voltage, however the common distance for low voltage lines in urban settings is 10 feet (about 3 metres).
Arborists who climb (as not all do) can use a variety of techniques to ascend into the tree. The least invasive, and most popular technique used is to ascend on rope. When personal safety is an issue, or the tree is being removed, arborists may use 'spikes',
An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.
Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using physical laws. Today, that distinction has mostly disappeared and the terms "astronomer" and "astrophysicist" are interchangeable. Professional astronomers are highly educated individuals who typically have a PhD in physics or astronomy and are employed by research institutions or universities. They spend the majority of their time working on research, although they quite often have other duties such as teaching, building instruments, or aiding in the operation of an observatory. The number of professional astronomers in the United States is actually quite small. The American Astronomical Society, which is the major organization of professional astronomers in North America, has approximately 7,700 members. This number includes scientists from other fields such as physics, geology, and engineering, whose research interests are closely related to astronomy. The International Astronomical
A drill instructor is a non-commissioned officer or Staff Non-Commissioned Officer in the armed forces or police forces with specific duties that vary by country. In the U.S. armed forces, they are assigned the duty of indoctrinating new recruits entering the military into the customs and practices of military life. In the U.S., a drill instructor refers to a Marine Corps Drill instructor. In the Air Force they are known as Military Training Instructors. The U.S. Army refers to them as Drill sergeants. In the U.S. Navy, they are called "Recruit Division Commanders" (RDCs). In the U.S. Coast Guard, they are referred to as "Company Commanders". Outside of the U.S., they are assigned the duty of instructing recruits in drill commands only.
In the Australian Army, the staff responsible for training recruits are known as Recruit Instructors. They teach recruits discipline, fieldcraft, marksmanship, service knowledge and drill.
Each recruit platoon is commanded by Recruit Instructors usually consisting of a Lieutenant, a Sergeant and up to four instructors of the Corporal or Bombardier rank. A Recruit Instructor can be identified by a 1st Recruit Training Battalion colour patch on his or
A fire marshal, in the United States and Canada, is often a member of a fire department but may be part of a building department or a separate department altogether. Fire marshals' duties vary but usually include fire code enforcement and/or investigating fires for origin and cause. Fire marshals may be sworn law-enforcement officers and are often experienced firefighters.
A fire marshal's duties vary by location. Fire marshals may carry a weapon, wear a badge, and make arrests pertaining to arson and related offenses, or, in other localities, may have duties entirely separate from law enforcement, including building- and fire-code-related inspections. In many areas, the fire marshal is responsible for enforcing laws concerning flammable materials.
Ontario Fire Marshals provide advisory services to local fire departments and assist in code writing and enforcement. The Fire Investigation Section (FIS) of the OFM also investigates fires within the boundaries of Ontario based on various critera from fire departments and police agencies.
Office of State Fire Marshal (SFM); purpose; qualifications – to promote public health and safety and to reduce hazards to life, limb and property,
An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. An organist may play solo organ works, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers or instrumental soloists. In addition, an organist may accompany congregational hymn-singing and play liturgical music.
The majority of organists, amateur and professional, are principally involved in church music. The pipe organ still plays a large part in the leading of traditional western Christian worship, with roles including the accompaniment of hymns, choral anthems and other parts of the worship. The degree to which the organ is involved varies depending on the church and denomination. It also may depend on the standard of the organist. In more provincial settings, organists may be more accurately described as pianists obliged to play the organ for worship services; nevertheless, some churches are fortunate to have trained organists capable of more elaborate "voluntaries" (the solo music before, during and after the service) and improvisation. As most churches can afford to employ only one musician, the organist is usually also responsible for directing and rehearsing the choir(s). In the twentieth-century, many
A public speaker is a person who makes speeches in public settings. A speaker may address a large assembly of people or small gatherings. For large assemblies, the speaker will usually speak with the aid of a public address system or microphone and loudspeaker.
The objectives of a public speaker's presentation can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Professional public speakers often engage in ongoing training and education to refine their craft. This may include seeking guidance to improve their speaking skills—such as learning better storytelling techniques, for example, or learning how to effectively use humor as a communication tool—as well as continuous research in their topic area of focus.
People who speak publicly in a professional capacity are paid a speaking fee. Professional public speakers may include ex-politicians, sports stars and other public figures. In the case of high profile personalities, the sum can be extraordinary.
An after dinner speaker is a person who makes a public speech after a formal dinner. Normally it is meant to be reasonably light-hearted and entertaining, but the speaker can have a
In extractive metallurgy, a smelter is a factory for producing metal by the reduction of ore.
Most smelters use specialised metallurgical furnace to accomplish this. These are (or were) of various kinds. For iron, the primary smelting took place in a bloomery or in a blast furnace. For base metal such as copper and lead, smelt mill were used and later reverberatory furnace known as cupolas.
Some smelters required a forced draught provided by bellows to blow in air and heat up the interior so that it was hot enough to melt metals. In the industrial revolution, bellows were replaced by blowing tubs (or cylinders), usually operated by a steam engine. However reverberatory furnace are air furnaces, where the draught was provided by convection as a result of hot gases rising up a chimney. Some have long flue systems, so that the flue gases cooled enough for metal vapour to condense.
More detailed descriptions of the various processes will be found under each different type of plant.
Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. The term software engineering first appeared in the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference, and was meant to provoke thought regarding the perceived "software crisis" at the time.
Software development, a much used and more generic term, does not necessarily subsume the engineering paradigm. The field's future looks bright according to Money Magazine and Salary.com, which rated Software Engineer as the best job in the United States in 2006. In 2012, software engineering was again ranked as the best job in the United States, this time by CareerCast.com.
When the first modern digital computers appeared in the early 1940s, the instructions to make them operate were wired into the machine. Practitioners quickly realized that this design was not flexible and came up with the "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture. Thus the division between "hardware" and "software" began with abstraction being used to deal with the
A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, and is usually trained in librarianship (known either as library science or library and information science). Traditionally, a librarian is associated with collections of books, as demonstrated by the etymology of the word "librarian" (
A silversmith is a craftsman who makes objects from silver or gold. The terms 'silversmith' and 'goldsmith' are not synonyms as the techniques, training, history, and guilds are or were largely the same but the end product varies greatly as does the scale of objects created.
Silversmithing is the art of turning silver and gold sheetmetal into hollowware (dishes, bowls, porringers, cups, vases, ewers, urns, etc.), flatware (silverware), and other articles of Household silver.
In Ethiopia the trade of silversmith was practised by the Jews of Ethiopia, otherwise known as the Falasha. The activity was considered to be inferior to others, as reliant on manual skills.
In the ancient Near East the value of silver to gold being less, allowed a silversmith to produce objects and store these as stock. Ogden states that according to an edict written by Diocletian, a silversmith was able to charge, 75, 150 or 300 denarii for material produce (per Roman pound). At that time guilds of silversmith's formed to look out for the welfare of their number.
Silversmiths in medieval Europe and England formed guilds and transmitted their tools and techniques to new generations via the apprentice
An aviator is a person who is actively involved in the flight of an aircraft. A pilot is an aviator that directly controls the aircraft. People that fly aboard an aircraft, such as passengers and cabin crew, that are not involved in the aircraft's flight systems are not generally considered to be aviators, but aviation navigators, bombardiers, Weapon Systems Officers, and Electronic Warfare Officers are generally included.
To ensure the safety of people in the air as well as on the ground, soon after aviation began it became a requirement for an aircraft to be under the operational control of a properly trained, certified and current pilot at all times, who is responsible for the safe and legal completion of the flight. The first certificate was delivered by the Aéro-Club de France to Louis Blériot in 1908, followed by Glenn Curtiss, Léon Delagrange, and Robert Esnault-Pelterie. The absolute authority given to the "pilot in command" is derived from that of a ship's captain.
In recognition of the aviators' qualifications and responsibilities, most militaries and many airlines around the world award aviator badges to their pilots, as well as other air crews. This includes naval
Conférencier is the proper term for the master of ceremonies appearing in European cabaret. The term appeared in the 1920s and became synonymous with these persona who not only emceed cabarets, but were well known for their political and social commentary. They became controversial in the eye of the Nazi regime, who eventually cracked down and banned such commentary, keeping a watchful eye over these conférenciers.
Their role was dramaticized in the well-known musical Cabaret, by composers Kander and Ebb. However, their role in the art of the Weimar Republic and elsewhere in Europe during the inter-war period should not be underestimated.
Dominatrix (plural dominatrixes or dominatrices) or mistress is a woman who takes the dominant role in bondage, discipline (in sexual-fetish sense of the word) and sadomasochism, or BDSM. A common form of address for a submissive to a dominatrix is "mistress", "ma'am", "domina" or "maîtresse". Note that a dominatrix does not necessarily dominate a male partner; a dominatrix may well have female submissives, nor must the role of a dominatrix involve pain toward the submissive; her domination can be verbal, involving humiliating tasks and servitude.
The term "domme" ( /ˈdɒm/) is a coined pseudo-French female variation of the slang dom (short for dominant). It stems from the Latin words "dominus" = master, "domina" = mistress. The pronunciation is identical to the term "dom", by analogy to one-syllable French-derived words like femme or blonde.
As fetish culture is increasingly becoming more prevalent in Western media, depictions of dominatrices in film and television have become more common.
Dominatrix is the feminine form of the Latin dominator, a ruler or lord, and was originally used in a non-sexual sense. Its use in English dates back to at least 1561. Its earliest recorded use
An editor in the professional or traditional sense is generally an individual who makes corrective changes, or edits, in the content or format of a creative work. Such works may deal with the literary arts, musical composition, film, radio programs, or other forms intended for publication or public presentation. The job of a professional editor can range from revising a particular work, such as the text of a book or magazine article, to supervising the publication and distribution of such a work, such as a newspaper or other printed and published materials. Editors are most often identified as those who work to prepare book manuscripts and newspapers for publication.
A grenadier (from French, derived from the word grenade) was originally a specialized soldier, first established as a distinct role in the mid-to-late 17th century, for the throwing of grenades and sometimes assault operations. At this time grenadiers were chosen from the strongest and largest soldiers. By the 19th century, the throwing of grenades was no longer relevant, but grenadiers were still chosen for being the most physically powerful soldiers and would lead assaults in the field of battle. Grenadiers would also often lead the storming of breaches in siege warfare, although this role was more usually fulfilled by all-arm units of volunteers called forlorn hopes, and might also be fulfilled by sappers or pioneers.
In the 19th century, certain countries such as France and Argentina established units of "Horse Grenadiers". Like their infantry grenadier counterparts, these horse-mounted soldiers were chosen for their size and strength (i.e. heavy cavalry).
The concept of throwing grenades may go back to the Ming Dynasty, when Chinese soldiers on the Great Wall were reported using this weapon. The earliest references to these grenade-throwing soldiers in Western armies come from
A herder is a worker who lives a possibly semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, in places where these animals wander pasture lands.
Usually if the person is a minor, he is called herdboy, if adult sometimes by contrast herdsman. Because their work is necessarily mostly outdoors, they move around from place to place in the course of their labours. The possibility exists that the lands upon which their beasts graze are not claimed as any single person's property.
A number of romantic legends have sprung up around some aspects of their way of life. Some herders whose lifestyles have become mainstays of fiction include:
An imam (Arabic: إمام, plural: أئمة A'immah; Persian: امام) is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance. It may also be used in the form of a prefix title with scholars of renown.
The Sunni branch of Islam does not have imams in the same sense as the Shi'a, an important distinction often overlooked by those outside of the Islamic faith. In every day terms, the imam for Sunni Muslims is the one who leads Islamic formal (Fard) prayers, even in locations besides the mosque, whenever prayers are done in a group of two or more with one person leading (imam) and the others follow by copying his ritual actions of worship. Friday sermon is most often given by an appointed imam. All mosques have an imam to lead the (congregational) prayers, even though it may sometimes just be a member from the gathered congregation rather than officially appointed salaried person. Women may not lead prayers other than if it is an all female group (among native Muslims in China (Hui), women have traditionally been trained as, and practice, the role of
A professor is a scholarly teacher; the precise meaning of the term varies by country. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being usually an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of high rank. In much of the world, including most Commonwealth nations (such as the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand) and northern Europe professor is reserved only for the most senior academics at a university, typically a department chair, or an awarded chair specifically bestowed recognizing an individual at a university. A professor is a highly accomplished and recognized academic, and the title is awarded only after decades of scholarly work. In the United States and Canada the title of professor is granted to all scholars with Doctorate degrees (typically Ph.D.s) who teach in two- and four-year colleges and universities, and is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions elsewhere, as well as for full professors.
In countries on the northern European mainland, such as The Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries, usage of professor as a legal title is limited much the same way as in most
Real estate development, or property development, is a multifaceted business, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of improved land or parcels to others. Developers are the coordinators of the activities, converting ideas on paper into real property. Real estate development is different from construction, although many developers also construct. Developer Louis Lesser drew the distinction in a 1963 New York Times article, "Developing is the key word. 'We don't build ourselves', Mr. Lesser stresses. 'We buy the land, finance the deal, and then we have the best builders build under bond at a fixed cost.'"
Developers buy land, finance real estate deals, build or have builders build projects, create, imagine, control and orchestrate the process of development from the beginning to end. Developers usually take the greatest risk in the creation or renovation of real estate—and receive the greatest rewards. Typically, developers purchase a tract of land, determine the marketing of the property, develop the building program and design, obtain the necessary public approval and financing, build the
A technician is a worker in a field of technology who is proficient in the relevant skills and techniques, with a relatively practical understanding of the theoretical principles. Experienced technicians in a specific tool domain typically have intermediate understanding of theory and expert proficiency in technique. As such, technicians are generally much better versed in technique compared to average layman and even general professionals in that field of technology. For example, although audio technicians are not as learned in acoustics as acoustical engineers, they are more proficient in operating sound equipment, and they will likely know more about acoustics than other studio personnel such as performers.
Technicians may be classified as either skilled workers or semi-skilled workers, and may be part of a larger (production) process. They may be found working in a variety of fields, and they usually have a job title with the designation 'technician' following the particular category of work. Thus a 'stage technician' is a worker who provides technical support for putting on a play, while a 'medical technician' is an employee who provides technical support in the medical
In medieval Gaelic and British culture a bard was a professional poet, employed by a patron, such as a monarch or nobleman, to commemorate the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.
Originally a specific class of poet, contrasting with another class known as fili in Ireland and Highland Scotland, the term "bard", with the decline of living bardic tradition in the modern period, acquired generic meanings of an epic author/singer/narrator, comparable with the terms in other cultures (minstrel, skald, scop, rhapsode, udgatar, griot, ashik) or any poets, especially famous ones. For example, William Shakespeare is known as The Immortal Bard.
The word is a loanword from Scottish Gaelic, deriving from Proto-Celtic *bardos, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *grh2-dh1-ó-, from the root *gerh2 "to raise the voice; praise". The first recorded example in English is in 1449, Lowland Scots, denoting an itinerant musician, usually with a contemptuous connotation. The word subsequently entered the English language via Scottish English.
Secondly, in medieval Gaelic and Welsh society, a bard (Scottish and Irish Gaelic) or bardd (Welsh) was a professional poet, employed to
A bodyguard (or close protection officer) is a type of security operative or government agent who protects a person or persons — usually a public, wealthy, or politically important figure(s) — from danger: generally theft, assault, kidnapping, homicide, harassment, loss of confidential information, threats, or other criminal offences.
Most important public figures such as heads of state or governors are protected by several bodyguards or by a team of bodyguards from an agency, security forces, or police forces (e.g., in the U.S., the United States Secret Service or the State Department's Diplomatic Security Service). In most countries where the Head of state is and have always been also their military leader, the leader's bodyguards have traditionally been done by Royal Guards, Republican Guards and other elite military unit. Less-important public figures, or those with lower risk profiles, may be accompanied by a single bodyguard who doubles as a driver. A number of high-profile celebrities and CEOs also use bodyguards.
The role of bodyguards is often misunderstood by the public, because the typical layperson's only exposure to bodyguarding is usually in highly dramatized action
A detective or investigator is an investigator, either a member of a police agency or a private person. The latter may be known as private investigators or "private eyes". Informally, and primarily in fiction, a detective is any licensed or unlicensed person who solves crimes, including historical crimes, or looks into records.
In some police departments, a detective position is not appointed, it is a position achieved by passing a written test after a person completes the requirements for being a police officer. Prospective British police detectives must have completed at least two years as a uniformed officer before applying to join the Criminal Investigation Department. UK Police must also pass the National Investigators' Examination in order to progress on to subsequent stages of the Initial Crime Investigators Development Programme in order to qualify as a Detective.
In many other police systems, detectives are college graduates who join directly from civilian life without first serving as uniformed officers. Some people argue that detectives do a completely different job and therefore require completely different training, qualifications, qualities and abilities than
A greengrocer or fruiterer is a retail trader in fruit and vegetables; that is, in green groceries. Greengrocer is primarily a British and Australian term, and greengrocers' shops were once common in suburbs, towns and villages. They have been affected by the dominant rise of supermarkets, but many can be found managing small shops or stores in towns and cities and in some villages. Greengrocers can also be found in street markets and malls, or managing produce departments at supermarkets. Such traders typically handle the entire business of buying, selling, and book-keeping themselves.
A syndicated television segment entitled "The Green Grocer" featured consumer advocate Joe Carcione, advising viewers on how to best shop for fruits and vegetables. This popular segment aired during the 1970s and 1980s.
Because of its supposed misuse on greengrocers' signs, such as for apple's, orange's or banana's, an apostrophe used incorrectly to form a plural is known as a greengrocers' apostrophe.
Homemaking is a mainly American term for the management of a home, otherwise known as housework, housekeeping, or household management; it is the act of overseeing the organizational, financial, day-to-day operations of a house or estate, and the managing of other domestic concerns. This domestic consumption work creates goods and services within a household, such as meals, childcare, household repairs, or the manufacture of clothes and gifts. Common tasks include cleaning, cooking, and looking after children. A person in charge of the homemaking, who isn't employed outside the home, is in the U.S. and Canada often called a homemaker, a gender-neutral term for a housewife or a househusband. The term "homemaker", however, may also refer to a social worker who manages a household during the incapacity of the housewife or househusband.
Housework is not always a lifetime commitment; many, for economic or personal reasons, return to the workplace. In previous decades, there were many mandatory courses for the young to learn the skills of homemaking. In high school, courses included cooking, nutrition, home economics, family and consumer science (FACS), and food and cooking hygiene. This
An impersonator is someone who imitates or copies the behavior or actions of another. There are many reasons for someone to be an impersonator, some common ones being as follows:
Celebrity impersonators are entertainers who look similar to celebrities and dress in such a way as to imitate them.
Impersonators are known as look-alikes, impressionist, imitators and tribute artists. The interest may have originated with the need or desire to see a celebrity who has died. One of the most prominent examples of this phenomenon is the case of Elvis Presley. There are claimed to be more Elvis impersonators and tribute artists in the world than for any other celebrity.
Edward Moss has appeared in movies and sitcoms, impersonating Michael Jackson.
A lighthouse keeper is the person responsible for tending and caring for a lighthouse, particularly the light and lens in the days when oil lamps and clockwork mechanisms were used. Keepers were needed to trim the wicks, replenish fuel, wind clockworks and perform maintenance tasks such as cleaning lenses and windows. Electrification and other automated improvements such as remote monitoring and automatic bulb changing made paid keepers resident at the lights unnecessary. In the US, periodic maintenance of the lights is now performed by visiting Coast Guard Aids to Navigation teams.
The Point Lonsdale Lighthouse is possibly the only manned lighthouse left in Australia.
According to the Canadian Lightkeepers Association, there are 37 staffed lighthouses in British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, though the Canadian Coast Guard has plans to automate these installations.
The last manned lighthouse in Finland was deserted in 1987.
All French lighthouses are automated, though a few are still manned.
The last lighthouse keeper in Iceland was terminated in 2010.
Baily Lighthouse was the last Irish lighthouse to be unmanned, in 1997.
As of 2011, there were 62 manned lighthouses in
A torero (Spanish: [toˈɾeɾo]) or toureiro (Portuguese: [toˈɾɐjɾu]) is a bullfighter and the main performer in bullfighting, practised in Spain, Portugal, Mexico, Peru, France and various other countries influenced by Spanish culture. In Spanish, the word torero describes any of the performers who actively participate in the bullfight. The main one who is the leader of the entourage and who kills the bull is addressed as maestro (master) and his formal title is matador de toros (killer of bulls) but the word "matador" by itself is not used in Spanish. The term torero encompasses all who fight the bull in the ring (picadores and rejoneadores). The other bullfighters in the entourage are called subalternos and their suits are embroidered in silver as opposed to the matador's gold.
An alternative word for torero is toreador in English (and in Bizet's opera Carmen), but this term (older than torero) is not used in Spain and seldom in Latin America.
A very small number of women have been bullfighters on foot or on horseback, a recent example being Cristina Sánchez. Female matadors have experienced considerable resistance and hostility from aficionados and other matadors.
A nurse is a healthcare professional who, in collaboration with other members of a health care team, is responsible for: treatment, safety, and recovery of acutely or chronically ill individuals; health promotion and maintenance within families, communities and populations; and, treatment of life-threatening emergencies in a wide range of health care settings. Nurses perform a wide range of clinical and non-clinical functions necessary to the delivery of health care, and may also be involved in medical and nursing research. Nurses have been working in the professional field since ancient times.
Both nursing roles and education were first defined by Florence Nightingale, following her experiences caring for the wounded in the Crimean War. Prior to this, nursing was thought to be a trade with few common practices or documented standards. Nightingale's concepts were used as a guide for establishing nursing schools at the beginning of the twentieth century, which were mostly hospital-based training programs emphasizing the development of a set of clinical skills. The profession's early utilization of a general, hospital-based education is sometimes credited for the wide range of roles
A pianist ( /ˈpiːənɨst/ PEE-ə-nist) is a musician who plays the piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers, solo instrumentalists, or other performers.
Most forms of Western music can make use of the piano. Consequently, pianists have a wide variety of repertoire and styles to choose from, including jazz, classical music, and all sorts of popular music.
A performing classical pianist usually starts playing piano at a very young age.
A single listing of pianists in all genres would be impractical, given the multitude of musicians noted for their performances on the instrument. Below are links to lists of well-known or influential pianists divided by genres:
Many well-known classical composers were also virtuoso pianists. The following is an incomplete list of such musicians.
A radio producer oversees the making of a radio show. There are two main types of producer. An audio or creative producer and a content producer. Audio producers create sounds and audio specifically, content producers oversee and orchestrate a radio show or feature. The content producer might organize music choices, guests, callers for talk radio or competitions, timings, and overall show content. They also may produce recorded content, from shows to radio commercials and commercial bumpers.
The role of a radio producer may also include that of a board operator or technical operator who may operate the technical controls (sound volume levels, recording software, switchboard, etc.) for another person, the on-air talent. The producer is often in a separate control room, usually separated from the radio studio by a window, which allows visual contact while blocking noise.
Some producers involved in the field of radio are also sometimes known as "production directors", "creative producers", "imaging specialists", or even "imaging producers". This type of radio producer primarily creates and produces audio content for a radio station or radio network. Some examples of their work are
This article is about the skilled manual worker meaning of the term; for other uses see Tradesperson (disambiguation).
A tradesman is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft. Economically and socially, a tradesman's status is considered between a laborer and a professional, with a high degree of both practical and theoretical knowledge of their trade. In cultures where professional careers are highly prized there can be a shortage of skilled manual workers, leading to lucrative niche markets in the trades.
The training of a trade in European cultures has been a formal tradition for many centuries. A tradesman typically begins as an apprentice, working for and learning from a Master, and after a number of years is released from his master's service as a Journeyman. After a Journeyman has proven himself to his trade's guild (most guilds are now known by different names), he may settle down as a Master and work for himself, eventually taking on his own apprentices.
Since the 20th Century, this process has been changed in many ways. A tradesman still begins as an apprentice, but the apprenticeship is carried out partly through working for a tradesman and partly through
A conductor is a member of a railway train's crew that is responsible for operational and safety duties that do not involve the actual operation of the train. The title of conductor is most associated with railway operations in North America, but the role of conductor is common to railways worldwide albeit under different job titles. Specific job responsibilities for a conductor-type position include ensuring that the train adheres to its schedule, ensuring that any cars or cargo are picked up or dropped off at the proper place, completing en-route paperwork, ensuring that the train follows applicable safety rules and practices, controlling the train's movement while operating in reverse, coupling or decoupling cars, assisting with the setting out or picking up of rolling stock, carrying out running repairs, ticket collection and various customer service duties.
Some rapid transit systems may employ conductors for the purpose of making announcements and opening/closing doors — as opposed to a train operator doing the job — for safety or efficiency reasons. The conductor is often positioned in the center of the train where they can best view the platform. While advances in
A Book Editor is role within book publishing, which typically involves being a substantive editor, production editor and copyeditor. This is particularly true of smaller publishers, who retain fewer staff and so need them to fulfil more roles. Book Editors need good literacy and computing skills. They are responsible for page layout and choosing fonts for text and headers, so should understand how these elements affect the readability and impact of the product. Book Editors in small publishers may also be involved in further elements of design.
Clergy is a generic term used to refer to the formal religious leadership within some religions. A clergyman, clergywoman, clergyperson, churchman or cleric is a member of the clergy, especially one who is a priest, preacher, pastor, or other religious professional. Clergy have different functions in different religious traditions. They may lead certain rituals, for example, or help in spreading religious doctrines and practices.
In Christianity, specific names and roles of clergy vary by denomonation, and there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons, priests, bishops, preachers, pastors, and ministers. In Shia Islam, a religious leader is often known as an imam or ayatollah. In Jewish tradition, a religious leader is often a rabbi or hazzan (cantor).
The term ultimately comes from the Greek "κλῆρος" - klēros, "a lot", "that which is assigned by lot" (allotment) or metaphorically, "inheritance". Within Christianity, especially in Eastern Christianity and formerly in Western Roman Catholicism, the term cleric refers to any individual who has received the clerical tonsure, including deacons, priests, and bishops. In Latin Roman Catholicism, the
A comedian (French: comédien) or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh. This might be through jokes or amusing situations, or acting a fool, as in slapstick, or employing prop comedy. A comedian who addresses an audience directly is called a stand-up comic.
A popular saying, variously quoted but generally attributed to Ed Wynn, is, "A comic says funny things; a comedian says things funny", which draws a distinction between how much of the comedy can be attributed to verbal content and how much to acting and persona.
Since the 1980s, a new wave of comedy, called alternative comedy, has grown in popularity with its more offbeat and experimental style. This normally involves more experiential, or observational reporting, e.g. Alexei Sayle, Daniel Tosh and Malcolm Hardee. As far as content is concerned, comedians such as Tommy Tiernan, Des Bishop, and Joan Rivers draw on their background to poke fun at themselves, while others such as Jon Stewart, and Ben Elton have very strong political and cultural undertones. Contemporary comedians include Conan O'Brien and Jonathan Ross.
Many comics achieve a cult following while touring famous comedy
Guru (Devanagari गुरु) is a Sanskrit term for "teacher" or "master", especially in Indian religions. The Hindu guru-shishya tradition is the oral tradition or religious doctrine transmitted from teacher to student. In the United States, the meaning of "guru" has been used to cover anyone who acquires followers, especially by exploiting their naiveté, due to the inflationary use of the term in new religious movements.
The syllable gu means shadows
The syllable ru, he who disperses them,
Because of the power to disperse darkness
the guru is thus named.
— Advayataraka Upanishad 14—18, verse 5
The word guru, a noun, means "teacher" in Sanskrit and in other languages derived from or borrowing words from Sanskrit, such as Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Bengali, Gujarati and Nepali. The malayalam term Acharyan or Asan are derivered from the Sanskrit word Acharya. It is transliterated in different ways such as Asaan, Ashan, Aasaan etc.
As a noun the word means the imparter of knowledge (jñāna; also Pali: ñāna). As an adjective, it means 'heavy,' or 'weighty,' in the sense of "heavy with knowledge," heavy with spiritual wisdom, "heavy with spiritual weight,"
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the parties of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, and then issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might also be an examining magistrate.
A variety of traditions have become associated with the rank or occupation.
In many parts of the world, judges wear long robes (usually in black or red) and sit on an elevated platform during trials (known as the bench).
In some countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges sometimes wear wigs. The long wig often associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was part of the standard attire in
A lamplighter, historically, was an employee of a town who lit street lights, generally by means of a wick on a long pole. At dawn, they would return to put them out using a small hook on the same pole. Early street lights were generally candles, oil, and similar consumable liquid or solid lighting sources with wicks. Another lamplighter duty was to carry a ladder and renew the candles, oil, or gas mantles. In some communities, lamplighters served in a role akin to a town watchman; in others, it may have been seen as little more than a sinecure. In the 19th century, gas lights became the dominant form of street lighting. Early gaslights required lamplighters, but eventually systems were developed which allowed the lights to operate automatically. Today a lamplighter is an extremely rare job. In Brest as a tourist attraction a lamplighter has been employed since 2009 to light up the kerosene lamps in the shopping street every day. There is a long history of the role of a lamplighter-as-lightbringer as a symbolic figure in literature.
A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage, and drainage in plumbing systems. The term dates from ancient times, and is related to the Latin word for lead, "plumbum."
The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. In Roman times lead was known as plumbum in Latin (hence the abbreviation of 'Pb' for lead on the periodic table of the elements). Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were also covered with lead, lead was also used for piping and for making baths. In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, plumber, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, and about various defects in the roof of the little hall". Thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius which was later shortened to plumber.
Years of training and/or experience are needed to become a skilled plumber; some jurisdictions also require that plumbers be licensed.
A stunt double is a type of body double, specifically a skilled replacement used for dangerous film or video sequences, in movies and television (such as jumping out of a building, jumping from vehicle to vehicle, or other similar actions), and for other sophisticated stunts (especially fight scenes). Stunt doubles may be used in cases where an actor's physical condition precludes a great amount of physical activity (such as when the actor is too old to perform extended dubs choreography), or when an actor is contractually prohibited from performing stunts. Stunt doubles are sometimes referred to as "stunties".
The terms stunt double and body double may be used interchangeably for cases where special skills (sometimes far from dangerous) are needed, such as dancing (dance double), playing the piano, or competitive skiing. Stunt doubles should be distinguished from daredevils, who perform stunts for the sake of the stunt alone, often as a career. It should also be noted that sequences often do not place stunt doubles in the same mortal peril as the characters: for example, harnesses and wires can be digitally edited out of the final film.
Many stunt doubles have long production
Animal training refers to teaching animals specific responses to specific conditions or stimuli. Training may be for the purpose of companionship, detection, protection, entertainment or all of the above.
An animal trainer may use assorted forms of reinforcement or punishment to condition an animal's responses. Some animal trainers may have a knowledge of the principles of behavior analysis and operant conditioning, but there are many ways to train animals and as a general rule no legal requirements or certifications are required.
The certification bodies that do exist (in some, not all, countries) do not share consistent goals or requirements so it can be difficult to tell what kind of training a trainer has had to do his or her job. The United States does not require animal trainers to have any kind of certification or psychological screening.
The type of training is often determined by the trainer's motivation, background, and psychological makeup. An individual training a seeing eye dog, for example, will have a different approach and end-goal than an individual training a wild animal to do tricks in a circus.
However, any attempt at training any animal, be it wild or tame,
An actor (sometimes actress for female; see terminology) is a person who acts in a dramatic or comic production and works in film, television, theatre, or radio in that capacity. The ancient Greek word for an "actor," ὑποκριτής (hypokrites), means literally "one who interprets"; in this sense, an actor is one who interprets a dramatic character.
After 1660, when women first appeared on stage, actor and actress were initially used interchangeably for female performers, but later, influenced by the French actrice, actress became the usual term. The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with ess added. The word actor refers to a person who acts regardless of gender, and this term "is increasingly preferred", although actress, referring specifically to a female person who acts, "remains in general use". Within the profession, however, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the 1950s–60s, the post-war period when women's contribution to cultural life in general was being re-evaluated. Actress remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients.
The gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the early days of the Motion Picture Production
An artist is a person engaged in one or more of any of a broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other performers (less often for actors). "Artiste" (the French for artist) is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is certainly valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like criticism.
Wiktionary defines the noun 'artist' (Singular: artist; Plural: artists) as follows:
The Oxford English Dictionary defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist":
A definition of Artist from Princeton.edu: creative person (a person whose creative work shows sensitivity and imagination).
Although the Greek word "techně" is often mistranslated as "art," it actually implies mastery of any sort of craft. The Latin-derived form of the word is "tecnicus", from which the English words technique, technology, technical are derived.
In Greek culture each of
A butler is a domestic worker in a large household. In great houses, the household is sometimes divided into departments with the butler in charge of the dining room, wine cellar, and pantry. Some also have charge of the entire parlour floor, and housekeepers caring for the entire house and its appearance. A butler is usually male, and in charge of male servants, while a housekeeper is usually a woman, and in charge of female servants. Traditionally, male servants (such as footmen) were rarer and therefore better paid and of higher status than female servants. The butler, as the senior male servant, has the highest servant status.
In modern houses where the butler is the most senior worker, titles such as majordomo, butler administrator, house manager, manservant, staff manager, chief of staff, staff captain, estate manager and head of household staff are sometimes given. The precise duties of the employee will vary to some extent in line with the title given, but perhaps more importantly in line with the requirements of the individual employer. In the grandest homes or when the employer owns more than one residence, there is sometimes an estate manager of higher rank than the
Clowns are comic performers stereotypically characterized by the grotesque image of the circus clown's colored wigs, stylistic makeup, outlandish costumes, unusually large footwear, and red nose, which evolved to project their actions to large audiences. Other less grotesque styles have also developed, including theatre, television, and film clowns. Peter Berger writes that "It seems plausible that folly and fools, like religion and magic, meet some deeply rooted needs in human society". For this reason, clowning is often considered an important part of training as a physical performance discipline, partly because tricky subject matter can be dealt with, but also because it requires a high level of risk and play in the performer.
The humour in clowning comes from the self-deprecating actions of the performer, rather than the audience laughing with the performer as is common with other forms of comedy.
The term coulrophobia has been coined to describe those individuals who report a fear of clowns.
The most ancient clowns have been found in the Fifth dynasty of Egypt, around 2400 BCE. Contrary to court jests, clown have traditionally served a socio-religious and psychological role,
A lady-in-waiting is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a queen, a princess, or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman from a family highly thought of in good society, but was of lower rank than the woman whom she attended. Although she may or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, she was considered more of a companion than a servant to her mistress.
Lady-in-waiting is often a generic term for women whose relative rank, title and official functions varied, although such distinctions were also often honorary. A royal woman may or may not be free to select her ladies, and even when she has such freedom her choices have historically been constrained by the sovereign, her parents, her husband or the sovereign's ministers as, for example, in the so-called Bedchamber crisis.
The duties of ladies-in-waiting varied from court to court, but functions historically discharged by ladies-in-waiting included proficiency in the etiquette, languages, and dances prevalent at court; secretarial tasks; reading to and writing correspondence on behalf of her mistress; embroidery, painting,
A pastor is usually an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, the term may be abbreviated to "Pr" or often "Ps."
The word itself is derived from the Latin word pastor which means "shepherd". The term "pastor" is also related to the role of elder within the New Testament, but is not synonymous with the biblical understanding of minister.
Present-day usage of the word is rooted in the Bible. The Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament) uses the Hebrew word רעה (roʿeh). It is mentioned 173 times and describes the feeding of sheep, as in Genesis 29:7, or the spiritual feeding of human beings, as in Jeremiah 3:15, "Then I will give you shepherds after My own heart, who will feed you on knowledge and understanding" (NASB).
In the New Testament, the Greek noun ποιμήν (poimēn) and verb ποιμαίνω (poimaino) are usually translated shepherd or to shepherd. The two words are used a total of 29 times in the New Testament, most frequently referring to Jesus. For example, Jesus called himself the "Good Shepherd" in John 10:11. The same words are used in familiar Christmas story (Luke 2) referring to literal shepherds.
In five New Testament passages
A psychologist is a professional or academic title used by individuals who are either:
There are many different types of psychologists, as is reflected by the 56 different divisions of the American Psychological Association (APA). Psychologists are generally described as being either "applied" or "research-oriented". The common terms used to describe this central division in psychology are "scientists" or "scholars" (those who conduct research) and "practitioners" or "professionals" (those who apply psychological knowledge). The training models endorsed by the APA require that applied psychologists be trained as both researchers and practitioners, and that they possess advanced degrees.
Most typically, people encounter psychologists and think of the discipline as involving the work of clinical psychologists or counseling psychologists. While counseling and psychotherapy are common activities for psychologists, these applied fields are just one branch in the larger domain of psychology. Research and teaching comprise a major role among psychologists. Technological advances in the future may increase the usage of computerized testing and assessment services in order to do some of the
Costermonger, Coster or Costard is a street seller of fruit (such as apples) and vegetables, in London and other British towns. They were ubiquitous in mid-Victorian England, and some are still found in markets. As usual with street-sellers, they would use a loud sing-song cry or chant to attract attention. Their cart might be stationary at a market stall, or mobile (horse-drawn or wheelbarrow). The term is derived from the words costard (a now-extinct medieval variety of large, ribbed apple) and monger; i.e., seller.
Costers met a need for rapid food distribution from the central markets (e.g., Spitalfields for fruit and vegetables, Billingsgate for fish). Their membership as a coster was signalled by their large neckerchief, known as a kingsman, tied round their necks. Their hostility towards the police was legendary.
The term is now often used to describe hawkers in general; sometimes a distinction is made between the two: a costermonger sells from a handcart or animal-drawn cart, while a hawker carries his wares in a basket.
Costermongers have existed in London since at least the 16th century, when they were mentioned by Shakespeare and Marlowe. They probably were most numerous
A fishmonger (fishwife for women practitioners - "wife" in this case used in its archaic meaning of "woman") is someone who sells fish and seafood. In some countries modern supermarkets are replacing fishmongers who operate in shops or fish markets.
Fishmongers can be wholesalers or retailers, and are trained at selecting and purchasing, handling, gutting, boning, filleting, displaying, merchandising and selling their product. In many places fishmongers, like butchers, are a dying breed. With the advent of many modern ways of distributing and packaging food, supermarkets often opt for less expensive alternatives.
The fishmongers guild, one of the earliest guilds, was established in the City of London by a Royal Charter granted by Edward I shortly after he became king in 1272. Partnership with foreigners was forbidden and the sale of fish was tightly controlled to ensure freshness and restrain profit, which was limited to one penny in the shilling. Nevertheless, the guild grew rich and, after Edward's victory over the Scots, was able to make a great show, including one thousand mounted knights.
During the reign of Edward II, the political power of the fishmongers waned and
A biologist is a scientist who studies living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Biologists involved in basic research attempt to discover underlying mechanisms that govern how organisms work. Biologists involved in applied research attempt to develop or improve medical, industrial or agricultural processes.
There are many types of biologists. Some work on microorganisms while others study multicellular organisms. There is much overlap between different fields of biology such as botany, zoology, microbiology, genetics and evolutionary biology, and it is often hard to classify a biologist as only one of them. Many jobs in biology as a field require an academic degree. A Ph.D. or its equivalent is generally required to direct independent research, and involves a specialization in a specific area of biology. Many biological scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to advance our knowledge of living organisms, including bacteria and other infectious agents. Basic biological research enhances our understanding so that we can develop solutions to human health problems and improve the natural environment. These biological scientists
A drummer is a musician who is capable of playing drums, which includes but is not limited to a drum kit ("drum set" or "trap set", including but not limited to cymbals) and accessory based hardware which includes an assortment of pedals and standing support mechanisms, marching percussion and/or any musical instrument that is struck within the context of a wide assortment of musical genres. The term percussionist applies to a musician who performs struck musical instruments of numerous diverse shapes, sizes and applications. Most contemporary western ensembles bands for Rock, Pop, Jazz, R&B etc. includes a drummer within the context of its music based ensemble for purposes including but not limited to timekeeping, and artist based applications deemed appropriate towards the elevation of a prescribed music based aesthetic. Most drummers of this particular designation work within the context of a larger contingent (aka rhythm section) that may also include, keyboard (a percussion instrument) and/or guitar, auxiliary percussion (often of non western origin) and bass (bass viol or electric). Said ensembles may also include melodic based mallet percussion including but not limited to:
A flautist or flutist is a musician who plays an instrument in the flute family.
The choice of "flautist" (from the Italian flautista, from flauto, and adopted due to eighteenth century Italian influence) versus "flutist" is a source of dispute among players of the instrument. "Flutist" is the earlier term in the English language, dating from at least 1603 (the earliest quote cited by the Oxford English Dictionary), while "flautist" is not recorded before 1860, when it was used by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun. While the print version of the OED does not indicate any regional preference for either form, the online Compact OED characterizes "flutist" as an American usage.
Richard Rockstro, in his three-volume treatise The Flute written in England in 1890, uses "flute-player." He also uses "fluteist" and the less popular "flutomater".
The American player and writer Nancy Toff, in her The Flute Book, devotes more than a page to the subject, commenting that she is asked "Are you a flutist or a flautist?" on a weekly basis. She prefers "flutist": "Ascribe my insistence either to a modest lack of pretension or to etymological evidence; the result is the same." Toff, who is also
A gamekeeper (often abbreviated to keeper) is a person who manages an area of countryside to make sure there is enough game for shooting, or fish for angling, and who actively manages areas of woodland, moorland, waterway or farmland for the benefit of game birds, deer, fish and wildlife in general.
Typically, a gamekeeper is employed by a landowner, and often in the UK by a country estate, to prevent poaching, to rear and release game birds such as pheasants and partridge, eradicate pests, encourage and manage wild red grouse, and to control predators such as foxes, to manage habitats to suit game, and to monitor the health of the game.
Today, some five thousand full-time gamekeepers are employed in the UK, compared to as many as 10,000 at the beginning of the 20th century. In addition, there are many people who spend their leisure time and money rearing game and maintaining habitats on their own small shoots. There are several variations in gamekeeping:
The League Against Cruel Sports estimates some 12,300 wild mammals and birds are killed on UK shooting estates every day and sees gamekeepers as playing a key role in the destruction of wildlife. On the other hand, the shooting
A groom is a person who is responsible for some or all aspects of the management of horses and/or the care of the stables themselves. The term most often refers to a person who is the employee of a stable owner, but even an owner of a horse may perform the duties of a groom, particularly if the owner only possesses a few horses.
The word appeared in English as grome c.1225, meaning "boy child, boy, youth" but nobody knows whence.
It has no known cognates in other Germanic languages (e.g. Dutch and German use compound terms, such as Stal(l)knecht 'stable servant', or equivalents of synonyms mentioned below). Perhaps it stems from an Old English root groma, related to growan "grow" or from Old French grommet "servant" (compare Medieval English gromet for "ship's boy", recorded since 1229).
The word was originally rather grander in status, as in bridegroom and the very socially elevated offices in the English Royal Household of:
The meaning "man servant who attends to horses" is from 1667 although females are grooms too. The verb is first attested in 1809; the transferred sense of "to tidy (oneself) up" is from 1843; the figurative sense of "to prepare a candidate" is from 1887,
A lifeguard supervises the safety and rescue of swimmers, surfers, and other water sports participants such as in a swimming pool, water park, or beach. Lifeguards are strong swimmers and trained in first aid, certified in water rescue using a variety of aids and equipment depending on requirements of their particular venue. In some areas, lifeguards are part of the emergency services system to incidents and in some communities, the lifeguard service also carries out mountain rescues, or may function as the primary EMS provider.
A lifeguard is responsible for the safety of people in an area of water, and usually a defined area immediately surrounding or adjacent to it, such as a beach next to an ocean or lake. The priority is to ensure no harm comes to users of the area for which they are responsible. Lifeguards often take on this responsibility upon employment, although they can also be volunteers.
The conditions resulting in drowning are summarized by the 'drowning chain' in which each link can lead directly to an incident, or contribute to a succession of links. It consists of lack of education about water safety or local conditions, a lack of safety advice (for example, about
Salaryman (サラリーマン, Sararīman, salaried man) refers to someone whose income is salary based; particularly those working for corporations. Its frequent use by Japanese corporations, and its prevalence in Japanese manga and anime has gradually led to its acceptance in English-speaking countries as a noun for a Japanese white-collar businessman.
The word can be found in many books and articles pertaining to Japanese culture. Immediately following World War II, becoming a salaryman was viewed as a gateway to a stable, middle-class lifestyle. In modern use, the term carries associations of long working hours, low prestige in the corporate hierarchy, absence of significant sources of income other than salary and karōshi. The term salaryman refers exclusively to men, and for women the term career woman is used.
According to researcher Ezra Vogel, the word "salaryman" saw widespread use in Japan by 1930, "although the white-collar class remained relatively small until the rapid expansion of government bureaucracies and war-related industry before and during World War II."
The term does not include all workers who receive a set salary, but only "white-collar workers in the large bureaucracy
A serial killer is traditionally defined as an individual who has killed three or more people over a period of more than a month, with down time (a "cooling off period") between the murders, and whose motivation for killing is usually based on psychological gratification. Some sources, such as the FBI, disregard the "three or more" criteria, and define the term as "a series of two or more murders, committed as separate events, usually, but not always, by one offender acting alone" or, including the vital characteristics, a minimum of two murders. Often, a sexual element is involved in the killings, but the FBI states that motives for serial murder include "anger, thrill, financial gain, and attention seeking". The murders may have been attempted or completed in a similar fashion and the victims may have had something in common; for example, occupation, race, appearance, sex, or age group.
Serial killers are not the same as mass murderers, nor are they spree killers, who commit murders in two or more locations with virtually no break in between; however, cases of extended bouts of sequential killings over periods of weeks or months with no apparent "cooling off" period or "return to
A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults). The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college. These professional qualifications may include the study of pedagogy, the science of teaching. Teachers, like other professionals, may have to continue their education after they qualify, a process known as continuing professional development. Teachers may use a lesson plan to facilitate student learning, providing a course of study which is called the curriculum.
A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, religion, civics, community roles, or life skills.
A teacher who facilitates education for an individual may also be described as a personal tutor, or, largely historically, a governess.
In some countries, formal education can take place through home schooling. Informal learning may be assisted by a teacher
The first person described as a fashion model is Parisian shopgirl, Marie Vernet Worth. She was a house model in 1852, to her fashion designer husband, Charles Frederick Worth. Even after fashion photography became important, fashion models generally remained fairly anonymous and relatively poorly paid until the late 1950s, though often marrying well. The first model widely considered to have paved the way for what would become the supermodel was Lisa Fonssagrives, from the 1930s onwards, in America. The relationship between her image on over 200 Vogue covers and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping future supermodels. Her image appeared on the cover of fashion magazines during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s from Town & Country, Life and Vogue to the original Vanity Fair. Dorian Leigh was also very well-known after Word War II. The rise of model as consistent media personalities perhaps began in the Swinging Sixties with figures like Jean Shrimpton, Twiggy, and Penelope Tree, and has continued ever since.
To model clothing for all people, all types of model shapes and sizes are required. The job ranking for modern fashion models are: print (part time), print modelling (full time), runway modelling, and supermodel.
A nanny, childminder, child care provider, or a mother's helper is an individual who provides care for one or more children in a family as a service. Traditionally, nannies were servants in large households and reported directly to the lady of the house. Today, modern nannies, like other domestic workers, may live in or out of the house depending on their circumstances and those of their employers. Professional nannies are usually certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, qualified in First Aid, and have a degree or extensive training in child development. There are many employment agencies that specialize in childcare and online services that aid in finding available nannies.
A childminder cares for the child in the childminder's home. Depending on the country they live in, government registration may or may not be required.
A governess, in contrast to a nanny, concentrates on teaching and training children.
A special type of modern nanny is known as a mother's helper. They are hired to assist mothers in the chores of the household as well as care for the children. A mother's helper may live in or out of the house.
In the 19th and early 20th century, the position was usually
Dispatchers are communications personnel responsible for receiving and transmitting pure and reliable messages, tracking vehicles and equipment, and recording other important information. A number of organizations, including police and fire departments, emergency medical services, taxicab providers, trucking companies, train stations, and public utility companies, use dispatchers to relay information and coordinate their operations. Essentially, the dispatcher is the "conductor" of the force, and is responsible for the direction of all units within it.
Public safetydpacker (also known as emergency dispatchers, Telecommunicators or 9-1-1 dispatchers) receive calls from individuals who need assistance from Firefighters, Police Officers, and Emergency Medical Services. Once information is obtained from the caller, these dispatchers activate the services necessary to respond to the nature of the call for help. Dispatchers are an integral part of the organization's success. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, about 36% of all dispatchers employed in the United States in 2004 were public safety dispatchers.
A number of other organizations use dispatchers to respond to
A farrier is a specialist in equine hoof care, including the trimming and balancing of horses' hooves and the placing of shoes on their hooves, if necessary. A farrier combines some blacksmith's skills (fabricating, adapting, and adjusting metal shoes) with some veterinarian's skills (knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb) to care for horses' feet.
Historically, the jobs of farrier and blacksmith were practically synonymous, shown by the etymology of the word: farrier comes from Middle French: ferrier (blacksmith), from the Latin word ferrum (iron). A farrier's work in colonial America or pre-Industrial Revolution Europe would have included horseshoeing, as well as the fabrication and repair of tools, the forging of architectural pieces, etc. Modern day farriers usually specialize in horseshoeing, focusing their time and effort on the care of the horse's hoof. For this reason, farriers and blacksmiths are considered to be in separate, albeit related, trades.
In the British Army, the Household Cavalry have farriers who march in parade in ceremonial dress, carrying their historical axes with spikes. They are a familiar sight at the annual Trooping the Colour.
A flight surgeon is a military medical officer assigned to duties in the clinical field variously known as aviation medicine, aerospace medicine, or flight medicine (NB: although the term "flight surgery" is considered improper by purists, it may occasionally be encountered).
Flight surgeons are medical doctors, either MDs or DOs, who are primarily responsible for the medical evaluation, certification and treatment of military aviation personnel — e.g., pilots, Naval Flight Officers, navigators/Combat Systems Officers, astronauts, air traffic controllers, UAV operators and other aircrew members, both officer and enlisted. They perform routine, periodic medical examinations ("flight physicals") of these personnel, as well as initially examine/treat these personnel when ill or following an aircraft mishap.
In the U.S military, flight surgeons are trained to fill general public health and occupational and preventive medicine roles, and are only infrequently "surgeons" in an operating theater sense. Flight surgeons are typically on flight status (i.e., they log flight hours), but are not required to be rated or licensed pilots. They may be called upon to provide medical consultation as
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Although "historian" can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, it is reserved more recently for those who have acquired graduate degrees in the discipline. Some historians, though, are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.
During the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial it became evident that the court need to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, and reminiscent of the standard traditionally used in English law of "the man on the Clapham omnibus". This was necessary so that there would be a legal bench mark with which to compare and contrast the scholarship of an
In the building trades, a joiner is a type of a carpenter that cuts and fits joints in wood without the use of nails, screws, or other metal fasteners. Joiners usually work in a workshop, because the formation of various joints usually requires non-portable machinery; in contrast, most other kinds of carpenter usually work on site. A "joiner" usually produces items such as interior and exterior doors, windows, stairs, tables, bookshelves etc; cabinet makers are often regarded as producers of fine joinery.
The terms joinery and joiner are obsolete in the USA, although the main trade union for carpenters still calls itself the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America.
In the UK, an apprentice of wood occupations could choose to study bench joinery or site carpentry and joinery; bench joinery is the preparation, setting out, and manufacture of joinery components, while site carpentry and joinery focuses on the installation of the joinery components, and on the setting out and fabrication of timber elements used in construction.
The Institute of Carpenters recognises the following professionals working in wood
A maidservant or in current usage housemaid or maid is a female employed in domestic service. Although now restricted to only the most wealthy of households, in the Victorian era domestic service was the second largest category of employment in England and Wales, after agricultural work.
Once part of an elaborate hierarchy in great houses, today a single maid may be the only domestic worker that upper and even middle-income households can afford, as was historically the case for many households. In the contemporary Western world, comparatively few households can afford live-in domestic help, usually compromising on periodic cleaners. In less developed nations, very large differences in the income of urban and rural households and between different socio-economic classes, fewer educated women and limited opportunities for working women ensures a labour source for domestic work.
Historically many maids suffered from Prepatellar bursitis, an inflammation of the Prepatellar bursa caused by long periods spent on the knees for purposes of scrubbing and fire-lighting, leading to the condition attracting the colloquial name of "Housemaid's Knee".
Maids perform typical domestic chores such
'Micro' means 'tiny' which usually refers to particles which cannot be seen in the naked eye, and 'bio' means life while 'logy or logos' means study. A microbiologist is a person who investigates things or studies in the field microbiology. Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Most microbiologists specialize in the environmental, food, agricultural or medical aspects in either medical or industrial microbiology; virology (the study of viruses); immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections); or bioinformatics. Many microbiologists use biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease. As of 2008, there were 16,900 microbiologists employed in the United States, with this number projected to increase 12.2% over the following decade.
Specialists in the broad field of microbiology include:
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek of the Netherlands is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and is considered to be the first microbiologist.
This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition,
A composer (Latin com+ponere, literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates music, either by musical notation or oral tradition, for interpretation and performance, or through direct manipulation of sonic material through electronic media. The level of distinction between composers and other musicians varies, which affects issues such as copyright and the deference given to individual interpretations of a particular piece of music. In the development of European music, the function of composing music initially did not have much greater importance than that of performing it. The preservation of individual compositions did not receive enormous attention and musicians generally had no qualms about modifying compositions for performance. Over time, however, the written notation of the composer came to be treated as strict instructions from which performers should not deviate without good practical or artistic reason. Performers do, however, play the music and interpret it in a way that is all their own. In fact, in the concerto form, the soloist would often compose and perform a cadenza as a way to express their individual interpretation of the piece.
Inasmuch as the role
An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. Typically an astrologer draws a horoscope for the time of an event, such as a person's birth, and interprets celestial points and their placements at the time of the event to better understand someone, determine the auspiciousness of an undertaking's beginning, etc. However, the methods employed by astrologers are variable and depend on the particular astrological tradition they employ and the information desired.
In the far past, the role often entailed astronomical observation or manual calculation of celestial phenomena. In more modern times, however, these methods have largely been replaced by pre-calculated ephemerides and astrological software.
Historically the term mathematicus was used to denote a person proficient in astrology, astronomy, and mathematics.
No accredited universities in the United States or the United Kingdom offer degrees in astrology though a number of Indian schools do. While there are a number of astrological associations throughout the world, there is no central governing body that has special license to certify astrologers.
In the United States, the practice of astrology is largely unregulated.
A Chief Mate (C/M) or Chief Officer, usually also synonymous with the First Mate or First Officer (except on passenger liners, which often carry both), is a licensed member and head of the deck department of a merchant ship. The chief mate is customarily a watchstander and is in charge of the ship's cargo and deck crew. The actual title used will vary by ship's employment, by type of ship, by nationality, and by trade. Informally, the Chief Mate will often simply be called "The Mate." The term "Chief Mate" is not usually used in the Commonwealth, although Chief Officer and First Mate are.
The chief mate is responsible to the Captain for the safety and security of the ship. Responsibilities include the crew's welfare and training in areas such as safety, firefighting, search and rescue.
The Chief Officer, who is the second in command of the vessel is often equated, in corporate terms to a senior manager for the operations on board, as the Mate is in charge of a number of departmental functions. In modern cargo vessels, the Mate, holds appointments like, Head of Deck Department, Head of Cargo/ Stowage operations, Head of Safety/ Fire Fighting, Head of on board Security (Ship Security
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
Although geographers are historically known as people who make maps, map making is actually the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographers do not study only the details of the natural environment or the human society, but they also study the reciprocal relationship between these two. For example, they study how the natural environment contributes to the human society and how the human society affects the natural environment.
In particular, physical geographers study the natural environment while human geographers study the human society. Modern geographers are the primary practitioners of the GIS (geographic information system), who are often employed by local, state, and federal government agencies as well as in the private sector by environmental and engineering firms.
There is a well-known painting by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer, which is often linked to Vermeer's The Astronomer. These paintings are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that has shaped it. Geologists usually engage in studying geology. Geologists, studying more of an applied science than a theoretical one, must approach Geology using physics, chemistry and biology as well as other sciences. Geologists, compared to scientists engaged in other fields, are generally more exposed to the outdoors than staying in laboratories; although some geologists prefer to perform most of their studies in the lab.
Geologists are engaged in exploration for mining companies in search of metals, oils, and other Earth resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters warning and mitigation, studying earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, weather storms, and the like; their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Currently, geologists are also engaged in the discussion of climate change, as they study the history and evidence for this Earth process.
Their training typically includes significant coursework in physics, mathematics, and chemistry, in addition to classes offered
A merchant is a businessperson who trades in commodities that were produced by others, in order to earn a profit.
Merchants can be one of two types:
A merchant class characterizes many pre-modern societies. Its status can range from high (the members even eventually achieving titles such as that of Merchant Prince or Nabob) to low, as in Chinese culture, owing to the presumed distastefulness of profiting from "mere" trade rather than from labor or the labor of others as in agriculture and craftsmanship.
In the United States, "merchant" is defined (under the Uniform Commercial Code) as any person while engaged in a business or profession or a seller who deals regularly in the type of goods sold. Under the common law and the Uniform Commercial Code in the United States, merchants are held to a higher standard in the selling of products than those who are not engaged in the sale of goods as a profession/career.
The UCC also contains a "merchant's confirmation" exception to the Statute of Frauds. The Merchant Confirmation Rule states that if one merchant sends a writing sufficient
to satisfy the statute of frauds to another merchant, the merchant has reason to know of the contents of
A paramedic is a healthcare professional that works in emergency medical situations. Paramedics provide advanced levels of care for medical emergencies and trauma. The majority of paramedics are based in the field in ambulances, emergency response vehicles, or in specialist mobile units such as cycle response. Paramedics provide out-of-hospital treatment and some diagnostic services, although some may undertake hospital-based roles, such as in the treatment of minor injuries.
Throughout the evolution of paramedic care, there has been an ongoing association with military conflict. One of the first indications of a formal process for managing injured people dates from the Imperial Legions of Rome, where aging Centurions, no longer able to fight, were given the task of organizing the removal of the wounded from the battlefield and providing some form of care. Such individuals, although not physicians, were probably among the world's earliest surgeons by default, being required to suture wounds and complete amputations. A similar situation existed in the Crusades, with the Knights Hospitallers of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem filling a similar function; this organisation
A photographer (from Greek φωτός (photos), meaning "light", and γράφω (graphos), meaning "written") is a person who takes photographs. A professional photographer uses photography to earn money; amateur photographers take photographs for pleasure and to record an event, emotion, place, or person.
A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, including paparazzi and fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making a picture and then offering it for sale or display. Some workers, such as policemen, estate agents, journalists and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are often called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context.
Photographers are also categorized based on the subjects they photograph. Some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, and portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary
Quartermaster is one of two different military occupations.
In land armies, especially US units, a quartermaster is either an individual soldier or a unit who specializes in distributing supplies and provisions to troops. The senior unit, post or base supply officer is customarily referred to as "the quartermaster". Often the quartermaster serves as the S-4 in US Army, US Marine Corps units and NATO units.
In many navies, quartermaster is a non-commissioned officer (petty officer) rank for personnel responsible for their ship's navigation. In the US Navy, the quartermaster is responsible for the ship's navigation and maintenance of nautical charts and maps. Aboard merchant ships, quartermasters are usually the Able Seamen assigned to bridge watches. A naval quartermaster's main task is to steer the ship and apply the helm orders given by the Captain or watch officers.
For land armies, the term was first coined in Germany as Quartiermeister and initially denoted a court official with the duty of preparing the monarch's sleeping quarters. In the 17th century, it started to be used in various militaries in the sense of organizing supplies.
In the British Army, the Quartermaster (QM)
A secretary, or administrative assistant, is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication & organizational skills. These functions may be entirely carried out to assist one other employee or may be for the benefit of more than one. In other situations a secretary is an officer of a society or organization who deals with correspondence, admits new members and organizes official meetings and events.
A secretary has many administrative duties. Traditionally, these duties were mostly related to correspondence, such as the typing out of letters, maintaining files of paper documents, etc. The advent of word processing has significantly reduced the time that such duties require, with the result that many new tasks have come under the purview of the secretary. These might include managing budgets and doing bookkeeping, maintaining websites, and making travel arrangements. Secretaries might manage all the administrative details of running a high-level conference or arrange the catering for a typical lunch meeting. Often executives will ask their assistant to take the minutes at meetings and prepare meeting
Singer-songwriters are musicians who write, compose and sing their own musical material including lyrics and melodies. As opposed to contemporary popular music singers who write their own songs, the term singer-songwriter describes a distinct form of artistry, closely associated with the folk-acoustic tradition. Singer-songwriters often provide the sole accompaniment to an entire composition or song, typically using a guitar or piano; both the compositions and the arrangements are written primarily as solo vehicles, with the material angled toward topical issues—sometimes political, sometimes introspective, sensitive, romantic, and confessional.
The concept of a singer-songwriter can actually be traced to ancient bardic culture, which has existed in various forms throughout the world. Poems would be performed as chant or song, sometimes accompanied by a harp or other similar instrument. After the invention of printing, songs would be written and performed by ballad sellers. Usually these would be versions of existing tunes and lyrics, which were constantly evolving. This developed into the singer-songwriting traditions of folk culture.
Traveling performers existed throughout
A street artist is someone who creates and/or sells their art or craft in public for the pleasure of passers-by.
Some people use the term 'street artist' more broadly and also refer to people involved in busking, such as musicians who sing and/or play instruments, acrobats, jugglers, living statues, performers of street theatre, artists who use pastel crayons to copy famous paintings onto pavements, as well as artists who sell their paintings, portraits (e.g. caricatures), prints, and various crafts.
While some street artists may support themselves by selling a physical commodity like a portrait on paper or a painting upon canvas, performers may encourage payment by having pedestrians show their appreciation by giving coins, usually into a hat or a can. Regardless of the accuracy of the likeness or excellence of the work, portrait artists usually consider payment mandatory - which is why some local governments (in London, for instance) consider it street trading and therefore work requiring a license.
Street artists can be seen throughout the world. In some cities street artists will set up spontaneously wherever they like, but often run the risk of being arrested if municipal
An advocate is a type of professional lawyer in several different legal systems. These include Scotland, Belgium, South Africa, India, Scandinavian jurisdictions, Israel, and the British Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. The broad equivalent in many English law-based jurisdictions is "barrister".
Advocates are regulated by the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh. The Faculty of Advocates has about 750 members, of whom about 460 are in private practice. About 75 are Queen's Counsel. The Faculty is headed by the Dean of the Faculty who, along with the Vice-Dean, Treasurer, Clerk are elected annually by secret ballot.
The Faculty has a service company, Faculty Services Ltd, to which almost all advocates belong, that organises the stables and fee collection. This gives a guarantee to all newly-called advocates of a place. Until the end of 2007 there was an agreement with the Law Society of Scotland, which is the professional body for Scottish solicitors, as to the payment of fees, but this has now been abrogated by the Law Society. It remains the case that advocates are not permitted to sue for their fees, as they have no contractual relationship with their
Affinage - refining of a cheese
Affineurs deal with the production and the care of the cheese. They get
the raw material exclusively from smaller cheese dairies or from
farmers which privately produce cheese in a traditional manner. In
ripening cellars, the cheese will get the care which is necessary for
optimal development and quality. They will be brushed, beat, washed and rotated depending on the requirements of the specific cheese, until they have attained the ideal maturity and taste.
Having a sense for cheese and knowledge of its ripening stages is
not sufficient to be a top affineur. As in each handicraft, skill has
to be learned and refined over many years, and often the apprenticeship
leads all over France, to the well-known cheese popes of the country.
Similar to a talented craftsman who gives each work piece his
signature, in the end each affineur is in charge of his personal style.
The affineur combines three jobs in one: he has to collect cheese
from traditional production, he has to produce it and finally he has to
sell it to his clients. Most of the affineurs in France run their own
cheese shops to sell their products once they have matured.
Philippe Olivier - Affineur par excellence
"Not affinierte" cheese is similar to young wine or a fruit which
is not ripe, says Philippe Olivier, one of the most well-known French
affineure. Like all of his colleagues, he is very concerned about the
preservation and care of traditional cheese production . Cheese production
also is a large part of the culture and folklore. "For him "affinieren"
means to balance the mistakes of nature with tact. The ripening process
itself will be controlled by the humidity in the air, temperature and
maintenance of the cheese surface. It will take place in ripening
cellars, in which each cheese family needs their own room to ripen and
store. At his place, goat cheese
will be for example, only stored on straw. If it is too damp he puts it
on the top nearby ventilation, where the surrounding air is dryer and
the damp will evaporate from the cheese. If the goat cheese is delivered too dry, then he places it below, close to the bottom as it is more damp.
An airman is a member of the air component of a nation's armed service. In the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force (in which airwoman is also seen), it can also refer to a specific enlisted rank. More informally, it can refer to any member of an air force, or to any pilot, aviator, or aircrewman, military or civilian, male or female.
In civilian aviation usage, the term airman is analogous to the term sailor in nautical usage. (U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard members are almost all sailors, even on naval and Coast Guard shore bases, but the subset of these who actually serve at sea in ships and boats are also "seamen". Further, people in these services who are involved in flying are also "airmen".) In the American Federal Aviation Administration usage, an airman is any holder of an airman's certificate, male or female. This certificate is issued to those who qualify for it by the Federal Aviation Administration Airmen Certification Branch.
In the U.S. Air Force, Airman is a general term which can refer to any member of the United States Air Force, and also a specific enlisted rank. The rank of Airman (abbreviated "AMN") is the second enlisted rank from the bottom, just
A boatswain ( /ˈboʊsən/, formerly and dialectally also /ˈboʊtsweɪn/), bo's'n, bos'n, or bosun is an unlicensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship. The boatswain supervises the other unlicensed members of the ship's deck department, and typically is not a watchstander, except on vessels with small crews. Other duties vary depending on the type of ship, her crewing, and other factors.
The word boatswain has been in the English language since approximately 1450. It is derived from late Old English batswegen, from bat (boat) concatenated with Old Norse sveinn (swain), meaning a young man, a follower, retainer or servant. The phonetic spelling bosun has been observed since 1868. Interestingly, this spelling was used in Shakespeare's The Tempest written in 1611, and as Bos'n in later editions.
The rank of boatswain was until recently the oldest rank in the Royal Navy, and its origins can be traced back to the year 1040. The Royal Navy's last official boatswain, Commander E W Andrew OBE, retired in 1990.
In 1040 when five English ports began furnishing warships to King Edward the Confessor in exchange for certain privileges, they also furnished crews whose officers were the
A business magnate is an entrepreneur who has achieved wealth and prominence from a particular industry (or industries). Other, similar terms are czar, mogul, tycoon, baron, or oligarch.
The word magnate itself derives from the Latin word magnates (plural of magnas), meaning "great person" or "great nobleman."
The word tycoon is derived from the Japanese word taikun (大君), which means "great lord," and it was used as a title for the shogun. The word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay and John Hay. The term spread to the business community, where it has been used ever since.
The word mogul refers to the Mughal Empire (mughal being Persian or Arabic for "Mongol") of the Indian subcontinent that existed between 1526 and 1857: the early Mughal emperors claimed a heritage dating back to Mongol ruler Genghis Khan. The modern meaning of the word is supposedly derived from the storied riches of the Mughal emperors, who for example produced the Taj Mahal.
As the term industrialist (from Latin industria, "diligence, industriousness") was
A registered dental hygienist (RDH) is a licensed dental professional who specializes in preventive oral health, typically focusing on techniques in oral hygiene. Dental hygienists provide three types of services to their patients. The first of these is preventive services to promote and maintain good oral health. The second is educational services to help patients develop behaviors that promote better oral heath and help them understand the importance of practicing these behaviors. The third type of service provided is therapeutic services which are treatments meant to stop disease and maintain healthy tissues in the mouth. Local dental regulations determine the scope of practice of dental hygienists. In most jurisdictions, hygienists work for a dentist, and some are licensed to administer local anesthesia. Common procedures performed by hygienists include cleanings known as prophylaxis, scaling and root planing for patients with periodontal disease, taking of prescribed radiographs, dental sealants, administration of fluoride, and providing instructions for proper oral hygiene and care.
Dental hygienist work together with dentist to contribute to a co-therapist environment,
A film director is a person who directs the actors and film crew in filmmaking. They control a film's artistic and dramatic aspects, while guiding the technical crew and actors.
A new director working on feature films might earn as much as $200,000 a year, while the most successful can earn over $500,000 per film plus a "back-end" percentage of the profits, which in some cases can lift their income to several million dollars.
Directors are responsible for overseeing creative aspects of a film under the overall control of the film producer. Together with the producers, directors develop a vision for a film. Once this vision is developed it is then the director’s job to carry out the vision and decide how the film should look. Directors are responsible for turning the script into a sequence of shots. They also direct what tone it should have and what an audience should gain from the cinematic experience. Film directors are responsible for deciding camera angles, lens effects and lighting with the help of the cinematographer and set designer. They will often take part in hiring the cast and key crew members. They coordinate the actors' moves and also may be involved in the writing,
A financial adviser is a professional who helps clients to maintain the desired balance of investment income, capital gains, and acceptable level of risk by using proper asset allocation. Financial advisers use stock, bonds, mutual funds, real estate investment trusts (REITs), options, futures, notes, and insurance products to meet the needs of their clients. Many financial advisers receive a commission payment for the various financial products that they broker, although "fee-based" planning is becoming increasingly popular in the financial services industry.
A further distinction should be made between "fee-based" and "fee-only" advisers. Fee-based advisers often charge asset based fees but may also collect commissions. Fee-only advisers do not collect commissions or referral fees paid by other product or service providers.
Some investment advisers only charge a fee based on the assets managed for the client. Typically they charge about 1.0 to 1.5% per year to make the investment decisions for the client. They do not collect commissions.
The main purpose of a financial adviser is to assist clients in the planning and arrangement of their financial affairs, such as savings,
A financial planner or personal financial planner is a practicing professional who prepares financial planning for people covering various aspects of personal finance which includes: cash flow management, education planning, retirement planning, investment planning, risk management and insurance planning, tax planning, estate planning and business succession planning (for business owners). One of the key objectives with which a financial planner works is to provide inflation and risk adjusted returns for its clients
The work engaged in by this professional is commonly known as personal financial planning. In carrying out the planning function, he is guided by the financial planning process to create a financial plan; a detailed strategy tailored to a client's specific situation, for meeting a client's specific goals. The key defining aspect of what the financial planner does is that he considers all questions, information and advice as it impacts and is impacted by the entire financial and life situation of the client.
People enlist the help of a financial planner because of the complexity of performing the following:
The best results of working with a comprehensive financial
A haberdasher is a person who sells small articles for sewing, such as buttons, ribbons, zips, and other notions. In American English, haberdasher is another term for a men's outfitter. A haberdasher's shop or the items sold therein are called haberdashery.
The word appears in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Haberdashers were initially peddlers, sellers of small items such as needles, buttons, etc. The word could derive from an Old Norse word akin to the Icelandic haprtask, which means peddlers' wares or the sack in which the peddler carried them. If this is the case, a haberdasher (in its Scandinavian meaning) would be very close to a mercer (French). Perhaps more likely, since the word has no recorded use in Scandinavia, it is from Anglo-Norman hapertas, meaning small ware. A haberdasher would retail small wares, the goods of the peddler, while a mercer would specialize in "linens, silks, fustian, worsted piece-goods and bedding".
Saint Louis IX, the King of France 1226–70, is the patron saint of haberdashers in France. In Belgium and other places in Continental Europe, it is Saint Nicholas, while in the City of London the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers adopted Saint Catherine as
A librettist is the author of a libretto (It.: small book), the text of a vocal work, particularly opera or oratorio. Among the notorious librettists have been Pietro Metastasio, Lorenzo Da Ponte, Eugene Scribe, Felice Romani, Francesco Maria Piave, Luigi Illica, Arrigo Boito, and Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Some composers wrote libretti for themselves or for other composers, for example Richard Wagner, Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Frederick Delius, Michael Tippet, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Gian Carlo Menotti who wrote two libretti for Samuel Barber's operas; others adapted plays for their own use, most notably Claude Debussy, Richard Strauss and Alban Berg. There are also librettists among the famous writers: Bertolt Brecht, Jean Cocteau, Miguel de Cervantes, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Carlo Goldoni, Aleksandr Pushkin, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, and Stefan Zweig. And here are some people one would not expect as librettists: Frederick II of Prussia (the Great), Catherine II of Russia, Pope Clement IX, and Franco Zeffirelli.
A mathematician is a person with an extensive knowledge of mathematics who use this knowledge in their work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, data, collection, quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mathematicians involved with solving problems outside of pure mathematics are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their specialized knowledge and professional methodology, approach many of the imposing problems presented in related scientific fields. With professional focus on a wide variety of problems, theoretical systems, and localized constructs, applied mathematicians work regularly in the study and formulation of mathematical models.
The discipline of applied mathematics concerns itself with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry; thus, "applied mathematics" is a mathematical science with specialized knowledge. The term "applied mathematics" also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on problems, often concrete but sometimes abstract. As professionals focused on problem solving, applied
A ninja (忍者) or shinobi (忍び) was a covert agent or mercenary in feudal Japan who specialized in unorthodox warfare. The functions of the ninja included espionage, sabotage, infiltration, and assassination, and open combat in certain situations. Their covert methods of waging war contrasted the ninja with the samurai, who observed strict rules about honor and combat. The shinobi proper, a specially trained group of spies and mercenaries, appeared in the Sengoku or "warring states" period, in the 15th century, but antecedents may have existed in the 14th century, and possibly even in the 12th century (Heian or early Kamakura era).
In the unrest of the Sengoku period (15th–17th centuries), mercenaries and spies for hire became active in the Iga Province and the adjacent area around the village of Kōga, and it is from their ninja clans that much of our knowledge of the ninja is drawn. Following the unification of Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate (17th century), the ninja faded into obscurity, being replaced by the Oniwabanshū body of secret agents. A number of shinobi manuals, often centered around Chinese military philosophy, were written in the 17th and 18th centuries, most notably
A notary public (or notary or public notary) in the common law world is a public officer constituted by law to serve the public in non-contentious matters usually concerned with estates, deeds, powers-of-attorney, and foreign and international business. A notary's main functions are to administer oaths and affirmations, take affidavits and statutory declarations, witness and authenticate the execution of certain classes of documents, take acknowledgments of deeds and other conveyances, protest notes and bills of exchange, provide notice of foreign drafts, prepare marine or ship's protests in cases of damage, provide exemplifications and notarial copies, and perform certain other official acts depending on the jurisdiction. Any such act is known as a notarization. The term notary public only refers to common-law notaries and should not be confused with civil-law notaries.
With the exceptions of Louisiana, Puerto Rico, Quebec, whose private law is based on civil law, and British Columbia, whose notarial tradition stems from scrivener notary practice, a notary public in the rest of the United States and most of Canada has powers that are far more limited than those of civil-law or
A pawnbroker is an individual or business (pawnshop or pawn shop) that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral. The word pawn is derived from the Latin pignus, for pledge, and the items having been pawned to the broker are themselves called pledges or pawns, or simply the collateral.
If an item is pawned for a loan, within a certain contractual period of time the pawner may purchase it back for the amount of the loan plus some agreed-upon amount for interest. The amount of time, and rate of interest, is governed by law or by the pawnbroker's policies. If the loan is not paid (or extended, if applicable) within the time period, the pawned item will be offered for sale by the pawnbroker. Unlike other lenders, the pawnbroker does not report the defaulted loan on the customer's credit report, since the pawnbroker has physical possession of the item and may recoup the loan value through outright sale of the item. The pawnbroker also sells items that have been sold outright to them by customers.
The pawning process begins when a customer brings an item into a pawn shop. Common items pawned (or, in some instances, sold outright) by customers
A porter, also called a bearer, is a person who shifts objects for others.
Human adaptability and flexibility early led to the use of humans for shifting gear. Uneven terrain, such as in mountains, alleyways and markets, and a lack of formed roads, such as in jungle, makes the use of porters economical where one can hire people to shift inexpensively.
Porters were used commonly as human beasts of burden in the ancient world, when labor was generally cheap, especially in societies that depended on slavery. The ancient Sumerians, for example, enslaved women to shift wool and flax.
In the Americas where there were few native animals of burden all goods were carried by porters called Tlamemes in the Nahuatl language of Mesoamerica. In colonial times some areas of the Andes employed porters called silleros to carry persons, particularly Europeans, as well as their luggage across the difficult mountain passes.
The use of bearers for litters to shift persons of rank or religious idols, especially in formal processions, seems to have extended their practical function into that of ceremonial status symbol in the often conservative protocol of court and cult, a role continued into the 20th
A scribe is a person who writes books or documents by hand as a profession and helps the city keep track of its records. The profession, previously found in all literate cultures in some form, lost most of its importance and status with the advent of printing. The work could involve copying books, including sacred texts, or secretarial and administrative duties such as taking of dictation and the keeping of business, judicial and historical records for kings, nobility, temples and cities. Later the profession developed into public servants, journalists, accountants, typists, and lawyers. In societies with low literacy rates, street corner letter-writers (and readers) may still be found providing a service.
The Ancient Egyptian scribe, or sesh, was a person educated in the arts of writing (using both hieroglyphics and hieratic scripts, and from the second half of the first millennium BCE the demotic script, used as shorthand and for commerce) and dena (arithmetics). Sons of scribes were brought up in the same scribal tradition, sent to school and, upon entering the civil service, inherited their fathers' positions.
Much of what is known about ancient Egypt is due to the activities
A shepherd ( /ˈʃɛpərd/), or sheepherder, is a person who tends, feeds, or guards flocks of sheep. The word stems from an amalgam of sheep herder.
Shepherding is one of the oldest occupations, beginning some 6,000 years ago in Asia Minor. Sheep were kept for their milk, meat and especially their wool. Over the next millennia, sheep and shepherding spread throughout Eurasia. Henri Fleisch tentatively suggested the Shepherd Neolithic industry of Lebanon may date to the Epipaleolithic and that it may have been used by one of the first cultures of nomadic shepherds in the Beqaa valley.
Some sheep were integrated in the family farm along with other animals such as chickens and pigs. To maintain a large flock, however, the sheep must be able to move from pasture to pasture; this required the development of an occupation separate from that of the farmer. The duty of shepherds was to keep their flock intact and protect it from wolves and other predators. The shepherd was also to supervise the migration of the flock and ensured they made it to market areas in time for shearing. In ancient times shepherds also commonly milked their sheep, and made cheese from this milk; only some shepherds
A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term (or its cognate in another language) is reserved for those who attend university, while a schoolchild under the age of eighteen is called a pupil in English (or an equivalent in other languages). In its widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning.
Educations are free in Brunei Darussalam not limited to government educational institutions but the private educational institutions too. There are mainly two types of educational institutions namely government or public as well as private institutions.
Few stages have to be undergone by the prospective students leading to higher qualifications such as Bachelor's Degree.
It takes six and five years to complete the primary and secondary levels respectively. Upon completing these two crucial stages, students have freedom to progress the sixth-form centers, colleges or probably straight to employment. Ahead of times, these students will be leaded to undertaking the university level programs in both, government and private university colleges.
In Pakistan 12-year school is categorised in three stages: Primary school,
A wheelwright is a person who builds or repairs wheels. The word is the combination of "wheel" and the archaic word "wright", which comes from the Old English word "wryhta", meaning a worker or maker. This occupational name eventually became the English surname Wheelwright.
These tradesmen made wheels for carts and wagons by first constructing the hub, ( The nave is what you call the hub ) the spokes and the rim/fellows segments, and assembling them all into a unit working from the center of the wheel outwards. Most wheels were made from wood, but other materials have been used, such as bone and horn, for decorative or other purposes. Around the middle of the 19th century, iron strakes were replaced by a solid iron tyre custom made by a blacksmith, ( here you are confusing the overlapping / multitasking that wheelwrights did & do ) who first measured each wheel to ensure proper fit. ( No we cut the steel rim smaller than the wheel rim, heat it red hot, place it over the wheel & duck it in water, that's why we don't make a compelete fit on any joints. The contraction locks the wheel together ). Strakes were lengths of iron that were nailed to the outside of wheels to hold wooden