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Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio, GColTE, GCIH, GColL (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʒɔɾʒ(ɨ) sɐ̃ˈpaju] ( listen)) is a Portuguese lawyer and politician who was the 18th President of Portugal from 1996 to 2006.
Sampaio was born in Lisbon on 18 September 1939. The Sampaio family lived abroad in the United States and the United Kingdom for some years, due to the professional activity of his father Arnaldo de Sampaio (1908–1984), a Medical Doctor. His mother was Fernanda Bensaúde Branco (1908 – Lisbon, 15 February 2000). His maternal grandmother Sara Bensliman Bensaúde, who died in 1976, was a of Sephardi Jew from Morocco of Portuguese origin, and his maternal grandfather Fernando Branco (1880–1940) was a Naval Officer of the Portuguese Navy and later the Foreign Minister of Portugal; Sampaio himself is agnostic, and does not consider himself a Jew. He started his political career as college student of the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon. Jorge Sampaio was involved in the student contestation against the fascist regime and was leader of the Lisbon students union between 1960 and 1961. Following his graduation in 1961, Jorge Sampaio started a notable career as a lawyer, often
António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes, GColTE, GCL, CavA, KE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ʁɐˈmaʎu ˈiɐnɨʃ]; born 25 January 1935) is a Portuguese general and politician who was the 16th President of Portugal from 1976 to 1986.
Born at Castelo Branco, Alcains, he is the son of António dos Santos Eanes, a general contractor, and wife Maria do Rosário Ramalho.
After a long military career in the Portuguese Colonial Wars, he was stationed in Portuguese Angola when the 25 April revolution of 1974 took place. He joined the Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA or Armed Forces Movement) and after returning to Portugal, he was made president of RTP (Portuguese public television). He ordered the military operations against the pro-communist radical faction of the MFA on 25 November 1975, an event known as the 25 de Novembro, ending that year's "hot summer" (Verão quente).
In 1976 he was elected President of Portugal. At the end of 1980 he was re-elected, serving until February 1986. After his presidency, he headed the Democratic Renewal Party (Portuguese: Partido Renovador Democrático), resigning in 1987.
He is also a Member of the Portuguese Council of State, as a former elected President of
Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈmaɾiu suˈaɾɨʃ]; born 7 December 1924), Portuguese politician, served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1976 to 1978 and from 1983 to 1985, and subsequently as the 17th President of Portugal from 1986 to 1996.
Soares is the son of João Lopes Soares (Leiria, Arrabal, 17 November 1878 – Lisbon, Campo Grande, 31 July 1970), Founder of the Colégio Moderno in Lisbon, Minister and then anti-fascist republican activist who had been a Priest for some time before marrying Elisa Nobre Baptista (Santarém, Pernes, 8 September 1887 – Lisbon, Campo Grande, 28 February 1955), Mário Soares's mother, at the 7th Conservatory of the Civil Register of Lisbon on 5 September 1934. His father also had another son by an unknown mother named Tertuliano Lopes Soares. His mother had previously been married and had two children, J. Nobre Baptista and Cândido Nobre Baptista. Mário Soares was raised as a Roman Catholic, but came to identify himself as a republican, laic and socialist.
Soares was born in Lisbon, Coração de Jesus, and graduated in History and Philosophy from the University of Lisbon. He became a university
António Sebastião Ribeiro de Spínola, GCTE, ComA (generally referred to as António de Spínola, though this particular surname never had a particle) (Santo André, Estremoz, April 11, 1910 – Lisbon, August 13, 1996) was a Portuguese soldier, conservative politician and author, who was important in the transition to democracy following the Portuguese Carnation Revolution.
He was a son of António Sebastião Spínola and first wife Maria Gabriela Alves Ribeiro, both natives of Madeira.
Spínola entered the Colégio Militar in 1920, beginning what would be a very successful military career. By 1928, Spínola was at Portugal's Military Academy, where he stood out as a young and promising cavalry officer.
In Anjos, Lisbon, by August 1932, he married Maria Helena Martin Monteiro de Barros (14 January 1913 – 23 May 2002), daughter of João de Azevedo Monteiro de Barros and his German wife Gertrud Elisabete Martin.
In 1939, he became adjunct-de-camp of the Guarda Nacional Republicana (English: Republican National Guard). In 1941 he travelled to the German-Russian Front, as an observer, to monitor Wehrmacht movements during the encirclement of Leningrad (the Portuguese volunteers had been
António Óscar Fragoso Carmona, ComC, GCA, ComSE, (often called António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ˈɔʃkaɾ fɾɐˈɣozu kaɾˈmonɐ]; Lisbon, 24 November 1869 – Lisbon, 18 April 1951) was the 11th President of Portugal (1926–1951), having been Minister of War in 1923.
Carmona was a republican and a freemason and was a quick aderent to the proclamation of the republic, on 5 October 1910. He was however never a sympathizer of the democratic form of government and, as he later would confess in an interview to António Ferro, he only voted for the first time at the National Plebiscite of 1933. During the First Republic he was briefly War Minister in the Ministry of António Ginestal Machado in 1923. Unlike the popular marshal Gomes da Costa, Carmona had not fought in World War I.
In January 1914 he married Maria do Carmo Ferreira da Silva (Chaves, 28 September 1878 – 13 March 1956), daughter of Germano da Silva and wife Engrácia de Jesus. With this marriage he legitimized their three children.
Carmona was very active in the 28th May revolution of 1926 that overthrew the First Republic. The first Council President, commandant José Mendes Cabeçadas, of democratic
Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga (Portuguese pronunciation: [tiˈɔfilu ˈbɾaɡɐ]; São José, Ponta Delgada, 24 February 1843 – 28 January 1924) was a Portuguese writer, playwright, politician and the leader of the Republican Provisional Government after the abdication of King Manuel II, as well as the second elected President of the First Portuguese Republic, following the resignation of President Manuel de Arriaga.
Teófilo Braga was born in the Azores, in Ponta Delgada, on 15 February 1843, the son of Joaquim Manuel Fernandes Braga (probably a grandson of one of King D. João V's illegitimate children), from Braga, and Maria José da Câmara e Albuquerque, from the island of Santa Maria, another descendant of Portuguese nobility (probably traced to Infanta D. Urraca, as the genealogist Ferreira Serpa has shown). Teófilo was the 13th descendant of Diogo Gonçalves Travassos, father of D. Pedro and de Violente Velho Cabral, daughter of the Commander of Almourol, Gonçalo Velho, and descendant of Cristovão Falcão, a poet and Count of Avranches. His mother had seven children (Teófilo being the youngest), of which three died in infancy, the others being Luís, João Fernandes and Maria José.
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈniβɐɫ kɐˈvaku ˈsiɫvɐ]; born 15 July 1939), is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006.
He was previously Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 November 1985 to 28 October 1995. His tenure of ten years was the longest of any Prime Minister since Salazar, and he was the first Portuguese Prime Minister to have won an absolute parliamentary majority under the current constitutional system (which was established after the country's redemocratization following the Carnation Revolution).
He was born in Boliqueime, Loulé, Algarve, the son of Teodoro Gonçalves Silva (Loulé, Boliqueime, Maritenda, 30 August 1912 – 30 September 2007) and wife (m. Loulé, Boliqueime, 4 March 1935) Maria do Nascimento Cavaco (b. Loulé, Boliqueime, Maritenda, 27 December 1912), Aníbal António Cavaco Silva was an undistinguished student at school. As a 13-year-old, he flunked at the 3rd grade of the Commercial School, and his grandfather put him working on the farm as a punishment. After returning
Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes da Silva de Tovero (Portuguese pronunciation: [fɾɐ̃ˈsiʃku iˈʒinu kɾɐˈvɐjɾu ˈlɔpɨʃ]), 6th Viscount de Molenos-Craveiro, GCTE, ComC, GCA, (12 April 1894 – 2 September 1964), was a Portuguese politician and military man. Decorated with the Order of the Bath and the Royal Victorian Chain, he was the 12th President of the Portuguese Republic between 1951 and 1958.
Born in Lisbon, he was a son of João Carlos Craveiro Lopes, Portuguese army general and 122nd Governor-General of Portuguese India (1929–1936) and his wife Júlia Clotilde Cristiano Salinas.
He concluded his Colégio Militar studies by 1911, having then entered the Escola Politécnica de Lisboa, in the same year he joined a cavalry regiment. He succeeded his father as the 123rd General Governor of Portuguese India (1936–1938).
Salazar chose him as the regime's presidential candidate in 1951 to succeed the late Oscar Carmona. As the electoral system was heavily rigged in favour of Salazar's National Union, this made Craveiro Lopes' election a foregone conclusion.
However, he was not content to be a mere puppet, as Carmona had been. As a result, Salazar picked the seemingly more pliant Américo Tomás