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Best Presented work of All Time

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    Microspine Wall-Climbing Robot (SpinyBot)

    Microspine Wall-Climbing Robot (SpinyBot)

    Stanford researchers have developed a novel technology that enables a small robot to climb smooth vertical concrete, stucco, sandstone and similar building walls without the use of conventional adhesives or suction. The invention can be mass-produced at low cost with existing manufacturing technology.The robot's ability to climb vertically has been demonstrated at Stanford University. RiSE Robot Video Stage of research Adapted spines to the RiSE robot (~3kg) Adapted spines to significantly heavier loads (30+kg per 2" x 8" patch). Please see additional information about the SpinyBot Robot in the following website link. SpinyBot Project overview
    7.00
    10 votes
    2
    Pericles' Funeral Oration

    Pericles' Funeral Oration

    Pericles' Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. The speech was delivered by Pericles, an eminent Athenian politician, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War (431 - 404 BC) as a part of the annual public funeral for the war dead. It was an established Athenian practice by the late fifth century to hold a public funeral in honor of all those who had died in war. The remains of the dead were left out for three days in a tent, where offerings could be made for the dead. Then a funeral procession was held, with ten cypress coffins carrying the remains, one for each of the Athenian tribes. The procession led to a public grave (the Kerameikos), where they were buried. The last part of the ceremony was a speech delivered by a prominent Athenian citizen. Several funeral orations from classical Athens are still extant, which seem to corroborate Thucydides' evidence that this was a regular feature of Athenian funerary custom in wartime. Funeral Oration was recorded by Thucydides in book two of his History of the Peloponnesian War. Although Thucydides records the speech in the first person as if it were a word for word record of
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    8 votes
    3

    Four Freedoms

    The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech (technically the 1941 State of the Union address), he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy: His inclusion of the latter two freedoms went beyond the traditional US Constitutional values protected by its First Amendment, and endorsed a right to economic security and an internationalist view of foreign policy. They also anticipated what would become known decades later as the "human security" paradigm in social science and economic development. The speech delivered by President Roosevelt incorporated the following In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the
    6.78
    9 votes
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    I Have a Dream

    I Have a Dream

    "I Have a Dream" is a 17-minute public speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered on August 28, 1963, in which he called for racial equality and an end to discrimination. The speech, from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. Delivered to over 200,000 civil rights supporters, the speech was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century by a 1999 poll of scholars of public address. According to U.S. Representative John Lewis, who also spoke that day as the President of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, "Dr. King had the power, the ability, and the capacity to transform those steps on the Lincoln Memorial into a monumental area that will forever be recognized. By speaking the way he did, he educated, he inspired, he informed not just the people there, but people throughout America and unborn generations." At the end of the speech, King departed from his prepared text for a partly improvised peroration on the theme of "I have a dream", possibly prompted by Mahalia Jackson's cry, "Tell them about the dream, Martin!" He had first delivered a speech
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    Ich bin ein Berliner

    Ich bin ein Berliner

    "Ich bin ein Berliner" (German pronunciation: [ˈʔɪç ˈbɪn ʔaɪn bɛɐˈliːnɐ], "I am a Berliner") is a quotation from a June 26, 1963, speech by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin. He was underlining the support of the United States for West Germany 22 months after the Soviet-supported East Germany erected the Berlin Wall as a barrier to prevent movement between East and West. The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners, and was a clear statement of U.S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall. Another notable (and defiant) phrase in the speech was also spoken in German, "Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen" ("Let them come to Berlin")--addressed at those who claimed "we can work with the Communists", a remark which Nikita Khrushchev scoffed at only days later. The speech is considered one of Kennedy's best, both a notable moment of the Cold War and a high point of the New Frontier. It was a great morale boost for West Berliners, who lived in an exclave deep inside East Germany and feared a possible East German occupation. Speaking from a platform erected on the steps of Rathaus Schöneberg for an audience of 450,000, Kennedy said, Kennedy
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    7 votes
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    July Theses

    The July Theses (Romanian: Tezele din iulie) is a name commonly given to a speech delivered by Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu on July 6, 1971, before the Executive Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR). Its full name was Propuneri de măsuri pentru îmbunătăţirea activităţii politico-ideologice, de educare marxist-leninistă a membrilor de partid, a tuturor oamenilor muncii ("Proposed measures for the improvement of political-ideological activity, of the Marxist-Leninist education of Party members, of all working people"). This quasi-Maoist speech marked the beginning of a "mini cultural revolution" in Communist Romania, launching a Neo-Stalinist offensive against cultural autonomy, a return to the strict guidelines of socialist realism and attacks on non-compliant intellectuals. Strict ideological conformity in the humanities and social sciences was demanded. Competence and aesthetics were to be replaced by ideology; professionals were to be replaced by agitators; and culture was once again to become an instrument for political-ideological propaganda. In their final version of early November 1971, publicized as an official document of the PCR Plenum, the Theses carried
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    6 votes
    9
    Infamy Speech

    Infamy Speech

    The Presidential Address to Congress of December 8, 1941 (known as the Infamy Speech or Day of Infamy Speech) was delivered at 12:30 p.m. that day to a Joint Session of Congress by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, one day after the Empire of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor Naval Base, Hawaii. The name derives from the first line of the speech: Roosevelt describing the previous day as "a date which will live in infamy." Within an hour of the speech, Congress passed a formal declaration of war against Japan and officially brought the U.S. into World War II. The address is regarded as one of the most famous American political speeches of the 20th century. The Infamy Speech was brief, running to just a little over seven minutes. Secretary of State Cordell Hull had recommended that the president devote more time to a fuller exposition of Japanese-American relations and the lengthy but unsuccessful effort to find a peaceful solution. However, Roosevelt kept the speech short in the belief that it would have a more dramatic effect. His revised statement was all the stronger for its emphatic insistence that posterity would forever endorse the American view of the attack. It was
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    5 votes
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    11

    Rigdon's July 4th Oration

    Rigdon's July 4th oration was a speech delivered by Mormon leader Sidney Rigdon during a 4th of July celebration in Far West, Missouri in 1838. Rigdon was first counselor to, and often spokesman for, Joseph Smith Jr.. The oration was meant as a Mormon "declaration of independence" against "mobocrats" and Anti-Mormon persecution. In his speech, Rigdon declared: The speech alarmed local non-Mormons attending the celebration. Later, the church presidency published the July 4th Oration, causing considerable agitation and further stoking anti-Mormon sentiment throughout northwestern Missouri. Many contemporaries and later historians cite the July 4th Oration as a contributing factor to the 1838 Mormon War. The July 4th Oration is often confused with the Salt Sermon.
    7.80
    5 votes
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    The Strenuous Life

    The Strenuous Life

    "The Strenuous Life" is the name of a speech given by Theodore Roosevelt in Chicago, Illinois on April 10, 1899. Based upon his personal experiences, he argued that strenuous effort and overcoming hardship were ideals to be embraced by Americans for the betterment of the nation and the world in the 20th century. Roosevelt states the main point of his speech in the opening remarks: An individual who puts great effort into his work and is not lazy, he claims, will be a success. It is the duty of someone who does not engage in manual labor for a living to devote himself to the arts or sciences. He uses the citizens of Chicago and Illinois as examples of people who embody such a spirit. Those who do not embrace the strenuous life, however, do not live meaningful lives. As the speech continues, Roosevelt claims that the strenuous life can benefit not just the individual, but also the entire country. He advocates imperialism as an extension of the strenuous life. America must become involved in global affairs, or else it will suffer as a nation. America must be a powerful country, and it must exert this power if it sees fit. Such strength necessarily requires a strong military, and a
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    Series of tubes

    Series of tubes

    "Series of tubes" is a phrase coined originally as an analogy by then-United States Senator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) to describe the Internet in the context of opposing network neutrality. On June 28, 2006, he used this metaphor to criticize a proposed amendment to a committee bill. The amendment would have prohibited Internet service providers such as AT&T and Verizon Communications from charging fees to give some companies higher priority access to their networks or their customers. This metaphor has been widely ridiculed as demonstrating Stevens's poor understanding of the Internet, despite the fact that he was in charge of regulating it. Edward Felten, Princeton University professor of computer science, pointed out the unfairness of some criticisms of Stevens's wording, while maintaining that the underlying arguments were rather weak. On June 28, 2006, Public Knowledge government affairs manager Alex Curtis wrote a brief blog entry introducing the senator's speech and posted an MP3 recording. The next day, the Wired magazine blog 27B Stroke 6 featured a much longer post by Ryan Singel, which included Singel's transcriptions of some parts of Stevens's speech considered the most
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    7 votes
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    We shall fight on the beaches

    We Shall Fight on the Beaches is a common title given to a speech delivered by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 4 June 1940. This was the second of three major speeches given around the period of the Battle of France, with the others designated as the Blood, toil, tears, and sweat speech of 13 May, and the This was their finest hour speech of 18 June. Events developed dramatically over the five-week period, and although broadly similar in themes, each speech addressed a different military and diplomatic context. In this speech, Churchill had to describe a great military disaster, and warn of a possible Nazi German invasion attempt, without casting doubt on eventual victory. He also had to prepare his domestic audience for France's falling out of the war without in any way releasing the French Republic to do so, and wished to reiterate a policy and an aim unchanged - despite the intervening events - from his speech of 13 May, in which he had declared the goal of "victory, however long and hard the road may be". Churchill had taken over as the British Prime Minister on the 10th of May, eight months after the outbreak of World War II
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    Look to Norway

    The "Look to Norway" speech by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was given during the handover ceremony of the Royal Norwegian Navy ship HNoMS King Haakon VII at the Washington Navy Yard on 16 September 1942. The speech served as an important source of inspiration to Norwegians fighting the German occupation of Norway and the rest of Europe as well as for the resistance fighters of other small countries during World War II. In the speech the President said: "If there is anyone who still wonders why this war is being fought, let him look to Norway. If there is anyone who has any delusions that this war could have been averted, let him look to Norway; and if there is anyone who doubts the democratic will to win, again I say, let him look to Norway." The speech also made an impact on Norwegian-Americans and the rest of the American public's opinion on the struggle in Europe. The impression of the Norwegian's situation had been severely damaged by an article by the American reporter, Leland Stowe, who happened to be in Oslo on the day the Germans marched into the city. He witnessed shocked Norwegian civilians standing around watching the Germans march down the parade street Karl
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    4 votes
    24

    A Time for Choosing

    A Time for Choosing, also known as The Speech, was a speech presented during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by future president Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. Many versions of the speech exist, since it was altered over many weeks. Contrary to popular belief, however, the speech was not given at the 1964 Republican National Convention in San Francisco, California as a nomination speech for Barry Goldwater. Richard Nixon gave that nomination speech. Reagan, though he campaigned for Goldwater, did not use "A Time for Choosing" until October 27, 1964, when it was part of a pre-recorded television program, Rendezvous with Destiny. In his autobiography Reagan recalled going to bed that night "hoping I hadn't let Barry down." Speaking for Goldwater, Reagan stressed his belief in the importance of smaller government. He revealed his ideological motivation in a famed speech delivered on October 27, 1964: "The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. So we have come to a time for choosing."
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    5 votes
    25
    On American Taxation

    On American Taxation

    "On American Taxation" was a speech given by Edmund Burke in the British House of Commons on April 19, 1774, advocating the full repeal of the Townshend Revenue Act of 1767. Parliament had previously repealed five of the six duties of this revenue tax on the American colonies, but the tax on tea remained. The speech was given during the debates on the Coercive Acts, when Rose Fuller proposed that the Townshend duty on tea be repealed to decrease resistance to the new acts. Burke's speech was in support of this motion. According to historian Robert Middlekauff, "The speech is memorable for its wit and its brilliant reconstruction of the government's dismal efforts to bring order into colonial affairs without the advantage of a coherent policy." Edmund Burke was a British member of Parliament who by the 1770s had become an important part of the opposition. The Stamp Act was passed the same year he was first elected to Parliament, and this and ensuing revenue acts had generated significant resistance among American colonists. In general terms, Burke argued throughout these years that the resistance was a consequence of the inflexibility of British policy towards its colonies. His
    6.80
    5 votes
    26

    Salt Sermon

    The salt sermon was an oration delivered on June 17, 1838 by Mormon leader, Sidney Rigdon, against Mormon dissenters. Rigdon was First Counselor in the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and often acted as spokesman for Joseph Smith, Jr.. The dissenters included Book of Mormon witnesses Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and John Whitmer, and other leaders including William Wines Phelps. According to Rigdon, the dissenters were like the "salt" spoken of by Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (part of the metaphors of Salt and Light in the Sermon on the Mount): "If the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men." Two days after Rigdon preached the Salt Sermon, eighty Latter-day Saints signed a statement (the so-called Danite Manifesto) warning the dissenters to "depart, or a more fatal calamity shall befall you." The dissenters and their families interpreted these words as threats, and they quickly left Caldwell County, Missouri. Their stories helped stir up anti-Mormon feeling in northwestern Missouri and contributed to the outbreak of the 1838 Mormon
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    5 votes
    30

    I warn the Government

    I warn the Government is a speech by F.E. Smith, made on 12 March 1906. It was his maiden speech in the British House of Commons. According to Brian MaCarthur, it was "the most famous (speech) ever made" in the Commons in modern times. The historian Paul Johnson has described the speech as, "without question the most famous maiden speech in history, quite unprecedented, and never equalled since." Smith used his opportunity as a member of the embattled Tory opposition of 1906 to decry and assail the government for their heavy-handedness and arrogance after winning a landslide victory in the general election. The speech solidified Smith's reputation as an orator and rising political star, and established him as a major figure within the Conservative Party. His place in party politics thus established, F.E. Smith would go on to hold numerous posts and cabinet positions under the later Lloyd George Coalition Government, as Lord Chancellor from 1918-1922, and under Stanley Baldwin as Secretary of State for India in 1924-1928. A copy of the speech was included in the following day's Times, which is archived online.
    7.75
    4 votes
    31

    Laudatio florentinae urbis

    Laudatio florentinae urbis (Latin for "Praise of the City of Florence") is a panegyric delivered by Leonardo Bruni (c. 1403-4). The panegyric is modeled after Aristides' Panathenaic Oration, particularly with references to Florence's values and external threats. It was first delivered immediately after Florence's victory over Milan. The panegyric contains chronological contradictions with Bruni's other oration, Dialogi. The exact dating of the oration, as with other works of Bruni's dated by Baron, has been questioned by critics of Baron. Some portions of the panegyric employed in its dating include references to the "occupation" of Bologna (June 1402, or rumors of collusion between Milan and Bologna in 1399) and the fading of Giangaleazzo Visconti (d. September 2, 1402) from Milan's political scene. Bruni republished the panegyric in the 1430s at a time which the pope was contemplating transferring the Council of Florence to a different city; the republication was also contemporaneous with the Milanese panegyric of Pietro Candido Decembrio, De Laudibus Mediolanesium Urbis Panegyricus (1436).
    7.75
    4 votes
    34

    Logan's Lament

    "Logan's Lament" was a speech delivered by a Native American in late colonial times, 1774. The English language version comes down to us, recorded in Thomas Jefferson's own hand. Chief Logan was a Mingo leader in the 1700's who lived in what is now Ohio and West Virginia. Logan was notably friendly to the whites. His father had served as a peacemaker in Pennsylvania, and had taken the name "Logan". In 1774, Logan's family was murdered by whites, who scalped their victims. The major chiefs met, and urged reconciliation with the whites, but acknowledged that Logan had a right to revenge. Logan took his revenge with a series of massacres as bloody as the one he had suffered. This precipitated Lord Dunmore's War. Other tribes were drawn into the war. Logan refused to participate in the peace settlement, but instead delivered "Logan's Lament", the text of which is believed to have been translated by his son in law, Gen. John Gibson. From Thomas Jefferson's notes: "I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan
    10.00
    2 votes
    37

    Demosthenes' Funeral Oration

    Demosthenes' Funeral Oration (Greek: Ἐπιτάφιος Λόγος) was delivered between August and September of 338 BC, just after the Battle of Chaeronea. It constitutes along with the Erotic Essay the two epideictic orations of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator, which are still existent. In 338 BC Philip II of Macedon defeated the smaller combined forces of Athens and Thebes, securing Macedonian hegemony in Greece. Philip was however indulgent towards Athens. He actually proposed a new peace treaty, whose the terms were quite favorable for the defeated party. Demosthenes prompted the fortification of Athens and was appointed by ecclesia to the duty of delivering over them the customary funeral speech, honoring the Athenians who died for their city. Although the Athenian statesman was the leader of the anti-Macedonian faction, his countrymen chose him for this honorable duty and not Demades or Aeschines, who were more pleasing to the King of Macedon. Demosthenes' selection to deliver this speech shows his political influence in Athens, despite the fact that his anti-Macedonian policy had resulted in the total defeat of his city. Demosthenes was proud for this special honor and in On
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    3 votes
    38
    Gazimestan speech

    Gazimestan speech

    The Gazimestan speech was a speech given on 28 June 1989 by Slobodan Milošević, then President of Serbia. It was the centrepiece of a day-long event to mark the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo, which spelled the defeat of the medieval Serbian kingdom at the hands of the Ottoman Empire, as well as the annexation of most of Serbia's territory aside from the Serbian Despotate. The speech was delivered to a huge crowd gathered at the place where the battle had been fought, Gazimestan in the Central Kosovo. It came against a backdrop of intense ethnic tension between ethnic Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo and increasing political tensions between Serbia and the other constituent republics of the then Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia caused by the "anti-bureaucratic revolution". The speech has since become famous for Milošević's reference to the possibility of "armed battles", in the future of Serbia's national development. Many commentators have described this as presaging the collapse of Yugoslavia and the bloodshed of the Yugoslav Wars. Milošević actually spoke of the "battles" in the context of "implementing economic, political, cultural, and general social
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    We will bury you

    We will bury you

    "We will bury you!" ("Мы вас похороним!", transliterated as My vas pokhoronim!) was a phrase famously used by Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev while addressing Western ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy in Moscow on November 18, 1956. The actual verbal context was: "Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will dig you in" ("Нравится вам или нет, но история на нашей стороне. Мы вас закопаем"). In his subsequent public speech Khrushchev declared: "[...] We must take a shovel and dig a deep grave, and bury colonialism as deep as we can". Later, on August 24, 1963, Khrushchev remarked in his speech in Yugoslavia, "I once said, 'We will bury you,' and I got into trouble with it. Of course we will not bury you with a shovel. Your own working class will bury you," a reference to the Marxist saying, "The proletariat is the undertaker of capitalism", based on the concluding statement in Chapter 1 of the Communist Manifesto: "What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable". Khrushchev repeated this Marxist thesis at a meeting with journalists in the U.S. in
    9.50
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    48
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    Quit India speech

    Quit India speech

    The Quit India speech is a speech made by Mahatma Gandhi on August 8, 1942, on the eve of the Quit India movement. He called for determined, but passive resistance that signified the certitude that Gandhi foresaw for the movement is best described by his call to Do or Die. His speech was issued at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Bombay (now Mumbai), since renamed August Kranti Maidan (August Revolution Ground). However, almost the entire Congress leadership, and not merely at the national level, was put into confinement less than twenty-four hours after Gandhi's speech, and the greater number of the Congress leaders were to spend the rest of the war in jail. Many years later, Martin Luther King, Jr., would mimic Gandhi in his "I Have A Dream" speech that promoted nonviolence and equality of races. Gandhi made this speech to help India gain Independence. Before you discuss the resolution, let me place before you one or two things, I want you to understand two things very clearly and to consider them from the same point of view from which I am placing them before you. I ask you to consider it from my point of view, because if you approve of it, you will be enjoined to carry out all I say.
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    53

    Pound Cake Speech

    The Pound Cake speech was given by Bill Cosby in May 2004 during an NAACP awards ceremony in Washington, D.C., to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. In it, Cosby was highly critical of members of subsets of the black community in the United States. He criticized the use of African American Vernacular English, the prevalence of single-parent families, the emphasis on frivolous and conspicuous consumption at the expense of necessities, lack of responsibility, and other behaviors. The speech is often referred to as the "Pound Cake" speech because of the following lines, referencing a particular dessert, pound cake, for comedic effect, while contrasting common criminals with political activists who risked incarceration during the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s: In the same speech he had praise for the efforts of the Nation of Islam in dealing with crime in the cities, saying "When you want to clear your neighborhood out, first thing you do is go get the Black Muslims, bean pies and all. And your neighborhood is then clear." After that statement, he pointed out the police's inability to resolve the crime problem,
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    3 votes
    56
    Fourteen Points

    Fourteen Points

    The Fourteen Points was a speech given by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. People in Europe generally welcomed Wilson's intervention, but his Allied colleagues (Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando) were skeptical of the applicability of Wilsonian idealism. The speech was delivered 10 months before the Armistice with Germany and became the basis for the terms of the German surrender, as negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Treaty of Versailles had little to do with the Fourteen Points and was never ratified by the U.S. Senate. "Colonel" Edward M. House worked to secure the acceptance of the Fourteen Points by Entente leaders. On October 16, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson and Sir William Wiseman, the head of British intelligence in America had an interview. This interview was one reason why the German government accepted the Fourteen Points and the stated principles for peace negotiations. The report made as negotiation points, and later the
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    4 votes
    62
    Sermons and speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Sermons and speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    The sermons and speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. comprise an extensive catalog of American writing and oratory — some of which are internationally well-known, while others remain unheralded, and some await re-discovery. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a prominent African American clergyman, a civil rights leader, and a Nobel laureate. King himself observed, "In the quiet recesses of my heart, I am fundamentally a clergyman, a Baptist preacher." The famous "I Have a Dream" address was delivered from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Less well-remembered are the early sermons of that young, 25-year-old pastor who first began preaching at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama in 1954. As a political leader in the Civil Rights Movement and as a modest preacher in a Baptist church, King evolved and matured across the span of a life cut short. The range of his rhetoric was anticipated and encompassed within "The Three Dimensions of a Complete Life," which he preached as his trial sermon at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in 1954 and every year thereafter for the rest of his life. Speech given at McFarlin Auditorium, Southern Methodist University March
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    63
    Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

    Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

    "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is a sermon written by American Christian theologian Jonathan Edwards, preached on July 8, 1741 in Enfield, Connecticut. Like Edwards' other works, it combines vivid imagery of Hell with observations of the world and citations of scripture. It is Edwards' most famous written work, and is widely studied by Christians and historians, providing a glimpse into the theology of the Great Awakening of c. 1730–1755. "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is a typical sermon of the Great Awakening, emphasizing the belief that Hell is a real place. Edwards hoped that the imagery and message of his sermon would awaken his audience to the horrific reality that awaited them should they continue without Christ. The underlying point is that God has given humanity a chance to rectify their sins. Edwards says that it is the will of God that keeps wicked men from the depths of Hell. This act of restraint has given humanity a chance to mend their ways and return to Christ. "There is nothing that keeps wicked men at any one moment out of hell, but the mere pleasure of God." Most of the sermon's text consists of ten "considerations": One church in Enfield,
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    67

    Gold Spoon Oration

    The Gold Spoon Oration, also called "The Regal Splendor of the President’s Palace," was a political speech given in the US House of Representatives by Charles Ogle (Whig-PA) on April 14–16, 1840. The speech reviled then-President Martin Van Buren for his supposedly luxurious lifestyle in the White House, while idealizing Whig presidential candidate William Henry Harrison as a homespun man of the people; compare the idiom "silver spoon". Shortly after delivering the speech, Ogle had tens of thousands of copies printed and circulated around the nation as campaign literature. Historian]]s, journalists and politicians consider it one of the premier political attacks in American history. Many also rank it as one of the most amusing speeches ever delivered in Congress. The speech is almost coincidentally the most complete inventory of the objects and furnishings of the White House for that time. It was claimed by the Trenton Emporium that what was published was not the speech made by Ogle. The paper claimed that the published speech was edited multiple times and stuffed with fabrications developed by other Whig Party members. Ogle took the floor of the House of Representatives on April
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    70

    Stalin's speech on August 19, 1939

    This article covers a speech allegedly given by leader of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin on 19 August 1939 to members of the Politburo, wherein he supposedly described the strategy of the Soviet Union on the eve of World War II. The historicity of the speech is still the subject of academic debate. Plausible textual of this speech found in various reputable archives have been academically studied and published, however no formal first-hand evidence of a Politburo meeting held on 19 August 1939 or the delivery of the quoted speech has yet been proven. Speeches given in secret were common at the time, the Politburo being a closed and secretive body. There are also contrary views that these copies were intended originally as propaganda and disinformation. Accordingly until consensus is reached by historians, the discussion of the documents supporting such a thesis are described in this article as an "alleged" speech. In these reports, Stalin is represented as talking about his strategic view of the growing conflict in Europe, and his view that it would be beneficial for the Soviet agenda, insofar as it would weaken the West, allowing possible territorial expansion. In the source
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    Atoms for Peace

    Atoms for Peace

    "Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. The United States then launched an "Atoms for Peace" program that supplied equipment and information to schools, hospitals, and research institutions within the U.S. and throughout the world. The first nuclear reactors in Iran and Pakistan were built under the program by American Machine and Foundry. The speech was possibly a tipping point for international focus on peaceful uses of atomic energy, even during the early stages of the Cold War. It could be argued that Eisenhower, with some influence from Albert Einstein, was attempting to convey a spirit of comfort to a terrified world that the horror of Hiroshima and Nagasaki would not be experienced again. It presents an ostensible antithesis to brinkmanship, the international intrigue that subsequently kept the world at the edge of war. However recent historians have tended to see the speech as a cold war maneuver directed primarily at U.S. allies in Europe. Eisenhower wanted to make sure that the European allies would go along with the shift in NATO strategy from an emphasis
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    Five Point Peace Plan

    The Five Point Peace Plan for Tibet was an address to the U.S. Congressional Human Rights Caucus by Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, on September 21, 1987.
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    Military-industrial complex

    Military-industrial complex

    Military–industrial complex, or military–industrial–congressional complex, is a concept commonly used to refer to policy and monetary relationships between legislators, national armed forces, and the defense industrial base that supports them. These relationships include political contributions, political approval for defense spending, lobbying to support bureaucracies, and oversight of the industry. It is a type of iron triangle. The term is most often used in reference to the system behind the military of the United States, where it gained popularity after its use in the farewell address of President Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 17, 1961, though the term is applicable to any country with a similarly developed infrastructure. The term is sometimes used more broadly to include the entire network of contracts and flows of money and resources among individuals as well as corporations and institutions of the defense contractors, The Pentagon, the Congress and executive branch. This sector is intrinsically prone to principal–agent problem, moral hazard, and rent seeking. Cases of political corruption have also surfaced with regularity. A parallel system is that of the
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    Pro Milone

    Pro Milone

    The Pro Tito Annio Milone ad iudicem oratio (Pro Milone) is a speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of his friend Titus Annius Milo. Milo was accused of murdering his political enemy Publius Clodius Pulcher on the Via Appia. The speech was written by Cicero in 52 BC. Milo was a praetor at the time, attempting to gain the much-vaunted post of consul; Clodius was a former tribune standing for the office of praetor. The charge was brought against Milo for the death of Clodius following a violent altercation on the Via Appia outside Clodius' estate in Bovillae. After the initial brawl, it seems that Clodius was wounded during the fight started by his own slaves as well as those of Milo. This was the sequence of events described by the prosecution and the commentary of Asconius, an ancient commentator who analyzed several of Cicero's speeches and had access to various ancient documents which are no longer extant. The absence of a summary of the chain of events in Cicero’s speech may be attributed to their incriminating evidence against Milo. Presumably, Cicero realized that this was the primary weakness, and as the trial unfolded it turned out to be so. We can assume from the
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    Quarantine Speech

    The Quarantine Speech was given by U.S. President [Franklin D. Roosevelt] on October 5, 1937 in [Chicago], calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by non-interventionists and foes to intervene. No countries were directly mentioned in the speech, although it was interpreted as referring to Japan, Italy, and Germany. Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression. Public response to the speech was mixed. Famed cartoonist Percy Crosby, creator of Skippy (comic strip) and very outspoken Roosevelt critic, bought a two-page advertisement in the New York Sun to attack it. In addition, it was heavily criticized by Hearst-owned newspapers and Robert R. McCormick of the Chicago Tribune, but several subsequent compendia of editorials showed overall approval in US media.
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    Barack Obama election victory speech, 2008

    Barack Obama election victory speech, 2008

    Following his victory in the United States presidential election, 2008, President-elect Barack Obama gave his victory speech at Grant Park in his home city of Chicago, Illinois, on November 4, 2008, before an estimated crowd of 240,000. Viewed on television and the Internet by millions of people around the globe, Obama's speech focused on the major issues facing the United States and the world, all echoed through his campaign slogan of change. He also mentioned his grandmother, who had died two nights earlier. The speech heavily referenced the inaugural addresses of former Presidents John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln, and also referred to speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. Echoing Martin Luther King's "I've Been to the Mountaintop" address, he declared, "But tonight, because of what we did on this day, in this election, at this defining moment, change has come to America" and "The road ahead will be long, our climb will be steep. We may not get there in one year, or even in one term — but America, I have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we will get there." At another point in the speech he again referenced King when referring to the "arc of history", a phrase King
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    Evil empire

    The phrase evil empire was applied to the Soviet Union especially by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who took an aggressive, hard-line stance that favored matching and exceeding the Soviet Union's strategic and global military capabilities, in calling for a rollback strategy that would, in his words, write the final pages of the history of the Soviet Union. The characterization demeaned the Soviet Union and angered Soviet leaders; it represented the rhetorical side of the escalation of the Cold War. Reagan's chief speechwriter at the time, Anthony R. Dolan, reportedly coined the phrase for Reagan's use. Some sources incorrectly refer to the June 1982 speech before the British House of Commons as the "Evil Empire" speech, but while Reagan referred twice to totalitarianism in his London speech, the exact phrase "evil empire" did not appear in any speech until later in his Presidency. Rather, the phrase "ash heap of history" appeared in this speech, used by Reagan to predict what he saw as the inevitable failure and collapse of global communism. Ironically, this latter phrase was coined by Bolshevik revolutionary Leon Trotsky in November 1917, using it against his opponents (the
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    The American Scholar

    The American Scholar

    The American Scholar was a speech given by Ralph Waldo Emerson on August 31, 1837, to the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was invited to speak in recognition of his groundbreaking work Nature, published a year earlier, in which he established a new way for America's fledgling society to regard the world. Sixty years after declaring independence, American culture was still heavily influenced by Europe, and Emerson, for possibly the first time in the country's history, provided a visionary philosophical framework for escaping "from under its iron lids" and building a new, distinctly American cultural identity. Emerson uses Transcendentalist and Romantic views to get his points across by explaining a true American scholar's relationship to nature. There are a few key points he makes that flesh out this vision: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. declared this speech to be America's "Intellectual Declaration of Independence". Building on the growing attention he was receiving from the essay Nature, this speech solidified Emerson's popularity and weight in America, a level of reverence he would hold throughout the rest of his life. Phi Beta Kappa's literary quarterly
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    Pro Cluentio

    Pro Cluentio is a speech by the Roman orator Cicero given in defense of a man named Aulus Cluentius Habitus Minor. Cluentius, from Larinum in Molise, was accused in 66 BC by his mother of having poisoned his stepfather, Oppianicus the elder; Cluentius was very unpopular in Rome because of rumors that he had corrupted the judges in a process against this same Oppianicus; this unpopularity (Latin: invidia) reflected on the senators, suspected to buy and sell processes. The accusers were not saints either: Cluentius' mother, Sassia, had married three times. On the first occasion she had married Aulus Cluentius Habitus, the father of her son. The son was known as Aulus Cluentius Habitus Minor. At one point she had fallen in love with her daughter's husband. She forced the daughter to divorce the young man and then she married her former son-in-law. Cicero divides his action in two parts: in the first one, he defends Cluentius' reputation. He shows that Oppianicus' crimes were so enormous, that Cluentius had no need of corrupting the judges; actually, he ridicules Oppianicus because he was cheated by a mediator in bribes. The second part deals with the alleged poisoning, and is very
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    Slavery and State's Rights

    Slavery and States Rights was a speech by Joseph Wheeler on July 31, 1894. This speech is considered to be a nationalist look at American Civil War causation and is generally understood to argue that the North was to blame for the war. The Richmond, Virginia Dispatch stated, "The House of Representatives being in Committee of the Whole, on appropriations and expenditures, and having under consideration the bill to remove the charge of desertion standing against Patrick Kelleher, late private, Company C, Thirty-eighth Illinois Volunteers, Mr. Wheeler, of Alabama, as a member of the Committee on Military Affairs, made a speech." In his speech, Wheeler argued that the North, prior to the Civil War, had failed to comply with the terms of the Constitution. In particular, he argued that slaves were property and that Northern states had infringed on the constitutional property rights of the slaveholders. He also argued that not only had the North encouraged secession, but that in the past it had, itself, sought secession, and thus that secession was a right of the South. In an aside, Wheeler insinuated that the North was to blame for slavery. Wheeler explains (paraphrased), "I refute
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    The Ballot or the Bullet

    Famous speech given by Malcolm X on April 3, 1964 in Cory Methodist Church, Cleveland, OH.  I similar speech was given on April 12, 1964 a week later in Detroit, MI.
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    Deathless Sermon

    The Deathless Sermon was a sermon given during the decline of Hyper-Calvinism in England. It was preached by Particular Baptist Minister, William Carey on May 30, 1792 at the Friar Lane Baptist Chapel in Nottingham as an effort to arouse his pastoral contemporaries to intentional evangelistic action. The message is rooted in the text of Isaiah 54:2-3: No extant copies of the sermon remain; however church historians almost unanimously recognize its form as having only two points: Although initially his audience was unmoved, ultimately the sermon was remarkably successful. His oration served as the initial catalyst for the founding in 1792 of the "Particular Baptist Society for Propagating the Gospel to the Heathen" (later renamed to the Baptist Missionary Society), which would commission William Carey as one of their first missionaries. Carey's activity in India is renowned and placed him firmly in history as the "father of modern missions".
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    Speech to the Troops at Tilbury

    Speech to the Troops at Tilbury

    The Speech to the Troops at Tilbury was delivered on 9 August Old Style, 19 August New Style 1588 by Queen Elizabeth I of England to the land forces earlier assembled at Tilbury in Essex in preparation of repelling the expected invasion by the Spanish Armada. Prior to the speech the Armada had been driven from the Strait of Dover in the Battle of Gravelines eleven days earlier, and had by now rounded Scotland on its way home, but troops were still held at ready in case the Spanish army of Alexander Farnese, the Duke of Parma, might yet attempt to invade from Dunkirk; two days later they were discharged. On the day of the speech, the Queen left her bodyguard before the fort at Tilbury and went among her subjects with an escort of six men. Lord Ormonde walked ahead with the Sword of State; he was followed by a page leading the Queen's charger and another bearing her silver helmet on a cushion; then came the Queen herself, in white with a silver cuirass and mounted on a grey gelding. She was flanked on horseback by her Lieutenant General the Earl of Leicester on the right, and on the left by the Earl of Essex, her Master of the Horse. Sir John Norreys brought up the rear. The text was
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    Appeal of June 18

    Appeal of June 18

    The Appeal of 18 June (L'Appel du 18 Juin) was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940. The appeal is often considered to be the origin of the French Resistance to the German occupation during World War II. De Gaulle spoke to the French people from London after the fall of France. He declared that the war for France was not yet over, and rallied the country in support of the Resistance. It is one of the most important speeches in French history. In spite of its reputation as the beginning of the Resistance and Free French, historians have shown that the appeal was heard only by a minority of French people. De Gaulle's 22 June 1940 speech on the BBC was much more widely heard. General de Gaulle became the de facto leader of the Free French Forces which had escaped to London in June 1940. Marshal Philippe Pétain, a hero of World War I, had signed an armistice with Nazi Germany, and led the collaborating Vichy government while the Germans occupied the country's northern portion. De Gaulle opposed the armistice and had fled France on 15 June after Pétain made clear that he would seek an accommodation with the Nazis. Three days later, de
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    On the Personality Cult and its Consequences

    On the Personality Cult and its Consequences

    "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" (Russian: «О культе личности и его последствиях») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956. Khrushchev's speech was sharply critical of the reign of General Secretary and Premier Joseph Stalin, particularly with respect to the brutal purges of the Soviet military and Communist Party cadres which had particularly marked the last years of the 1930s. Khrushchev charged Stalin with having fostered a leadership personality cult despite ostensibly maintaining support for the ideals of communism. The speech was a milestone in the Khrushchev Thaw. Superficially, the speech was an attempt to draw the Soviet Communist Party closer to Leninism. Khrushchev's ulterior motivation, however, was to legitimize and help consolidate his control of the Communist party and government, power obtained in a political struggle with Stalin loyalists Vyacheslav Molotov and Georgy Malenkov. The Khrushchev report was known as the "Secret Speech" because it was delivered at an unpublicized closed session of Communist Party delegates, with guests and members
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    100

    Atlanta Compromise

    The Atlanta compromise was an agreement struck in 1895 between African-American leaders and Southern white leaders. The agreement was that Southern blacks would work weekly and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process in law; blacks would not agitate for equality, integration, or justice, and Northern whites would fund black educational charities. The compromise was announced at the Atlanta Exposition Speech. The primary architect of the compromise, on behalf of the African-Americans, was Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute. Supporters of Washington and the Atlanta compromise were termed the "Tuskegee Machine". The agreement was never written down. Essential elements of the agreement were that blacks would not ask for the right to vote, they would not retalliate against racist behavior, they would tolerate segregation and discrimination, that they would receive free basic education, education would be limited to vocational or industrial training (for instance as teachers or nurses), liberal arts education would be prohibited (for instance, college education in the classics,
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    How Long, Not Long

    How Long, Not Long

    "How Long, Not Long" is the popular name given to the public speech delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on the steps of the State Capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, after the successful completion of the Selma to Montgomery March on March 25, 1965. The speech is also sometimes referred to as "Our God Is Marching On!"
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    I've Been to the Mountaintop

    "I've Been to the Mountaintop" is the popular name of the last speech delivered by Martin Luther King, Jr. King spoke on April 3, 1968, at the Mason Temple (Church of God in Christ Headquarters) in Memphis, Tennessee. The next day, King was assassinated. The speech primarily concerns the Memphis Sanitation Strike. King calls for unity, economic actions, boycotts, and nonviolent protest, while challenging the United States to live up to its ideals. At the end of the speech, he discusses the possibility of an untimely death. Regarding the strike, King said: Regarding the Civil Rights struggle, King said: Regarding economic boycotts, he said: Toward the end of the speech, King refers to threats against his life and uses language that seems to foreshadow his impending death: The language is seen by some as a "prophetic" analogy. Moses is the leader of the people of Israel, whom they follow because of the prospect of life within a Promised Land. Before they reach it however, Moses is informed by God that he will not allow him to enter into the land and that he will only see it with his eyes. Shortly after, Moses dies and is buried by God, and his successor, Joshua, leads the people of
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    Lincoln's House Divided Speech

    Lincoln's House Divided Speech

    The House Divided Speech was an address given by Abraham Lincoln (who would later become President of the United States) on June 16, 1858, at what was then the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield, upon accepting the Illinois Republican Party's nomination as that state's United States senator. The speech became the launching point for his unsuccessful campaign for the Senate seat held by Stephen A. Douglas; this campaign would climax with the Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. Mr. Lincoln's remarks in Springfield created an image of the danger of slavery-based disunion, and it rallied Republicans across the North. Along with the Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address, this became one of the best-known speeches of his career. The best-known passage of the speech is: Lincoln's goals with this speech were, firstly, to differentiate himself from Douglas, the incumbent; and secondly, to publicly voice a prophecy for the future. Douglas had long advocated popular sovereignty, under which the settlers in each new territory decided their own status as a slave or free state; he had repeatedly asserted that the proper application of popular sovereignty would end slavery-induced
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    Mouseland

    The Story of Mouseland was a story told first by Clarence Gillis, and later and most famously by Tommy Douglas, leader of the Saskatchewan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and, later, the New Democratic Party of Canada, both social democratic parties. It was a political fable expressing the CCF's view that the Canadian political system was flawed in offering voters a false dilemma: the choice of two parties, neither of which represented their interests. The mice voted in black cats, which represented the Progressive Conservative Party, and then they found out how hard life was. Then they voted in the white cats, which symbolized the Liberal Party. The story goes on, and a mouse gets an idea that mice should run their government, not the cats. This mouse was accused of being a Bolshevik, and imprisoned. However, the speech concludes by saying you can lock up a mouse or a person, but you cannot lock up an idea. A variation of this story is told in Douglas Adams' novel So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish, involving a democracy where people vote for lizards as their leaders. No one is happy with this situation, except for the lizards, but the people continue voting for the lizards
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    Arsenal of Democracy

    Arsenal of Democracy

    "The Arsenal of Democracy" was a slogan coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a radio broadcast delivered on December 29, 1940. Roosevelt promised to help the United Kingdom fight Nazi Germany by giving them military supplies while the United States stayed out of the actual fighting. The announcement was made a year before the Attack on Pearl Harbor, at a time when Germany had occupied much of Europe and threatened Britain. Germany was allied with Italy and Japan (the Axis powers). At the time Germany and the Soviet Union signed a non aggression treaty under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and had jointly invaded Poland in 1939, a deal that remained until the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Roosevelt's address was "a call to arm and support" the Allies in Europe, and to a lesser extent China, in their all-out war against Germany and Japan. "The great arsenal of democracy" came to specifically reference America and its industrial machine, as the primary military supplier for the Allied war effort. Between 1940 and 1945, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania epitomized the concept by manufacturing more steel for the Allies than any other steel-producing hub in the world--an
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    Ireland unfree shall never be at peace

    "Ireland unfree shall never be at peace" were the climactic closing words of the graveside oration of Patrick Pearse at the funeral of Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa on 1 August 1915. The oration roused Irish republican feeling and was a significant element in the lead-up to the Easter Rising of 1916. O'Donovan Rossa, a founding member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (popularly known as the Fenians), died in New York on 29 June 1915, aged 84. Another Fenian leader, John Devoy, cabled Tom Clarke in Dublin to ask what should be done. Clarke replied, "Send his body home at once." Clarke and Thomas MacDonagh began planning a huge funeral as a demonstration of support for Irish independence. Clarke chose Patrick Pearse, a barrister and schoolteacher who was known as the foremost orator of the time, to give the graveside oration. At that time republican leaders were refraining from making inflammatory speeches for fear of imprisonment at a crucial time in the preparations for a rising. When Pearse asked how far he should go, Clarke answered, "Make it hot as hell, throw discretion to the winds." On arrival in Dublin, Rossa's remains were taken to the Pro-Cathedral and lay before the High
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    Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address

    Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address

    Chief Justice John Marshall administered the first executive oath of office ever taken in the new federal city of Washington, DC, in the new Senate Chamber (now the Old Supreme Court Chamber) of the partially built Capitol building, on March 4, 1801. The outcome of the election of 1800 had been in doubt until late February because Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the two leading candidates, each had received 73 electoral votes. Consequently, the House of Representatives met in a special session to resolve the impasse, pursuant to the terms spelled out in the Constitution. After 30 hours of debate and balloting, Mr. Jefferson emerged as the President and Mr. Burr the Vice President. President John Adams, who had run unsuccessfully for a second term, left Washington on the day of the inauguration without attending the ceremony.
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    Wasteland Speech

    The Wasteland Speech was a speech given by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) chairman Newton N. Minow to the convention of the National Association of Broadcasters on May 9, 1961. The speech was Minow's first major speech after he was appointed chairman of the FCC by President John F Kennedy. In the speech, Minow referred to American commercial television programming as a "vast wasteland" and advocated for programming in the public interest. This speech is properly titled "Television and the Public Interest". It was a landmark speech for the medium of television, at a time when there were only three networks in the United States and when the realm of television was much less vast than it is today. Nonetheless, it is counted as one of the one hundred best American speeches of the 20th century by several authorities and selected as one of the 25 Speeches that Changed the World by Vital Speeches. Related writings include his book (co-written with Craig LaMay) Abandoned in the Wasteland: Children, Television, & the First Amendment. The phrase "vast wasteland" was suggested to Minow by his friend, reporter and freelance writer John Bartlow Martin. Martin had recently watched
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    Day of Affirmation speech

    The Day of Affirmation speech was a speech given by Robert F. Kennedy to National Union of South African Students members at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, on June 6, 1966. Kennedy, who was then a U.S. Senator from New York, gave the speech two years before his 1968 presidential campaign, which came to an end when Kennedy was assassinated on June 5, 1968 in Los Angeles. It is one of his most noted speeches. In the speech Kennedy talked about individual liberty, apartheid, and the need for civil rights in the United States at a time when the American civil rights movement was ongoing. Our answer is the world's hope; it is to rely on youth. The cruelties and the obstacles of this swiftly changing planet will not yield to obsolete dogmas and outworn slogans. It cannot be moved by those who cling to a present which is already dying, who prefer the illusion of security to the excitement and danger which comes with even the most peaceful progress. This world demands the qualities of youth: not a time of life but a state of mind, a temper of the will, a quality of imagination, a predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the life of ease -- a man
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    Harry S. Truman's 1949 inaugural address

    Harry S. Truman's inaugural address, known as the Four Point Speech, was delivered by United States president Harry S. Truman, on Thursday, January 20, 1949. In a world only recently emerged from the shadow of World War II, in which freedom and human rights seemed under threat from many sides, this was Truman's response. He challenged both Democrats and Republicans to assist people around the world struggling for freedom and human rights; to continue programs for world economic recovery; to strengthen international organizations; and to draw on the expertise of the United States to help people across the world help themselves in the struggle against ignorance, illness and despair.
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    Be Ye Men of Valor

    Be Ye Men of Valour was a wartime speech made in a BBC broadcast on 19 May 1940 by Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill. It was his first speech to the nation as Prime Minister, and came nine days after his appointment, in the second year of World War II. The speech concludes with a quotation from the Apocrypha, which supplies the phrase by which the speech became known: Arm yourselves, and be ye men of valour, and be in readiness for the conflict; for it is better for us to perish in battle than to look upon the outrage of our nation and our altar. As the Will of God is in Heaven, even so let it be. (1 Maccabees 3:58–60)
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    Declaration of Conscience

    The Declaration of Conscience was a speech made by Senator Margaret Chase Smith on June 1, 1950, less than four months after Senator Joe McCarthy's infamous "Wheeling Speech," on February 9, 1950. It also refers to the text of the speech itself, which was endorsed by six other moderate/liberal Republicans. In it, she criticized national leadership and called for the country, the United States Senate, and the Republican Party to re-examine the tactics used by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and (without naming him) Senator Joe McCarthy. She stated the basic principles of "Americanism" were: Smith strongly voiced concern that those who exercised those beliefs at that time risked being labeled communist or fascist. In the Declaration of Conscience, Smith said, The other Senators who signed onto the Declaration were Wayne Morse of Oregon, George Aiken of Vermont, Edward Thye of Minnesota, Irving Ives of New York, Charles Tobey of New Hampshire, and Robert C. Hendrickson of New Jersey. While the initial reception was chilly, the full-fledged outbreak of the Korean War on June 25, 1950 removed any hope that Smith's views would prevail, as Republican candidates ran hard
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    Jesuit Ivy

    Jesuit Ivy

    "Jesuit Ivy" is the title of a commencement speech delivered at and, subsequently a nickname given to, Boston College, a Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States. The term was coined in a 1956 commencement address by then-Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy. Speaking at the Jesuit university, he was likely making reference to the Ivy League which had been formally established two years prior, in 1954. The term "Jesuit Ivy" was somewhat of a contradiction in terms. The Ivy League's members were generally Protestant-founded institutions; Boston College had itself been founded in part because Catholics were being denied admission to Harvard University in the nineteenth century. The nickname suggested both Boston College's rising stature and the declining prevalence of discrimination at elite American universities. A Catholic whose family were longtime Boston College benefactors, Kennedy graduated from Harvard in 1940. John F. Kennedy visited Boston College in an official capacity seven times during his tenures as Massachusetts Senator and President of the United States—more frequently than he visited any other university, including his own alma mater,
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    Olynthiacs

    The Olynthiacs were three political speeches, all delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. In 349 BC Philip II of Macedon attacked Olynthus, which at the time was an ally of Athens. In the Olynthiacs, delivered in 349 BC, Demosthenes urged Athens to help Olynthus. When Philip was enthroned, he cajoled the Chalkidian League, but, after the seizure of Amphipolis and the Macedonian expansion in Thrace, Philip sought for the elimination of the Chalkidian League and for the destruction of its most powerful city, Olynthus. The Olynthians foresaw the danger and struck a deal with the Athenians, who had been their enemies. In 350 BC, Philip had already seized thirty-two cities of the Chalkidike. The next year Olynthus sent successive delegations to Athens, asking desperately for military support, but the Athenians displayed no willingness for a military operation far away from their city. In the First Olynthiac, Demosthenes exhorted the Athenians to vote an expedition at once, to make instant preparation for its dispatch and to send ambassadors to state their intentions and watch events. He then proposed the reform of the "theoric fund" ("Theorika" were allowances paid
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    Pro Ligario

    Pro Ligario is a political speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero in 46 BC in defense of Quintus Ligarius before Gaius Julius Caesar. In this speech Cicero defends Ligarius, who is accused of crimes in Africa. Ligarius' accuser is Tubero, who has himself committed crimes in Africa. Cicero attempts to use Tubero's behavior to mitigate the charges Ligarius faces. Cicero also uses captatio benevolentia, a rhetorical technique which flatters the audience (Caesar, in this case). Pro Ligario differs from Cicero's other speeches in that the refutatio and peroratio are very short.
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    The Superinvestors of Graham-and-Doddsville

    "The Superinvestors of Graham-and-Doddsville" is an article by Warren Buffett promoting value investing, published in the Fall, 1984 issue of Hermes, Columbia Business School magazine. It was based on a speech given on May 17, 1984 at the Columbia University School of Business in honor of the 50th anniversary of the publication of Benjamin Graham and David Dodd's book Security Analysis. The speech and article challenged the idea that equity markets are efficient through a study of nine successful investment funds generating long-term returns above the market index. All these funds were managed by Benjamin Graham's alumni, pursuing different investment tactics but following the same "Graham-and-Doddsville" value investing strategy. The article has been reprinted in books on Buffett (e.g. Miles, 2004). Columbia Business School arranged celebration of Graham–Dodd's jubilee as a contest between Michael Jensen, a University of Rochester professor and a proponent of efficient market theory, and Buffett, who was known to oppose it. Jensen argued that a simple coin tossing experiment among a large number of investors would generate a few successive winners, and the same happens in real
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    139

    Tryst with destiny

    Tryst with Destiny was a speech made by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India. The speech was made to the Indian Constituent Assembly, on the eve of India's Independence, towards midnight on 14 August 1947. It focuses on the aspects that transcend India's history. It is considered to be one of the greatest speeches of all time and to be a landmark oration that captures the essence of the triumphant culmination of the hundred-year non-violent Indian freedom struggle against the British Empire in India. The phrase "rendezvous with destiny" was used by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his 1936 Democratic National Convention speech, inspiring the similar phrase "tryst with destiny" by Jawaharlal Nehru.
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    140

    Vive le Québec libre speech

    "Vive le Québec libre !" (French: [viv lə 'ke.bɛk 'libʁ], "Long live free Quebec!") was a controversial phrase in a speech delivered by President Charles de Gaulle of France on July 24, 1967, during an official visit to Canada under the pretext of attending Expo 67 in Montreal, Quebec. While giving an address to a large crowd from a balcony at Montreal City Hall, he uttered "Vive Montreal; Vive le Québec !" ("Long live Montreal, Long live Quebec!") and then added, almost drowned out by the crowd, "Vive le Québec libre !" ("Long live free Quebec!") with particular emphasis on the word 'libre'. The phrase, a slogan used by Quebecers who favoured Quebec sovereignty, and de Gaulle's use of it, was seen by them as giving his support to the movement. The speech sparked a diplomatic incident with Canada's government, and was condemned by Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, saying that "Canadians do not need to be liberated." Even in France, de Gaulle's speech was condemned in the French media. Over four decades later, it is still seen as a seminal moment in English and French Canadian relations and politics. Even before his arrival, the Canadian federal government had been concerned about
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    141
    Wake Up America

    Wake Up America

    "Wake Up, America" was a speech delivered by United States Representative Dennis Kucinich, Democrat of Ohio, on August 26, 2008, the second day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Kucinich's speech, reported to "electrify" the crowd, addressed the War in Iraq, health care, and corporations. mileybyedn ff
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    143

    Wind of Change

    The Wind of Change speech was a historically important address made by British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town. He had spent a month in Africa visiting a number of British colonies, as they were at the time. The speech signalled clearly that the Conservative-controlled British Government intended to grant independence to many of these territories, which indeed happened subsequently, with most of the British possessions in Africa becoming independent nations in the 1960s. The Labour governments of 1945–51 had started a process of decolonisation but this policy had been halted by the Conservative governments from 1951 onwards. The speech acquired its name from a now-famous quotation embedded in it. Macmillan said: The occasion was in fact the second time on which Macmillan had given this speech: he was repeating an address already made in Accra, Ghana (formerly the British colony of the Gold Coast) on 10 January 1960. This time it received press attention, at least partly because of the stony reception that greeted it. Macmillan's Cape Town speech also made it clear that Macmillan included South Africa in his comments
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    144

    I am an African

    "I am an African" is the title of a speech made by Thabo Mbeki on behalf of the African National Congress in Cape Town on 8 May 1996, on the occasion of the passing of the new Constitution of South Africa. At the time Mbeki was the vice president of South Africa under the presidency of Nelson Mandela. The speech defined the political mood of the moment in post-Apartheid South Africa and enhanced Mbeki's reputation as a political orator, in which respect he has been likened to Martin Luther King Jr..
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    145
    John Maclean's Speech From the Dock

    John Maclean's Speech From the Dock

    John Maclean, Scottish socialist agitator was a prominent activist against World War I. On 9 May 1918 he was tried for his anti-war activities at the High Court in Edinburgh. He used this trial to argue for socialism and against war by making a renowned speech. This speech from the dock has passed into folklore for the Scottish left. Lasting for over an hour, Maclean's speech began : He went on to say: His speech concluded: John Maclean was convicted and sentenced to 5 years penal servitude in Peterhead Prison.
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    149

    The Farewell Sermon

    The Farewell Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الوداع‎, Khuṭbatu l-Wadā), also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or The Last Sermon, was delivered by Muhammad on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (9 March 632) in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat. The Farewell Sermon is mentioned in almost all books of Hadith. Sahih Al-Bukhari refers to the sermon and quotes part of it. Ahmad ibn Hanbal gave the longest version of this sermon in his Musnad. Various versions of the Sermon have been published, including several English translations. The Sermon consists of a series of general exhortations for Muslims to follow the teachings that Muhammad had set forth in the Quran and Sunnah. The Prophet directed his Speech to all humankind. He used the term “O' People” seven times. He used the terminology “O' Men” once. In the farewell address, the Prophet did not use the terminology “O' Muslims” or “O' Believer. The Prophet's intention was to address all people, regardless of their religions, colors or times (his time or any time after him until the Day of Judgement). The Prophet’s message was to every person everywhere for every moment forward in time. Muhammad begins by praising and thanking God. He then
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    152
    Cross of Gold speech

    Cross of Gold speech

    The Cross of Gold speech was delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former United States congressman from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896. In the address, Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity. He decried the gold standard, concluding the speech, "you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold". Bryan's address helped catapult him to the Democratic Party's presidential nomination; it is considered one of the greatest political speeches in American history. For twenty years, Americans had been bitterly divided over the nation's monetary standard. The gold standard, which the United States had effectively been on since 1873, limited the money supply but eased trade with other nations, such as the United Kingdom, whose currency was also based on gold. However, many Americans believed bimetallism (making both gold and silver legal tender) was necessary to the nation's economic health. The financial Panic of 1893 intensified the debates, and when Democratic President Grover Cleveland continued to support the gold standard against the will of much of his party, activists became
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    156

    Self-Made Men

    Self-Made Men is a famous lecture (1895). In this speech, which was first delivered in 1859, Frederick Douglass gives his own definition of the self-made man and explains what he thinks are the means to become such a man. The concept of the self-made man is deeply rooted in the American Dream. Benjamin Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, is sometimes said to have created the concept of the self-made man. In his Autobiography, he describes his way from a poor, unknown son of a candle-maker to a very successful business man and highly acknowledged member of the American society. Franklin creates the archetype of someone coming from low origins, who, against all odds, breaks out of his inherited social position, climbs up the social ladder and creates a new identity for himself. Key factors in this rise from rags to riches are hard work and a solid moral foundation. Franklin also stresses the significance of education for self-improvement. Examples of self-made men, such as Andrew Carnegie and Douglass, are often used to justify Social Darwinism and to oppose labor movements. Douglass stresses the low origins of the self-made man, who has not inherited his
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    157
    Tear down this wall

    Tear down this wall

    "Tear down this wall!" was the challenge issued by United States President Ronald Reagan to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to destroy the Berlin Wall, in a speech at the Brandenburg Gate near the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987, commemorating the 750th anniversary of Berlin. Reagan challenged Gorbachev, who was then the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to tear it down as an emblem of Gorbachev's desire to increase freedom in the Eastern Bloc through glasnost ("transparency") and perestroika ("restructuring") . Built in 1961, the Berlin Wall became known as a symbol of communist oppression. In the 1963 "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech, U.S. President John F. Kennedy stated the support of the United States for democratic West Germany shortly after the Soviet-supported Communist state of East Germany erected the Berlin Wall as a barrier to prevent movement from East to West. President Reagan's 1987 visit was his second within five years. It came at a time of heightened East-West tensions, caused in particular by the debate over the stationing of short range American missiles in Europe and the United States' record peacetime defense buildup. Reagan was scheduled
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    161
    2008 State of the Union Address

    2008 State of the Union Address

    The 2008 State of the Union address was a speech given by United States President George W. Bush on January 28, 2008, at 9 P.M. EST to a joint session of Congress. It was the last State of the Union Address of Bush's presidency. The speech was delivered in the United States House of Representatives in the United States Capitol. Sitting behind the president were the presiding officers of the United States Senate, Vice President Dick Cheney, and the United States House of Representatives, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. The White House indicated beforehand that the President's speech would mention the following policies: In keeping with tradition of Democrats from red states giving the response, Governor of Kansas Kathleen Sebelius delivered the Democratic response from the Governor's Mansion in Topeka. It has been noted that she focused not on the usual Democratic rebuttal, but more so on the need to get past partisan politics to get the important legislation passed in a timely manner. She was picked by Democratic congressional leaders to make the response because of her ability to reach across partisan lines. Texas state Senator Leticia Van de Putte gave the Democratic response in
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    162
    Catiline Orations

    Catiline Orations

    The Catiline Orations or Catilinarian Orations were speeches given in 63 BC by Marcus Tullius Cicero, the consul of Rome, exposing to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina and his allies to overthrow the Roman government. Catiline, who was running for the consulship a second time after having lost the first time around, tried to ensure his victory by resorting to outlandish, blatant bribery. Cicero, in indignation, issued a law prohibiting machinations of this kind. It was obvious to all that the law was directed specifically at Catiline. Catiline, in turn, conspired with some of his minions to murder Cicero and the key men of the Senate on the day of the election. Cicero discovered the plan and postponed the election to give the Senate time to discuss the attempted coup d'état. The day after the election was supposed to be held, Cicero addressed the Senate on the matter and Catiline's reaction was immediate and violent. In response to Catiline's behavior, the Senate issued a senatus consultum ultimum, a kind of declaration of martial law invoked whenever the Senate and the Roman Republic were in imminent danger from treason or sedition. Ordinary law was suspended
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    163

    Divinity School Address

    The Divinity School Address is the common name for the speech Ralph Waldo Emerson gave to the graduating class of Harvard Divinity School on July 15, 1838. At the time of Emerson's speech, Harvard was the center of academic Unitarian thought. In this address, Emerson made comments that were radical for their time. Emerson enunciated many of the tenets of Transcendentalism against a more conventional Unitarian theology. He argued that moral intuition is a better guide to the moral sentiment than religious doctrine, and insisted upon the presence of true moral sentiment in each individual, while discounting the necessity of belief in the historical miracles of Jesus. Emerson's Divinity School address was influenced by his life experiences. He was an ex-Unitarian minister, having resigned from his ministry at Second Church, Boston, in 1832. Emerson had developed philosophical questions about the validity of Holy Communion, also called The Lord's Supper. He believed this ritual was not consistent with the original intentions of Jesus. It is felt that this concern was only one of many philosophical differences with Unitarian beliefs of the 1830s, but it was a concern that could be
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    164

    The Golden Speech

    The Golden Speech was delivered by Queen Elizabeth I of England to 141 Members of the Commons (including the Speaker), on November 30th, 1601. It was a speech that was expected to be addressing some pricing concerns, based on the recent economic issues facing the country. Surprisingly, she revealed that it would be her final Parliament and turned the mode of the speech to addressing the love and respect she had for the country, her position, and the Members themselves. It is the second such speech for which Queen Elizabeth I was noted, the first, the Speech to the Troops at Tilbury, having been given shortly after the defeat of the Spanish Armada by English forces. The Golden Speech has been taken to mark a symbolic end of Elizabeth's reign, one which is widely considered one of the Golden Eras of England's history. "The 'Golden' label was first coined in "a version of the speech printed near the end of the Puritan interregnum" which bore a header beginning 'This speech ought to be set in letters of gold'." "It was to be reprinted time and time again up to the eighteenth century, whenever England was in danger, as the Golden Speech of Queen Elizabeth. Several versions survive,
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    165

    What is universal history and why does one study it?

    Was heißt und zu welchem Ende studiert man Universalgeschichte? (What is universal history and why does one study it?) is the title of the German writer Friedrich Schiller's inaugural lecture at Jena on 26 May 1789. The chosen enlightenment concept of World History as "Universal history" (1736–65) arose in England and from 1744 was reworked and translated into German by Siegmund Baumgarten, triggering a discourse on universal history in Germany which involved historians, philosophers and theologians. Schiller's lecture took that discourse and August Ludwig von Schlözer's statement Weltgeschichte sei lediglich ein Aggregat von Bruchstücken (History is merely a collection of fragments) as its starting points. Its declamation, metaphor of the theatre and use of elatives (absolute superlatives) brought the audience to the boil, though his later worse-attended lectures failed to do the same.
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    168

    The Man in the Arena

    Citizenship in a Republic is the title of a speech given by the former President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt at the Sorbonne in Paris, France on April 23, 1910. One notable passage on page seven of the 35-page speech is referred to as "The Man in the Arena": It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat. Someone who is heavily involved in a situation that requires courage, skill, or tenacity (as opposed to someone sitting on the sidelines and watching), is sometimes referred
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    169

    Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears

    Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears is the first line of a famous and often-quoted speech by Mark Antony in the play Julius Caesar, by William Shakespeare. It is taken from Act III, scene II. In Antony's funeral oration, he makes an agreement with Brutus not to place blame on the conspirators. However, he manages to turn the mob against the conspirators. Antony persuades the people of Rome to follow him and Caesar instead of Brutus. Brutus is a respectable man and is himself honourable, but most importantly he has mastered the art of rhetoric. Antony states in his speech that "[Brutus] Hath told you Caesar was ambitious", and then Antony retorts with "I thrice presented him [Caesar] a kingly crown which he did thrice refuse." By doing that, Antony carefully rebuts Brutus' statement that Caesar was ambitious and starts turning the crowd against the conspirators. Throughout his speech Antony calls the conspirators honorable men. He then says, "You [the crowd] all did love him once, not without cause. What cause withholds you then to mourn for him?" This question goes against Brutus by questioning his speech when he betrayed Caesar. Now the crowd is starting to turn against
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    176
    Posen speech

    Posen speech

    The Posen speeches were two secret speeches made by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler on October 4 and 6, 1943 in the town hall of Posen (Polish: Poznań), in Nazi occupied Poland. The recordings are the first known documents in which a high-ranking member of the Nazi government spoke of the on-going extermination of the Jews in extermination camps. They demonstrate that the Nazi government wanted, planned and carried out the Holocaust. The Posen speeches of October 1943 are two of 132 speeches obtained in various forms, which Himmler conducted before officials of the Nazi party. The first speech was given before 92 SS officers, the second before Reichsleiters and Gauleiters, as well as other government representatives. They constitute some of the most important of Himmler's speeches during the war, as they demonstrate Himmler's role as "Architect of the Final Solution" and a visionary of an elite race to be henceforth supported by the SS state. Although the genocide of the Jews was not the central topic in either of them, both carry historical significance in reference to it. Himmler did away with the usual camouflage terms and spoke explicitly of the extermination of the Jews via
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    177
    Rivers of Blood speech

    Rivers of Blood speech

    Enoch Powell's April 20, 1968 address to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre (commonly called "Rivers of Blood" speech) was a speech criticising Commonwealth immigration, as well as proposed anti-discrimination legislation in the United Kingdom made on 20 April 1968 by Enoch Powell (1912–1998), the Conservative Member of Parliament for Wolverhampton South West. Though Powell referred to the speech as "the Birmingham speech", it is otherwise known as the "Rivers of Blood" speech, a title derived from its allusion to a line from Virgil's Aeneid. Although the phrase "rivers of blood" does not appear in the speech, it does include the line, "As I look ahead, I am filled with foreboding; like the Roman, I seem to see 'the River Tiber foaming with much blood.'" The speech caused a political storm, making Powell one of the most talked about, though divisive, politicians in the country, and leading to his dismissal from the Shadow Cabinet by Conservative party leader Edward Heath. According to most accounts, the popularity of Powell's perspective on race may have played a decisive contributory factor in the Conservatives' surprise victory in the 1970
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    178
    Brave Little State of Vermont speech

    Brave Little State of Vermont speech

    The Brave Little State of Vermont speech is a name given to remarks delivered by Vermont native and U.S. President Calvin Coolidge at Bennington on September 21, 1928. Coolidge was touring his home state by train to assess progress of recovery following the devastating 1927 flood. Considered taciturn and nicknamed "Silent Cal," Coolidge demonstrated unusual emotion in delivering his extemporaneous response to the human suffering and loss he had witnessed. Text of Coolidge's remarks follow: My fellow Vermonters: For two days we have been traveling through this state. We have been up the East side, across and down the West side. We have seen Brattleboro, Bellows Falls, Windsor, White River Junction and Bethel. We have looked toward Montpelier. We have visited Burlington and Middlebury. Returning we have seen Rutland. I have had an opportunity of visiting again the scenes of my childhood. I want to express to you, and through the press to the other cities of Vermont, my sincere appreciation for the general hospitality bestowed upon me and my associates on the occasion of this journey. It is gratifying to note the splendid recovery from the great catastrophe which overtook the state
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    179

    Sportpalast speech

    The Sportpalast speech (German: Sportpalastrede, Sports-Palace speech) or total war speech was a speech delivered by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully selected audience on 18 February 1943 calling for a total war, as the tide of World War II had turned against Nazi Germany and its Axis allies. It is considered the most famous of Joseph Goebbels's speeches. The speech was the first public admission by the Nazi leadership that Germany faced serious dangers. Goebbels exhorted the German people to continue the war even though it would be long and difficult because he asserted that both Germany's survival and the survival of a non-Bolshevist Europe were at stake. Compared to the previous year, 1943 started with Germany suffering major military problems on all fronts. On 2 February the Battle of Stalingrad ended with the surrender of Field Marshal Paulus and the German 6th Army to the Soviets. At the Casablanca Conference, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill demanded Germany's unconditional surrender, and the Soviets, spurred by their victory, were beginning to retake territory, including Kursk (8 February), Rostov (14
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    180

    A More Perfect Union

    "A More Perfect Union" is the name of a speech delivered by Senator Barack Obama on March 18, 2008 in the course of the contest for the 2008 Democratic Party presidential nomination. Speaking before an audience at the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Obama was responding to a spike in the attention paid to controversial remarks made by the Reverend Jeremiah Wright, his former pastor and, until shortly before the speech, a participant in his campaign. Obama framed his response in terms of the broader issue of race in the United States. The speech's title was taken from the Preamble to the United States Constitution. Obama addressed the subjects of racial tensions, white privilege, and race and inequality in the United States, discussing black "anger," white "resentment," and other issues as he sought to explain and contextualize Wright's controversial comments. His speech closed with a plea to move beyond America's "racial stalemate" and address shared social problems. On March 27, 2008, the Pew Research Center called the speech "arguably the biggest political event of the campaign so far," noting that 85 percent of Americans said they had heard at least a
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    183
    Pro Caecina

    Pro Caecina

    The Pro Aulo Caecina (Pro Caecina) is a speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of his friend Aulus Caecina. The speech is dated 69 BC.
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    188
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    191

    The light on the hill

    "The light on the hill" is a phrase used to describe the objective of the Australian Labor Party. The phrase was coined in a 1949 conference speech by then Prime Minister Ben Chifley. The speech, delivered near the end of Chifley's term as Prime Minister, pays tribute to the people who make up Australia's labour movement and, lacking specific policy detail, has resonance for every strand of opinion within the party. "I have had the privilege of leading the Labor Party for nearly four years. They have not been easy times and it has not been an easy job. It is a man-killing job and would be impossible if it were not for the help of my colleagues and members of the movement. No Labor Minister or leader ever has an easy job. The urgency that rests behind the Labor movement, pushing it on to do things, to create new conditions, to reorganise the economy of the country, always means that the people who work within the Labor movement, people who lead, can never have an easy job. The job of the evangelist is never easy. Because of the turn of fortune's wheel your Premier (Mr McGirr) and I have gained some prominence in the Labor movement. But the strength of the movement cannot come from
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    193
    Checkers speech

    Checkers speech

    The Checkers speech or Fund speech was an address made on September 23, 1952 by the Republican vice presidential candidate, California Senator Richard Nixon. Senator Nixon had been accused of improprieties relating to a fund established by his backers to reimburse him for his political expenses. With his place on the Republican ticket in doubt, he flew to Los Angeles and delivered a half-hour television address in which he defended himself, attacked his opponents, and urged the audience to contact the Republican National Committee (RNC) to tell it whether he should remain on the ticket. During the speech, he stated that regardless of what anyone said, he intended to keep one gift: a black-and-white dog who had been named Checkers by the Nixon children, thus giving the address its popular name. Nixon, as he related in his address, came from a family of moderate means, and had spent much of his time after law school either in the military, campaigning for office, or serving in Congress. After his successful 1950 Senate campaign, Nixon's backers continued to raise money to finance his political activities. These contributions went to reimburse him for travel costs, postage for
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    194

    Human rights in Islam

    Human rights in Islam is the name of a speech delivered at the inaugural of the 5th Islamic Thought Conference by Ali Khamenei in late January, 1987. It has also been published in the form of a booklet. Human rights in a key topic in Khamenei's speeches and he has spoken about the issue in innumerable other speeches. Khamenei believes the concerns with human rights since the Renaissance and campaigns of later humanists are very belated. He also touches on the ineffectiveness of the United Nations in remedying the human rights violations around the world. In spite of this, he doesn't reject the United Nations and unequivocally supports it. He only proposes ways of remedying the problems through reforms. He advocates reliance on the verses from the Quran and clauses from the recorded Sunnah to rectify the matter. According to Khamenei, the ideal sources to deal with the issue of human rights are the Quran and hadith. He does not point the specific "verses of the Quran" and clauses of the hadith, and repeatedly reiterates that "this does not need any elaboration" and "there is no need for the scholars to be reminded about this fact." In addition to the Quran and Sunnah be believes
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    195

    John Paul II's speech at Israel's Holocaust Memorial

    The words of the ancient Psalm, rise from our hearts: "I have become like a broken vessel. I hear the whispering of many - terror on every side - as they scheme together against me, as they plot to take my life. But I trust in you, O Lord: I say, 'you are my God."' In this place of memories, the mind and heart and soul feel an extreme need for silence. Silence in which to remember. Silence in which to try to make some sense of the memories which come flooding back. Silence because there are no words strong enough to deplore the terrible tragedy of the Shoah. My own personal memories are of all that happened when the Nazis occupied Poland during the war. I remember my Jewish friends and neighbours, some of whom perished, while others survived. I have come to Yad Vashem to pay homage to the millions of Jewish people who, stripped of everything, especially of human dignity, were murdered in the Holocaust. More than half a century has passed, but the memories remain. Here, as at Auschwitz and many other places in Europe, we are overcome by the echo of the heart-rending laments of so many. Men, women and children, cry out to us from the depths of the horror that they knew. How can we
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    197
    Pro Caelio

    Pro Caelio

    Marcus Tullius Cicero gave the speech, Pro Caelio, on April 4, 56 BC, in defense of Marcus Caelius Rufus. It is unknown why Cicero agreed to defend Caelius, who had once been his student, but more recently a political enemy, though various theories have been postulated. Caelius was charged with vis (political violence), one of the most serious crimes in Republican Rome. Caelius’ prosecuters, Lucius Sempronius Atratinus, Publius Clodius Pulcher, and Lucius Herennius Balbus, charged him with the following: Other than Cicero, Caelius also asked M. Licinius Crassus to defend him during the trial. Magistrate Gnaeus Domitius presided over the trial. The Pro Caelio is regarded one of the best examples of Roman oratory known, and has been so regarded throughout history. It is noteworthy as a prime example of Ciceronian oratorical technique. Marcus Caelius Rufus was born in 88 or 87 BC, at Interamnia in Picenum, where his father was categorized as a member of the eques (knight) class, a wealthy middle-class placed just below the patrician upper class. From 73 to 63 BC, Caelius served a political apprenticeship under Crassus and Cicero. Throughout this apprenticeship, he became familiar with
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    198

    Robert F. Kennedy's speech on the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Robert F. Kennedy's speech on the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. was given on April 4, 1968, in Indianapolis, Indiana. Kennedy, the United States senator from New York, was campaigning to earn the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination when he learned of King's assassination in Memphis, Tennessee. Earlier that day Kennedy had spoken at the University of Notre Dame in South Bend and at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. Before boarding a plane to attend campaign rallies in Indianapolis, Kennedy learned that King had been shot. When he arrived, Kennedy was informed that King had died. Despite fears of riots and concerns for his safety, Kennedy went ahead with plans to attend a rally at 17th and Broadway in the heart of Indianapolis's African-American ghetto. That evening Kennedy addressed the crowd, many of whom had not heard about King's assassination. Instead of the rousing campaign speech they expected, Kennedy offered brief, impassioned remarks for peace that is considered to be one of the great public addresses of the modern era. During his speeches at Notre Dame and Ball State, Kennedy focused on domestic issues, the Vietnam War, and racism. At Notre Dame's
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    199

    The Ireland That We Dreamed Of

    "The Ireland That We Dreamed Of" is the title commonly given to the St. Patrick's Day speech made by Taoiseach of Ireland Éamon de Valera on Raidió Éireann on March 17, 1943. That year marked the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge), a group promoting the Irish culture and Irish language, and in recognition of this anniversary, de Valera set out his vision of an ideal Ireland: At the time this speech was made, the Second World War was raging and the threat of German invasion (Operation Green) or British re-occupation (Plan W) was very real. The speech in recent years has been seen as archetypal of de Valera's backward-looking, traditionalist view of an isolationist, agricultural land controlled by the Roman Catholic Church where women held a subservient role. It is often misquoted as referring to "comely maidens dancing at the crossroads"; the term "happy maidens" appears, but no mention is made of dances at crossroads (a rural tradition in premodern Ireland).
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    This was their finest hour

    The This was their finest hour speech was delivered by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 18 June 1940. It was given just over a month after he took over as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the head of an all-party Coalition government. It was the third of three speeches which he gave during (roughly) the period of the Battle of France. He justified the low level of support it had been possible to give to France since Dunkirk, and reported the successful evacuation of most of the supporting forces. He resisted pressure to purge the coalition of appeasers, or otherwise indulge in recrimination. He reviewed the forces still available to prevent or repel any attempted invasion, summing up the review as follows I have thought it right upon this occasion to give the House and the country some indication of the solid, practical grounds upon which we base our inflexible resolve to continue the war, and I can assure them that our professional advisers of the three Services unitedly advise that we should do so, and that there are good and reasonable hopes of final victory He reported messages of support from the Dominions and
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    Le bruit et l'odeur

    "Le Bruit et l'odeur" (French pronunciation: [lə.bʁɥi.e.lɔ'dœʁ]) refers to a speech given in 1991 by Jacques Chirac, the mayor of Paris who later became French president; it translates as "noise and smell." This is an excerpt from the speech: Comment voulez-vous que le travailleur français qui travaille avec sa femme et qui ensemble gagnent environ 15 000 FF et qui voit sur le palier à côté de son HLM, entassée, une famille avec un père de famille, trois ou quatre épouses et une vingtaine de gosses et qui gagne 50 000FF de prestations sociales sans naturellement travailler... Si vous ajoutez à cela le bruit et l'odeur, eh bien le travailleur français sur le palier, il devient fou. Et ce n'est pas être raciste que de dire cela. Nous n'avons plus les moyens d'honorer le regroupement familial et il faut enfin ouvrir le débat qui s'impose dans notre pays qui est un vrai débat moral pour savoir si il est naturel que les étrangers puissent bénéficier au même titre que les Français d'une solidarité nationale à laquelle ils ne participent pas puisqu'ils ne payent pas d'impôts. In this speech, Chirac contrasts the situation of older generations of immigrants (coming from Italy, Spain,
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    Ahiara Declaration

    The Ahiara Declaration: The Principles of the Biafran Revolution, commonly known as the Ahiara Declaration, was a document written by the National Guidance Committee of Biafra and delivered as a speech by Biafran Head of State of Biafra Emeka Ojukwu in the Biafra town of Ahiara on June 1, 1969. After a series of pogroms in which people from the former Eastern Region of Nigeria living in other parts of that country were massacred between 1966 and 1967, the region seceded in 1967 and proclaimed an independent Republic of Biafra. A bitter war ensued as Nigeria fought to foil the secession of the oil-rich region. After three years of war and the loss of more than two million lives, the nascent republic lost its struggle for independence and was reabsorbed into Nigeria in January 1970. The leader of the republic, Oxford-trained General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, went into exile, but later returned to Nigeria in 1983 under special pardon. In 1969 Biafra adopted one of the most progressive national constitutions in Africa at the time. The Constitution or "Principles" drew heavily from traditional communal modes of governance but was also informed by progressive political developments in
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    Bursting at the seams

    Bursting at the seams was a set of audio lectures given by Jeffrey Sachs in 2007, in honour of the first Director-General of the BBC, John Reith.
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    204

    Cornerstone Speech

    The Cornerstone Speech, also known as the Cornerstone Address, was delivered extemporaneously by Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens in Savannah, Georgia on March 21, 1861. The speech explained what the differences were between the constitution of the Confederate Republic and that of the United States, laid out the Confederate causes for the American Civil War, and defended slavery. The 'Cornerstone Speech' became so known for Stephens' asserting, Our new Government is founded upon exactly the opposite ideas; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition. The speech was given weeks after the secession of South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and then Texas and less than three weeks after the inauguration of U.S. President Lincoln. Hostilities between the two sides had not yet begun. Stephens' March 1861 speech declared that African slavery was the "immediate cause" of secession, and that the Confederate Constitution had put to rest the "agitating questions" as to the "proper status of the
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    207

    Never was so much owed by so many to so few

    Never was so much owed by so many to so few was a wartime speech made by the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on 20 August 1940. The name stems from the specific line in the speech, Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few, referring to the ongoing efforts of the Royal Air Force pilots who were at the time fighting the Battle of Britain, the pivotal air battle with the German Luftwaffe with Britain expecting a German invasion. The speech also refers to the aerial bombing campaign by RAF Bomber Command, although the speech is usually taken to only refer to Fighter Command. With the Battle of Britain won a few months later and German plans postponed, the Allied airmen of the battle ultimately became known as "The Few". Churchill first used his famous words upon his exit from the Battle of Britain Bunker at RAF Uxbridge on August 16 when visiting the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room during a day of battle. Afterwards, Churchill told Major General Hastings Ismay ‘Don’t speak to me, I have never been so moved’. After several minutes of silence he said ‘Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few.’ The sentence
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    Patton's Speech to the Third Army

    Patton's Speech to the Third Army

    Patton's Speech to the Third Army was a speech given by General George S. Patton to troops of the U.S. Third Army on June 5, 1944, the day before D-day. Patton delivered variations of the speech on several different occasions to his troops, although the June 5 date is the most well known. A hard copy of the speech exists. It has since become immortalized in George C. Scott's rendition in the movie Patton, where he delivers it in front of a large American flag. Patton's actual words were so colorful that the movie edited and toned down the language, e.g. substituting "fornicating" for "fucking". Certain phrases from the speech were also used in Scott's dialogue later on in the film. Patton's speech was largely designed to motivate U.S. troops that were to be under fire. There had been much talk about superior German firepower, and the level of fear and doubt was so great in the armed forces that the U.S. Army even resorted to making propaganda films claiming that the infamous German machinegun, the MG-42, had a bark louder than its bite. The Army did not want US soldiers to get pinned down, and knew that their forces would have to be motivated as they were to be charging German
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    211

    City upon a Hill

    A City upon a Hill is a phrase from the parable of Salt and Light in Jesus' Sermon on the Mount. In Matthew 5:14, he tells his listeners, "You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden." It has become popular with American politicians. The phrase entered the American lexicon early in its history, in the Puritan John Winthrop's 1630 sermon "A Model of Christian Charity". Still aboard the ship Arbella, Winthrop admonished the future Massachusetts Bay colonists that their new community would be a "city upon a hill", watched by the world---which became the ideal the New England colonists placed upon their hilly capital city, Boston. Winthrop's sermon gave rise to the widespread belief in American folklore that the United States of America is God's country because metaphorically it is a Shining City upon a Hill, an early example of American exceptionalism. In the twentieth century, the image was used a number of times in American politics. On 9 January 1961, President-Elect John F. Kennedy returned the phrase to prominence during an address delivered to the General Court of Massachusetts: President Ronald Reagan used the image as well, in his 1984
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    Sermon on the Mount

    Sermon on the Mount

    The Sermon on the Mount (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Sermo in monte) is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew (chapters 5, 6 and 7). It is the first of the Five Discourses of Matthew and takes place relatively early in the Ministry of Jesus after he has been baptized by John the Baptist and preached in Galilee. The Sermon is the longest piece of teaching from Jesus in the New Testament, and has been one of the most widely quoted elements of the Canonical Gospels. It includes some of the best known teachings of Jesus such as the Beatitudes, and the widely recited Lord's Prayer. To most believers in Jesus, the Sermon on the Mount contains the central tenets of Christian discipleship. The last verse of chapter 5 is considered to be a focal point that summarizes the teaching of the sermon: "be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect", advising the disciples or students to seek the path towards perfection and the Kingdom of God. The Sermon on the Mount is the longest piece of teaching from Jesus in the New Testament, and occupies chapters 5, 6 and 7 of the Gospel of Matthew.
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    William Lynch Speech

    The William Lynch speech is an address purportedly delivered by William Lynch (or Willie Lynch) to an audience on the bank of the James River in Virginia in 1712 regarding control of slaves within the colony. The letter purports to be a verbatim account of a short speech given by a slave owner, in which he tells other slave masters that he has discovered the "secret" to controlling black slaves by setting them against one another. The document has been in print since at least 1970, but first gained widespread notice in the 1990s, when it appeared on the Internet. Since then, it has often been promoted as an authentic account of slavery during the 18th century, though its inaccuracies and anachronisms have led historians to conclude that it is a hoax. The reputed narrator, William Lynch, identifies himself as the master of a "modest plantation" in the British West Indies who has been summoned to the Virginia Colony by local slaveowners to advise them on problems they have been having in managing their slaves. He briefly notes that their current violent method of handling unruly slaves – lynching, though the term is not used – is inefficient and counterproductive. Instead, he
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    Barack Obama Speech to the Muslim World: A New Beginning

    Barack Obama Speech to the Muslim World: A New Beginning

    "A New Beginning" is the name of a speech delivered by United States President Barack Obama on 4 June 2009, from the Major Reception Hall at Cairo University in Egypt. Al-Azhar University co-hosted the event. The speech honors a promise Obama made during his presidential campaign to give a major address to Muslims from a Muslim capital during his first few months as president. White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs indicated that Egypt was chosen because "it is a country that in many ways represents the heart of the Arab world." Egypt is considered a key player in the Middle East peace process as well as a major recipient of American military and economic aid. Reuters reporter Ross Colvin reported that the speech would attempt to mend the United States' relations with the Muslim world, which he wrote were "severely damaged" during the presidency of George W. Bush. There was initially some speculation about the speech. Some thought Obama would unveil in detail his highly anticipated plans for future Middle East policy. In April and May 2009, the U.S. President had met in succession King Abdullah II of Jordan, Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu and President of the
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    217

    Chocolate City speech

    The Chocolate City speech is the nickname that some people have given to the Martin Luther King, Jr. Day speech by Ray Nagin, Mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana, on January 16, 2006. The speech concerned race politics in New Orleans several months after Hurricane Katrina destroyed much of the city. The reference is to the occurrence of the phrase chocolate city in Nagin's speech, which was one of several points in the speech which occasioned significant controversy. In African American culture, the term chocolate city refers to a positive, harmonious image of a city with a predominantly African American population and/or African American political leadership. The concept originated with radio DJs in Washington D.C. in the early 1970s and was popularized by the band Parliament, who released the album Chocolate City in 1975. The term has been widely used, including by prominent scholar Cornel West in his 1993 book Race Matters and by comedian Chris Rock. In an interview with Public Radio International's Tavis Smiley (originally broadcast on January 13, 2006) Nagin used the phrase "chocolate city" in reference to New Orleans' future demographics, a term that would become troublesome for
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    219

    George Wallace's 1963 Inaugural Address

    George Wallace's 1963 Inaugural Address was delivered January 14, 1963, following his election as Governor of Alabama. Wallace at this time in his career was an ardent segregationist, and as Governor he challenged the attempts of the federal government to enforce laws prohibiting segregation in Alabama's public schools and other institutions. The speech is most famous for the phrase "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" which became a rallying cry for those opposed to integration and the Civil Rights Movement. Wallace would later in life apologize for his unabashed racism and segregationist policies. Prior to his first campaign for governor in 1958, George Wallace served as a member of the Alabama House of Representatives and later as judge in the Third Judicial Circuit Court. During this time Wallace was known as a moderate on racial issues, and was associated with the progressive, liberal faction of Alabama politics. During the 1958 gubernatorial campaign Wallace spoke out against the Ku Klux Klan, and although he endorsed segregation his centrist views won him the support of the NAACP. In contrast, his opponent John Patterson accepted the endorsement of
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    Give me liberty or give me death

    Give me liberty or give me death

    "Give me Liberty, or Give me Death!" is a quotation attributed to Patrick Henry from a speech he made to the Virginia Convention. It was given on March 23, 1775, at St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia, and is credited with having swung the balance in convincing the Virginia House of Burgesses to pass a resolution delivering the Virginia troops to the Revolutionary War. Among the delegates to the convention were future US Presidents Thomas Jefferson and George Washington. Reportedly, those in attendance, upon hearing the speech, shouted, "give me liberty or give me death!" The text of this speech first appeared in print in Life and Character of Patrick Henry by William Wirt which was first published in 1816, seventeen years after Patrick Henry's death. In 1815, Wirt wrote to a friend, "from 1763 to 1789... not one of his speeches lives in print, writing or memory. All that is told me is, that on such and such an occasion, he made a distinguished speech". Wirt corresponded with men who had heard the speech and others who were acquainted with people who were there at the time. Wirt wrote to Judge St. George Tucker, who had been present for the speech, that "I have taken almost
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    Richard Nixon's resignation speech

    The resignation speech of Richard Nixon, which announced an early end to his United States presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal, was delivered on August 8, 1974, at 9:01 p.m. Eastern Time from the Oval Office of the White House. It was carried live on radio and television. The core of the speech was Nixon's announcement that Gerald Ford, as Vice President, would succeed to the presidency, effective at noon Eastern Time on the next day. Around this announcement, he discussed his feelings about his presidential work and general political issues that needed attention once he left.
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    Tenterfield Oration

    The Tenterfield Oration was a speech given by Sir Henry Parkes at the Tenterfield School of Arts, New South Wales, Australia on 24 October 1889 asking for the Federation of the seven Australian colonies, which were at the time self-governed but under the distant central authority of the British Colonial Secretary. The town of Tenterfield suffered from the disunited administration of the States, as it was distant from the New South Wales state capital of Sydney and rather closer to commercial centres across the border in Queensland. Border importation tariffs were imposed by Queensland at this time and people in neighbouring districts were strongly in favour of free trade. The primary reason Parkes gave for Federation in the Tenterfield Oration was the united defence of the Australian continent. The Tenterfield speech was given by sir Henry Parkes
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    Pro Archia Poeta

    Pro Archia Poeta is Marcus Tullius Cicero's oration in the defense of Aulus Licinius Archias, a poet accused of not being a Roman citizen. This accusation is believed to have been a political move against Lucullus through Archias. The poet was originally Greek but had been living in Rome for an extended period of time. A letter from Cicero to Atticus in the year following the trial makes mention of Archias, but there is no conclusive evidence about the outcome of the trial. Licinius Archias was born in Antioch around 120 BC and arrived in Rome in 102 BC. It was here that he earned a living as a poet and gained the patronage of the Roman general and politician L. Lucullus. Archias wrote poems of the general's military exploits, and in 93 BC, Lucullus helped him gain citizenship of the municipium of Heraclea. Thereafter, Archias was set up with a permanent residence in Rome in preparation for achieving full Roman citizenship. It was in Rome where Archias became a mentor and teacher of Cicero in his early education in rhetoric. Archias had become eligible for Roman citizenship under the Lex Iulia de Civitate Latinis, passed in 90 BC, and the Lex Plautia Papiria de Civitate Sociis
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    The forgotten people

    The forgotten people

    "The Forgotten People" is the name given to a 1942 speech delivered by Robert Menzies, an Australian politician who went on to become the longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia. The speech, delivered on 22 May 1942, defines and exalts Australia's middle class, which Menzies termed "the forgotten people". Menzies used the speech to outline the values and constituency that would form the basis of the Liberal Party of Australia. Menzies had previously served as Prime Minister as leader of the United Australia Party from 1939-1941. From 1942 onward, Menzies had maintained his public profile with his series of “Forgotten People” radio talks, similar to Franklin Roosevelt’s “fireside chats” of the 1930s, in which he spoke of the middle class as the "backbone of Australia" but as nevertheless having been "taken for granted" by political parties and of being effectively powerless because of lack of wealth on the one hand, and lack of organisation on the other. Contemporary Australian politicians continue to invoke Menzies' sentiments. Labor leader Kevin Rudd made reference to the phrase and to Menzies in the lead-up to the 2007 federal election for a perceived current generation of
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    1997 State of the Union Address

    1997 State of the Union Address

    The 1997 State of the Union address was given by President Bill Clinton to a joint session of the 105th United States Congress on February 4, 1997. The speech was the first State of the Union address of President Clinton's second term. President Clinton discussed numerous topics in the address, including the environment, the International Space Station, welfare, crime and relations with NATO and China. The president also focused on a "detailed plan to balance the budget by 2002". The Republican Party response was delivered by Oklahoma congressman J. C. Watts in front of high school students sponsored by the Close Up Foundation. Dan Glickman, the Secretary of Agriculture, served as the designated survivor. The speech was broadcast live on television and radio and lasted 1:04:21 and consisted of 6,774 words. This was the first State of the Union Address carried live on the Internet.
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    Acres of Diamonds

    "Acres of Diamonds" is the main work of Russell H. Conwell, founder of the Temple University in Philadelphia. This work originated as a speech, which Conwell delivered over 6,000 times around the world; it was eventually published as delivered in Conwell's home town, Philadelphia. The central idea of the work is that one need not look elsewhere for opportunity, achievement, or fortune--the resources to achieve all good things are present in your own community. This theme is developed by an introductory anecdote, told to Conwell by an Arab guide, about a man who wanted to find diamonds so badly that he sold his property and went off in futile search for them; the new owner of his home discovered that a rich diamond mine was located right there on the property. Conwell elaborates on the theme through examples of success, genius, service, or other virtues involving ordinary Americans contemporary to his audience: "dig in your own back-yard!". Conwell's capacity to establish Temple University and his other civic projects largely derived from the income that he earned from this speech.
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    Blood, toil, tears, and sweat

    The phrase blood, toil, tears and sweat became famous in a speech given by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 13 May 1940. It was Churchill's first speech to the House after taking over as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the first year of World War II, having replaced Neville Chamberlain on 10 May, and the first of three speeches which he gave during the period of the Battle of France. Churchill had used similar phrases earlier, as "Their sweat, their tears, their blood" in 1931 and "new structures of national life erected upon blood, sweat, and tears". Churchill's phrase has been called a paraphrase of one uttered on 2 July 1849 by Giuseppe Garibaldi when rallying his revolutionary forces in Rome: "I offer hunger, thirst, forced marches, battle, and death." As a young man, Churchill had considered writing a biography of Garibaldi. Theodore Roosevelt uttered a phrase more similar to Churchill's in an address to the Naval War College on June 2, 1897, following his appointment as Assistant Secretary of the Navy: "Every man among us is more fit to meet the duties and responsibilities of citizenship because of the perils over
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    Funeral Oration

    Funeral Oration is a speech by Lysias, one of the "Canon of Ten" Attic orators (Speech 2 in Lamb's translation).
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    Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address

    The Gettysburg Address is a speech by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, considered one of the most well known in American history. It was delivered by Lincoln during the American Civil War, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg. Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. In just over two minutes, Lincoln reiterated the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union sundered by the secession crisis, with "a new birth of freedom," that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, ensuring that democracy would remain a viable form of government and creating a nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant. Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago," referring to the Declaration of Independence during the American Revolution in 1776,
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    239
    History Will Absolve Me

    History Will Absolve Me

    "History Will Absolve Me" (Spanish:"La historia me absolverá") is the concluding sentence and subsequent title of a four-hour speech made by Fidel Castro on 16 October 1953. Castro made the speech in his own defense in court against the charges brought against him after leading an attack on the Moncada Barracks. Though no record of Castro's words was kept, he reconstructed them later for publication in what was to become the manifesto of his 26th of July Movement. Though sentenced to terms of up to 15 years for their roles in the Moncada attack, all of the rebels were released after an amnesty granted by Fulgencio Batista in 1955. Castro relocated to Mexico, before returning to Cuba on the Granma yacht in December 1956. Castro made his first court appearance on 21 September 1953 in Santiago, where he defended around 100 other defendants arrested after the Moncada attack. Castro, a qualified lawyer, took on their defense, basing his case on the illegality of the Batista regime and the inherent right of the citizen to rebel against what he perceived to be an illegal government. When asked who was responsible for the attack, Castro replied that "the intellectual author of this
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    Nutuk

    Nutuk

    Nutuk (Modern Turkish: Söylev) was a speech delivered by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk from 15 to 20 October 1927, addressed to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The speech covered the events between the start of the Turkish War of Independence on May 19, 1919 and the foundation of the Republic of Turkey, in 1923. It is an important source for the study of Kemalism. It took thirty-six hours (on a 6 day span) to be read by Atatürk. About two-thirds of this speech consists of a series of heavy criticism against the following individuals:
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    On Protracted War

    On Protracted War (simplified Chinese: 论持久战; traditional Chinese: 論持久戰) is a work comprising a series of speeches by Mao Zedong given from May 26 to June 3, 1938, at the Yenan Association for the Study of the War of Resistance Against Japan. In it, he calls for a protracted people's war as a means for small revolutionary groups to fight the power of the state. The book calls for small assaults on Japanese supply lines instead of large confrontations on the battlefield. The book was highly criticised by the Nationalist Party - it considered the book, along with Mao's theory, an excuse for avoiding fighting against Japan. The Communist Party justified that the book did not deny the effectiveness of the big battles carried out by the Nationalists, it just provided an alternative means of resistance before the Chinese army became powerful. Once the Chinese army became powerful enough, the Communist Party explained, the guerrilla warfare aspect of the strategy should be deemphasized, and conventional forces should take over the primary prosecution of the war.
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    Pro Tullio

    Pro Tullio (Latin for "On behalf of Tullius") is a partially preserved speech delivered by the Roman orator Cicero in 72 or 71 BC. The speech was made on behalf of Cicero's client, Marcus Tullius, who claimed legal damages from his neighbor, Publius Fabius, on the basis that Fabius had murdered several of Tullius' slaves in a property dispute.
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    Science as a Vocation

    Science as a Vocation (Wissenschaft als Beruf) is the text of a lecture given in 1918 at Munich University by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist. The original version was published in German, but various translations to English exist. In Science as a Vocation Weber discusses the benefits and detriments of choosing a graduate career in the sciences. He probes the question "what is the value of science", noting that ethics themselves are not subject to scientific examination. Science, to Weber, gives methods of explanation and means of justifying a position, but it cannot explain why that position is worth holding in the first place; this is the task of philosophy. No science is free from suppositions, and the value of a science is lost when its suppositions are rejected. He reasons that science can never answer the fundamental questions of life, such as directing people on how to live their lives and what to value. Value he contends can only be derived from personal beliefs such as religion. He further argues for the separation of reason and faith, noting that each has its place in respective field but if crossed over cannot work. Weber also separates fact from value in
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    Speeches of Weber

    Max Weber influenced on German society and politics in the late 1910s. Some of his speeches and articles made a big impression on his listeners. Chancellor von Bethmann Holweg founded the German National Committee to give the opposition to large scale annexation a voice. Right-wing groups were pushing the government to demand large conquests for Germany and a total defeat of the allies. They wanted no compromises towards the allies. Weber became a member of this Committee, which was powerless from the beginning, because the war goals were not discussable for this Committee. Weber broke the rule during his first speech in Nuremberg. He told his listeners that he was not a member of the Committee. He wanted the German politics to do what is just. The war shouldn't take an hour too long, because many people are suffering in the trenches. Weber openly declared to be against the unrestrained submarine war. Three lessons could be learned from the war. First is that money was a main reason why the war came into being. Secondly, industry and capitalists were very important for the war efforts. Thirdly, the state is more important than the nation, because the state rules over the life and
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    The bomber will always get through

    The bomber will always get through

    The bomber will always get through was a phrase used by Stanley Baldwin in 1932, in the speech "A Fear for the Future" to the British Parliament. The argument was that, regardless of air defences, sufficient bomber aircraft will survive to destroy cities. Baldwin did not advocate total disarmament but believed that "great armaments lead inevitably to war". However he came to believe that, as he put it on 9 November 1932: "the time has now come to an end when Great Britain can proceed with unilateral disarmament". On 10 November 1932 Baldwin said: I think it is well also for the man in the street to realise that there is no power on earth that can protect him from being bombed. Whatever people may tell him, the bomber will always get through, The only defence is in offence, which means that you have to kill more women and children more quickly than the enemy if you want to save yourselves...If the conscience of the young men should ever come to feel, with regard to this one instrument [bombing] that it is evil and should go, the thing will be done; but if they do not feel like that – well, as I say, the future is in their hands. But when the next war comes, and European civilisation
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    There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom

    There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom is a lecture given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. Feynman considered the possibility of direct manipulation of individual atoms as a more powerful form of synthetic chemistry than those used at the time. The talk is considered to be a seminal event in the history of nanotechnology, as it inspired the conceptual beginnings of the field decades later. Feynman considered a number of interesting ramifications of a general ability to manipulate matter on an atomic scale. He was particularly interested in the possibilities of denser computer circuitry, and microscopes which could see things much smaller than is possible with scanning electron microscopes. These ideas were later realized by the use of the scanning tunneling microscope, the atomic force microscope and other examples of probe microscopy and storage systems such as Millipede, created by researchers at IBM. Feynman also suggested that it should be possible, in principle, to make nanoscale machines that "arrange the atoms the way we want", and do chemical synthesis by mechanical manipulation. He also presented the "weird
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