The political party type is used for any organized political group that primarily aims for the attainment of political power and public office for its designated members. This type includes both active and inactive political parties.
Note: This type also has a property for "country"; this is important to fill in because there are many parties with the same or similar names operating in different countries.
For more information, please see the Freebase wiki page on Political party.
More about Best Political party of All Time:
Best Political party of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Political party of All Time top list are added by the rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Political party of All Time has gotten 1.494 views and has gathered 621 votes from 621 voters. O O
Best Political party of All Time is a top list in the Politics category on rankly.com. Are you a fan of Politics or Best Political party of All Time? Explore more top 100 lists about Politics on rankly.com or participate in ranking the stuff already on the all time Best Political party of All Time top list below.
If you're not a member of rankly.com, you should consider becoming one. Registration is fast, free and easy. At rankly.com, we aim to give you the best of everything - including stuff like the Best Political party of All Time list.
Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:
The National Democratic Party (Macedonian: Национална демократска партија; Nacionalna Demokratska Partija) is a political party of ethnic Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia.
At the parliamentary elections, 15 September 2002, the party won 1 out of 120 seats. The party's only MP was the party's vice president Xhezair Shaqiri, AKA "Commander Hoxha" of the former "National Liberation Army" (NLA). Basri Haliti is the current party president, after most of the party leadership, including the then president Kastriot Haxhirexha, joined the Democratic Union for Integration (DUI) in 2003.
The Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura (PKMS, or Singapore Malay National Organisation; Jawi script: ڤرتوبوهن كبڠسأن ملايو سيڠاڤورا; Chinese: 新加坡马来民族机构) is a political party in Singapore. The party recently concluded their 21st BGM on 5 February 2012. The elected President is Mr Abu Mohamed, Deputy President Mr Ismail Yacoob, Vice President I Mr Raja Muhammad Khalid, Vice President II Mr Abdul Mutalib Bin Ithnin while the party's Secretary General is Mr M. Abdul Jamal Bin Abdul Rashid.
The origins of Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura (PKMS) were rooted in the Singapore Malay Union (KMS) which was founded in 1926 by Mohamed Eunos bin Abdullah to represent Malay interests. Following the Second World War, the KMS opposed the proposed Malayan Union and merged into the United Malay National Organization (UMNO), which would become dominant in federal politics.
Despite the KMS's connections to UMNO, the modern PKMS organization originated as an extension of the Johor Bahru branch of UMNO. It contested the 1955 Singapore general election where it secured one seat at Ulu Bedok. By the 1959 Singapore general election, UMNO had gained three seats in the Malay-dominated electorates of
The Motherland Party (Azerbaijani: Ana Vətən Partiyası) is an Azerbaijani political party established in 1990. Its membership consists primarily of Azerbaijanis who originated from Armenia. Party's leader Fazail Agamali is a former deputy minister for social protection. Party's goal is creating free, powerful, democratic and entire Azerbaijan
At the 2010 parliamentary elections, it won 2 out of 125 seats.
Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) was a Nepalese political party. It was formed on November 1, 1991 by a group of former leaders of the original Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) that had been expelled from the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist). Initially it was known as Communist Party of Nepal (15 September 1949), but it took the name 'Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist)' after approximately one year of existence.
Prabhunaryan Chaudhary was the chairman of the party.
Ahead of the 1992 elections to local bodies CPN (15 September 1949) took part in forming a front together with the Samyukta Janamorcha Nepal, Nepal Workers Peasants Party, Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist-Maoist) and Nepal Communist League.
In the 1994 elections it had 49 candidates and polled 0.39% of the votes nation-wide. In the 1999 general elections it had 28 candidates. The party got 0.094% of the votes nationwide. The students wing of the party was called Nepal Progressive Students Union and its trade union was the Nepal Trade Union Centre (NTUC).
On April 6 a major chunk of its membership (5 153) joined CPN(UML).
In 2005 the party merged with the Communist Party of Nepal (United)
The Biju Janata Dal (BJD) (Oriya: ବିଜୁ ଜନତା ଦଳ)is a state political party of the Indian state of Orissa led by Naveen Patnaik, son of former state chief minister Biju Patnaik. It was founded on 27 December 1997.
Naveen Patnaik took over his father's Lok Sabha seat in 1996 as a member of the Janata Dal. In 1997, Patnaik split from Janata Dal over its failure to ally with the BJP, and formed the BJD in December 1997. The BJD has participated in several ruling coalitions with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) both at the Centre and in Orissa. The BJD, however, was one of the main professedly secular parties of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Much of the popularity and electoral success of the party is credited to Patnaik's image as an incorruptible and 'clean' candidate.
BJD won nine seats in the 1998 general elections and Naveen was named the Minister for Mines. In the 1999 general elections, BJD won 10 seats. The party won a majority of seats in the state legislative assembly in the 2000 and 2004 elections in alliance with BJP. The party won 11 Lok Sabha seats in the 2004 elections. However the BJD parted ways with the BJP for both the Lok Sabha and Assembly elections 2009
The Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (GSLP) is the oldest surviving active political party in Gibraltar. Its grass roots are deep in the trade union movement, as its founder and former leader Joe Bossano was the District Officer of the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU). The party has been led since 2011 by Fabian Picardo.
The TGWU during Bossano's tenure was instrumental in achieving parity with the United Kingdom for all workers in Gibraltar. Bossano left the Integration with Britain Party in 1975 and founded the Gibraltar Democratic Movement (GDM), which contested the 1976 election winning four seats in the House of Assembly. The GDM became the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party in 1978 and obtained one seat, that of Bossano, in the 1980 election. In the next election (1984) the GSLP capitalized the Gibraltarian discontent about the way the British Government was handling the future of the Gibraltar Royal Navy dockyard, opposing to the transfer of the docks to Appledore International (which involved the loss of about 400 jobs), and winning seven of the fifteen seats of the Assembly. The party was eventually in Government from 1988 to 1996.
In April 2011, Joe Bossano
Plaid Cymru (Welsh pronunciation: [plaɪd ˈkəmrɨ], English: The Party of Wales; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. It advocates the establishment of an independent Welsh state.
Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and won its first seat in 1966. Plaid Cymru by 2012 had 1 of 4 Welsh seats in the European Parliament, 3 of 40 Welsh seats in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 11 of 60 seats in the National Assembly for Wales, and 206 of 1,264 principal local authority councillors.
Plaid Cymru's goals as set out in its constitution are:
In September 2008, a senior Plaid Cymru assembly member spelled out her party's continuing support for an independent Wales. The Welsh Minister for Rural Affairs, Elin Jones, kicked off Plaid's annual conference by pledging to uphold the goal of making Wales a European Union member state. She told the delegates in Aberystwyth that the party would continue its commitment to independence under the coalition with Labour.
While both the Labour and Liberal parties of the early 20th century had accommodated demands for Welsh home rule, no political party existed for the purpose of establishing a Welsh government. Plaid Genedlaethol
The Citizen's Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Ciudadana; commonly abbreviated as PAC) is a left-leaning political party in Costa Rica.
Its platform is based on encouraging citizen participation and involvement in politics. One of its guiding ideals is to fight against corruption, arguing that it is one of the main causes of subdevelopment and voter apathy. The party took a leading role in the failed campaign against Costa Rica's membership of the Central American Free Trade Agreement.
It was founded in December 2000 and startled the Costa Rican political arena with a very strong showing in the 2002 general elections. In the presidential vote, party founder and candidate Ottón Solís was able to secure 26% of the votes – an unprecedented amount for a third party in Costa Rica – and force a runoff between the two traditional parties, the PLN and the PUSC.
The party won 21.9% of the popular vote and 14 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly, making it the third strongest political force in the legislature. A few months later, however, after a series of internal disputes, six of the party's 14 deputies resigned from the party, leaving PAC with only eight seats.
The People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҳизби халқӣ-демократӣ Тоҷикистон Hizbi Khalqī-Demokratī Tojikiston) is a political party in Tajikistan. It is the ruling party, and is led by Emomalii Rahmon, the current President of Tajikistan. At the legislative elections, 27 February and 13 March 2005 (widely considered to have been rigged in favour of Rahmon by observers), the party won 74% of the popular vote and 52 out of 63 seats. This was an increase from the 2000 elections, in which they won 64.9% of the vote and 38 seats. At the last legislative elections, 28 February 2010, the party won 71,69% of the popular vote and 45 out of 63 seats.
Their headquarters is located in the Palace of Unity in Dushanbe.
The Civic Renewal Party (Partido Renovaciòn Civilista, PRC) was a Panamanian right liberal political party.
The Civic Renewal Party was founded on 13 August 1992 by a group of professionals who had played key roles in the National Civic Crusade that opposed General Manuel Antonio Noriega's military dictatorship during 1987-1989.
The National Civic Crusade (Cruzada Civilista Nacional, CCN), a broad-based opposition movement composed of more than 100 groups, including members of the Roman Catholic Church, civil and professional organizations, and trade unions.
In 1994, it backed the recently resigned Comptroller General Rubén Darío Carles as part of the Alliance for Change '94 coalition and in 1999, it supported banker and former Arnulfista Party member Alberto Vallarino Clement, as a part of the Opposition Action Alliance.
Although the party elected three legislators to the unicameral Legislative Assembly in 1994 , in the 1999 election it failed to garner enough votes to survive and, pursuant to Panamanian Electoral Laws, was dissolved thereafter.
The Party for Democracy (Partido por la Democracia) is a political party in Chile; it is social democratic in its political orientation. It was founded in December 1987 by Ricardo Lagos, who aimed at forming a legal social democratic party (the Socialist Party remained illegal at the time). The party continued to function after the defeat of Pinochet. Until 1997, double membership of PPD and the Socialist Party was allowed. In the parliamentary elections held since the return of democracy to Chile, the Party for Democracy has invariably won somewhat more votes (and seats) than the Socialist Party.
The party nominated, as part of the Concertación (Coalition of Parties for Democracy), in the 1999/2000 presidential elections Ricardo Lagos Escobar, the main leader of the party, who won 48.0% in the first round and was elected with 51.3% in the second round. At the 2001 legislative election, the party ran as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy and won 20 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 3 out of 38 elected seats in the Senate. This changed at the 2005 elections to 21 and 3. In 2009, it won 18 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 4 in the Senate.
Shiv Sena (Marathi:Śiv Senā, meaning Army of Shiv, also SS), is a political organisation in India founded on 19 June 1966 by political cartoonist Bal Thackeray. The party originally emerged out of a movement in Bombay (now renamed as Mumbai) demanding preferential treatment for Maharashtrians over migrants to the city. It is currently headed by Thackeray's son, Uddhav Thackeray.
Although the party's primary base is still in Maharashtra, it has tried to expand to a pan-Indian base. Gradually the party moved from solely advocating a pro-Marathi ideology, to one supporting a broader Hindu nationalist agenda as it aligned itself with the Bharatiya Janata Party. The party has taken part in numerous Maharashtra state governments at several times and was a coalition partner in the National Democratic Alliance cabinet that ruled India between 1998-2004. Members of Shiv Sena are referred to as Shiv Sainiks.
According to Balakrishna the public sector companies in response to Sena's violent pressure, began employing Maharashtrians in large numbers, the company owners didn't object to the Sena entry in to trade unionism since "Thackeray ruled like a dictator, one phone call was enough to
The Ata-Meken (The Fatherland Socialist Party) is a political party in Kyrgyzstan. Its current Chairman and founder is Omurbek Tekebayev, who is currently the speaker of the Kyrgyz Parliament. The party was registered on December 16, 1992 following a split between Tekebayev and the conservative Erkin Kyrgyzstan party.
The party's platform calls for a democratic state, economic reforms and evolutionary social development. It favors reasonable compromise between various social sectors and government bodies. The party supported Tekebayev in the 2000 Presidential elections, where he came second with 14%. On May 20, 2004 the party joined the For Fair Elections electoral alliance in preparing for the February 2005 parliamentary elections.
The party won one seat in the first round of the 2005 parliamentary elections. However, following the 2005 Tulip Revolution, the future of the party remains unclear.
The Communist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Chile) is a Chilean political party inspired by the thoughts of Karl Marx and Lenin. It was founded in 1922, as the continuation of the Socialist Workers Party, and in 1932 it established its youth wing, the Communist Youth of Chile (Juventudes Comunistas de Chile [abbr:JJ.CC]).
In the last legislative elections in Chile on December 13, 2009, the party won as part of the Concertación/Juntos Podemos Más list 3 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
It achieved congressional representation shortly thereafter and played a leading role in the development of the Chilean labor movement. Closely tied to the Soviet Union and the Third International, the PCCh participated in the Popular Front (Frente Popular) government of 1938, growing rapidly among the unionized working class in the 1940s. It then participated to the Popular Front's successor, the Democratic Alliance.
Concern over the PCCh's success at building a strong electoral base, combined with the onset of the Cold War, led to its being outlawed in 1948 by a Radical government, a status it had to endure for almost a decade until 1958 when it was again legalized. By
The Alberta Liberal Party is a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada. Originally founded in 1905, when the province was created, it was the dominant political party until 1921 when it was defeated. It has never been in government since that time. However, it had formed the official opposition in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta several times, most recently from 1993 until 2012. As of 2012, 14 different Liberals have served as Leader of the Opposition.
Since 1976, the Alberta Liberal Party is no longer formally affiliated with the Liberal Party of Canada.
The Liberals formed the government in Alberta for the first 16 years of the province's existence. Alexander C. Rutherford (1905–1910), Arthur L. Sifton (1910–1917) and Charles Stewart (1917–1921) led Liberal governments, until the party was swept from office in the 1921 election by the United Farmers of Alberta.
Currently the party is the Official Opposition in the Alberta legislature, but the party has suffered through some difficult times in the eight decades since their defeat as the province's governing party. In opposition, the party has won up to 32 seats but has also at times been shut out of the provincial
Movement for the Reconstruction of Poland (Polish: Ruch Odbudowy Polski, ROP) is a conservative and eurosceptic political party in Poland. It participated in election to the Polish parliament, the Sejm, at Polish parliamentary election, 1997, where it received 5.6% of the vote, to elect six Members of Parliament. At the following legislative elections in 2001, two of its members were elected to the Sejm from the League of Polish Families electoral committee ticket. The party is not represented in the Polish parliament now.
During Polish parliamentary election, 2007 members of Movement for Reconstruction of Poland were elected from lists of Law and Justice.
The Democratic Party is a political party in the Northern Mariana Islands. It is now officially affiliated with the United States' national Democratic Party.
The CNMI has not elected a Democratic Governor since 1993, when Froilan Tenorio was elected. At the legislative elections of November 1, 2003 the party won 1 out of 18 seats. It won an extra seat in the 2005 legislative elections. Its candidate Froilan Tenorio won 18% in the 2005 gubernatorial election. In the November 3, 2007 Commonwealth Legislature elections, the party took only 1 of 20 seats in the House of Representatives.
There are currently no Democrats elected to office in the Northern Mariana Islands.
In 2009, for the first time ever, the Democratic Party did not nominate a candidate in the gubernatorial election. They fielded a candidate for Mayor of Saipan (Angelo Villagomez), along with two CNMI House candidates and one CNMI Senate candidate.
The Gibraltar Labour Party was a political party in Gibraltar. They described themselves as a progressive socialist organisation and stated that their formation was prompted by the need for a strong opposition to the government. They were founded and led by Daniel Feetham.
They opposed dialogue with Spain and wanted to change the Constitution of Gibraltar, and support the right of Gibraltarians to decide their own constitutional arrangements under the principle of self-determination.
They had proposed policies for the improvement of the quality and availability of housing in Gibraltar. They proposed that no individual should serve as Chief Minister for more than two terms, and called for a more transparent form of funding of political parties.
In the 2003 election to the 15-member House of Assembly they polled 8.3 per cent of the vote and won no seats. They have since merged with the Gibraltar Social Democrats.
123 Democratic Alliance (Chinese: 一二三民主聯盟) was a pro-Kuomintang political party in Hong Kong. It was established in 1994, with an aim to strive for the unification of China, to strive for a free, democratic, and wealthy China, and to establish a democratic and prosperous Hong Kong.
The party was represented by Sin Ling Yum in the Legislative Council of Hong Kong (LegCo) from 1995 to 1997. However, all candidates were defeated in the 1998 LegCo elections.
The party once had seven seats in the 1999 District Council elections. Due to lack of funding, the party did not file any candidates in the 2000 LegCo elections (although some of the losers continued to take part as independent participants or supporters of other parties), and was subsequently dissolved on 3 December 2000.
The last chairman of the alliance was Tai Cheuk-yin.
The Integration with Britain Party (IWBP) was a political party in Gibraltar established in February 1967. Although it never won an election, it was briefly in power from 1969 to 1972 when Robert Peliza of the IWBP was Chief Minister.
In the 1969 elections, the Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (AACR) got seven seats; the IWBP five; and the independent group led by Peter Isola three. Joshua Hassan, the leader of the AACR was unable to get the support of Isola, which, in turn, supported the IWBP. In June 1972, Peliza dissolved the House of Assembly and called for anticipated elections. Although it obtained its better results in an election, obtaining seven seats, it was defeated by the AACR, which obtained eight seats and 52 per cent of vote. The results took Joshua Hassan to power again, remaining Peliza as leader of the Opposition. In October 1972, Maurice Xiberras took over as party and Opposition leader.
The party political stands were mainly two: the parity of wages between the labour force in Gibraltar and that in the United Kingdom and the achievement of the integration with the United Kingdom. Although the struggle on parity was successful and Gibraltar work
The Neuquén People's Movement (Spanish: Movimiento Popular Neuquino) is a provincial political party in the province of Neuquén, Argentina.
The party was founded by, amongst others, Carlos Sobisch, Elías Sapag, Felipe Sapag and his brothers, Peronists who had been discriminated against by the military government. It began on 4 June 1961 and has held the Neuquén governorship and many of the local and national legislative positions since then.
At the legislative elections of 23 October 2005 the party won two of the 127 elected national deputies (out of 257). It has one of the three Neuquén senators in the Argentine Senate - Horacio Lores, as well as the governor of Neuquén, Jorge Sapag, son of Elías Sapag. Luz Sapag, Elías' daughter, is Mayor of San Martín de los Andes and a former senator.
Jorge Sobisch, son of Carlos Sobisch, was a candidate for the presidency of Argentina at the 2007 elections, having been a high profile governor of Neuquén. Sobisch resigned the presidency of the MPN in December 2007. The party has seen internal rivalry between the Sapag and Sobisch families, along a left-right political split.
The Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (SDHP) (Armenian: Սոցիալ Դեմոկրատ Հնչակյան Կուսակցություն; ՍԴՀԿ), is the oldest Armenian political party and was the first Socialist party in the Ottoman Empire and in Persia. It was founded in 1887 by Avetis Nazarbekian, Mariam Vardanian, Gevorg Gharadjian, Ruben Khan-Azat, Christopher Ohanian, Gabriel Kafian and Manuel Manuelian, a group of college students in Geneva, Switzerland, with the goal to gain Armenia's independence from the Ottoman Empire, which is part of Armenian national liberation movement.
Also known as Hentchak, Henchak, Social-Democratic Hentchaks, Huntchakians, Hnchakian, Henchags, its name is taken from its newspaper Hunchak, meaning "Clarion" or "Bell" in English, and is taken by party members to represent "a call or awakening, for enlightenment and freedom."
All seven founders of the party were Russian Armenian Marxist students who had left Russian Armenia to further their education in various universities of Western Europe. They were young, in their twenties, and supported by their affluent bourgeois families. They were influenced by Russian revolutionary ideology. Mariam Vardanian had worked with Russian revolutionaries
The Natural Law Party (NLP) was a United States political party affiliated with the international Natural Law Party. It was founded in 1992 and was dissolved in many areas beginning in 2004.
The party proposed that political problems could be solved through alignment with the Unified Field of all the laws of nature through the use of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Leading members of party were associated with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, leader of Transcendental Meditation movement.
The U.S. version of the Natural Law Party ran John Hagelin as its presidential candidate in 1992, 1996, and 2000. The party also ran congressional and local candidates. It attempted to merge with the Reform Party in 2000. Several state affiliates have kept their ballot positions and have allied with other small parties.
"Natural Law" referred to "the ultimate source of order and harmony displayed throughout creation." Harmony with Natural Law could be accomplished by the practice of Transcendental Meditation and more advanced techniques. Due to scientific studies of these techniques, it considered this to be a science-based approach.
The NLP proposed that a government subsidized group of
The Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (AACR) is a now defunct political party in Gibraltar.
Like all Gibraltar political parties, it opposed transfer of sovereignty over Gibraltar from the United Kingdom to Spain. As the name of the group implied, it was in favour of greater civil rights for Gibraltarians, removing many of the political disabilities inherent in any territory with colonial status.
The AACR was the first political party created in Gibraltar. It dates back to the Second World War, when most of the Gibraltar population had been evacuated and only a small number of Gibraltarians remained on The Rock. At the same time, the colony was crowded with British soldiers, sailors and airmen. In September 1942, a group of fellow Gibraltarians, clerks and workers, led by Albert Risso came together to form an association advocating the civil rights of the local inhabitants of Gibraltar. They asked a young lawyer who was then serving in the Gibraltar Defence Force, Joshua Hassan, to join them. Initially named "The Gibraltarian Association", upon Hassan's advice, the group took a much more ambitious name: "The Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights in
The Australian Democrats is an Australian political party espousing a socially liberal ideology. It was formed in 1977, by a merger of the Australia Party and the New Liberal Movement, after having secured former Liberal minister Don Chipp as a high-profile leader. The party's 30-year representation in the Parliament of Australia ended on 30 June 2008, after the loss of its four remaining Senate seats; two of the senators had retired from politics and the other two were defeated at the 2007 election, in which the party polled only 1.29% of the national Senate vote.
The party is based on the principles of honesty, tolerance, compassion and direct democracy through postal ballots of all members, so that "there should be no hierarchical structure ... by which a carefully engineered elite could make decisions for the members." From the outset, members' participation was fiercely protected in national and divisional constitutions prescribing internal elections, regular meeting protocols, annual conferences—and monthly journals for open discussion and balloting. Dispute resolution procedures were established, with final recourse to a party ombudsman and membership ballot.
Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität (BüSo), or the Civil Rights Movement Solidarity, is a German political party founded by Helga Zepp-LaRouche, wife of U.S. political activist Lyndon LaRouche.
The BüSo is part of the worldwide LaRouche movement which, according to the Berliner Zeitung, operates in Germany as the Schiller Institute, the LaRouche Youth Movement, and the BüSo. The newspaper wrote in 2007 that the movement had around 300 followers in Germany at that time.
The BüSo is the third in a series of small parties founded in Germany by the movement. The earlier two, now defunct, were the Europäische Arbeiterpartei (the European Labor Party), which was active in the '70s and early '80s and still exists in some Scandinavian countries, and the Patrioten für Deutschland (Patriots for Germany), active during the mid 80s to early 90s.
According to the party's website, the program of the Büso may summarized as follows:
The Büso has campaigned for global infrastructure development with cutting edge technologies such as Maglev trains. They support the Transrapid and advocate that it be extended all over Europe and Asia in a "Eurasian Landbridge." The all-news TV channel N24 reported that:
The Green Party of the Philippines is a concept initially proposed by the Philippine Greens, an environmentalist movement in the country. The party would be established when Green activists have managed to build organized mass constituencies and Philippine electoral processes have been sufficiently cleaned up. From the Philippine Greens' perspective, the Green Party remains a concept that all Green-oriented groups and individuals can work towards. Currently no Philippine Green member occupies any official position.
However, other groups outside the Philippine Greens have also indicated their intention to set up a Green Party in the Philippines.
Officially, there is no green party registered with the Commission on Election today. In the first party list elections in 2002, Green Philippines header by Sarge Colambo ran and lost. Following the rules on party list elections, by now the registration of Green Philippines as a party list organization has already expired for not having won for the past 2 consecutive party list elections.
The existing group that is actively forming a national Green Party today is Partido Kalikasan (Philippine Green Party) or PK. PK was founded on December 6,
The National Socialist Front (Swedish: Nationalsocialistisk front, NSF) was at the time of its dissolving the largest Neo-National Socialism political party in Sweden. The organization was founded in Karlskrona on 8 August 1994. It became a political party on 20 April 1999, the 110th birthday of Adolf Hitler. The party's official newspaper was named Den Svenske Nationalsocialisten ("The Swedish National Socialist"), also known as Den Svenske ("The Swedish"). (Now defunct.)
The party ran for the municipal council elections in Karlskrona in 2002, but only attracted 0.5% of the votes which was not sufficient for a mandate. In 2006, the party entered the elections at a national level. There they gained 1,417 votes, or 0.03% (in order to enter the Swedish parliament a party needs at least 4% of the total votes). The party was most successful in Trollhättan, where they received 208 votes or 0.65%, although it wasn't enough to enter the municipal assembly. Still, 2006 was their best election year in the party's history.
In 2007, the NSF demonstrated in Stockholm for the release of Holocaust denier Ernst Zündel.
The party had as its main goals the abolition of democracy, the repatriation
The Alliance Party for the Sake of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Naminə Alyans Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan.
At the last elections (5 November 2000 and 7 January 2001), the party won 1.0% of the popular vote and 1 out of 125 seats.
The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a centre-left provincial political party in Quebec, Canada that advocates national sovereignty for the province of Quebec and secession from Canada. The party traditionally has support from the labour movement, but unlike most other social-democratic parties, its ties with the labour movement are informal. Members and supporters of the PQ are called "péquistes" ([peˈkist] ( listen); English: Pequists), a French word derived from the pronunciation of the party's initials.
Since June 2007, the party has been headed by Pauline Marois. She is currently Premier, as her party won a minority mandate in the 2012 Quebec general election.
The PQ is the result of the 1968 merger between René Lévesque's Mouvement Souveraineté-Association and the Ralliement national. Following the creation of the PQ, the Rassemblement pour l'Indépendance Nationale held a general assembly that voted to dissolve the RIN. Its former members were invited to join the new Parti Québécois.
The PQ's primary goals were to obtain political, economic and social autonomy for the province of Quebec. Lévesque introduced the strategy of referenda early in the 1970s.
In the 1976 provincial election,
Ar-Namys (Kyrgyz: Ар-Намыс, meaning Dignity) is a political party in Kyrgyzstan founded on July 9, 1999 by former Prime Minister Felix Kulov. The party quickly became the nation's leading opposition party but was barred from the 2000 parliamentary elections. However, since the party was barred its members formed a bloc with the Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan. With Kulov serving time for criminal charges, the party's members worked over the next years to both clear his name and establish a broad opposition coalition.
In 2001 the party formed the People's Congress of Kyrgyzstan an electoral alliance with three other opposition parties. Kulov was chosen Chairman. However, in 2004 the party joined the For Fair Elections alliance, in preparation for the February 2005 parliamentary elections.
Ar-Namys received the votes of 7.74% of eligible voters in the 2010 parliamentary elections, giving it 25 of 120 seats in parliament. This result made the party the third of five parties to surpass the support threshold of 5% of eligible voters necessary to enter parliament.
The British Columbia Liberal Party (also referred to as the BC Liberals) is the governing political party in British Columbia, Canada. First elected for government in 1916, the party went into decline after 1952, with its rump caucus merging with the Social Credit Party for the 1975 election. It was returned to the legislature through the efforts of Gordon Wilson in a break-through in the 1991 election. At this time, the Social Credit Party collapsed, with the BC Liberals able to garner the centre vote traditionally split between left and right extremes in British Columbia politics. After Wilson lost a leadership challenge in the wake of a personal scandal in a bitter three-way race, the party was led by Gordon Campbell, who became Leader of the Opposition after Wilson's convention defeat. In the wake of the collapse of the British Columbia New Democratic Party (BC NDP) vote in the 2001 election, the Campbell-led BC Liberals won an overwhelming majority in 2001. In November 2010, after mounting public opposition to a new tax and the controversial ending of a political corruption trial, and with low popularity ratings, Campbell announced his resignation, and on February 26, 2011,
The Christian People's Party (Spanish: Partido Popular Cristiano) is a center-right and conservative political party based on Christian Democracy. It was founded in 1966 by a group of Peruvian Christian Democracy (Democracia Social Cristiana) dissidents, led by Luis Bedoya Reyes.
It is the third oldest active party in Peru, trailing to the Peruvian Aprista Party and Popular Action. In 2000 its inscription was renewed, and it became part of National Unity, albeit not in a permanent basis.
Leaders of the party have included Mario Polar Ugarteche, Roberto Ramírez del Villar, Ernesto Alayza Grundy, Felipe Osterling Parodi, and Alberto Borea Odría.
The party was founded on December 18, 1966 by a group of members of the Democracia Cristiana party that defected by ideological motifs. While their former party supported a constitutional break to accelerate the reforms needed by the country, the founders of the PPC, led by Luis Bedoya Reyes still believed in the constitutional order. Thus they retired from Democracia Cristiana and founded the new party.
In 1968, General Juan Velasco Alvarado staged a coup d'etat against President Fernando Belaúnde Terry, an ally of Luis Bedoya Reyes. The PPC
Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) (simplified Chinese: 马来西亚华人公会; traditional Chinese: 馬來西亞華人公會; pinyin: Mǎláixīyà Huárén Gōnghuì; Cantonese: MaLoiSaiYa WahYen KoongWui; Malay: Persatuan Cina Malaysia) is a uni-racial political party in Malaysia that represents the Malaysian Chinese ethnicity; it is one of the three major component parties of the ruling coalition in Malaysia called the Barisan Nasional (BN) in Malay, or National Front in English.
Along with the largest and third largest component party in BN, i.e. United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), MCA has a strong influence over the political arena in Malaysia. Through its substantial holding of companies such as Huaren Holdings, MCA also controls five other significant media press companies, i.e., The Star, being Malaysia's best-selling English language newspaper Sin Chew Jit Poh, Nanyang Siang Pau, and China Press, being three of the best-selling Chinese newspapers in Kuala Lumpur and Central Region of West Malaysia; and Guang Ming Daily being a smaller press in northern West Malaysia as the owner of these four presses are owned by media tycoon Tiong Hiew King where his family
The Militant Socialist Movement (French: Mouvement Socialiste Militant)is a centre-left political party in Mauritius that adheres to the philosophies of socialism and political democracy. It is the 3rd largest political party in the National Assembly. It has in all 13 seats directly elected from the 2010 general elections. It is one of the three biggest political parties in the country, the others being the Mauritian Labour Party and Mauritian Militant Movement.
The Militant Socialist Movement emerged in 1983 out of the split between then coalition government led by MMM leader Paul Berenger and Mauritian Socialist Party led by Harish Boodhoo. The two parties which formed a coalition government from 1982 broke their alliance just 19 months after. Sir Anerood Jugnauth who was prime minister and the president of the MMM made an agreement with Harish Boodhoo. The coalition broke and Jugnauth parted ways with his leader Berenger and associated him with a new party with dissidents from the Mauritian Socialist Party and the MMM members who were not in agreement with Berenger. The people along with Jugnauth as Leader formed the MSM.
The MSM is a party led by the historical & political
The Movement for National Reform (Arabic: حركة الإصلاح الوطني Harakat Al-Islah Al-Wataniy, French: Mouvement pour la réforme nationale) is a moderate Islamist political party in Algeria. It received 9.5% of the vote in the 2002 elections and received 43 members of parliament.
The party was created as a breakout faction from the Ennahda movement, after that party opted for cooperation with Algeria's government. Party leader Abdallah Djaballah then left to found and lead the more radically oppositional el-Islah.
At the 2007 elections, the party was badly defeated. It received only 2.53% of the vote and 3 seats.
The Republican Party of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետական Կուսակցություն, ՀՀԿ; Hayastani Hanrapetakan Kusaktsutyun, HHK) is a national conservative political party in Armenia. It was the first political party in independent Armenia to be founded (April 2, 1990) and registered (May 14, 1991). It is the largest party of the right-wing in Armenia, and claims to have 140,000 members. The party controls most government bodies in Armenia.
The Economist magazine has described the RPA as a "typical post-Soviet 'party of power' mainly comprising senior government officials, civil servants, and wealthy business people dependent on government connections."
The Republican Party's national conservative ideology is based on tseghakron, an early 20th century Armenian nationalist ideology (roughly translated as "nation-religion"). It was formulated by Garegin Nzhdeh and holds that the Armenian national identity and state should carry religious significance for all ethnic Armenians.
Most of Armenia's so-called "oligarchs" (government-connected entrepreneurs who enjoy de facto monopoly on lucrative forms of economic activity) are now affiliated with the RPA.
In an RPA congress held in
The Bavaria Party (German: Bayernpartei, BP) is a separatist political party in the state of Bavaria in southern Germany. It was founded in 1946 and describes itself as patriotic Bavarian, advocating Bavarian independence within the European Union. Together with the Christian Social Union it can be seen as an heir to the Bavarian People's Party which existed prior to World War II.
The party had some successes at the polls in the late 1940s and 1950s: 20.9% of the vote in 1949 and 17 seats in the German Bundestag and, in 1950, 17.9% and 39 seats in the Bavarian state parliament where in 1954 it formed a coalition with the Bavarian branches of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Free Democratic Party. This forced the Christian Social Union out of power for three years. Later, the Bavaria Party rapidly lost voters. It still exists but was last elected to the Bavarian state parliament in 1962.
In the 2008 local elections however, the party won 38 seats (compared to 32 in 2002), mostly in Upper Bavaria, including one of the 80 seats in the City Council of Munich, the 1.3 million capital, after 42 years of absence there.
The current chairman of the party is Florian Weber from
The Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party (Romanian: Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc Creştin Democrat, PNŢ-CD) is a Romanian Christian-Democratic party. It is the successor of the National Peasants' Party (which, in turn, was the successor of the Romanian National Party from Transylvania).
The party was founded by Corneliu Coposu, Ioan Alexandru and Ion Raţiu in December 1989 under the name Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc Creştin şi Democrat (PNŢCD or PNŢcd, Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party). It was the first officially registered political party after the fall of Communism.
In March 2005, PNŢCD voted to change its name to Christian-Democratic People's Party (Partidul Popular Creştin-Democrat, PPCD) after the unification with Union for Romanian Reconstruction. Nowadays, this party return to its traditional name Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc Creştin Democrat – PNŢCD.
The party is a member of the European People's Party (EPP).
The party is currently split between a wing sustained by Marian-Petre Miluţ supporting Aurelian Pavelescu as president, that decided on an alliance with the governing Democratic Liberal Party, and one supporting Victor Ciorbea as president, and
The Estonian Independence Party (Estonian: Eesti Iseseisvuspartei, EIP) is a nationalist political party in Estonia. The party, founded in 1999, is a successor to the Estonian Future Party. One of the principal aims of the party is the withdrawal of Estonia from the European Union. The party is currently without parliamentary representation. It had 1,242 members on 15 July 2009.
The EIP's political philosophy promotes a doctrine of “Estonia as a neo-autarkic geopolitical space” and an associated geopolitical imperative of neutrality between the East and the West.
The party programme states that Estonia is extraordinarily rich in natural resources (much of these remain latent) and is situated in an important geopolitical space. Thus, the party is also against Estonia belonging to the European Union, which they accuse of having neocolonised Estonia. The party recommended rejecting International Monetary Fund suggestions. Party supports Setomaa to be a part of Estonia, not Russia.
The party's predecessor, Estonian Future Party (Tuleviku Eesti Erakond) was founded in 1994. In 1999, it was renamed to Estonian Independence Party.
In 2001, the party called for closer relations with Russia
Malaysian Dayak Congress (MDC) is a political party in Malaysia representing the Dayak indigenous population. It is based in Sarawak state and is formed by supporters of the deregistered Parti Bangsa Dayak Sarawak. The MDC submitted the relevant documents for registration on 6 May 2005.
However, up until now, the party never received its status as legal political party's status in Malaysia from Registrar of Societies (ROS).
The Faroese People's Party – Radical Self-Government (Faroese: Hin føroyski fólkaflokkurin – radikalt sjálvstýri) is a liberal conservative political party in the Faroe Islands, led by Jørgen Niclasen. One of the four major parties, it's had eight seats in the Løgting since the 2011 election, making it the joint-largest party, but neither of the Faroes' seats in the Folketing.
Founded in 1939 as a split from the Self-Government Party, the party has traditionally supported greater autonomy for the Faroe Islands. Party leader Hákun Djurhuus served as Prime Minister from 1963 to 1967, as did Jógvan Sundstein from 1989 to 1991. In 1998, it adopted a policy of full independence from Denmark as part of a coalition deal in which leader Anfinn Kallsberg became PM. Since 2004, except for a short period in 2008, the party has been in coalition with the Union Party and Social Democratic Party, who want to maintain the political status quo.
The party is affiliated to the International Democrat Union.
The party was founded in 1939 as Vinnuflokkurin. The party split from the Self-Government Party over land reform, and maintained a policy of economic liberalisation and social conservatism, with
Communist Party of Nepal (Matri Samuha) was a small communist party in Nepal. The group was formed by Keshar Jung Rayamajhi after he was expelled from the pro-Soviet Communist Party of Nepal in September 1983, due to his pro-monarchic actions. Rayamjhi's new party held a 'Special Congress' in March 1984. The congress elected Rayamjhi as the general secretary of the new formation. After 1985, the party became largely dormant. By 1986 there were reports that Rayamjhi had been however soon expelled from the party, which after his expulsion took the name 'Matri Samuha' ('Mother Group').
The Democratic Party of Turks (Macedonian: Демократска партија на Турците; Demokratska Partija na Turcite, Turkish: Türk Demokratik Partisi) is a political party of the Turkish minority in the Republic of Macedonia.
The Party currently has one member, Kenan Hasipi, in the Macedonian parliament.
Jordanian Communist Toilers Party (in Arabic: Hizb al-Shaghghilah al-Shuyu'iyah al-Urduni, حزب الشغّيلة الشيوعية الأردني) was a communist political party in Jordan. The party was founded in 1997, through a split in the Jordanian Communist Party (JCP). The party used the name Jordanian Communist Party until it registered with the Jordanian authorities with the name Jordanian Communist Toilers Party. The party was considered more orthodox in its ideology than JCP.
New Right (Dutch: Nieuw Rechts, abbr. NR) was a nationalist Dutch political party, founded by Michiel Smit in February 2003 and dissolved in December 2007.
Michiel Smit was secretary of Pim Fortuyn's local Leefbaar Rotterdam party. He was elected into the Rotterdam city council in March 2002. After the assassination of Fortuyn, May 6, 2002, the Leefbaar Rotterdam leadership was handed over to Ronald Sørensen. Michiel Smit was forced out of the Leefbaar Rotterdam party though in February 2003, after it became public that Smit participated on various rightwing radical internet fora, one of which was the American based Stormfront.org and operating the site www.arabischeuropeseliga.nl. Sørensen earlier forbade Smit from visiting the Belgian Vlaams Blok as representative of Leefbaar Rotterdam.
However, Smit held on to his seat in the Rotterdam city council, forming a one person party called Nieuw Rechts. From this position Smit started to build up the Nieuw Rechts party. New Right worked with the nationalist NNP party (whose chairman Florens van der Kooi worked for a time at the New Right party office) to form the Actiecomité Stop MARTIJN in 2003, which campaigned against the pedophiles
The Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan (Russian: Партия Коммунистов Киргизии Partiya Kommunistov Kirgizii; Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан Коммунисттеринин Партиясы Kyrgyzstan Kommunistterinin Partiyasy) is a political party in Kyrgyzstan. PKK was founded on June 22, 1992.
It was the largest single party in the Legislative Assembly of Kyrgyzstan between 2001 and 2005 with 15 of the 60 seats. Since 2005 it has only 1 of 75 seats. It was led by Absamat Masaliyev, a former leader of the republic in the Soviet era, until his death in 2004. The present chairman is Bumairam Mamaseitova.
PKK publishes Pravda Kyrgyzstana.
The party is the successor of the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan, the Communist Party which controlled Kyrgyzstan under Soviet rule.
The Libertarian Party of Canada is a political party in Canada that subscribes to the tenets of the libertarian movement across Canada.
The party was founded on July 7, 1973 by Bruce Evoy, who became its first chairman, and 7 others. Evoy ran for election to Parliament in the 1974 federal election in the Toronto riding of Rosedale. The party achieved registered status in the 1979 federal election by running more than fifty candidates.
The party described itself as Canada's "fourth party" in the 1980s, but it has since been displaced by new parties such as the Bloc Québécois and the Green Party of Canada. The party declined to join the Reform Party of Canada when it was formed in 1987. Many libertarians were also attracted to provincial Progressive Conservative parties that moved to the right during the 1990s in Ontario under Mike Harris, and in Alberta under Ralph Klein.
The decline in the party's membership and resources resulted in Elections Canada removing their status as a registered party immediately before the 1997 federal election when the party failed to run the minimum fifty candidates needed to maintain its registration.
The party successfully re-registered with Elections
The Movement of National Understanding (Mouvement de l'Entente Nationale) is a minor political party in Algeria. In the 2002 elections, it received 0.2% of the vote. As of the early 2000s, it has one member of parliament. In the 17 May 2007 People's National Assembly elections, the party won 2.14% of the vote and 4 out of 389 seats.
The Islamic Renaissance Movement (Arabic: حركة النهضة الاسلامية Ḥarakat An-Nahḑa Al-Islāmiyya ; French: Mouvement de la Renaissance Islamique) is a moderate Islamist political party of Algeria.
In the 2002 elections it received 0.6 percent of the vote and has one member of parliament. In the 17 May 2007 People's National Assembly elections, the party won 3.39% of the vote and 5 out of 389 seats.
The Polish Socialist Party (Polish: Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the most important Polish left-wing political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948. It was re-established in 1987 and remains active.
Józef Piłsudski, founder of the resurrected Polish state, was a member and later leader of the PPS in the early 20th century.
The PPS was founded in Paris in 1892 (see the Great Emigration). In 1893 the party called Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, (SDKPiL), emerged from the PPS, with the PPS being more nationalist and pro-Polish independence oriented, and the SDKPiL being more pro-revolutionary and communist. In November 1892 the leading personalities of the PPS agreed on a political program. The program, largely progressive for the time of its creation, accented:
After the Revolution of 1905 in the Russian Empire, the party membership drastically increased from several hundred active members to a mass movement of about 60,000 members. Another split in the party occurred in 1906, with the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna – Frakcja Rewolucyjna following Józef Piłsudski, who supported the nationalist and independence ideals, and the Polska
The National Party (Spanish: Partido Nacional de Honduras) is a right-wing conservative political party in Honduras and the main right-wing political party in the country. Founded in 1902 the PNH is identified with the color blue as its rival the Liberal Party of Honduras (PLH), is red. All the democratic elections in Honduras have been dominated by the competition between the PNH and the PLH. The PNH dominated the country between 1933–1957.
At the legislative elections, 25 November 2001, the party won 46.5% of the popular vote and 61 out of 128 seats in the National Congress of Honduras. Its candidate at the presidential elections, Ricardo Maduro won 52.2% and was elected president.
In the legislative elections of 27 November 2005, the party won 55 out of 128 seats in the Congress. Its candidate at the presidential elections, Porfirio Pepe Lobo won 46.2% and was therefore defeated by Manuel Zelaya.
At the 2009 elections the National Party candidate for president, Porfirio Lobo Sosa won the presidency with over 1,212,846 votes and 56.56% of the national total compared with 816,874 votes and 38.1% of the national total for Elvin Santos of the Liberal Party of Honduras, and in the
The United People's Party is a political party in Jamaica. It was started by Antoinette Haughton-Cardenas in 2001 and first contested national elections in 2002, but received only 548 votes and failed to win a seat. It did not contest any further elections.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom, and one of the two main British political parties along with the Conservative Party. The Labour Party was founded in 1900 and overtook the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929–1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after which it formed a majority government under Clement Attlee. Labour was also in government from 1964 to 1970 under Harold Wilson and from 1974 to 1979, first under Wilson and then James Callaghan.
The Labour Party was last in national government between 1997 and 2010 under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, beginning with a majority of 179, reduced to 167 in 2001 and 66 in 2005. Having won 258 seats in the 2010 general election, the party currently forms the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Labour has a minority government in the Welsh Assembly, is the main opposition party in the Scottish Parliament and has 13 MEPs in the European Parliament, sitting in the Socialists and Democrats group. The Labour Party is a member of the Socialist International and Party of
The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) (Hindi: बहुजन समाज पार्टी) is a centrist national political party in India with socialist leanings. It was formed to chiefly represent Bahujans (literally meaning "People in majority"), referring to people from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes (OBC) as well as minorities. The party claims to be inspired by the philosophy of B. R. Ambedkar. The BSP was founded by the high-profile, charismatic leader Kanshi Ram in 1984, who was succeeded by Mayawati in 2003. The party's political symbol is an Elephant. In the 15th Lok Sabha the party has 21 members, making it the 4th-largest party. The BSP has its main base in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Pali word Bahujan is popularly found in the literature of Buddhism. Lord Buddha used this word to guide his disciples to work for the "Bahujan Hitay Bahujan Sukhay" (Meaning: Benefit and prosperity of majority people). The another meaning of the word Bahujan is people in majority. The BSP has historically drawn a loyal base of voters from India's lowest caste (Dalit). It has attempted to grow nationally as well, but has met limited success so far. Its current majority government
Croatian Bloc (Croatian: Hrvatski blok, HB) was a right-wing political party in Croatia. Its name was often followed by the phrase Pokret za modernu Hrvatsku meaning "Movement for a Modern Croatia".
It was founded in September 2002, following the convention of the Croatian Democratic Union at which Ivić Pašalić failed to unseat his main rival Ivo Sanader. Pašalić and his followers founded the new party, accusing Sanader both of winning the convention by undemocratic means and straying from the nationalist legacy of Franjo Tuđman.
The new party, however, didn't attract the majority of HDZ supporters who rallied around Sanader during the 2003 parliamentary elections. Croatian Bloc failed to enter Croatian Parliament.
On May 31, 2008, the Croatian Bloc Council decided to disband the party. The party ended its activities on 31 August 2008, with its members joining Only Croatia, a marginal eurosceptic right-wing party. Croatian Bloc was officially erased from the party registry on 2 January 2009.
As soon as the United States annexed the Hawaiian Islands and established the Territory of Hawaii, native Hawaiians became worried that both the Democratic Party of Hawai‘i and Hawai‘i Republican Party were incapable of representing them. In 1900, native Hawaiians and their supporters created the Hawaiian Independent Party (later renamed the Independent Home Rule Party).
On June 6, 1900, Robert Wilcox, upon his return from the mainland advocating for native Hawaiian rights in the Organic Act, spoke to a rally sponsored by Hui Aloha ʻĀina and Hui Kālaiʻāina, the two main Hawaiian political clubs. In his speech, he said, "The question of the restoration of the Monarchy is gone from us forever. We are now a people, however, who can vote. You all know we have two-thirds of the votes in this country." He also advised against racial loyalties, saying, "We are all Americans. We should not consider personality." On June 7, 1900, the Hawaiian Independent Party was established, its motto being, "Equal Rights for the People". Despite its motto, and Wilcox's sentiments, it would remain a racially based party.
Several members of the House of Kalākaua and House of Kawānanakoa became involved in
The Müsavat (Equality) Party (Azerbaijani: Müsavat Partiyası) (Arabic (مساواة) "equality, parity") is the oldest existing political party in Azerbaijan. Its history can be divided into three periods: Early (old) Musavat, Musavat-in-exile and New Musavat.
Musavat was founded in 1911 in Baku as a secret organization by Mammed Amin Rasulzade, Mammed Ali Rasulzade (cousin of Mammed Amin Rasulzade), Abbasgulu Kazimzade and Taghi Nagioglu. Its initial name was a Muslim Democratic Musavat Party. The first members were Veli Mikayiloghlu, Seyid Huseyn Sadig, Abdurrahim bey, Yusif Ziya bey and Seyid Musavi bey. Early Musavat members also included future Communist leader of Azerbaijan SSR Nariman Narimanov. This initiative was coming from Mammed Amin Rasulzade, who was then living in exile in Istanbul.
The Musavat's programme, which appealed to the Azerbaijani masses and assured the party of the sympathy of the Muslims abroad, announced the following aims:
In its early years before the first world war, Musavat was a relatively small, secret underground organization, much like its counterparts throughout the Middle East, working for the prosperity and political unity of the Muslim and
The Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS, Sarawak Native People's Party) is a political party in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia.It was established in 1983,by Datuk Amar Dr.Leo Moggie,after secedes from Sarawak National Party (SNAP).
The party was dissolved twice,firstly in 2003 and secondly in 2004.The dissolution of PBDS led to the formation of Parti Rakyat Sarawak (PRS) led by Datuk Dr.James Jemut Masing and Datuk Sng Chee Hua.
Samajwadi Party (literally, Socialist Party) is a regional political party in India based in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh founded on October 4, 1992. It describes itself as a democratic socialist. party and is mainly representing the interests of a caste grouping called Other Backward Classes (OBCs).
The Samajwadi Party was one of several parties that emerged when the Janata Dal (People's League), India's primary opposition party prior to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), fragmented into several regional parties. The Samajwadi Party is led by ageing former wrestler Mulayam Singh Yadav, a former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and former defence minister of the country.
The Samajwadi Party is primarily based in Uttar Pradesh. Its support is largely based on OBCs (Other Backward Castes), particularly Mulayam Singh Yadav's own Yadav caste, and Muslims. It has contested Lok Sabha and State Assembly elections around the country, though its successes have been mainly in Uttar Pradesh. In the assembly election in Madhya Pradesh in 2003, the Samajwadi Party gained 7 seats, making it the third largest party in the state. When its candidate won the by-election of Lanji (Balaghat) in
Telugu Desam Party (Telugu: తెలుగు దేశం Party for Telugu Land and People) or TDP is a regional political party in India's Andhra Pradesh state. It was founded by former Telugu film star N. T. Rama Rao ("NTR") on March 29, 1983, as an alternative to the ruling Congress Party in the state.
In the 8th Lok Sabha 1984, it was the second largest party with 39 members.
The Telugu Desam party founded by Dr N T Rama Rao in 1983 aimed at safeguarding the political, economic, social and cultural foundations of Telugu speaking people in the country.
In principle and also in practice it is the mission of the party to protect the dignity and self respect of Telugus and also ensure provision food, shelter and clothing to the common man at affordable and sustainable prices. Also, to achieve empowerment of women, youth and all backward segments of society in Andhra Pradesh.
The preamble of the TDP was to provide a welfare state based on the basic tenets of social justice and equality for all. “Society is a temple and People are deities, Dr NTR had asserted repeatedly.
It has also been top on the agenda of the regional party since its inception to fight against the corruption in public life
The Green Nepal Party was established in 1997 and is a member of the Global Greens and the Asia-Pacific Green Network.
Kuber Sharma, the party's founding president, briefly held the post of Nepal's Minister for Culture and Civil Aviation in November 2004.
North Kalimantan Communist Party was a communist political party based in the Malaysian province of Sarawak in northern Borneo. It was founded on September 19, 1971. Before that, the group had been operating under the name Sarawak Communist Organization. The chairman of the NKCP was Wen Min Chyuan. He had been a leading member of the Sarawak United People's Party 1960-1964.
The membership of NKCP was predominantly ethnically Chinese. The armed wing of NKCP was Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan Utara (PARAKU).
Left-wing and communist cell groups had grown rapidly among Sarawak's urban Iban and Chinese communities since the 1950s and later became the nucleus of the anti-Malaysia North Kalimantan People's Army (PARAKU), which was the armed wing of the party.
The party supported and propagated the unification of all Borneo territories under British control to form an independent leftist North Kalimantan state. This idea was idea originally proposed by A. M. Azahari, leader of the Parti Rakyat Brunei (Brunei People’s Party), who had forged links with Sukarno's nationalist movement, together with Ahmad Zaidi, in Java in the 1940s.
The North Kalimantan (or Kalimantan Utara) proposal was seen as a
The Pensioners' Party (Norwegian: Pensjonistpartiet) is a political party in Norway without parliamentary representation. It was founded in 1985 to work for the interests of pensioners. The party has never been elected to parliament, although former Arne Haukvik who was elected on the Centre Party list in 1993 joined the party prior to the 1997 as he was not renominated. It still has representatives in the local councils of some cities and county assemblies.
At the 2005 parliamentary election, the party won 0,5% of the total national vote.
Ambedkar Makkal Katchi (Ambedkar People's Party) is a political party in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is led by Mazhameni Pandian. AMK has had electoral cooperation with the Dalit Panthers of India.
The Humanist Party (Humanista Párt) is a political party in Hungary, and it is a member of the Humanist International. At the last legislative elections, on April 7 and 21, 2002, the party won no seats. At the last local elections the party in Budapest won 0.36% of the popular vote and no seats.
The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party.
Traditionally representing graziers, farmers and rural voters generally, it began as the Australian Country Party, and then adopted the name the National Country Party in 1975. The party's name was changed to the National Party of Australia in 1982. The party is commonly referred to as "The Nationals". Federally, in New South Wales, and to an extent Victoria, it has generally been the minor party in a centre-right Coalition with the Liberal Party of Australia in government. In Opposition it has worked in formal Coalition or separately, but generally in co-operation with the Liberal Party and it predecessors, the United Australia Party. It was the major coalition party in Queensland between 1924 and 2008, when it merged with the junior Queensland Division of the Liberal Party of Australia to form the Liberal National Party of Queensland (LNP), an organisation dominated by ex-Nationals – seats listed in this article do not include the LNP.
The party's federal parliamentary leader since 3 December 2007, following the coalition's defeat at the 2007 federal election, is Warren Truss.
According to historian B. D. Graham
The Malaysian People's Movement Party (commonly abbreviated as Gerakan) is a political party in Malaysia. The party was founded on March 24, 1968, and as of 2008, it is part of the ruling National Front coalition.
During its formation, Gerakan was an opposition party not affiliated with the national ruling coalition, the Alliance Party, the predecessor of the National Front. Following the 1969 general election, Gerakan won most of the seats in the state legislature of Penang. Gerakan and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, which won in Kelantan, were the only parties not then affiliated with the Alliance Party to form a state government in Malaysia. However, in 1973, Gerakan together with the Alliance Party formed a coalition called the National Front, where it remains until today.
The current leader of Gerakan is Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon who won the post of President uncontested in the 2008 party elections.
As of 2006, about 80% of Gerakan's members are ethnic Chinese, another 15% are Indian, and the rest are Malays or other races.
The party suffered its worst electoral defeat in the 2008 General Election, which saw the party retaining only two parliament seats, compared to the 10
Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist), formed through the unification of Communist Party of Nepal (Manmohan), led by Manmohan Adhikari, and Communist Party of Nepal (Pushpa Lal), led by Sahana Pradhan, in 1987. CPN(M) was closely connected to Communist Party of India (Marxist).
CPN(M) was a member of the United Left Front and took part in the uprising against the authocratic regime in 1990. In 1991 CPN(M) unified with Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist) to form the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist). A sizeable section of the old CPN(M) leadership did however break away from CPN(UML) rapidly, reconstituting their own Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist)
Mass organizations of CPN (Marxist) included the Nepal Trade Union Centre and Nepal Progressive Students Union.
Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist), was an underground political party in Nepal. It was founded 1978 by the All Nepal Communist Revolutionary Coordination Committee (Marxist-Leninist). The founding congress was held December 26, 1978-January 1, 1979. The first general secretary of CPN(ML) was C.P. Mainali.
CPN(ML) was inspired by the Indian Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (CPI(ML)). It was linked to the Vinod Mishra faction of CPI(ML), a group that was strong in Bihar (bordering Nepal). CPN(ML) conducted armed activities against the regime. CPN(ML) rapidly emerged as the main communist faction in the country.
CPN(ML) published Varg-Sangarsh (Class Struggle) and Mukti Morcha (Liberation Front).
In 1982 a major shift took place. The party abandoned the strategy of armed struggle and opted for mass democratic struggles instead. Mainali was deposed as general secretary, and Jhala Nath Khanal took over the helm.
In 1986 the process of reform of CPN(ML) accelerated further, with moderate Madan Bhandari elected general secretary.
In 1990 the party took part in the United Left Front and this led to CPN(ML) merged with Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) to form
FUNCINPEC (Khmer: គណបក្ស ហ្វ៊ុនស៊ិនប៉ិច) is a royalist political party in Cambodia. Before the 2008 election, FUNCINPEC and the Cambodian People's Party formed a coalition government, although FUNCINPEC's significance has decreased steadily since 1998, when it had an equal relationship with the CPP in the coalition.
FUNCINPEC is a French acronym for Front Uni National pour un Cambodge Indépendant, Neutre, Pacifique, et Coopératif, which translates to "National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia."
In the 2012 Cambodian Senate elections, the FUNCINPEC lost all 10 seats in the Senate.
The party traces its roots to Norodom Sihanouk, the Cambodian independence leader, former King of Cambodia, Prime Minister and latterly Head of State during the period between 1955 and 1970, when his Sangkum regime controlled Cambodia. Sihanouk was deposed in a March 1970 coup by his cousin, Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak and rightist General Lon Nol, who proclaimed the Khmer Republic that October. Subsequently, Sihanouk had gone into exile in Beijing, and formed the Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea (GRUNK), a coalition government incorporating his
The Independent Labour is a political party in the Isle of Man.
At the 2001 election for the House of Keys, Independent Labour polled 1.0% and won no seats. It was linked to the UK's Independent Labour Network, founded in 1998 by Ken Coates and Hugh Kerr.
They are no longer active however, having died out in 2002 in the Isle of Man.
The Justice Party (Azerbaijani: Ədalət Partiyası) is a liberal and anti-corruption political party in Azerbaijan. Its candidate Ilyas Ismayilov won 0.8% of the popular vote in the 15 October 2003 presidential elections.
Red Electoral Alliance (Bokmål: Rød Valgallianse, Nynorsk: Raud Valallianse, RV) was an alliance of left-wing groups formed into a Norwegian political party to promote revolutionary socialism ideals into the Norwegian parliament. The party dissolved itself on March 10, 2007, when it participated in the founding of a new party, Red (Rødt).
Raud Ungdom or Rød Ungdom (Red Youth) was their youth organization.
While it was formed in 1973 as an election front for the Worker's Communist Party (marxist-leninist) (in Norwegian: Arbeidernes Kommunistparti (m-l), AKP(ml)), the Red Electoral Alliance became an independent party in 1991, and after that, it scrapped many Leninist ideas. It remained a revolutionary party that, promoting an ideology based upon Marxism.
From 1993 to 1997, Erling Folkvord represented RV in Stortinget, the Norwegian parliament. In 1997, the party got their highest recorded percentage of votes with 1,7%. In spite of this, Folkvord lost his seat and no new seats were won.
Torstein Dahle, an economist at Bergen University College, was elected leader in 2003 and re-elected in March 2005. Following the 2005 election it was clear that their work to regain their place in
The National Republican Association – Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado, ANR-PC) is a political party in Paraguay, founded in September 11, 1887 by Bernardino Caballero. The presidential candidate of the party was defeated in elections held in April 2008 after 61 years in power.
It initially ruled the country from 1887 until 1904. In 1946, it rejoined the government, together with the Febreristas, during Higinio Morinigo's rule as President of Paraguay.
From 1947 until 1962, the Colorado Party ruled Paraguay as a one-party state; all other political parties were illegal. In 1962, all national parties were nominally legalized; the Communist Party being deemed "international" remained illegal and its adherents repressed by the Paraguayan state.
In practice, however, Paraguay remained a one-party dictatorship until the overthrow of longtime president Alfredo Stroessner in 1989. It served as one of the "twin pillars" of Stroessner's 35-year rule, one of the longest in history by a non-royal leader.
In 2002 the National Union of Ethical Citizens split from the party.
At the legislative elections of 27 April 2003, the party won 35.3% of the popular vote
The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Portuguese: Frente Revolucionária de Timor-Leste Independente or FReTiLIn) is a leftist political party in East Timor. They presently hold a plurality of seats in the National Parliament and formed the government in East Timor from independence until 2007. The party began as a resistance movement that fought for the independence of East Timor, first from Portugal and then from Indonesia, between 1974 and 1998. It was originally called the Timorese Social Democratic Association (ASDT). After East Timor gained its independence from Indonesia, FRETILIN became one of several parties competing for power in a multi-party system.
Fretilin holds consultative status with the Socialist International.
In 1978 Nicolau dos Reis Lobato, then the FRETILIN leader, was killed by the Indonesian military. The armed military wing of FRETILIN, which engaged in a guerrilla war against the Indonesian military during the Indonesian occupation of East Timor was known as Falintil.
In the first elections, held in 2001, the year before independence, FRETILIN polled 57.4% of the vote and took 55 seats in the 88-seat Assembly. While this gave the party a
United Russia (Russian: Еди́ная Росси́я, Yedínaya Rossíya) is a centrist political party in Russia and the largest party in the country, currently holding 238 of the 450 seats in the State Duma. The party was founded in December 2001, through a merger of the Unity and Fatherland-All Russia parties. Ideologically, it self-identifies as a "Russian conservative" party, and it supports the policies of the current presidential administration. The party's association with President and former Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, who is former party leader and current General Secretary of the United Russia, has been the key to its success, and there is also evidence that the electorate credits the party (in addition to Putin) for improvements in the economy. Although the party's popularity has declined from its peak of 64.4% in the 2007 Duma elections to 49.32% in the 2011 elections, it remains by far the most popular party in the country, ahead of the Communist Party (at 19.19%). Dmitry Medvedev, Russia's current prime minister and former president, has been the leader of United Russia since 26 May 2012 and of United Russia in the State Duma since 24 September 2011.
United Russia's predecessor
The Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan (Russian: Коммунистическая Партия Киргизстана Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Kirgizstana) is a political party in Kyrgyzstan. KPK was founded on August 21, 1999, following a split in the Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan.
KPK did not participate in the 2000 parliamentary elections.
KPK publishes Kommunisty Kyrgyzstana.
The party is affiliated to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of Oleg Shenin.
Communist Party of Nepal (Manmohan) was a communist party in Nepal, led by Man Mohan Adhikari.
Man Mohan, an erstwhile leader of the radical faction of the Communist Party of Nepal, had taken part in organising the 'Central Nucleus' (an attempt to rebuild the CPN). Since the breakup of the Central Nucleus in 1973, he had led his own group of followers but it was not until 1979 that they constituted themselves as a separate party. Until 1982 the party was known as Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Conference).
In 1986 the party merged with Communist Party of Nepal (Pushpa Lal) and formed Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist).
The People's Party (Spanish: Partido Popular, until 2001 known as the Christian Democratic Party of Panama) is a Panamanian Christian democratic political party. It was one of Latin America's most conservative and anti-communist Christian democratic parties. The ideological foundation of the party is based on the social doctrine of the Catholic Church.
The Christian Democratic Party was created in 1960. The PDC emerged out of a movement at the National University of Panama inspired by European Christian Democracy and known from 1957 to 1960 as the National Civic Union (UCN). The PDC's leading figures were middle-class professionals, intellectuals and students, but support also came from the trade union.
The PDC traces its origins to the “First Week of Christian Studies”, which met at Cumbres in March 1957. Those participating in this session and the “Second Week of Christian Studies” in July 1959 included intellectuals, who in one field or another expressed their desire for Social Christian action. The group that organized these meetings was organized on 12 April 1956, and first called itself Social Democratic Action (Accion Social Democrata, ASD) and its leaders met in 1957 under
The Socialist Workers' Party (Spanish: Partido de los Trabajadores Socialistas, PTS), previously known as the Workers Party for Socialism (Partido de Trabajadores por el Socialismo), is a Trotskyist (left-wing socialist) political party in Argentina. It was founded in 1988, as the first schism of the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) (a Trotskyist party led by Nahuel Moreno until his death). Within the next 4 years, the MAS would split in more than 20 groups. The PTS has no congressional representation. In presidential election of 2007 had obtained 95,000 votes (0,57%). The number of voters for this party in 2003's parliamentary election was 42,331 (about 0.25%). In 1999's presidential election the party had obtained 43,911 votes (about 0.23%).
PTS is the Argentine section of Trotskyist Fraction – International Strategy.
It is participating in the Workers Left Front, that obtained 660,000 votes in 2011 election (500,000 for president)
7.1 People Pile (Chinese: 七一人民批; pinyin: Qī-Yī Rénmín Pī), named after the mass protest in Hong Kong on July 1, 2003, is a small pro-democracy political group in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. It was established on August 10, 2003.
The group is formed by a group of young people mainly in their 20s to 30s. Its aim is to push ahead for democracy in Hong Kong by extending the "people's power" in the July 1 protests.
The platform of the group includes calling for universal suffrage of the Chief Executive in 2007 and Legislative Council in 2008, opposing the legislation to implement Article 23 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong's mini-constitution, and demanding the Chief Executive, Tung Chee-hwa, to step down.
The group filed three candidates in the 2003 District Council elections. All of them were defeated.
The Colombian Liberal Party (Spanish: Partido Liberal Colombiano; PLC) is a center-left party in Colombia that adheres to social democracy and social liberalism.
The Party was founded in 1848 and, together with the Colombian Conservative Party, subsequently became one of the two main political forces in the country for over a century.
After the period known as La Violencia the Liberals and the Conservative Party reached an agreement to share power from 1958 to 1974 in the so-called National Front agreement that followed the fall of General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla. Nowadays there are many critics of the 16 year agreement but it has to be admitted that it greatly reduced the intensity of the violent political warfare that preceded it.
In the year 2002, the Liberal Party was the largest single party in the Colombian Congress, with 54 out of 166 deputies, and 28 of 102 senators. In the election of 2006, the party won 38 out of 166 Deputies and 18 out of 102 senators.
With the election of independent President of Colombia, Álvaro Uribe Vélez as president the Liberal party reached its greatest crisis ever. Alvaro Uribe is indeed a former member of the party, having crafted all of his
The Covenant Party is a political party in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands advocating government and financial reform. In the legislative elections of 2003, the Covenant Party won nine of eighteen seats. In the 2005 elections, the Covenant Party increased its position as one of the strongest parties in the territory when Benigno R. Fitial, the party's gubernatorial candidate, was victorious in the election. The Covenant Party's victory in the gubernatorial election was complemented by the capture seven out of eighteen seats in the House of Representatives and three out of nine seats in the Senate. In the Commonwealth Legislature 2007 elections, the Covenant Party won only four of twenty seats in the House of Representatives.
In December 2010, Governor Benigno R. Fitial announced that the Covenant Party would merge with the Republican Party.
The Azerbaijani Social Democratic Party (ASDP) (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Sosial-Demokrat Partiyası) is an Azerbaijani political party led by the former President of Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutalibov. At the last elections (5 November 2000 and 7 January 2001), the party won less than 1% of popular vote and failed to gain seats in the parliament.
The Mauritian Militant Movement (french: Mouvement Militant Mauricien also known as the MMM ) is a Left socialist political party in Mauritius. The party was formed by a group of students in the late 1960s.
It is the second largest single party in the National Assembly with 20 MPs and the second largest party in local government with 4 councillors. It is the main opposition party and is currently is a coalition opposition with the sister party Militant Socialist Movement as from May 1st, 2012.
Colloquially referred to as the Militant, the MMM emerged in 1969 out of the original Club des Etudiant, which dates to 1967. The group which was initially a club for University students after the major strike and riots which happened in France in which Paul Berenger was one of the initial leaders. When coming back from his studies, he decided to launch a group to fight for the rights of students for a better education and better equal opportunities for every student after the devastated country with a high level of famine and poverty in which the British Empire surrendered the authority to the Mauritian government, then composed of the Mauritian Labour Party, Independent Forward Block and
The National Rally for Democracy (Arabic: التجمع الوطني الديمقراطي, French: Rassemblement National Démocratique, thus RND) is a political party in Algeria. It is led by former Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia.
The RND was founded on February 21, 1997. The party held its Second Congress on May 15–17, 2003.
In the 2002 parliamentary election it polled 9.5% of the vote, winning 47 of 380 seats in the Algerian Parliament (down from 156). In the 2007 election it obtained 10.33% of the vote and 61 seats out of the 389 seats.
The RND is a member of a three party political alliance, called the presidential alliance, created in 2005, and comprising the parties known as Movement for the Society of Peace (formerly Hamas) and the former single legal party, National Liberation Front (FLN). It is loyal to the current President of Algeria, Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
RND Secretary-General Ahmed Ouyahia was appointed as Prime Minister on June 23, 2008.
The North American Labour Party was a Canadian political party that nominated candidates in federal elections in the 1970s. However, because it was not a registered political party under the rules of Elections Canada, its candidates were considered to be independents.
The NALP was the Canadian affiliate of the Lyndon LaRouche movement, and later became the Party for the Commonwealth of Canada/Party for the Commonwealth-Republic.
The North American Labour Party nominated candidates in two provincial elections in British Columbia. In the 11 December 1975 election, the party’s four candidates collected 141 votes, less than 0.01% of the popular vote. In the 26 April 1979 elections, its four candidates collected 297 votes, 0.02% of the popular vote.
The party also ran candidates in the 1975 and 1977 provincial elections in the province of Ontario. The party was not registered in 1977, and its six candidates appeared on the ballot as independents. NALP candidates also ran in Toronto and Montreal municipal elections of 1978.
The NALP did not have an official leader in Ontario during the 1977 election, although Joe Brewda appears to have been the party's spokesman. In an interview with the
The Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD- "National People's Party") is a political party in India, based in the state of Bihar. The party was founded in 1997 by Laloo Prasad Yadav. The party came about as a result of Lalu Prasad Yadav, ex-president of Janata Dal, being evicted by Sharad Yadav, the then president, on corruption charges ($250 million) over the farm support funds. The mass base of the party has traditionally been Yadavs and Muslims, two large and relatively politically active segments of Bihar's population. In 2008, RJD received the status of recognized national level party following its performance in north-eastern states. RJD was derocognised as a national party on 30 July 2010.
For a long time in Bihar, political activity was a privilege and the prerogative of the landed and upper castes particularly Bhumihars, Brahmins and Rajputs. This was more so in the Bhojpuri belt from which Lalu Yadav hails. The landed upper castes also dominated the civil and police administrations. Despite reservations in government service, many OBC and SC people could not avail of it because of the poor state of basic primary and secondary education in Bihar. The powerful castes mainly supported
The Saenuri Party (Korean: 새누리당, Saenuri-dang), also known as the New Frontier Party, and until February 2012 as the Grand National Party (Korean: 한나라당, Hannara-dang) is a conservative political party in South Korea. The party holds a majority of seats in the 19th Assembly, lasting from 2012 to 2016.
The party was founded in 1997 as a merger of various prior political parties. Its earliest ancestor was the Democratic Republican Party under the rule of Park Chung-hee in 1963. Upon Park's death and at the beginning of the rule of Chun Doo-hwan in 1980, it was reconstituted and renamed as the Democratic Justice Party. In 1988 party member Roh Tae-woo introduced a wide range of political reforms including direct Presidential elections and a new constitution. The party was renamed in 1993, during the presidency of Kim Young-sam, with the merger of other parties to form the Democratic Liberal Party (Minju Jayudang). It was renamed as the New Korea Party (Sinhangukdang) in 1995, and it finally became the Grand National Party in November 1997 following its merger with the smaller Democratic Party, and various conservative parties. Three months later, with the election of Kim Dae-jung of
The Social Democratic Party (Hungary) often known as the "Historical" Social Democratic Party ("történelmi" Szociáldemokrata Párt, SZDP) is a Hungarian political party that emerged following a split within the Hungarian Social Democratic Party (MSZDP) in 1989. Both the SZDP and MSZDP lay claim to the same heritage: the Social Democratic Party which was part of a governing coalition in Hungary between 1945 and 1948, and a short period in 1956, which itself was renamed from the Hungarian Social Democratic Party, previously established in 1890. Traditional areas of support have been the industrial areas of Budapest, especially Obuda, Pesterzsébet and Angyalföld.
Hungary as part of Austria-Hungary:
Hungary as an independent country:
The party grew in power and influence until the First World War, which resulted in the party fracturing into pro-war and anti-war factions. The chaos which followed the war resulted in the collapse of the Dual Monarchy. The MSZDP leadership entered into government as part of an unsuccessful post-war socialist administration. Revolution and counter-revolution resulted in a brutal backlash against opposing political camps. This led to both the Red Terror and
The Socialist People's Party (Portuguese: Partido Popular Socialista, PPS) is a political party in Brazil.
It was founded in 1992, after the Brazilian Communist Party decided to rename itself the Socialist People's Party as part of a political realignment following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The PPS was a part of the coalition government of Brazilian President Luis Inácio da Silva until December of 2004, when its national executive decided to withdraw its support. Ciro Gomes of the PPS did not resign his position as Minister for National Integration, leading to his being removed from the PPS's National Executive. At the 2006 legislative elections, the party won 21 seats in the chamber of deputies. At the same time, party members retained the state governorships of Mato Grosso and Rondônia.
The PPS suffered setbacks in the 2010 general elections. It won 12 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, 1 Senate seat and no state governorships.
The Citizens' Movement for Democratic Action (Ruch Obywatelski Akcja Demokratyczna, ROAD) was a market-socialist and political party in Poland. The party was centrist-socialist on economic issues and conservative to moderate-conservative on social issues. In early 1990, an open conflict erupted between the conservative and centrist wings within the Citizens' Parliamentary Party (Obywatelski Klub Parlamentarny) formed by Sejm members from the ranks of the oppositional, trade-unionist Solidarity Citizens' Committee (Komitet Obywatelski Solidarność); Lech Wałęsa dubbed this conflict, which he actively fomented, the "war at the top" (wojna na górze).
On 12 May 1990, the conservative- socialist faction led by Jarosław Kaczyński formed a new party of their own, the Centre Agreement (Porozumienie Centrum, PC), which was going to support Wałęsa in the upcoming presidential election.
In response to this, the centrist and Christian democratic faction, which favoured Christian democrat Tadeusz Mazowiecki as president, decided to establish the Citizens Movement 'Democratic Action'. Formed in July 1990, this was a regular, structured party rather than a loosely knit movement as its name
The Gibraltar Social Democrats, abbreviated to GSD, is a social democratic political party in Gibraltar.
Their current leader is Peter Caruana, the previous Chief Minister of Gibraltar. The GSD was the governing party in Gibraltar from 1996 until their electoral defeat in 2011.
The party emerged after the collapse of the Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights. In its first election, in 1992, the party won 20.2% of the vote, giving it seven seats in the fifteen-seat Gibraltar Parliament.
At the 2000 election, the Social Democrats won eight of fifteen seats.
The party merged with the Gibraltar Labour Party in 2005, retaining the GSD name. The merger was unpopular with many members of both parties, causing some high profile members to resign their membership, including deputy leader Keith Azopardi and executive member Nick Cruz, who went on to form the Progressive Democratic Party.
At the 2007 election to the Gibraltar Parliament, the GSD polled 49.33% of the vote and were returned 10 (out of 17) members, the standard number required to run the legislature under the current constitution.
The party sits on the centre-left of the political spectrum, having improved the
The Intransigent Party (Spanish: Partido Intransigente) is a political party in Argentina, founded in 1963 by Oscar Alende. Its membership came from the Intransigent Radical Civic Union (Unión Cívica Radical Intransigente), one of the two factions into which the Radical Civic Union had divided in 1956.
The party has nationalist, populist, and center-left ideas. It was for a long time allied with Peronism in elections. Alende was presidential candidate in 1963, 1973, and 1983 without much success.
The party had its most successful period in 1985, becoming the third-largest party. It fell into oblivion after allying with the Justicialist Party from 1987.
The party was part of the FrePaSo coalition from the 1990s and entered government in 1999 as part of the Alianza between FrePaSo and the Radical Civic Union that brought Fernando de la Rúa to the presidency. The Alianza collapsed in 2001 and FrePaSo effectively disappeared.
For the 2003 Presidential Election, the Intransigent Party was allied to ARI, the party of Elisa Carrió, supporting her for President, and allowing her to be candidate (because her party did not have members in all the provinces). For 2005 legislative elections,
The Mauritian Labour Party is a centre-left social-democratic political party in Mauritius, and one of the three main Mauritian political parties along with the Mauritian Militant Movement and the Militant Socialist Movement. The Labour Party was founded in 1936 by Dr Maurice Cure based on the British Labour Party with the vision and determination of promoting workers' rights and freedom as well as compensation including a higher wage rate with paid leaves. The movement was encouraged by 55 conferences held by the leaders of the party throughout the country. Among other goals were the initial resolutions to obtain suffrage for the working class, representation in the Legislative Council, the organization of a Department of Labour, the prohibition of capitalist exploitation of sugar plantations, as well as the overall implementation of socialist values among Mauritian government agencies.
The founders of the Mauritian Labour Party are Dr. Maurice Cure, Jean Prosper, Mamode Assenjee, Dr. Hassenjee Jeetoo, Barthelemy Ohsan, Samuel Barbe, Emmanuel Anquetil, Godefroy Moutia, and Pandit Sahadeo. The Labour Party remains the oldest major political party in the Republic as it forms a
Nepal Shivsena (Nepali: नेपाल शिवसेना) is a Hindu nationalist political party in Nepal. The party was founded in 1999. It is connected to the Shiv Sena in India. Kiran Singh Budhathoki is the president of the party.
When the Taliban began destroying the Buddhistic ancient artifacts, the Nepal Shiv Sena strongly criticized the attacks.
The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) (Urdu: پاکستان تحريک انصاف; Pakistan Movement for Justice) is a centrist, progressive political party in Pakistan, which was founded by former Pakistani cricket captain and philanthropist Imran Khan. The fastest growing political party in Pakistan, even though of little election sucsses in the past, PTI has established itself as one of the country's mainstream national parties mainly after 30 October 2011 when over a hundred thousand people gathered in Lahore in support of the Party. PTI claims to have over 6 million workers in Pakistan, popularly called 'Insafiyans'. According to Political analysts PTI has a significant vote bank in Central, Southern and Western Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and Upper Sindh. PTI claims to be Pakistan's only non family party. Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and Pakistan Muslim League (N) are direct competitors of PTI. According to International Republican Institute (IRI), as of May 2012, PTI is Pakistan's most popular party.
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf was founded by Imran Khan on 25 April 1996 in Lahore, Pakistan. Founded initially as a sociopolitical movement, In June 1996 the first Central Executive
Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party, or SPDP (Malay: Parti Demokratik Progresif Sarawak) is a Sarawak based political party in Malaysia founded in 2002. The party is one of the component party of the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.
The party was founded in the wake of the de-registration of the Sarawak National Party in November 2002 by a faction aligned to the Chief Minister of Sarawak, Pehin Sri Abdul Taib Mahmud, led by Dato Sri William Mawan Ikom.
At the 2011 Sarawak state election, the SPDP won six out of the eight seats it contested.
The Party of Algerian Renewal (Parti du Renouveau Algérien) is a minor political party in Algeria. In the 2002 elections it received 0.3% of the vote and had one member of parliament. In the 17 May 2007 People's National Assembly elections, the party won 1.80% of the vote and 4 out of 389 seats.
The Patriotic Front (abbreviated PF) movement is the Zambian ruling political party. It is currently the most widely supported political party in Zambia. The Party was formed by Michael Sata as a breakaway party of the MMD in 2001. This was after the then-president Frederick Chiluba nominated Levy Mwanawasa as the MMD's presidential candidate for 2001 elections. In the presidential election held on 27 December 2001 Sata won 3.4% of the vote. In the legislative elections on the same day the party won 2.8% of popular votes and 1 out of 158 seats. In the 2006 elections, the patriotic front came second winning 46 Constituencies out of the 158 Constituencies. The Patriotic Front swept local government seats in Copperbelt and Lusaka, and a large number of the urban constituencies in the Northern and Luapula provinces.
The Patriotic Front was formed as a political party in 2001. In 2000, after Chiluba lost a bid to change the constitution to allow him to stand for third term, Michael Sata thought he would be endorsed as the MMD presidential candidate. The answer was given in 2001 when Chiluba noted that none of those (including Sata) who were in his government at the time were capable of
The Democratic Party (Portuguese: Partido Democrático) or the Democratic Party In Timor-Leste is a political party in East Timor, established on 10 June 2001. Currently, most of the members of the party are of the young generation who are studying abroad, and those who have completed their studies in Indonesia, Norway, Portugal, Australia, New Zealand and the United States.
In the 2001 parliamentary election held on 30 August, the party won 8.7% of the popular vote and seven out of 88 seats. The party has the second-highest representation in parliament, after the FRETILIN (a left-wing party).
In the April 2007 presidential election, the party's leader, Fernando de Araújo, took third place with 19.18% of the vote.
In provisional results of the June 2007 parliamentary election, the party won 11.30% of the vote, placing fourth. Based on the results, the Democratic Party will have eight seats in parliament.
The Brazilian Green Party (Portuguese: Partido Verde, PV) was constituted after the military dictatorship period and, like other Green Parties around the world, is committed to establishing a set of policies on ensuring social-democracy and sustainable development. One of the party's founding members was the journalist and former anti-dictatorship revolutionary Fernando Gabeira (a federal deputy since 1995), Alfredo Sirkys and Carlos Minc.
Among the main items on PV's agenda are Federalism, environmentalism, human rights, a form of direct democracy, Parliamentarism, welfare, civil liberties, pacifism and marijuana legalization under specific conditions.
The party, however, argues to be in a position on the political spectrum that supposedly goes beyond the issue "left-right", considered by its members to be anachronistic and unrealistic. Many critics also believe that the party broke the limit not to be a small party set in the context of the "legends of rent" (used by political parties only to be elected). This image is rejected by one of the theoreticians of the party, Tibor Rabóczkay, in the book Rethinking the Brazilian Green Party, with the argument that the going round and
Hadash (Hebrew: חד"ש, lit. New), an acronym for HaHazit HaDemokratit LeShalom VeLeShivion (Hebrew: החזית הדמוקרטית לשלום ולשוויון, lit. The Democratic Front for Peace and Equality); Arabic: الجبهة الديمقراطية للسلام والمساواة, al-Jabhah ad-Dimuqrāṭiyyah lis-Salām wa'l-Musāwah) is a Jewish and Arab socialist front of organizations that runs for the Israeli parliament. It currently has four members in the 120-seat Knesset.
The party was formed on 15 March 1977 when the Rakah and Non-Partisans parliamentary group changed its name to Hadash in preparation for the 1977 elections. The non-partisans included some members of the Black Panthers (several others joined the Left Camp of Israel) and other left-wing non-communist groups. Within the Hadash movement, Rakah (which was renamed Maki, a Hebrew acronym for Israeli Communist Party, in 1989) has retained its independent status.
In its first electoral test, Hadash won five seats, an increase of one on Rakah's previous four. However, in the next elections in 1981 the party was reduced to four seats. It maintained its four seats in the 1984 elections, gaining another MK when Mohammed Wattad defected from Mapam in 1988. The 1988 election
The Civil Solidarity Party (Azerbaijani: Vətəndaş Həmrəyliyi Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan. It was founded in 1992. Initially it gained 1.4% of the popular vote. Whilst it remains a minor party at the present time it is growing in popularity, as demonstrated by recent polls.
At the 2010 parliamentary elections, it won 3 out of 125 seats.
The Dominican Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Dominicano or PRD) is one of the main political parties of the Dominican Republic. It has a left of centrist position, social democratic in name. The party's distinctive color is white.
The party was founded in 1939 by Dominican exiles in Havana, Cuba, led by Juan Bosch. It was then established in the Dominican Republic in 1961. It was the first Dominican party based on populist principles and an organization based on mass membership. Bosch was elected president in 1962 in what is generally believed to be the first honest election in the country's history. Bosch later left the party in a dispute over its direction, and founded the Dominican Liberation Party.
The PRD has won the presidency three other times--in 1978 (Antonio Guzmán), 1982 (Salvador Jorge Blanco) and 2000 (Hipólito Mejía).
At the legislative elections, on the 16 May 2002, the party won 41.9% of the popular vote and 73 out of 150 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 29 out of 31 seats in the Senate of the Dominican Republic. Its candidate at the presidential election on the 16th of May 2004, Hipólito Mejía, won 33.6% of the votes, failing to win a
The National Democratic Party (Nemzeti Demokrata Párt) is a political party in Hungary. In the last legislative elections, held on 7 and 21 April 2002, the party won % of the popular vote and no seats. The NDP is, in effect, dormant, as it did not nominate candidates for the 2006 legislative elections and its website has not been updated since 2001.
The Pakistan Muslim League (N) (Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ ن; acronym: PML-(N), PMN-N, and PMLN) is a center-right, conservative political party in Pakistan, being the largest conservative political force and second largest political party, roughly representing 19.6% of votes in the Parliament (both in Senate and National Assembly), in the latest national parliamentary elections. The Pakistan Muslim League (N) is currently headed by former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
The party's platform generally reflects conservatism in Pakistan's political spectrum, in contrast to the center-left Pakistan Peoples Party — a social democratic political force — and the Awami National Party. Although its power of center lies in the heartland of itself in Punjab province, it also retains considerable support in Sindh, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, Azad Kashmir, and the Gilgit-Baltistan. Though it is not considered as the original Muslim League, but the party is recognized as the continuing legal successor and personality of the All-India Muslim League, a founding party of the State of Pakistan (See Pakistan Movement and the declaration Now or Never). In addition, it is the only party in the history
The Socialist Party of North Carolina is a democratic socialist/social democratic political party in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
It was formed in 1996 by at-large members of Socialist Party USA and is recognized as both an activist organization and a vehicle for democratic socialist electoral politics. The SPNC was a key supporter of the FLOC boycott of Mt. Olive Pickles and is involved the death penalty moratorium movement.
The party obtained write-in status for Socialist Presidential candidates David McReynolds in 2000 (who received over 1000 votes in NC) and Walt Brown in 2004 (who received about 300); these two elections were the first since 1936 in which people in North Carolina could vote for Socialist Party candidates. The then secretary of the party, Brendan Davidson, unsuccessfully sought a seat on the city council of Salisbury, North Carolina, in 2005, making him the first member of the modern party to seek office in North Carolina. Davidson narrowly lost, receiving 5% of the vote and coming in sixth place in a race where the top five candidates were elected.
In 2007, the Socialist Party of North Carolina ended its affiliation with the Socialist Party USA.
Tāhōʻēraʻa Huiraʻatira (Popular Rally) is a political party in French Polynesia. At the last legislative elections on May 23, 2004, and by-elections on February 13, 2005, the party won 27 out of 57 seats.
Tāhōʻēraʻa Huiraʻatira is the large conservative pro-autonomy party and anti-independence-party on French Polynesia and was founded by Gaston Flosse, who supports French Polynesia's current autonomy arrangement with France and who led Tāhōʻēraʻa Huiraʻatira for over 20 years.
Gaston Tong Sang was the party's presidential candidate in the election of March 2005, but was defeated by Oscar Temaru by 29 votes to 26. On 26 December 2006, Tong Sang was elected President of French Polynesia. He fell to a no-confidence vote on 31 August 2007, and Temaru was elected again on 14 September 2007. Tong Sang then split from his former party to found a new party called O Porinetia To Tatou Ai'a.
The party is backed by most French settlers in French Polynesia.
The party elected two deputies to the French National Assembly in 2007.
The Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (हिन्दी- उत्तराखण्ड क्रान्ति दल) (UKD), or Uttarakhand Revolutionary Party, is a regional political party in India. It bills itself as the only regional party of the Uttarakhand Himalayas, in contrast to the national parties that dominate the region's politics.
In the present Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly, elected in 2007, it has three members, who supported the BJP government, when the 2007 state elections resulted in a hung assembly.
The UKD was established on 26 July 1979 to fight for a separate state composed of the hill districts of Uttar Pradesh. The founding convention was chaired by Dr. D.D. Pant, former vice-chancellor of Kumaun University. After years of struggle and public agitation, the aim was finally achieved, when the separate Uttaranchal state was formed on November 9, 2000, later renamed Uttarakhand. However, in the first ever state assembly elections in 2002, the party won only 4 out of 70 seats, and was outmaneuvered by the Indian National Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), both despite being late comers to the separate state movement, succeeded in capturing its momentum for electoral gain and formed governments in the
Uzhavar Uzhaippalar Katchi (UUK) (Tamil: உழவர் உழைப்பாளர் கட்சி, 'Farmers and Toilers Party'), a political party in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The president of UUK is K. Chellamuthu. K. Chellamuthu is also the president of the Tamil Nadu Farmers' Association.
UUK supported the National Democratic Alliance in the 2001 Tamil Nadu assembly elections. At the time, NDA in Tamil Nadu was dominated by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK).
The party opposes the introduction of genetically modified rice in the agriculture of Tamil Nadu.
The Wales Green Party (WGP; Welsh: Plaid Werdd Cymru) is a semi-autonomous political party within the Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW). It covers Wales, and is the only regional party with autonomous status within the GPEW.
The WGP fights elections for the National Assembly for Wales (as well as at the local, UK and European level) and has its own newsletters, membership list, AGMs and manifesto. Members of the WGP are automatically members of the GPEW.
The current Leader is Pippa Bartolotti and the current Deputy Leader is Christopher Were. Wales is represented internally within the GPEW by Chris Simpson and Owen Clarke on the Green Party Regional Council (GPRC). Both sets of positions are directly elected by postal ballot.
Other officer positions within WGP (elected at AGM) are as follows:
Wales-wide decisions are taken by the Wales Green Party Council made up of the spokespeople, the officers listed above and a representative from each local party.
In 1992, an electoral alliance culminated in Plaid Cymru's MP Cynog Dafis being endorsed by the local Green Party in Ceredigion. The agreement broke down by 1995.
In the May 2003 election to the National Assembly for Wales, the
The Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) was the union between the mostly Shiraz Party and the mostly African Afro Party in the island of Zanzibar. The formation of ASP led to the ouster of the Arabs from power with the Zanzibar Revolution in 1964. The party joined with the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) in January 1977.
The Green Party (Sakartvelo's mtsvaneta partia) is a political party in Georgia. It is led by Gia (George) Gachechiladze.
Its success has varied - having 11 out of 235 members of parliament in 1992 and having been part of the governing coalition in 1995.When it stood independently in 1999 it only received 0.55% of the vote. It stood as part of Eduard Shevardnadze's coalition in the annulled 2003 elections. It believes that the 2003 elections were "the most transparent process in the history of Georgia".
The Liberal League; Japanese Jiyu Rengo (自由連合); was a free market liberal party in Japan. It was a minor party which held one seat in the House of Representatives in the Diet at its peak. The League, whose name can also be translated as "Freedom League" or "Libertarian Union" (even though its official English translation is Liberal League), had a liberal and free market libertarian political agenda.
The party was formed in 2001 and won a few seats in its first election; however, in the 2003 parliamentary elections, it won only one. It won no seats in the July 2004 Upper House Elections.
On domestic policy, the party supported privatization and smaller government, but also called for increasing the rights of women. It supported the government on most issues, and, despite being critical of Japan's close relationship with the United States, was supportive of the war in Iraq. It gained its base mostly from farmers. It supported the government (made up of the Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) and the New Clean Government Party on most issues unofficially.
On domestic policy, the party was a liberal party.
In the 2005 lower house elections, the Liberal League's only sitting member of
The Movement for the Society of Peace (Arabic: Harakat mujtama' as-silm حركة مجتمع السلم, formerly called Hamas حماس, French: Mouvement de la société pour la paix) is an Islamist party in Algeria, led until his 2003 death by Mahfoud Nahnah. Its current leader is Bouguerra Soltani. It is aligned with the international Muslim Brotherhood. It is currently (as of 2004) part of a ruling coalition with the FLN and RND, and holds posts in the parliament and government of Algeria.
The Muslim Brotherhood reached Algeria during the later years of the French colonial presence in the country (1830–1962). Sheikh Ahmad Sahnoun led the organization in Algeria between 1953 and 1954 during the French colonialism. Brotherhood members and sympathizers took part in the uprising against France in 1954-1962, but the movement was marginalized during the largely secular FLN one-party rule which was installed at independence in 1962.
Islamist forces however remained active in religious education, mosques and religious associations, including sympathizers of the Muslim Brotherhood. Brotherhood activists generally refrained from confronting the regime, which did not tolerate independent opposition, but
The Nonpartisan Bloc for Support of Reforms (Bezpartyjny Blok Wspierania Reform), abbreviated BBWR, was an officially nonpartisan organization (but, in fact, a political party) affiliated with Lech Wałęsa. It was established in 1993 and in 1997 became part of Solidarity Electoral Action.
It was founded to continue the traditions of Józef Piłsudski's pre-war Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government (Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem), which likewise had been known by the same initials, BBWR.
After electoral losses in 1994, Wałęsa issued a statement that invoked comparisons with Piłsudski, who had become dictator of Poland: "When the time comes to introduce a dictatorship, the people will force me to accept this role, and I shall not refuse."
The Workers' Party (French: Parti des Travailleurs, Arabic Hizb al-Ummal حزب العمال) is a Trotskyist political party in Algeria, closely linked with the Workers' Party of France. The party is led by Louisa Hanoune.
The Workers' Party, PT abbreviation, is a left-wing party, advocating for the protection and promotion of trade union movements in Algeria, from its claims, including a figure egalitarian doctrine is to claim that a better distribution of wealth on the people of country. The creation of this party back to the year 1990, one year after the constitutional reform which introduced a multiparty system, its Secretary General Louisa Hanoune, who in 2004 was the first woman in the Arab world to stand as a candidate for a presidential election.
The Workers' Party received 3.3 percent of the vote and elected 21 members to parliament in the 2002 legislative elections. In the 2004 presidential elections, Hanoune was the first woman in Algeria to run for the office. She received 101,630 votes (1 percent).
In the 2007 parliamentary elections it was the biggest opposition party, winning 5.08% of the vote and 26 seats out of 389. The three party coalition (National Liberation Front
The Azerbaijan Social Prosperity Party (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Sosial Rifah Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan.
At the elections (5 November 2000 and 7 January 2001), the party won 1 out of 125 seats. At the parliamentary elections of 6 November 2005 the party kept 1 seat. The leader of the party is Hussein Kyazymly.
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) (French: Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, then in 1955 rebranded in French as Parti social démocratique du Canada) was a social-democratic and democratic-socialist political party in Canada, founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, agrarian, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. In 1944, it became the first social-democratic government in North America (based in Saskatchewan). In 1961, it disbanded and was replaced by the New Democratic Party. The full, but little used, name of the party was Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (Farmer-Labour-Socialist).
The CCF aimed to alleviate the suffering of the Great Depression through economic reform and public "co-operation". Many of the party's first Members of Parliament (MPs) were former members of the Ginger Group of left-wing Progressive and Labour MPs. These MPs included: United Farmers of Alberta MP William Irvine; Agnes Macphail, MP; Ted Garland, MP; Humphrey Mitchell, MP; Abraham Albert Heaps, MP; Angus MacInnis, MP; J.S. Woodsworth, MP. Also involved in the plans to found a new party were members of the League for Social
The Guns and Dope Party is a United States political party envisioned by cult author Robert Anton Wilson. While the party has proposals that can be considered generally libertarian and anarchist in its principles, it presents these positions in a facetious manner, and advocates extremely absurd things, for example replacing one third of Congress with ostriches. This is consistent with Robert Anton Wilson's and chaotic Discordianism's tradition of advocating freedom through parody and surrealism. Indeed, this school of thought regards dogma as the main root of humanity's evils and holds the view that people shouldn't take things - or themselves - too seriously.
The party's political ideology stems from Wilson's insight that "every ostrich is a tsar" - that is, a radical political belief that each individual should be capable of governing him/herself. Guns and Dope has consistently supported "everybody" for President of the United States, where voters are encouraged to write-in their own name on the ballot.
One chapter of the Guns and Dope Party regularly hosts a theme camp at Nevada's yearly counter-culture sopped Burning Man festival.
The Guns and Dope Party arose from the mind of
Justice Union (traditional Chinese: 公義同盟) is a small political group in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. It was established and chaired by Ms Angel Leung, former DJ and then Eastern District Councillor, after leaving the Democratic Party (Hong Kong).
Three members of the group ran in the 2003 District Council election in the Chai Wan area in the Eastern District, and Leung herself ran in a constituency in Ma On Shan of the Sha Tin District. All were defeated.
The Rally for Culture and Democracy (Amazigh: Agraw i Yidles d Tugdut; Arabic: التجمع من أجل الثقافة والديمقراطية; French: Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Démocratie RCD) is a political party in Algeria. It promotes secularism (Laïcité) and has its principal power base in Kabylie, a major Berber-speaking region. Some consider it to take the position of a liberal party for the Berber-speaking population in Algerian politics.
The party leader is Saïd Sadi, who was a presidential candidate in 1995, winning 9.3 percent of the popular vote. In 1997, the party won 19 of 390 seats. The RCD boycotted the 2002 elections. Saïd Sadi was a candidate again in the 2004 presidential election and won 1.9 percent of the vote. The party participated in the 2007 elections, winning 3.36% of the vote and 19 seats.
In the 2007 legislative election, support for the RCD was higher than its national average (3.36%) in the following provinces:
Reformist Party ORA (Albanian: Partia Reformiste ORA) was a social-democratic centre-left political party in Kosovo. The party stood for an independent, free and democratic Kosovo.
The party was normally referred to as ORA, which in Albanian means the Hour.
ORA was founded as Civil List ORA (Albanian: Lista Qytetare ORA) in the summer of 2004. During the legislative elections on 24 October 2004, the party won 6.2 per cent of the popular vote and 7 out of 120 seats in the Assembly of Kosovo and formed together with the Democratic Party of Kosovo, a strong opposition. However, in the election held in November 2007, it failed to pass the census (currently at 5%), netting only about 4,2% of votes. That led to them gaining the title of a non-parliamentary party.
The following were members of Kosovo Albanian parliament from ORA: Nazim Jashari, Teuta Sahatqija, Gazmend Muhaxheri, Genc Gorani, Fatmire Mullhaxha Kollcaku, Ylber Hysa and Veton Surroi. Surroi was a member of the 'Kosovo Unity Team', a five member team of the most senior negotiators that represents the people of Kosovo in the talks for the final status of Kosovo.
The last leader of the party, Teuta Sahatqija, took over the
The Sam Rainsy Party (Khmer: Kanakpak Sam Rainsy; SRP) is a personalist liberal party in Cambodia. The party is a member of the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats, Liberal International, and the Alliance of Democrats. The name of the leader, Sam Rainsy, is pronounced in Khmer as “Som Rangsee”.
The Sam Rainsy Party, founded in 1995 as the Khmer National Party and given its current name in 1998, constitutes the official opposition to the ruling Cambodian People's Party. Since the decline of the junior coalition partner, Funcinpec, in the 2008 National Assembly elections, the Sam Rainsy Party is now considered the second largest party in Cambodia.
The Sam Rainsy Party won 15 of the 123 seats in the National Assembly in the 1998 elections, 24 seats in the 2003 elections, and 26 seats in the 2008 elections with 21% of the vote. The SRP won two seats in the 2006 Senate elections.
In 2009, it formally allied with the Human Rights Party in the Democratic Movement of Change.
In 2008, party activist Tuot Saron was arrested on a charge of "being an accomplice to unlawful confinement". International human rights groups including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International described the
The Tavini Huiraatira (English: People's Servant) is a political party in French Polynesia that favours greater autonomy from its territorial ruler France.
The party was founded in 1977 by Oscar Temaru under the name the Front for the Liberation of Polynesia (FLP). The party changed its name in 1983 to Tavini Huiraatira (People's Servant Party). In 1986, Tavini Huiraatira obtained 2 seats in the territorial assembly, 4 seats in 1991, 11 in 1996, and 13 in 2001. In 2004, the Union for Democracy Coalition takes 27 of the 57 seats.
At the last legislative elections on May 23, 2004, and by-elections on February 13, 2005, the party was part of the Union for the Democracy (Union pour la Démocratie), that won 27 out of 57 seats.
Oscar Temaru's coalition government program in 2004 included the gradual increase of the minimum wage to 150.000 CFP Fcfp, work days that don’t start before 9am, an improvement of social services, political decentralisation, educational reform, and a revision of the new autonomy statute after French Polynesia was declared a French Overseas Country (pays d'outre-mer) in March 2004.
The Reform Party is a political party in the Northern Mariana Islands. It is not an affiliate of the Reform Party USA but rather the American Reform Party, a splinter group of that party. In the last legislative elections held on 1 November 2003, the party won no seats; gubernatorial candidate Froilan Cruz Tenorio of the Reform Party won 11.3% of the vote. The party didn't take part in the 2005 elections.
The Alberta New Democratic Party or Alberta NDP is a social-democratic political party in Alberta, Canada, which was originally founded as the Alberta section of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. From the mid-1980s to 2004, the party abbreviated its name as the "New Democrats" (ND).
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was founded in Calgary on 1 August 1932 but organised in fits and starts in Alberta due to lack of support from the United Farmers of Alberta (UFA). While most UFA Members of Parliament, led by William Irvine, the first president of the Alberta CCF, supported the CCF and ran for re-election (unsuccessfully) in the 1935 federal election as CCF candidates, the UFA was also the governing party in the Alberta legislature and was more ambivalent. The CCF did not run in the 1935 provincial election because of its ties with the UFA. The UFA was defeated badly and fell into disarray. Federally, eight of the UFA's Members of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons ran as UFA-CCF candidates in the 1935 federal election - and were all defeated largely because of their association with the unpopular UFA government. In 1936, William Irvine, a CCF founder and
The Communist Party of Thailand - CPT (Thai: พรรคคอมมิวนิสต์แห่งประเทศไทย, abbreviated พคท.) was a Marxist-Leninist political party in Thailand active from 1942 until the 1990s. Initially known as the Communist Party of Siam the party was founded officially on 1 December 1942, although communist activism in the country began as early as 1927. In the 1960s the CPT grew in membership and support and by the early 1970s was the second largest communist movement in mainland South-East Asia (after Vietnam). The party launched n a guerrilla war against the Thai government in 1965. Even though the CPT suffered internal divisions, at its political peak the party effectively acted as a state within the state. Its rural support is estimated to have been at least four million people; its military support consisted of 10-14,000 armed fighters. Its influence was concentrated in the North-Eastern, Northern and Southern regions of Thailand. Following a series of internal party disputes, changes in international communist alliances, successful counter-insurgency policies of the Thai government and, ultimately, the end of the Cold War, the party disappeared from the political scene in the early
Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian pronunciation: [nɑʃuˈnɑːl ˈsɑmlɪŋ], National Unity, National Unification), abbreviated NS, was a fascist party in Norway active from 1933 to 1945. Founded by former minister of defense Vidkun Quisling and a group of supporters such as Johan Bernhard Hjort – who led the party's paramilitary wing (the Hird) for a short time before leaving the party in 1937 after various internal conflicts. The party claimed to have been founded on May 17, Norway's national holiday, but was in fact founded on May 13, 1933.
While the party failed to gain considerable support in the national and local elections before the war, it made its mark on Norwegian politics nonetheless. Despite the fact that it never managed to get more than 2.5% of the votes, it became a factor by polarizing the political scene. All of the established parties in Norway viewed it as a Norwegian version of the Nazis, and generally refused to cooperate with it in any way. Several of its marches and rallies before the war were either banned, or, as in Germany, marred by violence as working-class activists (Communists and socialists) clashed with the Hird.
A significant trait of the party throughout its
The Republican Party is a political party in the Northern Mariana Islands. In the 2001 gubernatorial election Juan Babauta of the Republican Party won with 42.8% of the vote. At the legislative elections of November 1, 2003 the party won 7 out of 18 seats in the House of Representatives.
At the gubernatorial elections of November 6, 2005, Governor Juan Babauta was defeated, receiving 26% of the vote and third place. In the 2005 legislative elections held concurrently, the Republicans took 7 of 18 seats in the House of Representatives and 3 of 9 seats in the Senate. In the November 3, 2007 Commonwealth Legislature elections, the party took 12 of 20 seats in the House of Representatives, giving them a strong majority.
The Northern Mariana Islands Republican Party is associated with the United States Republican Party though no Northern Mariana Islands politicians have achieved high-ranking positions in the mainland United States. The Republican Party in the Northern Mariana Islands is much stronger than the Democratic Party, but the Covenant Party, which only exists in the Northern Mariana Islands, has become the main competitor for the Republican Party on the islands and defeated the
The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (German: Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP) was a German left-wing political party founded on August 7/9, 1869. The group was the successor to the Association of German Workers' Associations (Verband Deutscher Arbeitervereine) led by Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel, but also included members from the General German Workers' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiter Verein), founded by the late Ferdinand Lassalle. Bebel became the party's first chairman.
As the party was founded in Eisenach, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, its programme was dubbed Eisenacher Programm and its adherents the Eisenacher. Bebel and Liebknecht were influenced by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and considered their party "a section of the International Workingmen's Association", sharing its aspirations. The party, which was based mainly in Saxony, demanded the democratisation of the state and of German society.
The party's organ, which was at first called Demokratisches Wochenblatt (Democratic Weekly Paper), later Der Volksstaat (The People's State), was published three times a week.
In 1875 SDAP and ADAV finally merged to form the Socialist
The Ecologist Greens (Greek: Οικολόγοι Πράσινοι, Oikologoi Prasinoi) are a Greek Green ecologist political party. It has existed since 2002, yet the ecologist movement in Greece dates many years and was characterised by a reluctance to actively become involved in the political scene. They are a member of the European Green party.
The Ecological Forum, the body that lead to the establishment of the party, was founded after a proposal of the local group Ecological Movement of Thessaloniki (Greek: Οικολογική Κίνηση Θεσσαλονίκης, Oikologiki Kinisi Thessalonikis), and brought together the political party "Green Politics" (Greek: Πράσινη Πολιτική, Prasini Politiki), the previous Greek member of the European Green Party, with other local ecological groups and independent ecologists.
On 7–8 December 2002, the Eco Forum called for a conference that convened in the building of the Athens Lawyer Association, and it decided to establish the Green Ecologists and elected a 18 member council to coordinate the establishment of a new political entity. In the coming months, focus groups were created to shape the constitution and the political positions of the body, which were adopted by the first
The Fatherland Party (Norwegian: Fedrelandspartiet, FLP) was a political party in Norway, which was founded by former local Progress Party politician Harald Trefall in 1990. Primarily based in Western Norway, the party supported nationalist positions such as opposition to immigration and the European Union. It got two representatives elected to public office in the 1991 local elections, in a county and municipal council respectively. The party never won representation since, and was dissolved in 2008 after years of electoral inactivity.
The FLP was founded on 17 May 1990 by Harald Trefall, a member of Folkebevegelsen mot innvandring (FMI) and former Bergen city councillor for the Progress Party. He became noted in the late 1980s for his opposition to immigration, and was the first candidate for the Stop Immigration party in Hordaland in 1989. In one of the earliest notable acts by the party, it put an ad in the Christian newspaper Dagen, where it called for Christians to fight together with the party to stop Norway from becoming "a Muslim country". In its first election, the 1991 local elections, it won one representative in the Karmøy municipal council, and one representative in
The New Wafd Party ("New Delegation Party"; Arabic: حزب الوفد الجديد Hizb Al-Wafd Al-Jadid) (also known as the Al-Wafd Party) is a nationalist liberal party in Egypt.
It is the extension of one of the oldest and historically most active political parties in Egypt, Wafd Party, which was dismantled after the 1952 Revolution. The New Wafd was established in 1978, but banned only months later. It was revived after President Anwar Sadats' assassination in 1981.
In Egypt's last legislative and presidential elections in November and December 2005, the party won 6 out of 454 seats in the People's Assembly, and its presidential candidate Numan Gumaa received 2.9 per cent of the total votes cast for president.
Pharmaceuticals tycoon El-Sayyid el-Badawi is the current party chairman after winning Al-Wafd's internal election on May 28, 2010 against Mahmoud Abaza, who was the party chairman after succeeding Numan Gumaa in 2006.
Following the 2011 Revolution the party joined the National Democratic Alliance for Egypt electoral bloc, which is dominated by the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt). As the date neared for fielding candidate lists, Wafd left the alliance and
The Praja Socialist Party (PSP) was an Indian political party in existence from 1952 to 1972. It was founded when the Socialist Party, led by Jayprakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Deva and Basawon Singh (Sinha), merged with the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party led by J.B. Kripalani (formerly, the president of the Indian National Congress and a close associate of Jawaharlal Nehru). A section led by Rammanohar Lohia broke from the party in 1955, resuming the name "Socialist Party". Another section of the party, led by the trade union leader George Fernandes, broke off to become the Samyukta Socialist Party in 1969. In 1960, Kripalani left the party and in 1964, Asoka Mehta joined Congress after his expulsion from the party. In 1972, the PSP merged with Fernandes's party to become the Socialist Party once more, before becoming part of the Janata coalition following the Emergency in 1977.
In September, 1952 the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party merged with the Socialist Party with J.B. Kriplani as the chairman and Asoka Mehta as the general secretary.
At the party's first general election in 1957, the PSP won 10.41% of the total votes and 19 seats in the Lok Sabha. However, the party's vote share
The Democratic Party of British Gibraltar (DPBG) was a right-wing political party founded in 1978 in Gibraltar. It grew out of the now defunct Integration with Britain Party (IWBP) and was led first by Maurice Xiberras, formerly of the IWBP, and subsequently by Peter Isola.
It obtained seven seats in the first elections it contested (1980 elections) failing to replace Sir Joshua Hassan's AACR. In the next elections (1984 elections), it was replaced by the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party as main opposition party failing to secure any seat. It dissolved some time later.
Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation is a communist political party in India.
Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) was formed in 1969 by the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries, who had split from Communist Party of India (Marxist) in 1967. CPI(ML) advocated armed struggle and condemned participation in parliamentary elections and work in mass movements. Initially the party leaders were Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal. In 1971 the party was split in two, when Satyanarayan Singh revolted against Majumdars's sectarianism. CPI(ML) Liberation has its roots in the faction that remained loyal to Majumdar. Later Majumdar's CPI(ML) was split in pro- and anti-Lin Biao-factions. CPI(ML) Liberation is the party that evolved out if the anti-Lin Biao faction.
In 1975 Vinod Mishra was elected general secretary. From 1977 a reform process took place in Mishra's CPI(ML). The party conference in 1979 declared that mass organizations ought to be created in every front (which the original CPI(ML) had condemned as "economism"). Mishra's CPI(ML) also maintained good relations with the Communist Party of China, whilst most other Indian ML-factions
The Democratic League of Kosovo (Albanian: Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës, LDK) is the second largest political party in Kosovo. It is a conservative and liberal conservative party; the main right-wing party in Kosovo.
At the legislative elections held on 24 October 2004 the party won 45.4% of the popular vote or 47 out of 120 seats (seven of which have now defected to the Nexhat Daci-led Democratic League of Dardania). One of the founding members, Ibrahim Rugova was president of the party, as well as President of Kosovo, until his death on 21 January 2006. At the last legislative elections held on 17 November 2007, the party won only 22.6% and 25 seats but went on to form a Coalition government with Hashim Thaçi's Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK); in October 2010, the LDK withdrew from the coalition.
During the late 1980s, nationalism was on the rise throughout the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Since 1974 the province of Kosovo, although part of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, was a self-governed entity over which the Serbian parliament had almost no factual control (see Political status of Kosovo). In the late 1980s, civil unrest which had been striking the province
The Gibraltar Democratic Movement (GDM) was a political party in Gibraltar. It was the forerunner of the present Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party. Joe Bossano, Chief Minister from 1988 to 1996, left the Integration with Britain Party in 1975 to form the GDM, which later became the GSLP. In the only elections it contested (1976 election), it won four seats in the Assembly.
The Nepal Sadbhavana Party (Nepali: नेपाल सदभावना पार्टी) was a regional political party in Nepal that worked for Madhesi rights. Its founding was in 1985, as the Nepal Sadbhavana Council, by Gajendra Narayan Singh. In domestic affairs, it aimed at promoting the interests and citizenship of the Madhesi community of the Terai Region, favored the introduction of Hindi as the second national language, and supported the framework of a democratic socialist society. Within the bipolar framework of the Cold War, it worked for the establishment of a special relationship with India in the framework of nonalignment.
In 1990 it transformed into NSP. It split three times. The first time one of its leaders Ram Janam Tiwari broke away. The second time Hridayesh Tripathy formed a splinter party called Nepal Samajwadi Janata Dal that came back into the fold later. The third split was when Badri Mandal became openly monarchist.
NSP took part in several coalition governments in Nepal during the 1990s. At the last legislative elections before the King of Nepal took power, 3 May and 16 May 1999, the party won 3.2% of the popular vote and five out of 205 seats.
In July 2001, Singh reorganised the NSP
Paattali Makkal Katchi (பாட்டாளி மக்கள் கட்சி, abbreviated PMK) is a Tamil political party.
PMK was founded by Dr. S. Ramdoss and the state president is G. K. Mani. Ramdoss had earlier worked with the Vanniyar Sangham (Vanniyar Union) founded by him in 1980. PMK is based amongst the Most High Class Vanniyakula Kshatriyas community. PMK has advocated the bifurcation of the state of Tamil Nadu, a proposal that was seen as a casteist line as PMK is stronger in the northern half of the TN State where it commands 50% of the vote bank namely the Vanniyars.
Ahead of the 2004 election PMK joined the broad Tamil political front Democratic Progressive Alliance where also Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Indian National Congress, Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (Marxist) and Indian Union Muslim League are members.
After the formation of PMK, and under the leadership of Ramadoss, PMK was able to obtain a significant share of power both in the regional government in Tamil Nadu and the central government, primarily due to coalition pressures and arm twisting tactics. Dr. Anbumani Ramadoss, the son of S. Ramadoss, was the member of Rajya Sabha in the government of India. Following
The Progressive Party of Brazil, though renamed several times, is one of Brazil's oldest parties with a continuous history. The Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB) is the only other party with such a long continuous history (though it has also been renamed since its formation).
The Progressive Party of Brazil was founded in 1965 by the newly-inaugurated military regime, to gather the supporters of the government. The party was then called ARENA (Alianￃﾧa Renovadora Nacional; 'National Renewing Alliance'), and so was until 1979, when the pro-democratic reforms changed it to PDS (Partido Democrￃﾡtico Social; 'Social Democratic Party'). In the first free elections since the military dictatorship, in 1986, the Party was seriously defeated in the parliament and state governorships. Then it was renamed PP (Partido Progressista; 'Progressive Party') and soon later PPR (Partido Progressista Republicano; 'Republican Progressive Party') in 1991. Again the name was changed to PPB (Partido Progressista Brasileiro; 'Brazilian Progressive Party') and finally back to PP (Progressive Party) in 2003.
Its most well-known politicians are Paulo Maluf, mayor and governor of Sￃﾣo
The Puerto Rican Renewal Party — or Partido Renovación Puertorriqueña (PRP) in Spanish — was a short-lived Puerto Rican political party founded on August 28, 1983 in Ponce, Puerto Rico The party was disbanded in 1987.
The party's main leader was then-mayor of San Juan Hernán Padilla, a pro-statehood leader and founder of the Partido Nuevo Progresista, PNP.
The history of the foundation of this party goes back to the 1980 election in Puerto Rico, when the pro-statehood party (in favor of making Puerto Rico the 51st state of the United States), barely retained the governorship and the Resident Commissioner position, while losing control of the Puerto Rico Senate and the Puerto Rico House of representatives, as well as a majority of the island's 78 municipalities.
After what many statehood supporters perceived as a defeat in the 1980 election, a movement started to get the New Progressive Party to nominate a new candidate for the 1984 election. Dr. Hernán Padilla's name was the favorite to substitute governor Carlos Romero Barceló at the top of the NPP's ticket in 1984.
However, Governor Romero saw the threat from Padilla and at a party assembly held in Ponce on November 14, 1982, he
The Colombian Conservative Party (Spanish: Partido Conservador Colombiano) is a traditional political party in Colombia. The party was formally established in 1849 by Mariano Ospina Rodríguez and José Eusebio Caro.
The Conservative party along with the Colombian Liberal Party dominated the Colombian political scene from the end of the 19th century until 2002, in bipartisan political hegemony. In the mid-20th century, the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party established the "National Front" after deposing President Gustavo Rojas Pinilla and shared by turns the presidential terms for 16 years.
Currently, the Conservative Party is the second largest political force in the congress. It is part of the coalition of Juan Manuel Santos and supported the government of Alvaro Uribe since 2002.
Lawyer José Ignacio de Márquez was elected president of Colombia in 1837. During his government, tensions between civil politicians and generals of the Independence War grew into the first civil war Colombia faced, Marquez's side was called "Liberales ministeriales" (Spanish: Ministerial liberals). After the war, known as the War of the Supremes (Spanish: Guerra de los Supremos), General Pedro
Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre), was a communist party in Nepal. CPN(UC) was formed on November 19-20 1990, through the merger of Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal), Communist Party of Nepal (Fourth Convention), Proletarian Workers Organisation and Communist Party of Nepal (Janamukhi). Soon thereafter a group led by Dr. Baburam Bhattarai and Shital Kumar, that had left Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) joined the party. Samyukta Janamorcha Nepal was set up as the open mass front of the party.
The next year the party held its first convention. It adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution" and that the party would remain an underground party.
In 1992, in a situation of economic crisis and chaos, with spiralling prices as a result of implementation of changes in policy of the new Congress government, SJM and CPN(UC) stepped up their political agitation. A Joint People's Agitation Committee was set up together with the Communist Party of Nepal (Masal), the Nepal Communist League and the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist-Maoist). A general strike was called for April 6.
Violent incidents began to occur on the evening ahead of
The Modern Equality Party (Azerbaijani: Müasir Müsavat Partiyası) is a centre-left political party in Azerbaijan.
Its candidate Hafiz Haciyev won 0.3% of the popular vote in the 15 October 2003 presidential elections. During a live debate on TV, Haciyev clashed with Fuad Mustafayev, a representative of the Popular Front Party who threw his full water glass into Haciyev's face, the latter reacted throwing his water glass against Mustafayev.
In one occasion Haciyev accused Musavat leader Isa Gambar of being a KGB agent, ANIP leader Etibar Mamedov of collaborating with Armenians, and Popular Front leader Ali Kerimli of "losing his manhood" while in jail.
Nepal Workers Peasants Party (Nepali: नेपाल मजदुर किसान पार्टी, abbreviated नेमकिपा) is a communist political party in Nepal. The party president is Narayan Man Bijukchhe alias 'Comrade Rohit'. NWPP has a strong base in the Bhaktapur area, but limited presence otherwise. Rohit and Sunil Prajapati are Members of Parliament of the party.
The party was founded in the late 1970s, as the Nepal Workers' and Peasants' Organisation (नेपाल मजदुर किसान संगठन). NPWO united Rohit's group (Rohit had broken away from the Communist Party of Nepal (Pushpa Lal) in protest over Pushpa Lal Shrestha's support for Indian intervention in East Pakistan), the Proletarian Revolutionary Organisation, Nepal and the Kisan Samiti. The organ of NWPO was Majdur-Kisan. In 1976 the Western Regional Committee published Rato Jhanda.
In 1981 NWPO suffered a severe split, and two separate NWPOs came into existence. One NWPO led by Rohit (which later took the name NWPP) and one NWPO led by Hareram Sharma. The current party is a continuation of Rohit's NWPO.
Rohit's NWPO formed part of the United Left Front and had taken part in the 1990 Jana Andolan uprising. It took part in the formation of the Samyukta Janamorcha
Respect is a socialist political party in England and Wales founded in 2004. Its name is a contrived acronym standing for Respect, Equality, Socialism, Peace, Environmentalism, Community and Trade Unionism.
Respect was set up in January 2004, as a left-wing alternative to the three established parties - Labour, Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. The party was opposed to the War in Iraq and is opposed to the War in Afghanistan (2001-present). It seeks to "provide a broad-based and inclusive alternative to the parties of privatisation, war, and occupation" and has a broad socialist agenda.
Some of the policies on which it campaigns include:
In its founding constitution the Respect Party states its overall aim is to "help create a socially just and ecologically sustainable society", giving a definition of social justice that includes "the organisation of society in the most open, participative, and accountable way practicable based on common ownership and democratic control".
The party was originally launched by The Guardian journalist George Monbiot and Birmingham Stop the War Coalition chair Salma Yaqoob. The initial idea to form Respect arose in a Bangladeshi family house in
The Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu, or PBB (English: United Traditional Bumiputera Party) is a right-wing political party in Malaysia. It is currently the largest political party in Sarawak, with strongholds only in the rural areas. The party is one of the constituents of the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.
Bumiputera is a Malaysian political term and translates to son of earth. Being mentioned in the party's name, this directly relates to the ethnic groups that are seen as native to the state of Sarawak. Members of the party are solely of Sarawak Bumiputera ethnicity. In article 161a of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, 21 ethnic groups are classified as "natives of Sarawak", among these are the Ibans, Bidayuhs and several other Dayak people as well as Sarawakian Malays.
The formation of the party was for the purpose of the improvement of the livelihood and protect the rights of the Bumiputera in many fields such as politics, economy and social.
Jugah Anak Barieng, also known as Tun Jugah, who was Sarawak’s Internal Affairs Minister, was appointed as the first president of the PBB until his death in 1981. Pehin Sri Haji Abdul Taib Mahmud took over in 1981 until now after
The Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran (Persian: ائتلاف آبادگران ایران اسلامی; E'telāf-e Ābādgarān-e Īrān-e Eslāmī), usually shortened to Abadgaran (آبادگران), is an alliance of some right-wing Iranian political parties and organizations. The alliance, mostly active in Tehran, won almost all of Tehran's seats in the Iranian Majlis election of 2004 and the Iranian City and Village Councils elections, 2003. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, former mayor of Tehran (who is chosen by Tehran's City Council) and now President of Iran, is considered one of the main figures in the alliance.
According to the Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, the Abadgaran "seems to have been formed in 2003 and is made up broadly of figures under the age of fifty, who are non-clerics". Many of their figures are or were members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and their affiliates. The party is reportedly heavily supported by the Revolutionary Guards and is widely viewed as a political front for the organization.
Political historian Ervand Abrahamian credits the victory of Abadgaran and other conservatives in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 elections to the conservatives' retention of their core base of 25% of the
The Forum Party of Alberta was a political party in the Province of Alberta, Canada. The party was created on March 2, 1995.
It later became the Equity Party, which held its founding convention in May 2000. The Equity Party did not nominate candidates in the 2001 election, and the 2004 election.
The Equity Party had five basic goals, social tolerance for all Albertans, fiscal accountability, grass roots accountability, including revenue sharing between riding associations, environmental responsibility and reforming the First Past the Post electoral system.
The Equity Party had an unusual way of developing their policy structure. They used an online forum that they called their online think tank to help foster and develop policy, and policy discussion. The party declared itself a new kind of political party, organized around the Internet and electronic communications. The Forum party got its name from the Internet Forum idea. The name was later changed to represent their policy platform. Party members referred to themselves as Equitists. The main reason for the name change was to avoid confusion with the Reform party.
The party struggled to gain traction throughout its life span.
The National League for Democracy (Burmese: အမျိုးသား ဒီမိုကရေစီ အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, IPA: [ʔəmjóðá dìmòkəɹèsì ʔəpʰwḛdʑoʊʔ]) is a Burmese political party founded on 27 September 1988. House Representative and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi serves as its General Secretary. The party won a substantial parliamentary majority in the 1990 Burmese general election. However, the ruling military junta refused to recognise the result. On 6 May 2010, the party was declared illegal and ordered to be disbanded by the junta after refusing to register for the elections slated for November 2010. In November 2011, the NLD announced its intention to register as a political party in order to contend future elections and on 13 December 2011, Burma's Union Election Commission approved their application for registration. In the 2012 by-elections,except one seat lost to SNDP (Kyar Phyu Party ), NLD won 43 seats in which it had contested 44seats, out of the 45 seats where elections were held. Party leader Aung San Suu Kyi won from the seat of Kawhmu.
The NLD was formed in the aftermath of the 8888 Uprising, a series of protests in favour of democracy which took place in 1988 and was ended when the
The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (Burmese: ဖက်ဆစ်ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး ပြည်သူ့လွတ်လပ်ရေး အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, pronounced: [pʰɛʔsʰɪʔ sʰa̰ɴtɕɪ̀ɴjé pjìðṵ lʊʔlaʔjé əpʰwɛ̰dʑoʊʔ]; abbreviated AFPFL), or hpa hsa pa la (ဖဆပလ) by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962. It was founded by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) led by Thakin Soe, the Burma National Army (BNA) led by Aung San, and the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) (later evolved into the Socialist Party) led by U Nu, at a secret meeting in Pegu in August 1944 as the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) to resist the Japanese occupation. The AFO was renamed the AFPFL after the defeat of Japan in order to resist the British colonial administration and achieve independence.
When in March 1945 Aung San led the BNA in a national uprising against the Japanese and the Burmese puppet government led by Dr Ba Maw, it was done in the name of a provisional government of the AFO led by Thakin Soe. After negotiations with the British, the AFO was transformed into a political party called the AFPFL. When Aung San left the army to re-enter the political arena as a civilian, he became the recognized leader and
The Azerbaijan Liberal Party (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Liberal Partiyası) is a liberal political party in Azerbaijan.
It was founded on 3 June 1995 by the former Secreatry of State of Azerbaijan Prof. Dr. Lala Shevket on the Constituent Conference held in the town of Barda in the unoccupied part of Qarabagh region of Azerbaijan. It was registered with the Azerbaijani Ministry of Justice on 15 August 1995.
ALP declares its main purpose to be the construction of a legal state with socially orientated liberal economy, parliamentary democracy and with the clear division of powers between the branches of government, guaranteeing equality of everyone before the law.
The supreme governing body of ALP is its Congress. The main everyday working organs are the Political Council, Executive Committee, and the Central Revision Committee.
The founder of the Liberal Party of Azerbaijan and its leader is the doctor of medicine and philosophy, professor Lala Shevket, who has been elected to the position of party chairman at the party’s Constituent Conference on 3 June 1995. In June 2003 she has resigned from her position prior to the Presidential elections, though the members of the Liberal Party
The Coastal Party (Norwegian: Kystpartiet) is a Norwegian conservative and centrist political party. The party has district, fishing and coastal issues among its primary policies and is a staunch opponent of Norwegian EU membership. It was represented in the Norwegian Parliament from 2001 to 2005, and its predecessor, the Non-Partisan Deputies, from 1997 to 2001. The political leader of the party is Kjell Ivar Vestå.
The Coastal Party was formally founded on 1 February 1999 although the party participated, and won one seat, in the 1997 parliamentary election as the Non-Partisan Deputies. Since 1997 however, the name "Coastal Party" was commonly used to describe the parliamentary party, at least in its base in Northern Norway. In the county of Nordland, the list which ran in 1997 even went as "program for the Non-Partisan Deputies-Coastal Party". In February 2001, Conservative Party Member of Parliament Inger Stolt-Nielsen from Rogaland left the Conservatives and finished her term for the Coastal Party, giving the party two Members in Parliament until the 2001 election. The party's charismatic leader Steinar Bastesen, a fisherman and whale hunter, was elected to the parliament for a
The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (Turkic: Türkmenistanyň Demokratik partiýasy) is the only legal political party in Turkmenistan. The DPT was led by former Soviet provincial Party leader Saparmurat Niyazov from the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s until his death in 2006. Its current leader is President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow.
The DPT was created following the dissolution of the Soviet Union as a successor party to the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR. The institutions and principles of the old party were effectively unchanged in the transition, as was the old guard. The DPT has faced limited and sporadic challenges from alternative political parties in the past but have never faced a significant challenge during an election because of the often repressive nature of politics in the country. Opposition parties are usually crushed before they make any significant grounds in public opinion.
Due to the lack of opposition parties to contest for government, the DTP controls most, if not all, industries of significant revenue directly. Central planning is a key element party policy and serves as the basis of functionality for government services.
The Norwegian Greens (Bokmål: Miljøpartiet De Grønne, Nynorsk: Miljøpartiet Dei Grøne, Northern Sami: Birasbellodat Ruonát) is a Norwegian political party, formed in October 1988 from a number of local environmental election lists. The party has no members of parliament (gaining 0.3% in the 2009 elections), but has some representation in municipal councils (gaining 1,3% in the 2011 elections). The party and election analyst Svein Tore Marthinsen viewed the 2011 elections as a breakthrough, since the party gained 17 seats in municipal councils and one seat in the Hordaland county council. They are now represented in Norway's four largest cities, Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim, and Stavanger, as well as in Kristiansand and Tromsø.
The party does not have a leader in the traditional sense, rather it is led by the national board which consists of five persons. Among the board members, two persons (currently Hanna Elise Marcussen and Harald A. Nissen), act as national spokespersons for the party. All party representatives are elected during the annual party convention.
Notable candidates for the party include the late philosopher Arne Næss, peace researcher Johan Galtung, and social
The Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party (Hungarian: Független Kisgazda, Földmunkás és Polgári Párt) is a political party in Hungary. At Hungary's most recent legislative elections (2010), the party won no seats.
Founded in 1908, the original party won an overwhelming majority in the first elections after the Second World War, resulting in its leader, Zoltán Tildy, becoming prime minister. In the relatively free elections in November 1945, the Smallholders' polled 57% of votes against the Communists' 17%. The Communist response was to intensify terror and to sponsor the coalition of "democratic" parties against the "reactionary" smallholders. The Smallholders-dominated parliament established a republic in 1946 with Tildy as president. He was succeeded as prime minister by Ferenc Nagy. However, the Soviet occupation of the country, the Hungarian Communist Party's salami tactic to break up opponent parties and widespread election fraud in 1947 led to a communist government.
In 1947 the Communist Party carried out a coup d’état against the rule of the Smallholders’ Party. Though not all democratic institutions were abolished, the Communists firmly held power. The
The Malayan Communist Party (MCP), officially known as the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM), was founded in 1930 and laid down its arms in 1989. It is most famous for its role in the Malayan Emergency.
Communism was first introduced into South-East Asia by Dutch radicals, and given impetus by the rise of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). In 1922 the CCP opened a clandestine office in Singapore which sowed the seed for the South Seas Communist Party (or Nanyang Communist Party). This party was mainly active in the Dutch East Indies and French Indo-China In Singapore its work centred on the trades unions. After their 1925 uprising failed, many Indonesian Communists took refuge in Singapore, and engaged in political work there under the auspices of the Third Communist International.
In April 1930 the South Seas Communist Party was dissolved and was replaced by the Communist Party of Malaya. While its primary responsibility was Malaya and Singapore, the party was also active in Thailand and the Dutch East Indies, which did not then have their own Communist parties.
The party operated as an illegal organisation under British colonial rule. In June 1931, many party leaders were arrested
The Party of Albanian National Union (UNIKOMB - Partia e Unitetit Kombëtar Shqiptar) is a small political party in Kosovo.
At the last legislative elections, on 24 October 2004, the party was part of the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo, in which it won one seat.
The founder of the party was Ukshin Hoti.
The Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, RP) was an Islamist political party in Turkey. It was founded by Ali Türkmen, Ahmet Tekdal and Necmettin Erbakan in Ankara in 1983 as heir to two earlier parties, (National Order Party, MNP) and (National Salvation Party, MSP), which were banned from politics. The RP participated in mayoral elections at that time and they won in three cities- Konya, Şanlıurfa, and Van. Their vote percentage was approximately 5%.
Welfare Party participated in the 1991 elections in a triple alliance with MÇP and Reformist Democracy Party (IDP). They gained 16.9% of the vote. They won 62 deputies but 19 ones of MÇP (with founding Democratic Movement Party in 25 December 1991 and joining the MÇP in 29 December 1991) and 3 ones of IDP left RP after it. Their popular vote increased over the years until they became the largest party under Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan in 1996. The coalition government of Erbakan was forced out of power by the Turkish military in 1997, due to being suspected of having an Islamist agenda.
In 1998 the Welfare Party was banned for violating the principle of secularism in the constitution. The ban was upheld by the European Court of Human
The Civic Democratic Party (Czech: Občanská demokratická strana, ODS) is the largest conservative political party in the Czech Republic. It holds 53 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, making it the second-largest party. Civic Democratic Party has been in government since 2006: with TOP 09 and Public Affairs, with leader Petr Nečas as Prime Minister, since June 2010.
The ODS is liberal conservative, and is notably Eurosceptic. It is modelled on the British Conservative Party, with whom the Civic Democrats ally through the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists and ECR group. Internationally, it is aligned with the International Democratic Union.
The party was founded by Václav Klaus in 1991 as the pro-free market wing of the Civic Forum. The party won the 1992 election, and has remained in government for most of the Czech Republic's independence. Then-leader Mirek Topolánek served as Prime Minister from 2006 to 2009. It is currently led by Petr Nečas, who succeeded Topolánek in 2010. In the 2010 election, the party lost 28 seats, finishing second, but as the largest party right of the centre, it formed a centre-right government with Nečas as Prime Minister.
The party was
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM; Hindi: भारत की कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी (मार्क्सवादी) Bhārat kī Kamyunisṭ Pārṭī (Mārksvādī)) is a left-wing Marxist political party in India. It has a strong presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal and Tripura. As of 2011, CPI(M) is leading the state government in Tripura. It leads the Left Front coalition of leftist parties in various states and the national parliament of India. The party emerged out of a split from the Communist Party of India in 1964. CPI(M) claimed to have 1,042,287 members in 2009. The CPI(M) strongly advocates anti-capitalism, anti-globalization and anti-imperialist sentiments, and has always upheld the principles of Marxist philosophy.
CPI(M) emerged out of a division within the Communist Party of India (CPI). The undivided CPI had experienced a period of upsurge during the years following the Second World War. The CPI led armed rebellions in Telangana, Tripura and Kerala. However, it soon abandoned the strategy of armed revolution in favour of working within the parliamentary framework. In 1950 B.T. Ranadive, the CPI general secretary and a prominent representative of the radical sector
The Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosovo or Albanian Demochristian Party of Kosovo (Albanian: Partia Shqiptare Demokristiane e Kosovës, PSHDK) is a political party in Kosovo. It embraces Christian democratic ideals in Kosovo, although not all of its members are Catholic as is the case in some other countries.
At the last legislative elections, 24 October 2004, the party won 1.8% of the popular vote and 2 out of 120 seats.
The president of Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosovo is Nikë Gjeloshi.
The Albanian Demochristian Party of Kosovo is a close ally of the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), consequently, the first post-war minister of transport and telecommunications of the Kosovo Government was a member of PShDK. The Albanian Demochristian Party of Kosovo platform promotes an independent, free, and democratic Kosovo and like all other Kosovo Albanian political parties does not take part in the general elections in Serbia nor any other election or referendum organized by the Serbian parliament.
The Centre Party (Hungarian: Centrumpárt) is a centrist political party in Hungary. At the last legislative elections, on 9 and 23 April 2006, the party won 0.32% of the popular vote and no seats. The Centre Party came into being in 2001, with the cooperation of the Christian Democratic People's Party (Keresztény Demokrata Néppárt) the Hungarian Democratic People's Party (Magyar Demokrata Néppárt) and the Greens. The unusual alliance of centre-right and centre-left groups hindered the Centre Party's effectiveness and, eventually, two of the founding political formations quit the party. The Christian Democratic People's Party, after long internal disputes and legal battles, joined ranks with Viktor Orbán's Fidesz and the Hungarian Democratic People's Party merged with the Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demokrata Fórum). Mihály Kupa was the leader of the party until 2007. From 2007 to 2009 Ágnes Pászti was the leader of the party. János Papp leads the Centre Party now.
The Centre Party (Norwegian: Senterpartiet, Sp) is a liberal, centrist and Nordic agrarian political party in Norway, founded in 1920. The Centre Party's policy is not based on any of the major ideologies of the 19th and 20th century, but has a focus on maintaining decentralised economic development and political decision-making.
From its founding until 2000, the party had joined only non-socialist governments, but in 2005 changed its allegiance and joined the Red-Green Coalition government led by the Labour Party. Since 1972, the Centre Party has also maintained a principled opposition to Norwegian membership in the European Union.
The party was founded at the national convention of the Norsk Landmandsforbund during 17 to 19 June 1920, when it was decided by the association to run for the 1921 parliamentary election. In 1922 the association was renamed to the Norwegian Agrarian Association, and the political activity of the group was separated as the Farmers' Party (Bondepartiet).
During the eight decades since the Centre Party was created as a political faction of a Norwegian agrarian organisation, the party has changed a great deal. Only few years after the creation the party
Essabil (Arabic: السبيل, "The Way"), also known as the Democratic and Social Itinerary (Itinéraire Démocratique et Social, IDS) is a minor Algerian political party founded by Abdesslem Ali-Rachedi in January 2002.
The European Workers' Party (Swedish: Europeiska arbetarpartiet, EAP) is a very small political party in Sweden without parliamentary representation. The party is the Swedish section of the LaRouche Movement.
The movement was established as the European Labour Committees (ELC) in 1974 by two American LaRouchians, William "Bill" Jones and Michael Vale. Bill Jones had lived in Sweden since 1968, as an apparent Vietnam war deserter. The movement started to build its organization around the young Swedish student Kerstin Tegin, later Tegin-Gaddy, and her American husband to-be Clifford G. Gaddy. However, the party never became much bigger than a handful of people. During this period, Sweden was one of the few countries that openly harboured and encouraged American GIs in Vietnam to defect, and it is often insinuated that EAP was set up in Sweden by the CIA in order to label the defectors as left-wing extremists.
The EAP launched campaigns based on what was described by the Swedish government as "extreme hatred of Palme" against the Swedish Prime Minister. A 2002 government report stated:
It became increasingly common in the media to characterize the EAP as "fascist" or "right-wing
The Free National Movement (FNM) is a socially liberal and economically conservative political party in The Bahamas.The leader of the party is The RT. Hon. Hubert Alexander Ingraham and his deput The Hon. Brent Symonette. It is the largest opposition party in the Bahamas and as of the general election held on 7 May, 2012, holds 9 of the 41 seats in the Bahamas House of Assembly. The FNM lies on the right of the Bahamian political spectrum.
The FNM, led by the Rt. Hon. Hubert Ingraham, won 49.86 percent of the vote compared with 47.02 percent by the Progressive Liberal Party. In 2002, the FNM won only 41.1 percent of the vote when it was led by Tommy Turnquest. Ingraham is now the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas.
The FNM was formed in 1971 by a union of the so-called "Free-PLP" and the United Bahamian Party. The Free-PLP were a breakaway group of eight MPs from the then governing Progressive Liberal Party. This group, which was known as the "Dissident Eight," led by the popular Sir Cecil Wallace-Whitfield, was on the center-right of the PLP and unhappy with what it saw as creeping dictatorial tendencies within the PLP Government.
The other group, the UBP, was one
The New Patriotic Party is a liberal democratic and liberal conservative party in Ghana and one of two dominant parties in Ghanaian politics. The party is center-right, its leading rival being the National Democratic Congress. It supplied former president John Agyekum Kufuor. At the elections, held on 7 December 2004, the party won 129 out of 230 seats. The NPP candidate was John Kufuor, who was re-elected president with 52.75% of the vote. The party symbol is the elephant and the party colors are red, white, and blue.
In 2008 the NPP candidate, Nana Akuffo-Addo lost the elections in a closely contested run off. With Akuffo-Addo receiving 49.77% of the votes, versus 50.23% of the votes going to Atta Mills, the NDC flag bearer.
With the exception of the 1992 parliamentary election which it boycotted, the NPP has contested all elections in the Fourth Republic.
The Portuguese Marxist-Leninist Communist Organization (in Portuguese: Organização Comunista Marxista-Leninista Portuguesa or OCMLP) was a Portuguese far-left political party, founded in 1973 after the merger between two minor communist grouping, the group around the journal O Comunista (split from the Portuguese Marxist-Leninist Committee) and O Grito do Povo (a group based in Northern Portugal). The party achieved some political expression in the last years of the fascist regime of Marcello Caetano, mainly in Paris, among a community of exiled politicians.
In December 1974 OCMLP launched the Communist Electoral Front (marxist-leninist) (FEC(m-l)), with which it participated in the 1975 Constituent Assembly elections.
The main publication of OCMLP was O Grito do Povo. The theoretical publication of OCMLP was Foice e Martello.
In December 1975, it merged with the Portuguese Marxist-Leninist Committee and the Organization for the Reconstruction of the Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist), forming the Portuguese Communist Party (Reconstructed) or PCP(R). Just prior to the merger, OCMLP had passed through a split. The majority, with strong base in Porto, went through with the merger
The Progressive Citizens' Party in Liechtenstein (German: Fortschrittliche Bürgerpartei in Liechtenstein, FBP) is a centre-right, conservative and Christian democratic political party in Liechtenstein. It is the second largest party in the Landtag of Liechtenstein, with 11 of 25 seats; and until the most recent election, the head of government, Otmar Hasler, was a member from the party.
The Democratic Party of Moldova (Moldovan: Partidul Democrat din Moldova, PDM is a social-democratic political party in Moldova.
In the legislative elections of 6 March 2005, the party was part of the Electoral Bloc Democratic Moldova (Blocul Electoral Moldova Democrată) which won 28.4% of the popular vote and 34 out of 101 seats. Inside the Bloc the party won 8 seats. After the elections the bloc fell apart into three parliamentary groups of the constituent parties.
The party, led by Marian Lupu, was founded in 1998 as the continuation of the Movement for a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova and is a member of Socialist International and the Party of European Socialists. Dumitru Diacov was president of the Democratic Party (1997 until June 2009) and since then has been the honorary president.
The Social Liberal Party merged into the PDM on 10 February 2008.
After the July 2009 parliamentary election, the party became a political force within the Alliance for European Integration along with the Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, Liberal Party and Party Alliance Our Moldova.
In February 2010, approximately 11,000 members of the smaller Social Democratic Party defected to the PDM as
New Democracy (Swedish: Ny Demokrati, NyD) was a political party in Sweden, founded in 1991 and elected into the Swedish Parliament in its first election, falling equally fast out again in 1994.
New Democracy successfully campaigned on an agenda of reform and, although not nationalist, restricted immigration (initially on economic grounds rather than cultural). Its economic policy, stressing the importance of entrepreneurship and deregulation, was generally perceived as centre-right policies. The party furthermore favored a Swedish application for European Union membership (attained in 1995), a position almost unique for European populist parties. It also called for wide-scale political reform, including cutting government departments, reducing Parliament to 151 members and electing Prime Minister by direct ballot rather than through the Riksdag. Following its exit from Parliament, New Democracy however continued its decline, which culminated in 2000 when it was finally declared bankrupt, retaining only one city council post at the time (until 2002). Numerous local fractions were reformed into minor parties (such as Sjöbopartiet), facing mixed success.
Until the entrance of the
The Communist Party of India (CPI) (Hindi: भारतीय कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी Bhāratīya Kamyunisṭa Pārṭī) is a left-wing political party in India. In the Indian communist movement, there are different views on exactly when the Indian communist party was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by CPI is 26 December 1925. But the Communist Party of India (Marxist), which separated from the CPI, claims that the party was founded in 1920.
The Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent, Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on October 17, 1920, soon after the Second Congress of the Communist International. The founding members of the party were M.N. Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy (Roy's wife), Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof (Abani's wife), Mohammad Ali (Ahmed Hasan), Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui, Rafiq Ahmed of Bhopal and M.P.B.T. Acharya.
The CPI began efforts to build a party organisation inside India. Roy made contacts with Anushilan and Jugantar groups in Bengal. Small communist groups were formed in Bengal (led by Muzaffar Ahmed), Bombay (led by S.A. Dange), Madras (led by Singaravelu Chettiar), United Provinces (led by Shaukat Usmani) and Punjab (led by Ghulam Hussain). However,
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (lit. "Dravidian Progress Federation") (founded 1949, Madras Presidency, India) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry, India. It is a Dravidian party founded by C. N. Annadurai as a breakaway faction from the Dravidar Kazhagam (known as Justice Party till 1944) headed by Periyar. Since 1969, DMK is headed by M Karunanidhi, the prior Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. DMK holds the distinction of being the first party other than the Indian National Congress to win state-level elections with clear majority on its own in any state in India.
DMK traces its roots to the South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice Party) formed in 1916, by P. Thyagaraya Chetty, Dr. P.T. Rajan, Dr. C. Natesa Mudaliar and a few others. The Justice Party, whose objectives included social equality and justice, came to power in the first General Elections to the Madras Presidency in 1920. E. V. Ramasami Naicker ("Periyar"), a popular Tamil reformist leader of the time, had joined Indian National Congress in 1919, to oppose what he considered the Brahminic leadership of the party. Naicker's experience at the Vaikom Satyagraha made him to start the Self-Respect
The Broad Front (Spanish: Frente Grande) is a left-wing political party in Argentina most prominent in the 1990s.
The party was set up by a group of left-wing Justicialist Party members of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, most notably Carlos Álvarez, and other left-wingers who were annoyed at the neo-liberal policies of President Carlos Menem, including dissident Christian Democrats led by Carlos Auyero and also figures such as Graciela Fernández Meijide. In 1990 the rebel Justicialists, having formed FredeJuSo, came together with the Communist Party of Argentina and others in a loose coalition. Álvarez proposed forming a unified party and dissolving the constituent members, thus automatically excluding the Communists, who left.
In May 1993 they joined with Frente del Sur, a party set up by film-maker Pino Solanas, to form the Frente Grande. In the 1993 elections, the party's list in the city of Buenos Aires gained 38% of the vote and several deputies were elected around the country, including Álvarez, Meijide and Solanas. Solanas left the party a short while later over personal differences.
In spring 1994, Álvarez led the Frente Grande into a new alliance, creating the Front for
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK; Tamil: மறுமலர்ச்சித் திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம்) is a political party in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu formed in 1994 by Mr. V. Gopalswamy (also known as Vaiko), a member of Rajyasabha and a party activitist of DMK. Mr. V. Gopalsamy grew in the party from his student days. He actively participated in the party agitations and courted imprisonment several times. He was detained under MISA during emergency with other party leaders and workers. His style of speaking is his own, quoting world events and history, he attracted a lot of support. Particularly the youths of DMK had a liking for him. This created antagonism towards him by the leaders and was forced out of the Parent body on false charges. His sympathy for the cause of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam is widely known. With the looming possibility of a vote of confidence in Parliament against the UPA, Two party MP's, L Ganesan and Genjee N Ramachandran, claimed that they enjoy the support of the majority of party cadre, decided to pledge support to the UPA government.They later withdrew their claim and joined DMK when it was found that they had forged letters of support of Party
The Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (Ukrainian: Блок Юлії Тимошенко, БЮТ; Blok Yuliyi Tymoshenko, BYuT) is since 2001 the name of the bloc of political parties in Ukraine led by Yulia Tymoshenko. In Verkhovna Rada the party's faction is led by Andriy Kozhemiakin. On 16 November 2010 this faction was officially renamed “Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko-Batkivschyna”. In November 2011 the participation of blocs of political parties in parliamentary elections was banned.
Founded for the 2002 parliamentary elections the party always has attracted most of its voters from Western Ukrainian (Ukrainian speaking) provinces (Oblasts) and from central Ukraine. The party has low support in the east and the south of Ukraine (where the Russian language is dominant). The party has recruited several politicians from these Russian speaking provinces like Crimea (Lyudmyla Denisova) and Luhansk Oblast (Natalia Korolevska). The party is often associated with the 2004 Orange Revolution (the party's leader Yulia Tymoshenko was one of the leaders of the Orange Revolution) and thus named an Orange Party in media publications. The party also has some prominent members who used to be associated with the opponents of the Orange
The Polski Blok Ludowy (PBL) (Polish Peasant Bloc) was a short lived political party in Poland, founded in 2002 by dissenting members from the parliamentary bodies of the Polish People's Party (PSL) and Self-Defense of the Polish Republic (Samoobrona). Its leader was Wojciech Mojzesowicz.
The PBL functioned as a political grouping until January 2005. Thereafter the group splintered and its representatives joined various other political parties.
Among the Bloc's former parliamentary representatives were: Wacław Klukowski (Szczecin constituency), Piotr Smolana (Bielsko-Biała) and Mojzesowicz himself (Bydgoszcz)
The Socialist Workers' Party (in French: Parti Socialiste des Travailleurs) is a political party in Algeria. Its views are similar to those of the reunified Fourth International. PST was founded in 1989 by the Revolutionary Communist Group (GCR).
The PST publishes El Khatwa. In the 17 May 2007 People's National Assembly elections, the party won 0.75% of the vote and no seats of 389 seats.
The Andalusian Party (Spanish: Partido Andalucista) is a nationalist centre-left political party from Andalusia (Spain), with an important presence in provinces such as Cádiz and Seville although in the past they have stood in other provinces and even won seats in Barcelona to the Catalan Regional Assembly.
The party was founded as the Socialist Alliance of Andalusia (Alianza Socialista de Andalucía) in 1971. In 1976 it took the name Socialist Party of Andalusia (Partido Socialista de Andalucía). In 1979 the name was changed to Socialist Party of Andalusia - Andalusian Party (PSA-Partido Andaluz). The current party name was adopted in 1984. Its current secretary-general is Pilar Gónzalez Modino.
A splinter group, led by former leader Pedro Pacheco, was formed in 2001 under the name Socialist Party of Andalusia (Partido Socialista de Andalucía).
The colour white represents the homes, the green represents the land.
The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl), commonly referred to as the BNP, is the mainstream center-right political party in Bangladesh. BNP ruled Bangladesh for a total of 14 years since its independence, longer than any other party in Bangladesh. It is the largest opposition party in the Jatiyo Sangshad, the Parliament of Bangladesh.
Founded in 1978 by Lieutenant General (retd) Ziaur Rahman, the Seventh President of Bangladesh, the party has evolved into one of the most powerful and influential political entities in South Asia. The BNP was established by President Zia to provide a political platform for him after his assumption of power during Bangladesh's volatile period that resulted from the coup and counter coup during 1975. Ideologically, the party has professed Bangladeshi nationalism, and free market economic policies, including freedom of speech and press. The BNP described as the Islamic consciousness of the people of Muslim majority Bangladesh, in order to counter the secular Awami League. The BNP has been opposed to communism and socialism since its inception and advocates vigorous free market policies.
The Colorado Party (Spanish: Partido Colorado Lit. The Red Party) is a political party in Uruguay.
It unites Moderate and Liberal groups. It was the dominant party of government almost without exception during the stabilisation of the Uruguayan republic.
At the last 2004 national elections, the Colorado Party won 10 seats out of 99 in the Chamber of Deputies and 3 seats out of 31 in the Senate. Its presidential candidate, Guillermo Stirling, won the same 10.4% of the popular vote.
Some of its major historical leaders were Fructuoso Rivera, Venancio Flores, José Batlle y Ordóñez, Luis Batlle Berres, Jorge Pacheco Areco, Juan María Bordaberry, Julio María Sanguinetti and Jorge Batlle.
The party has historically been the most elected party in Uruguayan history with almost uninterrupted dominance during the 20th century. The Colorados were in office from 1868 to 1959, when they were defeated by the Partido Nacional in the 1958 elections. They returned to office after the 1966 elections. They won the first elections at the end of the military dictatorship, in 1984. They went on to win the 1994 and 1999 elections.
From its birth until the last decades of the 20th century its traditional
The Green Party of Saskatchewan is a left-leaning Green political party in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.
It was founded in 1998 as the New Green Alliance (NGA) by environmental and social justice activists frustrated by the social democratic Saskatchewan New Democratic Party's move to the right under Roy Romanow. Unlike many Green parties in Canada, the NGA was decidedly left wing, favouring, for example, progressive taxation, workers' rights and the elimination of poverty. NGA supporters believed that the Green Party of Canada and Green Party of Ontario were essentially eco-capitalist parties because they favour regressive consumption taxes and oppose taxes on incomes and corporations. The NGA also opposed privatization of Crown corporations. As a Green party, the NGA supported ecological agriculture, balanced ecological forestry and forest use, and promote a soft energy path. The NGA was committed to peace and non-violence, and in contrast to the Green Party of Canada, took a strong stance against the U.S. war in Iraq.
The NGA ran candidates in Saskatchewan elections, but was unable to win any seats in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. In the 2003 election, the
The Naga People's Front is a regional political party in Nagaland and Manipur, India. It headed the Nagaland government with the Bharatiya Janata Party, as part of the Democratic Alliance of Nagaland since 2003. Dr. Shürhozelie is the president of the party. The main leader of the NPF, Neiphiu Rio, is the state's Chief Minister. On March 22, 2004 the NPF absorbed the Nagaland Democratic Party.
Although the Naga People's Front has local arrangements with the NDA it does not support either the NDA or the UPA in the central government where it has 1 MP in the Lok Sabha.
The aims and objectives of the Nagaland Peoples Front are:
(a)To work and assist in any possible manner on any approach for a peaceful solution of the Indo-Naga political issue, keeping alive at the same time the fire of relentless endeavour to stand against any force to further divide the Nagas and thereby move towards a rennaisance of Naga brotherhood by making constant appeal to Naga conscience.
(b) To strive to bring about electoral reforms suited to our way of life aimed at a national resurgence in the society towards whom the Party is duty bound and thereby to liberate the Naga society from tiie deadly clutches
The Patriotic Union (German: Vaterländische Union), abbreviated to VU, is a centre-right, Christian democratic and conservative political party in Liechtenstein. It is led by Jakob Büchel and has 12 members in the Landtag, an absolute majority in the current session. The Prime Minister, Klaus Tschütscher, is a member of the Patriotic Union, as are two Councilors.
Together with fellow centre-right party the Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), the VU dominates Liechtenstein politics. The VU is the more liberal of the two parties, advocating constitutional monarchy and greater democracy.
The Democratic Party of Kosovo (Albanian: Partia Demokratike e Kosovës, PDK) is the largest political party in Kosovo . It is a social democratic party and the main leftist party in Kosovo.
It is headed by Hashim Thaçi, the political leader of the former Kosovo Liberation Army. The first post-war Prime Minister of Kosovo, Bajram Rexhepi, belongs to the Democratic Party of Kosovo. The party stands for an independent, free and democratic Kosovo, as do all other ethnic-Albanian political parties.
The party was founded on May 14, 1999 from the political wing of the Kosovo Liberation Army as the Party for the Democratic Progress of Kosovo (Partia për Progres Demokratik e Kosovës), but was renamed on May 21, 2000. The party has increased in size and regional scope, initially winning governing spot in the elections of 2007 and winning most of the regional elections in the municipal elections of 2009. PDK renewed its governing mandate after winning the elections of 2010.
Members of the Party for the Democratic Progress of Kosovo were blacklisted in 2001 Wikisource:Executive Order 13219.
In the 2004 legislative elections, the party won 28.9% of the popular vote and 30 out of 120 seats in
The Alberta Party Political Association, more commonly known as the Alberta Party, is a political party in the province of Alberta, Canada. The party describes itself as a centrist and pragmatic party that is not dogmatically ideological in its approach to politics.
For most of its history the Alberta Party was a right-wing organization, until the rise of the Wildrose Alliance as Alberta's main right-wing alternative to the governing Progressive Conservatives attracted away the Alberta Party's more conservative members. This left a small rump of moderates in control of the Alberta Party. In 2010 the Alberta Party board voted to merge with Renew Alberta, a progressive group that had been organizing to form a new political party in Alberta. The Alberta Party thus shed its conservative past for a more centrist political outlook. The party has been cited in The Globe and Mail and The Economist as part of the break in one-party politics in Alberta.
The history of the Alberta Party begins in the early 1980s in an alliance of small right-wing political parties. The right side of Alberta's political spectrum was fragmented by parties spawned in the wake of the National Energy Program and
The Communist Party of Scotland (CPS), also known as Pàrtaidh Co-Mhaoineach na h-Alba, was established in 1991 when the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was disbanded and re-formed as the Democratic Left think-tank. Many Communists in Scotland disagreed with this decision and instead set up the CPS, with its headquarters in Partick, Glasgow. Some 280 former members of the CPGB in Scotland joined the new party including Mick McGahey, who had been a leading member of the National Union of Mineworkers in the 1970s and 1980s. Former CPGB General Secretary Gordon McLennan was also associated with the party.
The current national secretary of the CPS is Eric Canning. The CPS has fought no parliamentary elections, but has been supporting the Scottish Socialist Party in recent times. The CPS does not feature much on the Scottish political landscape, but they do continue to sponsor a councillor, William Clarke, in Fife. Annual membership is £10 waged and £5 unwaged.
They support Scottish independence and Eric Canning is honorary convenor of the Independence First (IF) movement which is campaigning for a referendum on Scottish independence.
Democratic Indira Congress (Karunakaran) (DIC(K)) is a defunct political party in Kerala, India. DIC(K) was founded at a meeting in Thrissur by the K. Karunakuran faction of the Indian National Congress on May 1, 2005. Initially it was called National Congress (Indira), but the name was changed DIC(K) for registration purposes in August of the same year.
Karunakuran's son K. Muraleedharan was the party president. The party allied with the Left Democratic Front in the local elections and made success. But the party was not considered for a tie up during the state assembly elections that followed. The party could not make any impression in the elections as expected. Later, Karunakaran and Muraleedharan, along with some other party members, moved to Nationalist Congress Party. After a brief while, Karunakaran returned to Congress.
The party was formed as a result of internal problems in the Congress Party. The break was preceded by much acrimony within the ruling Congress Party, due to perceived slights to Karunakaran, disregarding his lifelong services to the party. Karuunakaran's son Muraleedharan and Kerala Congress leader T. M. Jacob were the other leaders of the party. Following
The Independence Party (Icelandic: Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn) is a centre-right political party in Iceland. Liberal conservative and Eurosceptic, it is the second-largest party in the Althing, with sixteen seats. The chairman of the party is Bjarni Benediktsson and vice chairman is Ólöf Nordal.
It was formed in 1929 through a merger of the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party. This united the two parties advocating Icelandic independence, which was achieved in 1944. From 1929, the party won the largest share of the vote in every election until the 2009 election, when it fell behind the Social Democratic Alliance. Since the 2009 elections opinion polls have indicated that the party has regained its former position as the largest party. Until Benediktsson took the leadership after the 2009 defeat, every Independence Party leader has also held the office of Prime Minister.
The Independence Party broadly encompasses all centre-right thought in Iceland. Economically liberal and opposed to interventionism, the party is supported most strongly by fishermen, high-earners, and the well-educated, particularly in Reykjavík. It is less socially conservative than its Scandinavian counterparts.
Janata Dal (United) (JDU) is a political party in India with political presence mainly in Bihar and Jharkhand. Janta Dal (United) party mentor and patron is "Veteran Socialist leader" George Fernandes; George Fernandes broke away from the erstwhile Janata Dal and formed the Samata Party in 1994. Presently it is led by Sharad Yadav and Nitish Kumar. The current party was formed by the merger of the erstwhile Janata Dal (United) with the Samata Party on October 30, 2003. The uniting force is believed to be common opposition to Rashtriya Janata Dal in Bihar especially after the RJD welcomed Samata Party rebels like Raghunath Jha into the party. Janata Dal (United) is a constituent of the National Democratic Alliance.
The Janata Dal (United) and the Rashtriya Janata Dal – bitter political opponents today—originate from the same Janata Dal and Jayaprakash Narayan's call for a program of social transformation which he termed Sampoorna kraanthi or Total Revolution after Indira Gandhi was found guilty of violating electoral laws by the Allahabad High Court in 1974.
Currently, the JD(U) heads the government in Bihar. The JD(U) along with its alliance partner, the BJP defeated the RJD-led
The New Azerbaijan Party (Yeni Azərbaycan Partiyası, YAP) is the ruling political party in Azerbaijan. It was formed on 18 December 1992 by the former President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, who led it until his retirement and death in 2003. It is now led by his son, Ilham Aliyev, who succeeded his father as the party leader and as President of Azerbaijan since 2003.
The party's stated ideologies are lawfulness, secularism, and Azerbaijani nationalism. It wants to build a "social-oriented" economy, and lists civil solidarity and social justice as the basis of its ideology. The founder of the party, Heydar Aliyev, was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union until July 1991.
At the elections (5 November 2000 and 7 January 2001), the party won 62.3% of the popular vote and 75 out of 125 seats. Its candidate Ilham Aliyev was reported by the government to have won 80% of the popular vote in the 2003 presidential elections, which faced criticism of vote-rigging from groups such as Human Rights Watch. At the 2005 parliamentary elections, it won 62 out of 125 seats. At the 2010 parliamentary elections, it won 72 out of 125 seats. Presently, New Azerbaijan Party has 518 thousand
Recreate for Growth (Spanish: Recrear para el Crecimiento, often just Recrear) was a conservative liberal political party in Argentina, that existed from 2002 to 2009.
The party was formed in March 2002, mostly by market-oriented members of the Radical Civic Union, headed by Ricardo López Murphy.
The Recrear Federal Movement is a national alliance formed in 2003 between Recrear itself and the Federal Movement of various provincial parties - the Salta Renewal Party, the Democratic Progressive Party, the Democratic Party of Mendoza, the Federal Party, the Liberal Party of Corrientes, the Democratic Party of the City of Buenos Aires, the Democratic Liberal Party of Córdoba, the Catamarca Popular Movement, the Provincial Union of Entre Ríos, the Party of the Hope of the Province of Buenos Aires, the Independent Citizens of Tucumán and the Federal North of Jujuy. López Murphy as the movement's presidential candidate and Ricardo Gómez Diez of Salta for vice-president in the 2003 elections, ending in third place with 18%.
In 2005 the party formed an alliance with Buenos Aires' party Commitment to Change (Compromiso para el Cambio) led by Mauricio Macri. The alliance has attempted to form
The Republican Party (also called the GOP, for "Grand Old Party") is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854, it dominated politics nationally for most of the period 1860-1932. 18 presidents have been Republicans. The most recent Republican president was George W. Bush.
Currently the party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S. political spectrum. American conservatism of the Republican Party is not wholly based upon rejection of the political ideology of liberalism, as many principles of American conservatism are based upon classical liberalism. Rather the Republican Party's conservatism is largely based upon its support of classical principles against the modern liberalism of the Democratic Party that is considered American liberalism in contemporary American political discourse.
In the 112th Congress, elected in 2010, the Republican Party holds a majority of seats in the House of Representatives and a minority of seats in the Senate. The party currently holds the majority of governorships as well as the majority of state legislatures.
The Communist Party of Britain is a communist political party in the United Kingdom. Although founded in 1988 it traces its origins back to 1920 and the Communist Party of Great Britain, and claims the legacy of that party and its most influential members Harry Pollitt and John Gollan as its own.
The Communist Party of Britain (CPB) was formed in 1988 by a disaffected segment of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), including the editorship of the Morning Star, largely supporters of the "Communist Campaign Group" (CCG). The founders of the CPB attacked the leadership of the CPGB for allegedly abandoning 'class politics' and the leading role of the working class in the revolutionary process in Britain. The youth wing of the CPGB, the Young Communist League, had collapsed, and the Morning Star was losing circulation.
The next year, the leaders of CPGB formally declared that they had abandoned the party's programme British Road to Socialism. Members of the CPB perceived this as the CPGB turning its back on socialism.
Membership of the CPB was boosted after the dissolution of the CPGB in 1991 and its reformation as the "Democratic Left". Many members of the Straight Left faction
The Hungarian Democratic People's Party (Magyar Demokrata Néppárt) is a political party in Hungary. At the last legislative elections, 7 and 21 April 2002, the party won 0.00% of the popular vote and no seats.
The German People's Union (German: Deutsche Volksunion, DVU) is a nationalist political party in Germany. It was founded by publisher Gerhard Frey as an informal association in 1971 and established as a party in 1987. Financially, it is largely dependent on Frey.
As of 2010, the party has never reached the five-percent minimum in federal elections that is generally necessary to enter the Bundestag. The DVU has however gained seats in several state parliaments.
In 2004, the DVU entered a non-competition agreement with the far-right National Democratic Party (NPD) for the state elections in Brandenburg and Saxony. Both parties passed the five-percent threshold in their respective states. The DVU reached 6.1 percent in the Brandenburg state elections, and the NPD won 9.2 percent in the Saxony state elections. After this relatively successful election, the parties formed an electoral alliance for the 2005 federal elections. The joint NPD-DVU slate, which ran under the NPD's ballot line, won 1.6 percent of the total votes nationally. Also, recently, a merger of both parties was discussed. On January 27, 2011, Holocaust Memorial Day in Germany, the Landgericht Munich declared the merger
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) (Tamil: அண்ணா திராவிட முன்னேற்ற கழகம்) (lit. All India Anna Dravidian Progress Federation) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. It is currently in power in Tamil Nadu. It is a Dravidian party founded by M.G. Ramachandran (popularly known as MGR) in 1972 as a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). Since 1989, AIADMK is headed by J. Jayalalithaa, the current Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. The party headquarters is in Royapettah, Chennai, and was gifted to the party in 1986 by its former leader Janaki Ramachandran, wife of MGR. The party headed its coalition to win the Tamil Nadu assembly election 6 times to head the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.
The party was founded in 1972 as Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) by MGR, a veteran Tamil film star and a popular politician, as a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) led by M. Karunanidhi, the then chief minister of Tamil Nadu, owing to serious differences between the two. Later, the party leaders prefixed All India (AI) tag before the party name. Since its inception, the relationship between the AIADMK
The Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS, or United Sabah Party) is a political party in Sabah, east Malaysia. It was registered as a political party on March 5, 1985. The founding president was Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitingan, who broke away from the ruling Parti Berjaya because of his differences with party president Harris Salleh, the Chief Minister in whose cabinet Pairin served before the break.
Although it is mainly seen as an ethnically-based Kadazan-Dusun political party, PBS calls itself a "Malaysian multi-racial political party". Its declared political mission is to strive to safeguard Sabah's autonomy and states rights, promote democratic principles, economic advancement, human rights, and justice.
PBS formed the state government after winning the 1985 state elections and governed Sabah from 1985 to 1994. Following the 1986 Sabah riots, PBS joined the Barisan Nasional coalition after winning the May 1986 state election. However, on the eve of the July 1990 state election, PBS pulled out of the coalition and won the state election for a third time. It also won the 1994 state elections by a narrow margin. However, numerous defections occurred as many PBS representatives switched
The Algerian Party for Democracy and Socialism (Parti Algérien pour la Démocratie et le Socialisme) is a political party in Algeria. It was formed in 1993 by the orthodox communist wing of Ettehadi that split to retain its communist legacy.
PADS publishes Le Lien des Ouvriers et Paysans.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Party ADP (in abbreviation) (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Demokrat Partiyası).
The Azerbaijan Democratic Party was established on January 26, 1991 by the participants of 27 persons. On October 17, it was registered by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. It was registered by the Ministry of Justice of Azerbaijan Republic on March 14, 1993 after the adoption a new law about political parties. Later in the same year, the headquarters of the party was moved into the city of Baku. Sardar Jalaloglu was elected as a party leader at the first Congress of ADP and remained a sole leader of the ADP between 1994-1996. In order to prevent the participation of ADP in the parliament election, the Ministry of Justice, by political request, cancelled the registration of the party illegally on September 1, 1995. As a result of five years intensive and continues struggle, and by the pressure of international organizations and diplomatic corpus to the government, the Justice Ministry had to reregister ADP again.
ADP is a leader and pioneer of integration in the history of Azerbaijan’s political life. On March 30, 1996 under the leadership of Ilyas
The Irish Unionist Alliance (also known as the Irish Unionist Party) was a Unionist party founded in Ireland in 1891 to oppose plans for Gladstonian and Parnellite Home Rule for Ireland. The party was led for much of its life by Colonel Edward James Saunderson and later by the William St John Brodrick, Earl of Midleton. In total, eighty-six members of the House of Lords affiliated themselves with the Irish Unionist Alliance, although its membership was small.
The party aligned itself closely with Liberal Unionists and the Conservative Party to campaign to prevent the passage of a new Home Rule Bill. Among its most prominent members were Dublin barrister, Edward Carson, and founder of the Ireland's Co-operative movement, Horace Plunkett. Its electoral strength was largely (though not exclusively) Dublin-based, with it electing MPs from constituencies in the south Dublin area and for the Dublin University constituency. As late as 1929 there was a Unionist majority on Rathmines district council.
The party was replaced in Ulster by the Ulster Unionist Party from the start of the twentieth century. In Ulster, other reasons for unionism included the industrial growth of Belfast after
The Free List (German: Freie Liste, FL) is a centre-left political party in Liechtenstein. As of 2009, it has one member of 25 in the Landtag of Liechtenstein. It was founded in 1985 and describes itself as social democratic and ecologist.
The Hungarian Justice and Life Party (Magyar Igazság és Élet Pártja, in short: MIÉP) is a far-right nationalist political party in Hungary led by István Csurka. It was founded in 1993.
At the legislative elections in 1998 the party won 5.5% of the votes and gained parliamentary representation, with 14 seats.
At the 2002 elections, April 7 and 20, 2002, the party won 4.4% of the popular vote and no seats.
In 2005, MIÉP joined forces with a newer, right-wing political party, namely Jobbik (Movement for a Better Hungary). The new political formation has been registered under the name the MIÉP-Jobbik Third Way Alliance of Parties and it purports to speak for Christians, stands up for the rights of Hungarian minorities in the neighbouring countries and boasts a "law and order" agenda, in order to crack down on crime.
Antisemitism in Hungary was evident mainly in far right publications and demonstrations. During the anniversary demonstrations of both right and left marking the 1956 uprising, antisemitic and anti-Israel slogans were heard from the right, such as accusing Israel of war crimes. Observers recognized agents of the far-left in this crowd; the apparent purpose of this was to
The Algerian National Front (Front National Algérien) is a Right-of-Centre political party in Algeria. In the elections of 30 May 2002, the party won 1.6% of the popular vote and eight of 380 seats. In the 2007 elections, it won 4.18% of the vote and 13 seats.
The Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (Albanian: Aleanca për Ardhmërinë e Kosovës, AAK) is a political party in Kosovo. It was formed on 29 April 2001.
The current president of the party is Ramush Haradinaj. In December 2004 the parliament elected him as Prime Minister of Kosovo and he formed a coalition government with the largest party, the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK). He resigned as Prime Minister in March 2005 after learning that he had been indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, for 37 counts of war crimes. He received a full acquittal from the Tribunal on 3 April 2008. He returned to Kosovo and immediately resumed his duties as president of the party.
The AAK currently has three deputy presidents: Blerim Shala, Naim Maloku and Ahmet Isufi.
The current Secretary General is Burim Ramadani and the Secretary of Organisation is Ibrahim Selmanaj.
At the last legislative elections held on 17 November 2007, the alliance won 9.6% of the popular vote and 10 out of 120 seats in the Assembly of Kosovo, which made it the fifth largest political force. This was a gain on the previous two legislative elections in 2001 and 2004 in which the AAK won
The General People's Congress (Arabic: المؤتمر الشعبي العام; transliterated: Al-Mo'tamar Ash-Sha'abiy Al-'Aam) is the ruling political party in Yemen.
It was founded in August 24, 1982 in Sana'a, Yemen, by Ali Abdullah Saleh.
The party is dominated by a nationalist line, and its official ideology is Arab nationalism, seeking Arab unity.
At the last legislative elections, 27 April 2003, the party won 58.0% of the popular vote and 238 out of 301 seats in the Assembly of Representatives of Yemen.
In the Yemeni presidential election, 2012 the party supported the presidential candidacy of Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi.
The National Democratic Movement (NDM) is a small conservative political party in Jamaica, led by Earle DeLisser. In the 29 December 2011 elections, the party gained 265 votes, but won no seats.
The NDM was formed in 1995 by Brascoe Lee & Bobby Marsh. Bruce Golding was invited to become the first President. Golding was formerly the chairman of the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) before he and others felt the need to split. In their 1997 manifesto, the party expresses the reasons why they felt the need to break from the Jamaica Labour Party. Namely, they believed that after gaining independence from the United Kingdom in 1962, Jamaicans had suffered from the harsh combination of a stagnant economy and a rapidly growing population. They believed that the Jamaican people needed major reform in order to create a more equitable, stable society. The party made its presence known in the General Election in December 1997. Although the two main political parties of Jamaica received the majority of votes, the National Democratic Movement received the most votes of all minor parties in each constituency.
Golding rejoined the JLP in 2002 and went on to serve as JLP leader and Prime Minister.
The Janata Dal (Secular) (JD(S)) is a centre-left Indian political party led by former Prime Minister of India H.D. Deve Gowda. The party recognized as state party in the states of Karnataka and Kerala. It was formed in July 1999 by the split of Janata Dal party. It has political presence mainly in Karnataka. In Kerala, the party is part of the Left Democratic Front.
The Janata Dal (Secular) traces its roots back to the Janata Party organized by Jayprakash Narayan that united all anti-Indira Gandhi parties under one banner for the 1977 national elections.The Janata Party split twice, first in 1979 and then in 1980 leading to the birth of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) which comprised members of the erstwhile Jan Sangh which was close to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
Janata Dal was formed in Bangalore by the merger of the Janata Party with smaller opposition parties in 1988. In May 1996, H.D. Deve Gowda, now leader of Janata Dal (Secular), became Prime Minister of India as part of a coailition (called United Front) government.
Janata Dal split in 1999 when some leaders left to ally with the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance and form the Janata Dal (United) party. That party
The National Party (Partido Nacional in Spanish), also known as the White Party (Partido Blanco), is a major right-wing conservative political party in Uruguay, currently the major opposition party to the ruling Frente Amplio government.
It was formed on 10 August 1836. Together with the Liberal Colorado Party, it is one of the two traditional groupings dating back to the nineteenth century. Manuel Oribe was its founder. In the civil war 1863-5 it was ousted by the Colorados who were in power till 1958. In 1872 the party changed its name from White Party (Partido Blanco in Spanish) to National Party.
At the 2004 national elections, the National Party won 36 seats out of 99 in the Chamber of Deputies and 11 seats out of 31 in the Senate. Its presidential candidate, Jorge Larrañaga, obtained the same day 35.1% of the valid, popular vote.
At the last 2009 national elections, the National Party won 31 seats out of 99 in the Chamber of Deputies and 9 seats out of 31 in the Senate. Its presidential candidate, Luis Alberto Lacalle, obtained on November 29 the 43,33% of the valid, popular vote.
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS (United Sabah People's Party) is a minor political party based in Sabah, east Malaysia. It was formed by disaffected members of the Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS) on 11 March 1994. On 10 June 1994, it was officially accepted as one of the component parties in the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition. Currently, it is led by President, Tan Sri Datuk Seri Panglima Joseph Kurup, Member of Parliament for Pensiangan (P.182). He is also the Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia (www.nre.gov.my).
The Party for the Commonwealth of Canada was a Canadian political party formed by Canadians who supported the ideology of U.S. politician Lyndon LaRouche in the 1984, 1988 and 1993 elections.
In the 1988 election, party leader Gilles Gervais led a slate of 58 candidates campaigning against the monarchy, hemispheric free trade, dollarization of Latin American economies, and "financial oligarchy".
The party never won any seats. It was also known as the Party for the Commonwealth-Republic. It now operates as the Committee for the Republic of Canada.
The Pensioners' Party (Partito Pensionati, PP) is a centrist Italian political party. It was founded in 1987 in Milan and its current leader is Carlo Fatuzzo.
In the 2004 European Parliament election it gained 1.1% of the national vote and elected its leader to the European Parliament, where he sits in the European People's Party–European Democrats group.
On 4 February 2006, the party joined The Union, the centre-left coalition led by Romano Prodi, and was decisive for the result of the 2006 general election (the PP scored 0.9% and the centre-left won by a 0.1% margin), but soon after the election the alliance with the centre-left turned to be cold and tense. In the European Parliament, Antonio Tajani (Forza Italia, Vice President of the European People's Party), tried uccessfully to convince Fatuzzo to return back in the centre-right.
Finally, on 20 November 2006, Carlo Fatuzzo, in a press conference alongside with Antonio Tajani and Fabrizio Cicchitto (national deputy-coordinator of Forza Italia), announced that its party was re-joining the centre-right House of Freedoms coalition.
Ithe 2009 European Parliament election the party will run as part of the Pole of Autonomy, an
The Yuen Long Tin Shui Wai Democratic Alliance (traditional Chinese: 元朗天水圍民主陣線) is a political group in Hong Kong, and it was established in 2003.
It is a pro-democracy group formed under the initiatives of legislator and former Democratic Party member Albert Chan Wai Yip in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
The group filed five members in the Yuen Long District in the 2003 District Council elections, and won three seats in the Yuen Long District Council. (Albert Chan Wai Yip himself retained his seat in the Tsuen Wan District). The current chairman of the alliance is Johnny Mak Ip Shing (麥業成), who is also a member of Yuen Long District Council and The Frontier.
Ahd 54 (Arabic عهد 54), "Generation of '54", is a minor Algerian party led by human rights-activist Ali Fawzi Rebaine, who claims to have founded the first Algerian human rights organization. Its name is an allusion to the start of the Algerian War of Independence, in November 1954. In the 2007 election, it won 2.26% of the vote and two seats in the Algerian parliament.
All India Majlis-e-Ittehad-ul Muslimeen (AIMIM or MIM) (English meaning: All India Council of the Union of Muslims), (Urdu: کل ہند مجلس اتحاد المسلمين, Kũl Hind Majlis-e-Ittehād-ul Muslimīn) is a Muslim political party in India. Hyderabad is the stronghold of the AIMIM. It has retained Hyderabad Lok Sabha parliament seat in 2009 election. The seat has been held by the AIMIM since 1984. In 2004 Lok Sabha elections AIMIM received 132,807 votes (74,6%) in the Charminar area (one of seven assembly constituencies in the Hyderabad Lok Sabha constituency). 1984–2004 the MP of AIMIM was party president Sultan Salahuddin Owaisi, but ahead of the 2004 elections Owaisi stepped down in favour of his son Barrister Asaduddin Owaisi.
In the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly elections of 2009 AIMIM had fielded eight candidates, out of whom seven got elected.
In the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly elections of 2004 AIMIM had fielded seven candidates, out of whom four got elected.
In the Hyderabad Municipality election of 2009 AIMIM won 43 seats (out of 150) in the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad. In 2012, the party won 13 seats (out of 81) in the Nanded Municipal Corporation elections.
The Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction is a political party in The Gambia, founded by army officers who staged a coup in 1994. It was formed in 1996 to support army leader Yahya Jammeh's campaign for the 1996 elections.
Jammeh won the 2001 presidential elections with 52.8% of the popular vote. In National Assembly elections in 2002, the party won 45 of 48 seats, 33 of them unopposed. The elections were boycotted by the oppositional United Democratic Party.
APRC candidate and incumbent Yahya Jammeh won a third five-year term in presidential elections held on 22 September 2006, receiving 67.3% of the vote.
The APRC won 42 of 48 seats in the 25 January 2007 National Assembly election and 43 of 48 seats in the 29 March 2012 National Assembly election.
The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is an Australian green political party.
The party was formed in 1992; however, its origins can be traced to the early environmental movement in Australia and the formation of the United Tasmania Group (UTG), one of the first green parties in the world, which first ran candidates in the 1972 Tasmanian state election. Co-ordination between environmentalist groups occurred in the 1980s with various protests including one of the most significant environmental campaigns in Australian history against the proposed damming of the Franklin River and the subsequent flooding of Lake Pedder. Key people involved in these campaigns included the party's former leader Bob Brown and current leader Christine Milne who went on to contest and win seats in the Tasmanian Parliament and eventually form the Tasmanian Greens.
Since foundation, the party's policies have broadened from environmentalism to include policies aligned with the philosophies of grassroots democracy, social justice, conservation, and the peace movement. The number of elected representatives has grown, currently the Greens party has nine senators and one member in the lower house
Christian Unity Party (Norwegian: Kristent Samlingsparti, KSP) is a conservative political party in Norway without parliamentary representation.
The party was founded on 26 September 1998 with the merging of Christian Conservative Party and the New Future Coalition Party, the first originating from a conservative branch of the Christian Democratic Party and the latter from the Progress Party. Their ideology is based upon Christianity, literal interpretation of the Bible, and opposition to reforms in the Norwegian Church.
During the 2009 election campaign, Pastor Jan-Aage Torp, the top candidate for Oslo, produced a pro-life, anti-abortion video, that was shown 3 nights in a row on TV2. The video was heavily criticized by leaders of Stortinget.
Communist Party of Malaya/Marxist-Leninist, a splinter-group of Communist Party of Malaya. CPM/ML was formed in 1970. It conducted armed struggle against the regime, with bases in Southern Thailand. CPM/ML had a radio broadcast, called Suara Seorang Malaysia (Voice of A Malaysian).
Communist Party of Nepal (Burma) (Nepali: नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (वर्मा)), initially known simply as Communist Party of Nepal or Communist Party of Nepal (Rayamajhi Group), was a communist party in Nepal. The party emerged out of a split in the original Communist Party of Nepal in 1962, representing the pro-Soviet sector of the party. Its main leader until 1983 was Keshar Jung Rayamajhi, who had been the general secretary of the original CPN.
In 1966 the group organised a 'Third Central Conference', with delegates from 17 districts. The conference amended the old CPN party constitution, adopting 'National Democracy' as the line of the party. The conference stated that the royal takeover in the country had been a backlash for the democratic forces, and called for a united front to be formed with Nepali Congress. Moreover, the conference made a call for the holding of a party congress.
In 1967 the group held its 'third congress' in Kathmandu (considering the two first CPN congresses as theirs). The congress elected a 21-member Central Committee and a five member politburo. The politburo consisted of Keshar Jung Rayamajhi (general secretary), Bishnu Bahadur Manandhar, Krishna Raj
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest party in the United Kingdom: being the largest single party in the House of Commons with 306 MPs, the largest party in local government with 9,391 councilors, and the largest British party in the European Parliament with 25 MEPs. It governs in coalition with the Liberal Democrats, with party leader David Cameron as Prime Minister.
Colloquially referred to as the Tory Party or the Tories, the Conservative Party emerged in 1834 out of the original Tory Party, which dates to 1678. The party was one of two dominant parties in the 19th century, along with the Liberal Party. It changed its name to Conservative and Unionist Party in 1912 after merging with the Liberal Unionist Party, although that name is rarely used and it is generally referred to as simply the Conservative Party.
In the 1920s, the Liberal vote greatly diminished and the Labour Party became the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers led governments for 57 years of the 20th century,
The Democratic Party was a political party of South Korea.
Formerly called the Millennium Democratic Party (MDP), or Saecheonnyeon Minju-dang (새천년민주당 in Korean), it changed its name to the present form on May 6, 2005.
The party was formed in 1995 as the National Congress for New Politics after Kim Dae Jung returned to active politics following his retirement in 1992. The majority of the party's early supporters were former members of the Democratic Party, formed in 1991.
In the 1996 Parliamentary election the party managed to come a strong second, winning 79 seats. In the 1997 Presidential election Dae Jung won the Presidency with 40% of the vote.
In 2000, the party officially changed its name to the MDP, after it merged with the smaller New People Party led by Rhee In-je and a number of conservative minded politicians joined it. In the 2000 Parliamentary election the party came second winning 115 seats.
President Roh Moo-hyun was elected as the party's candidate in 2002, but he subsequently left the party and his supporters formed the Uri Party in 2003.
The MDP lost popularity when Roh was impeached in March 2004 by the National Assembly for illegal electioneering and incompetence
Fatherland (Kazakh: Отан. Otan; from Perso-Arabic: وطن / waṭan) was the largest political party in Kazakhstan, led by Bakhytzhan Zhumagulov with over 700,000 members until December 22. At a subsequent party congress, delegates agreed to incorporate the Civic Party and the Agrarian Party and rename the party to Nur-Otan.
Otan was originally established on February 12, 1999 after the merger of several previously independent pro-presidential parties, including the People's Union of Kazakhstan Unity, the Liberal Movement of Kazakhstan, and the "For Kazakhstan - 2030" Movement. At the uniting congress, the new party outlined a program largely supportive of the government led by President Nursultan Nazarbayev.
At its last legislative elections under the Otan banner (19 September and 3 October 2004) the party won 60.6% of the popular vote and 42 out of 77 seats.
In the run-up to previous elections, Otan usually received a majority of domestic media coverage. Before the 1999 election, for example, it was reported that Otan was the main focus in almost 60% of the coverage. Additionally, most of the country's major media outlets had political leanings towards Otan (including those networks
The Alberta Greens, also known as the Green Party of Alberta, was a provincial political party in the province of Alberta, Canada.
The Alberta Greens were formed in 1986 and received official party status on April 6, 1990. The party was affiliated with Green Parties throughout the world, and with the federal Green Party of Canada.
The party had been polling between 3% and 9% from 2006 to 2009. The party often polled ahead of the Wildrose Alliance Party of Alberta and had also placed third in two polls done by Leger Marketing and the Strategic Counsel ahead of both the Wildrose Party and Alberta New Democratic Party.
The party dissolved in July 2009 at the request of the new executive when it was unable to file financial returns with Elections Alberta as required by law. The party executive has established a non-profit association in hopes of re-establishing the party after the next election.
The Alberta Greens elected a new leader, George Read, in November 2003. Read has a degree in political science from the University of Calgary. He also served as the President of the Federal Green Party in Alberta from 2001 to 2003, and as the National Campaign Manager for the Green Party of
The Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) is one of the two major political parties in Jamaica, the other being the People's National Party. Despite its name, the JLP is a centre-right, conservative party, albeit one with ties to the Jamaican labour movement.
The party was founded on 8 July 1943 by Alexander Bustamante as the political wing of the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union. It won the 1944 general elections with 22 of the 32 seats. It went on to win the 1949 elections with a reduced majority, before losing power to the PNP in the 1955 elections. It remained in opposition following the 1959 elections, but was victorious in 1962. In 1964 Bustamante retired from politics, he did not relinquish the title of party leader for several years, until the party gave him the honorific title of "The Chief" following its defeat in the 1972 elections. In the interim, the party was led by Donald Sangster (until 1967) and Hugh Shearer (until 1974), having the title of "First Deputy Leader".
In 1974 Edward Seaga became the second leader of the party. The party lost the 1976 elections, but Seaga became Prime Minister after victory in 1980 when the party won 51 of the 60 seats. In an election boycotted
Lakas-CMD (Lakas ng Tao-Christian Muslim Democrats), popularly known as Lakas, was a political party in the Philippines. Its ideology and that of its successor is heavily influenced by Christian and Islamic democracy, and by Populism. The party's influence on Philippine society is very evident, especially after the People Power Revolution, which has led the country to elect two presidents from the party, namely Fidel V. Ramos, a United Methodist, and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, a Roman Catholic.
In May 2009, Lakas-CMD merged with Arroyo's KAMPI thereby being known as Lakas Kampi CMD, a completely new entity. On May 2012, Lakas-Kampi renamed itself as Lakas-CMD.
Lakas-CMD has always focused on economic growth and development, stronger ties with the United States, creation of jobs, and strong cooperation between the executive and legislative branches of government. It is known for its advocacy of a shift from the present presidential system to a parliamentary form of government through constitutional amendments and through establishing peace talks with Muslim separatists and communist rebels. The party democracy is distinct in its ecumenical inclusion of Muslim leaders in its political
The National Union (Portuguese: União Nacional) was the only legal political party in Portugal for most of the period of the Estado Novo, a right-wing dictatorship dominated by António de Oliveira Salazar.
The organization was founded in 1930 during the National Dictatorship period of 1928-33. Officially it was not a political party, but an "organisation of unity of all the Portuguese". The party won all seats in elections to the Portuguese National Assembly from 1934 to 1973. In 1970 – two years after Salazar had been replaced as leader by Marcello Caetano – the name of the party was altered to Acção Nacional Popular (People's National Action), and subsequent to Salazar's retirement faced formal competition in the 1969 election, nevertheless winning all constituencies in a landslide.
The New Democratic Party (French: Nouveau Parti démocratique), commonly referred to as the NDP, is a social-democratic federal political party in Canada.The current leader of the NDP is Thomas Mulcair, who was elected in the 2012 leadership election.
The provincial wings of the NDP in Manitoba and Nova Scotia currently form the governments in those provinces. Provincial parties have previously formed governments in British Columbia, Ontario, and Saskatchewan, and the territorial party formed the government in Yukon. In the 2011 federal election under the leadership of Jack Layton, the NDP won the second-most seats in the Canadian House of Commons, gaining the title of Official Opposition for the first time in Canadian history.
The NDP evolved from a merger of the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). The CCF grew from populist, agrarian and socialist roots into a modern socialist party. Although the CCF was part of the Christian left and the Social Gospel movement, the NDP is secular and pluralistic. It has broadened to include concerns of the New Left, and advocates issues such as gay rights, international peace, and environmental
Lega Nord (North League, LN, often translated as Northern League by English-language media), whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (English: North League for the Independence of Padania), is a federalist and regionalist political party in Italy. It was founded in 1991 as a federation of several regional parties of Northern and Central Italy, most of which had arisen and expanded their share of the electorate over the 1980s.
In popular usage the party is generally referred to simply as Lega and is frequently nicknamed il Carroccio in newspapers, after a four-wheeled war altar drawn by oxen, used by the medieval republics of Northern Italy which formed the Lombard League in opposition to the imperialist design of Frederick I Barbarossa.
Lega Nord's political program advocates the transformation of Italy into a federal state, fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy, especially for the Northern regions. At times it has advocated secession of the North, which it calls Padania. Prior to the party's adoption of the term, Padania was infrequently used to name the Padan-Venetian Plain and was promoted since 1963 by sport journalist Gianni Brera as a
The Pakistan People's Party (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی; commonly referred to as PPP) is a centre-left, progressive, and democratic socialist political party in Pakistan. Affiliated with the Socialist International,, its political philosophy and position, by country's political spectrum, is considered centre-left with the strong public promotion of the components of social liberalism on economic standard, and the social democratic principles.
It is one of major and influential party in the country and since its founding, all of its leadership has been dominated by the members from the Bhutto-Zardari family. Although its centre of gravity lies in the southern province of Sindh, the party also enjoys considerable support in the more densely populated provinces of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.
Since its formation in 1967, the PPP has been voted into power on four separate occasions while denied popular mandate to govern twice in 1977 and 2002.
The Pakistan People's Party (PPP) was founded by former members of the now-defunct Pakistan Socialist Party, banned by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan. In the 1960s, support for socialism as well as
The Party of National Mobilization (Portuguese: Partido da Mobilização Nacional, PMN) is a national-centrist political party in Brazil founded by politicians from the state of Minas Gerais on April 21, 1984, advocating for agrarian reform, termination of debt payments, ending of relations with the International Monetary Fund and formation of a trade bloc with other South American nations.
Due to some problems with the Brazilian Electoral Court, the PMN's registration was ceased in January 1989. The party re-started in June of the same year. At the legislative elections in Brazil, 6 October 2002, the party won 1 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Senate. Nowadays, PMN is one of the members of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's coalition.
At the 2010 elections, the PMN won four seats in the Chamber of Deputies and won the governorship of the state of Amazonas.
Parti Melayu Semangat 46 or Spirit of 46 Malay Party (S46) is a now defunct Malaysian political party. The party was formed in 1988, and dissolved in 1996. It was formed by Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah's "Team B" faction of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), as a challenge to prime minister Mahathir Mohamad and UMNO.
Razaleigh had the personal support of former UMNO prime ministers Tunku Abdul Rahman and Hussein Onn, both of whom had also fallen out with Mahathir.
The idea of Semangat 46 first came about in 1985 or 1986 when Malaysia was experiencing an economic recession. In 1987, Razaleigh's "Team B" faction challenged Mahathir's "Team A" faction for control of UMNO. Mahathir won the party election, and removed all Team B members from the cabinet. Team B leaders claimed many party delegates were improperly elected, and filed suit to overturn the election. This led to UMNO being declared illegal on technical grounds in 1988. Mahathir immediately reconstituted UMNO, with only Team A members.
Razaleigh and Team B formed their own party. They tried to register as "UMNO 46" (alluding to the party's founding in 1946. But "UMNO 46" was rejected as a duplicate name, so Razaleigh
Social Democratic Action of Croatia (Croatian: Akcija socijaldemokrata Hrvatske or ASH) is a Croatian left-wing political party.
It was founded by 1994 by members of Social Democratic Party of Croatia dissatisfied with the centrist policies of SDP leader Ivica Račan and his lack of criticism towards Franjo Tuđman.
The party had high hopes of gathering support beyond disenchanted SDP voters after Croatian Spring leader Miko Tripalo left Croatian People's Party in order to join them.
However, in the 1995 parliamentary election most of left-wing voters opted for SDP while ASH managed to get only one seat.
As of 2009, the party's membership is 6,300.
The Social Democratic Federation of America (also known as Social Democratic Federation USA) was a political party in the United States, formed in 1936 by the so-called "Old Guard" faction of the Socialist Party of America. The SDF later merged again with the Socialist Party in 1957 to form the Socialist Party-Social Democratic Federation (SP-SDF).
Social Democratic Federation leader Louis Waldman noted in his memoirs that while the official split of the Socialist Party that resulted in the creation of the Social Democratic Federation took place in 1936, "the crucial events occurred at the party's national convention in Detroit in 1934." It was at this national gathering that the ongoing factional war between a youthful "Militant" faction favoring aggressive advocacy of revolutionary tactics and joint action with the Communist Party won the day and pushed through a new Declaration of Principles, leading the SPA's right wing faction, known as the "Old Guard" to abandon the organization. Throughout the 1930s the Socialist Party had achieved moderate growth, it's paid membership returning to the 25,000 level and its candidate for President of the United States Norman Thomas polling
The Social Democratic Party of America (SDP) was a short-lived political party in the United States, established in 1898. The group was formed out of elements of the Social Democracy of America (SDA), and was a predecessor to the Socialist Party of America, established in 1901.
Following the defeat of the 1894 American Railway Union (ARU) strike, the former populist Eugene V. Debs exhaustively read socialist literature provided to him by Milwaukee publisher Victor L. Berger and other independent Socialists. Debs converted to the Socialist cause, believing in the aftermath of the suppression of the ARU strike by federal troop that trade union action alone was insufficient to bring about the liberation of the working class.
In this same summer, smarting from a failed effort at establishing a socialist community near Tennessee City, Tennessee, publisher Julius Wayland established in Kansas City a new socialist weekly newspaper, Appeal to Reason, eventually moving the operation for financial reasons to a small town in southeastern Kansas called Girard. This paper was a major success, quickly gaining a paid subscribership of 80,000 and invigorating the Socialist movement. A new
The Social Liberal Party (Partido Social Liberal) is a liberal party in Brazil. At the legislative elections, 6 October 2002, the party won 1 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Senate. In 2006 didn't win seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate. In 2010, the party won 1 seat in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Senate.
The Socialist Forces Front (French: Front des Forces socialistes, FFS) (Arabic: جبهة القوى الاشتراكية), (Taqbaylit: Tirni Iɣallen Inemlayen), is a social democratic and secularist, political party in Algeria. It was formed in 1963 by Hocine Ait Ahmed. The FFS is a member of the Socialist International.
The party was formed the 29 September 1963 in Tizi-Ouzou to oppose Ben Bella's government. Following the party's creation, a number of towns in Kabylie gave them their support. The Ben Bella government, aided by the Armée de Libération nationale, swiftly took control of the dissident towns during a mostly bloodless confrontation. Preferring to avoid direct conflict, the FFS and its soldiers retracted into the mountains from where they could launch guerrilla tactics.
It boycotted the 2002 elections.
The Socialist Party of Albania (Albanian: Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë), is a centre-left, social-democratic and socially liberal political party in Albania, it is currently the leading opposition party in Albania. It seats 66 MPs in the 2009 Albanian parliament (out of a total of 140). It achieved power in 1997 after a political crisis and governmental realignment. In the 2001 General Election it secured 73 seats in the Parliament, which enabled it to form the Government. In the General Election of 3 July 2005, the Socialist Party lost its majority and the Democratic Party of Albania formed the new Government, having secured, with its allies, a majority of 81 seats.
The Albanian Labor Party during its Tenth Congress in June 1991 changed its name to the Socialist Party of Albania, and also changed its ideology from communism to social democracy. Fatos Nano a man from the intelligencia was elected its first Chairman. Nano helped to reformed the old communist party and made it a member of the Socialist International. On 1 September 2005 Nano resigned as the chairman of the Socialist Party, after losing the elections. He was succeeded by Edi Rama, who altered the party ideology to
The United People's Party was a Singapore party formed by the former People's Action Party (PAP) leader Ong Eng Guan in 1961. After it won a seat (won by Ong Eng Guan), in the 1963 General Elections, the party's existence was in doubt as Singapore was knocked out of the Malaysian federation by Malaysia. In 1964, Ong resigned from his seat and the seat was subsequently won back by the PAP in the by-election. By the 1968 election, the party had dissolved.
The logo was a key, as follows: