Automotive platform is a layout of a set of under-body components (floor-plan, suspension, steering mechanism, power-train, wheelbase, and engine placement) that can be shared across different models of an automotive line or multiple lines.
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The Ford CD2 platform (for "C/D-class" and called U204 internally) is an automobile platform for crossover SUVs. It is the basis for the Mazda Tribute, Ford Escape, and Mercury Mariner, and was jointly developed by Mazda and Ford. The design is based on Mazda's GF platform, used by the Mazda Capella/626.
CD2 is a front wheel drive platform with an all wheel drive option. Tributes and Escapes are manufactured at Mazda's Hofu Plant and Ford's Kansas City Assembly in Claycomo, Missouri. A Mercury Mariner version was briefly produced at the Ohio Assembly in Avon Lake, Ohio, but this line was halted in mid-2005 to allow the plant to convert to Ford Econoline production. The Mariner was subsequently produced at the Kansas City Assembly plant.
The CD2 vehicles were updated for the 2008 model year with a new exterior and interior, but the chassis and powertrain are mainly carried over. The 2008 models debuted in early 2007. A shortened 2007 production run caused Mazda to halt construction of the 2007 model year Tribute for North America. For the 2009 model year, the vehicles received new powertrain options designed to increase power and fuel economy over the previous models.
The Ford EUCD platform (for "European D-class") is Ford's global midsize car automobile platform. It is loosely based on Ford's compact Ford C1 platform. EUCD and C1 share many suspension, brake, and electrical systems.
Originally known as "C1-Plus" due to its similarity, EUCD was chosen by Ford's European operations instead of the Ford CD3 platform due to the large number of components shared with the smaller C1. Another factor was reportedly the inability of the CD3 to accept Volvo's straight-5 engines.
The first EUCD cars were introduced at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show: Volvo's S80 and Ford's S-MAX and Galaxy, which share about half of their total parts, for example, the steering columns on the Galaxy, S-Max and S80 share 80 percent of their parts. The latest model is the Range Rover Evoque, which shares few parts with vehicles other than the Land Rover Freelander 2, with which it shares few parts with as well.
The Range Rover Evoque (code name L538), which was launched in 2011, uses a platform called LR-MS, which is loosely based on the EUCD platform.
In 2012, the Fusion and Mondeo mid-size (C/D) cars migrated to the Ford CD4 platform, a new common global platform.
The Ford B3 platform (for "B-class") is a subcompact automobile platform that is jointly developed by Ford Motor Company and Mazda Motor Company at centers in Europe as well as North America and Australia. Previously, Ford has used the Mazda-engineered D platform for its B-segment Ford Festiva (hatchback). This new global B-platform project was initiated by Ford in Dearborn, MI and is equipped with front MacPherson strut and twist-beam rear suspension. The front suspension arms (wishbone) are attached to a pressed-steel welded subframe, which is directly bolted onto the bodyshell. The design is made to accommodate diverse engine options with different engine harmonic frequencies.
Vehicles using this platform include:
New Ford global B-car platform (sometimes global B1 or B2E) were designed and developed as Ford’s global B-segment platform. It is the first B-platform developed by Ford's global product development process.
Vehicles using (2008–) this platform include:
Future vehicles on the Ford global B-car platform:
The General Motors G platform (also called G-body) was an automobile platform designation used for mid-sized rear wheel drive cars first from 1969-1972 and again from 1982 to 1988.
The G-body designation was originally used for 1969–1972 Pontiac Grand Prix and 1970–1972 Chevrolet Monte Carlo personal luxury coupes.
Between 1973 and 1981 the A-body coupes with formal rooflines were designated as A-Special and after 1982 dubbed as the G-Special. These special coupes included Monte Carlo, Grand Prix, Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme and Buick Regal two door models.
1982 to 1988 G-bodies began production designated as A-body cars in 1978, but were redesignated as G when the new front wheel drive A-body was introduced in 1982, at which point the Chevy Malibu/Pontiac LeMans coupes were dropped along with the Buick/Olds fastbacks. 1983 was the last year for wagons and Chevy Malibu sedans, leaving the G-Special coupes, B-O-P formal-roof sedans and the Chevy El Camino/GMC Caballero. In 1988, most remaining G-body models were moved to the new front wheel drive GM W platform, although the Pontiac Bonneville moved to the H-body, the El Camino was dropped without replacement and there would be a
The General Motors A platform (commonly called A-body) was an automobile platform.
From at least 1936 through 1958, GM used at least four different designations for various bodyshells/platforms including the A-body for Chevrolet, most Pontiacs, and the Oldsmobile Series F and Series 60, the B-body for the Pontiac Streamliner Torpedo and Streamliner, the Oldsmobile Series L, Series 70 and Series 88, the Buick Special and Century, the LaSalle Series 50, and the Cadillac Series 60, Series 61 and Series 63, and the C-body for the Pontiac Series 24/29 Torpedo, Oldsmobile 90, the Buick Roadmaster, Super and 1958 Limited, the LaSalle Series 52, and all remaining Cadillacs except for the Series 90, Series 85 and the Series 75 which were built on the D-body, along with all remaining Buick Limiteds. For the 1959 model year, the previous A and B bodies were built on the new B-body that lasted until 1996. For the 1959 model year, the previous A and B bodies were built on the new B Body that lasted until 1996.
The A-body designation would be resurrected by GM in 1964 for a new series of intermediate-sized cars including the Chevrolet Chevelle, Pontiac Tempest, Oldsmobile Cutlass and Buick
Chrysler's L platform was used in a family of compact automobiles produced from 1978 to 1990. It was created in response to the energy crisis of the 1970s and was a line of similar Dodge and Plymouth vehicles. The Dodge vehicles except for the Rampage are common, but the Plymouth clones, except for the Horizon didn't match half the sales numbers of the Dodge versions, and are very collectible today because only handfuls of TC3s, Scamps, and Turismos were made.
The Ford U platform designation is used by Ford Motor Company for a range of sport utility vehicle (SUV) and crossover utility vehicle (CUV) automobile platform applications.
The U1 platform was used for Mid-size SUVs, built at Louisville, Kentucky, Hazelwood, Missouri (Saint Louis, Missouri), and Valencia, Venezuela plants.
Vehicles using the standard wheelbase UN105-150 version include:
The First Generation (1991–1994) trucks are dubbed as the UN46 platform while the Second Generation (1995–2001) trucks are the UN105 platform. The Third Generation (2002–2005) trucks are UN152 and the 2001-2003 "Sport" (2-door) variants are platform UN52.
Vehicles using the long-wheelbase UN93/173 version, built in Wayne, Michigan, include:
A new version of the mid-size SUV platform (U2 short- and U3 long-wheelbase) went into production in 2006 for 2007 models.
U2 vehicles were built in Ford's Louisville, Kentucky and Valencia, Venezuela plants.
Vehicles using the new U2 short wheelbase platform include:
The full-size SUV U32x Expedition and Navigator are built in Ford's Wayne, Michigan plant. This platform is also called T1 platform, based on the F-150.
The compact crossover SUV
Delta II is General Motors' future compact car platform, and is the successor to the GM Delta platform. Internally it is simply known as a new Global Compact Vehicle Architecture or GCV.
As of 2005, the Delta II architecture is being designed by GM Europe, specifically Opel in Rüsselsheim, Germany.
Concept vehicles based on this platform:
Production vehicles planned to based on Delta II platform:
The Ford V platform is a dedicated minivan platform exploited by Ford and Mercury. It was the second minivan-specific platform utilized by Ford in North America (the first being the VN1 used by the Ford Aerostar). It was introduced for the 1999 model year when Ford introduced the second-generation Windstar minivan. After the 2007 model year, the V platform was discontinued in favor of large CUVs based on the D4 platform. The V platform is also the largest minivan platform ever used by Ford.
The V platform was used for the following vehicles:
The VH Platform (for vertical/horizontal platform) is Aston Martin's sports car automobile platform. It is used in all of Aston Martin's current lineup excluding the One-77, which uses carbon architecture and the Cygnet which is based on the Toyota iQ. There are five variations of the VH platform.
The original Aston Martin Vanquish used an aluminium chasis that evolved into the platform that would go on to underpin all future Aston Martins. At the time it was not considered to be a VH platform but in retrospect it should be treated as one.
The first official VH Chassis debut in the Aston Martin DB9 in 2004 and has been used in that car, with only minor tweaks, ever since.
The second VH platform underpins the 2005 Aston Martin V8 Vantage and its V12 and S variants. It was also used in the 2007 Aston Martin DBS.
The third VH Chassis is used in the Aston Martin Rapide. The platform differs from the first two as it is longer to accommodate the longer four door body.
Based on VH Generation2, Generation4 underpins the new Aston Martin Vanquish. It is based on the Carbon architecture found in the One-77 and uses far more carbon fibre in its design than previous VH Chassis' and it, in
The F platform, or F-body, was General Motors' small rear-wheel drive automobile platform from 1967 until 2002. It was based partially on the GM X platform, which was used for compact applications instead of the sporting intent of the F-Body. The only two vehicles to have been built using the F-Body platform are the Chevrolet Camaro and the Pontiac Firebird. The fourth character in the Vehicle Identification Number for an F-body car is "F", on Fourth Generation vehicles. Earlier Camaros and Firebirds had differing VIN codes, but are now commonly referred to as F-bodies.
The first F-body cars were produced in 1967, as GM's response to the Ford Mustang. Originally designed strictly as the platform for the Camaro, Pontiac engineers were given a short amount of time prior to the Camaro's release to produce a version that matched their corporate styling as well. The F-Body was available as both a hardtop coupe and a cloth-top convertible. As was GM policy at the time, Chevrolet and Pontiac both installed their own engines; however, the engine lineups were similar. Both cars could be had with either division's base inline six-cylinder engine, a V8 engine of approximately 5.3 liters (327
The GM M platform was the designation used by General Motors for the platform that underpinned the second and third generation Suzuki Cultus and its offspring.
The preceding platform had been designed by Suzuki for their 1983 Cultus, and adopted by Chevrolet with the introduction of the Sprint.
The platforms of the second and third generations first appeared in 1989 and 1995 respectively. They were designed at GM's Technical Center in Warren, Michigan, USA. Suzuki designed all the engines, drivetrains and actual body. From 1985 through 1989, all models were imported from Suzuki's facilities in Hamamatsu, Japan. From 1990 on, all North American M-cars were produced at CAMI Automotive in Ingersoll, Ontario, Canada with the exception of the convertible and turbocharged models which were imported from Japan. The third generation M platform was only sold by Suzuki as the Suzuki Swift in North America as Suzuki decided to create their own Swift to market around the world.
The following vehicles used this platform:
Suzuki Cultus Generation II, GM M platform:
2= 2-dr convertible
3= 3-dr hatchback
4= 4-dr sedan
5= 5-dr hatchback
un = unknown
Manufactured at Magyar Suzuki
The Ford D186 platform is a mid-size car platform, and was used for three cars and a minivan. The D186 was first used with the 1986 introduction of the Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable. D186 was also significant because it introduced front-wheel drive to Lincoln as well to Ford minivans. The platform was phased out in the early 2000s when the Taurus and Sable were (for the time being) replaced by both smaller (Fusion/Milan) and larger (Five Hundred/Montego) product lines.
The Ford VN platform is Ford Motor Company's code designation for North American-designed vans. The platform itself was introduced in 1975, when Ford redesigned the Econoline. In the 1980s, the designation was used for the Ford Aerostar mid-size van platform, which is mechanically unrelated to the E-Series.
Introduced in 1975, this generation of the E-Series was the first to be produced with a full frame. In production for 37 years (across two generations), the VN platform is the longest-used platform at Ford. The E-Series is also the last Ford that uses Twin I-Beam front suspension. Vehicles using this platform include:
This design was developed because Ford truck designers were unfamiliar and uncomfortable with unibody construction. As a result, the frame rails were integrated into the unibody; this construction was also used on the Chevrolet Astro/GMC Safari vans, the second-generation Jeep Cherokee, and today's Honda Ridgeline pickup.
Although the Aerostar used a dedicated platform, it was designed with a high degree of parts commonality with other Ford light-truck products of the time (initially, the Ford Ranger/Bronco II and the later Ford Explorer/Mazda Navajo). Components
The Z platform or Z-body automobile platform designation was used on two different types of vehicles made by General Motors. The first was the second-generation Chevrolet Corvair from 1965 to 1969, which was a rear-wheel-drive and rear-engine compact car that replaced the previous Y-Body Corvair. The second was Saturn's automobile platform from its debut in 1990 until 2002, which were front-wheel drive compact cars. This platform was replaced with the GM Delta platform.
Vehicles using the rear-drive/rear-engine Z-body include:
Vehicles using the front-drive/front-engine Z-body include:
The Ford Panther platform is an automobile platform that was used by Ford Motor Company for full-size, rear-wheel drive sedans. Introduced in late 1978 for the 1979 model year, it was progressively updated over 33 years of production. In September 2011, the last car produced on the platform was produced, marking the end of the rear-wheel drive full-size Ford. This also marks the end of the traditional body-on-frame rear wheel drive automobile in the United States since GM's discontinuation of its B platform in late 1996. The only other rear-wheel drive sedan with an available V8 engine currently produced by Ford is the Ford Falcon in Australia.
As of the 2011 model year, the Panther platform was in use longer (32 model years) than any other platform in North American automotive history. It was initially developed as a response to the downsizing of full-size cars from Chrysler and General Motors due to increasingly stringent fuel economy standards for cars. During trying periods for Ford, the Panther cars were scheduled for cancellation and replacement (in favor of the front-wheel drive D186 platform) on several occasions, as early as 1985.
As the 1980s progressed, the full-size
The Ford CDW27 platform was Ford's midsize car automobile platform from the early 1990s and was designed to be used as its 'World Car' platform. The platform was developed over six years and at a huge expense totalling $6 billion, but was expected to save 25% compared to developing separate models for Europe and North America.
The CDW27 platform was used in the 1993 Ford Mondeo, Ford Contour, Mercury Mystique, and Mercury Cougar.
Descendants of this platform were used in the second generation European Mondeo CD162, the third generation European Mondeo CD132 and Jaguar X-Type. The successors to many of these cars use the new Ford CD3 platform.
The B platform, or B-body, was General Motors' full-size rear-wheel drive automobile platform. It was closely related to the C-body and D-body and was used for convertibles, hardtops, coupés, sedans, and station wagons.
From at least 1936 through 1958, GM used at least four different designations for various bodyshells/platforms including the A-body for Chevrolet, most Pontiacs, and the Oldsmobile Series F and Series 60, the B-body for the Pontiac Streamliner Torpedo and Streamliner, the Oldsmobile Series L, Series 70 and Series 88, the Buick Special and Century, the LaSalle Series 50 and the Cadillac Series 60, Series 61 and Series 63, and the C-body for the Pontiac Series 24/29 Torpedo, Oldsmobile 90, the Buick Roadmaster, Super and 1958 Limited, the LaSalle Series 52, and all remaining Cadillacs except for the Series 90, Series 85 and the Series 75 which were built on the D-body, along with all remaining Buick Limiteds. For the 1959 model year, the previous A and B bodies were built on the new B-body that lasted until 1996. The A-body designation would be resurrected by GM in 1964 for a new series of intermediate-sized cars including the Chevrolet Chevelle, Pontiac Tempest,
General Motors introduced the front-wheel drive GM4200 platform in 1983 with the introductions of two subcompacts, the Opel Corsa A and the Vauxhall Nova. The platform was also used by Holden, Chevrolet's Latin American branch, and Buick of China. The platform is still in use today by Chevrolet's Latin American branch for their entry-level models.
The GMT800 was the basis for the previous generation Chevrolet Silverado full-size pickup truck. The derived GMT820 and GMT830 was used in the Suburban, among other full-size SUVs. This was the successor to the GMT400 series of C/K pickups and SUVs, and was replaced for 2007 by the GMT900 line.
The GMT 800 platform was introduced in 1999. Frames were manufactured by Magna International in Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, Mexico and St. Thomas, Ontario, Canada. Final assembly is in Oshawa, Ontario, Pontiac, Michigan, Fort Wayne, Indiana and Silao, Mexico. . The GMT820-based Hummer H2 was built under contract by AM General at a specially-constructed plant in Mishawaka, Indiana, USA.
The GMT800 introduced a three section frame system, which could be mixed and matched depending on the wheelbase, GVWR, and body type fitted to the platform, rather than a single piece long frame. The front section was hydroformed. The middle and rear sections were roll formed or stamped, depending on application. This gives greater flexibility to the platform. A total of four front modules, seven midsections, and four rear sections were created to mix and match for nearly 40 different truck configurations.
The GMT900 truck platform debuted at the 2006 North American International Auto Show, as basis for the next generation of General Motors full-size pickups and SUVs, and replacements for the GMT800 vehicles. The first GMT900 vehicle introduced was the next-generation Chevrolet Tahoe.
GMT900 had been called a "Hail Mary pass" for the General Motors Corporation — the company needed the revenue from these large trucks to ensure their financial solvency. The company's resources were focused exclusively on GMT900 development through 2005, delaying other programs like the GM Zeta platform. With the 2005 spike in gasoline prices, some analysts have questioned the wisdom of "betting the company" on a line of large trucks. Sales were initially brisk, but later dropped off as the market moved to more fuel-efficient unibody vehicles.
The GMT900 series features standard vehicle stability control. Original plans called for American Axle's "I-Ride" independent suspension module in the rear, but this appears to have been cancelled.
Short wheelbase (Yukon/Tahoe) GMT900 production began at GM's Arlington Assembly plant in Arlington, Texas on December 1, 2005, six weeks ahead of schedule. Production
The Mazda G platform is an automobile platform for midsize cars. It has been used by a number of vehicles from Mazda in Japan and abroad.
Prior to 1981, Mazda coded the rear wheel drive Capella platform as "S1" in the VIN code. This chassis was dropped for the Capella, but retained (in a modified form) for the RX-7 as the Mazda F platform.
GC was Mazda's first front wheel drive midsize car platform. Available body styles were two-door coupé four-door sedan and five-door hatchback. The Ford Telstar version was called the TX5, there was no Telstar version of the coupé. Production was in Japan, with local assembly in Australia (as a Telstar only), New Zealand, and Taiwan. The model continued in production in South Africa until 1993.
The updated GD platform was introduced in 1987 in Japan and later elsewhere. It spawned a station wagon variant, the GV. Production in the United States was started at the AutoAlliance International plant in Flat Rock, Michigan.
GV is a station wagon version of the GD platform. GV production continued well past its sibling, lasting until 1996.
The Japan-market Mazda Capella never used the GE platform. Rather, a new model (the Mazda Cronos) was introduced
Theta is General Motors' compact and mid-size crossover SUV automobile platform. The architecture debuted in 2002 with the Saturn Vue and was later used for the Chevrolet Equinox and Captiva and similar models.
The Theta uses a four wheel independent suspension. Engine choices include the Ecotec Family II straight-4, 3400 V6, and even a Honda V6, the L66. A 5-speed automatic and two 5-speed manual transmissions are used.
The original Saturn Vue used a short 106.6 in (2708 mm) wheelbase, with a 61 in (1549 mm) track. The Chevrolet Equinox and Pontiac Torrent use a stretched 112.5 in (2857 mm) wheelbase, but shares much with the Saturn.
The Suzuki Grand Vitara, although similar in size and appearance to a Saturn Vue, was developed by Suzuki using some Theta components, but should not be considered a Theta derivative. The Grand Vitara front and rear suspensions are substantially different from the Theta vehicles. The 2007 Suzuki XL7 is based on the Theta platform and is built alongside the Equinox and Torrent at CAMI Automotive in Ingersoll, Ontario, Canada. It is the first non-GM branded vehicle to come off the Theta platform. Styled by Suzuki, the engineering was performed by GM
The Ford B Platform is Ford's subcompact car automobile platform from the late 1980s and 1990s. It was used in the Ford Fiesta, Ford Ka, Ford Puma, and Ford Courier. It was superseded by the Ford B3 platform in 2004.
The General Motors H platform or H-body is an automobile platform designation used for the 1971–1980 model year rear wheel drive line of subcompact cars. The fourth character in the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) for an H-body car is "H".
H-bodies were available as two-door Notchback, Hatchback, Wagon, and Sedan delivery body-styles, and have 4, 6, and 8-cylinder GM engines, solid rear axle, and unibody construction. The platform was introduced with the 1971 Chevrolet Vega. The Pontiac Astre, Chevrolet Monza, Buick Skyhawk, and Oldsmobile Starfire were introduced for the 1975 model year, while the Pontiac Sunbird was introduced a year later as a 1976 model.
The Vega engine is a 140 CID aluminum-block L4. A 1972 GM prototype had an all-aluminum 302 small-block V8, but this was not approved. Chevrolet hand-built 5000 122 CID L4 Cosworth Twin-Cam engines for the 1975 Cosworth Twin-Cam Vega. Only 3508 1975-76 cars were built. The remaining engines were scrapped. The GM-rotary (GMRCA) Wankel engine was destined for the 1975 Monza 2+2 but the engine was canceled.
The Vega and the Astre were discontinued at the end of the 1977 model year, but the Monza, Sunbird, Skyhawk, and Starfire
The Ford D3 platform (called P2 by Volvo) is a Ford global full-size car automobile platform. It was designed by Volvo before the Ford purchase and debuted with the Volvo S80 sedan in early 1999. The platform is designed for either front- or all wheel drive with an extended wheelbase option.
Ford's D3 platform is slightly different from Volvo's original P2. For example, D3 features steel suspension arms, rather than aluminum, and other material cost-saving measures. Ford's current D3 vehicles are built at the Chicago Assembly plant in Chicago, Illinois, while Volvo's are built at the company's Torslanda Works in Gothenburg, Sweden.
D4 is a revision of D3 created to underpin the Ford Flex and Lincoln MKT crossover SUVs.
Current D4 vehicles:
D4 based concepts:
The Ford DEW platform (or DEW98) is Ford Motor Company's midsize rear wheel drive automobile platform. The D/E nomenclature was meant to express an intermediate size between D and E class vehicles, while the W denoted a worldwide platform. The platform was developed by both Ford and Jaguar engineers, and debuted in the Lincoln LS sedan.
Ford's use of the platform ended in 2006, however Jaguar continues to use DEW98 even after Jaguar was sold to Tata Motors in 2008.
A less-expensive variant known as DEW Lite was originally to be used for the 2005 Ford Mustang, but the platform was significantly redesigned to become the Ford D2C platform instead.
This platform is used in the following vehicles:
Cancelled vehicles that were to use this platform:
FN10 is the designation for an automobile platform formerly used by the Ford Motor Company in the 1993 to 1998 Lincoln Mark VIII luxury car. The FN10 platform is similar to that of the MN12 platform used in the 1989 to 1997 Ford Thunderbird and Mercury Cougar, but had its roots in a 1980s project code named "Saturn". It was replaced by the DEW98 platform which became the basis of the Lincoln LS.
Gamma is General Motors' global subcompact front-wheel drive automobile platform. During the cooperation and crossover capital participation of GM and Fiat, both companies developed this as a common platform which had been used both in GM and in FIAT models.
The first version of the platform was issued in autumn 2000 with the introduction of Opel Corsa C and was a development of the earlier GM4200 platform used in previous Corsa models, developed by Opel in Germany. The wheelbase was enlarged to 2,491 mm (98.1 in) from 2,465 mm (97.0 in) on the GM4200.
Vehicles based on this platform:
In 2002 General Motors Europe and Fiat developed together a new platform for small cars called SCCS (Small Common Components System abbreviated in Small): the Opel Corsa D was in fact developed over the same platform of Fiat Grande Punto. The SCCS platform was used only for Opel vehicles sold in Europe and not used the previous components of Gamma platform.
GMDAT has taken responsibility for future development of GM's GSV (Global Small Vehicle) architecture,. This architecture will eventually be used for all small vehicles from GM, as a true global small car platform. Most of the engineering work on
The General Motors N platform (commonly called the N-body or N car) was a front-wheel drive compact automotive platform produced from 1985 to 2005. The GM N platform replaced the GM X platform.
The N platform was very similar to the GM L platform; however, the first generation N cars were engineered by Oldsmobile while the L cars were engineered by Chevrolet. The first generation used a twist-beam rear suspension and MacPherson struts in front, and featured a 103.4 in (263 cm) wheelbase. Two- and four-door models were eventually offered, although the four-door sedans appeared late, almost two years after the initial launch.
The N platform was used for the following vehicles:
In 1997 and 1998 General Motors consolidated the 1st generation N platform with the GM A platform (FWD) and GM L platform during the corporately-engineered P-90 project which became known as GMX130. This automotive platform featured fully independent suspension and a wheelbase of 107 in (270 cm). This was the last vehicle with significant engineering involvement of Oldsmobile and also the last one produced at the Lansing Car Assembly plant on April 29, 2004. A mid-size version spawned the 1997-2003 Chevrolet
The Ford Erika platform, otherwise shortened to Erika, is the name given to the platform used by Ford for its small family cars in the early 1980s. It was first introduced in 1980 for the European Escort Mk 3, and also spawned the Ford CE14 platform which formed the basis of the first generation American Escorts.
Epsilon is General Motors' mid-size front-wheel drive automobile platform. The architecture was developed by Opel, and debuted in the 2002 Opel Vectra and 2003 Saab 9-3. Since this platform falls squarely in the center of the worldwide automobile market, GM plans to produce a great many Epsilon vehicles with over a dozen variations. As of 2005, it is GM's highest volume worldwide platform. Even after the dissolution of the GM/Fiat partnership, both companies retain the rights to continue developing Epsilon-derived models.
GM's Epsilon platform replaced the N platform in the US, and replaced the GM2900 platform elsewhere. Vehicles of this platform generally carry the symbol "Z" in the fourth digit of their VINs.
When the platform debuted, there was talk of an "Epsilon Wide" derivative, which was supposed to have provided the underpinnings for the Buick LaCrosse and Saab 9-5. However, the program was cancelled and the LaCrosse was put on the W platform, and the 9-5 was given a quick refresh for the 2006 model year.
Many of the Epsilon vehicles use the Ecotec Family II I4 engines and both the High Value and High Feature V6 engines.
The refreshed 2008 SAAB 9-3 debuted with an advanced
The H platform, or H-body designates a General Motors front-wheel-drive full-sized automobile platform beginning in 1986. It is related to the C, G and K platforms.
Previously the H platform designation was used for unrelated rear-wheel-drive compact cars.
Many H-bodies used GM's large 3800 V6, and supercharged versions were available from 1991 to 2003. They originally came in both 2-door and 4-door versions, but the four-door sedans were dramatically more popular, and two-door models were dropped by 1992.
According to one source, the H-Body sedans were the next "big thing" for GM, and development cost more than $3 billion, which is on par with roughly how much Ford invested in the Ford Taurus. Both the H-body sedans and the Taurus (based on the D186 platform) were launched fully in 1986.
In the 2000s the H-body designation began to be used for a re-engineered platform based on the GM G platform (FWD). Some media reports refer to these cars as G-bodies even though General Motors uses H. Previously used for the Buick LeSabre and Pontiac Bonneville, the final car on this platform was the Buick Lucerne, which ended production in June 2011. The chassis identification can be found on
The General Motors L platform (commonly called the L-body or L car) was a front-wheel drive compact car automotive platform that was produced from 1987 through 1996.
The L platform was very similar to the GM N platform however the 1st generation N cars were engineered by Oldsmobile while the L cars were engineered by Chevrolet. The L platform used a Twist-beam rear suspension and MacPherson struts in front and featured a 103.4 in (263 cm) wheelbase.
Both platforms were used to replace the GM X platform platform on which the Citation, among others, were built.
The L car lasted just one generation, with the nameplates being retired and replaced by the GM N platform Chevrolet Malibu.
This platform was the basis for the following vehicles:
The U-platform (or U-body) is a front wheel drive minivan and crossover SUV platform from General Motors produced since 1990. North American sales ended in 2009, but Chinese production continues. The minivans were divided into three generations, 1990–1996, 1997–2005 and 2005-current. The U-body was also used for General Motors' first generation crossovers from 2001-2005.
Keeping with its EPA designation as a light truck, the fifth character in the VIN for a U-body is "U", instead of the fourth, as is standard for cars.
Released in the fall of 1989 for the 1990 model year, the U platform/GMT199 utilized a galvanized steel space frame underneath composite plastic dent resistant panels similar to those used in Saturn models and the Pontiac Fiero. The vans features unconventional styling, which some commenters likened to a DustBuster vacuum cleaner.
All models used a 120-hp, 3.1L V6 mated to a 3-speed automatic transmission. In 1992, the 3800 Series I V6 became available with a four speed automatic. Both were replaced by the LA1 3400 V6 in 1996.
The vehicles in this generation included:
In 1994 The Lumina and Trans Sport received a facelift, which shortened the nose and gave them a
Lambda is General Motors' full-size crossover SUV automobile platform. It is largely derived from the GM Epsilon platform, which underlies the Chevrolet Malibu sedan and similar models.
The Buick Enclave concept car was previewed at the 2006 North American International Auto Show, and the Saturn Outlook was shown at the 2006 New York Auto Show. The 2007 Outlook and GMC Acadia went into production in late 2006, followed by the 2008 Enclave in mid-2007, and the 2009 Chevrolet Traverse in mid-2008.
Lambda vehicles feature easily accessible three-row seating. They were supplied with the LY7 3.6-liter V6. Starting with the 2009 model year all Lambda vehicles have GM LLT 3.6-liter gasoline direct injection engine for improved fuel efficiency, horsepower and torque. With the cancellation of GM's next-generation DOHC V8, it appears unlikely that GM will offer a V8 engine for Lambda. The platform has been designed for front and all-wheel drive applications.
Lambda vehicles are produced in the new Lansing Delta Township Assembly plant near Lansing, Michigan. The Traverse began production in September 2008 at a retooled Spring Hill Assembly Plant in Tennessee, but production was later moved
The Ford D2C platform (for "D-class 2-door coupe" and primarily known as S197) is Ford's latest rear-wheel drive automobile platform. Currently, the only vehicle using this platform is the 2005-present Ford Mustang and its Shelby derivative.
The platform basics are a MacPherson strut suspension in front and 3-link solid axle in the rear with a Panhard rod. Unlike previous Special Vehicle Team (SVT) Mustang variations, the Shelby GT500 does not include independent rear suspension, but also has a solid rear axle.
Considered a new platform by Ford Motor Company, D2C is loosely based on the Ford DEW platform which served as the basis for the Lincoln LS, Ford Thunderbird, and Jaguar S-Type. The 2005 S197 Mustang was originally designed to use a "Lite" version of the DEW98 platform, but while that plan was eventually scrapped as too expensive, most D2C platform development completed prior to that decision was retained. This led to the carryover of several DEW98 chassis components. These components include the floor pans, portions of the transmission tunnel, the front frame rails, and basic fuel tank design.
Differences between D2C and DEW98 are most noticeable in the suspension: The
The Ford Fox platform is a rear wheel drive, unitized-chassis, automobile architecture used by Ford Motor Company in North America. Introduced for the 1978 model year, it would go on to be produced until 1993 in its original version; a substantial redesign of the Ford Mustang in 1994 extended its life another 11 years. Designed to be relatively lightweight and simple, in keeping with the general downsizing of Detroit designs in the late 1970s, the Fox platform served as a replacement for many models derived from the original Ford Falcon (dating from 1960). The Ford Fairmont and Mercury Zephyr were introduced as the replacements for the Ford Maverick and Mercury Comet.
Eventually, thirteen distinct Ford models in several market segments would be built off it, with multiple bodystyles and powertrains. As downsizing became more common in the American automotive industry in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Fox platform was used for many nameplates that underwent downsizing. As the industry shifted to front-wheel drive, the Fox platform was used less for family cars and more for sporty cars; from 1989 to 2004, it was used exclusively by the Mustang.
The Fox platform, like most
The General Motors A platform (commonly called the A-body) was a mid-size car automobile platform designation used from 1982 to 1996. Previously the A body designation had been used for rear wheel drive mid-sized cars.
The A-body consisted of 4-door sedan, 2-door coupé and a 4-door station wagon It was updated in 1989 with a slightly longer wheelbase and a more rounded roofline (except for the Celebrity whose roofline remained unchanged as it was to be phased out in 1990). It also briefly saw duty as an All Wheel Drive platform for the Pontiac 6000.
Later GM platforms (specifically transaxle based, i.e. FWD and mid-engine RWD) benefited from components and systems developed with the A-Body. Additionally the first generation U-body minivan (1990–1996) was constructed utilizing lightly modified A-body chassis.
The A-body began to be phased out in favor of the GM W platform beginning in 1990, although production did not end for the until 1996 due to popularity of the remaining models.
The W-body is an automobile platform from General Motors which underpins mid-size cars with front-wheel drive. The platform, originally code named GM10, began in 1982 under Chairman Roger B. Smith and debuted in 1988 with the Pontiac Grand Prix, the Buick Regal, and the Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme coupés. Sedans followed for 1990.
The platform cost $7 billion to develop and was to replace all midsize cars produced by Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile, and Buick. The plan was huge in scope, calling for seven plants that would each assemble 250,000 of the cars, or 21% of the total U.S. car market. It was badly executed from the start, but GM’s 1984 reorganization, combined with changing market dynamics wrought havoc on the program and it never recovered. By 1989, the year before the last of the original GM10's were launched, GM was losing $2000 on every one of the cars it produced.
The later revision of this platform was known as the MS2000 or simply the W2-Car. Early versions used a fiberglass monoleaf spring combined with struts in the rear. The "generation 1.5" W-body models had updated rear suspensions that used coil springs instead of the leaf spring design. For the 1997 model year
The Ford MN12 platform (Mid-size North America Project #12) was a car platform formerly used by the Ford Motor Company from 1989 to 1997 for the Ford Thunderbird and Mercury Cougar two-door personal luxury cars.
A variant of this platform, known as the FN10 (Full-Sized North American Project #10), was used for the Lincoln Mark VIII from 1993 to 1998. Each car based on this platform had a front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout with an independent rear suspension.
The roots of the MN12 program began in the mid-1980s when Ford sought to build on the success of the then-current, Fox body-based Thunderbird and Cougar. Going beyond unique styling, Ford wanted to produce a Thunderbird and Cougar that could compete with more sophisticated and higher performing cars from European automakers such as BMW. To accomplish this, Ford needed to develop a new platform since the existing Fox platform couldn't satisfy the requirements of the MN12 program. Heading the program was Anthony "Tony" S. Kuchta, who was appointed to the position by Ford management in 1986. Kuchta decided to keep a rear-wheel drive layout for the MN12 platform as a basis for delivering better road performance, as opposed to
The Mazda B platform is an automobile platform for compact cars. It has been used by a number of vehicles from Mazda and Ford Motor Company in Japan and abroad.
This is the first showing of Mazda's SS (self-stabilizing) rear suspension. The two lower parallel links of the rear strut are designed to induce toe-in on the rear tire on the outer side of the curve (e.g. right turn - left rear tire).
The SS suspension was updated.
The Mazda BG was shared with Ford, which called it CT120.
BW is a station wagon version of the BF platform.
The BJ platform was updated with a lower moment of roll for improved steering, better chassis rigidity, and new engines and transmissions.
The BK platform is Mazda's designation for the Ford C1 platform, which was jointly engineered by Mazda, Volvo and Ford. Applications:
The General Motors C platform (commonly called C-body) was an automobile platform designation used for full sized luxury cars until 2005.
The rear-wheel drive C Platform designation had been introduced as early as 1936 and was used until 1984. From at least 1941, when the B-body followed suit in adopting the C-body's pioneering lower and wider runningboardless bodystyle, it may be viewed as a stretched version of the GM B platform. After 1984, the platform was renamed the GM D platform and continued in production to 1996.
This platform was the basis for the following vehicles:
From 1985 onwards, the C-body designation was used for front-wheel drive luxury cars. The platform was similar to the H platform, with both sharing the same 110.8 in wheelbase. Most C-body vehicles were replaced with cars on the related G, H, and K platform designations.
The Cadillac Series 75 briefly made its return on this platform, stretched by 23.6" to a wheelbase of 134.4".
This platform was the basis for the following vehicles:
The General Motors K platform (commonly called the K-body) was an automobile platform designation used for front wheel drive Cadillac models beginning in 1980. It replaced the rear wheel drive K platform.
The K-body designation was used for sedans; similar coupé models used the nearly identical GM E platform. The GM G platform (FWD) was also based on the K. Beginning in 1986 K- and E-bodies were produced at GM's high-tech Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly plant. Unlike the E-body, the K designation has been exclusive to Cadillac.
The original FWD K-body Cadillac Seville was shared with the downsized E-body Cadillac Eldorado beginning in 1980. In 1986, the Seville was replaced with an even smaller front wheel drive model, also given the K designation. The Seville was lengthened in 1992, and the Deville was moved from the GM C platform to the K platform in 1994. The K platform was updated in 1997 with improved suspension geometry. The Seville was replaced with the rear-wheel drive Sigma-based Cadillac STS for 2005. The Deville's replacement, the DTS, continued on the K-body until mid-2011, when the last DTS rolled off the assembly line.
Voltec, formerly known as E-Flex, is a General Motors powertrain released in November 2010. The Voltec architecture is primarily a plug-in capable, battery-dominant electric vehicle with additional fossil fuel powered series and parallel hybrid capabilities.
Voltec vehicles like the Chevrolet Volt are all electrically driven, feature common drivetrain components, and will be able to create electricity on board using either a fuel cell or a gasoline motor to generate electricity. Regenerative braking contributes to the on-board electricity generation.
Voltec is a portmanteau word from Volt, Vortec and technology.
The Voltec drivetrain was initially demonstrated as E-Flex in the 2007 Chevrolet Volt concept vehicle that appeared in the North American International Auto Show which introduced the E-Flex drive system as an attempt to standardize many components of possible future electrically propelled vehicles, and to allow multiple interchangeable electricity-generating systems. The initial design as envisioned in the Volt combines an electric motor and 16 kWh (58 MJ) lithium-ion battery plug-in system with a small engine (1.0 liter) powered by gasoline linked to a 53 kW (71 hp)
Delta was General Motors' compact front-wheel drive automobile and crossover SUV platform, a successor to the GM T platform; it also replaced GM J platform and the Z platform used by the Saturn S-Series. The platform debuted in the 2003 Saturn Ion. Vehicles of this platform generally carry the symbol "A" in the fourth digit of their VINs. The architecture was developed by Opel in Germany.
The Volkswagen Jetta is said to have been the target for the design group. Delta uses an independent suspension in front and Twist beam type in the rear. The Ecotec Family II engine is widely used, as are a 4-speed automatic and 5-speed manual transmission.
Current and former vehicles based on this platform:
Delta II is General Motors' current compact car platform, which was developed by Opel in Germany. It is the successor to the GM Delta platform. Internally it is simply known as a new Global Compact Vehicle Architecture or GCV.
The platform features a torsion beam rear suspension with optional Watt's link which improves vehicle handling; such configuration is used in the Opel Astra and some trim-levels of the American-market Chevrolet Cruze. This suspension is usually described as
There have been two X-body automobile platforms from General Motors. All X-bodies were small entry-level models.
The rear-wheel drive X-body underpinned the Chevrolet Nova and similar cars of the late 1960s and 1970s. It was also the basis for the Cadillac Seville's K platform. The wheelbase was 111 in and many components were shared with the contemporary F platform. Entry level luxury coupes and sedans offered by Buick, Pontiac, and Oldsmobile appeared around the same time as the competing Ford Granada.
1968–1974 GM X-bodies positioned the steering linkage behind the steering gear ("rear steer"), whereas 1975–1979 models had the steering linkage forward of the steering gear ("front steer").
In the early 1970s, it was noticed that the first letter of each X-body model name (Nova, Omega, Ventura, Apollo) spelled out "NOVA", the cheapest model of the quartet.
The front-wheel drive X-body was used for compact cars from 1980 to 1985. They were among the first mainstream front-wheel drive models introduced into the North American market, and initially saw great sales success, and were an alternative to imported front-wheel drive sedans like the Toyota Camry, Nissan Stanza,
The Premium platform is General Motors's and Fiat Group's high-end automobile platform, meant for front wheel drive and four wheel drive automobiles.
The architecture debuted in production form with the Alfa Romeo Brera, was used earlier Opel Insignia concept in 2003 and Alfa Romeo Visconti (concept car) in 2004. Even after the dissolution of the GM/Fiat partnership, both companies retain the rights to continue developing Premium-derived models, though no GM versions are known.
Saab stopped development of its Premium automobile in late 2002; the Saab models (the 9X sports car and the replacement for the 9-5 sedan) would have used an entirely different suspension than the Alfa Romeo vehicles, which would have proved too expensive. The platform debuted in 2003 with the Opel Insignia concept car, though this vehicle was not produced. A planned Buick model was also dropped. In the end, only the Alfa Romeo models moved forward. Some of the GM models originally set to use the Premium platform eventually were produced using the GM Epsilon II platform.
The Mercedes-Benz CLE-Class is a vehicle originally rumoured to be released in 2005. However, there are as yet no official announcements about the production or existence of such a car.
In 2003, rumours emerged of a new DaimlerChrysler AG Mercedes-Benz four-door coupé, which at that time was seen as an adventurous new concept. The rumour speculated that this car would be based on the C-Class, with a tentative release date of 2005. Autocar magazine dubbed it "Merc's Secret Jag Fighter" in their March 2003 edition.
The Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class coupé was introduced with four doors in Autumn, 2004, based in its E-Class saloon. This release further added to the rumour that Mercedes-Benz would release a CLE-Class car, based on its C-Class vehicle.
The vehicle has been rumoured to have suicide doors, and to be available in a range of engine types.
The General Motors T-car was an automobile platform designation for subcompact cars. It was the 1970s' most prolific world car program. The original T-cars were all rear-wheel drive unibody cars.
GM reused the T-body designation beginning in 1979 with the front-wheel drive Opel Kadett D and the Vauxhall Astra Mk I. This version of the T-body also became widespread throughout the world.
Other names for the FWD T platform are the GM2700 and the GM3000, applied to Opel Astra G/B and Zafira A and their rebadges.
The platform was superseded by GM Delta platform.
Body styles; (1) Coupe; (2) 2-door sedan (B11); (3) 3-door hatchback (B08); (4) 4-door sedan (B69); (5) 5-door hatchback (B68) (wheelbase 2in. longer than the others); (w) 3-door wagon(B15); (t) Pickup truck (v) Sedan delivery (B70) (Panel Van).
The V platform is a rear-wheel drive automobile platform that underpinned various General Motors (GM) vehicles from 1967 through to its final discontinuation in 2007. The V platform was developed in the 1960s by the European subsidiary of GM, Opel, however, it was not without significant revision over its lifetime. The platform's phase-out began when European production ended during 2003, while the Australian variants, produced by Holden continued until 2007, after their final replacement by Zeta-derived models. The first of these Zeta cars came in 2006, with the remaining changing over in 2007. V-cars are identified by the "V" fourth character in their Vehicle Identification Number. Although completely unrelated, the "V platform" designation was also used for a series of North American front-wheel drive personal luxury coupes (see: GM V platform (FWD)).
The V platform, or V-body, automobile platform designation was by General Motors for the Cadillac Allante halo car. It was a shortened version of the E-body used in the Buick Riviera and Cadillac Eldorado. The Allante was a personal luxury car, partially built in Italy, and sold in limited numbers.
General Motors also used the GM V platform (RWD) designation for unrelated global sedans.
General Motors introduced the mid-size front-wheel drive GM2900 platform in 1988 with the introductions of the Opel Vectra A and the Vauxhall Cavalier Mk.3 for the 1989 model year. The platform was intended to replace both division's J-cars, the Opel Ascona C and the Vauxhall Cavalier Mk.2, although the platform eventually branched out to Holden, Chevrolet's Latin American branch, and even Saab and Saturn. The GM2900 platform was replaced by the Epsilon platform in 2003, although Saab continued to use the lengthened GM2902 platform for its 9-5 model until 2010, when it was switched to the Epsilon 2 platform. The tooling for the first generation Saab 9-5 was sold to BAIC and with help from Saab engineers they will develop new models for production in China, probably under the "Beijing" brand.
The Ford CD3 platform (for "C/D-class") is a Ford midsize car automobile platform. It was designed by Mazda. The original Mazda chassis code for the CD3 platform is Mazda G platform, which Ford Motor Company has used every evolution of since 1983. The platform is designed for either front, all-wheel drive or Ford's hybrid powertrain.
The platform is based on a unitized welded steel body (monocoque) with an independent short long arms (SLA) double wishbone front suspension with stabilizer bar and an independent multi-link twist blade rear suspension with stabilizer bar.
Ford Motor Company developed the CD3 platform as its first fully "digital" car, allowing the company to cut months of development time, saving money and bringing the vehicles to market more quickly. Engineers were able to virtually build an entire car prior to initiating construction, thereby improving vehicle fit and finish, tool clearances and production line ergonomics.
Vehicles currently using this platform include:
Cancelled CD3 products:
The Mazda-based CD3 2 platform is expected to be phased out early next decade and give way to either of Ford's own EUCD platform currently used under the Ford Mondeo in Europe
The Ford CE14 platform was a front wheel drive automobile platform used by the Ford Motor Company for its compact cars during the 1980s and early 1990s. The CE14 platform was heavily derived from the platform of the European Ford Escort. A stretched variation of the CE14 appeared in 1984 for the mid-size Ford Tempo and Mercury Topaz.
The Ford FN platform (Ford FN-10), or "Full-Sized North American Project #10", was a vehicle platform used to build the 1993-1998 Lincoln Mark VIII Series motor vehicles. The FN-10 platform was used to build the Mark VIII series from 1993 until the platform's demise in 1998.
The FN-10 platform is based on Ford's MN-12 (Midsize North American Project #12) platform, which was used to build the 1989-1997 Ford Thunderbird and Mercury Cougar vehicle lineup. The FN-10 chassis was slightly longer and wider than the MN-12's chassis.
The Ford C1 platform (for "compact class") is Ford's global compact car automobile platform. It replaces Ford C170 platform and Mazda's BJ platform. The C1 platform debuted with the European Ford Focus C-Max compact MPV in early 2004. The platform is designed for either front- or all wheel drive.
The C platform was designed in the Ford development center at Europe Cologne, Germany, as the "C Technologies Program". It was said to be one of the largest platform programs in history at that time. Ford Focus, Volvo S40 and V50, and Mazda3 share about 60 percent of their parts and components. Thirty engineers each from Ford, Mazda, and Volvo worked in Cologne for two years to combine the compact car engineering for all three automakers under the direction of Ford Director of C Technologies Derrick Kuzak, Ford of Europe vice president of product development.
The C1 platform has been stretched creating the EUCD for use in future Volvo vehicles. Volvo's plans call for all of their cars to be C1, EUCD, or D3-based in the coming years.
Among all of the cars, the floorpan is different, but the front- and rear-subframes, suspension, steering, braking, safety, and electrical components are
The Ford T platform is Ford Motor Company's large SUV automobile platform. It is based on the P2 platform used in the company's pickup trucks. It is available in rear wheel drive and all wheel drive with V8 engines.
The T1 platform debuted with the 2007 Ford Expedition. For 2007, the Lincoln Navigator moved to the T1 as well.
The General Motors E platform or E-Body was the automobile platform designation used for a number of personal luxury cars produced from 1963 to 2002. Notably, early E-bodies were produced in both front wheel drive and rear wheel drive configurations, and were the first front wheel drive automobiles produced in the United States since 1937.
E-Bodies were re-engineered to a smaller size in 1979, closely related to the GM K platform (FWD). Later, the cars were made smaller still with the 1986 redesign, along with the K-Body. Most 1986–1993 E-bodies were produced at GM's high-tech Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly plant, with the Buick Reatta being built at the Lansing Craft Centre - then known as the Reatta Craft Centre. GM used the E-body designation until the Cadillac Eldorado ceased production in 2002.
The E-body was used as the basis for the V-body high-end luxury coupes.
This body shell designation was used for the following vehicles:
Zeta was the original name for General Motors' full-size rear-wheel drive automobile platform. The architecture was engineered by Holden of Australia and was most recently referred to as the "Global RWD Architecture". The GM Zeta replaced the Australian V-body and was considered as the replacement for the North American W, H, and K platforms, but ultimately not used. Although the future of the Zeta program was in doubt during GM's financial troubles, as of May 21, 2009, development of a new form of the Zeta chassis, said to be lighter and more economical has begun, intended to replace existing Australian-produced models. The Chevrolet Camaro is the only Zeta platform model to go into production in North America (Canada). All other Zeta platform vehicles are manufactured in Australia by Holden.
Development was started in late 1999 by Holden of Australia in order to replace the aging V-body platform underpinning their Commodore VT-VZ platform after sister division Opel announced that the Opel Omega (on which the Commodore was based) would be discontinued. Principal development on the VE Commodore was completed by July 2004 at a cost approaching A$1 billion and the first testing
The General Motors G platform (also called G-Body) automobile platform designation was used for front-wheel drive full-sized luxury cars between 1995 and 2003. It is related to the C, H, and K platforms.
Previously General Motors used the GM G platform (RWD) designation for unrelated mid-sized cars.
The G-body (the GMX690) was based on Cadillac's K-body architecture. The Buick Riviera 2-door coupe moved up from the GM E platform, while the Oldsmobile Aurora 4-door sedan was a new model. In 2000, the G-body was used as the basis for the revised GM H platform (FWD).
The G-body featured a four-wheel independent suspension and an extremely resilient structure. For its time, the G-body was one of the strongest unibody car frames in production (25Hz). This fact did not go untouted as GM literature made light of the need to use a 'frame crusher' designed to test heavy-duty truck frames to finally break the G-body structure in their crush-to-failure procedures.
Sigma is General Motors' mid-size rear-wheel drive automobile platform. The architecture debuted in 2002 with the 2003 Cadillac CTS and is adaptable for all-wheel drive and extended wheelbase versions. Development of the Sigma platform began at Holden in Australia before 1998 as GWRD or Global World Rear Drive.
The long-wheelbase Cadillac STS replaced the front-wheel drive GM K platform Cadillac Seville. The CTS was a replacement for the rear-wheel drive V-body Cadillac Catera.
The Sigma platform has a four-wheel independent suspension with control arms in front and multi-link in the rear. GM's High Feature V6 and Northstar V8 are most common, though the small-block V8 has also been used. GM's 5-speed 5L40/5L50 automatic transmission is used throughout the range.
All Sigma vehicles are built at the purpose-built Lansing Grand River factory in Lansing, Michigan.
Vehicles based on this platform:
Sigma II, larger and wider than its previous counterpart, debuted with the 2008 CTS, and shares more parts with the larger Zeta than the smaller Sigma I. Sigma II is more flexible and features the Direct Injection 3.6 HF V6 as its primary engine and a new more powerful 3.6 L DI HF V6, as well
GMT is the designation prefix used for all General Motors truck, sport utility vehicle, and crossover SUV automobile platform applications. This includes both traditional body-on-frame trucks and newer unibody models.
The GMT 001 name is technically applied to the Chevrolet HHR, based on the GM Delta platform.
The GMT 190 name was applied to the Suzuki Vitara-derived Chevrolet Tracker.
The GMT 191/192 names are applied to the Chevrolet Equinox and similar Pontiac Torrent, respectively, while GMT 193 is used for the Suzuki XL7.
The GMT 199 names are applied to GM U-based minivans, includes the Chevrolet Lumina APV, Oldsmobile Silhouette and Pontiac Trans Sport were 1st made in 1990 to 1996. North American minivans were succeeded to GM U-body/GMT200.
The GMT 200 names are applied to the GM U-based minivans. These include the Chevrolet Venture, Oldsmobile Silhouette, Pontiac Trans Sport later Montana and Opel Sintra. North American minivans were succeeded to GM U-body/GMT201 in 2005.
The GMT 201 names are applied to the GM U-based minivans. These include the Chevrolet Uplander, Pontiac Montana SV6, Buick Terraza and Saturn Relay. North American vans were phased out in 2005 with the
Alpha is General Motors' future compact to mid-size rear wheel drive automobile platform. Reports indicate that the new platform may share some components with the smaller GM Kappa platform and the larger GM Zeta platform. The Cadillac ATS is the first car to utilize the platform, which debuted in Summer 2012.
The Alpha project can trace its roots back to Holden's TT36 Torana concept project of 2004. At that stage, Holden was strongly interested in developing GM's then-idea of a small RWD style platform to go up against the BMW 3-Series range. The company took this concept and worked through GM's parts bin to come away with the end product. Holden borrowed parts and modules from various other GM platforms, the key contributor being its Kappa platform. The Kappa platform's double-A-arm front and rear suspensions provided the basis for the platform's Lower Dominate Structure (LDS). The platform's unique LDS forms its backbone, whilst at the same time providing a stronger, tighter base to work with, giving any car which receives the platform a better chance of achieving high-performance goals. By using an LDS, it gives both designers and engineers more flexibility in relation to the
The D platform, or D-body was an automobile platform designation, used from at least 1936 until 1996. During that time it was exclusive to Cadillac and Buick. It was closely related to the GM B platform and C platform.
The D-body was used for the Cadillac Series 90 from 1936 through 1940, for the Cadillac Series 85 from 1936 through 1937, for the Cadillac Series 75 from 1936 through 1976, for the Buick Limited from 1936 through 1942, for the Cadillac Series 72 in 1940, for the Cadillac Series 67 from 1941 through 1942 and for the Cadillac Fleetwood Limousine from 1977 through 1984. When most of GM's largest cars moved from the rear wheel drive GM C platform to the front wheel drive GM C platform in 1985, the D-body designation was reassigned to the rear wheel drive GM C platform which continued to be used by the 1985-1986 Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham, 1987-1992 Cadillac Brougham and 1993-1996 Cadillac Fleetwood. In turn the 1985-1987 Cadillac Fleetwood 75, which took the place of the Cadillac Fleetwood Limousine, was produced on the new front wheel drive GM C platform, and production of the old GM D platform came to an end.
Early designation D-bodies (1936-1984), with the exception
The Ford P platform is Ford Motor Company's full-size pickup platform. Introduced in 2004, variations of it are shared by both the F-150 and Super Duty versions of the Ford F-Series.
The ninth generation F-150 trucks were built in Cuautitlán Izcalli, Mexico, Dearborn, Michigan, Claycomo, Missouri, Norfolk, Virginia and Valencia, Venezuela. It was also built in Oakville, Ontario until its closure in 2004. In 2007, the related T1 platform entered production for the large SUVs.
Vehicles that were on the P2 platform include:
An updated Super Duty version of the P platform (F-250 through F-550) began production in 2006 for the 2008 model year. Production of the Super Duty trucks will continue at the Louisville, Kentucky truck plant.
The tenth generation F-150 is built in Dearborn, Michigan at Dearborn Truck Plant, in Claycomo, Missouri and at Kansas City Assembly Plant (Ford announced the closure of the Norfolk facility in 2006).
Cancelled variant; potentially to have reintroduced the F-100 nameplate as a mid-size pickup and Ranger replacement in 2010-2011 As an alternative, Ford chose to introduce EcoBoost engines to the full-size F-Series to increase its fuel economy.
The GMT 400 and similar GMT 480 is the platform for the 1988-1998 full-size pickup truck platform. The GMT 410, GMT 420, GMT 425, and GMT 430 were used for full-size SUVs from 1991 to 2000. This was the first GMT designation for the C (RWD) and K (4WD/AWD) full-size trucks and SUV's.
GMT 400 frames were built by A.O. Smith Automotive Products, Dana Corporation, and Tower Automotive.
The Ford C170 Platform is Ford's compact car automobile platform from the late 1990s used by the international Ford Focus through its first generation (succeeded by the Ford C1 platform in 2004 outside North America) and continued in use by the North American Ford Focus (until 2011) and the Ford Transit Connect.
The General Motors A platform (commonly called A-body) was a rear wheel drive automobile platform designation used from at least 1936 until 1958, and again from 1964 to 1981. In 1982, GM introduced a new front wheel drive A platform, and existing intermediate rear wheel drive products were redesignated as G-bodies.
The earliest GM A-bodied based cars were built primarily by Chevrolet and Pontiac. Oldsmobile also used the A-body for the 1936-39 Oldsmobile Series F and 1940-48 Series 60. All Chevrolets produced during this period, and all 1936-39 Pontiacs, the 1940 Pontiac Deluxe, the 1941 Pontiac Deluxe Torpedo and all Pontiac Torpedos produced from 1942 through 1948 were A-bodies.
From 1949-1958, only Chevrolets (150, 210, Bel Air, Del Ray, Biscayne, and Impala) and Pontiacs (Chieftain, Star Chief, Super Chief, Bonneville,) were built on the A-body. These cars were moved to the new B Body shared with some Buicks and Oldsmobiles in 1959
The A platform was intermediate-sized platform introduced for the 1964 model year for the mid-sized cars of four GM divisions including the FR layout Chevrolet Chevelle, Buick Special, Oldsmobile Cutlass and Pontiac Tempest. This A-body was used in a
The J platform, or J-body, was General Motors' inexpensive front-wheel drive automobile platform from the 1980s and 1990s. The platform replaced the GM H platform. The J-platform is the only platform of GM to have a model in each of its "Original 5" passenger car divisions (Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Oldsmobile, and Pontiac). The first J-body cars were the Chevrolet Cavalier, Pontiac J2000, and the Oldsmobile Firenza which entered production on March 23, 1981 as 1982 models. The Cavalier was phased out at the end of 2004 in favor of the new Chevrolet Cobalt. The last surviving J-body car, the Mexican-built Pontiac Sunfire, ended production in June 2005. There are three generations of the J-body: 1982 to 1987 (or until 1988 or 1989 depending on the model), 1988 to 1994, and 1995 to 2005.
Except for cosmetic differences, engine upgrades and the discontinuation of certain models, the platform remained largely unchanged throughout the years.
Design of the J-body dated back to the mid-1970s. At that time, GM-controlled divisions in different parts of the world manufactured totally different rear-wheel drive C-segment cars - the Chevrolet Vega in America, the Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel
The General Motors K platform (commonly called the K-body) was the automobile platform designation used for the rear wheel drive Cadillac Seville models from 1975 to 1979.
The rear-wheel drive K platform was based closely on the very similar 4th generation GM X platform, and 2nd generation F-bodies of the 1970s, all of which shared many components in common. The K platform stretched the X platform to 114.3 inch wheelbase, but also improved isolation from sources of structure borne vibration in the drivetrain and suspension. While automobiles built on these three platforms had different bodies, they shared the same unibody construction technology using a separable elastomer isolated front subframe assembly, a design which first appeared in GM vehicles on the 1st generation X platform in 1962 on the Chevy II. Automobiles built on these three platforms (F, K, and X) also shared front and rear suspension systems, with tunings engineered to each application. The front suspensions used unequal length A-arms, coil springs damped with tubular hydraulic shock absorbers, ball joints, elastomer bushings, and recirculating ball steering boxes differing in ratios that were specific to the
Kappa was General Motors' subcompact rear-wheel drive automobile platform for roadster applications. The architecture debuted in the 2006 Pontiac Solstice and 2007 Saturn Sky, and ended production in 2009.
Kappa uses an independent suspension, short-long arm type, in front and rear. The Ecotec Family II engine is widely used, as is a 5-speed manual transmission. A 5-speed automatic has been available since January 2006.
In 2002, the Pontiac Solstice Concept was shown in two forms: a drivable roadster convertible, and a design study of a fastback coupe.
The Pontiac Solstice was received very well at the 2002 NAIAS. The drivable roadster concept car shown had been cobbled together from many different components, using a heavily modified portion of the Delta. The thinking was that this architecture might be heavily modified and used to produce the Solstice in the near future.
It is speculated that when General Motors decided to try to produce the Solstice as a highly-styled, low-cost, low-volume niche vehicle for enthusiasts, it became apparent that there were no existing platforms that could be used to achieve the needs of a modern compact rear wheel drive roadster.
The Y platform, or Y body, designation has been used twice by the General Motors Corporation to describe a series of vehicles all built on the same basic body and sharing many parts and characteristics. The first was for a group of entry-level compacts including the rear-engine Chevrolet Corvair from 1960 to 1964 and conventional front-engine compacts built by GM divisions Buick, Oldsmobile and Pontiac from 1961 to 1963. The second, and current, incarnation is used for a high-end rear-wheel drive automobile platform from the 1980s through the 2000s.
The original Y bodies were:
Initially, each of the Y-body compacts from Buick, Olds and Pontiac were only offered as four-door sedans and station wagons when introduced in the fall of 1960 as 1961 models. In mid-1961, each of three divisions introduced two-door pillared coupes to the line with sportier versions of the Buick and Olds models added including the Special Skylark and F-85 Cutlass, both of which featured bucket seats, custom interior and exterior trim, and more powerful engines. For 1962, convertibles were added to the lineup by each of the divisions, with Pontiac also adding the sportier Tempest LeMans coupe and convertible
The GMT 360 debuted in 2002 with the Chevrolet TrailBlazer, GMC Envoy, and Oldsmobile Bravada, as the next generation S/T mid-size SUV's. While it replaced the GMT 330, it shared nothing with the older platform. It used hydroformed frame rails like the larger GMT 800, and was built for GM's Atlas inline engines. The GMT 360 (and the long-wheelbase GMT 370) went on to be one of the most rebadged GM products with six different marques represented.
The 360 uses an independent suspension in front. In the rear, the Ascender and TrailBlazer and some Envoy's use a 5-link rear suspension, while the rest have an air suspension. A 4-speed automatic is the only transmission available.
This line will be replaced in 2009, however, with crossover vehicles based on a stretched version of the TE (Theta Premium) architecture. The GMT 361 replacement program has been cancelled at this point. But, according to the GM Fleet website, the Chevrolet TrailBlazer, GMC Envoy, and Saab 9-7X will remain in production for the 2009 model year. Production ended late December 2008.