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Best Physician of All Time

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    1
    Caspar Peucer

    Caspar Peucer

    Caspar Peucer (January 6, 1525 – September 25, 1602) (pronounced /bɔɪker/) a German reformer, physician, and scholar. Born in Bautzen, Peucer studied mathematics, astronomy, and medicine at the University of Wittenberg from 1540. In 1543, he became a lodger in the house of one of the most famous professors in Wittenberg, the theologian and humanist Philipp Melanchthon, whose daughter Magdalena he married in 1550. In 1554, he became professor of mathematics at the University of Wittenberg, and in 1560 professor of medicine, leading the Wittenberg faculty in that field. Until 1574, he also served several times as dean and rector. In spite of his medical profession — in 1570, he became even personal physician to the Elector of Saxony — he was, after the death of Melanchthon, one of the leading Protestants in Saxony. In 1574 Peucer was officially charged with Crypto-Calvinism in an inter-Lutheran fight for power and put in jail in the famed Königstein Fortress for twelve years. Released in 1586, he went to the Duchy of Anhalt, where he became Councillor and personal physician to the Prince of Anhalt. He died in the capital of Dessau in 1602. He wrote on astronomy, geometry, and
    6.56
    9 votes
    2
    Herman Boerhaave

    Herman Boerhaave

    Herman Boerhaave (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦɛrmɑn ˈbuːrˌɦaːvə], 31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738) was a Dutch botanist, humanist and physician of European fame. He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital. His main achievement was to demonstrate the relation of symptoms to lesions. In addition, he was the first to isolate the chemical urea from urine. His motto was Simplex sigillum veri; Simplicity is the sign of truth. From 1950 to 1970, Boerhaave's image was printed on Dutch 25-guilder banknotes. The Leiden University Medical Centre organises medical trainings called Boerhaave-courses. Boerhaave was born at Voorhout near Leiden. Entering the University of Leiden he took his degree in philosophy in 1689, with a dissertation De distinctione mentis a corpore (on the difference of the mind from the body), in which he attacked the doctrines of Epicurus, Thomas Hobbes and Spinoza. He then turned to the study of medicine, in which he graduated in 1693 at Harderwijk in present-day Gelderland. In 1701 he was appointed lecturer on the institutes of medicine at Leiden; in his inaugural discourse, De commendando Hippocratis studio, he recommended
    8.14
    7 votes
    3
    Edward Dunlop

    Edward Dunlop

    Lieutenant Colonel Sir Ernest Edward "Weary" Dunlop, AC, CMG, OBE (12 July 1907 – 2 July 1993) was an Australian surgeon who was renowned for his leadership while being held prisoner by the Japanese during World War II. Dunlop was born in Wangaratta, Victoria, the second of two children of his parents James and Alice. He attended Benalla High School for two years of his education. He started an apprenticeship in pharmacy when he finished school, and moved to Melbourne in 1927. There, he studied at the Victorian College of Pharmacy and then the University of Melbourne, where he obtained a scholarship in medicine. Dunlop graduated from the University of Melbourne in 1934 with first class honours in pharmacy and in medicine, and excelled as a sportsman at Melbourne University and Ormond College.The nickname "weary" was a reference to his last name—'tired' like a Dunlop. While at university Dunlop took up rugby union commencing as a fourth grade player with the Melbourne University Rugby Club in 1931. He made a lightning-fast progression through the grades, to state and then to the national representative level becoming the first Victorian-born player to represent the Wallabies. He
    8.17
    6 votes
    4
    Pietro d'Abano

    Pietro d'Abano

    Pietro d'Abano also known as Petrus De Apono or Aponensis (c.1257 – 1316) was an Italian philosopher, astrologer and professor of medicine in Padua. He was born in the Italian town from which he takes his name, now Abano Terme. He gained fame by writing Conciliator Differentiarum, quæ inter Philosophos et Medicos Versantur. He was eventually accused of heresy and atheism, and came before the Inquisition. He died in prison in 1315 (some sources say 1316) before the end of his trial. He studied a long time at Constantinople (between 1270 and 1290). Around 1300 he moved to Paris, where he was promoted to the degrees of doctor in philosophy and medicine, in the practice of which he was very successful, but his fees were remarkably high. In Paris he became known as "the Great Lombard". He settled at Padua, where he gained a reputation as a physician. Also an astrologer, he was charged with practising magic: the specific accusations being that he got back, by the aid of the devil, all the money he paid away, and that he possessed the philosopher's stone. Gabriel Naude, in his Antiquitate Scholæ Medicæ Parisiensis, gives the following account of him: He carried his enquiries so far into
    8.17
    6 votes
    5
    Marcus Whitman

    Marcus Whitman

    Marcus Whitman (September 4, 1802 – November 29, 1847) was an American physician and missionary in the Oregon Country. Along with his wife Narcissa Whitman, he started a mission to the Cayuse in what is now southeastern Washington state in 1836. The area later developed as a trading post and stop along the Oregon Trail, and the city of Walla Walla, Washington developed near there. In 1843 Whitman led the first large party of wagon trains along the Oregon Trail to the West, establishing it as a viable route for the hundreds of thousands of emigrants who used the trail in the following decade. Settlers encroached on the Cayuse near the Whitman mission. Following the deaths of all the Cayuse children and half their adults from a measles epidemic in 1847, in which the Cayuse suspected the Whitmans' responsibility, they killed the Whitmans and 12 other settlers in what became known as the Whitman Massacre. Continuing warfare by settlers reduced the Cayuse numbers further and they eventually joined the Nez Perce tribe to survive. On September 4, 1802 Marcus Whitman was born in Federal Hollow, New York to Alice and Beza Whitman. The family's immigrant paternal ancestor was John Whitman,
    7.14
    7 votes
    6
    Keith Martin

    Keith Martin

    Keith P. Martin, PC, is a physician who was the Member of Parliament for the riding of Esquimalt—Juan de Fuca from 1993 to 2011. Martin was born in London, UK and grew up in Toronto. He attended Neil McNeil Catholic High School, alma mater of John Candy (actor) and Brad Park (hockey player). He graduated from the University of Toronto with a Doctorate of Medicine and a Bachelor of Science with high distinction. He currently lives in Victoria, British Columbia and Ottawa, Ontario. He practiced emergency and family practice from 1987 to 2005. He also did two terms as a doctor in a rural region of South Africa during the Mozambique war. He was first elected in 1993 as a member of the Reform Party of Canada for the riding of Esquimalt-Juan de Fuca. However, unlike most Reformers, he was socially liberal, and he often clashed with Reform's conservative leaders. He is conservative on economic issues but is socially liberal. When the Reform Party was folded into the Canadian Alliance, he sought the party leadership, but finished fourth with 2% of the vote. Despite his ideological differences, he did not join the dissidents who briefly left the party in 2001-02 to protest the leadership of
    6.25
    8 votes
    7
    John Abernethy

    John Abernethy

    John Abernethy FRS (3 April 1764 – 20 April 1831) was an English surgeon. He was a grandson of the Reverend John Abernethy. He was born in Coleman Street in the City of London, where his father was a merchant. Educated at Wolverhampton Grammar School, he was apprenticed in 1779 to Sir Charles Blicke (1745–1815), a surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. He attended the anatomical lectures of Sir William Blizard (1743–1835) at the London Hospital, and was employed to assist as demonstrator; he also attended Percivall Pott's surgical lectures at St Bartholomew's Hospital, as well as the lectures of John Hunter. On Pott's resignation of the office of surgeon of St Bartholomew's, Sir Charles Blicke, who was assistant-surgeon, succeeded him, and Abernethy was elected assistant-surgeon in 1787. In this capacity he began to give lectures at his house in Bartholomew Close, which were so well attended that the governors of the hospital built a theatre (1790–1791), and Abernethy thus became the founder of the medical school of St Bartholomew's. He held the office of assistant-surgeon for twenty-eight years, till, in 1815, he was elected principal surgeon. He had before that time been
    7.83
    6 votes
    8
    Sid Watkins

    Sid Watkins

    Eric Sidney Watkins, OBE, FRCS, commonly known within the Formula One fraternity as Professor Sid or simply Prof (6 September 1928 – 12 September 2012), was a world-renowned English neurosurgeon. Watkins served twenty-six years as the FIA Formula One Safety and Medical Delegate, head of the Formula One on-track medical team, and first responder in case of a crash. He helped to save the lives of many drivers including Gerhard Berger, Martin Donnelly, Érik Comas, Mika Häkkinen, Rubens Barrichello and Karl Wendlinger. Watkins was also known for his friendship with driver Ayrton Senna until Senna's death at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. Watkins was married, with four sons and two daughters. He died on 12 September 2012 after a heart attack. Sidney Watkins was born in Liverpool to Wallace and Jessica Watkins. Wallace was originally a coal miner from Gloucestershire, but had moved to Liverpool during the Great Depression of the 1930s where he started a small business initially repairing bicycles before progressing to motor vehicle repairs. Watkins worked for his father at the garage until he was 25. He had two brothers and a sister. Watkins gained a scolarship at Bootle Grammar School.
    7.83
    6 votes
    9
    Virginia Apgar

    Virginia Apgar

    Virginia Apgar (7 June 1909–7 August 1974) was an American pediatric anesthesiologist. She was a leader in the fields of anesthesiology and teratology, and effectively founded the field of neonatology. To the public, however, she is best known as the developer of the Apgar score, a method of assessing the health of newborn babies that has drastically reduced infant mortality over the world. The youngest of three children, Apgar was born and raised in Westfield, New Jersey, graduating from Westfield High School in 1925. She graduated from Mount Holyoke College in 1929 and the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons (CUCPS) in 1933. She completed a residency in surgery at CUCPS in 1937. However, she was discouraged from practicing surgery by Allen Whipple, the chair of surgery at CUCPS. She further trained in anesthesia and returned to CUCPS in 1938 as director of the newly formed division of anesthesia. In 1949, Apgar became the first woman to become a full professor at CUCPS while she also did clinical and research work at the affiliated Sloane Hospital for Women. In 1959, she earned a Master of Public Health degree from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public
    7.50
    6 votes
    10
    Alexis Carrel

    Alexis Carrel

    • Medical Specialty: Organ transplant
    Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 – November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1912 for pioneering vascular suturing techniques. He invented the first perfusion pump with Charles A. Lindbergh opening the way to organ transplantation. He is also known for making famous a miraculous healing at Lourdes by witnessing the event. Like many intellectuals before World War II he promoted eugenics. He was a regent for the French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems during the Nazi occupation of Vichy France which implemented the eugenics policies there; his association with the Foundation led to allegations of collaborating with the Nazis. Born in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, Rhône, Carrel was raised in a devout Catholic family and was educated by Jesuits, though he no longer practiced his religion when he entered the university. He nevertheless succeeded in introducing an acerbic ideological strain into French Catholic mentality. He received his medical degree from Université de Lyon, and practiced in France and in the United States at the University of Chicago and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. He developed
    8.40
    5 votes
    11
    C. Everett Koop

    C. Everett Koop

    Charles Everett Koop, MD (born October 14, 1916) is an American pediatric surgeon and public health administrator. He was a vice admiral in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and served as thirteenth Surgeon General of the United States under President Ronald Reagan from 1982 to 1989. Koop was born in Brooklyn, New York. His father John Everett Koop (1883–1972) and his mother Helen (née Apel) Koop (1894–1970) were both German immigrants, and Koop was their only child. He obtained his A.B. degree from Dartmouth College in 1937 and his M.D. degree from Cornell Medical College in 1941. During the 1940s and 1950s he rose in the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine to become professor of pediatric surgery and, later, professor of pediatrics. In February 1981, President Ronald Reagan appointed Koop as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health with the promise, fulfilled a year and nine months later, that he would be nominated as Surgeon General. Although he was most widely known among Americans for his years being the Surgeon General, the vast bulk of Koop's career was actually spent as a practicing physician. For 35 years, from 1946 to 1981, he was the surgeon-in-chief
    7.17
    6 votes
    12
    Karl Wernicke

    Karl Wernicke

    Carl Wernicke (born 15 May 1848 in Tarnowitz, Upper Silesia, then Prussia, now Tarnowskie Góry, Poland – died 15 June 1905 in Gräfenroda, Germany) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist. He earned his medical degree at the University of Breslau (1870). He died in Germany due to injuries suffered during a bicycle accident. Shortly after Paul Broca published his findings on language deficits caused by damage to what is now referred to as Broca's area, Wernicke began pursuing his own research into the effects of brain disease on speech and language. Wernicke noticed that not all language deficits were the result of damage to Broca's area. Rather he found that damage to the left posterior, superior temporal gyrus resulted in deficits in language comprehension. This region is now referred to as Wernicke's area, and the associated syndrome is known as Receptive aphasia, for his discovery.
    7.17
    6 votes
    13
    Girolamo Fracastoro

    Girolamo Fracastoro

    Girolamo Fracastoro (1478 – August 8, 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy. Fracastoro subscribed to the philosophy of atomism, and rejected appeals to hidden causes in scientific investigation. Born of an ancient family in Verona, and educated at Padua where at 19 he was appointed professor at the University. On account of his eminence in the practice of medicine, he was elected physician of the Council of Trent. A bronze statue was erected in his honor by the citizens of Padua, while his native city commemorated their great compatriot by a marble statue. He lived and practised in his hometown. In 1546 he proposed that epidemic diseases are caused by transferable tiny particles or "spores" that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact or even without contact over long distances. In his writing, the "spores" of diseases may refer to chemicals rather than to any living entities. "I call fomites [from the Latin fomes, meaning "tinder"] such things as clothes, linen, etc., which although not themselves corrupt, can nevertheless foster the essential seeds of the contagion and thus cause infection." His theory remained
    9.25
    4 votes
    14
    John Maynard Woodworth

    John Maynard Woodworth

    John Maynard Woodworth (1837 – 1879) was an American physician and member of the Woodworth political family. He served as the first Supervising-Surgeon General under U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant, then changed to Surgeon General of the United States Marine Hospital Service from 1871 to 1879. Woodworth was born at Big Flats, Chemung County, New York. His family soon moved to Illinois, where Woodworth attended school in Warrenville. He studied pharmacy at the University of Chicago and worked as a pharmacist for a time. Woodworth was one of the organizers of the Chicago Academy of Science and in 1858 became curator of its museum. In this capacity, he made several trips west of the Mississippi River to collect natural history specimens. He was appointed naturalist by the University of Chicago in 1859 and asked to establish a museum of natural history. Woodworth also spent time working at the Smithsonian Institution over the next few years. He then decided to embark on medical studies, and graduated from the Chicago Medical College in 1862. Almost immediately upon graduating from medical school, Woodworth was appointed Assistant Surgeon in the Union Army. He was soon promoted to
    8.00
    5 votes
    15
    Phil Gingrey

    Phil Gingrey

    John Phillip "Phil" Gingrey, (born July 10, 1942, Augusta, Georgia) is the U.S. Representative for Georgia's 11th congressional district, serving since 2003. He is a member of the Republican Party. The district is located in the northwestern suburbs of Atlanta. Gingrey grew up in Georgia and attended St. Thomas Aquinas High School. He received a bachelor's degree in Chemistry from Georgia Tech in 1965, and then attended Medical College of Georgia. He then worked as an obstetrician. While at Georgia Tech Phil Gingrey was once a driver of the Ramblin' Wreck. Gringrey first entered politics when he ran for the Marietta School Board, a body of which he was three times named chairman. He served two terms as a member of the Georgia State Senate from 1999 to 2003. Stephen Colbert interviewed Congressman Gingrey on his Better Know a District segment. Colbert asked, "The war in Iraq. Great War — or the greatest war?" Gingrey responded that it may be the greatest war. Colbert asked Gingrey if he was a "Georgia peach" and Gingrey responded in the affirmative. Gingrey gained notoriety when he ran afoul of conservative radio host Rush Limbaugh in January 2009 when he criticized an editorial
    8.00
    5 votes
    16
    Ernst Heinrich Weber

    Ernst Heinrich Weber

    Ernst Heinrich Weber (June 24, 1795 – January 26, 1878) was a German physician who is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. Weber studied medicine at Wittenberg University. In 1818 he was appointed Associate Professor of comparative anatomy at Leipzig University, where he was made a Fellow Professor of anatomy and physiology in 1821. In the 1820s or 1830s Weber began studying the tactile senses, the two-point threshold and weight perception. He published his early work in 1834 in Latin (De Tactu), and published this together with later work in 1846 in German (Tastsinn und Gemeingefühl). He found that weight discrimination was much finer with active lifting than when the weights were placed on supported hands. He also found that the just-noticeable difference (jnd) of the change in the magnitude of a stimulus (viz., small weights held in the hand) is proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus (e.g., 5%), rather than being an absolute value (e.g., 5 grams). Gustav Fechner named this Weber's Law. Fechner explored this relation further in the 1850s and, integrating over Weber's proportional jnds, argued for a logarithmic relation between physical and
    7.80
    5 votes
    17
    Franz Meyen

    Franz Meyen

    Franz Julius Ferdinand Meyen (June 28, 1804 - September 2, 1840) was a German physician and botanist. Meyen was born in Tilsit. In 1830 he wrote Phytotomie, the first review of plant anatomy. Between 1830 and 1832 he took part in an expedition to South America on board the Prinzess Luise, visiting Peru and Bolivia, describing species then new to science such as the Humboldt Penguin. He died in Berlin.
    8.75
    4 votes
    18
    Kurt Sprengel

    Kurt Sprengel

    Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel (August 3, 1766–March 15, 1833) was a German botanist and physician. Sprengel was born at Boldekow in Pomerania. His uncle, Christian Konrad Sprengel (1750-1816), is remembered for his studies in the fertilization of flowers by insects - a subject in which he reached conclusions many years ahead of his time. His father, a clergyman, provided him with a thorough education of wide scope; and the boy at an early age distinguished himself as a linguist, not only in Latin and Greek, but also in Arabic. He appeared as an author at the age of fourteen, publishing a small work called Anleitung zur Botanik für Frauenzimmer ("guide to botany for women") in 1780. In 1784 he began to study theology and medicine at the university of Halle, but soon relinquished the former. He graduated in medicine in 1787. In 1789 he was appointed extraordinary professor of medicine in his alma mater, and in 1795 was promoted to be ordinary professor. He devoted much of his time to medical work and to investigations into the history of medicine; and he held a foremost rank as an original investigator both in medicine and botany. Among the more important of his many services to the
    8.75
    4 votes
    19
    Philip Syng Physick

    Philip Syng Physick

    Philip Syng Physick (July 7, 1768 – December 15, 1837) was an American physician born in Philadelphia. Physick graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1785, then began the study of medicine under Dr. Adam Kuhn, and continued it in London under Dr. John Hunter, becoming, on January 1, 1790, house surgeon of St. George's hospital. In 1791 he received his license from the Royal College of Surgeons in London, and was invited by Dr. Hunter to assist him in his professional practice, but after a few months went to the University of Edinburgh, where he received his degree in medicine in 1792. He returned to Philadelphia to practice, taking a position at Pennsylvania Hospital. One of the foremost surgeons of the time, Dr. Physick was among the few doctors who remained in the city to care for the sick during Philadelphia's decimating yellow fever epidemic of 1793. His many patients included John Adams's daughter, Dolley Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall (from whom he removed almost 1,000 bladder stones, effecting a complete cure), and Dr. Benjamin Rush. When President Andrew Jackson consulted with Dr. Physick about his lung hemorrhages, he was told to stop smoking. Dr. Physick
    8.75
    4 votes
    20
    Theobald Smith

    Theobald Smith

    Theobald Smith ForMemRS (July 31, 1859 – December 10, 1934) was a pioneering epidemiologist and pathologist and is widely-considered to be America's first internationally-significant medical research scientist. Smith was born in Albany, New York, and received a Bachelor of Philosophy degree from Cornell University in 1881, followed by an MD degree from Albany Medical College in 1883. After his graduation from medical school, Smith held a variety of temporary positions which might broadly be considered under the modern heading of "medical laboratory technician". After some prodding by his former professors, Smith secured a new research lab assistant position with the Veterinary Division of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, D.C., beginning his position there in December 1883. Smith became the Inspector of the newly created Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) in 1884. Established by Congress to combat a wide range of animal diseases—from infectious disease of swine to bovine pneumonia, Texas cattle fever to glanders—Smith worked under Daniel E. Salmon, a veterinarian and Chief of the BAI. Smith also discovered the bacterial species which would eventually form the
    8.75
    4 votes
    21
    Samuel Hahnemann

    Samuel Hahnemann

    Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 – 2 July 1843) was a German physician, best known for creating a system of alternative medicine called homeopathy. Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann was born in Meissen, Saxony near Dresden. His father, along with many other family members, was a painter and designer of porcelain, for which the town of Meissen is famous. As a young man, Hahnemann became proficient in a number of languages, including English, French, Italian, Greek and Latin. He eventually made a living as a translator and teacher of languages, gaining further proficiency in "Arabic, Syriac, Chaldaic and Hebrew". Hahnemann studied medicine for two years at Leipzig. Citing Leipzig's lack of clinical facilities, he moved to Vienna, where he studied for ten months. After one term of further study, he graduated MD at the University of Erlangen on 10 August 1779, qualifying with honors. His poverty may have forced him to choose Erlangen, as the school's fees were lower. Hahnemann's thesis was titled Conspectus adfectuum spasmodicorum aetiologicus et therapeuticus. [A Dissertation on the Causes and Treatment of Cramps] In 1781, Hahnemann took a village doctor's
    10.00
    3 votes
    22
    Hedy Fry

    Hedy Fry

    Hedy Fry, PC, MP (born August 6, 1941) is a Canadian politician and physician. She is the Member of Parliament for Vancouver Centre. Fry was born into poverty in San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago. Declining an English Literature scholarship to Oxford, Fry instead earned her equivalent of a BA in Science in one year and went on to then receive her medical training at the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin, Ireland. She emigrated to Canada and established a practice in Vancouver. She served as president of the British Columbia Federation of Medical Women in 1977. She was president of the Vancouver Medical Association in 1988-89, the BC Medical Association in 1990-91, and chaired the Canadian Medical Association's Multiculturalism Committee in 1992-9. Fry was also a host on the nationally televised CBC's Doctor Doctor. Fry sought and won the Liberal Party nomination for Vancouver Centre for the 1993 federal election over lawyer David Varty and college lecturer John Lang in March 1993. She was elected to the Canadian House of Commons, defeating Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Kim Campbell. Fry was only the fifth person to unseat a sitting prime minister, and the first to do so
    7.40
    5 votes
    23
    Jan Mikulicz-Radecki

    Jan Mikulicz-Radecki

    Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (German: Johann von Mikulicz-Radecki) was a Polish-Austrian surgeon. He was born May 16, 1850 in Czernowitz in the Austrian Empire (present-day Chernivtsi in Ukraine) and died June 4, 1905 in Freiburg in Schlesien, German Empire (present-day Świebodzice, Poland). While his mother Freiin von Damnitz was Austrian, his parental ancestors of the Mikulicz family were of Polish-Lithuanian szlachta origin and had been granted the Gozdawa coat of arms by King John III Sobieski after the 1683 Battle of Vienna. Mikulicz-Radecki spoke Polish, German, Russian and English fluently. When asked his nationality he used to answer "surgeon". After finishing studies at the University of Vienna under Theodor Billroth he was a director of surgery at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, the University of Königsberg (Królewiec, Kaliningrad) and from 1890 at the University of Wrocław. Mikulicz-Radecki's innovations in operative technique for a wide variety of diseases helped develop modern surgery. He contributed prodigiously to cancer surgery, especially on organs of the digestive system. He was first to suture a perforated gastric ulcer (1885), surgically restore part of the
    7.40
    5 votes
    24
    Roberta Bondar

    Roberta Bondar

    Roberta Bondar OC O.Ont FRCP(C) FRSC ( /ˌbɒnˈdɑr/; born December 4, 1945) is Canada's first female astronaut and the first neurologist in space. Following more than a decade as NASA's head of space medicine, Bondar became a consultant and speaker in the business, scientific, and medical communities. Bondar has received many honours including the Order of Canada, the Order of Ontario, the NASA Space Medal, over 22 honorary degrees and induction into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. Bondar graduated from Sir James Dunn High School in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and holds a Bachelor of Science in zoology and agriculture from the University of Guelph (1968), a Master of Science in experimental pathology from the University of Western Ontario (1971), a Doctor of Philosophy in neuroscience from the University of Toronto (1974), and an Doctor of Medicine from McMaster University (1977). She is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in neurology (1981). Bondar also has certification in sky diving and parachuting. A celebrated landscape photographer, Bondar studied professional nature photography at the Brooks Institute of Photography, Santa Barbara, California.
    7.40
    5 votes
    25
    Mary Edwards Walker

    Mary Edwards Walker

    • Medical Specialty: Surgery
    Mary Edwards Walker (November 26, 1832 – February 21, 1919) was an American feminist, abolitionist, prohibitionist, alleged spy, prisoner of war and surgeon. She is the only woman ever to receive the Medal of Honor. Prior to the American Civil War she earned her medical degree, married and started a medical practice. The practice didn't do well and she volunteered with the Union Army at the outbreak of the American Civil War and served as a female surgeon. She was captured by Confederate forces after crossing enemy lines to treat wounded civilians and arrested as a spy. She was sent as a prisoner of war to Richmond, Virginia until released in a prisoner exchange. After the war she was approved for the United States military's highest decoration for bravery, the Medal of Honor, for her efforts during the war. She is the only woman to receive the medal and one of only eight civilians to receive it. Her medal was later rescinded based on an Army determination and then restored in 1977. After the war she was a writer and lecturer supporting the women's suffrage movement until her death in 1919. She was born in the Town of Oswego, New York, on November 26, 1832, the daughter of Alvah
    6.33
    6 votes
    26
    Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur ( /ˈluːi pæˈstɜr/, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist who was one of the most important founders of medical microbiology. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His experiments supported the germ theory of disease. He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to treat milk and wine in order to prevent it from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch. Pasteur also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, most notably the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals. His body lies beneath the Institute Pasteur in Paris in a spectacular vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics. Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole in the Jura region of France, into the family of a poor tanner. Louis grew up in the town of Arbois. This fact
    8.25
    4 votes
    27
    Sanjay Gupta

    Sanjay Gupta

    • Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
    Sanjay Gupta ( /ˈsɑːndʒeɪ ˈɡuːptə/ SAHN-jay GOOP-tə; born October 23, 1969) is an Indian American neurosurgeon and an assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine and associate chief of the neurosurgery service at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. Known as a media personality on health-related issues, he is best known as CNN's multiple Emmy award winning chief medical correspondent, hosting the network's weekend health program Sanjay Gupta, M.D., and making frequent appearances on their American Morning, Larry King Live and Anderson Cooper 360° programs. His reports from Charity Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina helped the hospital to win a 2006 Emmy Award for "Outstanding Feature Story in a Regularly Scheduled Newscast". Additionally, Gupta publishes a column in Time magazine and is a special correspondent for CBS News. His books Chasing Life and Cheating Death were New York Times and national bestsellers. His latest book, Monday Mornings, a novel, was released in March, 2012 and became an instant New York Times Bestseller. It is currently being adapted as a television show with David E. Kelley and Gupta
    7.00
    5 votes
    28
    Victor Babeş

    Victor Babeş

    Victor Babeș (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈviktor ˈbabeʃ]; 4 July 1854 – 19 October 1926) was a Romanian physician, biologist, and one of the earliest bacteriologists. He made early and significant contributions to the study of rabies, leprosy, diphtheria, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases. The Romanian universities Babeș-Bolyai in Cluj-Napoca and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Timişoara bear his name. Born in Vienna (at the time, the capital of the Austrian Empire) as the son of Vincenţiu Babeş, an ethnic Romanian from the Banat region, he studied in Budapest, then in Vienna, where he received his doctorate in Science. Attracted by the discoveries of Louis Pasteur, he left for Paris, and worked first in Pasteur's laboratory, and then with Victor André Cornil. In 1885 he discovered a parasitic sporozoan of the ticks, named Babesia (of the family Babesiidae), and which causes a rare and severe disease called babesiosis. In the same year, he published the first treatise of bacteriology in the world, Bacteria and their role in the histopathology of infectious diseases, which he co-authored with Cornil. Babeș' scientific endeavours were wide-ranging. He was the first
    7.00
    5 votes
    29
    Robert Abbe

    Robert Abbe

    Robert Abbe (April 13, 1851 – March 7, 1928) was an American surgeon and pioneer radiologist in New York City. He was born in New York City and educated at the College of the City of New York (S.B., 1871) and Columbia University (M.D., 1874). Abbe was most known as a plastic surgeon, and between 1877 and 1884 he served as a surgeon and professor of surgery at the New York Hospital, St. Luke's Hospital, and the New York Babies Hospital. During this time, he would spend summers travelling, and he amassed a large collection of Native American artifacts and archeological materials. He died of anemia, possibly due to his work handling radium. Abbe was a renowned surgeon and medical pioneer. He was an attending surgeon at St. Luke's Hospital in New York, where the plastic surgical laboratory is named for him. He was a lecturer and fellow of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and Vice President of the Academy of Medicine. He befriended the Curies, and in particular Marie Curie. He collected many photographs of her, documented the production of radium, and explored, with her, the medical uses of radiation and x-rays. In 1904, he introduced the practice of using radiation to treat
    9.33
    3 votes
    30
    Robert Gallo

    Robert Gallo

    Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is an American biomedical researcher. He is best known for his role in the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the infectious agent responsible for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and he has been a major contributor to subsequent HIV research. Gallo is the director of the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. He and two longtime scientific collaborators, Robert R. Redfield and William A. Blattner, co-founded the institute in 1996 in a partnership including the State of Maryland and the City of Baltimore. In 2005, Gallo co-founded Profectus BioSciences, Inc., which develops and commercializes technologies to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by human viral diseases, including HIV. Gallo was born in Waterbury, Connecticut to a working-class family of Italian immigrants. He earned a BS degree in Biology in 1959 from Providence College and received an MD from Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1963. After completing his medical residency at the University of Chicago, he became a researcher at the National Cancer
    6.80
    5 votes
    31
    Ernest Gruening

    Ernest Gruening

    Ernest Henry Gruening (/ˈɡriːnɪŋ/GREEN-ing; February 6, 1887 – June 26, 1974) was an American journalist and Democrat who was the Governor of the Alaska Territory from 1939 until 1953, and a United States Senator from Alaska from 1959 until 1969. Born in New York City, Gruening graduated from Harvard University in 1907 and from Harvard Medical School in 1912. He then forsook medicine to pursue journalism. Initially a reporter for the Boston American in 1912, he went on to become copy desk editor and rewrite man for the Boston Evening Herald and, from 1912 to 1913, an editorial writer. For four years, Gruening was, consecutively, managing editor of the Boston Evening Traveler and the New York Tribune. After serving in World War I, Gruening became the editor of The Nation from 1920 to 1923 and the editor of the New York Post for four months in 1934. Intrigued with New Deal politics, he switched careers. Gruening was appointed to the U.S. delegation to the 7th Inter-American Conference in 1933, Director of the Division of Territories and Island Possessions of the Department of the Interior, 1934–1939, Administrator of the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, 1935–1937. He moved
    9.00
    3 votes
    32
    Gabriele Falloppio

    Gabriele Falloppio

    Gabriele Falloppio (1523 – October 9, 1562), often known by his Latin name Fallopius, was one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century. He was born at Modena and died at Padua. His family was noble but very poor and it was only by a hard struggle he succeeded in obtaining an education. Financial difficulties led him to join the clergy, and in 1542, he became a canon at Modena's cathedral. He studied medicine at the University of Ferrara, at that time one of the best medical schools in Europe. He received his MD in 1548 under the guidance of Antonio Musa Brassavola. After taking his degree he worked at various medical schools and then became professor of anatomy at Ferrara, in 1548. Girolamo Fabrici was one of his famous students. He was called the next year to the University of Pisa, then the most important university in Italy. In 1551 Falloppio was invited by Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany, to occupy the chair of anatomy and surgery at the University of Padua. He also held the professorship of botany and was superintendent of the botanical gardens. Though he died when less than forty, he had made his mark on anatomy for all time. This was the
    7.75
    4 votes
    33
    Hilary Koprowski

    Hilary Koprowski

    Hilary Koprowski (born December 5, 1916, in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish virologist and immunologist, and inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine. Born to a family of Jewish background, Hilary Koprowski grew up in Warsaw where he attended the Mikołaj Rej High School and from age twelve took piano lessons at the Warsaw Conservatory. He received his medical degree from the Faculty of Medicine at Warsaw University in 1939. He also received music degrees from the Warsaw Conservatory and, in 1940, from the Santa Cecilia Conservatory in Rome. He adopted scientific research as his life's work, though he never gave up music and composed several musical works. In 1939, after the Nazi invasion of Poland Koprowski and his wife Irena, a medical doctor, fled from Poland using Koprowski family business connections in Manchester England. Hilary went to Rome where he spent a year studying piano in the Santa Cecilia Conservatory. Meanwhile, Irena fled to France where she birthed her first child Claude Koprowski and worked as an attending physician at an insane asylum. As the invasion of France loomed near in 1940, Irena and the infant escaped France via Spain and Portugal (where
    7.75
    4 votes
    34
    James Barry

    James Barry

    James Miranda Stuart Barry (c. 1789-1799 – 25 July 1865), was a military surgeon in the British Army. After graduation from the University of Edinburgh, Barry served in India and Cape Town, South Africa. By the end of his career, he had risen to the rank of Inspector General in charge of military hospitals. In his travels he not only improved conditions for wounded soldiers, but also the conditions of the native inhabitants. Among his accomplishments was the first caesarean section in Africa by a British surgeon in which both the mother and child survived the operation. Although Barry lived his adult life as a man, it is widely believed that he was female assigned at birth and named Margaret Ann Bulkley and that he chose to live as a man so that he might be accepted as a university student and be able to pursue his chosen career as a surgeon. Thus Barry would be the first female assigned at birth to become a qualified medical doctor. It has also been theorized that Barry was intersex. Information about Barry's early life has been rife with myth and speculation; with no contemporary records known. The exact date of Barry's birth is uncertain; with sources putting the date at 1789,
    7.75
    4 votes
    35
    Constantine the African

    Constantine the African

    Constantine the African (Latin: Constantinus Africanus) (1017, Kairouan – 1087, Monte Cassino) was a Tunisian doctor of the eleventh century. The first part of his life was spent in Tunisia and the rest in Italy. In Salerno, Italy, he became a professor of medicine and his work attracted widespread attention. A few years later Constantine became a Benedictine monk, living the last two decades of his life in the Monte Cassino monastery. It was in Italy where Constantine complied his vast opus, mostly composed of translations from Arabic sources. He translated into Latin books of the great masters of Arabic medicine: Razes Ali Ibn Massaouia Baghdad, Ibn Imran, Ibn Suleiman, and Ibn Al-Jazzar. These translations are housed today in libraries in Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, and England. They were used as textbooks from the Middle Ages to the seventeenth century. The twelfth century monk Peter the Deacon is the first historian to have written the biography of Constantine. He noted that Constantine was a 'Saracen', the medieval Franco-Italian term meaning a Muslim from North Africa. Later historians such as De Renzi and Daremberg, curator of the National Library in Paris, and
    6.60
    5 votes
    36
    Alexander Luria

    Alexander Luria

    Alexander Romanovich Luria (Russian: Алекса́ндр Рома́нович Лу́рия; 16 July 1902 – 14 August 1977) was a famous Soviet neuropsychologist and developmental psychologist. He was one of the founders of cultural-historical psychology and the leaders of the Vygotsky Circle. Luria was born in Kazan, a regional center east of Moscow, to Jewish parents. He studied at Kazan State University (graduated in 1921), Kharkiv Medical Institute and 1st Moscow Medical Institute (graduated in 1937). He was appointed Professor (1944), Doctor of Pedagogical (1937) and Medical Sciences (1943). Throughout his career Luria worked in a wide range of scientific fields at such institutions as the Academy of Communist Education (1920-1930s), Experimental Defectological Institute (1920-1930s, 1950-1960s, both in Moscow), Ukrainian Psychoneurological Academy (Kharkiv, early 1930s), All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine, Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery (late 1930s), and other institutions. In the late 1930s, Luria went to medical school. Following the war, Luria continued his work in Moscow's Institute of Psychology. For a period of time, he was removed from the Institute of Psychology, mainly as a
    7.50
    4 votes
    37
    Benjamin Spock

    Benjamin Spock

    Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 – March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Throughout its first 52 years, Baby and Child Care was the second-best-selling book, next to the Bible. Its message to mothers is that "you know more than you think you do." Spock was the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics. His ideas about childcare influenced several generations of parents to be more flexible and affectionate with their children, and to treat them as individuals. In addition to his pediatric work, Spock was an activist in the New Left and anti Vietnam War movements during the 1960s and early 1970s. At the time his books were criticized by Vietnam War supporters for allegedly propagating permissiveness and an expectation of instant gratifications that led young people to join these movements, a charge Spock denied. Spock also won an Olympic gold medal in rowing in 1924 while attending Yale University. Benjamin McLane Spock was born May 2, 1903, in New Haven, Connecticut; his parents were Benjamin Ives Spock, a Yale
    7.50
    4 votes
    38
    Henry Morgentaler

    Henry Morgentaler

    Henry Morgentaler, CM (born March 19, 1923, in Łódź, Poland) is a Canadian physician and prominent pro-choice advocate who has fought numerous legal battles for that cause. His youth was shadowed by World War II and incarceration at Dachau for being Jewish. After he was released after the war's end, Morgentaler emigrated to Canada where he went into medical practice. After learning of the high number of desperate women who want abortions, Dr. Morgentaler deliberately challenged anti-abortion laws first in Quebec and then in other provinces. He succeeded in having the laws struck down as harmful to women and against women's rights. In 2008, Dr. Morgentaler was awarded the Order of Canada. Heniek (Henry) Morgentaler was born in Łódź, Poland, about 120 kilometres southwest of Warsaw. His parents were Golda Nitka and Josef Morgentaler. Morgentaler's father, Joseph, was active in the socialist Jewish Labour Bund. Josef Morgentaler was a City Councillor for the Bund. Anti-Semitic prejudice was common. Henry's future wife, Chava Rosenfarb, recalled that Henry was afraid to go to school: “Polish kids ran after him and threw stones at him. It was a normal thing. It was a general attitude, a
    7.50
    4 votes
    39
    Neal D. Barnard

    Neal D. Barnard

    Neal D. Barnard, M.D., is an American physician, author, clinical researcher, and founding president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), an international network of physicians, scientists, and laypeople who promote preventive medicine, conduct clinical research, and promote higher standards in research. An advocate of low-fat vegan diets, he has also conducted research into alternatives to animal experimentation and has been active in the animal protection movement. As of 2012, he is an adjunct associate professor of medicine at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, serves as president of The Cancer Project, and heads the Washington Center for Clinical Research, a PCRM subsidiary. Barnard is the author of more than 50 published research papers on nutrition and its impact on human health, and several books, including The 21-Day Weight Loss Kickstart (2011), Dr. Neal Barnard’s Program for Reversing Diabetes (2007), and Breaking the Food Seduction (2003). Barnard grew up in Fargo, North Dakota in a family of cattle ranchers and physicians. He received his M.D. from George Washington University School of Medicine. He trained
    7.50
    4 votes
    40
    Arie Eldad

    Arie Eldad

    Prof. Aryeh Eldad, M.D. (Hebrew: אריה אלדד‎, born 1 May 1950) is an Israeli physician and politician, and a member of the Knesset for the National Union parliamentary group, within which he heads the Hatikva party. Eldad was born in Tel Aviv in 1950. He is married with five children. His father, Israel Eldad, was a well known Israeli public thinker and formerly one of the leaders of the underground group Lehi. He is a resident of the Israeli settlement of Kfar Adumim and is a Brigadier-General (reserves) in the Israel Defense Forces. Eldad is a professor and head of the plastic surgery and burns unit at the Hadassah Medical Center hospital in Jerusalem. He studied medicine at Tel Aviv University, where he earned his doctorate. He served as the chief medical officer and was the senior commander of the Israeli Defense Forces medical corps for 25 years, and reached a rank of Tat Aluf (Brigadier General). He is renowned worldwide for his treatment of burns and won the Evans Award from the American Burns Treatment Association. Eldad was first elected to the Knesset on the National Union list in 2003, and chaired the Ethics Committee. Prior to the scheduled Israeli withdrawal from the
    8.67
    3 votes
    41
    Juan Ramón de la Fuente

    Juan Ramón de la Fuente

    Juan Ramón de la Fuente Ramírez (born 5 September 1951 in Mexico City) is a Mexican psychiatrist, academician and politician who served as Secretary of Health in the cabinet of President Ernesto Zedillo (1994–1999) and as rector of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) from 1999 to 2007. De la Fuente graduated with a bachelor's degree in Medicine from the National Autonomous University in 1976 and specialized in Psychiatry at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, United States. When he returned to Mexico he founded the Clinical Research Unit of the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry and worked as a lecturer at UNAM's School of Medicine, for which he was elected Director in 1991. In 1995 he was elected President of the Mexican Academy of Sciences and four years latter was appointed Secretary of Health by President Zedillo. In 1999, after a 10-months long student strike, he resigned from the federal cabinet and was appointed Rector of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. After some negotiations the conflict ended through a major plebiscite although the federal police forces were called upon to remove and arrest the remaining strikers. In 2003 he was reappointed
    10.00
    2 votes
    42
    Ron Paul

    Ron Paul

    Ronald Ernest "Ron" Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American physician, author, and politician who has been serving as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 14th congressional district, which includes Galveston, since 1997. He is a three-time candidate for President of the United States, as a Libertarian in 1988 and as a Republican in 2008 and 2012. He is a member of the Republican Party. He holds libertarian views and is a critic of American foreign, domestic, and monetary policies, including the military–industrial complex, the War on Drugs, and the Federal Reserve. A native of the Pittsburgh suburb of Green Tree, Pennsylvania, Paul is a graduate of Gettysburg College and Duke University School of Medicine, where he earned his medical degree. He served as a medical officer in the United States Air Force from 1963 until 1968. He worked as an obstetrician-gynecologist from the 1960s to the 1980s, delivering more than 4,000 babies. He became the first Representative in history to serve concurrently with a child in the Senate when his son Rand Paul was elected to the United States Senate for Kentucky in 2010. As well as publicizing the ideas of Austrian Economists such as Murray
    10.00
    2 votes
    43
    Realdo Colombo

    Realdo Colombo

    Realdo Colombo (c. 1516, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559. Matteo Realdo Colombo or Renaldus Columbus, was born in Cremona, Lombardy to an apothecary named Antonio Colombo. Although little is known about his early life, it is known he took his undergraduate education in Milan and he appears to have pursued his father's profession for a short while afterwards. He left the apothecarys' life and apprenticed to the surgeon Giovanni Antonio Lonigo, under whom he studied for 7 years. In 1538 he enrolled in the University of Padua where he was noted to be an exceptional student of anatomy. While still a student, he was awarded a Chair of Sophistics at the university. In 1542 he returned briefly to Venice to assist his mentor, Lonigo. In 1543, he returned to Padua to take over the position of Andreas Vesalius, who had travelled to Switzerland to oversee the printing of his book De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Colombo remained in Padua in this capacity for two years before traveling to Pisa at the behest of Cosimo I de Medici. While in Pisa, he worked extensively with Michelangelo. He intended to collaborate
    6.40
    5 votes
    44
    Lee Jong-wook

    Lee Jong-wook

    Lee Jong-wook (1945–2006) was the Director-General of the World Health Organization for three years. He was born 12 April 1945 in Seoul, Korea. After graduating from Kyungbock high school, Lee obtained a medical degree from Seoul National University, then enrolled at the University of Hawaii to study public health, earning a Master's degree. He joined the WHO in 1983, working on a variety of projects including the Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunizations and Stop Tuberculosis. He began his term as Director-General of WHO on 21 July 2003, having been elected two months before. He was the first Korean to lead an international agency. He died on 22 May 2006 - while in office - in Geneva, Switzerland, following surgery for a blood clot on his brain (a subdural hematoma). He was posthumously awarded the Hibiscus Cordon (Grand Cross) of the Order of Civil Merit by the South Korean government. In 2004, he was one of the 100 people who shapes our lives and most powerful people in the world by Time Magazine. He is the third son in a family of six children; he has three brothers and two sisters. Two brothers are professors. His wife is Reiko Kaburaki Lee and the couple has one son,
    7.25
    4 votes
    45
    Joycelyn Elders

    Joycelyn Elders

    Minnie Joycelyn Elders (born Minnie Lee Jones on August 13, 1933) is an American pediatrician and public health administrator. She was a vice admiral in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the first African American appointed as Surgeon General of the United States. Elders is best known for her frank discussion of her views on controversial issues such as drug legalization and distributing contraception in schools. She was fired mid-term in December 1994 amidst controversy. Elders was born Minnie Lee Jones in Schaal, Arkansas. In college, she changed her name to Minnie Joycelyn Lee. In 1952, she received her B.S. degree in Biology from Philander Smith College in Little Rock, Arkansas. After working as a nurse's aide in a Veterans Administration hospital in Milwaukee for a period, she joined the United States Army in May 1953. During her 3 years in the Army, she was trained as a physical therapist. She then attended the University of Arkansas Medical School, where she obtained her M.D. degree in 1960. After completing an internship at the University of Minnesota Hospital and a residency in pediatrics at the University of Arkansas Medical Center, Elders earned an M.S.
    8.33
    3 votes
    46
    Mae Jemison

    Mae Jemison

    Mae Carol Jemison (born October 17, 1956) is an American physician and NASA astronaut. She became the first black woman to travel in space when she went into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on September 12, 1992. After her medical education and a brief general practice, Jemison served in the Peace Corps from 1985 to 1987. She resigned from NASA in 1993 to form a company researching the application of technology to daily life. She has appeared on television several times, including as an actor in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. She is a dancer, and holds nine honorary doctorates in science, engineering, letters, and the humanities. Mae Carol Jemison was born in []], the youngest child of Charlie Jemison and Dorothy Green. Her father was a maintenance supervisor for a charity organization, and her mother worked most of her career as an elementary school teacher of English and math at the Beethoven School in Chicago. The family moved to Chicago, Illinois, when Jemison was three years old, to take advantage of better educational opportunities there. Jemison says that as a young girl growing up in Chicago she always assumed she would get into space. "I thought, by
    8.33
    3 votes
    47
    Michael C. Burgess

    Michael C. Burgess

    Michael Clifton Burgess, (born December 23, 1950) is a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives representing Texas's 26th congressional district. In 2002, he defeated Scott Armey, the son of House Majority Leader and then-representative Dick Armey, in a primary runoff election. Prior to his election, he practiced as a doctor of Obstetrics and gynaecology. Burgess is a member of the congressional Tea Party Caucus, and he has been involved in the debates over health care reform and energy policy. Michael Burgess was born on December 23, 1950 in Rochester, Minnesota to Harry Meredith Burgess and Norma Crowhurst. He graduated from North Texas State University (now the University of North Texas) in 1972 and graduated from the medical school at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston in 1977. He completed a residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Burgess, who had never held any public office and voted in the Democratic primaries in 1990, 1992, and 1994, entered in the 2002 Republican primary election to replace U.S. Congressman and House Majority Leader Dick Armey. His primary opponent was Armey's son,
    8.33
    3 votes
    48
    Charles Tupper

    Charles Tupper

    Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet, GCMG, CB, PC (July 2, 1821 – October 30, 1915) was a Canadian father of Confederation: as the Premier of Nova Scotia from 1864 to 1867, he led Nova Scotia into Confederation. He went on to serve as the sixth Prime Minister of Canada, sworn in to office on May 1, 1896, seven days after parliament had been dissolved. He lost the June 23 election and resigned on July 8, 1896. His 69-day term as prime minister is currently the shortest in Canadian history. At age 74, in May 1896, he was also the oldest person to serve as Prime Minister of Canada. Tupper was born in Amherst, Nova Scotia to the Rev. Charles Tupper and Miriam Lockhart. He was educated at Horton Academy, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, and studied medicine at Edinburgh University (MBChB, 1843). He practiced medicine periodically throughout his political career (and served as the first president of the Canadian Medical Association). He entered Nova Scotian politics in 1855 as a protégé of James William Johnston. During Johnston's tenure as premier of Nova Scotia in 1857–59 and 1863–64, Tupper served as provincial secretary. Tupper replaced Johnston as premier in 1864. As premier, Tupper established
    9.50
    2 votes
    49
    David Hayes Agnew

    David Hayes Agnew

    David Hayes Agnew (November 24, 1818 – March 22, 1892) was an American surgeon. He was born on November 24, 1818 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1838, and a few years later set up in practice at Philadelphia and became a lecturer at the Philadelphia School of Anatomy. He married Margaret Irwin in 1841. He also helped found the Irwin & Agnew Iron Foundry in 1846. In 1852, he bought and revived the Philadelphia School of Anatomy, where he continued to work through 1862. He was appointed surgeon at the Philadelphia Hospital in 1854 and was the founder of its pathological museum. For 26 years (1863–1889) he was connected with the medical faculty of the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania, being elected professor of operative surgery in 1870 and professor of the principles and practice of surgery in the following year. From 1865 to 1884—except for a brief interval—he was a surgeon at the Pennsylvania Hospital. In 1889 he became the subject of the largest painting ever made by the Philadelphia artist Thomas Eakins, called The Agnew Clinic, in which he is shown conducting a mastectomy operation
    9.50
    2 votes
    50
    Emily Stowe

    Emily Stowe

    Dr. Emily Howard Stowe (May 1, 1831 – April 29, 1903) was the first female doctor to practice in Canada, and an activist for women's rights and suffrage. Emily Stowe was born in Norwich Township, Oxford County, Ontario. Emily Stowe was related to John Smith. Emily’s public struggle to achieve equality for women began in 1852, when she applied for admission to Victoria College, Cobourg, Ontario. Refused on the grounds that she was female, she applied to the Normal School for Upper Canada, which Egerton Ryerson had recently founded in Toronto. She entered in November 1853 and was graduated with first-class honours in 1854. Hired as principal of a Brantford, Ontario public school, she was the first woman to be a principal of a public school in Upper Canada. She taught there until her marriage in 1856. She married John Fiuscia Michael Heward Stowe in 1856. In the next seven years she had 3 children; 2 sons and a daughter. Shortly after the birth of their third child her husband developed tuberculosis, which in turn developed his wife's interest in herbal remedies and homeopathic medicine, a field in which her mother had also been interested. Emily Howard Stowe then decided to become a
    9.50
    2 votes
    51
    Kazys Grinius

    Kazys Grinius

    Kazys Grinius ( pronunciation (help·info), 17 December 1866 in Selema, Kazlų Rūda municipality – 4 June 1950) was the third President of Lithuania, and held that office from 7 June 1926 to 17 December 1926. When Grinius was born in Selema, near Marijampolė, Lithuania was part of the Russian empire. He studied medicine at the University of Moscow and became a physician. As a young man, he became involved in Lithuanian political activities, and was persecuted by the Tsarist authorities. In 1896, he married Joana Pavalkytė. For some time they lived in Virbalis. In 1899, their son Kazys was born, and in 1902, their daughter Gražina was born. During World War I they lived in Kislovodsk. In 1918 during a Red Army attack his wife and daughter were killed. They were buried in Kislovodsk cemetery. When Lithuania regained its independence in 1918, Grinius became a member of the National Assembly as a member of the Peasant Populist Party. He served as Prime Minister from 1920 until 1922, and signed a treaty with the Soviet Union. He was elected President by the Third Seimas, but served for only six months, as he was deposed in a coup led by Antanas Smetona, under the pretext that there was an
    9.50
    2 votes
    52
    Olaus Rudbeck

    Olaus Rudbeck

    Olaus Rudbeck (also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, and occasionally with the surname Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius) (September 13, 1630 – December 12, 1702) was a Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university. He was born in Västerås, the son of Bishop Johannes Rudbeckius, who was personal chaplain to King Gustavus Adolphus, and the father of botanist Olof Rudbeck the Younger. Rudbeck is primarily known for his contributions in two fields: human anatomy and linguistics, but he was also accomplished in many other fields including music and botany. (He established the first botanical garden in Sweden at Uppsala, called Rudbeck's Garden, but which was renamed a hundred years later for his son's student, the botanist Carolus Linnaeus.) Rudbeck was one of the pioneers in the study of lymphatic vessels. According to his supporters in Sweden, he was the first to discover the lymphatic system and is documented as having shown his findings at the court of Queen Christina of Sweden in the Spring of 1652. However, he did not publish anything about it until the fall
    5.33
    6 votes
    53
    Gerhard Armauer Hansen

    Gerhard Armauer Hansen

    Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen (29 July 1841 – 12 February 1912) was a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy. Hansen was born in Bergen and studied medicine at the Royal Frederik's University (now the University of Oslo), gaining his degree in 1866. He served a brief internship at the National Hospital in Christiania (Oslo) and as a doctor in Lofoten. In 1868 Hansen returned to Bergen to study leprosy while working with Daniel Cornelius Danielssen, a noted expert. Leprosy was regarded as largely hereditary or otherwise miasmic in origin. Hansen concluded on the basis of epidemiological studies that leprosy was a specific disease with a specific cause. In 1870-71 Hansen travelled to Bonn and Vienna to gain the training necessary for him to prove his hypothesis. In 1873, he announced the discovery of Mycobacterium leprae in the tissues of all sufferers, although he did not identify them as bacteria, and received little support. The discovery was done with a "new and better" microscope. In 1879 he gave tissue samples to Albert Neisser who successfully stained the bacteria and announced his
    7.00
    4 votes
    54
    João Guimarães Rosa

    João Guimarães Rosa

    João Guimarães Rosa (27 June 1908 – 19 November 1967) was a Brazilian novelist, considered by many to be one of the greatest Brazilian novelists born in the 20th century. His best-known work is the novel Grande Sertão: Veredas (translated as The Devil to Pay in the Backlands). Some people consider this to be the Brazilian equivalent of Ulysses. Guimarães Rosa was born in Cordisburgo in the state of Minas Gerais, the first of six children of Florduardo Pinto Rosa (nicknamed "seu Fulô") and Francisca Guimarães Rosa ("Chiquitinha"). He was self-taught in many areas and from childhood studied many languages, starting with French before he was seven years old, as can be seen in an interview he gave a cousin of his later in life: I speak: Portuguese, German, French, English, Spanish, Italian, Esperanto, some Russian; I read: Swedish, Dutch, Latin and Greek (but with the dictionary right next to me); I understand some German dialects; I studied the grammar of: Hungarian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Lithuanian, Polish, Tupi, Hebrew, Japanese, Czech, Finnish, Danish; I dabbled in others. But all at a very basic level. And I think that studying the spirit and the mechanism of other languages helps a
    7.00
    4 votes
    55
    Trotula of Salerno

    Trotula of Salerno

    Trotula can refer to Trotula of Salerno (11th–12th centuries) or the Trotula texts. Trotula of Salerno was a female physician who worked in Salerno, Italy. Several writings about women’s health have been attributed to her, including Diseases of Women, Treatments for Women, and Women’s Cosmetics. In medieval Europe, these texts were a major source for information on women’s health. Diseases of Women, Treatments for Women, and Women’s Cosmetics are usually referred to collectively as The Trotula. This is misleading because there is no evidence that Diseases of Women and Women’s Cosmetics were actually written by Trotula; these two texts circulated anonymously until they were combined with Treatments for Women sometime in the thirteenth century. Treatments for Women bears Trotula’s name. By the end of the thirteenth century, the collection of the three texts was known as The Trotula. For the next several hundred years, The Trotula circulated throughout Europe, reaching its greatest popularity in the fourteenth century. Twenty-nine copies exist today. Only two other texts by Trotula survive. She was one of seven Salerno physicians who contributed to an encyclopedia of medical
    7.00
    4 votes
    56
    Francis Townsend

    Francis Townsend

    Dr. Francis Earl Townsend (January 13, 1867–September 1, 1960) was an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "Townsend Plan," this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system. He was born just outside of Fairbury, Illinois, where a post office is memorialized in his honor. Francis Earl Townsend was born the second of six children on January 13, 1867 in Fairbury, Illinois. After Townsend contracted swamp malaria as an infant, the Townsend family moved to Nebraska where Townsend had two years of high school education. In 1898 at age 20, Townsend borrowed $1,000 from his father and moved to Southern California to develop a hay farming business. The business was not successful and Townsend enrolled in Omaha Medical College when he was 31. After graduating, Townsend worked in the medical field in Belle Fourche, South Dakota and met a nurse and his future wife, Wilhelmina "Minnie" Bogue. At age 50, Townsend enlisted as a doctor in the army one year before the end of World War I. After the war end in 1918, Townsend moved to Long Beach, California to run a
    8.00
    3 votes
    57
    Wong Fei Hung

    Wong Fei Hung

    Wong Fei-hung (July 9, 1847 – March 25, 1924) was a Chinese martial artist, physician, acupuncturist and revolutionary who became a folk hero and the subject of numerous films and television series. He was considered an expert in the Hung Gar style of Chinese martial arts. Wong is visibly the most famous Hung Gar practitioner in modern times. As such, his lineage has received the most attention. As a physician, Wong practiced and taught acupuncture and other forms of traditional Chinese medicine in Po-chi-lam (T: 寶芝林, S: 宝芝林, P: Bǎozhīlín, J: bou2 zi1 lam4), his private clinic in Foshan, Guangdong. A museum dedicated to him was built in Foshan. Wong's most famous disciples included Wong Hon-hei (his son), Lam Sai-wing, Leung Foon, Dang Fong, Wong Sai-wing and Ling Wan-kai. Wong was also associated with "Beggar So" of the Ten Tigers of Canton. Wong was born on Mount Xiqiao, Foshan, Guangdong, during the reign of the Daoguang Emperor in the Qing Dynasty. At the age of five, he started learning Hung Gar from his father Wong Kei-ying. When he was 13, he learnt the Tour de Force of Iron Wire Fist and sling from Lam Fuk-sing (林福成), a student of "Iron Bridge Three" Leung Kwan, after
    8.00
    3 votes
    58
    Hippocrates

    Hippocrates

    Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos (Ancient Greek: Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; c. 460 BC – c. 370 BC) was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of Western medicine in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession. However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine, and the actions of Hippocrates himself are often commingled; thus very little is known about what Hippocrates actually thought, wrote, and did. Hippocrates is commonly portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today. He is also credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of
    6.75
    4 votes
    59
    Mungo Park

    Mungo Park

    Mungo Park (11 September 1771 – 1806) was a Scottish explorer of the African continent. He was credited as being the first Westerner to encounter the Niger River. Mungo Park was born in Selkirkshire, Scotland at Foulshiels on the Yarrow Water, near Selkirk, on a tenant farm which his father rented from the Duke of Buccleuch. He was the seventh in a family of thirteen. Although tenant farmers, the Parks were relatively well-off –- they were able to pay for Park to have a good education, and Park's father died leaving property valued at £3,000 (UK£ 160,000 in 2012). The Parks were Dissenters, and Park was brought up in the Calvinist tradition. Park was educated at home before attending Selkirk grammar school, then, at the age of fourteen, he was apprenticed to a surgeon named Thomas Anderson in Selkirk. During his apprenticeship, he made friends with Anderson's son Alexander and became acquainted with his daughter Allison, who would later become his wife. In October 1788, Park started at the University of Edinburgh, attending for four sessions studying medicine and botany. Notably, during his time at university, he spent a year in the natural history course of Professor John Walker.
    6.75
    4 votes
    60
    Prospero Alpini

    Prospero Alpini

    Prospero Alpini (also known as Prosper Alpinus, Prospero Alpinio and Prosper Alpin) (November 23, 1553 - February 6, 1617), was a Venetian physician and botanist. Born at Marostica, in the Republic of Venice, in his youth he served for a time in the Milanese army, but in 1574 he went to study medicine at Padua. After taking his doctor's degree in 1578, he settled as a physician in Campo San Pietro, a small town in the Paduan territory. But his tastes were botanical, and to extend his knowledge of exotic plants he travelled to Egypt in 1580 as physician to George Emo or Hemi, the Venetian consul in Cairo. In Egypt he spent three years, and from a practice in the management of Date Palms, which he observed in that country, he seems to have deduced the doctrine of the sexual difference of plants, which was adopted as the foundation of the Linnaean taxonomy system. He says that "the female date-trees or palms do not bear fruit unless the branches of the male and female plants are mixed together; or, as is generally done, unless the dust found in the male sheath or male flowers is sprinkled over the female flowers". On his return, he resided for some time at Genoa as physician to Andrea
    6.75
    4 votes
    61
    Andrew Smith

    Andrew Smith

    Sir Andrew Smith KCB (3 December 1797 – 11 August 1872) was a Scottish surgeon, explorer, ethnologist and zoologist. He is considered the father of zoology in South Africa having described many species across a wide range of groups in his major work, Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa. Smith was born in Hawick, Roxburghshire. He obtained a good education by diligence and hard work and qualified in medicine at Edinburgh University obtaining an M.D. degree in 1819, having joined the Army Medical Services in 1816. In 1820 he was ordered to the Cape Colony and was sent to Grahamstown to supervise the medical care of European soldiers and soldiers of the Cape Corps. He was appointed the Albany district surgeon in 1822 and started the first free dispensary for indigent patients in South Africa. He led a scientific expedition into the interior and was able to indulge in his interests of natural history and anthropology. On several occasions he was sent by governors on confidential missions to visit Bantu tribes beyond the frontier, such as his trip to Kaffraria in 1824 when he made copious notes on the customs of the Xhosa tribes. In 1825 the Governor of the Cape Colony, Lord
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Georgios Papanikolaou

    Georgios Papanikolaou

    Georgios Nicholas Papanikolaou (or George Papanicolaou; Greek: Γεώργιος Παπανικολάου; Kymi, island of Euboea, Greece, 13 May 1883 – 19 February 1962) was a Greek pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection, and inventor of the "Pap smear". Papanikolaou studied at the University of Athens, where he received his medical degree in 1904. Six years later he received his Ph.D. from the University of Munich, Germany, after he had also spent time at the universities of Jena and Freiburg. In 1910, Papanikolaou returned to Athens and got married to Andromahi Mavrogeni and then departed for Monaco where he worked for the Oceanographic Institute of Monaco, participating in the Oceanographic Exploration Team of the Prince of Monaco (1911). In 1913 he emigrated to the U.S. in order to work in the department of Pathology of New York Hospital and the Department of Anatomy at the Weill Medical College of Cornell University. He first reported that uterine cancer could be diagnosed by means of a vaginal smear in 1928, but the importance of his work was not recognized until the publication, together with Herbert Traut, of Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear in 1943. The book
    9.00
    2 votes
    63
    John Lawrence LeConte

    John Lawrence LeConte

    John Lawrence LeConte (May 13, 1825—November 15, 1883) was the most important American entomologist of the 19th century, responsible for naming and describing approximately half of the insect taxa known in the United States during his lifetime, including some 5,000 species of beetles. He was recognized as the foremost authority on North American beetles during his lifetime, and has been described as "the father of American beetle study." A member of the scientifically inclined LeConte family, John Lawrence was born in New York City, the son of naturalist John Eatton Le Conte. His mother died when John Lawrence was only a few months old, and he was raised by his father. Based on samples of his signature, John Lawrence used the surname variant "LeConte" without the space that his father used (as "Le Conte"). John Lawrence graduated from Mount Saint Mary College (now known as Mount St. Mary's University) in 1842, and from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1846. While still in medical college, in 1844, John Lawrence traveled with his cousin Joseph LeConte to the Great Lakes. Starting at Niagara Falls, they visited Detroit and Chicago and traversed Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and
    9.00
    2 votes
    64
    Wilder Penfield

    Wilder Penfield

    • Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
    Wilder Graves Penfield, OM, CC, CMG, FRS (January 26, 1891 – April 5, 1976) was an American born Canadian neurosurgeon. During his life he was called "the greatest living Canadian". He devoted much thinking to the functionings of the mind, and continued until his death to contemplate whether there was any scientific basis for the existence of the human soul. Penfield was born in Spokane, Washington (but spent most of his life in Hudson, Wisconsin) on January 25 or January 26, 1891. He studied at Princeton University where he played on the football team. After graduation in 1913, he was hired briefly as the coach. He then obtained a Rhodes Scholarship to Merton College, Oxford, where he studied neuropathology under Sir Charles Scott Sherrington. He obtained his medical degree from Johns Hopkins University. He spent several years training at Oxford, where he met William Osler. He also studied in Spain, Germany, and New York. After taking surgical apprenticeship under Harvey Cushing, he obtained a position at the Neurological Institute of New York, where he carried out his first solo operations against epilepsy. While in New York, he met David Rockefeller, who desired to endow an
    9.00
    2 votes
    65
    John Strong Newberry

    John Strong Newberry

    John Strong Newberry (December 22, 1822 – December 7, 1892) was a American geologist, physician, explorer, author, and a member of the Megatherium Club at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. He was born at Windsor, Connecticut. Most of his early life was spent in the Western Reserve of Ohio. He graduated from Western Reserve University in 1846 and from Cleveland Medical School in 1848. After two years of study in medicine and paleontology at Paris, he established his medical practice in Cleveland (1851). In 1855 he joined an exploring expedition under Lieutenant Williamson, sent out by the War Department to examine the country between San Francisco and the Columbia River. In 1857–58 he acted as geologist to an expedition headed by Lieutenant Joseph Christmas Ives, sent out to explore the Colorado River, and he served as naturalist on an expedition in 1859 under Captain Macombe, which explored southwestern Colorado and adjacent parts of Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, finding the remains of the dinosaur Dystrophaeus. He was the first geologist known to visit the Grand Canyon. He was called to a professorship at Columbian (now George Washington) University in 1857. He was
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    Patch Adams

    Patch Adams

    Hunter Doherty "Patch" Adams (born May 28, 1945, in Washington, D.C.) is an American physician, social activist, citizen diplomat, clown and author. He founded the Gesundheit! Institute in 1971. Each year he organizes a group of volunteers from around the world to travel to various countries where they dress as clowns in an effort to bring humor to orphans, patients, and other people. Adams is currently based in Urbana, Illinois. In collaboration with the institute, he promotes an alternative health care model, not funded by insurance policies. Adams had a difficult childhood. His father, an officer in the United States Army, had fought in Korea, and died while stationed in Germany when Adams was still a teenager. After his father's death, Adams returned to the United States with his mother and brother. Upon his return, Adams has stated that he encountered institutional injustice which made him a target for bullies at school. As a result, Adams was unhappy and became actively suicidal. After being hospitalized three times in one year for wanting to end his life, he decided "you don't kill yourself; you make revolution." After graduating (1963) from Wakefield High School, Adams
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Roy Walford

    Roy Walford

    Roy Lee Walford, M. D. (June 29, 1924 San Diego, California, USA – April 27, 2004) was a pioneer in the field of caloric restriction. He died at age 79 of respiratory failure as a complication of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s or motor neurone disease). He was a leading advocate of calorie restriction as a method of life extension and health improvement. Walford is credited with significantly furthering aging research by his discovery that laboratory mice, when fed a diet that restricted their caloric intake by 50% yet maintained nutritional requirements, almost doubled their expected life span. He received his medical degree from the University of Chicago in 1948. He completed his internship at Gorgas Hospital, Panama, and served his residency at the V.A. Medical Center in Los Angeles. He then served two years in the U.S. Air Force during the Korean War. Walford joined the faculty at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1954. He became a Professor of Pathology at the UCLA School of Medicine in 1966. He became Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emeritus, for UCLA, when he left to join the crew of Biosphere 2 in
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Sergei Botkin

    Sergei Botkin

    Sergey Petrovich Botkin (Russian: Серге́й Петро́вич Бо́ткин; 1832–1889) was a famous Russian clinician, therapist, and activist, one of the founders of modern Russian medical science and education. He introduced triage, pathological anatomy, and post mortem diagnostics into Russian medical practice. At the age of 29, in 1861, he became a Professor of Therapeutical clinics department and created the first experimental and analytical medical laboratory in Russia. In 1873, he was designated the "leib-medic" and elected the President of the Society of Russian medics in St. Petersburg. In 1886, Botkin headed the Commission of Health of Russia's population to lower the high mortality rates in both peacetine and wartime. Botkin Hospital is named after him. He was the court physician for both Tsar Alexander II and Tsar Alexander III. He was the father of Dr. Eugene Botkin, the court physician for Tsar Nicholas II. Sergey's brother Vasily Botkin was a prominent critic.
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Wacław Szybalski

    Wacław Szybalski

    Wacław Szybalski (born 1921 in Lwów, Poland, now L'viv, Ukraine) is a professor of oncology at the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin–Madison Medical School. Wacław Szybalski was born in 1921 in Lwów, Poland, into a Polish intelligentsia family. His father Stefan was an engineer, and his mother, Michalina née Rakowska, was a Doctor of Chemistry. The Szybalski family maintained close friendships with numerous leading representatives of the Polish intelligentsia in Lwów, including Professor Jan Czekanowski, the father of Polish anthropology, and the outstanding bacteriologist, Professor Rudolf Stefan Weigl. In 1939 Szybalski graduated from the famous Gymnasium no. 8 in Lwów. After World War II broke out, from 23 September 1939, Lwów was occupied by the Soviet Union. Szybalski joined the Chemistry Department at the Lwów Polytechnic, where he was entranced by the lectures of Professor Adolf Joszt, a leading expert on processes of fermentation. Joszt even then held a vision of developing science in the direction of genetic engineering and biotechnology, which had a direct influence on Szybalski's future scientific development. After the German attack on the
    7.67
    3 votes
    70
    Bernardino Ramazzini

    Bernardino Ramazzini

    Bernardino Ramazzini (1633 – 1714) was an Italian physician.(Italian pronunciation: ['bernardino ramat'tsini]) Ramazzini was an early proponent of the use of cinchona bark (from which quinine is derived) in the treatment of Malaria. His most important contribution to medicine was his book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba ("Diseases of Workers"). Ramazzini was born in Carpi on 3 November 1633. He studied medicine at the University of Parma, where his interest in occupational diseases began. He was appointed to the chair of theory of medicine at University of Modena in 1682 then served as professor of medicine at the University of Padua from 1700 until his death. He is often called "the father of occupational medicine" The first edition of De Morbis was published in 1700 in Modena, the second in 1713 in Padua. His book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers) outlined the health hazards of chemicals, dust, metals, repetitive or violent motions, odd postures, and other disease-causative agents encountered by workers in 52 occupations. This was one of the founding and seminal works of occupational medicine and played a
    10.00
    1 votes
    71
    Carl Linnaeus

    Carl Linnaeus

    Carl Linnaeus (Swedish original name Carl Nilsson Linnæus, 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as  Carl von Linné (help·info), was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. Linnaeus received most of his higher education at Uppsala University, and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 60s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in
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    1 votes
    72
    Che Guevara

    Che Guevara

    Ernesto "Che" Guevara (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtʃe ɣeˈβaɾa]; May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as el Che or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia within popular culture. As a young medical student, Guevara traveled throughout South America and was moved by the poverty, hunger, and disease he witnessed. His burgeoning desire to help overturn what he saw as the capitalist exploitation of Latin America by the United States prompted his involvement in Guatemala's social reforms under President Jacobo Arbenz, whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow at the behest of the United Fruit Company solidified Guevara's political ideology. Later, while living in Mexico City, he met Raúl and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July Movement, and sailed to Cuba aboard the yacht, Granma, with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents, was promoted to second-in-command, and played a
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Francesco Redi

    Francesco Redi

    Francesco Redi (February 18, 1626 – March 1, 1697) was an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet. The son of LaToya Rotti and Cecilia de Ghinci was born in Arezzo on February 18, 1626. After schooling with the Jesuits, he attended the University of Pisa. As a doctor, he became court physician to Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his successor, Cosimo III. His research earned himself membership in Accademia dei Lincei. He died in his sleep on March 1, 1697, and his remains were returned to Arezzo for interment. He is most well known for his series of experiments, published in 1668 as Esperienze Toronto alla Generazione degl'Insetti (Experiments on the Generation of Insects), which is regarded as one of the first steps in refuting "spontaneous generation" - a theory also known as Aristotelian abiogenesis. At the time, prevailing wisdom was that maggots aformed naturally from rotting meat. In one experiment, Redi took six jars, which he divided in two groups of three: in the first jar of each peanut butter, he put an unknown object; in the second, a dead fish; in the last, a raw chunk of peanut. Redi took the first group of three, and covered the tops with fine
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Friedrich Hoffmann

    Friedrich Hoffmann

    Friedrich Hoffmann (February 19, 1660 – November 12, 1742) was a German physician and chemist. His family had been connected with medicine for 200 years before him. Born in Halle, he attended the local gymnasium where he acquired that taste for and skill in mathematics to which he attributed much of his after success. Beginning at age 18, he studied medicine at the University of Jena. From there, in 1680, he went to Erfurt, in order to attend Kasper Cramer's lectures on chemistry. Next year, returning to Jena, he received his doctor's diploma, and, after publishing a thesis, was permitted to teach. Constant study then began to tell on his health, and in 1682, leaving his already numerous pupils, he opened a practice in Minden at the request of a relative who held a high position in that town. After practising at Minden for two years, Hoffmann made a journey to Holland and England, where he formed the acquaintance of many illustrious chemists and physicians. Towards the end of 1684, he returned to Minden, and during the next three years he received many flattering appointments. In 1688 he moved to the more promising sphere of Halberstadt, with the title of physician to the
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    Jakob Heine

    Jakob Heine

    Jakob (or Jacob) Heine (April 16, 1800, Lauterbach, Black Forest, Germany – November 12, 1879, Cannstatt, Germany) was a German orthopaedist. He is most famous for his 1840 study into poliomyelitis, which was the first medical report on the disease, and the first time the illness was recognised as a clinical entity. Poliomyelitis is often known as Heine-Medin disease, after the work of Heine and Karl Oskar Medin. Heine studied classical languages and theology before turning to medicine, a decision influenced by his uncle, Johann Georg Heine, who owned an orthopaedic institute in Würzburg. He was awarded a doctorate in 1827. In the 1830s, Jakob Heine opened an orthopaedic institution in Cannstatt near Stuttgart and served as director there until 1865. In his institution patients from all over Europe were treated. Heine's special interests were scoliosis, clubfeet and paralysis of arms and legs. He also used washings and gymnastics as a therapy. One of the sons he had with his wife Henriette Ludovike Camerer (1807–1884, married in 1831) was Carl Wilhelm Heine (1838–1877), one of the most famous European surgeons of the 19th Century. An honorary citizen of Cannstatt, Heine received
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    James Orbinski

    James Orbinski

    James Jude Orbinski, OC, OOnt, MSC (born 1960 in England) is a Canadian physician, writer, and humanitarian activist. He is an associate professor of Medicine at the University of Toronto and a Fellow at the Munk School of Global Affairs. In January 2011, he also assumed the Chair of Global Health at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto. He was President of the International Council of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF, aka Doctors Without Borders) at the time the organization received the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize. James Orbinski also is the co-founder and Chair of the Board of Directors of Dignitas International, a medical humanitarian organization working with communities to increase access to life-saving treatment and prevention in areas overwhelmed by HIV/AIDS. He is a strong advocate for increasing the availability of anti-retroviral drugs to combat AIDS in poor countries. He is closely associated with the University of Toronto's Massey College where he is a Senior Fellow and was the founding Saul Rae Fellow. He is considered a brilliant orator. In 1998, Orbinski received the Governor General's Meritorious Service Cross for his work as the MSF Head of
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Jean Fernel

    Jean Fernel

    Jean François Fernel (in Latin, Fernelius) (1497 – 26 April 1558) was a French physician who introduced the term "physiology" to describe the study of the body's function. He was the first person to describe the spinal canal. The lunar crater Fernelius is named after him. Fernel suggested that taste buds are sensitive to fat, an idea which only recently has been shown to be correct. He was born at Montdidier, and after receiving his early education at his native town and at Claremont, he entered the College of Sainte-Barbe, Paris. At first he devoted himself to mathematical and astronomical studies; but from 1534 he gave himself up entirely to medicine, in which he graduated in 1530. His general erudition, and the skill and success with which he sought to revive the study of the old Greek physicians, gained him a reputation, and ultimately the office of physician to the court. Catherine De' Medici, wife of King Henri II of France, sought his advice regarding their difficulty in conceiving a child. He practised with success, and at his death at Fontainebleau in 1558 left behind him a large fortune. Fernel's Cosmotheoria (1528) records a determination of a degree of arc of the
    10.00
    1 votes
    78
    Jean-Paul Marat

    Jean-Paul Marat

    Jean-Paul Marat (French: [ʒɑ̃pɔl maʁa]; 24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793), born in the Principality of Neuchâtel, was a physician, political theorist, and scientist best known for his career in France as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution. His journalism was renowned for its fiery character and uncompromising stance toward "enemies of the revolution" and basic reforms for the poorest members of society. Marat was one of the more extreme voices of the French Revolution, and he became a vigorous defender of the sans-culottes; he broadcast his views through impassioned public speaking, essay writing, and newspaper journalism, which carried his message throughout France. Marat's radical denunciations of counter-revolutionaries supported much of the violence that occurred during the wartime phases of the French Revolution. His constant persecution of "enemies of the people," consistent condemnatory message, and uncanny prophetic powers brought him the trust of the populace and made him their unofficial link to the radical Jacobin group that came to power in June 1793. He was murdered in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a Girondist sympathizer. Jean-Paul Marat was
    10.00
    1 votes
    79
    Nathan Brownson

    Nathan Brownson

    Nathan Brownson (May 14, 1742 – November 6, 1796) was an American physician and statesman from Riceboro, Georgia. He served Georgia as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1777 and as the 14th Governor of Georgia in 1781. Nathan was the sixth of ten children born to Timothy (1701–1766) and Abgail Jenner (1707–1784) Brownson and was born in Woodbury, Connecticut. He graduated from Yale in 1761 and studied medicine before moving to Georgia. He settled in Liberty County, Georgia in 1764 and began his medical practice. Brownson was married twice: first, in 1769, to Elizabeth Lewis, who died in 1775; then to Elizabeth McLean in 1776. There were two children from the second marriage. He died in 1796 in Riceboro, Georgia and was buried in Midway Cemetery in Midway, Georgia.
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    1 votes
    80
    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.

    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.

    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (August 29, 1809 – October 7, 1894) was an American physician, poet, professor, lecturer, and author. Regarded by his peers as one of the best writers of the 19th century, he is considered a member of the Fireside Poets. His most famous prose works are the "Breakfast-Table" series, which began with The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table (1858). He is also recognized as an important medical reformer. Born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Holmes was educated at Phillips Academy and Harvard College. After graduating from Harvard in 1829, he briefly studied law before turning to the medical profession. He began writing poetry at an early age; one of his most famous works, "Old Ironsides", was published in 1830 and was influential in the eventual preservation of the USS Constitution. Following training at the prestigious medical schools of Paris, Holmes was granted his M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1836. He taught at Dartmouth Medical School before returning to teach at Harvard and, for a time, served as dean there. During his long professorship, he became an advocate for various medical reforms and notably posited the controversial idea that doctors were
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    1 votes
    81
    Santiago Ramón y Cajal

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal

    • Medical Specialty: Pathology
    Santiago Ramón y Cajal ForMemRS (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish pathologist, histologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel laureate. His pioneering investigations of the microscopic structure of the brain were original: he is considered by many to be the father of modern neuroscience. He was skilled at drawing, and hundreds of his illustrations of brain cells are still used for educational purposes today. The son of physician and anatomy lecturer Justo Ramón and Antonia Cajal, Ramón y Cajal was born of Aragonese parents in Petilla de Aragón in Navarre, Spain. As a child he was transferred between many different schools because of his poor behavior and authoritarian attitude. An extreme example of his precociousness and rebelliousness is his imprisonment at the age of eleven for destroying the town gate with a homemade cannon. He was an avid painter, artist, and gymnast, but his father neither appreciated nor encouraged these abilities. In order to tame his unruly character, his father apprenticed him to a shoemaker and barber, and was well known for his pugnacious attitude. On Cajal's religious views, he was said to be an agnostic. Ramón y Cajal attended the medical school of
    10.00
    1 votes
    82
    Charles Bell

    Charles Bell

    Sir Charles Bell KH FRS FRSE FRCSE MWS (1774–1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, neurologist and philosophical theologian. His three older brothers included John Bell (1763–1820), also a noted surgeon and writer; and the advocate George Joseph Bell (1770–1843). Charles Bell was born in Edinburgh in November 1774, a son of the Rev William Bell, a clergyman of the Episcopal Church of Scotland, who died in 1779 when Bell was a small child. Bell grew up in Edinburgh, attending the High School (1784-8) and Edinburgh University, where he took his medical degree in 1798. He conducted his surgical training as assistant to his elder brother John Bell. He and his brother had artistic gifts, and together they taught anatomy and illustrated and published two volumes of A System of Dissection Explaining the Anatomy of the Human Body. Bell's career was characterized by the accumulation of quite extraordinary honours and achievements - and by acrimonious disputes unusual even by the standards of medicine during the Regency. Shortly after his graduation Bell was admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh, where he operated and taught anatomy. He and his brother published two
    6.50
    4 votes
    83
    Al-Razi

    Al-Razi

    Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī (Persian: محمد زکریای رازی‎ Mohammad-e Zakariā-ye Rāzi), known as Rhazes or Rasis after medieval Latinists (August 26, 865 – 925), was a Persian polymath, a prominent figure in Islamic Golden Age, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar. Numerous "firsts" in medical research, clinical care, and chemistry are attributed to him, including being the first to differentiate smallpox from measles, and the discovery of numerous compounds and chemicals including kerosene, among others. Edward Granville Browne considers him as "probably the greatest and most original of all the physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author". Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, music, and philosophy, recorded in over 200 books and articles in various fields of science. He was well-versed in Ancient Persian, Greek and Ancient Indian medical knowledge and made numerous advances in medicine through own observations and discoveries. Educated in music, mathematics, philosophy, and metaphysics, he chose medicine as his professional field. As a physician, he was an early proponent of experimental medicine and has
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    Denton Cooley

    Denton Cooley

    Denton Arthur Cooley (born August 22, 1920) is an American heart surgeon famous for performing the first implantation of a total artificial heart. Cooley is also founder and surgeon in-chief of The Texas Heart Institute, chief of Cardiovascular Surgery at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, consultant in Cardiovascular Surgery at Texas Children's Hospital, and a clinical professor of Surgery at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston. Cooley graduated in 1941 from the University of Texas, where he was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity, played on the basketball team, and majored in zoology. He became interested in surgery through several pre-med classes he attended in college and began his medical education at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. He completed his medical degree and his surgical training at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, where he also completed his internship. At Johns Hopkins, he worked with Dr. Alfred Blalock and assisted in the first "Blue Baby" procedure to correct an infant's congenital heart defect. In 1946 Cooley was called to active duty with the Army Medical Corps. There, he served as chief of surgical
    8.50
    2 votes
    85
    Emil du Bois-Reymond

    Emil du Bois-Reymond

    Emil du Bois-Reymond (7 November 1818 – 26 December 1896) was a German physician and physiologist, the discoverer of nerve action potential, and the father of experimental electrophysiology. Du Bois-Reymond was born in Berlin, and spent his working life there. One of his younger brothers was the mathematician Paul du Bois-Reymond (1831–1889). The family was of Huguenot origin. Educated first at the French College in Berlin, then at Neuchâtel, where his father had returned, Du Bois-Reymond entered in 1836 the University of Berlin. He seems to have been uncertain at first as to the topic of his studies, for he was a student of the renowned ecclesiastical historian August Neander, and dallied with geology, but eventually he began to study medicine, with such zeal and success as to attract the notice of Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858), a well-known teacher of anatomy and physiology. Müller's earlier studies had been distinctly physiological, but his inclination, no less than his position as professor of anatomy as well as of physiology in the University of Berlin, caused him later to study of comparative anatomy, and this, aided by his interest in problems of general philosophy, gave
    8.50
    2 votes
    86
    Erasistratus

    Erasistratus

    Erasistratus (Greek: Ἐρασίστρατος; 304 BC – 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria. Along with fellow physician Herophilus, he founded a school of anatomy in Alexandria, where they carried out anatomical research. He is credited for his description of the valves of the heart, and he also concluded that the heart was not the center of sensations, but instead it functioned as a pump. Erasistratus was among the first to distinguish between veins and arteries. He believed that the arteries were full of air and that they carried the "animal spirit" (pneuma). He considered atoms to be the essential body element, and he believed they were vitalized by the pneuma that circulated through the nerves. He also thought that the nerves moved a nervous spirit from the brain. He then differentiated between the function of the sensory and motor nerves, and linked them to the brain. He is credited with one of the first in-depth descriptions of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Erasistratus is generally supposed to have been born at Ioulis on the island of Ceos, though Stephanus of Byzantium refers to him as a native of Cos; Galen, as a native of Chios; and the
    8.50
    2 votes
    87
    Hua Tuo

    Hua Tuo

    Hua Tuo (Wade-Giles: Hua To; c. 140–208) was an ancient Chinese physician who lived during the late Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history. The Records of Three Kingdoms and Book of Later Han record Hua as the first person in China to use anesthesia during surgery. He used a general anesthetic combining wine with a herbal concoction called mafeisan (麻沸散, lit. "cannabis boil powder"). Besides being respected for expertise in surgery and anesthesia, Hua Tuo was famous for his abilities in acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, and medical Daoyin exercises. He developed the Wuqinxi (Wade-Giles: Wu-chin-hsi; 五禽戲; lit. "Exercise of the Five Animals") from studying movements of the tiger, deer, bear, ape, and crane. The oldest extant biographies of Hua Tuo (tr. DeWoskin 1983:140-153 and Mair 1994:688-696) are found in the official Chinese histories for the Eastern Han (25-220) and Three Kingdoms (189-280) eras. The 3rd-century Sanguozhi (Wade-Giles: San-kuo-chih; 三國志; "Records of Three Kingdoms") and 5th-century Hou Hanshu (後漢書; "Book of the Later Han") record that Hua was from the district of Qiao (譙) in the state of Pei (沛, i.e., modern Bozhou district in Anhui
    8.50
    2 votes
    88
    Stanley Cohen

    Stanley Cohen

    Stanley Cohen (born November 17, 1922) is an American biochemist and Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology and Medicine (1986). He received his bachelor's degree in 1943 from Brooklyn College, where he had double-majored in chemistry and biology. After working as a bacteriologist at a milk processing plant to earn money, he received his M.A. in zoology from Oberlin College in 1945. He earned a Ph.D. from the department of biochemistry at the University of Michigan in 1948. Working with Rita Levi-Montalcini (co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in 1986) at Washington University in St. Louis in the 1950s, Cohen isolated nerve growth factor and then went on to discover epidermal growth factor. He continued his research on cellular growth factors after moving to Vanderbilt University in 1959. His research on cellular growth factors has proven fundamental to understanding the development of cancer and designing anti-cancer drugs. Cohen also received the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Rita Levi-Montalcini in 1983 and the National Medal of Science in 1986.
    8.50
    2 votes
    89
    Baruch Goldstein

    Baruch Goldstein

    Baruch Kopel Goldstein (Hebrew: ברוך קופל גולדשטיין‎; December 9, 1956 – February 25, 1994) was an American-born Jewish Israeli physician, terrorist and mass murderer who perpetrated the 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in the city of Hebron, killing 29 Palestinian Muslim worshipers and wounding another 125. The Israeli government condemned the massacre and responded by arresting followers of Meir Kahane, forbidding certain settlers from entering Arab towns and demanding that those settlers turn in their army-issued rifles. Goldstein was denounced by mainstream Orthodox Judaism and was widely described as insane by Israelis. Goldstein's gravesite became a pilgrimage site for Jewish extremists. In 1999, after the passing of Israeli legislation outlawing monuments to terrorists, the Israeli army dismantled the shrine that had been built to Goldstein at the site of his interment. Goldstein was born in Brooklyn, New York to an Orthodox Jewish family. He attended the Yeshiva of Flatbush religious day school and Yeshiva University. He received his medical training at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He belonged to the Jewish Defense League (JDL), a militant Jewish organization
    7.33
    3 votes
    90
    Carlos Finlay

    Carlos Finlay

    Carlos Juan Finlay (December 3, 1833 – August 20, 1915) was a Cuban physician and scientist recognized as a pioneer in yellow fever research. Finlay was born Juan Carlos Finlay y Barres, in Puerto Príncipe (now Camagüey), Cuba, of French and Scottish descent. He reversed the order of his given names to "Carlos Juan" later in his life. In 1853 he attended Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He graduated in 1855, and completed his studies in Havana and in Paris. Afterwards he settled in Havana and opened a medical practice. Finlay's work, carried out during the 1870s, finally came to prominence in 1900. He was the first to theorize, in 1881, that a mosquito was a carrier, now known as a disease vector, of the organism causing yellow fever: a mosquito that bites a victim of the disease could subsequently bite and thereby infect a healthy person. A year later Finlay identified a mosquito of the genus Aedes as the organism transmitting yellow fever. His theory was followed by the recommendation to control the mosquito population as a way to control the spread of the disease. His hypothesis and exhaustive proofs were confirmed nearly twenty years later by the Walter
    7.33
    3 votes
    91
    Charles R. Drew

    Charles R. Drew

    Charles Richard Drew (3 June 1904 – 1 April 1950) was an African-American physician, surgeon and medical researcher. He researched in the field of blood transfusions, developing improved techniques for blood storage, and applied his expert knowledge to developing large-scale blood banks early in World War II. This allowed medics to save thousands of lives of the Allied forces. The research and development aspect of his blood storage work is disputed. As the most prominent African-American in the field, Drew protested against the practice of racial segregation in the donation of blood, as it lacked scientific foundation, an action which cost him his job. In 1943, Drew's distinction in his profession was recognized when he became the first black surgeon selected to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery. Drew was born in 1904 into an afro-american middle-class family in Washington, D.C.. His father, Richard, was a carpet layer. Drew and his siblings grew up in DC's Foggy Bottom neighborhood and he graduated from Dunbar High School in 1922. Drew's athletic achievements helped win him a scholarship to Amherst College in Massachusetts and he graduated in 1926. An
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    Eudoxus of Cnidus

    Eudoxus of Cnidus

    Eudoxus of Cnidus (410 or 408 BC – 355 or 347 BC) was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar and student of Plato. Since all his own works are lost, knowledge of him is obtained from secondary sources, such as Aratus's poem on astronomy. Theodosius of Bithynia's important work, Sphaerics, may be based on a work of Eudoxus. His name Eudoxus means "honored" or "of good repute" (in Greek Εὔδοξος, from eu "good" and doxa "opinion, belief, fame"). It is analogous to the Latin name Benedictus. Eudoxus's father Aeschines of Cnidus loved to watch stars at night. Eudoxus first travelled to Tarentum to study with Archytas, from whom he learned mathematics. While in Italy, Eudoxus visited Sicily, where he studied medicine with Philiston. Around 387 BC, at the age of 23, he traveled with the physician Theomedon, who according to Diogenes Laërtius some believed was his lover, to Athens to study with the followers of Socrates. He eventually became the pupil of Plato, with whom he studied for several months, but due to a disagreement they had a falling out. Eudoxus was quite poor and could only afford an apartment at the Piraeus. To attend Plato's lectures, he walked the seven miles (11 km)
    7.33
    3 votes
    93
    Hunayn ibn Ishaq

    Hunayn ibn Ishaq

    Hunayn ibn Ishaq (also Hunain or Hunein) (Syriac: ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ, Arabic: أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي‎; ’Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn ’Isḥāq al-‘Ibādī, known in Latin as Johannitius) (809–873) was a famous and influential Assyrian Nestorian Christian scholar, physician, and scientist, known for his work in translating Greek scientific and medical works into Arabic and Syriac during the heyday of the Islamic Abbasid Caliphate. Ḥunayn ibn Isḥaq was the most productive translator of Greek medical and scientific treatises in his day. He studied Greek and became known among the Arabs as the "Sheikh of the translators." He mastered four languages: Arabic, Syriac, Greek and Persian. His translations did not require corrections. Hunayn’s method was widely followed by later translators. He was originally from southern Iraq but he spent his working life in Baghdad, the center of the great ninth-century Greek-into-Arabic/Syriac translation movement. His fame went far beyond his own community. In the Abbasid era, a new interest in extending the study of Greek science had arisen. At that time, there was a vast amount of untranslated ancient Greek literature pertaining to philosophy, mathematics,
    7.33
    3 votes
    94
    Maria Zakrzewska

    Maria Zakrzewska

    Maria Elizabeth Zakrzewska (6 September 1829 – 12 May 1902) was a German-born physician of Polish descent who made her name as a pioneering female doctor in the United States. Zakrzewska was born in Berlin, the eldest of six children to Ludwig Martin Zakrzewski and Caroline Fredericke Wilhelmina Urban. Her father was from a noble Polish family which had lost its wealth and property to the Russians, so he worked as a civil servant. Her grandmother was a veterinary surgeon, and her mother worked as a midwife. After studying medicine and serving as an assistant and then as a teacher in the college in which she had studied, she left in 1853 for the United States, where she was graduated at Cleveland medical college. With Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell, she established the New York infirmary, which she superintended two years, as resident physician and manager. In 1862, Zakrzewska founded the New England Hospital for Women and Children, the first hospital in Boston, the first with a school for nurses and the second hospital in America to be run by women physicians and surgeons. She also broke barriers that hindered women in practicing medicine in the United States, founded hospitals for
    7.33
    3 votes
    95
    Rudolf Jakob Camerarius

    Rudolf Jakob Camerarius

    Rudolf Jakob Camerarius or Camerer (February 12, 1665 – September 11, 1721) was a German botanist and physician. Camerarius was born at Tübingen, and became professor of medicine and director of the botanical gardens at Tübingen in 1687. He is chiefly known for his investigations on the reproductive organs of plants (De sexu plantarum epistola (1694)). While other botanists, such as John Ray and Nehemiah Grew, had observed that plants seemed to have sex in some form, and guessed that pollen was the male fertilizing agent, it was Camerarius who did experimental work. In studying the mulberry, he determined that female plants not near to male (staminate) plants produced fruit but with no seeds. Mercurialis and spinach plants fared likewise. With the castor oil plant (Ricinus) and with maize he cut off the staminate flowers (the "tassels" of maize), and likewise observed that no seeds formed. His results were reported in the form of a letter (the epistola), and attracted immediate attention, subsequent workers extending his results from the monoecious plants he had studied to dioecious ones as well.
    7.33
    3 votes
    96
    Sextus Empiricus

    Sextus Empiricus

    Sextus Empiricus (c. 160-210 AD), was a physician and philosopher, and has been variously reported to have lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens. His philosophical work is the most complete surviving account of ancient Greek and Roman skepticism. In his medical work, tradition maintains that he belonged to the "empiric school", as reflected by his name. However, at least twice in his writings, Sextus seems to place himself closer to the "methodic school", as his philosophical views imply. Sextus Empiricus's three known works are the Outlines of Pyrrhonism (Πυῤῥώνειοι ὑποτύπωσεις or Pyrrhōneioi hypotypōseis, thus commonly abbreviated PH), and two distinct works preserved under the same title, Against the Mathematicians (Adversus Mathematicos), one of which is probably incomplete. The first six books of Against the Mathematicians are commonly known as Against the Professors, but each book also has a traditional title (Against the Grammarians (book I), Against the Rhetoricians (book II), Against the Geometricians (book III), Against the Arithmeticians (book IV), Against the Astrologers (book V), Against the Musicians (book VI). It is widely believed, with perhaps the exception of
    7.33
    3 votes
    97
    Silas Weir Mitchell

    Silas Weir Mitchell

    Silas Weir Mitchell (February 15, 1829 – January 4, 1914) was an American physician and writer. He was son of a physician, John Kearsley Mitchell (1798–1858), and was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania in that city, and received the degree of M.D. at Jefferson Medical College in 1850. During the Civil War he had charge of nervous injuries and maladies at Turners Lane Hospital, Philadelphia, and at the close of the war became a specialist in neurology. In this field Weir Mitchell's name became prominently associated with his introduction of the rest cure, subsequently taken up by the medical world, for nervous diseases, particularly neurasthenia and hysteria. The treatment consisted primarily in isolation, confinement to bed, dieting, electrotherapy and massage; and was popularly know as 'Dr Diet and Dr Quiet'. His medical texts include Injuries of Nerves and Their Consequences (1872) and Fat and Blood (1877). Mitchell's disease (erythromelalgia) is named after him. He also coined the term Phantom Limb during his study of an amputee. In 1863 he wrote a clever short story, combining physiological and psychological problems, entitled "The
    7.33
    3 votes
    98
    Tytus Chałubiński

    Tytus Chałubiński

    Tytus Chałubiński (Radom, 29 December 1820 – 4 November 1889, Zakopane) was a Polish physician and co-founder of the Polish Tatra Society. Chałubiński established tuberculosis sanatoria in Zakopane, in the Tatra Mountains. He was a professor at the Medical-Surgical Academy and Principal School in Warsaw.
    7.33
    3 votes
    99
    Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

    Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

    Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (18 June 1845 – 18 May 1922) was a French physician. In 1880, while working in the military hospital in Constantine, Algeria, he discovered that the cause of malaria is a protozoan, after observing the parasites in a blood smear taken from a patient who had just died of malaria. He also helped inspire researchers and veterinarians today to try and find a cure for malaria in animals. This was the first time that protozoa were shown to be a cause of disease. He later worked on the trypanosomes, particularly sleeping sickness. For this work and later discoveries of protozoan diseases he was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Laveran is interred in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris.
    6.25
    4 votes
    100
    James Tyler Kent

    James Tyler Kent

    James Tyler Kent, MD (1849 - 1916) was an American physician best remembered as a forefather of the modern homeopathy movement. In 1897 Kent published a massive guidebook on human ailments and their associated homeopathic remedies which has been translated into a number of languages and remains in use by adherents of homeopathy today. James Tyler Kent was born on March 31, 1849 in Woodhull, New York, the son of Steven Kent and his wife Caroline Tyler. Kent was raised as a staunch Baptist. Kent attended secondary school at the Franklin Academy of Prattsburgh, New York before enrolling at Madison University (today's Colgate University), from which he was graduated with a Bachelor's degree in 1868. He earned a Masters degree from the same institution in 1870. Kent attended the Institute of Eclectic Medicine at Cincinnati, Ohio, where in addition to traditional allopathic medicine he studied naturopathy, homeopathy, and chiropracty. Kent was graduated from the Institute in 1873. In 1874, Kent married and settled in St. Louis, Missouri, where he took up medical practice. He took a post as a professor of anatomy at American College in St. Louis two years later. It was at this time that
    6.25
    4 votes
    101
    Andrea Cesalpino

    Andrea Cesalpino

    Andrea Cesalpino (Latinized as Andreas Cæsalpinus) (1524 or 1525 – February 23, 1603) was an Italian physician, philosopher and botanist. In his works he classified plants according to their fruits and seeds, rather than alphabetically or by medicinal properties. In 1555, he succeeded Luca Ghini as director of the botanical garden in Pisa. The botanist Pietro Castelli was one of his students. Cesalpino also did limited work in the field of physiology. He theorized a circulation of the blood. However, he envisioned a "chemical circulation" consisting of repeated evaporation and condensation of blood, rather than the concept of "physical circulation" popularized by the writings of William Harvey (1578–1657). Cesalpino was born in Arezzo, Tuscany. For his studies at the University of Pisa his instructor in medicine was R. Colombo (d. 1559), and in botany the celebrated Luca Ghini. After completing his course he taught philosophy, medicine, and botany for many years at the same university, besides making botanical explorations in various parts of Italy. At this time the first botanical gardens in Europe were laid out; the earliest at Padua, in 1546; the next at Pisa in 1547 by Ghini,
    7.00
    3 votes
    102
    Crawford Long

    Crawford Long

    Crawford Williamson Long (November 1, 1815  – June 16, 1878) was an American surgeon and pharmacist best known for his first use of inhaled diethyl ether as an anesthetic. Although his work was unknown outside a small circle of colleagues for several years, he is now recognized as the first physician to have administered ether anesthesia for surgery. Long was born in Danielsville, Madison County, Georgia on November 1, 1815. He received his M.D. degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1839. After observing the same physiological effects with diethyl ether ("ether") that Humphry Davy had described for nitrous oxide in 1800, Long used ether for the first time on March 30, 1842 to remove a tumor from the neck of a patient, James M. Venable, in Jefferson, Georgia. Long subsequently removed a second tumor from Venable and used ether as an anesthetic in amputations and childbirth. The results of these trials were published in 1849 in The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. An original copy of this publication is held in the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Crawford Long was a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society while a student at the University of Georgia and shared a
    7.00
    3 votes
    103
    Henry Draper

    Henry Draper

    Henry Draper (March 7, 1837 – November 20, 1882) was an American doctor and amateur astronomer. He is best known today as a pioneer of astrophotography. Henry Draper's father, John William Draper, was an accomplished doctor, chemist, botanist, and professor at New York University; he was also the first to photograph the moon through a telescope in the winter of 1839–1840. Draper's mother was Antonia Coetana de Paiva Pereira Gardner, daughter of the personal physician to the Emperor of Brazil. His niece, Antonia Maury was also an astronomer. He graduated from New York University School of Medicine, at the age of 20, in 1857. He worked first as a physician at Bellevue Hospital, and later as both a professor and dean of medicine at New York University (NYU). In 1867 he married Anna Mary Palmer, a wealthy socialite. Draper was one of the pioneers of the use of astrophotography. In 1872, he took a stellar spectrum that showed absorption lines, others, such as Joseph Fraunhofer, Lewis Morris Rutherfurd and Angelo Secchi, preceded him in that ambition. He resigned his chair in the medical department in 1873, to allow for more time for original research. He directed an expedition to
    7.00
    3 votes
    104
    Karl Brandt

    Karl Brandt

    Karl Brandt (January 8, 1904 – June 2, 1948) was a German Nazi war criminal. He rose to the rank of SS-Gruppenführer in the Allgemeine-SS and SS-Brigadeführer in the Waffen-SS. Among other positions, Brandt headed the administration of the Nazi euthanasia program from 1939 onwards and was selected as Adolf Hitler's personal physician in August 1934. In 1942, he became Reich Commissioner for Health and Sanitation. He was involved in criminal human experimentation, along with his deputy Werner Heyde and others. After World War II, Brandt was convicted of crimes against humanity. He was hanged on June 2, 1948. Brandt was born in Mulhouse in the then German Alsace-Lorraine territory (now in Haut-Rhin, France), but his parents were not Alsatians. He became a medical doctor in 1928. He joined the Nazi Party in January 1932, and became a member of the SA in 1933. He became a member of the SS in July 1934 and was appointed Untersturmführer. From the Summer of 1934 forward, he was Hitler's "Escort Physician". Karl Brandt married Anni Rehborn (born 1904), a champion swimmer, on March 17, 1934. They had one son, Karl Adolf Brandt (born October 4, 1935). In the context of the 1933 Nazi law
    7.00
    3 votes
    105
    Albert Sabin

    Albert Sabin

    Albert Bruce Sabin (August 26, 1906 – March 3, 1993) was an American medical researcher best known for having developed an oral polio vaccine. Sabin was born in Białystok, Russian Empire (today Poland), to Jewish parents, Jacob and Tillie Saperstein. In 1921 he immigrated with his family to America. In 1930 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and changed his name to Sabin. Sabin received a medical degree from New York University in 1931. He trained in internal medicine, pathology and surgery at Bellevue Hospital in New York City from 1931-1933. In 1934 he conducted research at The Lister Institute for Preventive Medicine in England, then joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University). During this time he developed an intense interest in research, especially in the area of infectious diseases. In 1939 he moved to Cincinnati Children's Hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. During World War II he was a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army Medical Corps and helped develop a vaccine against Japanese encephalitis. Maintaining his association with Children's Hospital, by 1946 he had also become the head of Pediatric Research at the University of
    5.20
    5 votes
    106
    René-Primevère Lesson

    René-Primevère Lesson

    René Primevère Lesson (20 March 1794 – 28 April 1849) was a French surgeon, naturalist, ornithologist, and herpetologist. Lesson was born at Rochefort, and at the age of sixteen he entered the Naval Medical School there. He served in the French Navy during the Napoleonic Wars; in 1811 he was third surgeon on the frigate Saal, and in 1813 second surgeon on the Regulus. In 1816 Lesson changed his classification to pharmacist and served as pharmacist and botanist on Duperrey's round-the-world voyage of La Coquille (1822–1825), and was also responsible for collecting natural history specimens with his fellow surgeon Prosper Garnot and officer Dumont d'Urville. Lesson was the first naturalist to see live birds of paradise in the Moluccas and New Guinea. On returning to Paris, he spent seven years preparing the vertebrate zoological section of the official account of the expedition, Voyage au tour du monde sur La Coquille (1826–39). During this time he also produced Manuel d'Ornithologie (1828), Traité d'Ornithologie (1831), Centurie Zoologique (1830–32) and Illustrations de Zoologie (1832–35). He also produced several monographs on hummingbirds and one book on birds of paradise. In the
    6.00
    4 votes
    107
    Andrew Taylor Still

    Andrew Taylor Still

    Andrew Taylor Still, M.D. (August 6, 1828 – December 12, 1917) is considered the father of osteopathy and osteopathic medicine. He was also a physician & surgeon, author, inventor and Kansas territorial & state legislator. He was one of the founders of Baker University, the oldest 4-year college in the state of Kansas, and was the founder of the American School of Osteopathy (now A.T. Still University), the world's first osteopathic medical school, in Kirksville, Missouri. Still was born in Lee County, Virginia, in 1828, the son of a Methodist minister and physician. At an early age, Still decided to follow in his father's footsteps as a physician. After studying medicine and serving an apprenticeship under his father, he entered the Civil War as a Hospital Steward, but would later state in his autobiography that he served as a "defacto surgeon." This is consistent with US Army military medical history of the time. Military medical historians record that "The Hospital Stewards of the Army were originally appointed to take charge of hospital stores, furniture and supplies for the sick, and to receive and distribute rations at hospitals; but as no pharmacist was provided for
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Bernard Kouchner

    Bernard Kouchner

    Bernard Kouchner (born 1 November 1939) is a French politician, and doctor. He is co-founder of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and Médecins du Monde. From 2007 until 2010 he was the French Minister of Foreign and European Affairs in the center-right Fillon government under president Nicolas Sarkozy, although he had been in the past a minister in socialist governments. Kouchner was born in Avignon to a Jewish father and a Protestant mother, he began his political career as a member of the French Communist Party (PCF), from which he was expelled in 1966 for attempting to overthrow the leadership. On a visit to Cuba in 1964, Kouchner spent the night fishing and drinking with Fidel Castro. In the protests of May 1968, he ran the medical faculty strike committee at the Sorbonne. Kouchner has three children (Julie, Camille and Antoine) by his first wife, Évelyne Pisier, a professor of law, and one child, Alexandre, by his present wife Christine Ockrent, a television journalist. He worked as a physician for the Red Cross in Biafra in 1968 (during the Nigerian Civil War). He co-founded Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) in 1971, and then, due to a conflict of opinion with
    8.00
    2 votes
    109
    Clarke Abel

    Clarke Abel

    Clarke Abel (c. 1789 – 24 November 1826) was a British surgeon and naturalist. He accompanied Lord Amherst on his mission to China in 1816-17 as the embassy's chief medical officer and naturalist, on the recommendation of Sir Joseph Banks. The mission was Britain's second unsuccessful attempt to establish diplomatic relations with China and involved travelling to the capital Pekin (Beijing) and the famous botanical gardens of Fa Tee near Canton. While in China, Abel collected specimens and seeds of the plant that carries his name, Abelia chinensis, described by Banks' botanical secretary Robert Brown, "with friendly partiality". However a shipwreck and an attack by pirates on the way back to his home in Britain caused him to lose all of his specimens. Abel's Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, 1818, gives a detailed account of the collection's misfortunes.
    8.00
    2 votes
    110
    Florence R. Sabin

    Florence R. Sabin

    Florence Rena Sabin (November 9, 1871 – October 3, 1953) was an American medical scientist. She was a pioneer for women in science; she was the first woman to hold a full professorship at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, the first woman elected to the National Academy of Sciences, and the first woman to head a department at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. In her retirement years, she pursued a second career as a public health activist in Colorado, and in 1951 received a Lasker Award for this work. Florence Sabin was born in Central City, Colorado, on November 9, 1871, the youngest daughter of Serena Miner and George K. Sabin. Her father was a mining engineer, so the family spent several years in mining communities (Smith College n.d.). At the age of seven, Florence’s mother died from puerperal fever (sepsis), and after her death, Sabin and her sister Mary lived with their Uncle Albert Sabin in Chicago and then with their paternal grandparents in Vermont. Sabin earned her bachelors degree from Smith College in 1893. She taught high school mathematics in Denver for two years and zoology at Smith for one year in order to earn enough money for her first year of tuition
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    John McCrae

    John McCrae

    Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist and soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the Second Battle of Ypres, in Belgium. He is best known for writing the famous war memorial poem "In Flanders Fields". McCrae was born in McCrae House in Guelph, Ontario to Lieutenant-Colonel David McCrae and Janet Simpson Eckford; he was the grandson of Scottish immigrants. He attended the Guelph Collegiate Vocational Institute and became a member of the Guelph militia regiment. The background of his family is military. McCrae worked on his Bachelor of Arts at the University of Toronto in 1892–93. While there, he was a member of the Toronto militia, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada. He was eventually promoted to Captain and commanded the company. He took a year off his studies at the university due to recurring problems with asthma. Among his papers in the John McCrae House in Guelph is a letter he wrote on 18 July 1893 to Laura Kains while he trained as an artilleryman at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario. "...I have a manservant .. Quite a nobby place it is, in fact .. My
    8.00
    2 votes
    112
    Michael E. DeBakey

    Michael E. DeBakey

    Michael Ellis DeBakey (September 7, 1908 - July 11, 2008) was a world-renowned Lebanese-American cardiac surgeon, innovator, scientist, medical educator, and international medical statesman. DeBakey was the chancellor emeritus of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas and director of The Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center and senior attending surgeon of The Methodist Hospital in Houston. Michael Ellis DeBakey was born as Michel Dabaghi in Lake Charles, Louisiana to Lebanese immigrants Shaker and Raheeja Dabaghi (later Anglicized to DeBakey). DeBakey received his BS degree from Tulane University in New Orleans. In 1932, he received an M.D. degree from Tulane University School of Medicine. He remained in New Orleans to complete his internship and residency in surgery at Charity Hospital. DeBakey completed his surgical fellowships at the University of Strasbourg, France, under Professor René Leriche, and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, under Professor Martin Kirschner. Returning to Tulane Medical School, he served on the surgical faculty from 1937 to 1948. From 1942 to 1946, he was on military leave as a member of the Surgical Consultants' Division in the
    8.00
    2 votes
    113
    Norman Bethune

    Norman Bethune

    Henry Norman Bethune (March 4, 1890 – November 12, 1939; Chinese name: 白求恩; pinyin: Bái Qiúēn) was a Canadian physician and medical innovator. Bethune is best known for his service in war time medical units during the Spanish Civil War and with the Communist Eighth Route Army (Ba Lu Jun) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. He developed the first mobile blood-transfusion service in Spain in 1936. A Communist, he wrote that wars were motivated by profits, not principles. Dr. Norman Bethune came from a prominent Scottish Canadian family. His great great grandfather, the Reverend John Bethune (1751–1815), was the family patriarch and established the first Presbyterian Church in Montreal. Norman Bethune’s great grandfather, Angus Bethune (1783–1858), joined the North West Company at an early age and travelled extensively throughout the north western territories, exploring and trading for furs. He eventually reached the Pacific at Fort Astoria, Oregon. He became chief factor of the Lake Huron district for the Hudson's Bay Company after the merger of the rival companies. Upon retirement from the HBC in 1839 he successfully ran for Alderman of Toronto City Council. Norman’s grandfather,
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    2 votes
    114
    Pedanius Dioscorides

    Pedanius Dioscorides

    Pedanius Dioscorides Peh-DAH-nee-ohss Dye-oh-score-ID-ees (Ancient Greek: Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης; circa 40—90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist and botanist, the author of De Materia Medica -- a 5-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years. A native of Anazarbus, Cilicia, Asia Minor, Dioscorides "practiced in Rome at the time of Nero. He was a surgeon with the army of the emperor, so he had the opportunity to travel extensively, seeking medicinal substances (plants and minerals) from all over the Roman and Greek world." Between 50 and 70 AD Dioscorides wrote a five-volume book in his native Greek, Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, known more widely by its Latin title De Materia Medica ("Regarding Medical Materials") that is a "precursor to all modern pharmacopeias". It remained in use until about CE 1600. Unlike the case of many classical authors, his works were not "rediscovered" in the Renaissance, because his book never left circulation. In the medieval age, De Materia Medica was circulated in Latin, Greek, and Arabic. While being reproduced in manuscript form through the centuries, it was
    8.00
    2 votes
    115
    Egas Moniz

    Egas Moniz

    • Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
    António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈɛɣɐʒ muˈniʃ]), was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography. He is sometimes regarded as the founder of modern psychosurgery, and developing the surgical procedure termed leucotomy (also known as lobotomy), for which he became the first Portuguese national to receive a Nobel Prize in 1949 (shared with Walter Rudolf Hess). He held academic positions, wrote many medical articles and also served in several legislative and diplomatic posts in the Portuguese government. In 1911 he became professor of neurology in Lisbon until his retirement in 1944. At the same time, he pursued a demanding political career. Moniz was born in Avanca, Estarreja, Portugal as António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz. He attended Escola do Padre José Ramos and Colégio de S. Fiel dos Jesuítas, studied medicine at the University of Coimbra, then trained in neurology in Bordeaux and Paris. In 1902, he became a professor in the Department of Neurology, but soon left that post on entering politics in 1903. He established the Partido Republicano Centrista
    9.00
    1 votes
    116
    Francis Davis Millet

    Francis Davis Millet

    Francis Davis Millet (November 3, 1846 – April 15, 1912) was an American painter, sculptor, and writer who died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912. Francis Davis Millet was born in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts. At age sixteen, Millet entered the Massachusetts regiment, first as a drummer boy and then a surgical assistant (helping his father, a surgeon) in the American Civil War. He repeatedly pointed to his experience working for his father as giving him an appreciation for the vivid blood red that he repeatedly used in his early paintings. He graduated from Harvard with a Master of Arts degree. He worked as a reporter and editor for the Boston Courier and then as a correspondent for the Advertiser at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. Millet had a studio in Rome in the early 1870s, and Venice in the mid-1870s, where he lived with Charles Warren Stoddard, a well-known American travel journalist who, evidence indicates, had an active sexual interest in men. Historian Jonathan Ned Katz presents letters from Millet to Stoddard that suggest they had a romantic and intimate affair while living a bohemian life together. In 1876, Millet returned to Boston to paint
    9.00
    1 votes
    117
    Hiraga Gennai

    Hiraga Gennai

    Hiraga Gennai (平賀 源内, 1728 – January 24, 1780) was an Edo period Japanese pharmacologist, student of Rangaku, physician, author, painter and inventor who is well known for his Erekiteru (electrostatic generator), Kandankei (thermometer) and Kakanpu (asbestos cloth). He also wrote the satirical essay "On Farting." Born into a low-ranking samurai family, his father was Shiraishi Mozaemon (Yoshifusa), his mother was from the Yamashita clan, and he had many siblings. His real name was Kunitomo (国倫), but he also went by the pen names Kyūkei (鳩渓), Fūrai Sanjin (風来山人) (his principal literary pen name), Tenjiku rōnin (天竺浪人) and Fukuchi Kigai (福内鬼外). He is most well known by the name "Gennai", however. He first studied medicinal herbs in Osaka, with Toda Kyokuzan, before moving to Edo in 1757. There, he studied with Tamura Ransui, and wrote a number of books, some on scientific or nature topics, some satirical novels, in the kokkeibon and dangibon genres. In his scientific experiments, he prospected for various ores, wove asbestos, calculated temperatures, and worked with static electricity. Gennai also studied Western painting and ceramics techniques, and produced a number of works in that
    9.00
    1 votes
    118
    John Richardson

    John Richardson

    Sir John Richardson (5 November 1787 – 5 June 1865) was a Scottish naval surgeon, naturalist and arctic explorer. Richardson was born at Dumfries. He studied medicine at Edinburgh University, and became a surgeon in the navy in 1807. He traveled with John Franklin in search of the Northwest Passage on the Coppermine Expedition of 1819–1822. Richardson wrote the sections on geology, botany and icthyology for the official account of the expedition. Franklin and Richardson returned to Canada between 1825 and 1827, again traveling overland to the Arctic Ocean. The natural history discoveries of this expedition were so great that they had to be recorded in two separate works, the Flora Boreali-Americana (1833–40), written by William Jackson Hooker, and the Fauna Boreali-Americana (1829–37), written by Richardson, William John Swainson, John Edward Gray and William Kirby. At the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in 1842, Richardson described the diving apparatus and treatment of diver Roderick Cameron following an injury that occurred on 14 October 1841 during the salvage operations on the HMS Royal George. Richardson was knighted in 1846. He traveled with John
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Jon Gerrard

    Jon Gerrard

    Jon Gerrard, PC, MLA (born October 13, 1947) is a politician and medical doctor in Manitoba, Canada. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1993 to 1997, and was a secretary of state in the government of Jean Chrétien. He has been the leader of the Manitoba Liberal Party since 1998, and the member of the Manitoba Legislative Assembly for River Heights since 1999. Gerrard was born in Birmingham, England, and grew up in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. He holds a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Economics from the University of Saskatchewan (1967), a Doctor of Medicine degree from McGill University (1971), a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota (1976), and a Certificate in Pediatrics from the American Academy of Pediatrics (1976). He worked at several prominent American institutions in the 1970s, and returned to Canada in 1980 to accept a position as pediatrician at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. Gerrard served as head of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology at this hospital from 1985 to 1992, and taught at the University of Manitoba from 1980 to 1993. He has authored or co-authored over 200 scientific publications, and became known during the 1980s as an expert on the research and treatment of
    9.00
    1 votes
    120
    Michael Servetus

    Michael Servetus

    Michael Servetus (Spanish: Miguel Serveto Conesa), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto alias Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve; (29 September? 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553) was an Aragonese theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist. He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation. He was a polymath versed in many sciences: mathematics, astronomy and meteorology, geography, human anatomy, medicine and pharmacology, as well as jurisprudence, translation, poetry and the scholarly study of the Bible in its original languages. He is renowned in the history of several of these fields, particularly medicine and theology. He participated in the Protestant Reformation, and later developed a nontrinitarian Christology. Condemned by Catholics and Protestants alike, he was arrested in Geneva and burnt at the stake as a heretic by order of the Protestant Geneva governing council. Servetus was probably born on 29 September 1511 in Villanueva de Sijena in Aragon, Spain. Some sources give an earlier date based on Servetus' own occasional claim of having been born in 1509. The ancestors of his father came from the hamlet of Serveto,
    9.00
    1 votes
    121
    Ole Danbolt Mjøs

    Ole Danbolt Mjøs

    Ole Danbolt Mjøs (born 8 March 1939) is a Norwegian physician and politician for the Christian Democratic Party. A professor and former rector at the University of Tromsø, he is known worldwide as the leader of the Norwegian Nobel Committee from 2003 to 2008. Born in Bergen, he took the dr.med. degree in 1972. In 1975 he was appointed professor of physiology at the University of Tromsø. From 1989 to 1995 he served as rector there. Mjøs is also well-known outside of his academic field. He chaired Kringkastingsrådet from 1990 to 1994, and has held various political offices. From 1998 to 2000 he chaired the so-called Mjøs Committee, which delivered the Norwegian Official Report 2000:14, thus paving way for the so-called Quality Reform. From 2003 to 2008 he chaired the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which is awarding the Nobel Peace Prize. Laureates during his times as chair were Shirin Ebadi (2003), Wangari Maathai (2004) the International Atomic Energy Agency and Mohamed ElBaradei (2005) Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank (2006), Al Gore and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), and Martti Ahtisaari (2008). In 2009 he was succeeded as leader by Thorbjørn Jagland. Mjøs
    9.00
    1 votes
    122
    Tom Coburn

    Tom Coburn

    Thomas Allen "Tom" Coburn, M.D. (born March 14, 1948), is a United States Senator, medical doctor and Southern Baptist deacon. A member of the Republican Party, he is the junior senator from Oklahoma. Coburn was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1994 as part of the Republican Revolution. He upheld his campaign pledge to serve no more than three consecutive terms and did not run for re-election in 2000. In 2004, he returned to political office with a successful run for the U.S. Senate. Coburn was re-elected to a second term in 2010 and has pledged not to seek a third term in 2016. Coburn is a fiscal and social conservative, known for his opposition to deficit spending and pork barrel projects and for his leadership in the pro-life movement. He supports term limits, gun rights and the death penalty and opposes gay marriage. In the Senate, he is known as "Dr. No" for his tendency to place holds on and vote against bills he views as unconstitutional. Coburn was born in Casper, Wyoming, the son of Anita Joy (née Allen) and Orin Wesley Coburn. Coburn's father was an optician and founder of Coburn Optical Industries and named donor to O. W. Coburn School of Law at Oral
    9.00
    1 votes
    123
    William Jardine

    William Jardine

    William Jardine (24 February 1784 – 27 February 1843) was a Scottish physician and merchant. He co-founded the Hong Kong conglomerate Jardine, Matheson and Company. From 1841 to 1843, he was Member of Parliament for Ashburton as a Whig. Educated in medicine at the University of Edinburgh, Jardine obtained a diploma from the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1802. In the same year, he became a surgeon's mate aboard the Brunswick of the East India Company, bound for India. Captured by the French and shipwrecked in 1805, he was repatriated and returned to the East India Company's service as ship's surgeon. In May 1817, he left medicine for commerce. Jardine was a resident in China from 1820 to 1839. His early success in Canton as a commercial agent for opium merchants in India led to his admission in 1825 as a partner of Magniac & Co., and by 1826 he was controlling that firm's Canton operations. James Matheson joined him shortly after, and Magniac & Co. was reconstituted as Jardine, Matheson & Co in 1832. After Imperial Commissioner Lin Zexu confiscated 20,000 cases of British-owned opium in 1839, Jardine arrived in London in September, and pressed Foreign Secretary Lord
    9.00
    1 votes
    124
    Alexandre Yersin

    Alexandre Yersin

    Alexandre Emile Jean Yersin (September 22, 1863–March 1, 1943) was a Swiss and French physician and bacteriologist. He is remembered as the co-discoverer of the bacillus responsible for the bubonic plague or pest, which was later renamed in his honour (Yersinia pestis). Yersin was born in 1863 in Aubonne, Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, to a family originally from France. From 1883 to 1884, Yersin studied medicine at Lausanne, Switzerland; and then at Marburg, Germany and Paris (1884–1886). In 1886, he entered Louis Pasteur's research laboratory at the École Normale Supérieure, by invitation of Emile Roux, and participated in the development of the anti-rabies serum. In 1888 he received his doctorate with a dissertation entitled Étude sur le Développement du Tubercule Expérimental and spent two months with Robert Koch in Germany. He joined the recently-created Pasteur Institute in 1889 as Roux's collaborator, and discovered with him the diphtheric toxin (produced by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacillus). In order to practice medicine in France, Yersin applied for and obtained French nationality in 1888. Soon afterwards (1890), he left for French Indochina in Southeast Asia as a
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    Alfred Cooper

    Alfred Cooper

    Sir Alfred Cooper (28 January 1838 – 3 March 1908) was a fashionable English surgeon and clubman of the late 19th century whose clients included Edward, Prince of Wales. He was born in Bracondale, Norfolk, England, the son of William Cooper, barrister, and his wife Anna, née Marsh. His speciality in venereal disease gave him an unusual access to and perspective on late Victorian aristocratic morality. He was devoted to his wife Lady Agnes Duff, the youngest daughter of James Duff, 5th Earl Fife by his wife, Lady Agnes Hay, daughter of William Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll and granddaughter of King William IV by his mistress, the actress Mrs. Dorothy Jordan. They had four children together, the youngest being Duff Cooper, the prominent British statesman of the 1930s and 1940s. Knighted in 1902 for his services to medicine, Cooper died in Menton, France, 1908. Sir Alfred's descendants include the publisher Rupert Hart-Davis; his son, the television presenter Adam Hart-Davis; the writer John Julius Norwich; and the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, a great-great-grandson.
    6.67
    3 votes
    126
    Anders Dahl

    Anders Dahl

    Anders (Andreas) Dahl (March 17, 1751, Varnhem, Västergötland – May 25, 1789) was a Swedish botanist and student of Carolus Linnaeus. The dahlia flower is named after him. Andreas (Anders) Dahl was the son Christoffer Dahl, a preacher, and his wife, Johanna Helena Enegren. He was probably christened "Andreas" but was known as "Anders". He had an older brother Erik who was born in 1749, also in Varnhem. In 1755, the family moved from Varnhem to the parish of Saleby outside Lidköping where his father became the parish priest; Anders' younger brother Kristoffer was born there in 1758. His mother died in 1760, and two years later, Cristoffer married Helena Elisabeth Kolmodin, daughter of the poet Olof Kolmodin. A half-brother, Olof Kolmodin Dahl, was born in 1766. After his stepmother's death in 1768, his father married for a third time; Anna Christina Svinhufvud, in 1770. Cristoffer Dahl died a year later, in 1771. From an early age Dahl was interested in botany. Anders Tidström, a disciple of pioneering botanist and taxonomist Carolus Linnaeus, met the nine year old Dahl during his second journey through Västergötlan in 1760, and mentions in his travel diary both young Anders'
    6.67
    3 votes
    127
    John Savage

    John Savage

    John Patrick Savage, OC, ONS (May 28, 1932 – May 13, 2003) was the 23rd Premier of Nova Scotia, Canada between 1993 and 1997. Born in Newport, Monmouthshire, Wales, and keeping his Welsh accent to the end, Savage graduated from Queen's University of Belfast and practiced as a Medical doctor in Newport until he emigrated to Dartmouth, Nova Scotia in 1967. He made a name for himself as the "hippie doctor" in the 1970s, setting up a detox centre, and a free clinic in the disadvantaged community of North Preston. After unsuccessful tries as a Liberal Party candidate in two federal elections, he became Mayor of his home town of Dartmouth in 1985. While mayor, he received a reputation as a left-wing free spender. In 1992, Savage decided to try his hand at provincial politics, running for the leadership of the Nova Scotia Liberal Party. Winning on the second ballot, Savage then defeated Donald Cameron and the governing Progressive Conservatives in the 1993 provincial election winning 40 of the legislature's 52 seats. During his term as Premier, saddled with huge operating debts left by the previous government and declining equalization payments from the federal government of Jean
    6.67
    3 votes
    128
    Niels Ryberg Finsen

    Niels Ryberg Finsen

    Niels Ryberg Finsen (December 15, 1860 – September 24, 1904) was a Faroese-Danish physician and scientist of Icelandic descent. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1903 "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science." Niels Finsen was born in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, as the second-oldest of four children. His parents were Hannes Steingrim Finsen, who belonged to an Icelandic family with traditions reaching back to the 10th century, and Johanne Fröman, who was born and raised in Iceland. The family moved to Tórshavn from Iceland in 1858 when his father was given the position of Landfoged of the Faroe Islands. When Niels was four years old his mother died, and his father married his mother's cousin Birgitte Kirstine Formann, with whom he had six children. In 1871 his father was made Amtmann of the Faroe Islands. Finsen got his early education in Tórshavn, but in 1874 was sent to the Danish boarding school Herlufsholm, where his older brother Olaf was also a student. Unlike Olaf, Niels had a difficult stay at Herlufsholm,
    6.67
    3 votes
    129
    Robert James Manion

    Robert James Manion

    Robert James Manion, PC, MC (November 19, 1881, Pembroke, Ontario - July 2, 1943, Ottawa) was leader of the Conservative Party of Canada from 1938 until 1940. Of Irish Catholic descent, Manion studied medicine at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario and at the University of Edinburgh before settling in his hometown of Fort William, Ontario where his parents had lived since 1888. In 1915, he enrolled with the Canadian Army Medical Corps. Attached to the 21st Canadian Battalion, he was awarded the Military Cross for heroism at the battle of Vimy Ridge. He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons during the conscription election of 1917 as a Unionist Member of Parliament (MP) for Fort William, Ontario. A member of the Liberal Party before the war, he supported Conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden's pro-conscription Union government that was formed as a result of the Conscription Crisis of 1917. Manion remained with the Conservative Party after the war. The new prime minister, Arthur Meighen, appointed him Minister of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment in 1921. He spent most of the 1920s on the opposition benches, except for a few months in 1926 when he served as a minister in
    6.67
    3 votes
    130
    Georg Ernst Stahl

    Georg Ernst Stahl

    Georg Ernst Stahl (October 22, 1659 – May 24, 1734) was a German chemist and physician. He was born at Ansbach. Having graduated in medicine at the University of Jena in 1683, he became court physician to Duke Johann Ernst of Sachsen Weimar in 1687. From 1694 to 1716 he held the chair of medicine at Halle, and was then appointed physician to King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia in Berlin. He died in Berlin. In chemistry he is chiefly remembered in part with the obsolete phlogiston theory, the essentials of which, however, he owed to J.J. Becher. He also propounded a view of fermentation which in some respects resembles that supported by Justus von Liebig a century and half later. In medicine he professed an animistic system, in opposition to the materialism of Hermann Boerhaave and Friedrich Hoffmann. He hypothesized that all matter had a vital force, or a soul of sorts. He burned wood, and crediting the lower mass of the ashes compared to the original wood to the leaving of the vital force, because the wood had been killed in the process of burning. This theory was replaced by that of Antoine Lavoisier. His views had been criticized by Gottfried Leibniz with whom he exchanged
    5.75
    4 votes
    131
    Abraham Pineo Gesner

    Abraham Pineo Gesner

    Abraham Pineo Gesner (May 2, 1797 - April 29, 1864) was a Canadian physician and geologist who invented kerosene. Although Ignacy Łukasiewicz developed the modern kerosene lamp, starting the world's oil industry, Gesner is considered a primary founder. Gesner was born in Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. He died in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Born to a well-established farming family in the Annapolis Valley, Pineo Gesner pursued a career at sea from a young age. Twice shipwrecked by his early twenties, Gesner returned to the family farm near Chipman Corner, northeast of Kentville. He married Harriet Webster, the daughter of Kentville's Dr. Isaac Webster in 1824, then went to London to study medicine at St Bartholomew's Hospital under Sir Astley Paston Cooper, then surgery at Guy's Hospital under John Abernethy. While in London, he became interested in geology, making the acquaintance of Charles Lyell. Returning to Parrsboro as a practising physician, Gesner also pursued his passion for geology. In 1836, he published a study on the mineralogy of Nova Scotia, which included a detailed geological map providing information on the key deposits of iron ore and coal in Nova Scotia. In 1838, he was
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Allvar Gullstrand

    Allvar Gullstrand

    Allvar Gullstrand (5 June 1862, – 28 July 1930) was a Swedish ophthalmologist. Born at Landskrona, Sweden, Gullstrand was professor (1894–1927) successively of eye therapy and of optics at the University of Uppsala. He applied the methods of physical mathematics to the study of optical images and of the refraction of light in the eye. For this work, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1911. Gullstrand is noted also for his research on astigmatism and for improving the ophthalmoscope and corrective lenses for use after removal of a cataract from the eye. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1905, and served on the Academy's Prize Committee for Physics. While serving on the committee, he used his position to block Einstein from receiving a Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory of relativity, which Allvar believed to be wrong. Gullstrand married Signe Breitholtz (1862-1946) in 1885 and died in Stockholm where he was interred at Norra begravningsplatsen.
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Benjamin Rush

    Benjamin Rush

    Benjamin Rush (January 4, 1746 [O.S. December 24, 1745] – April 19, 1813) was a Founding Father of the United States. Rush lived in the state of Pennsylvania and was a physician, writer, educator, humanitarian, as well as the founder of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Rush signed the Declaration of Independence and attended the Continental Congress. He served as Surgeon General in the Continental army, and was blamed for criticising George Washington. Later in life, Rush became a professor of chemistry, medical theory, and clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania. Despite having a wide influence on the development of American government, he is not as widely known as many of his American contemporaries. Rush was also an early opponent of slavery and capital punishment. Despite his great contributions to early American society, Rush may be more famous today as the man who, in 1812, helped reconcile the friendship of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams by encouraging the two former Presidents to resume writing to each other. Rush was born to John and Susanna Harvey Rush on January 4, 1746 (December 24, 1745 O.S.). The family which included seven children lived on a
    7.50
    2 votes
    134
    Bernard A. Harris, Jr.

    Bernard A. Harris, Jr.

    Bernard Anthony Harris, Jr. (born June 26, 1956 in Temple, Texas) is a former NASA astronaut. On February 9, 1995, Harris became the first African American to perform an extra-vehicular activity (spacewalk), during the second of his two Space Shuttle flights. Harris graduated from Sam Houston High School in San Antonio, Texas, in 1974, where he was actively involved in science fairs, book clubs and other school activities. He received a B.S. degree in biology from University of Houston in 1978. He earned his MD degree from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine in 1982. Harris completed a residency in internal medicine at the Mayo Clinic in 1985. Harris is a member of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. Harris completed a National Research Council Fellowship at NASA's Ames Research Center in 1987. While at Ames, he conducted research in musculature physiology and disuse. He also trained as a flight surgeon at the Aerospace School of Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio in 1988. Dr. Harris received a master's degree in biomedical science from The University of Texas Medical Branch in 1996. Harris is also a licensed private pilot and certified scuba
    7.50
    2 votes
    135
    James Ewing

    James Ewing

    James Stephen Ewing (December 25, 1866, Pittsburgh — May 16, 1943, New York City) was an American pathologist. He was the first Professor of pathology at Cornell University and became famous with the discovery of a form of malignant bone tumor that later became known as Ewing's sarcoma. James Ewing, was born in 1866 to a prominent family of Pittsburgh. He first completed his M.A. in 1888 New International Encyclopedia at Amherst College and then studied medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, from 1888 to 1891. While a student, he was tutored by Francis Delafield (1841-1915), Theophil Mitchell Prudden (1849-1924) and Alexander Kolisko (1857-1918), and developed a strong interest in pathology. He returned to the College of Physicians and Surgeons as instructor in histology (1893-1897), and clinical pathology (1897-1898). After a brief stint as a surgeon with the US Army, Ewing was appointed in 1899 the first professor of clinical pathology at the Medical College of Cornell University in New York. His research activities on experimental cancer were mostly pursued at the Loomis Laboratory for Research in Experimental Pathology, together with the New York
    7.50
    2 votes
    136
    Julius Caesar Scaliger

    Julius Caesar Scaliger

    Julius Caesar Scaliger (or Giulio Cesare della Scala) (April 23, 1484 – October 21, 1558) was an Italian scholar and physician who spent a major part of his career in France. He employed the techniques and discoveries of Renaissance humanism to defend Aristotelianism against the new learning. In spite of his arrogant and contentious disposition, his contemporary reputation was high, judging him so distinguished by his learning and talents that, according to Jacques August de Thou, none of the ancients could be placed above him, and the age in which he lived could not show his equal. Scaliger's father, Benedetto Bordone, was a miniaturist and illuminator. Scaliger himself was known in his youth by the family name Bordone, but later insisted that he was a scion of the house of La Scala, for a hundred and fifty years lords of Verona. He was, yes, born in 1484 at the Rocca di Riva, on Lake Garda. When he was twelve, his kinsman the emperor Maximilian placed him among his pages. He remained for seventeen years in the service of the emperor, distinguishing himself as a soldier and as a captain. He studied art under Albrecht Dürer. In 1512 at the Battle of Ravenna, where his father and
    7.50
    2 votes
    137
    Kiyoshi Shiga

    Kiyoshi Shiga

    Kiyoshi Shiga (志賀 潔, Shiga Kiyoshi, February 7, 1871 - January 25, 1957) was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. Shiga was born in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, though his original family name was Satō. He graduated from the Medical School of Tokyo Imperial University in 1896 and went to work at the Institute for the Study of Infectious Diseases under Dr. Kitasato Shibasaburō. Shiga became famous for the discovery of Shigella dysenteriae, the bacillus causing dysentery, in 1897, during a severe epidemic in which more than 90,000 cases were reported, with a mortality rate approaching 30%. The bacterium Shigella was thus named after him, as well as the shiga toxin, which is produced by the bacterium. After the discovery of Shigella, Shiga worked with Paul Ehrlich in Germany from 1901 to 1905. After returning to Japan, he resumed the study of infectious diseases with Dr. Kitasato. He became a professor at Keio University in 1920. From 1929-31, Shiga was the president of Keijō Imperial University in Keijo (Seoul) and was senior medical advisor to the Japanese Governor-General of Korea. Shiga was a recipient of the Order of Culture in 1944. He was also awarded the Order of the Sacred
    7.50
    2 votes
    138
    Michele Mercati

    Michele Mercati

    Michele Mercati (8 April 1541 – 25 June 1593) was a physician who was superintendent of the Vatican Botanical Garden under Popes Pius V, Gregory XIII, Sixtus V, and Clement VIII. Mercati was born in San Miniato, Tuscany, the son of Pietro Mercati, physician to Popes Pius V and Gregory XIII. He was educated at the University of Pisa, where he took degrees in medicine and philosophy. He was interested in natural history, mineralogy, palaeontology, medicine, and botany, and produced a book on these subjects entitled the Metallotheca, which was not published until 1717. Amongst other things, Mercati collected prehistoric stone tools along with fossils and minerals. These, in conjunction with his classical education and the growing Vatican Library collection of ethnographic artefacts from Asia and America, enabled him to include in the Metallotheca one of the first accounts of the manufacture and use of polished stone axes, flint arrowheads, and stone blades. David Clarke describes Mercati as "the archaeological counterpart of Cardano in mathematics, Vesalius in anatomy, Galileo in the physical sciences and Copernicus in astronomy."
    7.50
    2 votes
    139
    Richard Bright

    Richard Bright

    Richard Bright (28 September 1789 – 16 December 1858) was an English physician and early pioneer in the research of kidney disease. He was born in Bristol, Gloucestershire, the third son of Sarah and Richard Bright Sr., a wealthy merchant and banker. Bright Sr. shared his interest in science with his son, encouraging him to consider it as a career. In 1808, Bright Jr. joined the University of Edinburgh to study philosophy, economics and mathematics, but switched to medicine the following year. In 1810, he accompanied Sir George Mackenzie on a summer expedition to Iceland where he conducted naturalist studies. Bright then continued his medical studies at Guy's Hospital in London and in September 1813 returned to Edinburgh to be granted his medical doctorate. His thesis was De erysipelate contagioso (On contagious erysipelas). During the 1820s and 1830s Bright again worked at Guy's Hospital, teaching, practising and researching medicine. There he worked alongside two other celebrated medical pioneers, Thomas Addison and Thomas Hodgkin. His research into the causes and symptoms of kidney disease led to his identifying what became known as Bright's disease. For this, he is considered
    7.50
    2 votes
    140
    Robert Bárány

    Robert Bárány

    Róbert Bárány (22 April 1876 – 8 April 1936) was a Austro-Hungarian otologist. For his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus of the ear he received the 1914 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Bárány was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary. He was the eldest of six children, to the former Maria Hock, the daughter of a scientist, and Ignáz Bárány, born 1842 in Pápa, a Hungarian Jew who was a bank official and estate manager. He attended medical school at Vienna University, graduating in 1900. As a doctor in Vienna, Bárány was syringing fluid into the inner ear of a patient to relieve the patient's dizzy spells. The patient experienced vertigo and nystagmus (involuntary eye movement) when Bárány injected fluid that was too cold. In response, Bárány warmed the fluid for the patient and the patient experienced nystagmus in the opposite direction. Bárány theorized that the endolymph was sinking when it was cool and rising when it was warm, and thus the direction of flow of the endolymph was providing the proprioceptive signal to the vestibular organ. He followed up on this observation with a series of experiments on what he called the caloric reaction. The
    7.50
    2 votes
    141
    Stuart Hameroff

    Stuart Hameroff

    Stuart Hameroff (Born on July 16, 1947, Buffalo, New York) is an anesthesiologist and professor at the University of Arizona known for his studies of consciousness. Hameroff received his BS degree from the University of Pittsburgh and his MD degree from Hahnemann University Hospital, where he studied before it became part of the Drexel University College of Medicine. He took an internship at the Tucson Medical Center in 1973. From 1975 onwards, he has spent the whole of his career at the University of Arizona, becoming professor in the Department of Anesthesiology and Psychology and associate director for the Center for Consciousness Studies, both in 1999, and finally Emeritus professor for Anesthesiology and Psychology in 2003. At the very beginning of Dr. Hameroff's career, while he was at Hahnemann, cancer-related research work piqued his interest in the part played by microtubules in cell division, and led him to speculate that they were controlled by some form of computing. It also suggested to him that part of the solution of the problem of consciousness might lie in understanding the operations of microtubules in brain cells, operations at the molecular and supramolecular
    7.50
    2 votes
    142
    Avicenna

    Avicenna

    Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā (Persian پور سينا Pur-e Sina [ˈpuːr ˈsiːnɑː] "son of Sina"; c. 980 – 1037), commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities. The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Leuven as late as 1650. Ibn Sīnā's Canon of Medicine provides a complete system of medicine according to the principles of Galen (and Hippocrates). His corpus also includes writing on philosophy, astronomy, alchemy, geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics, as well as poetry. He is regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age. Avicenna created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as Islam's Golden Age, in which the translations
    5.50
    4 votes
    143
    George H. Tichenor

    George H. Tichenor

    George Humphrey Tichenor (April 12, 1837 – January 14, 1923) was a Kentucky-born physician who introduced antiseptic surgery while in the service of the Confederate States of America. Thereafter, in private practice in Canton (Madison County), Mississippi, he developed the formula that became "Dr. Tichenor's Antiseptic." Tichenor was born in Ohio County in western Kentucky to Rolla Tichenor and the former Elizabeth Hymphrey. He was educated in private schools. Initially, Tichenor was a businessman in Franklin (Williamson County), Tennessee when the American Civil War began. After the American Civil War had begun, in 1861, he entered military service with the 22nd Tennessee Cavalry Regiment. In 1863, he became an enrolling Confederate officer, and thereafter an assistant surgeon, during which time he is believed to have been the first in the Confederacy to have used antiseptic surgery. Tichenor experimented with the use of alcohol as an antiseptic on wounds. He was badly wounded in the leg in 1863, and amputation was recommended. He insisted on treating his wounds with an alcohol-based solution of his own devising. His wound healed, and he regained the use of his leg. His potential
    5.50
    4 votes
    144
    José Gregorio Hernández

    José Gregorio Hernández

    José Gregorio Hernández, SFO [er-NAHN-des] (October 26, 1864 - June 29, 1919) was a Venezuelan physician. Born in Isnotú, Trujillo State, Venezuela, he went on to reach legendary status, more so after his death. In 1888 Hernández graduated as a medical doctor in the Universidad Central de Venezuela, in Caracas. The Venezuelan government awarded him a grant to continue his studies in Europe. Hernández traveled to Paris, France, where he studied other fields of medicine such as bacteriology, pathology, microbiology and histology, and physiology. Following his return to Venezuela, he became a leading doctor at the Hospital José María Vargas. Between 1891 and 1916, Hernández dedicated himself to teaching, medicine, and religious practice. He sought priesthood on two occasions, but his fragile physical conditions would ultimately prevent him from achieving that status. He studied at the Monastery of Lucca in Italy for ten months in 1908. In 1913, he enrolled at the Latin American Pío School of Rome to continue the priestly career, but had to return to Venezuela for health reasons. Among the scientific publications of this famous Venezuelan are The Elements of Bacteriology (1906), About
    5.50
    4 votes
    145
    Willem Einthoven

    Willem Einthoven

    Willem Einthoven (Semarang, 21 May 1860 – Leiden, 29 September 1927) was a Dutch doctor and physiologist. He invented the first practical electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) in 1903 and received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924 for it. Einthoven was born in Semarang on Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). His father, a doctor, died when Einthoven was a child. His mother returned to the Netherlands with her children in 1870 and settled in Utrecht. His parents ancestry was Dutch, his mother's ancestry was Dutch and Swiss In 1885, Einthoven received a medical degree from the University of Utrecht. He became a professor at the University of Leiden in 1886. Before Einthoven's time, it was known that the beating of the heart produced electrical currents, but the instruments of the time could not accurately measure this phenomenon without placing electrodes directly on the heart. Beginning in 1901, Einthoven completed a series of prototypes of a string galvanometer. This device used a very thin filament of conductive wire passing between very strong electromagnets. When a current passed through the filament, the electromagnetic field would cause the string to move. A light shining
    5.50
    4 votes
    146
    Jean Stas

    Jean Stas

    Jean Servais Stas (August 21, 1813 - December 13, 1891) was a Belgian analytical chemist. Stas was born in Leuven and trained initially as a physician. He later switched to chemistry and worked at the École Polytechnique in Paris under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Dumas. Stas and Dumas established the atomic weight of carbon by weighing a sample of the pure material, burning it in pure oxygen, and then weighing the carbon dioxide produced. In 1840, Stas was appointed professor at the Royal Military School in Brussels. He acquired international fame by determining the atomic weights of the elements more accurately than had ever been done before, using an atomic mass of 16 for oxygen as his standard. His results disproved the hypothesis of the English physicist William Prout that all atomic weights must be integral multiples of that of hydrogen. These careful, accurate atomic weight measurements of Stas helped lay the foundation for the periodic system of elements of Dmitri Mendeleev and others. In 1850 Stas gave the evidence that the Belgian Count Hypolyte Visart de Bocarmé killed his brother-in-law by poisoning with nicotine Stas retired in 1869 because of problems with his voice
    6.33
    3 votes
    147
    Abraham Jacobi

    Abraham Jacobi

    Abraham Jacobi (May 6, 1830 – July 10, 1919) was a pioneer of pediatrics, opening the first children's clinic in the United States. To date, he is the only foreign born president of the American Medical Association. Born in Hartum (now a district of Hille), Westphalia. He was the son of a poor Jewish shopkeeper and his wife who educated him at great sacrifice. He attended the gymnasium in Minden. After graduating there, he studied medicine at the universities of Greifswald, Göttingen, and Bonn, receiving an MD at Bonn in 1851. Shortly thereafter, Jacobi joined the revolutionary movement in Germany (see Revolution of 1848). He was detained in prisons at Berlin and Cologne in 1851, and eventually convicted of treason and imprisoned at Minden and Bielefeld until his discharge in the summer of 1853. Upon release, Jacobi sailed to England and then in the following autumn to New York where he settled as a practicing physician. Starting in 1861 at the New York Medical College, he was a professor of childhood diseases. From 1867 to 1870, he was chair of the medical department of the City University of New York. He taught at Columbia University from 1870 to 1902. He later moved to Mount
    8.00
    1 votes
    148
    Imhotep

    Imhotep

    Imhotep (sometimes spelled Immutef, Im-hotep, or Ii-em-Hotep; called Imuthes (Ἰμούθης) by the Greeks), fl. 27th century BC (circa 2650–2600 BC) (Egyptian ỉỉ-m-ḥtp *jā-im-ḥātap meaning "the one who comes in peace, is with peace"), was an Egyptian polymath, who served under the Third Dynasty king Djoser as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra (or Re) at Heliopolis. He is considered to be the first architect and engineer and physician in early history though two other good physicians, Hesy-Ra and Merit-Ptah lived around the same time. The full list of his titles is: Imhotep was one of very few mortals to be depicted as part of a pharaoh's statue. He was one of only a few commoners ever to be accorded divine status after death. The center of his cult was Memphis. From the First Intermediate Period onward Imhotep was also revered as a poet and philosopher. His sayings were famously referred to in poems: "I have heard the words of Imhotep and Hordedef with whose discourses men speak so much." The location of Imhotep's self-constructed tomb was well hidden from the beginning and it remains unknown, despite efforts to find it. The consensus is that it is hidden
    8.00
    1 votes
    149
    John B. Hamilton

    John B. Hamilton

    John B. Hamilton (1 December 1847 – 24 December 1898) was an American physician and soldier. He was appointed the second Surgeon General of the United States from 1879 to 1891. Hamilton was born on at Otter Creek Township, Jersey County, Illinois, near the present town of Otterville. He was educated at the Hamilton School, operated by his family, and apprenticed at age 16 to physician Joseph O. Hamilton. The following year (1864), Hamilton enlisted in G Company, 61st Illinois Regiment. After the close of the Civil War, he attended Rush Medical College in Chicago (1869, MD) and entered private practice. Hamilton's wartime experiences exerted their influence, drawing him from private medical practice into a commission as an Assistant Surgeon in the United States Army (1874) and after he resigned from the Army, into the Regular Corps of the Marine Hospital Service (MHS). In 1876, the 24 year old Hamilton sat for the first examination for entrance into MHS, passed with flying colors, and was commissioned as an Assistant Surgeon on Oct 21, 1876. His talent in public health practice revealed itself early, during an 1877 assignment to the Boston Marine Hospital at Chelsea, Massachusetts.
    8.00
    1 votes
    150
    Joseph Ransohoff

    Joseph Ransohoff

    • Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
    Dr. Joseph 'Joe' Ransohoff, II (July 1, 1915- January 30, 2001) was a member of the Ransohoff family and a pioneer in the field of neurosurgery. In addition to training numerous neurosurgeons, his "ingenuity in adapting advanced technologies" saved many lives and even influenced the television program Ben Casey. Among other innovations, he created the first intensive care unit dedicated to neurosurgery, pioneered the use of medical imaging and catheterization in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors, and helped define the fields of pediatric neurosurgery and neuroradiology. Ransohoff was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, son of Dr. Joseph Louis Ransohoff II, a surgeon who himself was the son of a surgeon. He received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University. While attending Harvard he briefly considered leaving the country in order to participate in the Spanish Civil War, motivated by his lifelong socialist sympathies. One of Ransohoff's favorite boasts was that he was the only student in the history of Harvard to graduate on parole. He later received his medical degree from the University of Chicago in 1941 and went on to become a surgery instructor at the University of
    8.00
    1 votes
    151
    Leonard Wood

    Leonard Wood

    Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a physician who served as the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Military Governor of Cuba and Governor General of the Philippines. Early in his military career, he received the Medal of Honor. Wood also holds officer service #2 in the Regular Army (John Pershing holds officer service #1). He was present at the 1906 First Battle of Bud Dajo. Born in Winchester, New Hampshire, he attended Pierce Academy in Middleborough, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School, earning an M.D. degree in 1884 as an intern at Boston City Hospital. Leonard Wood was of English descent, and was descended from four Mayflower passengers including William White, Francis Cooke, Stephen Hopkins and Richard Warren; all four of whom signed the Mayflower compact. He took a position as an Army contract surgeon in 1885, and was stationed at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Wood participated in the last campaign against Geronimo in 1886, and was awarded the Medal of Honor, in 1898, for carrying dispatches 100 miles through hostile territory and for commanding an infantry detachment (whose officers had been lost) in hand-to-hand combat against the Apache. He
    8.00
    1 votes
    152
    Robert Koch

    Robert Koch

    Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch ([ˈkɔx]; 11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician. He became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis (1877), the Tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and Vibrio cholerae (1883) and for his development of Koch's postulates. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905 for his tuberculosis findings. He is considered one of the founders of microbiology, inspiring such major figures as Paul Ehrlich and Gerhard Domagk. Koch was born in Clausthal in the Harz Mountains, then part of Kingdom of Hanover, as the son of a mining official. He studied medicine under Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle at the University of Göttingen and graduated in 1866. He then served in the Franco-Prussian War and later became district medical officer in Wollstein (Wolsztyn), Prussian Poland. Working with very limited resources, he became one of the founders of bacteriology, the other major figure being Louis Pasteur. After Casimir Davaine demonstrated the direct transmission of the anthrax bacillus between cows, Koch studied anthrax more closely. He invented methods to purify the bacillus from blood samples and grow pure cultures. He found that, while it could
    8.00
    1 votes
    153
    Sugita Genpaku

    Sugita Genpaku

    Sugita Genpaku (杉田 玄白, 20 October 1733 – 1 June 1817) was a Japanese scholar who was known for his translation of Kaitai Shinsho (New Book of Anatomy). Besides Kaitai Shinsho, he also authored Rangaku Kotohajime (Beginning of Dutch Studies). Sugita assembled a team of Japanese translators and doctors to translate a Dutch book of anatomy: Kulmus' "Ontleedkundige Tafelen". He did so because he found out, after an autopsy, that the western drawings of human organs were much more accurate than the ones in his Chinese handbooks. They tried to make a Japanese translation. At a rate of one page a week/month, the work was published in 1774. As an example of how difficult this work was, the collaborators had to study and discuss for several days before they realised that "neus" (nose) in Dutch, being a bulb on the front, meant hana (鼻) in Japanese.
    8.00
    1 votes
    154
    Jean-Martin Charcot

    Jean-Martin Charcot

    Jean-Martin Charcot (/ʃɑrˈkoʊ/; 29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology. He is known as "the founder of modern neurology" and is "associated with at least 15 medical eponyms", including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (motor neurone disease). Charcot has been referred to as "the father of French neurology and one of the world's pioneers of neurology". His work greatly influenced the developing fields of neurology and psychology. He was the "foremost neurologist of late nineteenth-century France" and has been called "the Napoleon of the neuroses". Born in Paris, Charcot worked and taught at the famous Salpêtrière Hospital for 33 years. His reputation as an instructor drew students from all over Europe. In 1882, he established a neurology clinic at Salpêtrière, which was the first of its kind in Europe. Charcot was a part of the French neurological tradition and studied under, and greatly revered, Duchenne de Boulogne. "He married a rich widow, Madame Durvis, in 1862 and had two children, Jeanne and Jean-Baptiste, the latter becoming both a doctor and a famous polar explorer". Charcot's primary
    5.25
    4 votes
    155
    William H. Stewart

    William H. Stewart

    William H. Stewart (19 May 1921 – 23 April 2008) was an American pediatrician and epidemiologist. He was appointed tenth Surgeon General of the United States from 1965 to 1969. Stewart was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He began college at the University of Minnesota and completed his undergraduate degree at Louisiana State University (LSU) (1942), after his father moved the family to Baton Rouge during World War II to chair the pediatrics department at LSU. Stewart earned his medical degree through an accelerated program at the LSU Health Sciences Center in New Orleans, under the auspices of the U.S. Army's Specialized Training Program. After graduating in 1945, he received a commission as a first lieutenant, kept an inactive status during his 9-month internship at Philadelphia General Hospital, and then served as a Medical Officer at Brooke General Hospital in San Antonio, Texas (1946–1947). After a brief stint at the Minneapolis Veterans Administration hospital at Fort Snelling, Stewart returned home to Baton Rouge for a 2-year pediatrics residency at Charity Hospital (1948–1950). His plans to enter private practice were cut short by the outbreak of the Korean War and his
    5.25
    4 votes
    156
    Anton de Bary

    Anton de Bary

    Heinrich Anton de Bary (26 January 1831 – 19 January 1888) was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist (fungal systematics and physiology). He is considered a founding father of plant pathology (phytopathology) as well as the founder of modern mycology. His extensive and careful studies of the life history of fungi and contribution to the understanding of algae and higher plants were landmarks of biology. Born in Frankfurt, Anton de Bary was one of ten children born to physician August Theodor de Bary (1802–1873) and Emilie Meyer de Bary. His father encouraged him to join the excursions of the active group of naturalists who collected specimens in the nearby countryside. De Bary’s youthful interest in plants and in examination of fungi and algae were inspired by George Fresenius, a physician, who also taught botany at Senckenberg Institute. Fresenius was an expert on thallophytes. In 1848, de Bary graduated from the Gymnasium at Frankfurt, and began to study medicine at Heidelberg, continued at Marburg. In 1850, he went to Berlin to continue pursuing his study of medicine, and also continued to explore and develop his interest in plant science. He received his
    7.00
    2 votes
    157
    Carlos Chagas

    Carlos Chagas

    • Medical Specialty: Tropical medicine
    Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro Chagas, or Carlos Chagas (Portuguese: [ˈkaʁluʒːuʃtʃĩniˈɐ̃nu ʁiˈbejɾu ˈʃaɡɐʃ], [ˈkaʁluˈʃːagɐʃ]; 1879–1934), was a Brazilian sanitary physician, scientist and bacteriologist who worked as a clinician and researcher. He discovered Chagas disease, also called American trypanosomiasis in 1909, while working at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro. Chagas’ work is unique in the history of medicine, because he was the only researcher so far to describe completely a new infectious disease: its pathogen, vector (Triatominae), host, clinical manifestations and epidemiology. Chagas was also the first to discover and illustrate the parasitic fungal genus Pneumocystis, later infamously to be linked to PCP (Pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS victims). Chagas was the son of José Justiniano das Chagas, a coffee farmer from Minas Gerais, and Mariana Cândida Chagas. After his secondary studies at Itu, São Paulo and São João del Rei, he enrolled in the School of Mining Engineering at Ouro Preto, but changed to the Medical School of Rio de Janeiro in 1897, influenced by his uncle, who was a physician and owner of a hospital at that city. He graduated in 1902 and got his
    7.00
    2 votes
    158
    Ernest Duchesne

    Ernest Duchesne

    Ernest Duchesne (30 May 1874 – 12 April 1912) was a French physician who noted that certain moulds kill bacteria. He made this discovery 32 years before Alexander Fleming discovered the antibiotic properties of penicillin, a substance derived from those moulds, but his research went unnoticed. Duchesne entered l'Ecole du Service de Santé Militaire de Lyon (the Military Health Service School of Lyons) in 1894. Duchesne's thesis, “Contribution à l’étude de la concurrence vitale chez les micro-organismes: antagonisme entre les moisissures et les microbes” (Contribution to the study of vital competition in micro-organisms: antagonism between moulds and microbes), that he submitted in 1897 to get his doctorate degree, was the first study to consider the therapeutic capabilities of moulds resulting from their anti-microbial activitya. Duchesne had made his breakthrough by observing how the Arab stable boys at the army hospital kept their saddles in a dark and damp room to encourage mould to grow on them. When he asked why, they told him that the mould helped to heal the saddle sores on the horses. Intrigued, Duchesne prepared a solution of the mould and injected it into a so showed that
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    James Braid

    James Braid

    James Braid (19 June 1795 – 25 March 1860) was born at Ryelaw House, in the parish of Portmoak, Kinross, Scotland. He was the son of James Braid and Anne Suttie. He married Margaret Mason (or Meason) on 17 November 1813. They had two children, James (born 1822), and a daughter. A Scottish physician and surgeon, specialising in eye and muscular conditions, Braid was an important and influential pioneer of hypnotism and hypnotherapy. Braid adopted the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism" or nervous sleep (that is, sleep of the nerves), in his lectures of 1841-2, and it is from his influential work that others derived the term "hypnosis" in the 1880s. Braid is regarded by many as the first genuine "hypnotherapist" and the "Father of Modern Hypnotism". “Although Braid believed that hypnotic suggestion was a valuable remedy in functional nervous disorders, he did not regard it as a rival to other forms of treatment, nor wish in any way to separate its practice from that of medicine in general. He held that whoever talked of a "universal remedy" was either a fool or a knave: similar diseases often arose from opposite pathological conditions, and the treatment ought
    7.00
    2 votes
    160
    Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz

    Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz

    Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz (Russian: Иоганн Фридрих фон Эшшольц; November 12 [O.S. November 1] 1793 – May 19 [O.S. May 7] 1831) was a Livonian physician, botanist, zoologist and entomologist of Baltic German lineage. Eschscholtz was born in Dorpat (now Tartu), Governorate of Livonia in the Russian Empire. He studied medicine at the local University of Dorpat, and spent his main career there as well: extraordinary professor of anatomy (1819), director of the zoological cabinet (1822), and professor of anatomy (1828). From 1815-1818 Eschscholtz was a physician and naturalist on the Russian circumnavigational expeditionary ship Rurik (Russian: Рюрик) under the command of Otto von Kotzebue. He collected specimens in Brazil, Chile, California, the Pacific Islands, and on either side of the Bering Strait, Kamchatka, and the Aleutian Islands. One of the other naturalists was the botanist Adelbert von Chamisso, who took over Eschscholtz's specimens, excepting insects on completion of the voyage. The two were close friends and Chamisso named the California poppy Eschscholzia californica in his honour. The results of the trip were published in the Berlin journal Entomographien in
    7.00
    2 votes
    161
    Joseph Lister

    Joseph Lister

    Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister OM, FRS, PC (5 April 1827 – 10 February 1912), known as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., between 1883 and 1897, was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid (now known as phenol) to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds, which led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients. Lister came from a prosperous Quaker home in Upton, Essex, a son of Joseph Jackson Lister, a pioneer of achromatic object lenses for the compound microscope. At Quaker schools, he became a fluent reader of French and German, which were also the leading languages of medical research. As a teenager, Lister attended Grove House School Tottenham, studying mathematics, natural science, and languages. He attended the University of London, one of only a few institutions which were open to Quakers at that time. He initially studied the Arts but graduated with honours as Bachelor of Medicine and entered the Royal College of Surgeons at the age of 26. In 1854, Lister became both first assistant to and
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    162
    Sampson Gamgee

    Sampson Gamgee

    Dr Joseph Sampson Gamgee, MRCS, FRSE (17 April 1828, Livorno, Italy – 18 September 1886) was a surgeon at the Queen's Hospital (later the General Hospital) in Birmingham, England. He pioneered aseptic surgery (having once shared lodgings with Joseph Lister), and, in 1880 invented Gamgee Tissue, an absorbent cotton wool and gauze surgical dressing. He was known as Sampson Gamgee. He was the son of Joseph Gamgee, a veterinary surgeon and the sibling of Dr John Gamgee, inventor and Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at Dick Veterinary College, Edinburgh and Dr Arthur Gamgee, Fullerian Professor of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy at The Royal Institution of Great Britain, London. Sampson's son Dr Leonard Parker Gamgee was also a renowned surgeon of Birmingham and his nephew (son of his sister Fanny Gamgee) was Prof Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1860-1948). In 1873 he founded the Birmingham Hospital Saturday Fund which raised money for various hospitals in Birmingham from overtime earnings given by workers on nominated Hospital Saturdays. It was the first such fund to raise money in this way for multiple hospitals. Sampson was also the first president of the Birmingham Medical
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    163
    Severo Ochoa

    Severo Ochoa

    Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (24 September 1905 in Luarca – 1 November 1993 in Madrid) was a Spanish–American Doctor of Medicine and Biochemist, and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arthur Kornberg. Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca (Asturias), Spain. His father was Severo Manuel Ochoa, a lawyer and businessman, and his mother was Carmen de Albornoz. Ochoa was the nephew of Alvaro de Albornoz (President of the Second Spanish Republic in exile, 1947–1951), and a cousin of the poet and literary poet and critic Aurora de Albornoz. His father died when Ochoa was seven, and he and his mother moved to Málaga, where he attended elementary school through high school. His interest in biology was stimulated by the publications of the Spanish neurologist and Nobel laureate Santiago Ramón y Cajal. In 1923, he went to the University of Madrid Medical School, where he hoped to work with Cajal, but Cajal retired. He studied with father Pedro Arrupe, and Juan Negrín was his teacher. Negrín encouraged Ochoa and another student, José Valdecasas, to isolate creatinine from urine. The two students succeeded and also developed a method to measure small levels of muscle
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    164
    Carolyn Bennett

    Carolyn Bennett

    Carolyn Ann Bennett, PC, MP (born December 20, 1950) is the Member of Parliament for the riding of St. Paul's, a constituency located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. She is a member of the Liberal Party of Canada, and was formerly a candidate for its leadership. Bennett grew up in Toronto and attended Havergal College. She obtained a degree in medicine from the University of Toronto in 1974 and received her certification in family medicine in 1976. Bennett worked as a family physician at Wellesley Hospital and Women's College Hospital in Toronto from 1977 to 1997 and was a founding partner in Bedford Medical Associates. She was also president of the medical staff association of Women's College Hospital and assistant professor in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto. Bennett served on the boards of Havergal College, Women's College Hospital, the Ontario Medical Association, and the Medico-Legal Society of Toronto. In 1986, Bennett received the Royal Life Saving Society Service Cross, a Commonwealth award recognizing her more than twenty years of distinguished service. In 1990, she was named as one of Simpson's "Women Who Make a Difference". She
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    3 votes
    165
    Harvey Cushing

    Harvey Cushing

    • Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
    Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 – October 7, 1939), was an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of brain surgery, and the first to describe Cushing's syndrome. He is often called the "father of modern neurosurgery." Cushing was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Bessie Williams and Kirke Cushing, a physician whose family came to Hingham, Massachusetts, as Puritans in the 17th century. Harvey Cushing was the youngest of ten children. He graduated with an A.B. degree in 1891 from Yale University, where he was a member of Scroll and Key and Delta Kappa Epsilon (Phi chapter). He studied medicine at Harvard Medical School and earned his medical degree in 1895. Cushing completed his internship at Massachusetts General Hospital and then did a residency in surgery under the guidance of a famous surgeon, William Stewart Halsted, at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore. After doing exceptional cerebral surgery abroad under Kocher at Bern and Sherrington at Liverpool, he began private practice in Baltimore. Here, at the age of 32, he was made associate professor of surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital, and at the hospital was placed in full charge of cases of surgery of the central
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    3 votes
    166
    Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille

    Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille

    Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille (French pronunciation: [pwazœj]; 22 April 1797 – 26 December 1869) was a French physician and physiologist. Poiseuille was born in Paris, France, and he died there on December 26, 1869. From 1815 to 1816 he studied at the École Polytechnique in Paris. He was trained in physics and mathematics. In 1828 he earned his D.Sc. degree with a dissertation entitled Recherches sur la force du coeur aortique. He was interested in the flow of human blood in narrow tubes. In 1838 he experimentally derived, and in 1840 and 1846 formulated and published, Poiseuille's law (now commonly known as the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, crediting Gotthilf Hagen as well). This concerns the voluminal laminar stationary flow of an incompressible uniform viscous liquid (so-called Newtonian fluid) through a cylindrical tube with constant circular cross-section. In other words, it applies to non-turbulent flow of liquids through pipes. It can be successfully applied to blood flow in capillaries and veins, to air flow in lung alveoli, for the flow through a drinking straw or through a hypodermic needle. where: The poise, the unit of viscosity in the CGS system, was named after him.
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    167
    Joel Fuhrman

    Joel Fuhrman

    Joel Fuhrman, M.D. (born December 2, 1953), is an American board-certified family physician who specializes in nutrition-based treatments for obesity and chronic disease. He is a member of the board of directors of the American College of Lifestyle Medicine, and serves as Research Director of the Nutritional Research Project. He is on the medical staff of Hunterdon Medical Center. Joel Fuhrman was born in New York, New York on December 2, 1953. He was a world-class figure skater. He was a member of the US World Figure Skating Team and placed second in the US National Pairs Championship in 1973. He came in 3rd place at the 1976 World Professional Pairs Skating Championship in Jaca, Spain skating with Gale Fuhrman He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Fuhrman is the author of five books, and a number of journal articles. The Second Edition of Eat to Live reached the New York Times Best Seller list in June, 2011. He has appeared on several radio and television shows. Fuhrman coined the word "nutritarian" to label people who adopt a micronutrient-rich diet style. He created the Health Equation: Health = Nutrients/Calories (abbreviated as H = N/C). This
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    3 votes
    168
    Svyatoslav Fyodorov

    Svyatoslav Fyodorov

    Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov (Russian: Святослав Николаевич Фёдоров; born August 8, 1927 – June 2, 2000) was a Russian ophthalmologist, politician, professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. He is considered to be the father of the ophthalmic microsurgery. Fyodorov was born in Proskurov, Ukrainian SSR (now Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine), to ethnic Russian parents. Fyodorov graduated from Rostov Medical Institute, then worked as a practicing ophthalmologist in a small town in Rostov Oblast. In 1960 he performed the first intraocular lens replacement operation, inventing the cure to the cataract. In 1973 he developed a new surgical techinique to cure the early stage of the glaucoma, called Scleroplasty. Il 1974 he developed the surgical techinique he is most famous for, the Radial keratotomy, to change the shape of the cornea and cure the miopia.In 1986, Fyodorov designed the first posterior chamber phakic IOL in the "collar-button" or "mushroom" configuration and manufactured the pIOL from silicone. In 1980 he became the head of the Moscow Research Institute of Eye Microsurgery. Fyodorov was a member of the Congress of People's
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    169
    Ambroise Paré

    Ambroise Paré

    Ambroise Paré (c. 1510 – 20 December 1590) was a French barber surgeon. He was the great official royal surgeon for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III and is considered as one of the fathers of surgery and modern forensic pathology. He was a leader in surgical techniques and battlefield medicine, especially the treatment of wounds. He was also an anatomist and invented several surgical instruments. "Je le pansai, Dieu le guérit " ("I bandaged him and God healed him") is a quote that summarizes his work philosophy. At this time, little could be done for battlefield wounds and injured soldiers were often put out of their misery by comrades if the wound was too severe to be treated. During the 1536 Battle of Milan, Paré encountered two men who had been horribly burned by gunpowder. A soldier came up and asked if anything could be done to help them, to which he shook his head. The soldier then calmly took out his dagger and proceeded to cut their throats. A horrified Paré shouted that he was "a villain", to which he was told "Were I in such a situation, I would only pray to God for someone to do the same for me." Pare was a keen observer and did not allow the beliefs
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    170
    Leonhart Fuchs

    Leonhart Fuchs

    Leonhart Fuchs (17 January 1501 – 10 May 1566), sometimes spelled Leonhard Fuchs, was a German physician and one of the three founding fathers of botany, along with Otto Brunfels and Hieronymus Bock (also called Hieronymus Tragus). Fuchs was born in 1501 in Wemding in the Duchy of Bavaria. After attending a school in Heilbronn, Fuchs went to the Marienschule in Erfurt, Thuringia at the age of twelve, and graduated as Baccalaureus artium. In 1524 he became Magister Artium in Ingolstadt, and was received doctor of medicine in the same year. From 1524-1526 he practiced as a doctor in Munich, until he received a chair of medicine at Ingolstadt in 1526. From 1528-1531 he was the personal physician of Georg, Margrave of Brandenburg in Ansbach. Fuchs was called to Tübingen by Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg in 1533 to help in reforming the University of Tübingen in the spirit of humanism. He created its first medicinal garden in 1535 and served as chancellor seven times, spending the last thirty-one years of his life as professor of medicine. Fuchs died in Tübingen in 1566. Like his medieval predecessors and his contemporaries, Fuchs was heavily influenced by the three Greek and Roman writers
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    3 votes
    171
    Massouda Jalal

    Massouda Jalal

    Massouda Jalal (born January 5, 1962) is a politician in Afghanistan, who served as Minister of Women's Affairs from October 2004 to July 2006. She was also the only woman candidate in the Afghan presidential election, 2004. She has a background as a pediatrician, teacher at Kabul University, and a UN World Food Programme worker. Born in Gul Bahar in Kapisa Province, one of seven children, Jalal moved to Kabul to attend high school. She later attended Kabul University, where she was a member of the faculty until 1996, when the Taliban government had her removed. Jalal, a psychiatrist and pediatrician, also worked at several Kabul hospitals and, after her removal from the university faculty, as a United Nations employee within the World Food Programme. Her husband is a law instructor at Kabul University; they have three children. Although she was uninvolved in politics during the Taliban regine, Jalal emerged after the fall of the Taliban in 2001 as a leading voice for the role of women in Afghan society. A representative of her Kabul neighborhood to the 2002 loya jirga, her name was placed into consideration to lead Afghanistan as interim president, but she placed a distant second
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    172
    Percivall Pott

    Percivall Pott

    Sir Percivall Pott (6 January 1714 – 22 December 1788) London, England) was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedy, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen. He served his apprenticeship with Edward Nourse, assistant surgeon to St Bartholomew's Hospital, and in 1736 was admitted to the Barbers' Company and licensed to practise. He became assistant surgeon to St Bartholomew's in 1744 and full surgeon from 1749 till 1787. As the first surgeon of his day in England, excelling even his pupil, John Hunter, on the practical side, Pott introduced various important innovations in procedure, doing much to abolish the extensive use of escharotics and the cautery that was prevalent when he began his career. He also thought that soot was a carcinogen. In 1756, Pott sustained a broken leg after a fall from his horse. It is often assumed that his injury was the same one that later came to be known as Pott's fracture, but in reality Pott's broken leg was a much more serious compound fracture of the femur. As he lay in the mud and muck, he sent a servant to buy a door from a nearby construction site, then had himself placed on
    5.67
    3 votes
    173
    Carl Peter Thunberg

    Carl Peter Thunberg

    Carl Peter Thunberg, also known as Carl Pehr Thunberg or Carl Per Thunberg (11 November 1743 – 8 August 1828), was a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. He has been called "the father of South African botany" and the "Japanese Linnaeus". Thunberg was born in Jönköping, and became a pupil of Carolus Linnaeus at Uppsala University. There he studied natural philosophy and medicine, and took his degree in 1767. In 1770, he left Sweden for Paris, to continue his studies in medicine and natural history. In 1771, during a stay in Amsterdam and Leiden, he studied their botanical gardens and musea. He was commissioned by Johannes Burman and his son Nicolaas to visit the Dutch colonies and Japan to collect specimens for Dutch botanical gardens. He left in December 1771, as the ship's surgeon in the Dutch East India Company. After his arrival at Cape Town, Cape Colony, he stayed there for three years in order to learn the Dutch language and to be able to pass himself off as a Dutchman, as Japan at that time was only open to Protestant Dutch merchants. In September 1772, in the company of Johan Andreas Auge, the superintendent of the Company garden, he set out north to Saldanha
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    174
    Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald

    Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald

    Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (26 December [O.S. 14 December] 1803 — 25 August [O.S. 13 August] 1882) was an Estonian writer, who is considered to be the father of the national literature for the country. Friedrich's parents were serfs at the Jõepere estate, Virumaa. His father worked as a granary keeper and his mother was a chambermaid. After liberation from serfdom in 1815, the family was able to send their son to school at the Rakvere district school. In 1820, he graduated from secondary school in Tallinn and worked as an elementary school teacher. In 1833, Kreutzwald graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at the Imperial University of Tartu. He married Marie Elisabeth Saedler on August 18 the same year. From 1833 to 1877, he worked as the town physician in Võru, Livonia. He was the member of numerous scientific societies in Europe and received honorary doctorates from a number of universities. Kreutzwald is the author of several moralistic folk books, most of them translated into German: "Plague of Wine" 1840, "The World and Some Things One can Find in It" 1848–49, "Reynard the Fox" 1850, "Wise Men of Gotham" 1857. In addition to these works, he wrote the national epic
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    175
    George Emil Palade

    George Emil Palade

    George Emil Palade (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈd͡ʒe̯ord͡ʒe eˈmil paˈlade]; November 19, 1912 – October 8, 2008) was a Romanian cell biologist. Described as "the most influential cell biologist ever", in 1974 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, together with Albert Claude and Christian de Duve. The prize was granted for his innovations in electron microscopy and cell fractionation which together laid the foundations of modern molecular cell biology. , the most notable discovery being the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum – which he first described in 1955. Palade also received the U.S. National Medal of Science in Biological Sciences for "pioneering discoveries of a host of fundamental, highly organized structures in living cells" in 1986, and was previously elected a Member of the US National Academy of Science in 1961. George Emil Palade was born on November 19, 1912 in Iaşi, Romania; his father was a professor of philosophy at the University and his mother was a high school teacher. George E. Palade received his M.D. in 1940 from the Carol Davila School of Medicine, in Bucharest, Romania. He was a member of the faculty there until 1946, when he went to
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    176
    George Pardee

    George Pardee

    George Cooper Pardee (July 25, 1857 – September 1, 1941) was an American doctor of medicine and politician. As the 21st Governor of California, holding office from January 7, 1903, to January 9, 1907, Pardee was the second native-born Californian to assume the governorship, after Romualdo Pacheco, and the first governor born in California after statehood. Pardee was born on July 25, 1857, in San Francisco, California, the only child of Enoch H. Pardee and Mary Pardee. The Pardee family was well known in the San Francisco Bay Area. His father was a prominent oculist in San Francisco and Oakland. Enoch's stature within the community helped him get elected to the California State Assembly in the early 1870s, and later as the Mayor of Oakland for a single term from 1876 to 1878. Raised in the Pardee Home in Oakland, George Pardee closely followed in his father's medical background. He attended the nearby University of California, Berkeley, then studied medicine at the Cooper Medical College in San Francisco. In 1885, Pardee traveled abroad to receive his medical degree at the University of Leipzig in the German Empire. After his return from Germany, Pardee joined his father's medical
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    177
    Hans Selye

    Hans Selye

    Hans Hugo Bruno Selye, CC (Hungarian: Selye János) (January 26, 1907 — October 16, 1982) was a pioneering Hungarian endocrinologist. He did much important scientific work on the hypothetical non-specific response of an organism to stressors. While he did not recognize all of the many aspects of glucocorticoids, Selye was aware of their role in the stress response. Some commentators consider him the first to demonstrate the existence of biological stress. Selye was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary on 26 January 1907. He grew up in Komárom, Hungary and the Hungarian language university in that town bears his name. He became a Doctor of Medicine and Chemistry in Prague in 1929, went to Johns Hopkins University on a Rockefeller Foundation Scholarship in 1931 and then went to McGill University in Montreal where he started researching the issue of stress in 1936. In 1945 he joined the Université de Montréal where he had 40 assistants and worked with 15,000 lab animals. Kantha (1992), in a survey of an elite group of scientists who have authored over 1,000 research publications, identified Selye as one who had published 1,700 research papers, 15 monographs and 7 popular books. He died on
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    178
    Herta Oberheuser

    Herta Oberheuser

    Herta Oberheuser (15 May 1911 in Cologne, German Empire – 24 January 1978 in Linz am Rhein, West Germany) was a physician at the Ravensbrück concentration camp from 1940 until 1943. She worked there under the supervision of Dr. Karl Gebhardt, participating in gruesome medical experiments (sulfanilamide as well as bone, muscle, and nerve regeneration and bone transplantation) conducted on 86 women, 74 of whom were Polish political prisoners in the camp. Oberheuser killed healthy children with oil and evipan injections, then removed their limbs and vital organs. The time from the injection to death was between three and five minutes, with the person being fully conscious until the last moment. She performed some of the most gruesome and painful medical experiments, focusing on deliberately inflicting wounds on the subjects. In order to simulate the combat wounds of German soldiers fighting in the war, Herta Oberheuser rubbed foreign objects, such as wood, rusty nails, slivers of glass, dirt, or sawdust into the wounds. Herta Oberheuser was the only female defendant in the Nuremberg Medical Trial, where she was sentenced to 20 years in jail. She was released in April 1952 for good
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    179
    Hideyo Noguchi

    Hideyo Noguchi

    Hideyo Noguchi (野口 英世, Noguchi Hideyo, November 24, 1876 – May 21, 1928), also known as Seisaku Noguchi (野口 清作, Noguchi Seisaku), was a prominent Japanese bacteriologist who discovered the agent of syphilis as the cause of progressive paralytic disease in 1911. Noguchi Hideyo was born in Inawashiro, Fukushima prefecture in 1876. When he was one and a half years old he fell down into a fireplace and suffered a burn injury on his left hand. There was no doctor in the small village, but one of the men examined the boy. "The fingers of the left hand are mostly gone," he said, "and the left arm and the left foot and the right hand are burned; I know not how badly." In 1883 he entered Mitsuwa elementary school. Thanks to generous contributions from his teacher Kobayashi and his friends, he was able to receive surgery on his badly burned left hand. He recovered about 70% mobility and functionality in his left hand through the operation. Noguchi decided to become a doctor to help those in need. He apprenticed himself to Dr. Kanae Watanabe (渡部 鼎, Watanabe Kanae), the same doctor who had performed the surgery on his hand. He entered Saisei Gakusha that later became Nippon Medical School. He
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    180
    Hugh Mercer

    Hugh Mercer

    Hugh Mercer (January 17, 1726 – January 12, 1777) was a soldier and physician. He initially served with British forces during the Seven Years War but later became a brigadier general in the Continental Army and a close friend to George Washington. Mercer died as a result of his wounds received at the Battle of Princeton and became a fallen hero and rallying symbol of the American Revolution. Mercer was born near Rosehearty, at the manse of Pitsligo Kirk, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, to Presbyterian Minister, Reverend William Mercer of Pitsligo Parish Church and Ann Monro. At 15, he attended the University of Aberdeen, Marischal College, studying medicine and graduated a Doctor. He was assistant surgeon in the army of Bonnie Prince Charlie in 1745, and was present at the Battle of Culloden when Charles' Army was crushed on April 16, 1746, and any survivors were hunted down and killed. As a fugitive in his own homeland in 1747, Mercer fled Scotland after months in hiding. He bought his way onto a ship and moved to America, settling near what is now Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, and practiced medicine for eight years. In 1755, when General Edward Braddock's army was cut down by the French
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    181
    Ignaz Semmelweis

    Ignaz Semmelweis

    Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (July 1, 1818 – August 13, 1865) (born Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis) was a Hungarian physician now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures. Described as the "savior of mothers", Semmelweis discovered that the incidence of puerperal fever could be drastically cut by the use of hand disinfection in obstetrical clinics. Puerperal fever was common in mid-19th-century hospitals and often fatal, with mortality at 10%–35%. Semmelweis postulated the theory of washing with chlorinated lime solutions in 1847 while working in Vienna General Hospital's First Obstetrical Clinic, where doctors' wards had three times the mortality of midwives' wards. He published a book of his findings in Etiology, Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever. Despite various publications of results where hand-washing reduced mortality to below 1%, Semmelweis's observations conflicted with the established scientific and medical opinions of the time and his ideas were rejected by the medical community. Some doctors were offended at the suggestion that they should wash their hands and Semmelweis could offer no acceptable scientific explanation for his findings. Semmelweis's practice
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    182
    Laurel B. Clark

    Laurel B. Clark

    Laurel Blair Salton Clark (March 10, 1961 – February 1, 2003) was a medical doctor, United States Navy Captain, NASA astronaut and Space Shuttle mission specialist who was killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. Clark was born in Ames, Iowa, but considered Racine, Wisconsin, to be her hometown. She is survived by her husband, fellow NASA flight surgeon Dr. Jonathan Clark (who was part of an official NASA panel that prepared the final 400-page report about the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster), and son Iain. Clark was a member of the Gamma Phi Beta sorority. She held a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issued Technician Class amateur radio license with the call sign KC5ZSU. Clark was a member of the Aerospace Medical Association and the Society of U.S. Naval Flight Surgeons. She was also a member of the Olympia Brown Unitarian Universalist Church in Racine, Wisconsin. Captain Clark was awarded numerous insignia and personal decorations including: The symbol indicates a posthumous award. During medical school she did active duty training with the Diving Medicine Department at the United States Navy Experimental Diving Unit in March 1987. After completing medical school,
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    183
    David Satcher

    David Satcher

    David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D. FAAFP, FACPM, FACP (born March 2, 1941) is an American physician, and public health administrator. He was a four-star admiral in the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and served as the 10th Assistant Secretary for Health, and the 16th Surgeon General of the United States. Satcher was born in Anniston, Alabama. At the age of two, he contracted whooping cough. A black doctor, Jackson, came to his parents' farm, and told his parents he didn't expect David to live, but nonetheless spent the day with him, and told his parents how to give him the best chance he could. Satcher said that he grew up hearing that story, and that inspired him to be a doctor. Satcher graduated from Morehouse College in Atlanta in 1963 and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He received his M.D. and Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in 1970 with election to Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society. He completed residency/fellowship training at the Strong Memorial Hospital, University of Rochester, UCLA School of Medicine, and Martin Luther King Jr.-Harbor Hospital. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Preventive Medicine,
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    184
    Joel Roberts Poinsett

    Joel Roberts Poinsett

    Joel Roberts Poinsett (March 2, 1779 – December 12, 1851) was an American physician, botanist and statesman. He was a member of the United States House of Representatives, the first United States Minister to Mexico (the United States did not appoint ambassadors until 1896), a U.S. Secretary of War under Martin Van Buren, and a cofounder of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science and the Useful Arts (a predecessor of the Smithsonian Institution), as well as the eponym of Poinsett County, Arkansas; Poinsett Highway, Poinsett Bridge, and Poinsett State Park in South Carolina; Lake Poinsett in South Dakota; and the poinsettia, a popular Christmas flower. Born in 1779 in Charleston, South Carolina to Dr. Elisha Poinsett and his wife Katherine Ann Roberts, he was educated in Connecticut and Europe, gaining expertise in medicine and the law. In 1800 Poinsett returned to Charleston hoping to pursue a military career. His father did not want his son to be a soldier. Hoping to entice his son to settle into the Charleston aristocracy, Dr. Poinsett had his son study law under Henry William DeSaussure, a prominent lawyer of Charleston. Poinsett was not interested in becoming a
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    185
    Josef Mengele

    Josef Mengele

    Josef Rudolf Mengele (help·info) (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈʁuːdɔlf ˈmɛŋələ]; March 16, 1911 – February 7, 1979) was a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz. He earned doctorates in anthropology from Munich University and in medicine from Frankfurt University. He initially gained notoriety for being one of the SS physicians who supervised the selection of arriving transports of prisoners, determining who was to be killed and who was to become a forced laborer, but is far more infamous for performing human experiments on camp inmates, including children, for which Mengele was called the "Angel of Death". In 1940, he was placed in the reserve medical corps, after which he served with the 5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking in the Eastern Front. In 1942, he was wounded at the Soviet front and was pronounced medically unfit for combat, and was then promoted to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain) for saving the lives of three German soldiers. He survived the war, and after a period living incognito in Germany he fled to South America, where he evaded capture for the rest of his life despite being hunted as a Nazi war criminal. Josef
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    186
    Leonard A. Scheele

    Leonard A. Scheele

    Leonard Andrew Scheele (July 25, 1907 – January 8, 1993) was an American physician and public servant. He was appointed the seventh Surgeon General of the United States from 1948 to 1956. Scheele was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana. While in high school, he worked in his father's pharmacy and planned to enter medicine. For his undergraduate education, Scheele chose the University of Michigan (B.A., 1931) over Indiana University, citing the former's medical reputation but ended up following his future spouse, then a dental student, to Detroit. He received his M.D. in 1934 from the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery (now the Wayne State University School of Medicine). Scheele graduated at the height of the Great Depression. Inspired by one of his medical school professors, who taught preventive medicine and directed the laboratories at the Michigan State Health Department, Scheele followed up on a recruitment visit by Public Health Service (PHS) officers from Detroit's Marine Hospital. Encouraged by his school's dean, he competed successfully for an internship at Chicago's Marine Hospital (1933–1934). Once Scheele accepted a commission as an Assistant Surgeon (July 2, 1934), he
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    187
    Valerius Cordus

    Valerius Cordus

    Valerius Cordus (February 18, 1515 – September 25, 1544) was a German physician and botanist who authored one of the greatest pharmacopoeias and one of the most celebrated herbals in history. He is also widely credited with developing a method for synthesizing ether (which he called by the poetic Latin name oleum dulci vitrioli, or "sweet oil of vitriol"). Cordus wrote prolifically, and identified and described several new plant species and varieties. The plant genus Cordia is named for him. In 1515, Valerius Cordus was born either in the city of Erfurt in Thuringia, or somewhere in the westwardly adjacent state of Hesse. His father, Euricius Cordus (born Heinrich Ritze, 1486–1535), was an educated physician and an ardent Lutheran convert. Valerius began his higher education in 1527, at the young age of 12, studying botany and pharmacy under the tutelage of his father. In the same year he also enrolled at the University of Marburg. He completed his bachelor's degree in 1531, whereupon he furthered his studies by enrolling in the University of Leipzig, and by working at an apothecary shop in Leipzig owned by his uncle (either Johannes or Joachim). In 1539 he relocated to Wittenberg
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    188
    Alberto Granado

    Alberto Granado

    Alberto Granado (August 8, 1922 – March 5, 2011) was an Argentine–Cuban biochemist, doctor, writer, and scientist. He was also the youthful friend and traveling companion of revolutionary Che Guevara during their 1952 trip around Latin America, and later founded the Santiago School of Medicine in Cuba. He authored the memoir Traveling with Che Guevara: The Making of a Revolutionary, which served as a reference for the 2004 film The Motorcycle Diaries, in which he was played by Rodrigo de la Serna. An elderly Alberto Granado makes a short appearance at the end of the film. Granado was born on August 8, 1922, in Hernando, province of Córdoba, Argentina to Dionisio T. Granado (a Spanish clerical employee of an Argentine railway company) and Adelina Jiménez Romero. In 1930, after José Félix Uriburu toppled the nationalist government of Hipólito Yrigoyen, Granado's family relocated to Villa Constitución, province of Santa Fé, due to his father's position as a militant trade unionist. In 1931, Granado was sent to live with his grandparents in Córdoba and in 1940, he attended the University of Córdoba, where he studied both chemistry and biochemistry. In his best-selling biography
    5.33
    3 votes
    189
    Anson Jones

    Anson Jones

    Anson Jones (January 20, 1798 – January 9, 1858) was a doctor, businessman, congressman, and the fourth and last President of the Republic of Texas, sometimes called the "Architect of Annexation." Jones was born on January 20, 1798, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. In 1820, Jones was licensed as a doctor by the Oneida, New York, Medical Society, and began medical practice in 1826. However, his practice didn't prosper, and he moved several more times before finally being arrested in Philadelphia by a creditor. He stayed in Philadelphia for a few more years, teaching and practicing medicine, until in 1824 he decided to go to Venezuela. Later, Jones returned to Philadelphia, earned an M.D., and reopened his practice. Still, Jones never had much success as a doctor, and in 1832 he renounced medicine and headed for New Orleans, where he entered the mercantile trade. Once again, though, Jones's dreams were thwarted. Though he safely weathered two plagues, his business efforts never met with any success and within a year he had no money. He was a member and Past Master of the Masonic Harmony Lodge #52 of Philadelphia. In 1833 Jones headed west to Texas, settling eventually in Brazoria.
    5.33
    3 votes
    190
    Frederick Banting

    Frederick Banting

    Sir Frederick Grant Banting, KBE, MC, FRS, FRSC (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, doctor and Nobel laureate noted as one of the main discoverers of insulin. In 1923 Banting and John James Rickard Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine. Banting shared the award money with his colleague, Dr. Charles Best. As of September 2011, Banting, who received the Nobel Prize at age 32, remains the youngest Nobel laureate in the area of Physiology/Medicine. The Canadian government gave him a lifetime annuity to work on his research. In 1934 he was knighted by King George V. In 2004, Frederick Banting was voted 4th place on The Greatest Canadian. Frederick Banting was born on 14 November 1891, in a farm house near Alliston, Ontario. The youngest of five children of William Thompson Banting and Margaret Grant, he attended public and high schools in Alliston. He attempted to enter the army but was refused due to poor eyesight. He then attended the University of Toronto in the faculty of divinity but soon transferred to medicine. He received his M.B degree in 1916 and enlisted in the Canadian Army Medical Corps, which had a need for medics in World War
    5.33
    3 votes
    191
    Philip Showalter Hench

    Philip Showalter Hench

    Philip Showalter Hench (February 28, 1896 – March 30, 1965) was an American physician. Hench, along with his Mayo Clinic co-worker Edward Calvin Kendall and Swiss chemist Tadeus Reichstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for the discovery of the hormone cortisone, and its application for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The Nobel Committee bestowed the award for the trio's "discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects." Hench received his undergraduate education at Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania, and received his medical training at the United States Army Medical Corps and the University of Pittsburgh. He began working at Mayo Clinic in 1923, later serving as the head of the Department of Rheumatology. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Hench received many other awards and honors throughout his career. He also had a lifelong interest in the history and discovery of yellow fever. He attended Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania, where he obtained his Bachelor of Arts in 1916. After serving in the Medical Corps of the U.S. Army and the reserve corps to finish his medical training,
    5.33
    3 votes
    192
    Aaron Ciechanover

    Aaron Ciechanover

    Aaron Ciechanover (אהרן צ'חנובר; born October 1, 1947) is an Israeli biologist, who won the Nobel prize in Chemistry for characterizing the method that cells use to degrade and recycle proteins using ubiquitin. Ciechanover was born in Haifa, British mandate of Palestine, a year before the establishment of the State of Israel. His family had immigrated from Poland before the Second World War. He earned a master's degree in science in 1971 and graduated from Hadassah Medical School in Jerusalem in 1974. He received his doctorate in biochemistry in 1982 from the Technion (the Israel Institute of Technology), in Haifa. He is currently a Technion Distinguished Research Professor in the Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute at the Technion. Ciechanover is a member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and is a foreign associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences. In 2005, he was voted the co-31st-greatest Israeli of all time, in a poll by the Israeli news website Ynet to determine whom the general public considered the 200 Greatest Israelis. As one of Israel's first Nobel Laureates in Science, he
    6.00
    2 votes
    193
    Antoine de Jussieu

    Antoine de Jussieu

    Antoine de Jussieu (6 July 1686 – 22 April 1758) was a French naturalist. Jussieu was born in Lyon, the son of Christophe de Jussieu (or Dejussieu), an apothecary of some repute, who published a Nouveau traité de la theriaque (1708). Antoine studied at the university of Montpellier, and travelled with his brother Bernard through Spain, Portugal and southern France. He went to Paris in 1708. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, whom he succeeded at the Jardin du Roi, later the Jardin des Plantes, died in that year. His own original publications are not of marked importance, but he edited an edition of Tournefort's Institutions rei herbariae (3 vols., 1719), and also a posthumous work of Jacques Barrelier, Plantae per Galliam, Hispaniam, et Italiam observatae, &c. (1714). He practiced medicine, chiefly devoting himself to the very poor.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
    6.00
    2 votes
    194
    Guillaume Duchenne

    Guillaume Duchenne

    Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer – September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology. The era of modern neurology progressed from Duchenne's understanding of the conductivity of neural pathways, his revelations of the effect of lesions on these structures and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests (NCS), and clinical photography. Neurology did not exist in France before Duchenne and although many medical historians regard Jean-Martin Charcot as the father of the discipline, Charcot owed much to Duchennne, often acknowledging him as, "mon maitre en neurologie" (my master in neurology). The American neurologist Dr. Joseph Collins (1866-1950) wrote that Duchenne found neurology, "a sprawling infant of unknown parentage which he succored to a lusty youth." His greatest contributions were made in the myopathies that came to immortalize his name, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne-Erb paralysis, Duchenne's disease (Tabes dorsalis), and Duchenne's paralysis
    6.00
    2 votes
    195
    Harry Benjamin

    Harry Benjamin

    Harry Benjamin (January 12, 1885 – August 24, 1986) was a German-born, American endocrinologist and sexologist, widely known for his clinical work with transsexualism. Benjamin was born in Berlin, and raised in an observant Ashkenazi Jewish home. He received his doctorate in medicine in 1912 in Tübingen for a dissertation on tuberculosis. Sexual medicine interested him, but was not part of his medical studies. In an interview conducted in 1985 he recalled: Following an ill-fated professional visit to the United States, the liner in which Benjamin was returning to Germany was caught mid-Atlantic both by the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, and the Royal Navy. Given the choice of a British internment camp, as an "enemy alien", or returning to New York, he used his last dollars to travel back to America, where he made his home for the rest of his life, although he maintained and built many international professional connections and visited Europe frequently when wars allowed. After several failed attempts to start a medical career in New York, in 1915 Benjamin rented a consulting room, in which he also slept, and started his own general medical practice. Later he also
    6.00
    2 votes
    196
    Maimonides

    Maimonides

    Mosheh ben Maimon (משה בן מימון)‎, called Moses Maimonides and also known as Mūsā ibn Maymūn (Arabic: موسى بن ميمون‎), or RaMBaM (רמב"ם – Hebrew acronym for "Rabbi Mosheh Ben Maimon"), was a preeminent medieval Jewish philosopher and one of the most prolific and followed Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages. He was born in Córdoba, Almoravid Empire (present-day Spain) on Passover Eve, 1135, and died in Egypt (or Tiberias) on 20th Tevet, December 12, 1204. He was a rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Morocco and Egypt. Although his writings on Jewish law and ethics were met with acclaim and gratitude from most Jews even as far off as Spain, Iraq and Yemen, and he rose to be the revered head of the Jewish community in Egypt, there were also vociferous critics of some of his rulings and other writings particularly in Spain. Nevertheless, he was posthumously acknowledged to be one of the foremost rabbinical arbiters and philosophers in Jewish history, his copious work a cornerstone of Jewish scholarship. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah still carries canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law. In the Yeshiva world he is known as "haNesher haGadol" (the great
    6.00
    2 votes
    197
    Charles E. Sawyer

    Charles E. Sawyer

    Charles Elmer Sawyer, also known as Dr. C. E. Sawyer (January 24, 1860 – September 23, 1924), was a homeopathic physician who is blamed for giving a false diagnosis of U.S. President Warren G. Harding that led to Harding's premature death. Sawyer was born near Nevada, Ohio in Wyandot County. He married May E. (Elizabeth) Barron, (1859–1945). He died in Marion County, Ohio. Dr. Sawyer was an 1881 graduate of the Cleveland Homeopathic Hospital College, Cleveland, Ohio, earning his degree in homeopathy, and began his practice outside of LaRue, Ohio in western Marion County, Ohio. Following a brief stint in Indianapolis, Indiana, the Sawyers returned to Marion where Dr. Sawyer began the construction of a modern sanatorium for the treatment of medical and emotional maladies. This building was built in three stages and is currently located on South Main Street in Marion, Ohio; the building is currently known as the Elite (E-light) Apartments. Sawyer also operated the Parkview Sanatorium in Columbus, Ohio. In the early years of the 20th century, Dr. Sawyer expanded his practice with the construction of the White Oaks Sanatorium immediately south of Marion, Ohio. The sanatorium’s name was
    5.00
    3 votes
    198
    Harold Gillies

    Harold Gillies

    Sir Harold Delf Gillies (17 June 1882 – 10 September 1960) was a New Zealand-born, and later London-based, otolaryngologist who is widely considered the father of plastic surgery. Gillies was born in Dunedin, New Zealand. He studied medicine at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University, where despite a stiff elbow (sustained sliding down the banisters at home as a child) he was a rowing blue. Gillies married Kathleen Margaret Jackson on 9 November 1911, in London. They had four children. His youngest son Michael Thomas Gillies followed his father into medicine. In addition to his career as a surgeon, he was also a champion golfer and inveterate practical joker. For many years his home was at 71 Frognal, in the heart of London's Hampstead village. A blue plaque on the front of that house now commemorates his life and work. Following the outbreak of World War I he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps. Initially posted to Wimereux, near Boulogne, he acted as medical minder to a French-American dentist, Valadier, who was not allowed to operate unsupervised but was attempting to develop jaw repair work. Gillies, eager after seeing Valadier experimenting with nascent skin graft
    5.00
    3 votes
    199
    Thomas Bartholin

    Thomas Bartholin

    Thomas Bartholin (Latinized: Bartolinus) (20 October 1616 – 4 December 1680) was a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian. He is best known for his work in the discovery of the lymphatic system in humans and for his advancements of the theory of refrigeration anesthesia, being the first to describe it scientifically. Thomas Bartholin came from a family that has become famous for its pioneering scientists, twelve of whom became professors at the University of Copenhagen. Three generations of the Bartholin family made significant contributions to anatomical science and medicine in the 17th and 18th centuries: Thomas Bartholin's father, Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585–1629), his brother Rasmus Bartholin (1625–1698), and his son Caspar Bartholin the Younger (1655–1738). In December 1652, Bartholin published the first full description of the human lymphatic system. Jean Pecquet had previously noted the lymphatic system in animals in 1651, and Pecquet's discovery of the thoracic duct and its entry into the veins made him the first person to describe the correct route of the lymphatic fluid into the blood. Shortly after the publication of Pecquet's and Bartholin's findings, a
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    2 votes
    200
    William Cheselden

    William Cheselden

    William Cheselden (19 October 1688 – 10 April 1752) was an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery, who was influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession. Cheselden was born at Somerby, Leicestershire. He studied anatomy in London under William Cowper (1666–1709), and began lecturing anatomy in 1710. That same year, he was admitted to the London Company of Barber-Surgeons, passing the final examination on 29 January 1711. He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1712 and the following year saw the publishing of his Anatomy of the Human Body, which achieved great popularity becoming an essential study source for students, lasting through thirteen editions, mainly because it was written in English instead of Latin as was customary. In 1718 he was appointed an assistant surgeon at St Thomas' Hospital in London, becoming full surgeon in 1720 where his specialisation of the removal of bladder stones resulted in the increase in survival rates. Afterwards, he was appointed surgeon for the stone at Westminster Infirmary and surgeon to Queen Caroline. He also improved eye surgery, developing new techniques, particularly in the removal of
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    2 votes
    201
    Ibn al-Haitham

    Ibn al-Haitham

    Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 in Basra – c. 1040 in Cairo) was a Muslim scientist and polymath described in various sources as either Arab or Persian. Alhazen made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to physics, astronomy, mathematics, ophthalmology, philosophy, visual perception, and to the scientific method. He also wrote insightful commentaries on works by Aristotle, Ptolemy, and the Greek mathematician Euclid. He is frequently referred to as Ibn al-Haytham, and sometimes as al-Basri (Arabic: البصري), after his birthplace in the city of Basra. He was also nicknamed Ptolemaeus Secundus ("Ptolemy the Second") or simply "The Physicist" in medieval Europe. Born circa 965, in Basra, present-day Iraq, he lived mainly in Cairo, Egypt, dying there at age 74. According to one version of his biography, overconfident about practical application of his mathematical knowledge, he assumed that he could regulate the floods of the Nile. After being ordered by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth ruler of the Fatimid caliphate, to carry out this operation, he
    4.67
    3 votes
    202
    Daniel Cornelius Danielssen

    Daniel Cornelius Danielssen

    Daniel Cornelius Danielssen (4 July 1815 – 13 July 1894) was a Norwegian physician, from Bergen. He worked with Gerhard Armauer Hansen, discovering the bacteria causing leprosy, and made Bergen a world centre of lepra research in the middle of the nineteenth century. Danielssen was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1877.
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    1 votes
    203
    Daniel Garrison Brinton

    Daniel Garrison Brinton

    Daniel Garrison Brinton (May 13, 1837 – July 31, 1899) was an American archaeologist and ethnologist. Brinton was born in Thornbury Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. After graduating from Yale University in 1858, Brinton studied at Jefferson Medical College for two years and spent the next travelling in Europe. He continued his studies at Paris and Heidelberg. From 1862 to 1865, during the American Civil War, he was a surgeon in the Union army, acting during 1864-1865 as surgeon-in-charge of the U.S. Army general hospital at Quincy, Illinois. Brinton was sun-stroked at Missionary Ridge (Third Battle of Chattanooga) and was never again able to travel in very hot weathers. This handicap affected his career as an ethnologist. After the war, Brinton practiced medicine in West Chester, Pennsylvania for several years; was the editor of a weekly periodical, the Medical and Surgical Reporter, in Philadelphia from 1874 to 1887; became professor of ethnology and archaeology in the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia in 1884; and was professor of American linguistics and archaeology in the University of Pennsylvania from 1886 until his death. He was a member of numerous learned
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    1 votes
    204
    Karl H. Pribram

    Karl H. Pribram

    • Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
    Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, German Austria) is a professor at Georgetown University, in the United States, and an emeritus professor of psychology and psychiatry at Stanford University and Radford University. Board-certified as a neurosurgeon, Pribram did pioneering work on the definition of the limbic system, the relationship of the frontal cortex to the limbic system, the sensory-specific "association" cortex of the parietal and temporal lobes, and the classical motor cortex of the human brain. To the general public, Pribram is best known for his development of the holonomic brain model of cognitive function and his contribution to ongoing neurological research into memory, emotion, motivation and consciousness. He is married to American best selling author Katherine Neville. Pribram's holonomic model of brain processing states that, in addition to the circuitry accomplished by the large fiber tracts in the brain, processing also occurs in webs of fine fiber branches (for instance, dendrites) that form webs. This type of processing is properly described by Gabor quanta of information (what is "Gabor"? not explained anywhere) , wavelets that are used in
    6.00
    1 votes
    205
    Luther Leonidas Terry

    Luther Leonidas Terry

    Luther Terry (15 September 1911 – 29 March 1985) was an American physician and public health official. He was appointed the ninth Surgeon General of the United States from 1961 to 1965, and is best known for his warnings against the dangers of and the impact of tobacco use on health. Luther Leonidas Terry was born in Red Level, Alabama. His father, James Edward Terry, M.D., a graduate of the University of Alabama School of Medicine, was the "town doctor" for Red Level. Many of Luther Terry's earliest memories were of helping his father in the pharmacy and clinical offices in Red Level and driving his father in the family's Ford Model A to emergency appointments out in the county. Luther Terry earned a B.S. degree at Birmingham-Southern College in 1931, where he was initiated into the Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity. He then received an M.D. degree at Tulane University in 1935. After interning at the Hillman Hospital in Birmingham, Alabama, and serving a residency in Cleveland Hospitals, Terry moved to Washington University in St. Louis in 1938 for an internship in pathology. The following year, he became an instructor at that institution, and subsequently served as instructor and
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    1 votes
    206
    Samuel Latham Mitchill

    Samuel Latham Mitchill

    Samuel Latham Mitchill (August 20, 1764 – September 7, 1831) was an American physician, naturalist, and politician from New York. He was born in Hempstead, New York. In 1786 he graduated from the University of Edinburgh, an education paid for by a wealthy uncle. Mitchill taught chemistry, botany, and natural history at Columbia College from 1792 until 1801, and he was a founding editor of The Medical Repository, the first medical journal in the United States. At Columbia Mitchill lectured on botany, zoology, and mineralogy, and he collected, identified, and classified many plants and animals, particularly aquatic organisms. From 1807 to 1826, he taught at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York and then helped organize the short-lived Rutgers Medical College of New Jersey, which he served as vice president until 1830. While at Columbia, Mitchill developed a fallacious theory of disease, which however resulted in his promotion of personal hygiene and better sanitation. Mitchell served in the New York State Assembly in 1791 and again in 1798 and was then elected as a Democratic-Republican to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1801 until his
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    3 votes
    207
    Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser

    Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser

    Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser (22 January 1855, Schweidnitz - 30 July 1916, Breslau) was a German physician who discovered the causative agent (pathogen) of gonorrhea, a strain of bacteria that was named in his honour (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). Neisser was born in the Silesian town of Schweidnitz (now Świdnica, in Poland), the son of a well-known Jewish physician, Dr. Moritz Neisser. After he completed the elementary school in Münsterberg, Neisser enrolled in the St. Maria Magdalena School in Breslau (now Wrocław, in Poland). In this school, he was a contemporary of another great name in the history of medicine, Paul Ehrlich. He obtained the Abitur in 1872. Neisser began to study medicine at the University of Breslau, but later moved to Erlangen, completing his studies in 1877. Initially Neisser wanted to be an internist, but did not find a suitable place. He found work, however as an assistant of the dermatologist Oskar Simon (1845–1892), concentrating on sexually transmitted diseases and leprosy. During the following two years he studied and obtained experimental evidence about the pathogen for gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Neisser was also the co-discoverer of the causative
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    2 votes
    208
    Arvid Carlsson

    Arvid Carlsson

    Arvid Carlsson (born 25 January 1923) is a Swedish scientist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson's disease. For his work on dopamine, Carlsson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000, along with co-recipients Eric Kandel and Paul Greengard. Carlsson was born in Uppsala, Sweden, son of Gottfrid Carlsson, historian and later professor of history at the Lund University, where he began his medical education in 1941. In 1944 he was participating in the task of examining prisoners of Nazi concentration camps, who Folke Bernadotte, a member of the royal Swedish family, had managed to bring to Sweden. Although Sweden was neutral during World War II, Carlsson's education was interrupted by several years of service in the Swedish Armed Forces. In 1951, he received his M.L. degree (the equivalent of the American M.D.) and his M.D. (the equivalent of the American Ph.D.). He then became a professor at the University of Lund. In 1959 he became a professor at the University of Gothenburg. In 1957 Carlsson demonstrated that dopamine was a neurotransmitter in the brain and not just a precursor for norepinephrine, as
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    2 votes
    209
    Fritz Pregl

    Fritz Pregl

    Fritz Pregl (in Slovene also Friderik Pregl) (3 September 1869 – 13 December 1930), was an Austrian chemist and physician from a mixed Slovene-German-speaking background. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1923 for making important contributions to quantitative organic microanalysis, one of which was the improvement of the combustion train technique for elemental analysis. Pregl was born in Ljubljana within Austria-Hungary to a Slovene-speaking father and German-speaking mother. He died in Graz, Austria in 1930. Pregl started his career as chemist after he studied medicine at the University of Graz. With his focus on physiology and especially chemical physiology, he suffered from the limitations of quantitative organic microanalysis. The small quantities of substances he obtained during the research of bile acid made it necessary to improve the process of elemental analysis by reducing the necessary components. At the end of his research, he had lowered the minimal amount of substance necessary for the analysis process by a factor of 50. He invited chemists to learn his method of elemental analysis, so that the method was soon widely accepted. In 1950, the department of the
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    2 votes
    210
    J. J. Becher

    J. J. Becher

    Johann Joachim Becher (6 May 1635 – October 1682) was a German physician, alchemist, precursor of chemistry, scholar and adventurer, best known for his development of the phlogiston theory of combustion, and his advancement of Austrian cameralism. He was born in Speyer. His father, a Lutheran minister, died while he was a child, leaving a widow and three children. At the age of thirteen Becher found himself responsible not only for his own support but also for that of his mother and brothers. He learned and practiced several small handicrafts, and devoting his nights to study of the most miscellaneous description and earned a pittance by teaching. In 1654, at the age of nineteen, he published an edition of Salzthal’s Tractatus de lapide trismegisto. In 1657, he was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Mainz and physician to the archbishop-elector. His Metallurgia was published in 1660; and the next year appeared his Character pro notitia linguarum universali, in which he gives 10,000 words for use as a universal language. In 1663, he published his Oedipum Chemicum and a book on animals, plants and minerals (Thier- Kräuter- und Bergbuch). In 1666, he was made
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    2 votes
    211
    Jan Brożek

    Jan Brożek

    Jan Brożek (Ioannes Broscius, Joannes Broscius or Johannes Broscius; 1 November 1585 – 21 November 1652) was a Polish polymath: a mathematician, astronomer, physician, poet, writer, musician and rector of the Kraków Academy. Brożek was born in Kurzelów, Sandomierz Province, and lived in Kraków and Międzyrzec Podlaski. He studied at the Kraków Academy (now Jagiellonian University) and at the University of Padua. He served as rector of Jagiellonian University. He was the most prominent Polish mathematician of the 17th century, working on the theory of numbers (particularly perfect numbers) and geometry. He also studied medicine, theology and geodesy. Among the problems he addressed was why bees create hexagonal honeycombs; he demonstrated that this is the most efficient way of using wax and storing honey. He contributed to a greater knowledge of Nicolaus Copernicus' theories and was his ardent supporter and early prospective biographer. Around 1612 he visited the chapter at Warmia and with the knowledge of Prince-Bishop Simon Rudnicki took from there a number of letters and documents in order to publish them, which he never did. He contributed to a better version of a short biography
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    2 votes
    212
    John Brown

    John Brown

    John Brown FRSE FRCPE (22 September 1810 – 11 May 1882) was a Scottish physician and essayist. He was the son of the clergyman John Brown (1784–1858), and was born in Biggar, Scotland. He is best known for his 3 volume collection Horae Subsecivae—"Leisure Hours" (1858), including essays and papers on art, medical history and biography. Among the former, his dog story, Rab and his Friends (1859), and his essays Pet Marjorie (1863)—on Marjorie Fleming, the ten year old prodigy and "pet" of Walter Scott, Our Dogs, Minchmoor, and The Enterkine are especially notable. He was the half-brother of the organic chemist Alexander Crum Brown. Brown was educated at the Edinburgh High School and graduated as M.D. at the University of Edinburgh in 1833, and practised as a physician in that city. John Brown was descended from eminent Presbyterian clergymen. After graduating MD in 1833 he was apprenticed, to James Syme. Brown subsequently acquired a very large medical practice in Edinburgh at a time when infectious diseases took a heavy toll of life. He was a very sociable man, and his house in 27 Rutland Street was the scene of many social gatherings. In 1840 he married Catherine Scott McKay. They
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    2 votes
    213
    Bill Frist

    Bill Frist

    William Harrison "Bill" Frist, Sr. (born February 22, 1952) is an American physician, businessman, and politician. He began his career as a heart and lung transplant surgeon and is currently a major stockholder to the for-profit hospital chain of Hospital Corporation of America. Frist later served two terms as a Republican United States Senator representing Tennessee. He was the Republican Majority Leader from 2003 until his retirement in 2007. Frist was born in Nashville, Tennessee, to Dorothy (Cate) Frist and Thomas Fearn Frist, Sr. He is a fourth-generation Tennessean. His great-great grandfather was one of the founders of Chattanooga, Tennessee, and his father was a doctor and founded the health care business organization which became Hospital Corporation of America. Frist's brother, Thomas Jr., became chairman and chief executive of Hospital Corporation of America in 1997. Frist graduated from Montgomery Bell Academy in Nashville, Tennessee, and then from Princeton University in 1974, where he specialized in health care policy at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. In 1972, he held a summer internship with Tennessee Congressman Joe Evins, who advised
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    2 votes
    214
    Edward Hand

    Edward Hand

    Edward Hand (31 December 1744 – 3 September 1802) was an Irish-born soldier, physician, and politician who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of general, and later was a member of several Pennsylvania governmental bodies. Hand was born in Clyduff, King's County (now County Offaly), Ireland, on 31 December 1744, and was baptised in Shinrone. His father was John Hand. Among his immediate neighbours were the Kearney family, ancestors of U.S. President Barack Obama [1]. He was a descendant of either the families of Mag Fhlaithimh (of south Ulaidh and Mide) or Ó Flaithimhín (of the Síol Muireadaigh) who, through mistranslation (Flaithimh/Flaithimhín into Láimhín; laimh = hand), became Lavin or Hand [2]. Hand earned a medical certificate from Trinity College, Dublin. In 1767, Hand enlisted as a Surgeon's Mate in the 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment of Foot. On 20 May 1767, he sailed with the regiment from Cobh, Cork, Ireland, arriving at Philadelphia on 11 July 1767. In 1772, he was commissioned an ensign. He marched with the regiment to Fort Pitt, on the forks of the Ohio River, returning to Philadelphia in 1774, where he resigned his
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    Thomas Walker

    Thomas Walker

    Thomas Walker (January 25, 1715–November 9, 1794) was a physician and explorer from Virginia; in the mid-18th century, he led an expedition to what is now the region beyond the Allegheny Mountains and the settled area of British North America. He was responsible for naming what is now known as the Cumberland Plateau and by extension the Cumberland River for the hero of the time, the Duke of Cumberland. His party were some of the first Englishmen to see this area; previous European explorers were largely of Spanish and French origins. Walker explored Kentucky in 1750, 19 years before the arrival of Daniel Boone. Walker served as guardian for Thomas Jefferson, who was eleven years old when his second parent, his father Peter Jefferson, died in 1757. Two of Walker's own sons, John and Francis Walker, became US Congressmen. Thomas Walker was born at "Rye Field", Walkerton, King and Queen County, Virginia. He was raised as an Englishman in the Tidewater region of Virginia. Walker's first profession was that of a physician; he had attended the College of William and Mary and studied under his brother-in-law Dr. George Gilmer. Walker became a man of status in the county when he married
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    216
    William Osler

    William Osler

    Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (/ˈɒz.lə/, July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician. He was one of the "Big Four" founding professors at Johns Hopkins Hospital as the first Professor of Medicine and founder of the Medical Service there. (The "Big Four" were William Osler, Professor of Medicine; William Stewart Halsted, Professor of Surgery; Howard A. Kelly, Professor of Gynecology; and William H. Welch, Professor of Pathology.) Osler created the first residency program for specialty training of physicians, and he was the first to bring medical students out of the lecture hall for bedside clinical training. He has been called the "Father of modern medicine." Osler was a multifaceted physician and individual, functioning as a pathologist, internist, educator, bibliophile, historian, author, and renowned practical joker. William's great grandfather, Edward Osler, was variously described as either a merchant seaman or a pirate, and one of William's uncles (Edward Osler 1798-1863), a medical officer in the Navy, wrote the Life of Lord Exmouth and the poem The Voyage. William Osler's father, Featherstone Lake Osler (1805–1895), the son of a shipowner at Falmouth,
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    217
    Alice Bunker Stockham

    Alice Bunker Stockham

    Alice Bunker Stockham (b. November 8, 1833 in Cardington, Ohio – d. December 3, 1912 in Alhambra, California) was an obstetrician and gynecologist from Chicago, and the fifth woman to be made a doctor in the United States. She promoted gender equality, dress reform, birth control, and male and female sexual fulfillment for successful marriages. A well-traveled and well-read person who counted among her friends Leo Tolstoy and Havelock Ellis, she also visited Sweden and from her trips to schools there she brought back the idea of teaching children domestic crafts, thus single-handedly establishing shop and home economics classes in the United States. Stockham lectured against the use of corsets by women, made public endorsements of the healthiness of masturbation for both men and women (still controversial when echoed by US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders more than 100 years later), advocated complete abstinence from alcohol and tobacco, and believed in women's rights. Stockham was very concerned with the economic plight of divorced women with children and prostitutes who wanted to get off the street. She felt that these women had no marketable skills and would be unable to
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    218
    Andrija Štampar

    Andrija Štampar

    Andrija Štampar (September 1, 1888 – June 26, 1958) was a distinguished scholar in the field of social medicine from Croatia. Andrija was born September 1, 1888 in Brodski Drenovac (part of Pleternica), at the time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in modern Požega-Slavonia county. From 1898 to 1906, he attended grammar school in Vinkovci. During his secondary schooling, Andrija was a brilliant pupil and, at that time, he wrote his first literary attempt, published in the periodical Pobratim in 1902. He enrolled at the Medical School in Vienna in 1906, which was at the time the most important medical center in the world. As a medical student, he initiated the editing of medical papers and wrote pamphlets and articles with the intention of educating people in health matters. In 1909 in Nova Gradiška he started publishing the series called Public Health Library discussing numerous topics regarding health and prevention. On December 23, 1911, he was awarded the title of Doctor of Universal Medicine (doctor medicinae universae). On January 1, 1912, Dr. Štampar started working at the town hospital at Karlovac and remained at this post till August 8, 1913. He enrolled in the Croatian
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    219
    Caspar Bartholin the Elder

    Caspar Bartholin the Elder

    Caspar Bartholin the Elder (12 February 1585 – 13 July 1629) was born at Malmø, Denmark (modern Sweden) and was a polymath, finally accepting a professorship in medicine at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1613. He later taught theology at the same university. His precocity was extraordinary; at three years of age he was able to read, and in his thirteenth year he composed Greek and Latin orations and delivered them in public. When he was about eighteen he went to the University of Copenhagen and afterwards studied at Rostock and Wittenberg. He then travelled through Germany, the Netherlands, England, France and Italy, and was received with marked respect at the different universities he visited. In 1613 he was chosen professor of medicine in the University of Copenhagen, and filled that office for eleven years, when, falling into a dangerous illness, he made a vow that if he should recover he would apply himself solely to the study of divinity. He fulfilled his vow by becoming professor of divinity at Copenhagen and canon of Roskilde. He died on the 13th of July 1629 at Sorø in Zealand. His work, Anatomicae Institutiones Corporis Humani (1611) was for many years a
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    220
    Christiaan Eijkman

    Christiaan Eijkman

    Christiaan Eijkman (Dutch: [ˈkrɪstiaːn ˈɛikmɐn]; 11 August 1858 – 5 November 1930) was a Dutch physician and professor of physiology whose demonstration that beriberi is caused by poor diet led to the discovery of vitamins. Together with Sir Frederick Hopkins, he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Christiaan Eijkman was born on 11 August 1858, at Nijkerk, Netherlands as the seventh child of Christiaan Eijkman, the headmaster of a local school, and Johanna Alida Pool. A year later, in 1859, the Eijkman family moved to Zaandam, where his father was appointed head of a newly founded school for advanced elementary education. It was here that Christiaan and his brothers received their early education. In 1875, after taking his preliminary examinations, Eijkman became a student at the Military Medical School of the University of Amsterdam, where he was trained as a medical officer for the Netherlands Indies Army, passing through all his examinations with honours. From 1879 to 1881, he was an assistant of T. Place, Professor of Physiology, during which time he wrote his thesis On Polarization of the Nerves, which gained him his doctoral degree, with honours, on 13 July
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    221
    Emil Adolf von Behring

    Emil Adolf von Behring

    • Medical Specialty: Infectious disease
    Emil Adolf von Behring (15 March 1854 – 31 March 1917) was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one so awarded. Behring was born Adolf Emil Behring in Hansdorf (now Ławice, Iława County), Kreis Rosenberg, Province of Prussia, now Poland. Between 1874 and 1878, he studied medicine at the Akademie für das militärärztliche Bildungswesen, Berlin. He was mainly a military doctor and then became Professor of Hygienics within the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Marburg (against the initial strenuous opposition of the faculty council), a position he would hold for the rest of his life. He and the pharmacologist Hans Horst Meyer had their laboratories in the same building, and Behring stimulated Meyer's interest in the mode of action of tetanus toxin. Behring was the discoverer of diphtheria antitoxin in 1890 and attained a great reputation by that means and by his contributions to the study of immunity. He won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901 for developing a serum therapy against diphtheria (this was helped by Kitasato Shibasaburo and worked on with Emile Roux) and tetanus. The former had been a
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    222
    Gro Harlem Brundtland

    Gro Harlem Brundtland

    Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norwegian pronunciation: [ɡruː hɑːɭɛm brʉntlɑnː] ( listen)) (born Gro Harlem, 20 April 1939) is a Norwegian Social democratic politician, diplomat, and physician, and an international leader in sustainable development and public health. She served three terms as Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986–89, 1990–96), and has served as the Director General of the World Health Organization. She now serves as a Special Envoy on Climate Change for the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. In 2008 she became the recipient of the Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture. Brundtland is also a member of the Club de Madrid, an independent organization of former leaders of democratic states, which works to strengthen democratic governance and leadership. Born in Oslo as a daughter of Gudmund Harlem, Brundtland was educated as a medical doctor (cand.med.) at the University of Oslo in 1963, and Master of Public Health at Harvard University in 1965. From 1966 to 1969, she worked as a physician at the Directorate of Health (Helsedirektoratet), and from 1969 she worked as a doctor in Oslo's public school health service. She was Norwegian Minister for
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    223
    Jan Baptist van Helmont

    Jan Baptist van Helmont

    Jan Baptist van Helmont (bapt. 12 January 1579 – 30 December 1644) was an early modern period Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician. He worked during the years just after Paracelsus and iatrochemistry, and is sometimes considered to be "the founder of pneumatic chemistry". Van Helmont is remembered today largely for his ideas on spontaneous generation, his 5-year tree experiment, and his introduction of the word "gas" (from the Greek word chaos) into the vocabulary of scientists. Van Helmont was the youngest of five children of Maria (van) Stassaert and Christiaen van Helmont, a public prosecutor and Brussels council member, who had married in the Sint-Goedele church in 1567. He was educated at Leuven, and after ranging restlessly from one science to another and finding satisfaction in none, turned to medicine. He interrupted his studies, and for a few years he traveled through Switzerland, Italy, France, and England. Returning to his own country, van Helmont obtained a medical degree in 1599 . He practiced at Antwerp at the time of the great plague in 1605. In 1609 he finally obtained his doctoral degree in medicine. The same year he married Margaret van Ranst, who was of a
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    Joseph Warren

    Joseph Warren

    Dr. Joseph Warren (June 11, 1741 – June 17, 1775) was an American doctor who played a leading role in American Patriot organizations in Boston in early days of the American Revolution, eventually serving as president of the revolutionary Massachusetts Provincial Congress. Warren enlisted Paul Revere and William Dawes on April 18, 1775, to leave Boston and spread the alarm that the British garrison in Boston was setting out to raid the town of Concord and arrest rebel leaders John Hancock and Samuel Adams. Warren participated in the next day's Battles of Lexington and Concord, which are commonly considered to be the opening engagements of the American Revolutionary War. Warren had been commissioned a Major General in the colony's militia shortly before the June 17, 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill. Rather than exercising his rank, Warren served in the battle as a private soldier, and was killed in combat when British troops stormed the redoubt atop Breed's Hill. His death, immortalized in John Trumbull's painting, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker's Hill, June 17, 1775, galvanized the rebel forces, and he has been memorialized in many place names in the United
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    Patrick Trevor-Roper

    Patrick Trevor-Roper

    Patrick Trevor-Roper (7 June 1916 - 22 April 2004), British eye surgeon and pioneer gay rights activist, was one of the first people in the United Kingdom to "come out" as openly gay, and played a leading role in the campaign to repeal the UK's anti-gay laws. He was born in Northumberland, the son of a doctor, and the brother of historian Hugh Trevor-Roper. He was educated at Charterhouse, Cambridge University and the Westminster Medical School. During World War II he served in the Royal New Zealand Army Medical Corps in the Mediterranean. After the war he became a specialist in ophthalmic surgery, and divided his working life between work in public hospitals and a lucrative private practice in London. In 1955 Trevor-Roper agreed to appear as a witness before the Wolfenden Committee, which had been appointed by the British government to investigate (among other things) whether male homosexuality should remain a crime. He was one of only three men who could be found to appear as openly-gay witnesses before the Committee. The others were the journalist Peter Wildeblood (who had been convicted of a homosexual offence) and Carl Winter, director of the Fitzwilliam Museum. Trevor-Roper
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    226
    Sushruta

    Sushruta

    Sushruta was a surgeon and teacher of Ayurveda who flourished in the Indian city of Kashi by the 6th century BC. The medical treatise Sushruta Samhita—compiled in Vedic Sanskrit—is attributed to him. The Sushruta Samhita contains multiple detailed references to diseases and medical procedures. He is considered to be the Father of Surgery. Sushruta served as a surgeon in Kashi, where he practiced medicine and identified the treatment and origin of several diseases. The earliest literature of India is dated to before 1400 BC and Brahmic family of scripts appeared by the 3rd century BC. Greater diversity is visible in literary works during the 1st millennium BCE, which is when the medical treatise Sushruta Samhita makes its appearance. Sushruta's work was compiled by 6th century BCE. Sushruta is familiar with the religious text Atharva-veda and his work finds mention in the Brāhmaṇas literature, specifically Shatapatha Brahmana. Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)— on the work of the surgeon Sushruta—write: The main vehicle of the transmission of knowledge during that period was by oral method. The language used was Sanskrit — the vedic language of that period (2000-500 BC). The most authentic
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    John Hunter

    John Hunter

    John Hunter FRS (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon regarded as one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. The Hunterian Society of London was named in his honour. He was the husband of Anne Hunter, a teacher, and friend of, and collaborator with, Edward Jenner, the inventor of the smallpox vaccine. Hunter was born at Long Calderwood, now part of East Kilbride, Lanarkshire, Scotland the youngest of ten children. The date of his birth is uncertain. Robert Chamber's "Book of Days" (1868) gives an alternative birth date of 14 July, and Hunter is recorded as always celebrating his birthday on the 14th rather than the 13 July shown in the parish register of the town of his birth. Family papers cite his birthday as being variously on the 7th and the 9th February. Three of Hunter's siblings (one of which had also been named John) had died of illness before John Hunter was born. An elder brother was William Hunter, the anatomist. As a youth, John showed little talent, and helped his brother-in-law as a cabinet-maker. In 1771 he married Anne Home, daughter of
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    228
    Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

    Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

    Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, LSA, MD (9 June 1836 – 17 December 1917), was an English physician and feminist, the first Englishwoman to qualify as a physician and surgeon in Britain, the co-founder of the first hospital staffed by women, the first dean of a British medical school, the first woman M.D. in France, the first woman in Britain to be elected to a school board and, as Mayor of Aldeburgh, the first female mayor and magistrate in Britain. Elizabeth Garrett was born on 9 June 1836 in London, the second of eleven children of Newson Garrett (1812–1893), from Leiston, Suffolk, and his wife, Louisa née Dunnell (1813–1903), from London. The Garrett ancestors had been ironworkers in East Suffolk since the early seventeenth century. Newson was the youngest of three sons and not academically inclined, although he possessed the family’s entrepreneurial spirit. When he finished school, the town of Leiston offered little to Newson, so he left for London to make his fortune. There, he fell in love with his brother’s sister-in-law, Louisa Dunnell, the daughter of an innkeeper of Suffolk origin. After their wedding, the couple went to live in a pawnbroker’s shop at 1 Commercial Road,
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    Josiah Bartlett

    Josiah Bartlett

    Josiah Bartlett (November 21, 1729 – May 19, 1795) was an American physician and statesman, delegate to the Continental Congress for New Hampshire and signatory of the Declaration of Independence. He was later Chief Justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court of Judicature and Governor of the state. Josiah Bartlett was born in Amesbury, Massachusetts, to Stephen and Hannah-Mary (Webster) Bartlett. His father Stephen was the son of Richard and Hannah (Emery) Bartlett. He was their fifth child and fourth son. By age 17, he had built a foundation in Latin and learned some Greek. He also began the study of medicine, working in the office of Dr. Ordway of Amesbury at the same time. Before Bartlett turned 21, in 1750, he moved to Kingston, New Hampshire, in Rockingham County, and began his practice. Kingston at that time was a frontier settlement of only a few hundred families, and Bartlett was the only doctor in that part of the county at the time. He purchased land and a farm. On January 15, 1754, he married Mary Bartlett (according to genealogy records stored in the Harvard College Library, he married Hannah Webster) of Newton, New Hampshire. She was his cousin, the daughter of his
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    230
    Maximilian Bircher-Benner

    Maximilian Bircher-Benner

    Maximilian Oskar Bircher-Benner (August 22, 1867, Aarau – January 24, 1939) was a Swiss physician and a pioneer in nutritional research. At his sanatorium in Zürich, a balanced diet of raw vegetables and fruit was used as a means to heal patients, contrary to the beliefs commonly held at the end of the 19th century. He is best known for the invention of the muesli cereal, although his invention differs significantly from what is today known as muesli, and in Switzerland specifically as Bircher Müesli. Bircher-Benner changed the eating habits of the late 19th century. Instead of much meat and white bread, he postulated eating fruit, vegetables and nuts. His ideas included not only controlled nutrition, but also spartan physical discipline. At his Zürich sanatorium off Bircher-Benner-Platz, the patients had to follow a somewhat monastic daily schedule including early bedtime (21:00), physical training and active gardening work. His theory of life was based on harmony between people and nature. Some of his ideas originate from observing the daily life of shepherds in the Swiss Alps, who lived a simple and healthy life. In the late 20th century, after closure of the sanatorium, it was
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    231
    Samuel Freeman Miller

    Samuel Freeman Miller

    Samuel Freeman Miller (April 5, 1816 – October 13, 1890) was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1862–1890. He was a physician and lawyer. Born in Richmond, Kentucky, Miller was the son of yeoman farmers. He earned a medical degree in 1838 from Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky. While practicing medicine for a decade, he studied the law on his own and was admitted to the bar in 1847. Favoring the abolition of slavery, which was prevalent in middle Kentucky, he supported the Whigs in Kentucky. Miller moved to Keokuk, Iowa, a state more amenable to his views on slavery. Active in Hawkeye politics, he supported Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 election. Lincoln nominated Miller to the Supreme Court on July 16, 1862, after the beginning of the American Civil War. His reputation was so high that Miller was confirmed half an hour after the Senate received notice of his nomination. His opinions strongly favored Lincoln's positions, and he upheld his wartime suspension of habeas corpus and trials by military commission. After the war, his narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment—he wrote the opinion in the Slaughterhouse Cases—limited the effectiveness of
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    232
    Theodor Billroth

    Theodor Billroth

    • Medical Specialty: Surgery
    Christian Albert Theodor Billroth (26 April 1829 at Bergen auf Rügen in the Kingdom of Prussia – 6 February 1894) was a Prussian-born Austrian surgeon and amateur musician. As a surgeon, he is generally regarded as the founding father of modern abdominal surgery. As a musician, he was a close friend and confidante of Johannes Brahms, a leading patron of the Viennese musical scene, and one of the first to attempt a scientific analysis of musicality. Billroth went to school in Greifswald, and afterwards enrolled himself at the University of Greifswald to study medicine. He then followed his professor, Wilhelm Baum, to the University of Göttingen, and completed his medical doctorate at the University of Berlin. Along with Rudolph Wagner (1805–1864) and Georg Meissner (1829–1905), Billroth went to Trieste to study the torpedo fish. Billroth worked as a doctor from 1853–1860 at the Charité in Berlin. In Berlin he was also apprenticed to Carl Langenbuch. From 1860–1867 he was Professor at the University of Zurich and director of the surgical hospital and clinic in Zurich. While in Zurich, Billroth published his classic textbook Die allgemeine chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie (General
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    233
    Anders Sparrman

    Anders Sparrman

    Anders Erikson Sparrman (27 February 1748, Tensta, Uppland – 9 August 1820) was a Swedish naturalist, abolitionist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. Sparrman was the son of a clergyman. At the age of nine he enrolled at Uppsala University, beginning medical studies at fourteen and becoming one of the outstanding pupils of Linnaeus. In 1765 he went on a voyage to China as ship's doctor, returning two years later and describing the animals and plants he had encountered. On this voyage he met Carl Gustaf Ekeberg. He sailed for the Cape of Good Hope in January 1772 to take up a post as a tutor. When James Cook arrived there later in the year at the start of his second voyage, Sparrman was taken on as assistant naturalist to Johann and Georg Forster. After the voyage he returned to Cape Town in July 1775 and practiced medicine, earning enough to finance a journey into the interior. In 1776 he returned to Sweden, where he had been awarded an honorary doctorate in his absence. He was also elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1777. He was appointed keeper of the natural historical collections of the Academy of Sciences in 1780, Professor of natural history and
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    234
    Anton Chekhov

    Anton Chekhov

    Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов, pronounced [ɐnˈton ˈpavləvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕexəf]; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian physician, dramatist and author who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short stories in history. His career as a dramatist produced four classics and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Chekhov practised as a doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress." Chekhov renounced the theatre after the disastrous reception of The Seagull in 1896, but the play was revived to acclaim in 1898 by Constantin Stanislavski's Moscow Art Theatre, which subsequently also produced Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and premiered his last two plays, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. These four works present a challenge to the acting ensemble as well as to audiences, because in place of conventional action Chekhov offers a "theatre of mood" and a "submerged life in the text." Chekhov had at first written stories only for financial gain, but as his artistic ambition grew, he made formal innovations which have influenced the evolution of the
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    235
    Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland

    Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland

    Christoph Wilhelm Friedrich Hufeland (12 August 1762, Langensalza – 25 August 1836, Berlin) was a German physician. He is famous as the most eminent practical physician of his time in Germany and as the author of numerous works displaying extensive reading and a cultivated critical faculty. Hufeland was born at Langensalza, Saxony (now Thuringia) and educated at Weimar, where his father held the office of court physician to the grand duchess. In 1780 he entered the University of Jena, and in the following year went on to Göttingen, where in 1783 he graduated in medicine. After assisting his father for some years at Weimar, he was called in 1793 to the chair of medicine at Jena, receiving at the same time the positions of court physician and professor of Pathology at Weimar. In 1798 Frederick William III of Prussia granted him the position director of the medical college and generally of state medical affairs at the Charité, in Berlin. He filled the chair of pathology and therapeutics in the University of Berlin, founded in 1809, and in 1810 became councillor of state. In 1823, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In time he became as famous as Goethe,
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    Doctors' Trial

    Doctors' Trial

    The Doctors' Trial (officially United States of America v. Karl Brandt, et al.) was the first of 12 trials for war crimes that the United States authorities held in their occupation zone in Nuremberg, Germany after the end of World War II. These trials were held before US military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, but took place in the same rooms at the Palace of Justice. The trials are collectively known as the "Subsequent Nuremberg Trials", formally the "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals" (NMT). Twenty of the 23 defendants were medical doctors (Viktor Brack, Rudolf Brandt, and Wolfram Sievers were Nazi officials) and were accused of having been involved in Nazi human experimentation and mass murder under the guise of euthanasia. Josef Mengele, one of the leading Nazi doctors, had evaded capture. The judges in this case, heard before Military Tribunal I, were Walter B. Beals (presiding judge) from Washington, Harold L. Sebring from Florida, and Johnson T. Crawford from Oklahoma, with Victor C. Swearingen, a former special assistant to the Attorney General of the United States, as an alternate judge. The Chief of Counsel for the
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    237
    Frederick Cook

    Frederick Cook

    Frederick Albert Cook (June 10, 1865 – August 5, 1940) was an American explorer and physician, noted for his claim of having reached the North Pole on April 21, 1908. This would have been a year before April 6, 1909, the date claimed by Robert Peary. Cook was born in Brooklyn, in Sullivan County, New York. His parents were Dr. Theodore A. Koch and Magdalena Long, recent German immigrants to the United States. Cook attended Columbia University, receiving his M.D. in 1890. In 1889 he married Libby Forbes, who died in 1890. On his 37th birthday he married Marie Fidele Hunt; they had one daughter, Helene. In 1923 they were divorced, possibly for financial reasons related to an upcoming fraud trial. Cook was the surgeon on Robert Peary's 1891–1892 Arctic expedition, and on the Belgian Antarctic Expedition of 1897–1899 led by Adrien de Gerlache. He contributed greatly to saving the lives of the crew when their ship (the Belgica) was ice-bound during the winter. A fellow crew-member was Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, with whom he established a friendship and lifelong relationship of mutual respect. In 1898, during this expedition, Cook visited Tierra del Fuego, where he met Thomas
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    Galen

    Galen

    Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (AD 129–c. 200), better known as Galen of Pergamon (modern-day Bergama, Turkey), was a prominent Roman (of Greek ethnicity) physician, surgeon and philosopher. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen contributed greatly to the understanding of numerous scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic. The son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher. He traveled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors. Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by many ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for nearly two millennia. His anatomical reports, based mainly on
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    239
    George Washington Crile

    George Washington Crile

    George Washington Crile (November 11, 1864, Chili, Ohio – January 7, 1943, Cleveland, Ohio) was a significant American surgeon. Crile is now formally recognized as the first surgeon to have succeeded in a direct blood transfusion. He also contributed to other procedures, such as neck dissection. Crile designed a small haemostatic forceps which bears his name; the Crile mosquito clamp. He also described a technique for using opioids, regional anaesthesia and general anaesthesia which is a concept known as balanced anaesthesia. He is known for co-founding the Cleveland Clinic in 1921. Crile graduated from Ohio Northern University in 1884, and in 1887 received his M.D. from Wooster Medical College which merged to form modern day Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. He did further study at Vienna, London and Paris. He taught at Wooster from 1889 to 1900. He was professor of Clinical Medicine at Western Reserve University from 1900 to 1911, and was then made professor of Surgery. He was Chair of Surgery at University Hospitals Case Medical Center from 1910 to 1924, and established its Lakeside Hospital. During the Spanish-American War, he was made a member of the Medical
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    Guillaume Dupuytren

    Guillaume Dupuytren

    Baron Guillaume Dupuytren (5 October 1777 – 8 February 1835) was a French anatomist and military surgeon. Although he gained much esteem for treating Napoleon Bonaparte's hemorrhoids, he is best known today for Dupuytren's contracture which is named after him and which he described in 1831. Guillaume Dupuytren was born in the town of Pierre-Buffière in the present-day department of Haute-Vienne. He studied medicine in Paris at the newly established École de Médecine and was appointed, by competition, prosector when only eighteen years of age. His early studies were directed chiefly to anatomical pathology. In 1803 he was appointed assistant surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu and in 1811 he became professor of operative surgery in succession to Raphael Bienvenu Sabatier. In 1816 he was appointed to the chair of clinical surgery and became head surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu. He held this post until his death. He visited the Hôtel-Dieu morning and evening, performing at each time several operations, lectured to vast throngs of students, gave advice to his outpatients, and fulfilled the duties consequent upon one of the largest practices of modern times. By his indefatigable activity he amassed a
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    241
    Hesy-Ra

    Hesy-Ra

    Hesy-Ra (alt. Hesire, Hesira) was an official, physician (possibly the first known in history) and scribe who lived during the Third dynasty of Egypt, served under the pharaoh Djoser, and was buried in an elaborate tomb at Saqqara. He bore titles such as "Chief of Dentists and Physicians" and "Chief of the King's Scribes". The wooden panels of Hesy-Ra are rare examples of high execution of hieroglyphs on wood. The panels are in raised bas relief and have some of the oldest forms of the Egyptian language hieroglyphs. The panels contain a hieroglyph story, (at the top) and a thematic portrayal of Hesy-Ra in different poses.
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    242
    Johann Spurzheim

    Johann Spurzheim

    Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) was a German physician who became one of the chief proponents of phrenology created approximately in 1800 by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828). Appletons' Cyclopaedia of Biography (1856) stated that "his works are too well known to require particular description". Spurzheim was born near Trier, Germany on December 31, 1776, and studied medicine at the University of Vienna. He became acquainted with Gall in 1800 and was soon hired by him as an assistant. Gall intended to have Spurzheim as his successor and added his name as a co-author to books and publications. In 1812, however, Gall and Spurzheim had a falling out, and Spurzheim started a separate career, lecturing and writing extensively on what he termed 'Drs. Gall and Spurzheim's physiognomical System'. He greatly popularised phrenology, and travelled extensively throughout Europe, achieving considerable success in England and France. He died of typhoid in Boston, in 1832, cutting short his first and only American tour. After the public autopsy of Spurzheim, his brain, skull, and heart were removed, preserved in jars of alcohol as relics, and put on display to the public. Adoring Bostonians
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    243
    Jonas Salk

    Jonas Salk

    Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914 – June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist, best known for his discovery and development of the first polio vaccine. He was born in New York City to parents from Ashkenazi Jewish Russian immigrant families. Although they did not have much formal education, his parents were determined to see their children succeed. While attending New York University School of Medicine, Salk stood out from his peers not just because of his academic prowess, but because he chose to do medical research instead of becoming a practicing physician. Until 1955, when the Salk vaccine was introduced, polio was considered the most frightening public health problem of the post-war United States. Annual epidemics were increasingly devastating. The 1952 epidemic was the worst outbreak in the nation's history. Of nearly 58,000 cases reported that year, 3,145 people died and 21,269 were left with mild to disabling paralysis, with most of its victims being children. The "public reaction was to a plague," said historian William O'Neill. "Citizens of urban areas were to be terrified every summer when this frightful visitor returned." According to a 2009 PBS
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    244
    Josef Leopold Auenbrugger

    Josef Leopold Auenbrugger

    Josef Leopold Auenbrugger or Leopold von Auenbrugg (19 November 1722 – 17 May 1809) was the Austrian physician who invented percussion as a diagnostic technique. On the strength of this discovery, he is considered one of the founders of modern medicine. Auenbrugger was a native of Graz in Styria, an Austrian province. His father, a hotel keeper, gave his son every opportunity for an excellent preliminary education in his native town and then sent him to Vienna to complete his studies at the university. Auenbrugger was graduated as a physician at the age of 22 and then entered the Spanish Military Hospital of Vienna, where he spent 10 years. He found out that, by applying his ear to the patient and tapping lightly on the chest, one could assess the texture of underlying tissues and organs. This technique of percussive diagnosis had its origins in testing the level of wine casks in the cellar of his father's hotel. With this method, he was able to plot outlines of the heart. It was the first time that a physician could relatively accurately and objectively determine an important sign of diseases. He published his findings in a booklet, but nobody paid much attention to it. During his
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    245
    Luca Ghini

    Luca Ghini

    Luca Ghini (Casalfiumanese 1490 – Bologna, May 4, 1556) was an Italian physician and botanist, notable as the creator of the first recorded herbarium, as well as the first botanical garden in Europe. Ghini was born in Casalfiumanese, son of a notary, and studied medicine at the University of Bologna. By 1527 he was lecturing there on medicinal plants, and eventually became a professor. He moved to Pisa in 1544, while maintaining his home in Bologna. He created the first herbarium (hortus siccus) in that year, drying plants while pressing them between pieces of paper, then gluing them to cardboard. 1544 also saw the establishment of a garden for live plants, which became known as the Orto botanico di Pisa. Ghini published no significant botanical work of his own, but was noted as a teacher many of whose students went on to significant careers, including Cesalpino and Pietro Andrea Mattioli, the latter of which he helped by travelling around the Mediterranean and Near East in search for plants that matched the mystifying descriptions of Dioscorides. A Placiti describing Ghini's travels was published posthumously.
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    246
    Luigi Galvani

    Luigi Galvani

    Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Latin: Aloysius Galvani) (September 9, 1737 – December 4, 1798) was an Italian physician and physicist who had also studied medicine and had practised as a doctor, lived and died in Bologna. In 1771, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by a spark. This was one of the first forays into the study of bioelectricity, a field that still today studies the electrical patterns and signals of the nervous system. Luigi Galvani was born to Domenico and Barbara Foschi in Bologna, Italy. His father, Domenico, was a goldsmith and his mother Barbara, was Domenico's fourth wife. His family was not aristocracy, but they could afford to send at least one of their sons to undertake a scholarly career. At first he wished to enter the church and joined a religious institution, Oratorio dei Padri Filippini, at 15 years old. He was going to take his religious vows, but was discouraged from doing so. In approximately 1755, Galvani entered the Faculty of the Arts of the University of Bologna. Galvani attended the medicine course, which lasted four years, and was characterized by its 'bookish' teaching. Texts that dominated this course were by
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    247
    Max Nonne

    Max Nonne

    Max Nonne (13 January 1861, Hamburg – 12 August 1959) was a German neurologist. Max Nonne received his early education at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums in Hamburg. He studied at the Universities of Heidelberg, Freiburg, and Berlin, obtaining his doctorate in 1884 at Hamburg University. Afterwards he served as an assistant in the Heidelberg medical clinic under Wilhelm Heinrich Erb (1840-1921) and in the surgical clinic in Kiel under Johannes Friedrich August von Esmarch (1823-1908), later settling in Hamburg as a neurologist (1889). During the same year he became head physician in the department of internal medicine at the Red Cross Hospital. In 1896 he was appointed director of neurology at the Eppendorf Hospital, Hamburg. Nonne became a titular professor of neurology in 1913, and in 1919 began teaching classes in neurology at the newly founded University of Hamburg, where in 1925 he became professor ordinarius. Here he worked with Alfons Maria Jakob (1884-1931). Max Nonne was one of the four German physicians asked to investigate Vladimir Ilich Lenin during the Russian leaders' final disease.
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    248
    Oronhyatekha

    Oronhyatekha

    Oronhyatekha (10 August 1841 – 3 March 1907), ("Burning Sky" or "Burning Cloud" in the Mohawk language, also carried the baptismal name Peter Martin), was a Mohawk physician, scholar, and a unique figure in the history of British colonialism. He was the first known aboriginal Oxford scholar; the second aboriginal medical doctor in Canada; a successful CEO of a multinational financial institution; a native statesman; an athlete of international standing; and an outspoken champion of the rights of women, children, and minorities. While all this would be remarkable in any age, that he achieved it during the Victorian era when racism and assimilation were official state policies, has made him a figure approaching legend in some aboriginal circles. Born 10 August 1841 on the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation near Brantford, Ontario, he attended the Wesleyan Academy in Wilbraham, Massachusetts. After graduating, he taught for a year among the Indians and then entered Kenyon College. Oronhyatekha was selected at the age of twenty by the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy (consisting of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora Nations) to give the welcoming
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    249
    Ryszard Gryglewski

    Ryszard Gryglewski

    Ryszard Jerzy Gryglewski (born 4 August 1932 in Wilno) is a Polish physician. Member of the Polish Academy of Learning (PAU) and the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN). Gryglewski graduated in Medicine in Kraków, where he also wrote his doctorate in Pharmacology and in 1971 became a professor. He is a member of many pharmacological associations around the world, and since 1993 director of the Jagiellońskie Centrum Badań Medycznych (Jagiellonian Medical Research Centre). His scientific work concerns experimental pharmacology. His research focuses on the contribution of the blood-vascular system in building up immunity against thrombosis in the development of sclerosis. In 1976, together with J. Vane and S. Moncada, he discovered prostacyclin, which set off many further scientific discoveries.
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    250
    Vladimir Bekhterev

    Vladimir Bekhterev

    Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (Bechterev) (Влади́мир Миха́йлович Бе́хтерев; January 20, 1857 – December 24, 1927) was a Russian neurologist and the father of objective psychology. He is best known for noting the role of the hippocampus in memory, his study of reflexes, and Bekhterev’s disease. Moreover, he is known for his competition with Ivan Pavlov regarding the study of conditioned reflexes. He coined the term "invasion of the psyche" in the field of hypnosis, was a teacher for the officers of the NKVD (KGB). Vladimir Bekhterev was born in Sorali, a village in the Viatka Territory of Russia. Bekhterev's childhood was not without difficulty. For instance, his father, a low ranking government official, died when he was young. While his childhood was not simple, Bekhterev did have the opportunity to attend Vyataka gymnasium in 1867, one of the oldest schools in Russia as well as the Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg in 1873. Then he studied in St. Petersburg Medicosurgical Academy where he worked under professor Jan Lucjan Mierzejewski (pl). It was here where Bekhterev's interest in the discipline neuropathology and psychiatry was first sparked. Russia went to war with
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