An "organization type" describes what sort of organization something is -- a fraternal organization, an NGO, a trade union, a writers' group, etc.
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An incorporated entity is a separate legal entity that has been incorporated through a legislative or registration process established through legislation. Incorporated entities have legal rights and liabilities that are distinct from its shareholders, and may conduct business for either profit-seeking business or not for profit purposes. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an ad hoc act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. In addition to legal personality, registered companies tend to have limited liability, be owned by shareholders who can transfer their shares to others, and controlled by a board of directors who the shareholders appoint.
In American English the word corporation is widely used to describe incorporated entities, especially those that have a large number of shareholders, and in respect of which, ownership can be transferred without the need for the consent of other shareholders. In British English and in the commonwealth countries, the term public company is more widely to describe the same sort of entity while the word
A secret society is a club or organization whose activities and inner functioning are concealed from non-members. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence. The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence agencies or guerrilla insurgencies, which hide their activities and memberships but maintain a public presence. The exact qualifications for labeling a group as a secret society are disputed, but definitions generally rely on the degree to which the organization insists on secrecy, and might involve the retention and transmission of secret knowledge, denial of membership in or knowledge of the group, the creation of personal bonds between members of the organization, and the use of secret rites or rituals which solidify members of the group.
Anthropologically and historically, secret societies are deeply interlinked with the concept of the Mannerbund, the all-male "warrior-band" or "warrior-society" of pre-modern cultures (see H. Schurtz, Alterklassen und Mannerbunde, Berlin, 1902; A. Van Gennep, The Rites of Passage, Chicago, 1960).
Several definitions for the term have been put forward. The term "secret society" is generally used to describe
In business, an independent business as a term of distinction generally refers to privately owned companies (as opposed to those companies owned publicly through a distribution of shares on the market). Independent businesses most commonly take the form of sole-proprietorships. "Independent" is frequently used to distinguish one-of-a-kind businesses from corporate chains or conglomerates.
Other terms of distinction used in addition to independent businesses include small business, locally-owned business and startup business, which have varying subtleties of distinction.
Independent is usually referred to as Indie.
A film distributor is a company or individual responsible for releasing films to the public either theatrically or for home viewing (DVD, Video-On-Demand, Download, Television programs through broadcast syndication etc.). A distributor may do this directly (if the distributor owns the theaters or film distribution networks) or through theatrical exhibitors and other sub-distributors.
If a distributor is working with a theatrical exhibitor, the distributor secures a written contract stipulating the amount of the gross ticket sales to be paid to the distributor by the exhibitor (usually a percentage of the gross) after first deducting a "floor", which is called a "house allowance" (also known as the "nut"), collects the amount due, audits the exhibitor's ticket sales as necessary to ensure the gross reported by the exhibitor is accurate, secures the distributor's share of these proceeds, and transmits the remainder to the production company (or to any other intermediary, such as a film release agent).
The distributor must also ensure that enough film prints are struck to service all contracted exhibitors on the contract-based opening day, ensure their physical delivery to the theater
Organizations of this type:Lance Armstrong Foundation
A nonprofit organization (US) or not-for-profit organisation (UK and elsewhere) (NPO) is an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals rather than distributing them as profit or dividends. States in the United States defer to the IRS designation conferred under United States Internal Revenue Code Section 501(c), when the IRS deems an organization eligible.
While not-for-profit organizations are permitted to generate surplus revenues, they must be retained by the organization for its self-preservation, expansion, or plans. NPOs have controlling members or boards. Many have paid staff including management, while others employ unpaid volunteers and even executives who work with or without compensation (occasionally nominal). Where there is a token fee, in general, it is used to meet legal requirements for establishing a contract between the executive and the organization.
Designation as a nonprofit and an intent to make money are not related in the United States. This means nothing can be conferred by the declaration. It is unclear whether or not this holds outside of the U.S. In the United States, such inference is the purpose of the Internal Revenue Code, Section
Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). This can include web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. However, among web professionals, "web development" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding. Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, or social network services.
For larger organizations and businesses, web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (web developers). Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting webmaster, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer and/or information systems technician. Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department.
Since the mid-1990s, web development has been one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In
Gay is a word (a noun or an adjective) that primarily refers to a homosexual person (noun) or the trait of being homosexual (adjective).
The term was originally used to refer to feelings of being "carefree", "happy", or "bright and showy"; it had also come to acquire some connotations of "immorality" as early as 1637. The term's use as a reference to homosexuality may date as early as the late 19th century, but its use gradually increased in the 20th century. In modern English, gay has come to be used as an adjective, and as a noun, referring to the people, especially to men, and the practices and cultures associated with homosexuality. By the end of the 20th century, the word gay was recommended by major LGBT groups and style guides to describe people attracted to members of the same sex. At about the same time, a new, pejorative use became prevalent in some parts of the world. In the Anglosphere, this connotation, among younger speakers, has a derisive meaning equivalent to rubbish or stupid (as in "That's so gay."). In this use, the word does not mean "homosexual", so it can be used, for example, to refer to an inanimate object or abstract concept of which one disapproves. This
In the United States of America and Canada, a regional sports network, or RSN, is a cable television station that presents sports programming to a local market. The most important programming on an RSN consists of live broadcasts of professional and college sporting events, as those games generate an overwhelming percentage of an RSN's advertising income. During the rest of the day, these stations show other sports and recreation programming. These channels are often the source content for out-of-market packages.
Regional sports networks are generally among the most expensive channels on a cable television lineup, due to the expense of rights to the local sports they carry. A typical RSN, as of 2012, carries a retransmission fee of $2 to $3 per subscriber, lower than ESPN and premium channels but higher than all other cable networks. These high prices are supported by demand for the often popular local sports teams they carry; transmission disputes between distributors and RSNs are often controversial and protracted.
Most regional sports networks in the United States are either affiliated with Fox Sports Net or Comcast SportsNet, with supplemental programming from networks such as
Organizations of this type:Daniel Smith Artists' Materials
Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to the end-user. Retailers are part of an integrated system called the supply chain. A retailer purchases goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells smaller quantities to the consumer for a profit. Retailing can be done in either fixed locations or online. Retailing includes subordinated services, such as delivery. The term "retailer" is also applied where a service provider services the needs of a large number of individuals, such as a public utility, like electric power.
Shops may be on residential streets, streets with few or no houses or in a shopping mall. Shopping streets may be for pedestrians only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full roof to protect customers from precipitation. Online retailing, a type of electronic commerce used for business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions and mail order, are forms of non-shop retailing.
Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it is done as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often
A national trade union center is a federation or confederation of trade unions in a single country. Nearly every country in the world has a national trade union center, and many have more than one. When there is more than one national center, it is often because of ideological differences—in some cases long-standing historic differences. Some countries, such as the Scandinavian, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland have different centers for blue collar workers and professionals.
Among the larger national centers in the world are the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations and the Change to Win Federation in the USA; the Canadian Labour Congress; the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in Britain; the Irish Congress of Trade Unions; the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU); the Congress of South African Trade Unions; the Dutch FNV; the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish LO; the German DGB; the French CGT and CFDT; the Italian CISL, CGIL and UIL; the Japan Trade Union Confederation RENGO; the Argentinian CGT and CTA; the Brazilian CUT, and so on.
Many national trade union centers are now members of the International Trade Union Confederation though some belong to
Take-out or takeout (in North American, Philippine English), carry-out (in U.S., Scottish English), take-away (in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Hong Kong and Ireland), or parcel (in Indian English and Pakistani English), is food purchased at a restaurant for the purpose of being eaten elsewhere.
The restaurant may or may not provide table service. Take-out is usually cheaper than table service for the same dishes. In the United States and Canada, food ordered this way (especially in fast food) is ordered to go, and in the UK it is ordered to take away or sometimes to eat out, as opposed to eating in or dining in.
Foam food containers are most commonly used, but paper, cardboard, and plastic containers may be used.
Take-out food is often fast food, but not always so. Whereas fast food carries the connotation of a standardized product from a globalized chain or franchise, take-away outlets are often small businesses serving traditional food, which is sometimes but by no means always of high quality. Examples include neighbourhood fish and chip shops in England, Australia and New Zealand; sandwiches sold by delis in the U.S.; kebabs sold in many countries;
In the United States, an honor society is a rank organization that recognizes excellence among peers. Numerous societies recognize various fields and circumstances. The Order of the Arrow, for example, is the national honor society of the Boy Scouts of America. Chiefly, the term refers to scholastic honor societies, those that recognize students who excel academically or as leaders among their peers, often within a specific academic discipline.
Many honor societies invite students to become members based on the scholastic rank (the top x% of a class) and/or grade point averages of those students, either overall, or for classes taken within the discipline for which the honor society provides recognition. In cases where academic achievement would not be an appropriate criterion for membership, other standards are usually required for membership (such as completion of a particular ceremony or training program). It is also common for a scholastic honor society to add a criterion relating to the character of the student. Some honor societies are invitation only while others allow unsolicited applications. Finally, membership in an honor society might be considered exclusive, i.e., a
Poultry farming is the raising of domesticated birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry are farmed in great numbers with chickens being the most numerous. More than 50 billion chickens are raised annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs. Chickens raised for eggs are usually called laying hens whilst chickens raised for meat are often called broilers. In total, the UK alone consumes over 29 million eggs per day. In the US, the national organization overseeing poultry production is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the UK, the national organisation is the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).
According to the Worldwatch Institute, 74 percent of the world's poultry meat, and 68 percent of eggs are produced in ways that are described as 'intensive'. One alternative to intensive poultry farming is free-range farming, however, this method of husbandry also uses large flock sizes in high stocking densities. Friction between supporters of these two main methods of poultry farming has led to long-term issues of ethical consumerism. Opponents of intensive farming argue
A record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Often, a record label is also a company that manages such brands and trademarks; coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos; conducts talent scouting and development of new artists ("artists and repertoire" or "A&R"); and maintains contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term "record label" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information.
Within the music industry; most recording artists have become increasingly reliant upon record labels to broaden their consumer base, market their albums, and be both promoted and heard on mp3, radio, etc. and of course television also, with publicists that assist performers in positive media reports to market their merchandise, and make it available via stores and other media outlets. The Internet has increasingly been a way that some artists avoid costs and gain new audiences, as well as the use of videos in some cases, to
Breed clubs are associations or clubs with activities centered around a single, specific breed of a particular species of domesticated animal. The purpose of the association will vary with the species of animal and the goals and needs of the members of the association. Breed associations or clubs may vary in their goals, activities and nomenclature from country to country, even for the same breed. Most domesticated animals, whether they are agricultural animals such as cattle, llamas, poultry, sheep and pigs, or companion animals such as pigeons, horses, cats and dogs, have breed clubs associated with the breed.
In general, breed clubs and associations create a written definition of the breed (called a breed standard) for the breed with which the organization is associated. Breed clubs also maintain important records, and provide members with information. Many breed associations also have a social component, organising various activities such as shows. In addition, they may regulate breeding or raise funds for research related to the breed.
With the advent of the internet, anyone can create a "breed club" by putting up a web page to advertise their animals. Buyers must research any
Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work (as horizontal surfaces above the ground), or to store things.
Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. It can be made from many materials, including metal, plastic, and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture.
Furniture in fashion has been a part of the human experience since the development of non-nomadic cultures. Evidence of furniture survives from the Neolithic Period and later in antiquity in the form of paintings, such as the wall Murals discovered at Pompeii; sculpture, and examples have been excavated in Egypt and found in tombs in Ghiordes, in modern day Turkey.
A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village located in Orkney. The site dates from 3100–2500 BC and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build
A gentlemen's club is a members-only private club of a type originally set up by and for British upper class men in the 18th century, and popularised by English upper-middle class men and women in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Today, some are more open about the gender and social status of members. Many countries outside the United Kingdom have prominent gentlemen's clubs.
In the United States, a great variety of gentlemen's clubs were formed, in the same manner as the UK. In the 1990s the term gentlemen's club began to be used as a promotional euphemism for strip clubs, a trend also increasingly common in the UK, with chains such as Stringfellows and Spearmint Rhino using the term in this way.
The original clubs were established in the West End of London. Today, the area of St James's is still sometimes called "clubland". Clubs took over the role occupied by coffee houses in 18th century London to some degree, and reached the height of their influence in the late 19th century. The first clubs, such as White's, Brooks's and Boodle's, were aristocratic in flavour, and provided an environment for gambling, which was illegal outside of members-only establishments.
Judenräte (singular Judenrat; German for "Jewish council") were administrative bodies during the Second World War that the Germans required Jews to form in the German occupied territory.
It is the overall term for the enforcement bodies established by the Nazi occupiers to manage Jewish communities in German-occupied areas, although the Nazis established the name Ältestenrat in the ghettos of Łódź and Theresienstadt and even in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. While the history of the term Judenrat itself is unclear, Jewish communities themselves had established councils for self-government as far back as the Medieval Era. While the Hebrew term of Kahal or Kehillah was used by the Jewish community, German authorities generally tended to use the term Judenräte.
The structure and missions of the Judenräte under the Nazi regime varied widely, often depending upon whether meant for a single ghetto, a city or a whole region. In some cases, jurisdiction was maintained over a whole country as in Germany, Austria, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Romania, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
In the beginning of April 1933, shortly after the National Socialist
A sex shop or erotic shop is a shop that sells products related to adult sexual or erotic entertainment, such as vibrators, lingerie, clothing, pornography, and other related products. The world's first sex shop was opened in 1962 by Beate Uhse AG in Flensburg, West Germany, and sex shops can now be found in many countries. Many sex shops also trade over the internet. Sex shops are part of the sex industry.
In most jurisdictions, sex shops are regulated by law, with access not permitted to minors, the age depending on local law. Some jurisdictions prohibit sex shops and the merchandise they sell. In some jurisdictions that permit it, they may also show pornographic movies in private video booths, or have private striptease or peep shows. Also an adult movie theater may be attached.
Near borders of countries with different laws regarding sex shops, shops on the more liberal side tend to be popular with customers from the other side, especially if importing the purchased materials by customers to their own country, and possessing them, is legal or tolerated.
Almost all licensed adult stores in the UK are forbidden from having their wares in open shop windows, which means often the
Organizations of this type:Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers
Hispanic (Spanish: hispano, hispánico; Portuguese: hispânico, hispano, Catalan: hispà, hispànic) is an ethnonym that denotes a relationship to Spain or, in some definitions, to ancient Hispania, which comprised the Iberian Peninsula including the modern states of Andorra, Portugal, and Spain and the territory of Gibraltar. Today, organizations in the United States use the term to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship either with only Spain, while others with Spain and Portugal. Some organizations intend to encapsulate only the Spanish-speaking populations in the term Hispanic, limiting the definition to that subset, while others encapsulate Spain and Portugal in the term "Hispanic."
The term is more broadly used to refer to the culture, peoples, or nations with a historical link to Spain, especially those countries which were once colonized by Spain, particularly the countries of Latin America which were colonized by Spain. The Hispanic culture is a set of customs, traditions, beliefs and art forms (music, literature, dress, architecture, cuisine or others) which are generally shared by peoples in Hispanic regions, but which can vary considerably from one
Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information — the activity of making information available to general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning: originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or imprint or to a person who owns a magazine.
Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, websites, blogs, video game publishers and the like.
Publishing includes the stages of the development, acquisition, copyediting, graphic design, production – printing (and its electronic equivalents), and marketing and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software and other works dealing with information, including the electronic media.
Publication is also
A limited company is a company in which the liability of the members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company. Limited companies may be limited by shares or by guarantee. And the former of these, a limited company limited by shares, may be further divided into public companies and private companies. Who may become a member of a private limited company is restricted by law and by the company's rules. In contrast anyone may buy shares in a public limited company.
Limited companies can be found in most countries, although the detailed rules governing them vary widely. It is also common for a distinction to be made between the publicly tradable companies of plc type (for example, the German Aktiengesellschaft (AG), Czech a.s. and the Mexican, French, Polish and Romanian S.A.), and the "private" types of company (such as the German GmbH, Polish Sp. z o.o., the Czech s.r.o. and Slovak s.r.o.).
A company that does not have share capital, but is guaranteed by its members who agree to pay a fixed amount in the event of the company's liquidation. Charitable organisations often incorporate using this form of limited liability. Another
Volunteering is generally considered an altruistic activity, intended to promote good or improve human quality of life. It is considered as serving the society through one's own interests, personal skills or learning, which in return produces a feeling of self-worth and respect, instead of money. Volunteering is also famous for skill development, socialization and fun. It is also intended to make contacts for possible employment or for a variety of other reasons.
Volunteering takes many forms and can be performed by anyone with his or her own set of skills. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work in, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Other volunteers serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster or for a beach-cleanup.
The verb Volunteer was first recorded in 1755, from the noun, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from M.Fr. Voluntaire. The word in the Non-military sense was first recorded during 1630s. The word Volunteering has a more recent usage, still predominantly military, coinciding with the word Community service.
In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers
Organizations of this type:Space Renaissance International
A Special Interest Group (SIG) is a community with an interest in advancing a specific area of knowledge, learning or technology where members cooperate to affect or to produce solutions within their particular field, and may communicate, meet, and organize conferences. They may at times also advocate or lobby on a particular issue or on a range of issues but are generally distinct from Advocacy groups and pressure groups which are normally set up for the specific political aim; the distinction is not firm however and some organizations can adapt and change their focus over time.
The Mathematical Association of America includes several SIGs (known collectively as SIGMAAs) on mathematical areas.
Organizations which are not technical may also have Special Interest Groups which are normally focused on a mutual interest or shared characteristic of a subset of members of the organization. An important example for this are trade unions. For identity-based advocacy groups, see identity politics. JALT, the Japan Association of Language Teachers, has several SIGs. Together they organize a Pan-SIG conference each year.
Organizations of this type:Environmental Working Group
A working group (WG) is an interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers working on new research activities that would be difficult to develop under traditional funding mechanisms (e.g., federal agencies). The lifespan of the WG can last anywhere between a few months and several years. Such groups have the tendency to develop a quasi-permanent existence once the assigned task is accomplished; hence the need to disband (or phase out) the WG once it has provided solutions to the issues for which it was initially convened. Such goals to be achieved may include:
The WG may assemble experts (and future experts) on a topic together for intensive work. It is not an avenue for briefing novices about the subject matter. Occasionally, a group might admit a person with little experience and a lot of enthusiasm. However, such participants should be present as observers and in the minority.
Working groups are also referred to as task groups or technical advisory groups.
The nature of the working group may depend on the group's raison d’être — which may be technical, artistic (specifically musical), or administrative in nature.
These working groups are established by decision makers at higher
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses").
The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. It may also be divided among "art music" and "folk music". There is also a strong connection between music and mathematics. Music may be played and heard live, may be part of a dramatic work or film, or may be recorded.
To many people in many cultures, music is an important part of their way of life. Ancient Greek and
Aktiebolag (literally "share company" or "stock company") is the Swedish term for "limited company" or "corporation". When used in company names, it is abbreviated "AB" or "Ab" (roughly equivalent to the abbreviations Ltd and PLC). The governmental authority responsible for registration of limited companies in Sweden is called Bolagsverket (the Swedish Companies Registration Office).
In Sweden, the abbreviation is written in capital letters ("AB"), but in Finland it is written with a capital "A" and a small "b" ("Ab"). Some old companies still use an old way of writing the abbreviation, which is "A/B".
All aktiebolag are divided into two categories: private limited companies and public limited companies.
A public limited company (publikt aktiebolag) is legally denoted as "AB (publ.)" in Sweden or "Abp" in Finland. A Swedish public limited company must have a minimum share capital of 500,000 Swedish kronor and its shares can be offered to the general public on the stock market. The suffix "(publ.)" is sometimes omitted in texts of an informal nature, but according to the Swedish Companies Registration Office, "the name of a public limited company must be mentioned with the term
Club cricket is a mainly amateur, but still formal, form of the sport of cricket, usually involving teams playing in competitions at weekends or in the evening. There is a great deal of variation in game format although the Laws of Cricket are always observed. The main nations that club cricket is played in are Pakistan, England, Australia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, West Indies, New Zealand, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Zambia, Namibia, Uganda, Tanzania, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Netherlands, Hong Kong and in some of the major cities in India. Club cricket is played virtually all over the world. Club cricket is also now played in the United States and Canada, as both countries have large communities of immigrants from mainstream cricket-playing regions such as the Caribbean, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia.
Club cricket is usually played in league or cup format. Games are limited by either time or overs. Limited overs games usually last between 20 and 60 overs per innings. A less common, but more traditional, format is limiting the game by time only. Games can range from a few hours in the evening to two days long.
Matches are generally of one innings per side except in two day games
An air force, also known in some countries as an air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy or other branch. Typically, air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air, carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions and providing support to surface forces.
The term "air force" may also refer to a tactical air force or numbered air force, which is an operational formation either within a national air force or comprising several air components from allied nations. Air forces typically consist of a combination of fighters, bombers, helicopters, transport planes and other aircraft.
Many air forces are also responsible for operations of military space, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), and communications equipment. Some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as antiaircraft artillery, surface-to-air missiles, or anti-ballistic missile warning networks and defensive systems. Some nations, principally Russia, the former Soviet Union and
A cooperative ("coop"), co-operative ("co-op"), or coöperative ("coöp") is an autonomous association of persons who voluntarily cooperate for their mutual social, economic, and cultural benefit. Cooperatives include non-profit community organizations and businesses that are owned and managed by the people who use its services (a consumer cooperative) and/or by the people who work there (a worker cooperative) or by the people who live there (a housing cooperative).
Cooperation dates back as far as human beings have been organizing for mutual benefit. Tribes were organized as cooperative structures, allocating jobs and resources among each other, only trading with the external communities. In alpine environments, trade could only be maintained in organized cooperatives to achieve a useful condition of artificial roads such as Viamala in 1472. Pre-industrial Europe is home to the first cooperatives from an industrial context.
In 1761, the Fenwick Weavers' Society was formed in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers. Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans, emigration and education. In 1810, Welsh social reformer Robert
Organizations of this type:Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
A learned society is an organization that exists to promote an academic discipline or profession, or a group related disciplines or professions. Membership may be open to all, may require possession of some qualification, or may be an honor conferred by election. This is the case with the oldest learned societies, such as the Polish Sodalitas Litterarum Vistulana (founded 1488), the Italian Accademia dei Lincei (founded 1603), the Académie Française (founded 1635), the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (founded 1652) or the Royal Society of London (founded 1660).
Most learned societies are non-profit organizations. Their activities typically include holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results and publishing or sponsoring academic journals in their discipline. Some also act as professional bodies, regulating the activities of their members in the public interest or the collective interest of the membership.
Learned societies are of key importance in the sociology of science, and their formation assists in the emergence and development of new disciplines or professions.
Societies can be very general in nature, such as the American
A social enterprise is an organization that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being, rather than maximising profits for external shareholders. Social enterprises can be structured as a for-profit or non-profit, and may take the form of a co-operative, mutual organization, a social business, or a charity organization.
Many commercial enterprises would consider themselves to have social objectives, but commitment to these objectives is motivated by the perception that such commitment will ultimately make the enterprise more financially valuable. Social enterprises differ in that, inversely, they do not aim to offer any benefit to their investors, except where they believe that doing so will ultimately further their capacity to realize their social and environmental goals.
The term has a mixed and contested heritage due to its philanthropic roots in the US, and cooperative roots in the UK, EU and Asia. In the US, the term is associated with 'doing charity by doing trade', rather than 'doing charity while doing trade'. In other countries, there is a much stronger emphasis on community organising, democratic control of capital and
Clothing is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on physical, social and geographic considerations.
Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements, and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing also provides protection from harmful UV radiation.
There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice. The body louse specifically lives in clothing, and diverge from head lice about 107,000 years ago, suggesting that clothing existed at that time. Another theory is that modern humans are the only survivors of several species of primates who may have worn
An employers' organization, employers' association or employers' federation is an association of employers. A trade union, which organizes employees is the opposite of an employers' organization. The role and position of an employers' organization differs from country to country, dependent on the economic system of a country.
In countries with a pluralist or anglo-saxon economic system (such as the United Kingdom and the United States), where there is no institutionalized cooperation between employers' organizations, trade unions and government, an employers' organization is an interest group or advocacy group that through lobbying tries to influence government policy. In these countries, employers' organizations tend to be weak, with many of their functions taken over by industry trade groups, which are basically public relations organizations.
In countries with a social market economy, such as Austria, Sweden and the Netherlands, the employers' organizations are part of a system of institutionalized deliberation, together with government and the trade unions. In tri-partite bargaining the so-called social partners strike agreements on issues like price levels, wage increases, tax
National Trust and Savings Association, abbreviated NT&SA, is a designation used by national banks in the United States to denote their national charter. It is significantly less popular than the standard designation National Association (N.A.). Notably, it was used until 1998 by Bank of America NT&SA, the only major bank to utilize the designation. It was also construed to denote the character of a savings and loan association, with a focus on home mortgages and savings accounts.
Organizations of this type:United States Children's Bureau
A government or state agency is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency. There is a notable variety of agency types. Although usage differs, a government agency is normally distinct both from a department or ministry, and other types of public body established by government. The functions of an agency are normally executive in character, since different types of organization (such as commissions) are normally used for advisory functions, but this distinction is often blurred in practice.
A government agency may be established by either a national government or a state government within a federal system. (The term is not normally used for an organization created by the powers of a local government body). Agencies can be established by legislation or by executive powers. The autonomy, independence and accountability of government agencies also vary widely.
Early examples of organizations that would now be termed a government agency include the British Navy Board, responsible for ships and supplies, which was established in 1546 by King Henry
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis or exploitation of information and intelligence in support of law enforcement, national security, defence and foreign policy objectives. Means of information gathering are both overt and covert and may include espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. The assembly and propagation of this information is known as intelligence analysis or intelligence assessment.
Intelligence agencies can provide the following services for their national governments.
There is a distinction between "security intelligence" and "foreign intelligence". Security intelligence pertains to domestic threats (e.g. terrorism, espionage). Foreign intelligence involves information collection relating to the political, or economic activities of foreign states.
Some agencies have been involved in assassination, arms trafficking, coups d'état, and the placement of misinformation (propaganda) as well as other covert operations, in order to support their own or their governments' interests.
Organizations of this type:Lionsgate Home Entertainment
A subsidiary company, subsidiary, or daughter company is a company that is completely or partly owned and partly or wholly controlled by another company that owns more than half of the subsidiary's stock. The subsidiary can be a company, corporation, or limited liability company. In some cases it is a government or state-owned enterprise. The controlling entity is called its parent company, parent, or holding company.
An operating subsidiary is a business term frequently used within the United States railroad industry. In the case of a railroad, it refers to a company that is a subsidiary but operates with its own identity, locomotives and rolling stock. In contrast, a non-operating subsidiary would exist on paper only (i.e. stocks, bonds, articles of incorporation) and would use the identity and rolling stock of the parent company.
Subsidiaries are a common feature of business life, and all multinational corporations organize their operations in this way. Examples include holding companies such as Berkshire Hathaway as in this listing of its subsidiaries, Time Warner, or Citigroup; as well as more focused companies such as IBM, or Xerox Corporation. These, and others, organize
Organizations of this type:New Hampshire Old Graveyard Association
A voluntary association or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement as volunteers to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
Strictly speaking, in many jurisdictions no formalities are necessary to start an association. In some jurisdictions, there is a minimum for the number of persons starting an association. Some jurisdictions require that the association register with the police or other official body to inform the public of the association's existence. This could be a tool of political control, and also a way of protecting the economy from fraud. In many such jurisdictions, only a registered association is a juristic person whose membership is not responsible for the financial acts of the association. Any group of persons may, of course, work as an association but in such case, the persons making a transaction in the name of the association all take responsibility for it.
An unincorporated association has been defined as existing:
In most countries, an unincorporated association does not have separate legal personality, and few members of the
Organizations of this type:Sinclair Broadcast Group
This is not the same as a government-owned corporation.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company or public limited company (in the United Kingdom) is a limited liability company that offers its securities (stock/shares, bonds/loans, etc.) for sale to the general public, typically through a stock exchange, or through market makers operating in over the counter markets. Public companies, including public limited companies, can be either unlisted or listed on a stock exchange depending on their size and local legislation.
Government-owned corporations (also known as publicly owned companies) are also sometimes called public companies, but are quite different.
Usually, the securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a privately held company are owned by relatively few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not necessarily a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; companies that report under the 1934 Act are generally deemed public companies. The first company to issue shares is
In the United States of America, a department of motor vehicles (DMV) is a state-level government agency that administers vehicle registration and driver licensing. Similar departments exist in Canada. The name "DMV" is not used in every state or province, nor are the traditional DMV functions handled by a single agency in every state, but the generic term is universally understood, particularly in the context of driver's license issuance and renewal.
Driver licensing and vehicle registration in the United States are handled by the state government in all states but Hawaii, where local governments perform DMV functions. In Canada, driver licensing and vehicle registration are handled at the provincial government level.
The Uniform Vehicle Code prefers the name "Department of Motor Vehicles". The acronym "DMV" is most commonly used to describe the agency (where it exists); however, diverse titles are used in different jurisdictions. Unless otherwise indicated below, one agency or division regulates driver licensing, vehicle registration, and vehicle titles.
How the department of motor vehicles (or equivalent) is situated within the structure of a state's government varies
Organizations of this type:California Coalition for Immigration Reform
Advocacy is a political process by an individual or a large group for example social workers which normally aims to influence public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions; it may be motivated from moral, ethical or faith principles or simply to protect an asset of interest. Advocacy can include many activities that a person or organization undertakes including media campaigns, public speaking, commissioning and publishing research or poll or the 'filing of friend of the court briefs'. Lobbying (often by lobby groups) is a form of advocacy where a direct approach is made to legislators on an issue which plays a significant role in modern politics. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action.
There are several forms of advocacy, which each represent a different approach in the way change is brought into society. One of the most popular forms is social justice advocacy.
Although it is true, the initial definition does not encompass the notions of power relations, people’s participation and a vision of a just society as promoted by social
An Asset Management Company (AMC) is an investment management firm that invests the pooled funds of retail investors in securities in line with the stated investment objectives. For a fee, the investment company provides more diversification, liquidity, and professional management consulting service than is normally available to individual investors.
The diversification of portfolio is done by investing in such securities which are inversely correlated to each other. They collect money from investors by way of floating various mutual fund schemes.
An athletic conference is a collection of sports teams, playing competitively against each other at the professional, collegiate, or high school level. In many cases conferences are subdivided into smaller and smaller divisions, with the best teams competing at successively higher levels. Conferences often, but not always, include teams from a common geographic region.
In the United States and Canada, the National Hockey League (NHL) and National Basketball Association (NBA) are divided into the western (NHL, NBA) and eastern (NHL, NBA) conferences, with three divisions within each conference. In both leagues, the winners of the three divisions in each conference automatically advance to the playoffs, with the 5 next best teams in each conference also going to the playoffs. In the NHL each of the three division winner is guaranteed one of the top three seeds (or ranks to determine who has home advantage and the matchups for each round of the playoffs, where the top ranked teams play lower ranked teams) in the NBA the top four seeds go to the three division winners and the next best team, based on record. A pending realignment will divide the NHL into four regional conferences
Entertainment is an action, event or activity that aims to entertain, amuse and interest an audience of one or more people. The audience may have a passive role, as in the case of persons watching a play, opera, television show or movie, or the audience role may be active, as in the case of games. Entertainment can be public or private, involving formal, scripted performance, as in the case of theatre or concerts; or unscripted and spontaneous, as in the case of children's games. While many forms of entertainment have persisted over centuries, others, such as films and video games, have come about as the result of technological developments. Some activities that once were considered entertaining, particularly public punishments, have been removed from the public arena. Other activities, such as fencing or archery, once necessary skills for some, have become serious sports and even professions for the participants, at the same time developing into entertainments for their audiences. What is an entertainment for one group or individual may be regarded as work by another. Furthermore, the difference in perspective between the participant and the audience may be the difference between
The German banking system is structured in three different pillars, totally separated from each other. They typically differ in their legal form and the ownership Private Banks, represented by banks like Deutsche Bank or Commerzbank as listed companies or Hauck & Aufhäuser or Bankhaus Lampe as less known private companies, are part of the first tier. The second tier is composed of co-operative banks like the numerous Volksbanken or Raiffeisenbanken. They are based on a member-structure where each member, independently from its capital share, has one vote. The third tier consists of public banks, that are a legally defined arm of the banking industry in Germany and separate into two main groups.
The German Savings Banks Finance Group (Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe) is the most numerous sub-sector with 431 savings banks using the Sparkasse brand, 8 Landesbanken including the DekaBank using separate brands and 10 real estate financing banks using the LBS brand The Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband (German Savings Banks Association, DSGV) represents the interests of the Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe on a national and international level concerning law and the financial services industry. It
Organizations of this type:Universidad de La Sabana
The University of La Sabana (Spanish: Universidad de La Sabana), is a Colombian private higher education institution founded in 1979. It is located in the municipality of Chía, 7 km north of Bogotá. The university is awarded with the High Quality Institutional Accreditation by the National Ministry of Education.
One of the university's characteristics is the integral formation of the student. Apart from enhancing the student's intellectual growth, the university has implemented initiatives to ensure success in the development of a student as a whole. One such program is Personalized Academic Counseling that aims to promote the development of the person as a unique individual. Another program, Pharos, is aimed at students who are in search of excellence, leadership and solidarity.
La Sabana has 21 research groups classified by Colciencias, the government office that certifies the quality of research groups in Colombian universities. There are also 20 emerging groups that promote “semilleros de investigación” (research “offshoots”) for students in all programmes.
The university currently runs 18 undergraduate programmes. There are also 31 specialization programmes and five master’s
The term Registered Investment Adviser (RIA) is used to describe an Investment Adviser who is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission or a state's securities agency. The term has been popularized due to its use within the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and its association to the term "Investment Advisor" (IA) (spelled "Investment Adviser" in U.S. financial law). An IA is defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission as an individual or a firm that is in the business of giving advice about securities.
Individuals or firms that receive compensation for giving advice on investing in securities such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or exchange traded funds are deemed to be investment advisers. It is also common for investment advisers to manage portfolios of securities. RIAs generally are paid in any of the following ways: a percentage of the value of the assets they manage for clients, an hourly fee, fixed fee, a commission on the securities they sell (if the adviser is also a broker-dealer).
An IA must adhere to a fiduciary standard of care laid out in the US Investment Advisers Act of 1940. This standard requires IAs to act and serve a client's best interests with
A booster club is an American organization that is formed to support (e.g. coordinate events, contribute money, etc.) an associated club, sports team, or organization. Booster clubs are popular in American schools at the high school and university level. The clubs are generally run and organized by the parents of the students in the supported organization in high schools, and by athletic supporters and fans at colleges. It is not a social club. Its main function is to develop support for the student program.
For example, fundraisers are often held to raise money for supplies or equipment that the students may need or for trips that the students may need to take. The main principle of funding by a U.S. IRS 501(c)(3) nonprofit is that the booster club may not discriminate in making grants to youth or college students on the basis of their family's membership in or funding to the club, or the family's fund-raising or time put into club activities.
A popular way for booster clubs to raise money is with raffles held at sporting events for some item that would be donated by a local business, clothing such as t-shirts with the school's name and mascot on it, or the sale of popcorn, hot
Financial Management Association is an organization for finance and economics students and professionals. Its primary objective is to encourage and recognize academic and professional excellence in the finance field. FMA promotes the study and practice of financial education. They also provide opportunities for personal growth, service and association between members and practicing professionals.
FMA publishes Financial Management, a peer-reviewed scholarly journal concerned with the financial management of nonfinancial businesses, financial institutions, and public or private not-for-profit organizations. Financial Management is published by Wiley-Blackwell.
Many Universities and Colleges have their own FMA Chapters. These student organizations are designed to help educate future financial professionals.
Chapters Include These Locations:
Alabama State University
Arizona State University
Arkansas State University
California State Polytechnic University - Pomona
California State University
Central Michigan University
A hotel is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathrooms and air conditioning or climate control. Additional common features found in hotel rooms are a telephone, an alarm clock, a television, a safe, a mini-bar with snack foods and drinks, and facilities for making tea and coffee. Luxury features include bathrobes and slippers, a pillow menu, twin-sink vanities, and jacuzzi bathtubs. Larger hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, fitness center, business center, childcare, conference facilities and social function services
Hotel rooms are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a minimized amount of room space and shared facilities.
Industrial design is the use of a combination of applied art and applied science to improve the aesthetics, ergonomics, and usability of a product, but it may also be used to improve the product's marketability and production. The role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, marketing, brand development, and sales.
The first use of the term "industrial design" is often attributed to the designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919 (although he himself denied this in interviews), but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade. Christopher Dresser is considered the world's first Industrial Designer. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with England and the United States.
The earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, A monthly Journal of the Fine Arts, 1839.
“Dyce’s report to the Board of Trade on foreign schools of Design
Organizations of this type:Triathlon Verein Berlin
A sports club or sport club, sometimes athletics club or sports association is a club for the purpose of playing one or more sports. Sports clubs range from organisations whose members play together, unpaid, and may play other similar clubs on occasion, watched mostly by family and friends, to large commercial organisations with professional players which have teams which regularly compete against those of other clubs and attract sometimes very large crowds of paying spectators. Clubs may be dedicated to a single sport, or to several (multi-sport club).
The term athletics club is sometimes used for a general sports club, rather than one dedicated to athletics proper.
Larger sports clubs are characterized by having professional and amateur departments in various sports such as football (soccer), basketball, futsal, cricket, volleyball, handball, rink hockey, water polo, rugby, track and field athletics, boxing, baseball, cycling, tennis, rowing, gymnastics and others, including less traditional sports such as airsoft, billiards, orienteering, paintball or roller derby. The teams and athletes belonging to a sports club may compete in several different leagues, championships and
A state bar association is a bar association that represents or seeks to represent the attorneys practicing law in a particular U.S. state. Their functions differ from state to state, but often include administration of the state bar examination, regulation of Continuing Legal Education and other requirements, and discipline of attorneys for ethical or other violations. State bars typically provide services for members such as maintaining a directory of attorneys in the state, facilitating social events for attorneys, publishing a bar journal and providing classes to fulfill these CLE credits requirements.
A mandatory or integrated bar association is one to which a state delegates the authority to regulate the admission of attorneys to practice in that state; typically these require membership in that bar association to practice in that state. Mandatory bars derive their power from legislative statute and/or from the power of the state court system to regulate practice before it.
In the other states, membership in the bar associations is voluntary. In some states, a mandatory organization exists primarily for the purpose of regulating admission to practice, while a voluntary
Organizations of this type:Queensland State Emergency Service
A State Emergency Service (SES) is an Australian volunteer organisation that provides emergency help during and after declared (natural or otherwise) disasters. The SES is also the primary or secondary agency for emergencies, such as storm damage, flood damage, building damage, traffic hazards and road crash rescue. In other scenarios the SES may provide a support role to other agencies, particularly police and fire. The SES is operational 24 hours a day.
The Civil Defence Service began in Australia in 1955. It was formed as a precaution to any potential attacks on Australian soil. The name was changed to the "State Emergency Service" (abbreviated to "SES") during the 1970s, to reflect a change of emphasis into providing emergency help related to floods, storms and other natural emergencies. Every state and territory in Australia has its own State (or Territory) Emergency Service, and there are 43,000 volunteers spread across the country. Each state or territory is broken into regions, then units, and finally groups or teams.
The SES is one of many public safety organisations using AIIMS (Australasian Inter-Service Incident Management System). Typically, small incidents (AIIMS type
A charitable organization is a type of non-profit organization (NPO). It differs from other types of NPOs in that it centers on philanthropic goals (e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good).
The legal definition of charitable organization (and of Charity) varies according to the country and in some instances the region of the country in which the charitable organization operates. The regulation, tax treatment, and the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations also varies.
The definition of charity in Australia is derived through English common law, originally from the Charitable Uses Act 1601, and then through several centuries of case law based upon it. In 2002, the Federal Government established an inquiry into the definition of a charity. That inquiry proposed that the government should legislate a definition of a charity, based on the principles developed through case law. This resulted in the Charities Bill 2003. The Bill incorporated a number of provisions, such as limitations on charities being involved in political campaigning, which many charities saw as an unwelcome departure from the case
Consumer electronics (abbreviated CE) are electronic equipment intended for everyday use, most often in entertainment, communications and office productivity. Radio broadcasting in the early 20th century brought the first major consumer product, the broadcast receiver. Later products include personal computers, telephones, MP3 players, audio equipment, televisions, calculators, GPS automotive electronics, digital cameras and players and recorders using video media such as DVDs, VCRs or camcorders. Increasingly these products have become based on digital technologies, and have largely merged with the computer industry in what is increasingly referred to as the consumerization of information technology.
Consumer electronics are manufactured throughout the world, although there is a particularly high concentration of headquarters, factories, research and development activity in East Asia, especially in Japan. The latest consumer electronics are previewed yearly at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, at which many industry pioneers speak.
One overriding characteristic of consumer electronic products is the trend of ever-falling prices. This is driven by gains in
Hair transplantation is a surgical technique that involves moving individual hair follicles from one part of the body (the donor site) to bald or balding parts (the recipient site). It is primarily used to treat male pattern baldness. In this case, grafts containing hair follicles that are genetically resistant to balding are transplanted to bald scalp. Likewise, it is also used to restore eyelashes, eyebrows, beard hair, chest hair, and pubic hair and to fill in scars caused by accidents or surgery such as face-lifts and previous hair transplants. Hair transplantation differs from skin grafting in that grafts contain almost all of the epidermis and dermis surrounding the hair follicle, and many tiny grafts are transplanted rather than a single strip of skin.
Since hair naturally grows in follicles that contain groupings of 1 to 4 hairs, today’s most advanced techniques transplant these naturally occurring 1–4 hair "follicular units" in their natural groupings. Thus modern hair transplantation can achieve a natural appearance by mimicking nature hair for hair. This hair transplant procedure is called Follicular Unit Transplantation (FUT). Donor hair can be harvested in two very
Organizations of this type:Canadian Union of Public Employees
A trade union (British English), labour union (Canadian English) or labor union (American English) is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".
This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers.
Originating in Europe, trade unions became h popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution, when the lack of skill necessary to perform most jobs shifted employment bargaining power almost completely to the
Carsharing or car-sharing (in the UK known as car clubs) is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time, often by the hour. They are attractive to customers who make only occasional use of a vehicle, as well as others who would like occasional access to a vehicle of a different type than they use day-to-day. The organization renting the cars may be a commercial business or the users may be organized as a democratically controlled company, public agency, cooperative, ad hoc grouping. Today there are more than one thousand cities in the world where people can carshare.
As of September 2012, there are carsharing services in the United States, Canada and several European countries, with networks in urban areas and college campuses. Existing services include Autolib', Avancar, Car2Go, Communauto, City Car Club, Greenwheels, Ibilek, Respiro, Stadtmobil, CityCarShare.org and Zipcar. Several car rental companies launched their own car sharing services beginning in 2008, including Hertz on Demand, WeCar by Enterprise Rent-A-Car, Avis On Location by Avis, and U Car Share by U-Haul. Zipcar is the world's leading carsharing network, and by September 2009 the company
Organizations of this type:New Zealand Defence Force
Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces of a sovereign nation or state. In classical NATO terminology the three basic military branches are army, air force and navy.
Countries which do not have access to any of the high sea or any oceans generally do not have a national navy.
In some countries there might be other military branches. In addition to the above mentioned military branches there are for example:
The military branches came into being in line with military technical progress and have been developed permanently. With that background, the air force was established early in the 20th century as one of the latest armed service.
The army is traditionally the oldest – and in many countries the biggest armed service.
A rowing club is a club for people interested in the sport of Rowing. Rowing clubs are usually located near a body of water, whether natural or artificial, that is large enough for manoeuvering of the shells (rowing boats). Clubs usually have racks to store boats and a dock to put them in the water. Many clubs host rowing competitions, known as regattas, on a certain weekend every year, and send a competitive team to other regattas.
There are also "indoor rowing" clubs which only have rowing machines; most often one of the models manufactured by Concept 2. People who belong to these clubs only race at "indoor rowing regattas", such as CRASH-B Sprints, which take place every winter in Boston.
Finally, there are rowing clubs which are not physical entities at all. For example, many competitive high schools and universities maintain an alumni "club". Members of these clubs usually train on their own and meet up with their fellow club members only to race. The club status must be maintained in order to participate in USRowing (or other governing body)-sanctioned events and also helps with other administrative tasks, such as applying for insurance.
An art group refers to an association of artists who may work (or live) communally, for the purpose of facilitating the creation of art, either that belonging to the individual, or the collective.
Art groups typically were formed by established artists, such as Andy Warhol, as hired assistants to the artist, operating collectively under the artist's studio. More recently, art groups have been formed by unknown artists, pooling their limited resources toward the collective goal.
Groups have formed as political action groups, to work on political advocacy projects, while other groups formed simply for reasons of working and living in an environment conducive to the peculiar interests of artists. In this context, some groups began to create collective works of art, music, writing, etc., under the name of their group.
Organizations of this type:Children's Defense Fund
Child advocacy refers to a range of individuals, professionals and advocacy organizations who promote the optimal development of children. An individual or organization engaging in advocacy typically seeks to protect children's rights which may be abridged or abused in a number of areas.
(Also see Children's rights)
Rights can be divided into two categories: negative (rights to be free from) and positive (rights to). Children's negative rights are violated when some dangerous or harmful action is taken directly against them.
One type of children's advocate typically represents or gives voice to an individual or group whose concerns and interests are not being heard. A child advocate will try to prevent children from being harmed and may try to obtain justice for those who have already been injured in some way. A child advocate may also seek to ensure that children have access to positive influences or services which will benefit their lives such as education, childcare and proper parenting. Malnutrition is another form of harm-there are many children who go to bed without eating and it is looked over by child welfare or the police.
Another form of child advocacy happens at the
Companies offering eCommerce services. eCommerce consists of electronic marketing, where the primary interface for dealing between the business and consumer is a computer. eCommerce services have to do with the sale of a product or a service over the internet. This is continually growing as the industry continues to pick up momentum. A company may consider themselves to be an eCommerce company and provide all, most, or every service desired by a company actively marketing online.
Typically in eCommerce, there is a certain flow to the transaction. Although there are processes immediately tied to that transaction, there are a wealth of other needs an eCommerce company has. To start off, there is the necessity of an eCommerce platform. This must be customized to capture the look and feel of the company. In order to process payments, there are many options available, starting with PayPal and on down the line. An eCommerce company (if they have physical inventory), will also need supply chain management, warehousing, and order fulfillment. Should customers have questions, issues with their purchase, returns, etc. they would need customer service. It's always important to make sure
Organizations of this type:United States Agency for International Development
International development or global development is most used in a holistic and multi-disciplinary context of human development — the development of greater quality of life for humans. It therefore encompasses foreign aid, governance, healthcare, education, poverty reduction, gender equality, disaster preparedness, infrastructure, economics, human rights, environment and issues associated with these. International development is different from simple development in that it is specifically composed of institutions and policies that arose after the Second World War. These institutions focus on alleviating poverty and improving living conditions in previously colonised countries.
International development is related to the concept of international aid, but is distinct from, though conceptually related to, disaster relief and humanitarian aid. While these two forms of international support seek to alleviate some of the problems associated with a lack of development, they are most often short term fixes — they are not necessarily long-term solutions. International development, on the other hand, seeks to implement long-term solutions to problems by helping developing countries create the
Hardware stores (in a number of countries, "shops"), sometimes known as home improvement stores or DIY stores, sell household hardware for home improvement including: fasteners, hand tools, power tools, keys, locks, hinges, chains, plumbing supplies, electrical supplies, cleaning products, housewares, tools, utensils, paint, and lawn and garden products directly to consumers for use at home or for business. Many hardware stores have specialty departments unique to its region or its owner's interests. These departments include hunting and fishing supplies, plants and nursery products, marine and boating supplies, pet food and supplies, farm and ranch supplies including animal feed, swimming pool chemicals, homebrewing supplies and canning supplies. The four largest hardware retailers in the world are The Home Depot, Lowe's (both of the United States), Kingfisher of the United Kingdom, and Obi of Germany.
Larger hardware stores may sell small amounts of building supplies including lumber, flooring, roofing materials and fencing.
There may be fewer hardware stores in the U.S. now than in years past, but according to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were still 14,300 hardware stores in
Organizations of this type:Wisconsin Historical Society
A historical society is an organization that collects, researches, interprets and preserves information or items of historical interest. Generally, a historical society focuses on a specific geographical area, such as a county or town or subject, such as aviation or rail. Many historical societies publish journals or maintain museums to showcase their field of study.
Organizations of this type:Library Company of Philadelphia
In library science, special collections (often abbreviated to Spec. Coll. or S.C.) is the name applied to a specific repository or department, usually within a library, which stores materials of a "special" nature, including rare books, archives, and collected manuscripts. Works kept in special collections (as opposed to the library's general collection) are typically stored there because they are unusually valuable, rare (possibly unique), or fragile, or because they should not, for some particular reason, be allowed to commingle with the library's other works.
The primary function of a special collections department is to keep holdings safe and secure while remaining accessible. Special collections are usually closed stacks and the items usually noncirculating; the items are mostly accessible only to properly qualified interested researchers. These researchers- who must usually present IDs, letters of reference, and credentials to gain full access- are generally graduate students and faculty. Special collections materials are typically non-circulating (meaning that they cannot ordinarily be loaned out) and ideally should be stored in areas where the temperature, humidity,
Organizations of this type:American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is any organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of some relatively wide base of affected adopters.
Most standards are voluntary in the sense that they are offered for adoption by people or industry without being mandated in law. Some standards become mandatory when they are adopted by regulators as legal requirements in particular domains.
The term formal standard refers specifically to a specification that has been approved by a standards setting organization. The term de jure standard refers to a standard mandated by legal requirements or refers generally to any formal standard. In contrast, the term de facto standard refers to a specification (or protocol or technology) that has achieved widespread use and acceptance – often without being approved by any standards organization (or receiving such approval only after it already has achieved widespread use). Examples of de facto standards that
A think tank (or policy institute) is an organization that conducts research and engages in advocacy in areas such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology issues and in the creative and cultural field. Most think tanks are non-profit organizations, which some countries such as the United States and Canada provide with tax exempt status. Other think tanks are funded by governments, advocacy groups, or businesses, or derive revenue from consulting or research work related to their projects.
The following article lists global think tanks according to continental categories, and then sub-categories by country within those areas. These listings are not comprehensive, given that more than 4,500 think tanks exist world wide. In general, this article is an introduction to the think tank landscape, and provides a way to quickly navigate to those of interest.
While the term "think tank" originated in the 1950s, such organizations date to the 19th century. The Institute for Defence and Security Studies (RUSI) was founded in 1831 in London. The Fabian Society in Britain dates from 1884. The Brookings Institution began in Washington in 1916.
After 1945, the number
Organizations of this type:American Philosophical Society
An archive is a collection of historical records, or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of an organization.
In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist. This means that archives (the places) are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings.
A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science.
When referring to historical records or the places they are kept, the plural form archives is chiefly used. The computing use of the term 'archive' should not be confused with the record-keeping meaning of the term. When records
Organizations of this type:United States Agency for International Development
An aid agency is an organisation dedicated to distributing aid. Many professional aid organisations exist, both within government (e.g. AusAID, USAID, DFID, EuropeAid, ECHO), between governments as multilateral donors (e.g. UNDP) and as private voluntary organizations (or non-governmental organisations, (e.g. ActionAid, Oxfam, World Vision). The International Committee of the Red Cross is unique in being mandated by international treaty to uphold the Geneva Conventions.
Aid can be subdivided into two categories: humanitarian aid (emergency relief efforts, e.g. in response to natural disasters), and development aid (or foreign aid), aimed at helping countries to achieve long-term sustainable economic growth, with the aim of achieving poverty reduction. Some aid agencies carry out both kinds of aid (e.g. EcoCARE Pacific Trust and ADRA), whilst others specialise (e.g. Red Cross, humanitarian aid; War on Want, development aid).
Organizations of this type:HD Development of Maryland Inc
A foreign corporation is a term used in the United States for an existing corporation that is registered to do business in a state or other jurisdiction other than where it was originally incorporated. A foreign corporation is one incorporated as a domestic corporation in one state of the United States, authorized to do business in additional state(s); the term is also applied to a corporation incorporated outside the United States which is authorized to do business in one or more states of the United States.
To a degree, the same rules apply with respect to a Limited Liability Company (LLC), in that it is a domestic LLC in the state where it is originally chartered, and a foreign LLC everywhere else.
For U.S. federal tax purposes, "foreign corporation" means a corporation which is not created or organized in the United States.
The United States does not, except for corporations chartered by act of Congress, have federally chartered corporations. (There are special rules for a federal charter for a bank, but while the bank is federally chartered, it is still incorporated in a specific state.) Note that a corporation chartered in Washington, D.C. is not the same as one that is
A privately held company or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately. More ambiguous terms for a privately held company are unquoted company and unlisted company.
Though less visible than their publicly traded counterparts, private companies have a major importance in the world's economy. In 2008, the 441 largest private companies in the United States accounted for $1.8 trillion in revenues and employed 6.2 million people, according to Forbes. In 2005, using a substantially smaller pool size (22.7%) for comparison, the 339 companies on Forbes' survey of closely held U.S. businesses sold a trillion dollars' worth of goods and services (44%) and employed 4 million people. In 2004, the Forbes' count of privately held U.S. businesses with at least $1 billion in revenue was 305.
Koch Industries, Bechtel, Cargill, Publix, Pilot Corp., one of the members of the Big Four accounting firms,
Organizations of this type:British Sky Broadcasting
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to PLC or plc) is a kind of public company (publicly held company) in the United Kingdom, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland. It is a limited (liability) company whose shares are freely sold and traded to the public, with a minimum share capital of £50,000 and the letters PLC after its name. Similar companies in the United States are called publicly traded companies.
A PLC can be either an unlisted or listed company on the stock exchanges. In the United Kingdom, a public limited company usually must include the words "public limited company" or the abbreviation "PLC" or "plc" at the end and as part of the legal company name. Welsh companies may instead choose to end their names with c.c.c. However, some public limited companies (mostly nationalised concerns) incorporated under special legislation are exempted from bearing any of the identifying suffixes.
When a new company incorporates in England and Wales or in Scotland, it must register with Companies House, an Executive Agency of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. In Northern Ireland, although prior to October 2009, companies in that
A television channel is a physical or virtual channel over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the broadcast or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz for NTSC analog video (VSB) and 59.75 MHz for analog audio (FM), or 55.31 MHz for digital ATSC (8VSB). Channels may be shared by many different television stations or cable-distributed channels depending on the location and service provider.
Depending on the multinational bandplan for a given region, analog television channels are typically 6, 7, or 8 MHz in bandwidth, and therefore television channel frequencies vary as well. Channel numbering is also different. Digital television channels are the same for legacy reasons, however through multiplexing, each physical radio frequency (RF) channel can carry several digital subchannels. On satellites, each transponder normally carries one channel, however small, independent channels can be used on each transponder, with some loss of bandwidth due to the need for guard bands between unrelated transmissions. ISDB, used in Japan and Brazil, has a similar segmented mode.
Commerce is the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. This is in contrast with business, the value-creating activities of an organization for profit. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any country. Thus, commerce is a system or an environment that affects the business prospects of an economy or a nation-state. We can also define it as a second component of business which includes all activities, functions and institutions involved in transferring goods from producers to consumer.
Some commentators trace the origins of commerce to the very start of communication in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. Historian Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.
In historic times, the introduction of currency as a standardized money facilitated a wider exchange of goods and services. Numismatists have collections of these monetary tokens, which include coins from some Ancient World
A county commission (also known as a board of county commissioners) is a group of elected officials charged with administering the county government in local government in some states of the United States. County commissions are usually made up of three or more individuals. In certain counties in Georgia and New Hampshire however, a sole commissioner holds the authority of the commission.
Organizations of this type:Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people sustain from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts.
Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin ēducātiō (“A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō (“I educate, I train”) which is related to the homonym ēdūcō (“I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect”) from ē- (“from, out of”) and dūcō (“I lead, I conduct”).
A right to education has been created and recognized by some jurisdictions: Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. At the global level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.
Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system. Schools systems were also based on people's religion giving them
An engineering society is a professional organization for engineers of various disciplines. Some are umbrella type organizations which accept many different disciplines, while others are discipline-specific. Many award professional designations, such as European Engineer, Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer or similar. There are also many student-run engineering societies, commonly at universities or technical colleges.
In Canada, the term 'Engineering Society' sometimes refers to organizations of engineering students as opposed to professional societies of engineers. The Canadian Federation of Engineering Students (CFES), whose membership consists of most of the engineering student societies from across Canada (see below), is the national association of undergraduate engineering student societies in Canada.
Canada also has many traditions related to the calling of an engineer. See Engineering traditions in Canada for more information.
The Engineering Institute of Canada (EIC) (French: l'Institut Canadien des ingénieurs (ICI)) has the following member societies:
The Atlantic Council of Engineering Students (ACES) is the regional association of
A limited liability company (LLC) is a flexible form of enterprise that blends elements of partnership and corporate structures. It is a legal form of company that provides limited liability to its owners in the vast majority of United States jurisdictions. LLCs do not need to be organized for profit.
Often incorrectly called a "limited liability corporation" (instead of company), it is a hybrid business entity having certain characteristics of both a corporation and a partnership or sole proprietorship (depending on how many owners there are). An LLC, although a business entity, is a type of unincorporated association and is not a corporation. The primary characteristic an LLC shares with a corporation is limited liability, and the primary characteristic it shares with a partnership is the availability of pass-through income taxation. It is often more flexible than a corporation, and it is well-suited for companies with a single owner.
LLC members are subject to the same alter ego piercing theories as corporate shareholders. However, it is more difficult to pierce the LLC veil because LLCs do not have many formalities to maintain. So long as the LLC and the members do not
Pre-employment screening is used by many businesses to verify the accuracy of applicants￢ﾀﾙ employment history, educational history, and credentials, as well as confirming the lack of criminal history, workers compensation claim, and sanctions. Employment screening is using public or private records and investigation to confirm or disprove the accuracy of an applicants resume. Because of the potential sensitivity of the information uncovered, employment screening is subject to a unique set of laws and regulations to protect consumers in the event of misuse of data or fraud.
Employment screening can be a practical, low-cost way to significantly reduce employee theft and dishonesty and notably increase productivity and safety. Certain industries require background checks on all employees. Examples include the banking, financial, and security industries, transportation industries, childcare, healthcare, and teaching industries, police, law enforcement, and certain military positions. The level of background investigation may vary from industry to industry or position to position. Employers who actively screen their applicants before hiring also face less liability in the event of a
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions. In some regions of the world prominent public institutions are highly influential centers of research; many of these universities are ranked among the best in the world by THES - QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities.
In Argentina the National Universities, also called "Public or State-run Universities", is the name used to refer to all those institutions whose creation arose from the enactment of a National Congress Act, except for those whose creation preceded that of the state itself (as is the case of the National University of Córdoba and the University of Buenos Aires). They lie as Public Law legal entities and their regular operation funding comes from the national state, pursuant to what is set out on the annual national budget act.
National universities hold the largest share of the entire Argentine university system: counting over 80% of the undergraduate population and with
An S corporation, for United States federal income tax purposes, is a corporation that makes a valid election to be taxed under Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code.
In general, S corporations do not pay any federal income taxes. Instead, the corporation's income or losses are divided among and passed through to its shareholders. The shareholders must then report the income or loss on their own individual income tax returns.
S corporations are merely corporations that elect to pass corporate income, losses, deductions, and credit through to their shareholders for federal tax purposes. The S corporation rules are contained in Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code (sections 1361 through 1379). S status combines the legal environment of C corporations with U.S. federal income taxation similar to that of partnerships.
Like a C corporation, an S corporation is generally a corporation under the law of the state in which the entity is organized. For Federal income tax purposes, however, taxation of S corporations resembles that of partnerships. As with partnerships, the income, deductions, and tax credits of an S corporation flow through to shareholders
Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some reasons. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records.
Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, executable
A conglomerate is a combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate structure (a corporate group), usually involving a parent company and several (or many) subsidiaries. Often, a conglomerate is a multi-industry company. Conglomerates are often large and multinational.
Conglomerates were popular in the 1960s due to a combination of low interest rate(s) and a repeating bear/bull market, which allowed the conglomerates to buy companies in leveraged buyouts, sometimes at temporarily deflated values. Famous examples from the 1960s include Ling-Temco-Vought, ITT Corporation, Litton Industries, Textron, Teledyne, Gulf+Western,, AT&T, and Transamerica. As long as the target company had profits greater than the interest on the loans, the overall return on investment (ROI) of the conglomerate appeared to grow. Also, the conglomerate had a better ability to borrow in the money market, or capital market, than the smaller firm at their community bank.
For many years this was enough to make the company's stock price rise, as companies were often valued largely on their ROI. The aggressive nature of the conglomerators themselves was
A student newspaper is a newspaper run by students of a university, high school, middle school, or other school. These papers traditionally cover local and, primarily, school or university news. Working for one's high school newspaper is sometimes an extracurricular activity, but often is integrated with offered journalism classes. Some schools have both a basic class in which students learn about newspapers, and a class that produces the school's newspaper.
Tinker v. Des Moines concerns a group of students who wanted to wear black armbands to school in 1965 to protest United States involvement in Vietnam. After school, officials heard about the planned silent protest, they suspended the students involved. A few of the students involved sued and the Supreme Court sided with the students, saying that provided that these speech acts did not distract themselves or others from academic work, the real purpose of the school, then students were free to wear and say want they liked in school. This is considered the benchmark case in issues of student free speech and contains the famous phrase “students do not shed their constitutional rights at the schoolhouse gate."
A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners, and private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Some retail and wholesale nurseries sell by mail.
Although the popular image of a nursery is that of a supplier of garden plants, the range of nursery functions is far wider, and is of vital importance to many branches of agriculture, forestry and conservation biology. Some nurseries specialize in one phase of the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale; or in one type of plant: e.g., groundcovers, shade plants, or rock garden plants. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for orchards, or timber trees for forestry. Some produce stock seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions where propagation could not have been started so early, or to regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable growing early in the season.
Nurseries often grow plants in a greenhouse, a
A benefit society or mutual aid society is an organization or voluntary association formed to provide mutual aid, benefit or insurance for relief from sundry difficulties. Such organizations may be formally organized with charters and established customs, or may arise ad hoc to meet unique needs of a particular time and place.
Benefit societies can be organized around a shared ethnic background, religion, occupation, geographical region or other basis. Benefits may include money or assistance for sickness, retirement, education, birth of a baby, funeral and medical expenses, unemployment. Often benefit societies provide a social or educational framework for members and their families to support each other and contribute to the wider community.
Examples of benefit societies include trade unions, friendly societies, credit unions, self-help groups, landsmanshaftn, immigrant hometown societies, Fraternal organizations such as Freemasons and Oddfellows, coworking communities, and many others. Peter Kropotkin posited early in the 20th century that mutual aid affiliations predate human culture and are as much a factor in evolution as is survival of the fittest.
A benefit society can be
Organizations of this type:Daniel Smith Artists' Materials
Manufacturing is the production of goods for use or sale using labor and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".
Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation.
Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers
Organizations of this type:Student unionism in Australia
A students' union, student government, free student union, student senate, students' association, guild of students or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and universities, and has started appearing in some high schools. In higher education, the students' union is often accorded its own building on the campus, dedicated to social, organisational activities, representation and academic support of the membership. In the United States, student union many times only refers to a physical building owned by the university with the purpose to provide services for students without a governing body also referred to as a student activity center. Outside the United States this refers to a representative body.
Depending on the country: the purpose, assembly, method and implementation of the group might vary. Universally the purpose of students' union or student government is to represent fellow students in some fashion.
In some cases students' unions are run by students, independent of the educational facility. The purpose of these organizations is to represent students both within the institution and externally, including on local and national issues.
A chess club is a club formed for the purpose of playing the board game of chess. Chess clubs provide for both informal games and timed games, often as part of an internal competition or in a league.
Clubs are usually attached to regional chess associations, which are in turn members of their national federation which will be associated with FIDE, the world governing body of chess.
Chess clubs typically provide:
Organizations of this type:Creative Minds at Work and Play
Creative arts is a subject of study for a number of universities, including those that offer a degree of Bachelor of Creative Arts. Areas of study include dramaturgy, music, graphic arts/cartooning, performing arts, film, publishing, galleries, museums, and the visual arts.
Jacksonville Creative Arts Centers
A health association is a professional organization for health professionals. They are often based on specialty and are usually national, often with subnational or regional affiliates. Health associations usually offer conferences and continuing education. They often serve in capacities similar to trade unions, and often take public policy stances on medical issues.
Many health associations publish semi-annual, monthly, or quarterly journals. In some jurisdictions they have a self-governing mandate and are responsible for licensing of practitioners in their field and regulating advertising.
A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal. A service club, for example, exists for voluntary or charitable activities; there are clubs devoted to hobbies and sports, social activities clubs, political and religious clubs, and so forth.
Historically, clubs occurred in all ancient states of which we have detailed knowledge. Once people started living together in larger groups, there was need for people with a common interest to be able to associate despite having no ties of kinship. Organizations of the sort have existed for many years, as evidenced by Ancient Greek clubs and associations in Ancient Rumi.
It is uncertain whether the use of the word "club" originated in its meaning of a knot of people, or from the fact that the members “clubbed” together to pay the expenses of their meetings. The oldest English clubs were merely informal periodic gatherings of friends for the purpose of dining or drinking together. Thomas Occleve (in the time of Henry IV) mentions such a club called La Court de Bonne Compagnie (the Court of Good Company), of which he was a member. In 1659 John Aubrey wrote, “We now use the word clubbe for a sodality [a society,
Organizations of this type:United Nations Population Fund
Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations of the United Nations that work with the UN and each other through the Economic and Social Council. Specialized agencies may or may not have been originally created by the United Nations, but they are incorporated into the United Nations System by the United Nations Economic and Social Council acting under Articles 57 and 63 of the United Nations Charter.
As of December 2007, the agencies are:
Organizations of this type:Baptist Union of New Zealand
Baptists are Christians who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ widely from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, and their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship.
Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to
Financier ( /fɪnənˈsɪər/; French: [finɑ̃ˈsje]) is a term for a person who makes their living from investments, typically involving large sums of money and usually involving private equity and venture capital, mergers and acquisitions, leveraged buyouts, corporate finance, investment banking and/or large-scale asset management. The term is French, and derives from finance or payment.
A financier today can be someone who makes their living from investing in up and coming companies and businesses. A financier makes money through this process when his or her investment is paid back with interest or from part of the company's equity awarded to them as specified by the business deal.
Officially, there are no degrees or schooling needed to be called a financier as it is a term to describe someone who handles money. Certain financier avenues do require degrees and licenses including venture capitalists, hedge fund managers, trust fund managers, accountants, stockbrokers, or even public treasurers. Investing, on the other hand, has no requirements and is open to all by means of the stock market or by word of mouth requests for money.
The term financier can also refer to a member of the
A gang is a group of recurrently associating individuals with identifiable leadership and internal organization, identifying with or claiming control over territory in a community, and engaging either individually or collectively in violent or other forms of illegal behavior. Gang members are typically "jumped in" or have to prove their loyalty by committing acts such as theft or violence. Although gangs exists internationally, there is a greater level of study and knowledgeable information of gangs specifically in the United States.
Gangs are prominent in the larger cities and urban areas in the United States, in prisons and jails while many branches of the original gang are present in small towns and suburbs. American gangs originated in New York City and Chicago and the surrounding areas. The gangs competed with one another for various reasons, such as during the prohibition era for control of illegal drinks, and would often beat or even murder an opposing gang member for attempting to sell or distribute illegal liquor on their "turf". This resulted in retaliation and eventually a "war" between the opposing gangs. In current usage, it typically denotes a criminal organization or
Organizations of this type:Swordsmen and Sorcerers' Guild of America
A literary society is a group of people interested in literature. In the modern sense, this refers to a society that wants to promote one genre of literature or a specific writer. Modern literary societies typically promote research about their chosen author or genre, publish newsletters, and hold meetings where research findings can be presented and discussed. Some are more academic and scholarly, while others are more social groups of amateurs who appreciate a chance to discuss their favourite writer with other hobbyists. Historically, literary society has also referred to salons such as those of Madame de Stael, Madame Geoffrin and Madame de Tencin in pre-Revolutionary France, and student groups at colleges and universities in the United States.
There was a specialized form of the literary society which existed at American Colleges and Universities in the 19th century. The college literary societies were a part of virtually all academic institutions. Usually they existed in pairs at a particular campus, and would compete for members and prestige, and supplemented the classical studies of the curriculum with modern literature and current events. Many also maintained significant
Organizations of this type:Daystar Television Network
Religious broadcasting is broadcasting by religious organizations, usually with a religious message. Many religious organizations have long recorded content such as sermons and lectures, and have moved into distributing content on their Internet websites.
While this article emphasises dedicated religious broadcasters, many non-dedicated stations transmit religious programs; a state with no religious station may broadcast much religious programming.
Religious broadcasting can be funded commercially or through some sort of public broadcasting-style arrangement (religious broadcasters are often recognized as non-profit organizations). Donations from listeners and viewers, often tax-deductible, are solicited by some broadcasters.
In some countries, particularly those with an established state religion, broadcasting related to one particular religion only is allowed, or in some cases required. For example a function of the state-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation is by law "to broadcast such programmes as may promote Islamic ideology, national unity and principles of democracy, freedom equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam..." (s. 10(1)(b)).
Organizations of this type:Union of Vietnamese Student Associations of Southern California
An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources. In business, political, or other environments, one group, the umbrella organization, provides resources and often an identity to the smaller organizations. Sometimes in this kind of arrangement, the umbrella organization is to some degree responsible for the groups under its care. Compare to franchises and subsidiaries.
There may be many reasons for establishing/joining an umbrella organization:
A country club is a private club, often with a closed membership, that typically offers a variety of recreational sports facilities and is located in city outskirts or rural areas. Activities may include, for example, any of golf, tennis, swimming or polo. An athletic club is similar but is usually located within an urban setting, which may exclude certain activities such as golf or polo. On the other hand, rock climbing practice or a martial art may be available. A country club will usually provide hospitality to members and guests such as a restaurant and bar, and may also provide suitable accommodations for host-catered events, such as weddings.
A golf club is a private club organized to play golf. A golf club usually has its own golf course. The most exclusive golf clubs have extensive facilities, such as a restaurant, bar, and swimming pool for its members. Membership is usually by annual subscription. Sometimes the club expects its members to buy stock and has monthly food and beverage purchase minimums.
A tennis club is a private club organized to play tennis. Tennis instruction is normally included, along with tournaments, and the club has its own tennis courts. Tennis
In the commercial and legal parlance of most countries, a general partnership (the basic form of partnership under common law), refers to an association of persons or an unincorporated company with the following major features:
It is a partnership in which partners share equally in both responsibility and liability.
Partnerships have certain default characteristics relating to both (a) the relationship between the individual partners and (b) the relationship between the partnership and the outside world. The former can generally be overridden by agreement between the partners, whereas the latter generally cannot be done.
The assets of the business are owned on behalf of the other partners, and they are each personally liable, jointly and severally, for business debts, taxes or tortious liability. For example, if a partnership defaults on a payment to a creditor, the partners' personal assets are subject to attachment and liquidation to pay the creditor.
By default, profits are shared equally amongst the partners. However, a partnership agreement will almost invariably expressly provide for the manner in which profits and losses are to be shared.
Each general partner is deemed the
Juggling clubs, or simply clubs are a prop used by jugglers, as are other props such as balls or rings. A typical club is in the range of 50 centimetres (20 in) long, weighs between 200 and 300 grams (7.1 and 11 oz), is slim at the "handle" end, and has its center of balance nearer the wider "body" end. The definition of a club is somewhat ambiguous; sticks or rods are allowed under the current Juggling Information Service (JIS) rules for juggling world records.
The term "juggling club" can also mean a social organization where jugglers meet to practice and socialize.
Clubs are sometimes referred to as "pins" due to their resemblance to bowling pins. However, the two vary greatly in construction, weight and weight distribution, and are not interchangeable for most purposes. The modern Juggling club is based on the shape of the Indian club.
Juggling clubs are divided into categories based on facets of their construction and body diameters.
Early turn of the century clubs were made entirely of wood—solid handles with large bodies which were hollowed to reduce weight. This style of club was manufactured by Edward Van Wyck and Harry Lind. These were large diameter American styled
Organizations of this type:Northumberland Care Trust
An NHS care trust, is a type of NHS trust in the English National Health Service and NHS Wales that provides both health and social care. They may carry out a range of services, including social care, mental health services or primary care services. Care Trusts are set up when the NHS and Local Authorities agree to work closely together, usually where it is felt that a closer relationship between health and social care is needed or would benefit local care services.
At the moment there are only a small number of Care Trusts, mainly in England.
Care Trusts do not exist in Scotland, nor are there plans to introduce them.
Organizations of this type:New Zealand Patent Office
The public sector, sometimes referred to as the state sector or the government sector, is a part of the state that deals with either the production, ownership, sale, provision, delivery and allocation of goods and services by and for the government or its citizens, whether national, regional or local/municipal.
Examples of public sector activity range from delivering social security, administering urban planning and organizing national defense.
The organization of the public sector (public ownership) can take several forms, including:
A borderline form is as follows**
In spite of their name, public companies are not part of the public sector; they are a particular kind of private sector company that can offer their shares for sale to the general public, i.e. to anyone willing to buy them (as opposed to a privately owned company, shares of which can be sold to someone only if the owner of the shares agrees to sell them).
The role of public sectors are as follows:
The role and scope of the public sector and state sector are often the biggest distinction regarding the economic positions of socialist, liberal and libertarian political philosophy. In general, socialists favor a large
Template:Ditinguish A savings and loan association (or S&L), also known as a thrift, is a financial institution that specializes in accepting savings deposits and making mortgage and other loans. The terms "S&L" or "thrift" are mainly used in the United States; similar institutions in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries include building societies and trustee savings banks. They are often mutually held (often called mutual savings banks), meaning that the depositors and borrowers are members with voting rights, and have the ability to direct the financial and managerial goals of the organization like the members of a credit union or the policyholders of a mutual insurance company. While it is possible for an S&L to be a joint stock company, and even publicly traded, in such instances it is no longer truly a mutual association, and depositors and borrowers no longer have membership rights and managerial control. By law, thrifts can have no more than 20 percent of their lending in commercial loans — their focus on mortgage and consumer loans makes them particularly vulnerable to housing downturns such as the deep one the U.S. has experienced since 2007.
Secret police (sometimes political police) are an intelligence agencies and or police agency, law enforcement office which operates in secrecy and also quite often beyond the law to protect the political power of an individual dictator or an authoritarian political regime.
Instead of transparently enforcing the rule of law and being subject to public scrutiny as ordinary police agencies do, secret police organizations are specifically intended to operate beyond and above the law in order to suppress political dissent through clandestine acts of terror and intimidation (such as kidnapping, coercive interrogation, torture, internal exile, forced disappearance, and assassination) targeted against political enemies of the ruling authority.
Secret police forces are accountable only to the executive branch of the government, sometimes only to a dictator]. They operate entirely or partially in secrecy, that is, most or all of their operations are obscure and hidden from the general public and government except for the topmost executive officials. This semi-official capacity allows the secret police to bolster the government's control over their citizens while also allowing the government
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964.
The complete rules are extensive. But simply, play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a 'rally' by serving the ball (tossing or releasing it and then hitting it with a hand or arm), from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, and into the receiving team's court. The receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively. Typically, the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court.
The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either (1): a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally; or (2): a team commits a fault and loses the
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.
The term motorcar has also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. These locomotive cars were often used on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems.
It was estimated in 2010 that the number of automobiles had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, with 500 million reached in 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India.
The word automobile comes, via the French automobile from the Ancient Greek word αὐτός (autós, "self") and the Latin mobilis ("movable"); meaning a vehicle that moves itself. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum ("wheeled vehicle"), or the Middle English word carre
Organizations of this type:Florida Center for Library Automation
A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible via computers.The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. A digital library is a type of information retrieval system.
In the context of the DELOS, a Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries, and DL.org, a Coordination Action on Digital Library Interoperability, Best Practices and Modelling Foundations, Digital Library researchers and practitioners produced a Digital Library Reference Model which defines a digital library as: "A potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich digital content, and offers to its targeted user communities specialised functionality on that content, of defined quality and according to comprehensive codified policies."
The first use of the term digital library in print may have been in a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives The term digital libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994. These draw heavily on As We May Think
An institute is an organisational body created for a certain purpose.
Often they are research organisations (research institutions) created to do research on specific topics. An institute can also be a professional body.
In some countries institutes can be part of a university or other institutions of higher education, either as a group of departments or an autonomous educational institution without a traditional university status such as a "university Institute". (See Institute of Technology)
The word "institute" comes from the Latin word institutum meaning "facility" or "habit"; from instituere meaning "build", "create", "raise" or "educate".
In some countries, such as South Korea and Japan, private schools are sometimes called institutes, rather than schools. In Spain secondary schools are called institutes.
In the United Kingdom and the Isle of Man the term "institute" is a protected word and companies or other organizations may only use the word if they are "organisations which are carrying out research at the highest level or to professional bodies of the highest standing". Furthermore, if a company is carrying on a business under a different name to the company name, that
Organizations of this type:New Zealand Historic Places Trust
A Crown entity (from the Commonwealth term Crown) is an organisation that forms part of New Zealand's state sector established under the Crown Entities Act 2004, a unique umbrella governance and accountability statute. The Crown Entities Act is based on the corporate model where the governance of the organisation is split from the management of the organisation.
Crown entities come under the following subtypes:
Crown entities can be contrasted with other New Zealand public sector organisational forms: departments of state, State-owned enterprises, offices of Parliament and sui generis organisations like the Reserve Bank.
Under the Crown Entities Act, Ministers are required to "oversee and manage" the Crown's interests in the Crown entities within their portfolio (sections 27 and 88). The board of the entity has the key role in ensuring the entity is achieving results within budget. This is done by a monitoring department on behalf of the Minister unless other arrangements for monitoring are made. Monitoring departments make explicit agreements with their Minister, setting out what monitoring they will undertake and how they will do it. Crown entity boards should also facilitate
Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. The term software engineering first appeared in the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference, and was meant to provoke thought regarding the perceived "software crisis" at the time.
Software development, a much used and more generic term, does not necessarily subsume the engineering paradigm. The field's future looks bright according to Money Magazine and Salary.com, which rated Software Engineer as the best job in the United States in 2006. In 2012, software engineering was again ranked as the best job in the United States, this time by CareerCast.com.
When the first modern digital computers appeared in the early 1940s, the instructions to make them operate were wired into the machine. Practitioners quickly realized that this design was not flexible and came up with the "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture. Thus the division between "hardware" and "software" began with abstraction being used to deal with the
Winemaking, or vinification, is the production of wine, starting with selection of the grapes or other produce and ending with bottling the finished wine. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may also be made from other fruits or plants. Mead is a wine that is made with honey being the primary ingredient after water.
Winemaking can be divided into two general categories: still wine production (without carbonation) and sparkling wine production (with carbonation - natural or injected).
The science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology. A person who makes wine is traditionally called a winemaker or vintner.
After the harvest, the grapes are taken into a winery and prepared for primary ferment. At this stage red wine making diverges from white wine making. Red wine is made from the must (pulp) of red or black grapes and fermentation occurs together with the grape skins, which give the wine its color. White wine is made by fermenting juice which is made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice; the skins are removed and play no further role. Occasionally white wine is made from red grapes; this is done by extracting their juice with minimal contact with the grapes'
A gendarmerie or gendarmery ( /dʒɛnˈdɑrməri/ or /ʒɑːnˈdɑrməri/) is in principle a military force charged with police duties among civilian populations. Members of such a force are typically called "gendarmes". The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary describes a gendarme as "a soldier who is employed on police duties" and a "gendarmery, -erie" as "gendarmes as a body". The term maréchaussée (or marshalcy) may also be used (e.g., Royal Marechaussee) but is now uncommon.
Sometimes forces that are no longer military still use the title for historic reasons, in the same manner as many other units use obsolete military titles (cf. "hussars", "cuirassiers" etc.) but these are not strictly gendarmeries.
The word gendarme comes from Old French gens d'armes, meaning men-at-arms. Historically, during the Late Medieval to the Early Modern period, the term referred to a heavily armoured cavalryman of noble birth, primarily serving in the French army (see Gendarme (historical)). The word gained policing connotations after the French Revolution when the Maréchaussée of the Ancien Régime was renamed the Gendarmerie.
In the United Kingdom, there is a body called Her Majesty's Bodyguard of the
Organizations of this type:National Education Association
A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession, and the public interest.
The roles of these professional associations have been variously defined: "A group of people in a learned occupation who are entrusted with maintaining control or oversight of the legitimate practice of the occupation;" also a body acting "to safeguard the public interest;" organizations which "represent the interest of the professional practitioners," and so "act to maintain their own privileged and powerful position as a controlling body." This, in turn, places the burden of enforcing a Profession ban upon these associations as well.
Such bodies generally strive to achieve a balance between these two often conflicting mandates. Though professional bodies often act to protect the public by maintaining and enforcing standards of training and ethics in their profession, they often also act like a cartel or a labor union (trade union) for the members of the profession, though this description is commonly rejected
A Tertiary Education Institution is a term used by New Zealand's government agencies to group educational facilities in the country. They include universities, institutes of technology and polytechnics, colleges of education and wananga in New Zealand.
A comparative list of New Zealand public Tertiary Education Institutions from New Zealand government statistics published for 2005 Student numbers are available for 2006 as of 5/2007 but these do not include staffing.
Institute of learning and Polytechnic
College of Education
Education counts (NZ government)
Tertiary Education Commission of New Zealand
A Web service is a method of communication between two electronic devices over the World Wide Web.
The W3C defines a "Web service" as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network". It has an interface described in a machine-processable format (specifically Web Services Description Language, known by the acronym WSDL). Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages, typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards."
The W3C also states, "We can identify two major classes of Web services, REST-compliant Web services, in which the primary purpose of the service is to manipulate XML representations of Web resources using a uniform set of "stateless" operations; and arbitrary Web services, in which the service may expose an arbitrary set of operations."
"Big Web services" use Extensible Markup Language (XML) messages that follow the SOAP standard and have been popular with the traditional enterprises. In such systems, there is often a machine-readable description of the operations offered by the service written in the Web
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.
Food safety and food security are monitored by agencies like the International Association for Food Protection, World Resources Institute, World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Food Information Council. They address issues such as sustainability, biological diversity, climate change, nutritional economics, population growth, water supply, and access to food.
The right to food is a human right derived from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), recognizing the "right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food", as well as the "fundamental right to
Organizations of this type:East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or healthcare system is the organization of people, institutions, and resources to deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants. In others, there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, charities, religious, or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. However, health care planning has been described as often evolutionary rather than revolutionary.
The goals for health systems, according to the World Health Organization, are good health, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, and fair financial contribution. Progress towards them depends on how systems carry out four vital functions: provision of health care services, resource generation, financing, and stewardship. Other dimensions for the evaluation of health systems include quality, efficiency, acceptability, and equity. They
Aktiengesellschaft (German pronunciation: [ˈaktsiənɡəzɛlʃaft]; abbreviated AG) is a German term that refers to a corporation that is limited by shares, i.e., owned by shareholders, and may be traded on a stock market. The term is used in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. It is also used occasionally in Luxembourg (though the French-language equivalent, Société Anonyme, is more common) and for companies incorporated in the German-speaking region of Belgium.
The German word Aktiengesellschaft is a compound noun made up of two elements: Aktien meaning shares, and Gesellschaft meaning society, or, in this context, company. Other types of German companies also have shares, although these shares are called Anteile rather than Aktien. A similar distinction exists in other languages; for example, in Polish the two types of share are called akcja and udział, or in Spanish, acción and cuota.
In Germany and Austria, the legal basis of the AG is the German Aktiengesetz (abbr. AktG) or the Austrian Aktiengesetz (abbr. AktG). In Switzerland, it is contained within the Obligationenrecht (OR). The law requires all corporations to specify their legal form in their name which tells the public their
Organizations of this type:Tri-State Christian Television
A broadcast network is an organization, such as a corporation or other voluntary association, that provides live television or recorded content, such as movies, newscasts, sports, Public affairs programming, and other television programs for broadcast over a group of radio stations or television stations. Most networks are primarily either a television network or a radio network, although some organizations run both types of networks.
Streaming media, Internet radio Webcasting is sometimes considered a form of broadcasting despite the lack of broadcast stations, in which case its practitioners may also be called "broadcasters" or even "broadcast networks".
Reginald Fessenden, a former engineer and communications researcher for the U.S. Weather Bureau was the first to transmit a radio broadcast. His broadcasts were to ships at sea which he used his radio telegraphy equipment. His programs consisted of a recorded Handel piece, a violin performance, and a reading from the Bible. He claimed to be the first to transmit the human voice. General Electric was encouraged years later to create the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). Around this time was when AT&T got involved in radio.
Filmmaking (often referred to in an academic context as film production) is the process of making a film. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through scriptwriting, casting, shooting, editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete.
Film production involves three major stages:
In this stage, the project's producer selects a story, which may come from a book, play, another film, a true story, original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure. Then, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, and characters. This usually has little dialogue and stage
An offshore foundation is simply a conventional foundation that is formed under the law of an offshore jurisdiction. Like conventional foundations they are generally a low tax entity, but with less "red tape" and reporting requirements. Foundations are mainly used for altruistic or estate planning purposes. In terms of the legal structure, an offshore foundation lies somewhere between an offshore company and an offshore trust. Functionally an offshore foundation differs from an offshore company in that a foundation cannot directly engage in commercial business activity, although it may own investment such as property, stock and bonds.
The types of offshore foundations are:
A political action committee (PAC) is any organization in the United States that campaigns for or against political candidates, ballot initiatives or legislation. At the federal level, an organization becomes a PAC when it receives or spends more than $1,000 for the purpose of influencing a federal election, according to the Federal Election Campaign Act. At the state level, an organization becomes a PAC according to the state's election laws.
In 1947, as part of the Taft-Hartley Act, the U.S. Congress prohibited labor unions or corporations from spending money to influence federal elections, and prohibited labor unions from contributing to candidate campaigns (an earlier law, the 1907 Tillman Act, had prohibited corporations from contributing to campaigns). Labor unions moved to work around these limitations by establishing political action committees, to which members could contribute.
In 1971, Congress passed the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). In 1974, Amendments to FECA defined how a PAC could operate and established the Federal Election Commission (FEC) to enforce the nation's campaign finance laws. The FECA and the FEC's rules provide for the following:
A Utilities commission, Utility Regulatory Commission (URC), Public Utilities Commission (PUC) or Public Service Commission (PSC) is a governing body that regulates the rates and services of a public utility. In some cases, government bodies with the title "Public Service Commission" may be civil service oversight bodies, rather than utilities regulators.
The utility that is being regulated may be owned by the consumers that it serves, a mutual utility like a Public Utility District, a state-owned utility, or it may be a stockholder owned utility either publicly traded on a stock exchange or closely held among just a few investors.
Cantonal banks (German: Kantonalbank, French: Banque Cantonale, Italian: Banca Cantonale) are Swiss governmental-owned commercial banks, that use the canton that they are based in as guarantee for the assets held there. However, currently they are in process of being partially privatised. The cantonal banks are organised and regulated by the Association of Swiss Cantonal Banks, with its office in Basel.
There are 24 cantonal banks, one in each canton of the country, except in the cantons of Appenzell Ausserrhoden, who sold its bank to banking rival UBS, and Solothurn, who privatised its bank in 1995 after a scandal. Each bank uses a distinctive motif as the logo with a cantonal colour on white used as the colours of the bank, e.g. light blue for Zürcher Kantonalbank (Zurich Cantonal Bank). Despite what they seem to appear, cantonal banks are not little private banks, as two of them, Zürcher Kantonalbank and Banque Cantonale Vaudoise are the third and fourth biggest banks in Switzerland (after UBS AG and Credit Suisse) .
As a group, le Groupe des Banques Cantonales amounts for about 30% of the banking sector in Switzerland.
A comedy club is a venue, typically a nightclub, bar, or restaurant where people watch or listen to performances, including stand-up comedians, improvisational comedians, impersonators, magicians, ventriloquists and other comedy acts. The term "comedy club" usually refers to venues that feature standup comedy, as distinguished from improv theaters that host improv or sketch comedy and variety clubs that may also host musical acts.
Comedy clubs are usually broken down by comedians into "A rooms", "B rooms" and "C rooms"
A commons club is a type of social organization whose membership is "open" rather than selective based on personal introduction and invitation. It may also refer to the lodge or other meeting facility associated with such a club and used for its activities. Usually, commons club refers to a type of men's social organization which flourished at institutions of higher education in North America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Commons Clubs both emulated and differentiated themselves from fraternities and other competing social institutions. They provided a social network, but membership was usually open to anyone interested in joining. The resources of a large organization could be put to sponsoring events and activities, as well as providing dining and housing, beyond the means of an individual student. Commons Clubs over time came to identify their chief ideals as Democracy, Service, and Brotherhood, but did not enforce them through secret oaths or rituals.
Greek-letter literary and philosophical societies, starting with Phi Beta Kappa (est. 1779), rose at American universities as an outlet for students frustrated with the traditional curriculum centered on the classics.
Eingetragener Verein (e. V.) ("registered association") is a legal status for a registered voluntary association in Germany and Austria. While any group may be called a Verein, registration as eingetragener Verein holds many legal benefits because a registered association may legally function as a corporate body (juristic person) rather than just a group of individuals.
The Civil Code of Germany contains different regulations for registered non-profit and for-profit associations regarded as juristic persons ("Vereine", articles 21–79) on the one hand and for not necessarily registered associations by contract ("Gesellschaften", articles 705–740) on the other hand.
A foundation (also a charitable foundation) is a legal categorization of nonprofit organizations that will typically either donate funds and support to other organizations, or provide the source of funding for its own charitable purposes.
This type of non-profit organization differs from a private foundation which is typically endowed by an individual or family.
One of the characteristics of the legal entities existing under the status of "Foundations", is a wide diversity of structures and purposes. Nevertheless, there are some common structural elements that are the first observed under legal scrutiny or classification.
Some of the above must be, in most jurisdictions, expressed in the document of establishment. Others may be provided by the supervising authority at each particular jurisdiction.
There is no commonly-accepted legal definition in Europe for a foundation. The proposed European Foundation, a legal form recognised throughout Europe, would lift costly legal and administrative burden from foundations that wish to work across borders (See European Foundation Project).
The term "foundation," in general, is used to describe a distinct legal entity.
Foundations as legal
A homeowner association is a corporation formed by a real estate developer for the purpose of marketing, managing, and selling of homes and lots in a residential subdivision. It grants the developer privileged voting rights in governing the association, while allowing the developer to exit financial and legal responsibility of the organization, typically by transferring ownership of the association to the homeowners after selling off a predetermined number of lots. It allows a civil municipality to increase its tax base, but without requiring it to provide equal services to all of its citizens. Membership in the homeowners association by a residential buyer is typically a condition of purchase; a buyer isn't given an option to Most homeowner associations are incorporated, and are subject to state statutes that govern non-profit corporations and homeowner associations. State oversight of homeowner associations is minimal, and mainly takes the form of laws which are inconsistent from state to state. Some states, such as Florida and California, have a large body of homeowner association law, and some states, such as Massachusetts, have virtually no homeowner association law.
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any form of government. The term originated from the United Nations (UN), and is normally used to refer to organizations that are not a part of the government and are not conventional for-profit business. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue wider social aims that have political aspects, but are not openly political organizations such as political parties.
The number of NGOs operating in the United States is estimated at 40,000. International numbers are even higher: Russia has 277,000 NGOs; India is estimated to have around 3.3 million NGOs in year 2009, which is just over one NGO per 400 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India.
NGOs are difficult to define and classify, and the term 'NGO' is not used consistently. As a result, there are many different classifications in
Organizations of this type:MotionWorks Physical Therapy
Physical therapy (or physiotherapy), often abbreviated PT, is a health care profession primarily concerned with the remediation of impairments and disabilities and the promotion of mobility, functional ability, quality of life and movement potential through examination, evaluation, diagnosis and physical intervention carried out by Physical Therapists (known as Physiotherapists in some countries) and Physical Therapist Assistants (known as Physical Rehabilitation Therapists in some countries). In addition to clinical practice, other activities encompassed in the physical therapy profession include research, education, consultation and administration. Definitions and licensing requirements in the United States vary among jurisdictions, as each state has enacted its own physical therapy practice act defining the profession within its jurisdiction, but the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has also drafted a model definition in order to limit this variation, and the APTA is also responsible for accrediting physical therapy education curricula throughout the United States of America. In many settings, physical therapy services may be provided alongside, or in conjunction
Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains fittings, valves, valve assemblies, and devices installed in a building for the distribution of water for drinking, heating and washing, and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment such as water heaters. The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy due to the need for clean water, and proper collection and transport of wastes. The word "plumbing" comes from the Latin plumbum for lead, as pipes were once made from lead.
Plumbing is usually distinguished from water supply and feces sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves one building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings.
Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and drainage of wastes, for larger numbers of people. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages
A 501(c) organization, also known colloquially as either a 501(c) or a "nonprofit", is an American tax-exempt nonprofit organization. Section 501(c) of the United States Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. § 501(c)) provides that 28 types of nonprofit organizations are exempt from some federal income taxes. Sections 503 through 505 set out the requirements for attaining such exemptions. Many states refer to Section 501(c) for definitions of organizations exempt from state taxation as well.
According to the IRS Publication 557, in the Organization Reference Chart section, the following is an exact list of 501(c) organization types and their corresponding descriptions.
Under Section 511, a 501(c) organization is subject to tax on its "unrelated business income", whether or not the organization actually makes a profit, but not including selling donated merchandise or other business or trade carried on by volunteers, or certain bingo games. Disposal of donated goods valued over $2,500, or acceptance of goods worth over $5,000 may also trigger special filing and record-keeping requirements.
Note that "tax exempt" also does not excuse an organization from maintaining proper records and
Organizations of this type:Set Decorators Society of America
The United States Internal Revenue Code 501(c)(6) provides for exemption of business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, boards of trade, and professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), which are not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.
Reg. 1.501(c)(6)-l defines a business league as an association of persons having a common business interest, whose purpose is to promote the common business interest and not to engage in a regular business of a kind ordinarily carried on for profit. Its activities are directed to the improvement of business conditions of one or more lines of business rather than the performance of particular services for individual persons.
Organizations of this type:European Union financial regulatory institution
Financial regulation is a form of regulation or supervision, which subjects financial institutions to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to maintain the integrity of the financial system. This may be handled by either a government or non-government organization.
The objectives of financial regulators are usually:
Acts empowers organizations, government or non-government, to monitor activities and enforce actions. There are various setups and combinations in place for the financial regulatory structure around the global . Leaf parts are in any case:
Exchange acts ensure that trading on the exchanges is conducted in a proper manner. Most prominent the pricing process, execution and settlement of trades, direct and efficient trade monitoring.
Financial regulators ensures that listed companies and market participants comply with various regulations under the trading acts. The trading acts demands that listed companies publish regular financial reports, ad hoc notifications or directors' dealings. Whereas market participants are required to publish major shareholder notifications. The objective of monitoring compliance by listed companies with their disclosure
Organizations of this type:the Pythagorean Order of Death
The Metaphysical Society was a British society, founded in 1869 by James Knowles. Many of its members were prominent clergymen.
Papers were read and discussed at meetings on such subjects as the ultimate grounds of belief in the objective and moral sciences, the immortality of the soul, etc. A description of one of the meetings was given by Magee (then Bishop of Peterborough) in a letter of February 13, 1873:
"Archbishop Manning in the chair was flanked by two Protestant bishops right and left; on my right was Hutton, editor of the Spectator, an Arian; then came Father Dalgairns, a very able Roman Catholic priest; opposite him Lord A. Russell, a Deist; then two Scotch metaphysical writers, Freethinkers; then Knowles, the very broad editor of the Contemporary; then, dressed as a layman and looking like a country squire, was Ward, formerly Rev. Ward, and earliest of the perverts to Rome; then Greg, author of The Creed of Christendom, a Deist; then Froude, the historian, once a deacon in our Church, now a Deist; then Roden Noël, an actual Atheist and red republican, and looking very like one! Lastly Ruskin, who read a paper on miracles, which we discussed for an hour and a half!
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Means to achieve these ends include advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, diplomacy, boycotts, moral purchasing, supporting anti-war political candidates, creating open government and transparency tools, demonstrations, and national political lobbying groups to create legislation. The political cooperative is an example of an organization that seeks to merge all peace movement organizations and green organizations, which may have some diverse goals, but all of whom have the common goal of peace and humane sustainability. A concern of some peace activists is the challenge of attaining peace when those that oppose it often use violence as their means of communication and empowerment.
Some people refer to the global loose affiliation of activists and political interests as having a shared purpose and this constituting a single movement, "the peace movement", an all encompassing "anti-war movement". Seen this way, the two are often
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the flow of information between an individual or an organization and the public. Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. The aim of public relations by a company often is to persuade the public, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders to maintain a certain point of view about it, its leadership, products, or of political decisions. Common activities include speaking at conferences, winning industry awards, working with the press, and employee communication.
Ivy Lee and Edward Louis Bernays established the first definition of public relations in the early 1900s as
"a management function, which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures, and interests of an organization... followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance."
In August 1978, the World Assembly of Public Relations Associations defined the field as
"the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organizational leaders, and
In the United States, a Residence Hall Association (RHA) is a student-run university residence hall governing body. It is usually (but not always) the parent organization for individual hall governments. Their function is similar to a student government, except that most of their activities pertain to on-campus living. Most RHAs are either subordinate to or a division of their student governments — however a few are independent and relatively equal. Many residence hall associations were created at campuses across the US in the early twentieth century.
Many Residence Hall Associations are primarily concerned with programming activities for residents and providing financial and planning support to other entities (such as Resident Advisors/Assistants, Hall Councils, or other groups associated with campus housing). Examples of these programs may include:
Sometimes RHAs are also involved in resident issues on campuses. Often, RHAs deal with concerns about things such as hall visitation hours, hall security, hall safety, building services (repairs and upgrades), and general hall environment. Some organizations also have authority to vote on legislative policy changes on their campuses
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring boiling hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavour which many people enjoy.
Consumption of tea (especially green) is beneficial to health and longevity given its antioxidant, flavanols, flavonoids, polyphenols, and catechins content. Tea catechins have known anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities, help to regulate food intake, and have an affinity for cannabinoid receptors, which may suppress pain and nausea, and provide calming effects.
Consumption of green tea is associated with a lower risk of diseases that cause functional disability, such as “stroke, cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis” in the elderly.
Tea contains L-theanine, and its consumption is strongly associated with a calm but alert and focused, relatively productive (alpha wave dominant), mental state in humans. This mental state is also common to meditative practice.
The phrase herbal tea usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs made without the tea plant, such as
A tenant-owner's association (Swedish: bostadsrￃﾤttsfￃﾶrening) is a legal term used in some Nordic countries (Sweden, Finland and Norway) for a type of joint ownership of property in which the whole property is commonly owned by all members by each having an individual "stake". Members are required to have a tenant-ownership, which represents the apartment, and in most cases live permanently at the address. There are some legal differences between the countries, mainly in the ownership condition. In Sweden, members are formally renting the apartment from the association without limitation in time (in opposite to a normal renting with limitation in time.)
The very first apartment transaction between owner and association, i.e. "the grant", is paid using the stake cost. Later transactions are termed "make overs" and their amounts are defined by market conditions. There is therefore a risk of losing the whole or a part of one's stake capital, although it is uncommon.
Tenant-owner's associations were etablished during the 19th century and were originally a United Kingdom-based concept (building societies). However, the investment cost is often very high, normally much higher than
Organizations of this type:Royal Swedish Academy of Arts
An academy (Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of higher learning, research, or honorary membership. The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded approximately 385 BC at Akademia, a sanctuary of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and skill, north of Athens, Greece.
In the western world academia is the commonly used term for the collective institutions of higher learning.
Before Akademia was a school, and even before Cimon enclosed its precincts with a wall, it contained a sacred grove of olive trees dedicated to Athena, the goddess of wisdom, outside the city walls of ancient Athens. The archaic name for the site was Hekademia, which by classical times evolved into Akademia and was explained, at least as early as the beginning of the 6th century BC, by linking it to an Athenian hero, a legendary "Akademos". The site of Akademia was sacred to Athena and other immortals.
Plato's immediate successors as "scholarch" of Akademia were Speusippus (347–339 BC), Xenocrates (339–314 BC), Polemon (314–269 BC), Crates (ca. 269–266 BC), and Arcesilaus (ca. 266–240 BC). Later scholarchs include Lacydes of Cyrene, Carneades, Clitomachus, and Philo of Larissa ("the last undisputed head
Catering is the business of providing foodservice at a remote site or a site such as a hotel, public house (pub), or other location.
A mobile caterer serves food directly from a vehicle, cart or truck that is designed for the purpose. Mobile catering is common at outdoor events (such as concerts), workplaces, and downtown business districts.
Events range from cheese lunch drop-off to full-service catering. Caterers and their staff are part of the foodservice industry. Catering services provided vary depending on the event and can include: cooking and delivering food to an outside location; cooking, delivering and serving food; and full-service (preparing food, providing service staff, decoration of event location, prep and clean-up). In some cases of full-service catering, the caterer is called an "Event Management company."
When most people refer to a "caterer", they are referring to an event caterer who serves food with waiting staff at dining tables or sets up a self-serve buffet. The food may be prepared on site, i.e., made completely at the event, or the caterer may choose to bring prepared food and put the finishing touches on once it arrives.
The event caterer staff are not
A charitable trust is an irrevocable trust established for charitable purposes, and is a more specific term than "charitable organization".
In India, trusts set up for the social causes and approved by the Income Tax Department, get not only exemption from payment of tax but also the donors to such trusts can deduct the amount of donation to the trust from their taxable income. The legal framework in India recognizes activities including "relief of the poor, education, medical relief, and the advancement of any other object of general public utility" as charitable purposes. Companies formed under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 for promoting charity also receive benefits under law including exemption from various procedural provisions of the Companies Act, either fully or in part, and are also entitled to such other exemptions that the Central Government may accord through its orders.
In the Islamic Republic of Iran religious charitable trusts, or Bonyads, make up a substantial part of the country's economy, controlling an estimated 20% of Iran's GDP. Unlike some other Muslim-majority countries, the bonyads receive large and controversial subsidies from the Iranian
To raise funds or awareness for charities or causes which they support, musicians may sometimes form groups often known as charity supergroups. While all-star membership in these groups may suggest that they are supergroups, they are usually together only for a single album, show, or single. Also, the primary objective of these groups are not record sales or profit for the musicians, but a more humanitarian goal such as supporting a non-profit organization. Some of the most notable charity supergroups include 1984's Band Aid, featuring Bono, Phil Collins and Sting, which recorded "Do They Know Its Christmas?" to support famine relief in Ethiopia, and 1985's USA for Africa, which featured such stars as Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie, which recorded "We are the World". However, the concept dates back to at least 1971 when George Harrison and Ravi Shankar organized The Concert for Bangladesh, and a subsequent album and film, to support UNICEF relief efforts in that country.
In the Simpsons episode "Radio Bart," a charity supergroup, including Krusty the Clown and guest star Sting, perform "We're Sending Our Love Down the Well."
An episode of Futurama had Bender playing with Beck in
Organizations of this type:Dogbert's New Ruling Class
A fan club is a group that is dedicated to a well-known person, group, idea (such as history) or sometimes even an inanimate object (such as a famous building). Most fan clubs are run by fans who devote considerable time and resources to supporting them. There are also "official" fan clubs that are run by someone associated with the person or organization the club is centered around. This is the case for many musicians, sports teams and more.
Larger fan clubs may organize events and fundraising relating to what they are based on. In some cases the money that is raised goes directly to the people the fan club is based around or to fund the fan club itself.
Today, many fan clubs have web sites to support their adoring efforts. These sites usually have photos and information on the object of their affection. For example, a fan site dedicated to musicians might have photos, videos, discussion boards, and information on upcoming concerts.
Organizations of this type:County Durham Primary Care Trust
An NHS primary care trust (PCT) is a type of NHS trust, part of the National Health Service in England. PCTs commission primary, community and secondary care from providers. Until 31 May 2011 they also provided community services directly. Collectively PCT are responsible for spending around 80% of the total NHS budget. Primary Care Trusts are scheduled for abolition on 31 March 2013.
PCTs have their own budgets and set their own priorities, within the overriding priorities and budgets set by the relevant Strategic Health Authority, and the Department of Health. They provide funding for general practitioners and medical prescriptions; they also commission hospital and mental health services from appropriate NHS trusts or from the private sector. Many PCTs are now calling themselves NHS and then the name of their geographical area to make it easier for local people to understand how the NHS is managed locally.
PCTs are managed by a team of executive directors headed by a chief executive. These directors are members of the trust's board, together with non-executive directors appointed after open advertisement. The chairman of a trust is a non-executive director. Other board members
Organizations of this type:World Zionist Organization
A political organization is an organization that involves itself in the political process. In a broader sense, a political organization can also be viewed as a political system, as long as it includes the entire system and body of government. It creates a form of structure to abide by.
A political organization as distinct from a Political Party is generally a non-partisan body that is established and engaged in the political process in order to bring about or support a partiare separate from Political parties in that they do not endorse and run candidates for public office, their membership is open and non-partisan).
Organizations of this type:Flemish Liberals and Democrats
A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. Parties participate in electoral campaigns and educational outreach or protest actions. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.
An individual who either volunteers for, is employed by, or helps to establish and operate a political party is known as a party organizer, also known as the party activist or party worker.
A political party is typically led by a party leader (the most powerful member and spokesperson representing the party), a party secretary (who maintains the daily work and records of party meetings), party treasurer (who is responsible for membership dues) and party chair (who forms strategies for recruiting and retaining party members, and also chairs party meetings). Most of the above positions are also members of the party executive, the leading organization which sets policy for the entire party at the national level.
On a regular, periodic basis, party conferences are
Organizations of this type:Library Company of Philadelphia
A research library is a library which contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects (Young, 1983; p.188). A research library will generally include primary sources as well as secondary sources. Large university libraries are considered research libraries, and often contain many specialized branch research libraries.
Research libraries can be either reference libraries, which do not lend their holdings, or lending libraries, which do lend all or some of their holdings. Some extremely large or traditional research libraries are entirely reference in this sense, lending none of their material; most academic research libraries, at least in the U.S., now lend books, but not periodicals or other material.
Student bar associations (SBAs) are student organizations that exist at many laws schools in the United States. Student bar associations take their name from bar associations, which are professional bodies of lawyers.
The duties, structure, and size of the student bar association varies among law schools. In many law schools, the student bar association is analogous to the student government, and the body acts as a liaison between administrators and students. Other duties may include sponsoring and planning social and educational events and providing student services.
A television system is a Canadian term for a group of television stations which share common ownership, branding, and programming, but are not considered a full television network.
In current practice, a television system may be either a small group of stations with common branding, such as Citytv, CTV Two, or Omni, or a regional group of stations within a larger network, such as CTV Atlantic, CTV Northern Ontario, or CBC North, which are legally licensed as multiple stations but effectively act as a single station for programming, branding, and advertising sales purposes. The former type of system has largely, although not entirely, replaced independent stations in the Canadian broadcast landscape.
Systems are differentiated from networks primarily by their less extensive service area — while a network will serve most Canadian broadcast markets in some form, a system will typically serve only a few markets. As well, a system may or may not offer some classes of programming, such as a national newscast, which are typically provided by a network.
The distinction between a system and a network is often not entirely clear, as the former term has no set legal definition, and its usage
A government organized non-governmental organization (GONGO) is a non-governmental organization that may have been set up by a government to look like an NGO in order to qualify for outside aid or mitigate specific issues related to in-country work or international relations. Often, GONGOs are set up by undemocratic governments to maintain some level of control of the GONGO's personnel, purpose, operation or activities. This control is often not seen in a positive light, as it filters the spirit of an NGO through a government's intentions, leaving it open to the issues (complications, corruption, non-democratic action, etc.) that may be embedded in the host government.
Military organization is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defence policy. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures.
Military organization is hierarchical. The use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. In modern times, executive control, management and administration of military organizations is typically undertaken by the government through a government department within the structure of public administration, often known as a Department of Defense, Department of War, or Ministry of Defence. These in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command combat, combat support and service support formations and units.
The usually civilian or partly civilian executive control over the national military organization is exercised in democracies by an elected political leader as a member of the government's Cabinet, usually known as a Minister of Defence. (In
A military unit is an organization within an armed force. It may consist of any number of soldier, ships, vehicles, or aircraft. Armies, navies, and air forces, are organized hierarchically into groups of various sizes for functional, tactical and administrative purposes.
Technically, a unit is a homogeneous military organization, such as a battalion (infantry), or regiment (cavalry), and its administrative and command functions are considered to be at the unit level. Smaller organizations (companies, platoons, sections), are minor units, as opposed to battalions and regiments, which are major units.
Larger military organizations (brigades and higher) are formation. A formation is a collection of separate units, each with their own command structures.
The specific composition of a military organization is sometimes called an "Order of Battle" or Orbat for short.
This article gives an overview of some of the terms used to describe military units in armed forces across the world. Whilst it is recognized that there will be differences between armies of different nations, it seems that a large proportion are modelled on the British and/or American models. Readers interested
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an orebody, lode, vein, (coal) seam or reef, which forms the mineralized horizon and package of economic interest to the miner.
To gain access to the mineralised package within the lease area (aka Mining Rights Lease) it is often necessary to mine through (to create access, shafts, addits, ramps) or remove to the side waste material which is not of immediate interest to the miner. The total movement of ore and waste, which also includes the removal of soil in some cases, is referred to as the mining process. Depending on the nature, attitude, and grade of the orebody, it is often the case that more waste than ore is mined during the course of the life of a mine. The waste removal and placement is a major cost to the mining operator and to facilitate detailed planning the detailed geological and mineralisation characterization of the waste material forms an essential part of the geological exploration programme.
The waste is classified as either sterile or mineralised (with acid generating potential) and the movement and stacking (or dumping) of this material forms a major part of the
A neighborhood association (NA) is a group of residents or property owners who advocate for or organize activities within a neighborhood. An association may have elected leaders and voluntary dues.
Some neighborhood associations in the United States are incorporated, may be recognized by the Internal Revenue Service as 501(c)(4) nonprofit organization, and may enjoy freedom from taxation from their home state.
The term neighborhood association is sometimes incorrectly used instead of homeowners association (HOA). But neighborhood associations are not homeowners associations (HOA). An HOA is a group of property owners with the legal authority to enforce rules and regulations that focus on restrictions and building and safety issues. On the other hand, a neighborhood association is a group of neighbors and business owners who work together for changes and improvements such as neighborhood safety, beautification and social activities. They reinforce rules and regulations through education, peer pressure and by looking out for each other. Some key differences include:
The rules for formation of a neighborhood association in the United States are sometimes regulated at the city or state
A supermarket, a large form of the traditional grocery store, is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles. It is larger in size and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box shop.
The supermarket typically comprises meat, fresh produce, dairy, and baked goods aisles, along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various non-food items such as household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies. Most supermarkets also sell a variety of other household products that are consumed regularly, such as alcohol (where permitted), medicine, and clothes, and some stores sell a much wider range of non-food products.
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space, usually on a single level. It is usually situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers. The basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at relatively low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and frequently the convenience of shopping hours that
Organizations of this type:Swift Vets and POWs for Truth
A 527 organization or 527 group is a type of U.S. tax-exempt organization named after Section 527 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. § 527). A 527 group is created primarily to influence the selection, nomination, election, appointment or defeat of candidates to federal, state or local public office.
Technically, almost all political committees, including state, local, and federal candidate committees, traditional political action committees, "Super PACs", and political parties are "527s." However, in common practice the term is usually applied only to such organizations that are not regulated under state or federal campaign finance laws because they do not "expressly advocate" for the election or defeat of a candidate or party.
When operated within the law, there are no upper limits on contributions to 527s and no restrictions on who may contribute. There are no spending limits imposed on these organizations; however, they must register with the IRS, publicly disclose their donors and file periodic reports of contributions and expenditures.
Because they may not advocate for specific candidates or coordinate with the candidate’s campaign, many 527s are run by interest
Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (abbreviated GmbH (most common), GesmbH or Ges.m.b.H.), German for "company with limited liability", is a type of legal entity very common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and other Central European countries. The name of the GmbH form emphasizes the fact that the owners (Gesellschafter, also known as members) of the entity are not personally liable for the company's debts. GmbHs are considered legal persons under German law.
The laws governing this type of legal entity were adopted in Germany in 1892, and in Austria in 1906. The concept of limited liability created by these laws inspired the legal establishment of the limited liability company form in other countries, although the concept of a limited liability company already existed in the United Kingdom. Other variations include mbH (used when the term Gesellschaft is part of the company name itself), and gGmbH (gemeinnützige GmbH) for non-profit companies.
The GmbH has become the most common corporation form in Germany, since the AG (Aktiengesellschaft), the other major company form corresponding to a stock corporation, was until recently much more complicated to form and operate.
A student society or student organization is an organization, operated by students at a university, whose membership normally consists only of students. They are often affiliated with a university's students' union. Student societies often aim to facilitate a particular activity or promote a belief system, although some (explicitly) require nothing more than that a member is a (former) student. Some are not affiliated with a specific university and/or accept non-university students.
Typical examples are:
In Flanders, student societies play a unique role in student life. Student societies there have traditionally been politically active, and they played a significant part in the 1960s division of the Catholic University of Leuven into separate Flemish and Walloon universities.
A student society in Flanders is led by a praesidium. The head of the praesidium (and the society) is the praeses. Alternative spellings are presidium and preses. For most positions, Dutch names are used nowadays.
Other positions include:
Positions are flexible, and change to meet the needs of the student organisation.
Student societies used to be politically engaged, but are now more focused on organizing
A ballet company is a group of dancers who perform classical ballet, neoclassical ballet, and/or contemporary ballet in the European tradition, plus managerial and support staff. Most major ballet companies employ dancers on a year-round basis, except in the United States, where contracts for part of the year (typically thirty or forty weeks) are the norm. A company generally has a home theatre where it stages the majority of its performances, but many companies also tour in their home country or internationally.
Ballet companies routinely make a loss at the box office, and depend on external financial support of one kind or another. In Europe most of this support comes in the form of government subsidies, though private donations are usually solicited as well. In North America private donations are the main source of external funding.
Many ballet companies have an associated school which trains dancers. Traditionally the school would provide almost all of the company's dancers, something which helped to create clear distinctions in style between companies, but 21st century ballet has open hiring practices, and many ballet companies have a very international staff.
The head of a
A cable channel is a television channel available via cable television. Such channels are usually also available via satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and BSkyB. Alternative terms include non-broadcast channel or programming service, the latter being mainly used in legal contexts.
Another common label is cable network, though this is something of a misnomer. While usually national in scope, cable channels are not television networks in the defined sense (as are, for example, CBS or NBC in the United States, or the BBC in the United Kingdom), because they provide a full national schedule and do not need to act through local stations in each media market. However, individual cable and satellite providers that carry them are sometimes called "affiliates", in recognition of the agreements required for these providers to carry each channel and that most networks offer each system a block of one or two minutes each hour to carry local advertising (or promotions for the satellite companies).
Examples of cable channels in the India includes Jan TV in Rajasthan and Bihar
Examples of cable channels in the Philippines include
Organizations of this type:Cardinal Creek Community Association
A community association is a nongovernmental association of participating members of a community, such as a neighborhood, village, condominium, cooperative, or group of homeowners or property owners in a delineated geographic area. Participation may be voluntary, require a specific residency, or require participation in an intentional community. Community associations may serve as social clubs, community promotional groups, service organizations, youth sports group or quasi-governmental groups.
In broadcasting, digital subchannels are a means to transmit more than one independent program at the same time from the same digital radio or digital television station on the same radio frequency channel. This is done by using data compression techniques to reduce the size of each individual program stream, and multiplexing to combine them into a single signal. The practice is sometimes called multicasting.
ATSC-standard digital television in the United States supports multiple program streams over-the-air, using a virtual channel numbering scheme in which the television channel number is suffixed with ".2" or ".3" to indicate a second or third television program carried by the same television station at the same time. (By convention, ".1" is normally used to refer to the digital version of the station's main signal and the ".0" position is reserved for analog channels.)
For instance, an Ion Television station could use one digital signal to carry three or more subchannels in a format such as:
Trinity Broadcasting Network stations use five SDTV channels, the most of any large broadcaster in the country. Smaller stations, willing to compromise on broadcast quality, have been able
An environmental organization is an organization that seeks to protect, analyze or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation or lobby for these goals.
In this sense the environment may refer to the biophysical environment, the natural environment or the built environment. The organization may be a charity, a trust, a non-governmental organization or a government organization. Environmental organizations can be global, national, regional or local.
Some of the environmental issues that are of interest to environmental organizations are pollution, waste, resource depletion and increasingly on climate change.
Green politics is a political ideology which places a high importance on environmental goals and Green parties have formed to implement environmental policy at a government level.
Notable global environmental organizations are the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth.
According to Benjamin Halpern et al., international conservation organisations often don't do well regarding the spending of their finances. It is shown that the finances are often not spend according to
In broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast radio shows and television shows by multiple radio stations and television stations, without going through a broadcast network, though the process of syndication may conjure up structures like those of a network itself, by its very nature. It is common in countries where broadcast programming is scheduled by television networks with local independent affiliates, particularly in the United States. In the rest of the world, however, most countries have centralized networks and/or TV stations without local affiliates and syndication is less common, although shows can also be syndicated internationally. In the film industry, film distribution is handled by film distributors.
When syndicating a show, the production company, or a distribution company called a syndicator, attempts to license the show to one station in each media market or area, or to a commonly-owned station group, in the country and around the world. If successful, this can be lucrative; but the syndicator may only be able to license the show in a small percentage of the markets.
Syndication differs from licensing the show to a television network; once a
Organizations of this type:American Gas Association
Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another by getting something in exchange from the buyer. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Later one side of the barter were the metals, precious metals (poles, coins), bill, paper money. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade between more than two traders is called multilateral trade.
Trade exists for man due to specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of production, trading for other products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have a comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass
U.S. Highway associations were organizations to promote business and tourism along specific highways. The earliest ones also worked on interconnecting various state highways to create longer, multi-state highways. Since 1990, new associations have formed (primarily for U.S. Route 66) for preservation of historic highways.
The National Auto Trail began in the 1910s as part of the Good Roads Movement. With the growth of the automobile, state highways were beginning to be developed. The idea began to develop for a need for longer, interstate roads and associations developed to work with the various state transportation departments to interlink the roads. In 1911, the National Old Trails Association was created to establish the National Old Trails Highway, a road linking New York City with Los Angeles. In 1912, the Lincoln Highway Association was created to establish the Lincoln Highway, a road between New York City and San Francisco championed by bicycle and auto parts and racing tycoon Carl Graham Fisher. Three years later, in 1915, the The Old Spanish Trail Association was founded in Mobile, Alabama, to develop the southernmost national highway from St. Augustine, Florida, to San
Organizations of this type:National Basketball Players Association
United States Internal Revenue Code 501(c)(5) provides for the exemption from federal income tax of labor, agricultural, or horticultural organizations. According to the code, labor unions are labor organizations, but not all labor organizations are labor unions. IRC 501(c)(5) labor organizations do not need to be recognized labor unions.
Residents' associations are organisations formed by groups of people from a specific geographic community who come together to address issues within their local area and act as a voice for their local community. In one form or another they have existed since the mid nineteenth century. In many cases they were founded within newer communities, for example as new settlements were built in British Commonwealth countries, and in the UK many residents' associations were formed by the newcomer-residents of the housing estates that proliferated between the World Wars.
The majority of associations are structured to include a chair, vice-chair, secretary, treasurer and committee members. These positions are decided by way of nominations at an annual meeting when they can be challenged/altered.
Some associations meet to address one specific issue (and quite often some major and controversial local issue is the stimulus to form an association), while others address a wider spectrum of matters. Some residents' associations decide to run candidates for local office to increase their leverage, while others decide to remain as advocacy or action groups independent of any political process. While
Theatre (sometimes theater in American English) is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music or dance. Elements of design and stagecraft are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον (théatron, “a place for viewing”) and θεάομαι (theáomai, “to see", "to watch", "to observe”).
Modern Western theatre derives in large measure from ancient Greek drama, from which it borrows technical terminology, classification into genres, and many of its themes, stock characters, and plot elements. Theatre scholar Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical language, stage writing, and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing arts, literature, and the arts in general.
Theatre today includes performances of plays and musicals. Although it can be defined broadly
An employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is a defined contribution plan that provides a company's workers with an ownership interest in the company. In an ESOP, companies provide their employees with stock ownership, typically at no cost to the employees. Shares are given to employees and are held in the ESOP trust until the employee retires or leaves the company, or earlier diversification opportunities arise.
There are annual limits on the amount of deductible contributions an employer can make to an ESOP. ESOPs are governed by federal pension laws, called the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, or “ERISA”. ERISA sets forth clear requirements to ensure that there can be no ‘preferred’ classes of participants in an ESOP; all employees must be treated proportionally the same. Internal Revenue Code section 404(a)(3) provides for an annual limit on the amount of deductible contributions an employer can make to a tax-qualified stock bonus or profit-sharing plan of 25 percent of the compensation otherwise paid or accrued during the year to the employees who benefit under the plan.
The National Center for Employee Ownership estimates that there are approximately 11,300 employee
A holding company is a company or firm that owns other companies' outstanding stock. The term usually refers to a company which does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies. In the United States, 80% or more of stock, in voting and value, must be owned before tax consolidation benefits such as tax-free dividends can be claimed.
Sometimes a company intended to be a pure holding company identifies itself as such by adding "Holdings" or "(Holdings)" to its name, as in Sears Holdings Corporation.
In the United States, Berkshire Hathaway is the largest publicly traded holding company; it owns numerous insurance companies, manufacturing businesses, retailers, and other companies. Two other large notable holding companies are United Continental Holdings and AMR Corporation, whose primary purposes are to wholly own United Airlines and American Airlines, respectively. In some instances, holding companies have held capital for pending investments.
In US broadcasting, many major media conglomerates have
Organizations of this type:Children's Defense Fund
Research and experimental development is formal work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications (OECD (2002) Frascati Manual: proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development, 6th edition. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, etc.
Scientific research relies on
An after hours club is usually a dance club or bar that is open later than the legal closing time. In many cities in the United States, drinking establishments are required by law to close at 2am. An after hours club bills itself as "members only" but membership can be bought for the night for a nominal fee. This fee is generally a few dollars more than a "cover charge" at a normal club. Since such an establishment is a private club, it can often remain open as long as it chooses to, circumventing some blue law.
C corporation refers to any corporation that, under United States federal income tax law, is taxed separately from its owners. A C corporation is distinguished from an S corporation, which generally is not taxed separately. Most major companies (and many smaller companies) are treated as C corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Shareholders of a corporation may elect to treat the corporation as a flow-through entity known as an S corporation. An S corporation is not itself subject to income tax; rather, shareholders of the S corporation are subject to tax on their pro rata shares of income based on their shareholdings. To qualify to make the S corporation election, the corporation's shares must be held by resident or citizen individuals or certain qualifying trusts. A corporation may qualify as a C corporation without regard to any limit on the number of shareholders, foreign or domestic.
In the United States, corporations are formed under laws of a state or the District of Columbia. Procedures vary widely by state. Some states allow formation of corporations through electronic filing on the state's web site or very quickly. All states require payment of a fee (often
A coalition is a pact or treaty among individuals or groups, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest, joining forces together for a common cause. This alliance may be temporary or a matter of convenience. A coalition thus differs from a more formal covenant. Possibly described as a joining of 'factions', usually those with overlapping interests rather than opposing.
A coalition government, in a parliamentary system, is a government composed of a coalition of parties. In Australia, the Coalition is also used to refer to an alliance (coalition agreement) of three parties (the Liberals, Nationals and Country Liberals) existing in federal politics since 1922—this constitutes a parliamentary coalition. A coalition of parties is also an electoral fusion. The Cambridge Dictionary defines coalition as: the union of different political parties or groups for a particular purpose, usually for a limited time.
In international relations, a coalition can be an ad hoc grouping of nations united for a specific purpose. Sometimes, such groups are diverse and are characterized by some degree of commonalities. Sometimes, the degree of uncommonalities would lead
Organizations of this type:Miramax Home Entertainment
A division of a business or business division (rarely and confusingly called a business sector) is one of the large parts into which a business (company) is divided. The divisions are distinct parts of that business, but the primary business is legally responsible for all of the obligations and debts of the division. A division is different from a subsidiary, in that a subsidiary is a separate legal entity owned by the primary business. Often a division operates under a separate name and is the equivalent of a corporation or limited liability company obtaining a fictitious name or "doing business as" certificate and operating a business under that fictitious name.
Generally, only an "entity", e.g. a corporation, limited liability company, etc. would have a "division"; an individual operating in this manner would simply be "operating under a fictitious name".
An example of this would be to look at Hewlett Packard (HP), the computer and printer company. HP has several divisions, with the printer division, that makes laser and inkjet printers, being the largest and most profitable division. The divisions of HP, like the Printing & Multifunction division, the Handheld Devices (includes
A private company limited by shares, usually called a private limited company (Ltd.) (though this can theoretically also refer to a private company limited by guarantee), is a type of company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, Scotland, that of certain Commonwealth countries and the Republic of Ireland. It has shareholders with limited liability and its shares may not be offered to the general public, unlike those of a public limited company (plc).
"Limited by shares" means that the company has shareholders, and that the liability of the shareholders to creditors of the company is limited to the capital originally invested, i.e. the nominal value of the shares and any premium paid in return for the issue of the shares by the company. A shareholder's personal assets are thereby protected in the event of the company's insolvency, but money invested in the company will be lost.
A limited company may be "private" or "public". A private limited company's disclosure requirements are lighter, but for this reason its shares may not be offered to the general public (and therefore cannot be traded on a public stock exchange). This is the major distinguishing feature between a
Organizations of this type:The Association of Former Students
An alumni association is an association of graduates or, more broadly, of former students (alumni). In the United Kingdom and the United States, alumni of universities, colleges, schools (especially independent schools), fraternities, and sororities often form groups with alumni from the same organization. These associations often organise social events, publish newsletters or magazines, and raise funds for the organisation. Many provide a variety of benefits and services that help alumni maintain connections to their educational institution and fellow graduates. In the US, most associations do not require its members to be an alumnus of a university to enjoy membership and privileges.
Additionally, such groups often support new alumni, and provide a forum to form new friendships and business relationships with people of similar background.
Alumni associations are mainly organised around universities or departments of universities, but may also be organised among students that studied in a certain country. In the past, they were often considered to be the university's or school's old boy society (or old boys network). Today, alumni associations involve graduates of all age groups
Sport (or, in the United States, sports) is all forms of competitive physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and provide entertainment to participants. Hundreds of sports exist, from those requiring only two participants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.
Sport is generally recognised as activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, and other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports, although limits the amount of mind games which can be admitted as sports.
Sports are usually governed by a set of rules
The Sacred Band of Thebes is a fictional military organization that appears in the Sacred Band of Stepsons fictional universe and the novel "The Sacred Band" by Janet Morris and Chris Morris. An elite war-band of one hundred and fifty pairs of hand-picked fighters, the fictional Sacred Band of Thebes is based on the historical Sacred Band of Thebes.
Organizations of this type:The Little Bear Minus 2
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, players must allow a ball played toward them only one bounce on their side of the table and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side. Points are scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. A skilled player can impart several varieties of spin to the ball, altering its trajectory and limiting an opponent's options to great advantage.
Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. ITTF currently includes 217 member associations. The table tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook. Since 1988, table tennis has been an Olympic sport, with several event categories. In particular, from 1988 until 2004, these were: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles and women's doubles. Since 2008 a team event has been played instead of the doubles. In 2007, the governance for table tennis for persons
Association in archaeology has more than one meaning.
Associated finds or objects refers to a close relationship between two or more objects. Associated objects that can be proved to have been deposited at the same time, through being in the same context, form a genuine or close association. Objects that can only be theorised as being deposited together, either because they were not excavated properly, their excavation records are lost or because they come from different contexts that are in stratigraphically definable phases or groups in association with the original context, are said to be in open association. Finds in association are known as an assemblage and are much more useful than individual ones as greater precision can be assigned to their function, date and provenance.
Associated contexts are contexts that are shown by virtue of stratigraphic relationships to be near contemporaneous. An example would be a wall context and its associated floor context. This association would bring about the construction in interpretation of phase where associated contexts are shown to be part of the same period of occupation. In the case of the wall and the floor we can say that the floor
A brokerage firm, or simply brokerage, is a financial institution that facilitates the buying and selling of financial securities between a buyer and a seller. Brokerage firms serve a clientele of investors who trade public stocks and other securities, usually through the firm's agent stockbrokers. A traditional, or "full service", brokerage firm usually undertakes more than simply carrying out a stock or bond trade. The staff of this type of brokerage firm is entrusted with the responsibility of researching the markets to provide appropriate recommendations and in so doing they direct the actions of pension fund managers and portfolio managers alike. These firms also offer margin loans for certain approved clients to purchase investments on credit, subject to agreed terms and conditions. Traditional brokerage firms have also become a source of up-to-date stock prices and quotes.
A discount broker or an online broker is a firm that charges a relatively small commission by having its clients perform trades via automated, computerized trading systems rather than by having an actual stockbroker assist with the trade. Most traditional brokerage firms offer discount options and compete
An export credit agency (known in trade finance as ECA) or Investment Insurance Agency, is a private or quasi-governmental institution that acts as an intermediary between national governments and exporters to issue export financing. The financing can take the form of credits (financial support) or credit insurance and guarantees (pure cover) or both, depending on the mandate the ECA has been given by its government. ECAs can also offer credit or cover on their own account. This does not differ from normal banking activities. Some agencies are government-sponsored, others private, and others a bit of both.
ECAs currently finance or underwrite about US$430 billion of business activity abroad - about US$55 billion of which goes towards project finance in developing countries - and provide US$14 billion of insurance for new foreign direct investment, dwarfing all other official sources combined (such as the World Bank and Regional Development Banks, bilateral and multilateral aid, etc.). As a result of the claims against developing countries that have resulted from ECA transactions, ECAs hold over 25% of these developing countries' US$2.2 trillion debt. These data are unreliable in
A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major Entertainment Company or Motion Picture Company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, which is handled by the production company. The majority of companies in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies.
There are also independently owned studio facilities, who have never produced a motion picture of their own because they are not Entertainment companies or Motion Picture companies; they are companies who sell only studio space.
In 1893, Thomas Edison built the first movie studio in the United States when he constructed the Black Maria, a tarpaper-covered structure near his laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey, and asked circus, vaudeville, and dramatic actors to perform for the camera. He distributed these movies at vaudeville theaters, penny arcades, wax museums, and fairgrounds. The pioneering Thanhouser film studio was founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by American theatrical impresario Edwin Thanhouser. The company produced and released 1,086 films between 1910 and 1917, successfully
Organizations of this type:International Finance Facility for Immunisation
The concept of an International Finance Facility (IFF) first was proposed by HM Treasury in conjunction with the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom. An IFF is designed to frontload aid to help meet the Millennium Development Goals. Bonds are issued on global capital markets, against the security of government guarantees to maintain future aid flows, which would be used to buy back the bonds over a longer period. This allows a large amount of aid to flow soon, at the expense of less aid in the future. Critics have raised concerns that the poorest countries in particular don't have the ability to efficiently spend such large amounts of aid (whilst avoiding corruption), and that their economies may not be able to cope with such rapid change either.
The first IFF is the "International Finance Facility for Immunisation" (IFFIm), begun by France, the UK and other European countries in 2006. IFFIm was initiated to rapidly accelerate the availability and predictability of funds for immunisation. IFFIm sells bonds on the capital markets to raise funds for the GAVI Alliance, a public-private partnership which works to save children’s lives and protect people’s
Investment management is the professional management of various securities (shares, bonds and other securities) and assets (e.g., real estate) in order to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors. Investors may be institutions (insurance companies, pension funds, corporations, charities, educational establishments etc.) or private investors (both directly via investment contracts and more commonly via collective investment schemes e.g. mutual funds or exchange-traded funds).
The term asset management is often used to refer to the investment management of collective investments, while the more generic fund management may refer to all forms of institutional investment as well as investment management for private investors. Investment managers who specialize in advisory or discretionary management on behalf of (normally wealthy) private investors may often refer to their services as wealth management or portfolio management often within the context of so-called "private banking".
The provision of investment management services includes elements of financial statement analysis, asset selection, stock selection, plan implementation and ongoing monitoring of
A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to news organizations: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. Such an agency may also be referred to as a wire service, newswire, or news service.
The oldest news agency is Agence France-Presse (AFP). It was founded in 1835 by a Parisian translator and advertising agent, Charles-Louis Havas as Agence Havas. Two of his employees, Paul Julius Reuter and Bernhard Wolff, later set up rival news agencies in London and Berlin respectively. In 1853, in Turin, Guglielmo Stefani founded the Agenzia Stefani, that became the most important agency in the Kingdom of Italy, and took international relevance with Manlio Morgagni.
In order to reduce overhead and develop the lucrative advertising side of the business, Havas's sons, who had succeeded him in 1852, signed agreements with Reuter and Wolff, giving each news agency an exclusive reporting zone in different parts of Europe.
News agencies can be corporations that sell news (e.g. Press Association, Thomson Reuters and United Press International). Other agencies work cooperatively with large media companies, generating their news centrally
There are two types of radio networks currently in use around the world: the one-to-many broadcast network commonly used for public information and mass media entertainment; and the two-way type used more commonly for public safety and public services such as police, fire, taxicabs, and delivery services. Many of the same components and much of the same basic technology applies to both.
The Two-way type of radio network shares many of the same technologies and components as the Broadcast type radio network but is generally set up with fixed broadcast points (transmitters) with co-located receivers and mobile receivers/transmitters or Tran-ceivers. In this way both the fixed and mobile radio units can communicate with each other over broad geographic regions ranging in size from small single cities to entire states/provinces or countries. There are many ways in which multiple fixed transmit/receive sites can be interconnected to achieve the range of coverage required by the jurisdiction or authority implementing the system: conventional wireless links in numerous frequency bands, fibre-optic links, or micro-wave links. In all of these cases the signals are typically backhauled to a
A security agency is a governmental organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation. They are the domestic cousins of foreign intelligence agencies. For example, the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a security agency, while the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a foreign intelligence agency, which deals with the country's external security and intelligence. Security agencies frequently have "security", "intelligence" or "service" in their names. Private organizations that provide services similar to a security agency might be called a "security company" or "security service", but those terms can also be used for organizations that have nothing to do with intelligence gathering.
Organizations of this type:Dallas Baptist University
A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. The word "university" is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars."
The original Latin word "universitas" refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc." At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialised "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members. The original Latin word referred to degree-granting institutions of learning in Western Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, and from where the institution spread around the world. For non-related educational institutions of antiquity which did not stand in the tradition of the
Organizations of this type:The Fine Arts Society of Indianapolis
United States Internal Revenue Code 501(c)(3) provides for tax-exempt status for organizations that are commonly referred to as Charitable Organizations. The code states that none of a 501(c)(3) organizations' earnings may inure to any private shareholder or individual. Section 501(c)(3) organizations are also restricted in how much political and legislative (lobbying) activities they may conduct.
Organizations of this type:York Street Capital Partners
An investment company is a company whose main business is holding securities of other companies purely for investment purposes. The investment company invests money on behalf of its shareholders who in turn share in the profits and losses.
In United States securities law, there are at least three types of investment companies:
A fourth and lesser-known type of investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940 is a Face-Amount Certificate Company.
Also popular are private investment funds which are simply private companies that make investments in stocks or bonds, but are limited to under 100 investors, are private and are not regulated by the SEC. These funds are often composed of very wealthy investors.
Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, are hospitals specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders. Psychiatric hospitals vary widely in their size and grading. Some hospitals may specialise only in short-term or outpatient therapy for low-risk patients. Others may specialise in the temporary or permanent care of residents who, as a result of a psychological disorder, require routine assistance, treatment, or a specialised and controlled environment. Patients are often admitted on a voluntary basis, but involuntary commitment is practiced when an individual may pose a significant danger to themselves or others.
Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, and eventually replaced the older lunatic asylums. The development of the modern psychiatric hospital is also the story of the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry. While there were earlier institutions that housed the "insane" the arrival of institutionalisation as a solution to the problem of madness was very much an event of the nineteenth century. To illustrate this with one regional example, in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century there were, perhaps, a few thousand "lunatics"
A residential college is an organisational pattern for a division of a university that places academic activity in a community setting of students and faculty, usually at a residence and with shared meals, the college having a degree of autonomy and a federated relationship with the overall university. However, the term residential college is also used to describe a variety of other patterns, ranging from a dormitory with some academic programming, to continuing education programs for adults lasting a few days. In some parts of the world it simply refers to any organized on-campus housing, an example being University of Malaya.
Prominent models for residential colleges are the colleges of the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom and the institutions based on them in the United States, including Harvard University, Yale University, Princeton University, Binghamton University, University of Pennsylvania, Murray State University, Murray, KY Rice University, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Miami, Pantnagar University, Uttarakhand, India the University of California, San Diego, and the University of California, Santa Cruz. Many other
Organizations of this type:American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Transportation systems are inherently distributed systems with complex information requirements. Robust modern standards for transportation data are important for the safe and efficient operation of transportation systems. A wide variety of Standards organisations, consortia and groups are involved in producing and maintaining standards that are relevant to the global transport technology, transport journey planning and transport ticket/retailing industry. These include:
The formal development of international standards is organised in three tiers of Standards Development Organisations, recognised by international agreements :
The SDOs conduct their work through a system of working groups, responsible for different areas of expertise. These evolve over time to accommodate changes in technology. key current working groups for transport standards are outlined below.
CEN Allocates responsibility for different areas of transport standardisation to working groups
ISO Technical Committee 204 is responsible for Transport Information and Control Systems. It has a number of standing Working Groups, which set up Subgroups from time to time.
Current ISO TC204 Working Groups, Work program &
A type foundry is a company that designs or distributes typefaces. Originally, type foundries manufactured and sold metal and wood typefaces and matrices for line-casting machines like the Linotype and Monotype machines designed to be printed on letterpress printers. Today's digital type foundries accumulate and distribute typefaces (typically as digitized fonts) created by type designers, who may either be freelancers operating their own independent foundry, or employed by another foundry. Type foundries may also provide custom type design services.
In England, type foundries began in 1476, when William Caxton introduced the printing press. Thereafter the City of London became a major centre for the industry, until recent times when famous metal-based printing districts such as Fleet Street came to the close of their era. The industry was particularly important in Victorian times, when education became available to all due to the new School Boards, and firms such as Charles Reed & Sons were in their heyday. The St Bride Printing Library in the City of London encourages wider public interest in the remarkable history of typefounding for the printed book and
A government-owned corporation, state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, commercial government agency,public sector undertaking or parastatal is a legal entity created by a government to undertake commercial activities on behalf of an owner government. Their legal status varies from being a part of government into stock companies with a state as a regular stockholder. There is no standard definition of a government-owned corporation (GOC) or state-owned enterprise (SOE), although the two terms can be used interchangeably. The defining characteristics are that they have a distinct legal form and they are established to operate in commercial affairs. While they may also have public policy objectives, GOCs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely non-financial objectives.
GOCs can be fully owned or partially owned by Government. As a definitional issue, it is difficult to determine categorically what level of state ownership would qualify an entity to be considered as "state-owned", since governments can also own regular stock, without
In the United Kingdom, a non-departmental public body (NDPB)—often referred to and also known as a quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisation or a quango—is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, Treasury, Scottish Government and Northern Ireland Executive to certain types of public bodies. They are not an integral part of any government department and carry out their work at arm's length from Ministers, although Ministers are ultimately responsible to Parliament for the activities of bodies sponsored by their department.
The term includes the four types of NDPB (executive, advisory, tribunal and Independent Monitoring Boards) but excludes public corporations, National Health Service (NHS) bodies and public broadcasters (BBC, Channel 4 and S4C).
In 2010 the UK's Conservative-Liberal coalition published a review of NDPBs recommending closure or merger of nearly two hundred bodies, and the transfer of others to the private sector. This process is colloquially termed the "bonfire of the quangos".
There are four main types of body.
These bodies consist of boards which advise ministers on particular policy areas. They are often supported by a small secretariat from the
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of relatively low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic literally means "living in air", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.
Aerobic exercise and fitness can be contrasted with anaerobic exercise, of which strength training and short-distance running are the most salient examples. The two types of exercise differ by the duration and intensity of muscular contractions involved, as well as by how energy is generated within the muscle.
In most conditions, anaerobic exercise occurs simultaneously with aerobic exercises because the less efficient anaerobic metabolism must supplement the aerobic system due to energy demands that exceed the aerobic system's capacity. What is generally called aerobic exercise might be better termed "solely aerobic", because it is designed to be low-intensity enough not to generate lactate via pyruvate fermentation, so that all
Organizations of this type:Queensland Institute of Medical Research
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research, applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. Medical research can be divided into two general categories: the evaluation of new treatments for both safety and efficacy in what are termed clinical trials, and all other research that contributes to the development of new treatments. The latter is termed preclinical research if its goal is specifically to elaborate knowledge for the development of new therapeutic strategies. A new paradigm to biomedical research is being termed translational research, which focuses on iterative feedback loops between the basic and clinical research domains to accelerate knowledge translation from the bedside to the bench, and back again. Medical research may involve doing research on public health, biochemistry, clinical research, microbiology, physiology, oncology, surgery and research on many other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
The increased longevity of humans over the past century can be significantly attributed to
Cable television is a system of distributing television programs to subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through hybrid fibre coaxial (HFC) networks. This contrasts with traditional broadcast television (terrestrial television) in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone service, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables.
The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948: in areas where over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes. The origins of cable broadcasting are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924.
In order to receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. The term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951.
Outlets may be stands or kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating, or fast food restaurants (also known as quick service restaurants). Franchise operations which are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant from central locations.
The concept of ready-cooked food for sale is closely connected with urban development. In Ancient Rome cities had street stands that sold bread, sausages and wine.
In the cities of Roman antiquity, much of the urban population living in insulae, multi-story apartment blocks, depended on food vendors for much of their meals. In the mornings, bread soaked in wine was eaten as a quick snack and cooked vegetables and stews later in the day at a popina, a simple type of eating establishment. In the Middle
Hair restoration includes the medical and surgical treatment of various forms of hair loss, including non-surgical. The most common cause of hair loss is androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as male pattern baldness or female pattern baldness.
Propecia (Finasteride) is approved for medical hair restoration for men with AGA. Minoxidil is approved for treatment of men and women with AGA.
Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent technique that can move hair from permanent zone to the balding area. Hair restoration surgery is a procedure where natural groupings of 1 to 4 hairs, called follicular units, are extracted from the patient's donor site then moved to the area of balding, called the recipient area. Hair restoration surgery, or hair transplantation has been traditionally used for the treatment of male patterned baldness, but it has gained popularity for treatment of female patterned baldness, eyebrow hair loss, and to restore hair in any part of the body. In addition to cosmetic purposes, hair restoration can be used for treatment of hair loss due to trauma or burn. Hair restoration should be performed by certified surgeons, who specialize in hair replacement. The
International education can mean many different things and its definition is debated. Some have defined two general meanings according to its involvement of students. The first refers to education that transcends national borders by the exchange of people, for example, by students travelling to study at an international branch campus, as part of a study abroad program or as part of a student exchange program. The second is a comprehensive approach to education that intentionally prepares students to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world.
The International Baccalaureate defines the term according to criteria such as the development of citizens of the world in accordance to culture, language, and social cohesion, building a sense of identity and cultural awareness, encrypting recognition and development of universal human values, encourage discovery and enjoyment of learning, equip students with collectivist or individualistic skills and knowledge that can be applied broadly, encourage global thinking when responding to local situations,encourage diversity and flexibility in teaching pedagogies and supply appropriate forms of assessment and international
Online shopping or online retailing is a form of electronic commerce whereby consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet without an intermediary service. An online shop, eshop, e-store, Internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or shopping centre. The process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. When a business buys from another business it is called business-to-business (B2B) online shopping. The largest online retailing corporations are EBay and Amazon.com, both of which are US-based.
In 1990 Tim Berners-Lee created the first World Wide Web server and browser. It opened for commercial use in 1991. In 1994 other advances took place, such as online banking and the opening of an online pizza shop by Pizza Hut. During that same year, Netscape introduced SSL encryption of data transferred online, which has become essential for secure online shopping. Also in 1994 the German company Intershop introduced its first online shopping system. In 1995 Amazon launched its online shopping site, and in 1996 eBay appeared.
Shoah foundations are organizations that are formed to further the remembrance of the Holocaust of World War II. There are currently two major foundations that are internationally active.
In 1994, Steven Spielberg founded the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation (original title), a nonprofit organization established to record testimonies in video format of survivors and other witnesses of the Holocaust. Between 1994 and 1999, the Foundation conducted nearly 52,000 interviews in 56 countries and in 32 languages. Interviewees included Jewish survivors, Jehovah's Witness survivors, homosexual survivors, liberators and liberation witnesses, political prisoners, rescuers and aid providers, Roma and Sinti survivors, survivors of Eugenics policies, and war crimes trials participants. On September 20, 2005, the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation and the University of Southern California (USC) entered into an agreement to transfer the net assets and control over the Foundation's Board of Directors to USC in return for the guarantee of the preservation of the archive in perpetuity and the accommodation to continue the Foundation's mission.
Fondation pour la Mémoire
Vacation rental is the renting out of a furnished apartment or house on a temporary basis to tourists as an alternative to a hotel. The term vacation rental is mainly used in the US. In Europe the term villa rental or villa holiday is preferred for rentals of detached houses in warm climates. Other terms used are self-catering rentals, holiday homes, holiday lets (in the United Kingdom), cottage holidays (for rentals of smaller accommodation in rural locations) and gites (in rural locations in France).
Vacation rentals have long been a popular travel option in Europe (especially in the UK) as well as in Canada and are becoming increasingly popular across the world.
Vacation rentals usually occur in privately owned vacation properties (holiday homes), so the variety of accommodation is broad and inconsistent. The property is a fully furnished property, such as a holiday villa, apartment, cottage, condominium, townhome or single-family-style home. Farm stay can encompass participation on a working farm, or a more conventional rental that happens to be co-located on a farm. The client/traveler arranges to rent the vacation rental property for a designated period of time. Some rent on
S.A. designates a particular type of corporation in various countries, mostly those employing civil law. Depending on language, the abbreviation stands for various phrases meaning anonymous society, anonymous company, anonymous partnership, or share company. The concept is roughly equivalent to that of the public limited company in the UK and some other countries. It can be differentiated from partnerships and private limited companies.
S.A. can be an abbreviation of:
It is equivalent in both literal meaning and practical function to:
It is equivalent in practical function to:
Organizations of this type:Centre d'etudes et de recherches freudiennes
A study group is a small group of people who regularly meet to discuss shared fields of study. These groups can be found in high school and college settings and within companies. Professional advancement organizations also may encourage study groups.
Each group is unique and draws on the backgrounds and abilities of its members to determine the material that will be covered. Often, a leader who is not actively studying the material will direct group activities.
Typical college level academic groups include 5-20 students and an administrator or tutor drawn from the graduate program. Professional groups are often smaller.
Organizations of this type:SRI International - nVention
An advisory board is a body that advises the management of a corporation, organization, or foundation. Unlike the Board of Directors the advisory board does not have authority to vote on corporate matters, nor a legal fiduciary responsibility. Many new or small businesses choose to have advisory boards in order to benefit from the knowledge of others, without the expense or formality of the Board of Directors.
Organizations of this type:Jumbo CD Investments, Inc.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of organizations that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds and some government sponsored enterprises. As of 2004, the financial services industry represented 20% of the market capitalization of the S&P 500 in the United States.
The term "financial services" became more prevalent in the United States partly as a result of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of the late 1990s, which enabled different types of companies operating in the U.S. financial services industry at that time to merge.
Companies usually have two distinct approaches to this new type of business. One approach would be a bank which simply buys an insurance company or an investment bank, keeps the original brands of the acquired firm, and adds the acquisition to its holding company simply to diversify its earnings. Outside the U.S. (e.g., in Japan), non-financial services companies are permitted within the holding company. In this scenario, each company still looks independent, and has its own
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.
Physical training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training-programs in this area develop specific skills or muscles, often with a view to peaking at a particular time. Some physical training programs focus on raising overall physical fitness.
In military use, training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in combat, and learning the many skills needed in a time of war.
AIDS service organizations are community based organizations that provide community support. While their primary function is to provide needed services to individuals with HIV, they also provide support services for their families and friends as well as conduct prevention efforts. These services may include family or individual counseling as well as HIV testing and referral resources.
In the United States of America, many AIDS service organizations provide services through federal Ryan White funding programs. Additional support usually comes from private individual and corporate donors, fundraisers (such as AIDS Walk) as well as foundations.
An artist collective is an initiative that is the result of a group of artists working together, usually under their own management, towards shared aims. The aims of an artist collective can include almost anything that is relevant to the needs of the artist, this can range from purchasing bulk materials, sharing equipment, space or materials, through to following shared ideologies, aesthetic and political views or even living and working together as an extended family. Sharing of ownership, risk, benefits, and status is implied, as opposed to other, more common business structures with an explicit hierarchy of ownership such as an association or a company. Compare with art colony, art commune, and art cooperative.
Artist collectives have occurred throughout history, often gathered around central resources, for instance the ancient sculpture workshops at the marble quarries on Milos in Greece and Carrara in Italy. Collectives featured during both the Russian revolution when they were set up by the state in all major communities, and the French Revolution when the Louvre in Paris was occupied as an artist collective.
More traditional artist collectives tend to be smallish groups of
Organizations of this type:American Bar Association
A bar association is a professional body of lawyers. Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their jurisdiction; others are professional organizations dedicated to serving their members; in many cases, they are both. In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, the bar association comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates in particular, versus solicitors. Membership in bar associations may be mandatory or optional for practicing attorneys, depending on jurisdiction.
The use of the term bar to mean "the whole body of lawyers, the legal profession" comes ultimately from English custom. In the early 16th century, a railing divided the hall in the Inns of Court, with students occupying the body of the hall and readers or benchers on the other side. Students who officially became lawyers crossed the symbolic physical barrier and were "admitted to the bar". Later, this was popularly assumed to mean the wooden railing marking off the area around the judge's seat in a courtroom, where prisoners stood for arraignment and where a barrister stood to plead. In modern courtrooms, a railing may still be in place to enclose the space which
A car club or automotive enthusiast community is a group of people who share a common interest in motor vehicles. Car clubs are typically organized by enthusiasts around type of vehicle (e.g. Corvette, Mustang), brand (e.g. Jeep), or similar interest (e.g. off-roading). Traditional car clubs were off-line organizations, but automotive on-line communities have flourished on the internet.
Historically, car clubs refer to off-line entities, typically organized as non-profits and run by volunteers (who were most often elected). Some clubs were large enough to be run as a paid business with salaried employees; in the 1960s, some were sponsored by car dealers.
Many car clubs charge membership fees in exchange for benefits, such as publications and events. The publications typically contain photographs, messages from other members, service and parts advice, items and vehicles wanted and/or for sale, and historical material of interest to the membership. Car clubs often host gatherings (called "meets") which often also welcome interested non-members. Car clubs also may engage in other activities of various types, including races, cruising, shows, "mod" days when garage equipment and
Generally, a family association or family organization is an organization formed by people who share a common ancestor or surname. They join together for a variety of purposes including exchanging genealogical information, sharing current news about family members, having reunions, and promoting family pride and unity among living descendants. Family organizations or associations centered around a more distant common ancestor are often referred to as "ancestral family organizations," while those centered around a commonly shared surname are commonly referred to as "single surname family organizations".
Some family associations strive to collect information about people with their surname all over the world, while others consist of a relatively small family group in a specific geographic area. Some groups put a lot of effort into family research while others prefer to concentrate more on family reunions and current family news.
Family associations and organizations often figure prominently among the Overseas Chinese. Family association buildings are often prominent features of Chinatowns. They also figure prominently among descendants of Mormon pioneers and other early converts to
Free and open-source software (F/OSS, FOSS) or free/libre/open-source software (FLOSS) is software that is both free software and open source. It is liberally licensed to grant users the right to use, copy, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized by both individuals and corporations.
In the context of free and open-source software, free refers to the freedom to copy and re-use the software, rather than to the price of the software. The Free Software Foundation, an organization that advocates the free software model, suggests that, to understand the concept, one should "think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer".
FOSS is an inclusive term that covers both free software and open source software, which despite describing similar development models, have differing cultures and philosophies. Free software focuses on the fundamental freedoms it gives to users, whereas open source software focuses on the perceived strengths of its peer-to-peer development model. FOSS is a term that can be used without particular bias
An independent record label (or indie record label) is a record label operating without the funding of or outside the organizations of the major record labels. A great number of bands and musical acts begin on independent labels.
The boundaries between major and independent labels, and the definitions of each, differ from commentator to commentator. In practice, however, the traditional definition of a 'major' record label is one that owns its own distribution channel. Some independent record labels, in particular those with successful performing artists, sign dual-release agreements (and make other deals) with major labels and may rely to some extent on international licensing deals, distribution agreements, and other arrangements with major record labels. Major labels may also wholly or partially acquire independent labels.
Other nominally "independent" labels are started (and sometimes run) by major label artists but are still owned at least in part by the major label parent. These spin-off labels are also frequently referred to as vanity labels or "boutique labels" and are intended to appease established, powerful artists and/or to give them latitude in discovering and
A joint-stock company is a business entity which is owned by shareholders. Each shareholder owns the portion of the company in proportion to his or her ownership of the company's shares (certificates of ownership). This allows for the unequal ownership of a business with some shareholders owning a larger proportion of a company than others. Shareholders are able to transfer their shares to others without any effects to the continued existence of the company.
In modern corporate law, the existence of a joint-stock company is often synonymous with incorporation (i.e. possession of legal personality separate from shareholders) and limited liability (meaning that the shareholders are only liable for the company's debts to the value of the money they invested in the company). And as a consequence joint-stock companies are commonly known as corporations or limited companies.
Some jurisdictions still provide the possibility of registering joint-stock companies without limited liability. In the United Kingdom and other countries which have adopted their model of company law, these are known as unlimited companies. In the United States, they are, somewhat confusingly, known as joint-stock
Organizations of this type:A&E Television Networks
A joint venture (JV) is a business agreement in which parties agree to develop, for a finite time, a new entity and new assets by contributing equity. They exercise control over the enterprise and consequently share revenues, expenses and assets. There are other types of companies such as JV limited by guarantee, joint ventures limited by guarantee with partners holding shares.
In European law, the term 'joint-venture' (or joint undertaking) is an elusive legal concept, better defined under the rules of company law. In France, the term 'joint venture' is variously translated as 'association d'entreprises', 'entreprise conjointe', 'coentreprise' or 'entreprise commune'. But generally, the term societe anonyme loosely covers all foreign collaborations. In Germany, 'joint venture' is better represented as a 'combination of companies' (Konzern).
With individuals, when two or more persons come together to form a temporary partnership for the purpose of carrying out a particular project, such partnership can also be called a joint venture where the parties are "co-venturers".
The venture can be for one specific project only - when the JV is referred to more correctly as a consortium (as
Organizations of this type:Poe Studies Association
Literature (from Latin litterae (plural); letter) is the art of written work and can, in some circumstances, refer exclusively to published sources. The word literature literally means "things made from letters" and the pars pro toto term "letters" is sometimes used to signify "literature," as in the figures of speech "arts and letters" and "man of letters." Literature is commonly classified as having two major forms—fiction and non-fiction—and two major techniques—poetry and prose.
Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), as well as on original imagination, such as polemical works as well as autobiography, and reflective essays as well as belles-lettres. Literature can be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. The concept of genre, which earlier was limited, has broadened over the centuries. A genre consists of artistic works which fall within a certain central theme, and examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others. Important historical periods in English literature include Old English, Middle English, the Renaissance, the 17th Century
Organizations of this type:Worshipful Company of Fishmongers
The Livery Companies are 108 trade associations in the City of London, almost all of which are known as the "Worshipful Company of" their relevant trade, craft or profession. The medieval Companies originally developed as guilds and were responsible for the regulation of their trades, controlling, for instance, wages and labour conditions. Until the Protestant Reformation, they were closely associated with religious activities, notably in support of chantry chapels and churches and the observance of ceremonies, notably the mystery plays.
Some livery companies continue to have a professional role today: for example, the Scriveners' Company admits senior members to that profession, the Apothecaries' Company awards post-graduate qualifications in some medical specialties, and the Hackney Carriage Drivers' Company comprises licensed London taxicab drivers who have passed 'the knowledge'. Other Livery Companies have become purely charitable foundations (such as the Longbow Makers' Company). The active Companies play an important part in social life and networking in the City and have a long and proud history of cultural and education patronage. They retain voting rights for the City of
A media conglomerate, media group or media institution is a company that owns large numbers of companies in various mass media such as television, radio, publishing, movies, and the Internet. Media conglomerates strive for policies that facilitate their control of the markets across the globe.
According to the 2012 Fortune 500 list, The Walt Disney Company is America's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, with News Corporation, Time Warner, Viacom, and CBS Corporation completing the top 5. Other major players are NBCUniversal, and Sony Corporation of America.
A conglomerate is, by definition, a large company that consists of divisions of seemingly unrelated businesses.
It is questionable whether media companies are unrelated, as of 2007. The trend has been strongly for the sharing of various kinds of content (news, film and video, music for example). The media sector is tending to consolidate, and formerly diversified companies may appear less so as a result. Therefore, the term media group may also be applied, however it has not so far replaced the more traditional term.
Critics have accused the larger conglomerates of dominating media, especially news, and refusing to
NHS strategic health authorities (SHA) are part of the structure of the National Health Service in England. Each SHA is responsible for enacting the directives and implementing fiscal policy as dictated by the Department of Health at a regional level. In turn each SHA area contains various NHS trusts which take responsibility for running or commissioning local NHS services. The SHA is responsible for strategic supervision of these services.
In 2002, the existing NHS health authorities (see List of NHS Health Authorities (1996-2002)) were renamed and merged to form the 28 new strategic health authorities. On April 12, 2006, Patricia Hewitt, Secretary of State for Health, announced that, following an NHS consultation, which ended on March 22, 2006, the SHAs were to be reorganized, reducing to ten in number. This is hoped to produce substantial financial savings.
The SHAs have the board and governance structures common to all NHS trusts.
The Health and Social Care Act 2012 provides for the abolition of SHAs.
The ten SHAs established as of 1 July 2006 are:
These Strategic Health Authorities are coterminous with government office regions, except that the large South East England region
A political faction is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a common political purpose. A faction or political party may include fragmented sub-factions, “parties within a party," which may be referred to as power blocs, or voting blocs. Members of factions band together as a way of achieving these goals and advancing their agenda and position within an organization.
Factions are not limited to political parties; they can and frequently do form within any group that has some sort of political aim or purpose.
The Latin word factio denoted originally either of the chariot teams that were organised professionally by private companies in ancient Rome, each recognizable by characteristic colour, and arousing supporter hysteria similar to that in modern sports fans. These teams were not unlike gladiator schools, but the lethal nature of that entertainment meant few performers lasted long enough to build up similar crowd loyalty to the "team", while the fighters rarely actually teamed up, but rather fought duels or beasts. In time, political currents could become associated with such a team, although precisely how this happened is unclear.
Organizations of this type:Lightstorm Entertainment
A production company provides the physical basis for works in the realms of the performing arts, new media art, film, television, radio, and video.
The production company may be directly responsible for fundraising for the production or may accomplish this through a parent company, partner, or private investor. It handles budgeting, scheduling, scripting, the supply with talent and resources, the organization of staff, the production itself, post-production, distribution, and marketing. Production companies are often either owned or under contract with a media conglomerate, film studio, entertainment company, or Motion Picture Company, who act as the production companies partner or parent company. This has become known as the "studio system". They can also be mainstream independent (see Lucasfilms) or completely independent (see Lionsgate). In the case of TV, a TV production company would serve under a television network. Production companies can work together in co-productions.
Entertainment companies operate as mini conglomerates, operating many divisions or subsidiaries in many different industries. Warner Brothers Entertainment and Lionsgate Entertainment are two companies with
Organizations of this type:Eastern Rhode Island Conservation District
The Rhode Island Conservation Districts consist of three districts; Northern, Southern and Eastern. They work with the United States Department of Agricultures Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to deliver technical assistance to the people of Rhode Island embarked on conservation projects. The conservation districts of the State of Rhode Island are a subdivision of state government established under state law to carry out programs for the conservation and wise management of soil, water and related resources. Professional staffs in each of the three offices report to volunteer boards of directors. The Southern Rhode Island Conservation District has offices located in Wakefield, Rhode Island.
A 'sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of business entity that is owned and run by one individual and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business. The owner receives all profits (subject to taxation specific to the business) and has unlimited responsibility for all losses and debts. Every asset of the business is owned by the proprietor and all debts of the business are the proprietor's. It is a "sole" proprietorship in contrast with partnerships. Glos and Baker write that "A sole proprietorship is a business owned by one person who is entitled to all of its profits," and Reed and Conover say "The single or the sole proprietorship is a business owned and controlled by one man even though he may have many other persons working for him." A sole proprietor may use a trade name or business name other than his or her legal name. In many jurisdictions there are rules to enable the true owner of a business name to be ascertained. In the United States there is generally a requirement to file a doing business as statement with the local authorities. In the United Kingdom the proprietor's name must be
Sparkasse are savings bank of germany.
The first Sparkassen were founded 1778 in Hamburg, 1786 in Oldenburg, 1796 in Kiel, 1801 in Altona und 1808 in Darmstadt, 1817 in Lￃﾼbeck, 1818 in Berlin and 1821 in Nￃﾼrnberg. 1818 the Wￃﾼrttembergische Spar-Casse was founded in Stuttgart.In the year 1836 there were 300 Sparkassen, 1860: approx. 1,200, 1913: approx. 3,100 Sparkassen.
Sparkassen can be owned by cities, municipalities, districts or rural districts of Germany.
Some fusions (mergers) were made in the public sector of the Sparkassen. Today 446 Sparkassen exist in Germany under the umbrella association of DSGV (Deutscher Sparkassen und Giroverband). Their total assets amount to about ￢ﾂﾬ1 trillion making the Sparkassen group one of the largest banking groups in the world. The Sparkassen have about 14,000 offices in Germany.
A Students' Association (SA) is a grouping of students through a common cause or identity typically found at universities and colleges. The term is sometimes synonymous with Students' Union, but is often used to denote organizations of students in a particular faculty or residence as well.
In Scotland, it can mean the student organisation comprising both the Students' Representative Council and the Students' Union, as well as (in some cases) other bodies such as Sports Unions and, in the case of the "ancient" University of Aberdeen, the "Debater" debating society, which predates all other parts of the SA.
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay TV providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small number of broadcast networks. Many early television networks (e.g. the BBC, NBC or CBS) evolved from earlier radio networks.
In countries where most networks broadcast identical, centrally originated content to all their stations and where most individual TV transmitters therefore operate only as large "repeater stations", the terms "television network", "television channel" (a numeric identifier or radio frequency), and "television station" have become mostly interchangeable in everyday language, with professionals in TV-related occupations continuing to make a difference between them. Within the industry, a tiering is sometimes created among groups of networks based on whether their programming is simultaneously originated from a central point, and whether the network master control has the technical and administrative capability to take-over the programming of their affiliates in
Organizations of this type:Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission
A truth commission or truth and reconciliation commission is a commission tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government (or, depending on the circumstances, non-state actors also), in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past. They are, under various names, occasionally set up by states emerging from periods of internal unrest, civil war, or dictatorship. South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, established by President Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu after apartheid, is popularly considered a model of truth commissions.
As government reports, they can provide proof against historical revisionism of state terrorism and other crimes and human rights abuses. Truth commissions are sometimes criticised for allowing crimes to go unpunished, and creating impunity for serious human rights abusers. Their roles and abilities in this respect depend on their mandates, which vary widely. Often, there is a public mandate to bring past human rights violators to justice, though in some cases (such as Argentina after 1983 and Chile after 1990), abuses of human rights have gone unpunished under truth commissions due to threats of antidemocratic coups
The University of Southern California (USC) is a private, not-for-profit, nonsectarian, research university located in the South Central portion of Los Angeles, California, United States. USC was founded in 1880, making it California's oldest private research university. USC has historically educated a large number of the city's business leaders and professionals. In recent decades, the university has also leveraged its location in Los Angeles to establish relationships with research institutions throughout Asia and the Pacific Rim. Reflecting the status of Los Angeles as a global city, USC has the largest number of international students of any university in the United States.
USC's four year, full-time undergraduate program enrolled 17,414 undergraduate students in Fall 2011. USC is also home to 20,596 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, law, social work, and medicine. The university has a "very high" level of research activity and received $560.9 million in sponsored research from 2009 to 2010. USC was named "College of the Year 2000" by the editors of Time and The Princeton Review for the university's extensive