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Best Organization of All Time

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    1
    Smithsonian American Art Museum

    Smithsonian American Art Museum

    The Smithsonian American Art Museum is a museum in Washington, D.C. with an extensive collection of American art. Part of the Smithsonian Institution, the museum has a broad variety of American art that covers all regions and art movements found in the United States. Among the significant artists represented in its collection are Nam June Paik, Jenny Holzer, David Hockney, Georgia O'Keeffe, John Singer Sargent, Albert Pinkham Ryder, Albert Bierstadt, Edmonia Lewis, Thomas Moran, James Gill, Edward Hopper, Karen LaMonte and Winslow Homer. The museum describes itself as being "dedicated to collecting, understanding, and enjoying American art. The museum celebrates the extraordinary creativity of artists whose works reflect the American experience and global connections." The museum has two innovative public spaces, the Luce Foundation Center for American Art and the Lunder Conservation Center. The Luce Foundation Center is the first visible art storage and study center in Washington, D.C. It presents more than 3,300 objects in 64 secure glass cases, which quadruples the number of artworks from the permanent collection on public view. The Luce Foundation Center features paintings
    7.80
    10 votes
    2
    Special Olympics

    Special Olympics

    • Date founded: 1968
    • Founders: Ann McGlone Burke
    Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to more than 4 million athletes in 170 countries. Special Olympics competitions are held every day, all around the world—including local, national and regional competitions, adding up to more than 53,000 events a year These competitions include the Special Olympics World Games, which alternate between summer and winter games. Special Olympics World Games are held every two years. The Special Olympics World Games are often the largest sporting event to take place in the world during that year. The most recent World Games were the Special Olympics World Summer Games, held in Athens, Greece, from June 25-July 4, 2011. The next Special Olympics World Winter Games will be in Pyeongchang, South Korea from January 29 to February 5, 2013. The next Special Olympics World Summer Games will be in Los Angeles, California from July 24 to August 2, 2015. The first International Special Olympics Summer Games were held at Soldier Field in Chicago in 1968. Anne McGlone Burke, a physical education teacher with the Chicago Park District, began with the
    6.70
    10 votes
    3
    American Red Cross

    American Red Cross

    • Date founded: 1881-05-21
    • Founders: Clara Barton
    • Sectors: Charitable organization
    The American Red Cross (ARC), also known as the American National Red Cross, is a volunteer-led, humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States. It is the designated U.S. affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Today, in addition to domestic disaster relief, the American Red Cross offers services in five other areas: community services that help the needy; communications services and comfort for military members and their family members; the collection, processing and distribution of blood and blood products; educational programs on preparedness, health, and safety; and international relief and development programs. Issued a corporate charter by the United States Congress under Title 36 of the United States Code, Section 3001, the American National Red Cross is governed by volunteers and supported by community donations, income from health and safety training and products, and income from blood products. The American Red Cross is headquartered in Washington, D.C.. The Chairman of the Board of Governors, serving her second three-year term, is Bonnie McElveen-Hunter. The
    7.43
    7 votes
    4
    Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

    Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

    The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art, designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, built by Ferrovial, and located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. It is built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Atlantic Coast. The Guggenheim is one of several museums belonging to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. The museum features permanent and visiting exhibits of works by Spanish and international artists. One of the most admired works of contemporary architecture, the building has been hailed as a "signal moment in the architectural culture", because it represents "one of those rare moments when critics, academics, and the general public were all completely united about something." The museum was the building most frequently named as one of the most important works completed since 1980 in the 2010 World Architecture Survey among architecture experts. In 1991, the Basque government suggested to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation that it would fund a Guggenheim museum to be built in Bilbao's decrepit port area, once the city's main source of income. The Basque government agreed to cover the US$100 million
    6.86
    7 votes
    5
    Carnegie Corporation of New York

    Carnegie Corporation of New York

    • Founders: Andrew Carnegie
    Carnegie Corporation of New York, which was established by Andrew Carnegie in 1911 "to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding", is one of the oldest, largest and most influential of American foundations. Some notable contributions of Carnegie Corporation include: Carnegie Corporation has helped establish or endowed a variety of institutions, including the Carnegie libraries, the National Research Council, the Russian Research Center at Harvard, and the Children's Television Workshop, and for many years heavily supported Carnegie's other philanthropic organizations, especially Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP), the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT), and the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS). It has funded the writing of books and studies, as well as the organization of conferences and international exchanges, radio shows, legal proceedings and other activities. Through its activities, the Corporation has had a great impact on the information and knowledge available to citizens and government alike. Its work and that of its grantees has exerted a substantial influence on public discourse and public policy. By
    7.67
    6 votes
    6
    African Economic Community

    African Economic Community

    The African Economic Community (AEC) is an organization of African Union states establishing grounds for mutual economic development among the majority of African states. The stated goals of the organization include the creation of free trade areas, customs unions, a single market, a central bank, and a common currency (see African Monetary Union) thus establishing an economic and monetary union. Currently there are multiple regional blocs in Africa, also known as Regional Economic Communities (RECs), many of which have overlapping memberships. The RECs consist primarily of trade blocs and, in some cases, some political and military cooperation. Most of these RECs form the "pillars" of AEC, many of which also have an overlap in some of their member states. Due to this high proportion of overlap it is likely that some states with several memberships will eventually drop out of one or more RECs. Several of these pillars also contain subgroups with tighter customs and/or monetary unions of their own: These pillars and their corresponding subgroups are as follows: The Arab Maghreb Union does not participate in the AEC so far, because of opposition by Morocco Other African regional
    7.00
    6 votes
    7
    Sustainable Conservation

    Sustainable Conservation

    Our Mission Sustainable Conservation advances the stewardship of natural resources using innovative, pragmatic strategies that actively engage businesses and private landowners in conservation. Our Approach — Succeeding Where Others Have Failed Founded in 1992, we partner with business, agriculture and government leaders to find practical ways that the private sector can protect clean air, clean water and healthy ecosystems. The award-winning nonprofit organization leads powerful collaborations that produce lasting, win-win solutions to critical environmental problems. By promoting effective business and agricultural practices throughout California, Sustainable Conservation and its partners can shift entire industries toward environmental stewardship. Recent Accomplishments
    • Advanced renewable energy by enabling dairies to generate renewable electricity from cow manure-reducing their greenhouse gas emissions and energy costs.
    • Reduced air pollution by fostering the adoption of "conservation tillage" in California's Central Valley, which decreases air pollution while reducing farmers' energy and labor costs.
    • Improved water quality by expanding our hallmark permit coordination program to reduce sediment and pollutants entering California waterways. New efforts in San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties will help improve the quality of diverse aquatic and riparian habitats.
    • Supported habitat restoration by launching a new coalition of major retailers and nurseries to stop the sale of invasive species, the second largest threat to biodiversity following habitat destruction.
    Programs and Impact The organization's work spans rural and urban environmental issues and involves diverse industries, ranging from dairy farming to auto recycling. Sustainable Agriculture programs identify ways that farmers can protect the environment, improve their bottom lines and keep their land in production. Restoration on Private Lands programs help landowners protect and restore habitat on their properties. Sustainable Business programs stop pollution at the source by working proactively with business groups and regulatory agencies to institute practices that are both environmentally and economically sound. Sustainable Conservation is known for its unwavering commitment to creative, collaborative problem-solving, its direct aim at specific environmental problems and its patient persistence. Recognition Sustainable Conservation's work has been recognized by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, National Public Radio, ABC-TV news in San Francisco, The Fresno Bee and many others. The organization's budget and staff have grown more than 50% in the last two years to $2.3 million. Sustainable Conservation earned the highest rating from Charity Navigator, an independent evaluator of the financial strength and management of nonprofit organizations.
    7.00
    6 votes
    8
    Chi Phi

    Chi Phi

    • Date founded: 1824-12-24
    The Chi Phi (ΧΦ) Fraternity is an American College Social Fraternity that was established as the result of the merger of three separate organizations that were each known as Chi Phi. The oldest active organization that took part in the union was originally founded in 1824 at Princeton. Today, Chi Phi has over 43,500 living alumni members from over 100 active and inactive Chapters. “On Christmas Eve in 1824, an association was formed to promote the circulation of correct opinions upon Religion, Morals, Education & excluding Sectarian Theology and party Politics. It was the duty of each member to publish at least once a month in any convenient way some article designed to answer the above object. When at length it disbanded, its religious feature was absorbed and perpetuated by what is known now as the “Philadelphian Society” organized in February, 1825, and said to be an offspring of the Nassau Hall Tract Society. The old Chi Phi constitution was discovered in 1854 by some undergraduates who emphasizing the social and disregarding the religious purpose reorganized the society into the modern Greek letter fraternity of the same initials. The majority of the religious societies
    9.25
    4 votes
    9
    X PRIZE Foundation

    X PRIZE Foundation

    • Founders: Peter Diamandis
    The X PRIZE Foundation is a non-profit organization that designs and manages public competitions intended to encourage technological development that could benefit mankind. The X PRIZE Foundation mission is to bring about “radical breakthroughs for the benefit of humanity” through incentivized competition. It fosters high-profile competitions that motivate individuals, companies and organizations across all disciplines to develop innovative ideas and technologies that help solve the grand challenges that restrict humanity’s progress. The most high-profile X PRIZE to date was the Ansari X PRIZE relating to spacecraft development awarded in 2004. This prize was intended to inspire research and development into technology for space exploration. The first X PRIZE – the Ansari X PRIZE – was inspired by the Orteig Prize, a $25,000 prize offered in 1919 by French hotelier Raymond Orteig for the first nonstop flight between New York City and Paris. In 1927, underdog Charles Lindbergh won the prize in a modified single-engine Ryan aircraft called the Spirit of St. Louis. In total, nine teams spent $400,000 in pursuit of the Orteig Prize. In 1996, entrepreneur Peter Diamandis offered a $10
    9.25
    4 votes
    10
    Lambda Phi Epsilon

    Lambda Phi Epsilon

    • Date founded: 1981-02-25
    Lambda Phi Epsilon (ΛΦΕ, also known as LPhiE, LFE or LiFE) is an internationally-recognized fraternity in the United States and Canada. With a total of 54 chapters, it is the largest Asian-interest fraternity in North America. Lambda Phi Epsilon's goals include servicing the community through various philanthropies, increasing Asian awareness, promoting academic scholarship, and strengthening the Asian American voice on campus. Lambda Phi Epsilon Fraternity, Inc. being the current largest Asian-interest fraternity, continues to expand to other campuses every year. A group of nineteen dedicated men decided to form Lambda Phi Epsilon on February 25, 1981. Noting that Asian fraternities and sororities at the UC campuses were recognized only as service organizations due to their memberships focus on specific Asian groups and to the exclusion of other ethnic groups, the goal of the founders was to transcend this limitation. The founders hoped to set new and higher standards of excellence for all Asian-interest organizations to follow, while feeling a need to offer a fraternity that would be recognized by the IFC and the Greek system. While the original charter focused on Asian Pacific
    9.00
    4 votes
    11
    Bradley University

    Bradley University

    • Date founded: 1897
    • Founders: Lydia Moss Bradley
    Bradley University, founded in 1897, is a private, co-educational university located in Peoria, Illinois. It is a medium-sized institution with an enrollment of approximately 6,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students and a full-time faculty of approximately 350. The Bradley Polytechnic Institute was founded by philanthropist Lydia Moss Bradley in 1897 in memory of her husband Tobias and their six children, all of whom died early and suddenly, making Bradley a childless widow. The Bradleys had discussed establishing an orphanage in memory of their deceased children. After some study and travel to various institutions, Mrs. Bradley decided instead to found a school where young people could learn how to do practical things to prepare them for living in the modern world. As a first step toward her goal, in 1892 she purchased a controlling interest in Parsons Horological School in LaPorte, Indiana, the first school for watchmakers in America, and moved it to Peoria. She specified in her will that the school should be expanded after her death to include a classical education as well as industrial arts and home economics: "...it being the first object of this Institution to furnish
    7.60
    5 votes
    12
    Black Mountain College

    Black Mountain College

    • Date founded: 1933
    • Founders: John Andrew Rice
    Black Mountain College, a school founded in 1933 in Black Mountain, North Carolina, was a new kind of college in the United States in which the study of art was seen to be central to a liberal arts education, and in which John Dewey's principles of education played a major role. Many of the school's students and faculty were influential in the arts or other fields, or went on to become influential. Although notable even during its short life, the school closed in 1957 after only 24 years. Founded in 1933 by John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier, and other former faculty members of Rollins College, Black Mountain was experimental by nature and committed to an interdisciplinary approach, attracting a faculty that included many of America's leading visual artists, composers, poets, and designers, like Buckminster Fuller, who invented the geodesic dome. Operating in a relatively isolated rural location with little budget, Black Mountain College inculcated an informal and collaborative spirit and over its lifetime attracted a venerable roster of instructors. Some of the innovations, relationships, and unexpected connections formed at Black Mountain would prove to have a lasting influence on
    8.75
    4 votes
    13
    Yale Club of New York City

    Yale Club of New York City

    The Yale Club of New York City, commonly called the Yale Club, is a private club in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, New York, USA Its membership is restricted almost entirely to alumni and faculty of Yale University. With a clubhouse comprising 22 stories and a worldwide membership of over 11,000, it is the largest private clubhouse in the world. The club is located at 50 Vanderbilt Avenue, at the intersection of East 44th Street, across Vanderbilt Avenue from Grand Central Terminal and the MetLife Building. Four other clubs affiliated with Ivy League universities have clubhouses in the surrounding neighborhood: the Harvard Club of New York, the Princeton Club of New York, the Penn Club of New York City, and the Cornell Club. The neighborhood also includes similar clubs not affiliated with universities, like the New York Yacht Club and the University Club of New York, as well as the flagship stores of Brooks Brothers, J. Press, and Paul Stuart, which traditionally catered to the club set. The 22-story clubhouse contains three dining rooms (a grill room, a tap room, and a roof dining room and terrace), two bars (the grill room and the main lounge), banquet rooms for up to 500
    6.50
    6 votes
    14
    United Nations General Assembly

    United Nations General Assembly

    • Sectors: International development
    The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA/GA) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions. It has also established a wide number of subsidiary organs. The General Assembly meets under its president or Secretary-General in regular yearly sessions the main part of which lasts from September to December and resumed part from January until all issues are addressed (which often is just before the next session's start). It can also reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Its composition, functions, powers, voting, and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter. The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations. Voting in the General Assembly on important questions – recommendations on peace and security; election of members to organs; admission,
    8.25
    4 votes
    15
    Sea Cadet Corps

    Sea Cadet Corps

    • Sectors: Sailing
    The Sea Cadet Corps (SCC) is a UK national youth organisation which unlike other cadet forces is sponsored by its MOD senior service the Royal Navy and open to young people between the ages of 10–18 years old. The SCC is the UK's largest Naval Cadet Force with over 30,000 cadets and adult volunteers. Although not a pre-service organisation, the Sea Cadets follow the rate/rank structure, traditions, values and ethos of their parent service, the Royal Navy and for Marine Cadet Section the Royal Marines. Unlike the other cadet forces (Army Cadet Force, Air Training Corps and Combined Cadet Force), the SCC receives minimal funding from the MOD. It is an independent charity and is owned and governed by the Marine Society and Sea Cadets (MSSC), meaning it has greater independence and control than its sister organisations. Whilst the SCC is not a pre-service organisation, a significant minority of former Sea Cadets and Royal Marines Cadets do go on to join the Royal Navy, Royal Marines or other sections of the Armed Forces. HM The Queen and HRH the Prince of Wales are the Patrons of the Sea Cadet Corps and HRH The Duke of York is the Admiral of the Sea Cadet Corps. The Marine Society &
    7.00
    5 votes
    16
    Council on Foreign Relations

    Council on Foreign Relations

    • Date founded: 1921
    • Founders: Allen Welsh Dulles
    • Sectors: International relations
    The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American nonprofit, nonpartisan membership organization, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs. Founded in 1921 and headquartered at 58 East 68th Street in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C., the CFR is considered to be the nation's "most influential foreign-policy think tank". It publishes a bi-monthly journal, Foreign Affairs. As stated on its website, the CFR's mission is to be "a resource for its members, government officials, business executives, journalists, educators and students, civic and religious leaders, and other interested citizens in order to help them better understand the world and the foreign policy choices facing the United States and other countries." The CFR aims to maintain a diverse membership, including special programs to promote interest and develop expertise in the next generation of foreign policy leaders. It convenes meetings at which government officials, global leaders and prominent members of the foreign policy community discuss major international issues. Its think tank, the David Rockefeller Studies Program, is composed of about
    8.00
    4 votes
    17
    Mu Omicron Gamma

    Mu Omicron Gamma

    Mu Omicron Gamma is a Christian fraternity founded in 2001 at Old Dominion University. Mu Omicron Gamma is a Christian fraternity that was founded on Sunday September 9, 2001 on the campus of Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. Inspired by Psalms 133:1, seven men endeavored to promote Godly Brotherhood, Fellowship, and Discipleship on their college campus. Six men founded Mu Omicron Gamma: I. Watkins, J. Lynch, J. Jackson, A. Jamison, D. Riggins, and D. Goodrich. Additionally, A. Gore (the first member to become inducted into Mu Omicron Gamma Christian Fraternity) is recognized as an honorary founder. These founders are affectionately known as "The Sevolution." The Greek letters "Mu-Omicron-Gamma" represent the letters "M-O-G" which acronymizes Men of God. Although, the brothers of Mu Omicron Gamma Christian Fraternity sometimes refer to the fraternity as M.O.G., is it not to be confused with Men of God Christian Fraternity which is a completely different organization. The purpose of Mu Omicron Gamma Christian Fraternity is "to develop Godly young men of valor who will be living epistles that will correctly represent the Lord Jesus Christ in a world where he is
    8.00
    4 votes
    18
    Nathaniel Branden Institute

    Nathaniel Branden Institute

    • Date founded: 1958
    • Founders: Nathaniel Branden
    The Nathaniel Branden Institute (NBI), originally Nathaniel Branden Lectures, was an organization founded by Nathaniel Branden in 1958 to promote Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism. The institute was responsible for the many Objectivist lectures and presentations across the United States of America. Many of those associated with NBI worked on the Objectivist magazines, The Objectivist Newsletter and The Objectivist. NBI also issued many of the lectures and presentations, as well as those done by Rand to other groups, as records, which were sold/distributed around the country for those who could not get to a live NBI lecture. There were several subsidiary companies, such as NBI Press (a publishing arm that printed a couple of plays as well as special editions of Calumet "K" and Victor Hugo's The Man Who Laughs with intros by Rand); NBI Book Service (which sold Objectivist books and books by non-Objectivists with similar views in a particular area); and NBI Art Reproductions (art by Frank O'Connor, Joan Mitchell Blumenthal, and the portrait of Ayn Rand by Ilona Royce Smithkin). NBI also reprinted some of Rand's speeches and interviews, along with articles from The Objectivist
    8.00
    4 votes
    19
    Tau Kappa Epsilon

    Tau Kappa Epsilon

    • Date founded: 1899-01-10
    Tau Kappa Epsilon(ΤΚΕ or Teke, pronounced T-K-E or /ˈtiːk/) is a college fraternity founded on January 10, 1899, at Illinois Wesleyan University with chapters in the United States, and Canada, and affiliation with a German fraternity system known as the Corps of the Weinheimer Senioren Convent (WSC). There are currently 292 active TKE chapters and colonies throughout the United States and Canada. In terms of active chapters and colonies, TKE is the second largest college social fraternity behind the 305 active chapters and colonies of Kappa Sigma. The colors of the fraternity are the shade of cherry known as crimson lake, and the shade of gray known as pure silver. Of the national fraternities founded prior to 1920, TKE is one of the few fraternities that never had a discrimination clause in its membership requirements to prevent membership of men because of their race, color, or creed. TKE was also one of the first fraternities to abolish "Hell week" when in 1928 it was replaced with an initiation period consisting of lessons portraying the finest attributes of brotherhood. Some notable members of Tau Kappa Epsilon are: founder of Walgreen, Charles Walgreen, 40th President of the
    8.00
    4 votes
    20
    Ateneum

    Ateneum

    The Ateneum is a major museum in Finland. It is located in the centre of Helsinki at the Rautatientori square opposite Helsinki Central Railway Station. It has the biggest collections of classical art in Finland. Previously the Ateneum building also housed the Finnish Academy of Fine Arts and University of Art and Design Helsinki. The Ateneum building is owned by Senate Properties (Senaatti-kiinteistöt), the government real estate provider. The Ateneum building was designed by Theodor Höijer and it was completed in 1887. The facade of Ateneum is decorated with statues and reliefs which contain a lot of symbols. Above the main entrance, in the second floor, are busts of three famous classical artists: architect Bramante, painter Raphael and sculptor Phidias. Above the busts, in the third floor, four caryatids support the pediment. These symbolize the four classical art forms: architecture, painting, sculpting, and music. The facade culminates in a collage of sculptures in which the Goddess of Art blesses the products of the different art forms. All the statues were by Carl Sjöstrand. In between the second floor windows are several reliefs by Ville Vallgren representing Finnish and
    6.80
    5 votes
    21
    Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International

    Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International

    Fairtrade International (FLO) was established in 1997, and is an association of 3 producer networks, 19 national labelling initiatives and 3 marketing organizations that promote and market the Fairtrade Certification Mark in their countries Fairtrade labelling organizations exist in 18 European countries as well as in Canada, the United States, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. To ensure the transparency and the independence of the Fairtrade certification and labelling system, Fairtrade International was divided in January 2004 into two independent organizations: In 2009, Fair trade certified sales amounted to approximately €3.4 billion (US $4.9 billion) worldwide, a 15% increase from 2008. As of 2011, 827 producer organizations in 58 developing countries were FLO-CERT Fairtrade certified. FLO also oversees national organizations in South Africa, the Czech Republic and Korea .
    6.80
    5 votes
    22
    Deutsche Bank

    Deutsche Bank

    • Date founded: 1870-03-10
    Deutsche Bank AG (literally "German Bank"; pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈbaŋk]) is a German global banking and financial services company with its headquarters in the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia-Pacific and the emerging markets. In 2009, Deutsche Bank was the largest foreign exchange dealer in the world with a market share of 21 percent. Deutsche Bank has offices in major financial centres including London, Madrid, Frankfurt, New York, Paris, Moscow, Amsterdam, Warsaw, Istanbul, Dublin, George Town, Cayman Islands, Toronto, Kuala Lumpur, São Paulo, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Sydney, Dubai, Riyadh, Manila, Mumbai, Bangkok and Belgrade. The bank offers financial products and services for corporate and institutional clients along with private and business clients. Services include sales, trading, research and origination of debt and equity; mergers and acquisitions (M&A); risk management products, such as derivatives, corporate finance, wealth management, retail banking, fund management, and transaction banking. Deutsche Bank's Chief Executive Officer
    9.00
    3 votes
    23
    GlobalGiving

    GlobalGiving

    • Date founded: 2001
    • Founders: Dennis Whittle
    • Sectors: International development
    GlobalGiving is an online marketplace that connects donors with grassroots projects in the developing world. Potential donors can browse and select from a wide offering of projects that are organized by geography or by themes such as health care, the environment and education. Upon choosing a project, a donor can contribute any amount using a credit/debit card, check, PayPal, or stock transfer. Gift registries can be set up for special events, and donors can "give" any project as a gift. GlobalGiving funds itself by requesting the donor add a 15% donation to GlobalGiving to their gift or by taking a 15% transaction fee from the amount pledged to the charity. These contributions directly support the entrepreneurial work of global project leaders who are bringing innovative, empowering solutions to challenging social problems at the local community level. In order to create an interactive relationship between the project and donors, project leaders send regular updates to their donors regarding the progress and impact of the project and donors are invited to submit comments. All donations made to projects go through the GlobalGiving Foundation, a registered 501(c)3 entity, and are
    7.75
    4 votes
    24
    Kappa Alpha Society

    Kappa Alpha Society

    • Date founded: 1825-11-26
    The Kappa Alpha Society (ΚΑ), founded in 1825, was the progenitor of the modern fraternity system in North America. It was the first of the fraternities which would eventually become known as the Union Triad. In addition, Baird's Manual states that KA, unlike other fraternities with claims to the contrary, has maintained a continuous existence since its foundation, making it the oldest undergraduate fraternity that exists today. As of 2011, there are eight active chapters in the United States and Canada. According to Baird's Manual, nine undergraduates at Union College in Schenectady, New York—John Hart Hunter, John McGeoch, Isaac W. Jackson, Thomas Hun, Orlando Meads, James Proudfit, and Joseph Anthony Constant of the class of 1826, and Arthur Burtis and Joseph Law of the Class of 1827—established the Society on November 26, 1825 from an informal group calling itself The Philosophers, which was established by Hunter, Jackson, and Hun in 1823. The organization represents the middle link between secret societies, literary societies, and Greek-letter organizations like Phi Beta Kappa. In the words of founding member Arthur Burtis: The first expansion of the Society took place in 1833
    7.75
    4 votes
    25
    Nabisco

    Nabisco

    • Date founded: 1890
    Nabisco (/nəˈbɪskoʊ/; originally known as the National Biscuit Company) is an American manufacturer of cookies and snacks. Headquartered in East Hanover, New Jersey, the company is a subsidiary of Illinois-based Mondelēz International. Nabisco's plant in Chicago, a 1,800,000-square-foot (170,000 m) production facility at 7300 S. Kedzie Avenue, is the largest bakery in the world, employing more than 1,500 workers and turning out some 320 million pounds of snack foods annually. Its products include Chips Ahoy!, Fig Newtons, Mallomars, Oreos, Ritz Crackers, Teddy Grahams, Triscuit, Wheat Thins, Social Tea, Nutter Butter, Peek Freans, Chicken in a Biskit, used for the United States, United Kingdom, Mexico and Venezuela as well as other parts of South America. Nabisco products are branded as Kraft in some other countries. All Nabisco cookie or cracker products are branded Christie in Canada; however, prior to the Post Cereals merger, the cereal division kept the Nabisco name in Canada. The proof of purchase on their products is marketed as a "brand seal". The Nabisco name became redundant in Canada after Kraft took over. Nabisco opened corporate offices as the National Biscuit Company
    7.75
    4 votes
    26
    Partido Acción Nacional

    Partido Acción Nacional

    • Date founded: 1939-09-16
    • Founders: Luis Calderón Vega
    The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional, PAN), is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. The party's political platform is generally considered Right-wing in the Mexican political spectrum. Since 2000, the President of Mexico has been a member of this party; both houses have PAN pluralities, but the party does not have a majority in either house of the Congress. In the 2006 legislative elections the party won 207 out of 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 52 out of 128 Senators. Mexican Roman Catholics, together with other conservatives (mainly Manuel Gómez Morín), founded the PAN on September 17, 1939, after the cristero insurgency was forced by the Mexican bishops to abandon the Cristero War. They were looking for a peaceful way to bring about change in the country and to achieve political representation, after the years of chaos and violence that followed the Mexican Revolution. The turning point in the Cristero War was when the Roman Catholic Church reached an agreement with the National Revolutionary Party – the forerunner of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) that dominated the country for most of the 20th century – under which it
    7.75
    4 votes
    27
    California Palace of the Legion of Honor

    California Palace of the Legion of Honor

    • Founders: Adolph B. Spreckels
    The California Palace of the Legion of Honor (often abbreviated Legion of Honor) is a part of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (FAMSF). The name is used both for the museum collection and for the building in which it is housed. The Legion of Honor was the gift of Alma de Bretteville Spreckels, wife of the sugar magnate and thoroughbred racehorse owner/breeder Adolph B. Spreckels. The building is a three-quarter-scale version of the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur also known as the Hôtel de Salm in Paris by George Applegarth and H. Guillaume. It was completed in 1924. The museum building occupies an elevated site in Lincoln Park in the northwest of the city, with views over the Golden Gate Bridge. Most of the surrounding Lincoln Park Golf Course is on the site of a potter's field called the "Golden Gate Cemetery" that the City had bought in 1867. The cemetery was closed in 1908 and the bodies were relocated to Colma. During seismic retrofitting in the 1990s, however, coffins and skeletal remains were unearthed. The plaza and fountain in front of the Palace of the Legion of Honor is the western terminus of the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. The terminus marker
    6.60
    5 votes
    28
    Federation of Damanhur

    Federation of Damanhur

    • Date founded: 1975
    • Founders: Oberto Airaudi
    The Federation Of Damanhur, often called simply Damanhur, is a commune, ecovillage, and spiritual community situated in the Piedmont region of northern Italy about 30 miles (50 km) north of the city of Turin. It is located in the foothills of the Alps in the Valchiusella valley, bordering on the Gran Paradiso National Park. The community has its own constitution and currency, the Credito. Damanhur is named after the Egyptian city of Damanhur which was the site of a temple dedicated to Horus. It was founded in 1975 by Oberto Airaudi with around 24 followers, and had grown to 800 by the year 2000. The group holds a mix of New Age and neopagan beliefs. They gained fame in 1992 through the disclosure of their secret excavation of an extensive underground temple, the Temples of Humankind, which was begun in 1978 under complete secrecy. The Italian authorities ordered construction work to stop because it had been constructed without planning approval, although artwork could continue. Retroactive permission was subsequently granted. Damanhur's supporters claim the growth and activity of the community has revitalized the local area. The Federation of Damanhur has centers in Europe,
    7.50
    4 votes
    29
    Stanford University

    Stanford University

    • Date founded: 1885-11-11
    • Founders: Jane Stanford
    The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is an American private research university located in Stanford, California on an 8,180-acre (3,310 ha) campus near Palo Alto. It is situated in the northwestern Silicon Valley, approximately 20 miles (32 km) northwest of San Jose and 37 miles (60 km) southeast of San Francisco. Leland Stanford, Governor and Senator of California and leading railroad tycoon, and his wife Jane Lathrop Stanford founded the university in 1891 in honor of their son, Leland Stanford, Jr., who died of typhoid two months before his 16th birthday. The university was established as a coeducational and nondenominational institution. Tuition was free until the 1930s. The university struggled financially after the senior Stanford's 1893 death and after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would become known as Silicon Valley. By 1970, Stanford was home to a linear accelerator, and was one of the original four ARPANET nodes (precursor to
    7.50
    4 votes
    30
    Exploratorium

    Exploratorium

    • Date founded: 1969
    • Founders: Frank Oppenheimer
    The Exploratorium is a museum in San Francisco with over 475 participatory exhibits, all of them made onsite, that mix science and art. It also aims to promote museums as informal education centers. Founded in 1969 by physicist and educator Frank Oppenheimer, the Exploratorium offers visitors a variety of ways—including exhibits, webcasts, websites and events—to explore and understand the world around them. In 2011, the Exploratorium received the National Science Board 2011 Public Service Science Award for its contributions to public understanding of science and engineering. The Exploratorium was founded in 1969 by Frank Oppenheimer, a noted experimental physicist and university professor. He served as the museum’s director until his death in 1985. In 1949, Oppenheimer was forced to resign from his position at the University of Minnesota as a result of inquiry by the House Un-American Activities Committee. He was drawn into the local high school in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, where he taught for several years. When Oppenheimer returned to university physics in 1959, he focused on improving laboratory teaching, developing a "Library of Experiments" in which students could explore
    8.67
    3 votes
    31
    Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

    Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

    The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery is an Asian art museum in Washington, D.C. in the United States. It is one of nineteen museums under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution. Founded in 1982, the Gallery is named after Arthur M. Sackler, who donated approximately 1,000 objects and $4 million towards the building of the museum. Ninety-six percent of the museum is located underground, in the Quadrangle section of the Smithsonian, underneath the Enid A. Haupt Garden. The museum showcases ancient and contemporary art from India, China, Japan, and other areas of Asia. Japanese Prime Minister Masayoshi Ōhira visited the Freer Gallery of Art in 1979. During his visit, he announced that Japan would donate $1 million to the Smithsonian in order to assist in the building of an annex to the Freer to display Asian art. That same year, the United States Senate approved the Smithsonian Institution's request for $500,000 to build museums for Asian and African art on June 6. In June, 1980, the Smithsonian removed the South Quadrangle Project from their fiscal plan. The project resurfaced in 1981, and on December 23 Congress approved $960,000 for the new complex. It was the first time that federal
    10.00
    2 votes
    32
    Exxon Mobil

    Exxon Mobil

    • Date founded: 1999-11-30
    • Founders: John D. Rockefeller
    • Sectors: Petroleum
    Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE: XOM) or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation. It is a direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil company, and was formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. Its headquarters are in Irving, Texas. It is affiliated with Imperial Oil which operates in Canada. ExxonMobil is the world's largest company by revenue and one of the largest publicly traded companies by market capitalization in the world. The company is ranked #1 globally in Forbes Global 2000 list in 2012. Exxon Mobil's reserves were 72 billion oil-equivalent barrels at the end of 2007 and, at then (2007) rates of production, are expected to last over 14 years. With 37 oil refineries in 21 countries constituting a combined daily refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels (1,000,000 m), Exxon Mobil is the largest refiner in the world, a title that was also associated with Standard Oil since its incorporation in 1870. ExxonMobil is the largest of the six oil supermajors with daily production of 3.921 million BOE (barrels of oil equivalent). In 2008, this was approximately 3% of world production, which is less than several of the largest
    10.00
    2 votes
    33
    National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences

    National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences

    • Date founded: 1957
    • Sectors: Music industry
    The Recording Academy, known variously as The National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences or NARAS, is a U.S. organization of musicians, producers, recording engineers and other recording professionals dedicated to improving the quality of life and cultural condition for music and its makers. The Recording Academy is headquartered in Santa Monica. Neil Portnow is the current president of The Academy. The Recording Academy, which began in 1957, is famous for its GRAMMY Awards. In 1997, the Recording Academy launched The Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences, Inc., which produces the Latin GRAMMY Awards. Michael Greene was the founder and the first President of the Latin Grammys. The origin of the Academy dates back to the beginning of the 1950s Hollywood Walk of Fame project. The Hollywood Chamber of Commerce asked the help of major recording industry executives in compiling a list of people in the music business who should be honored by Walk of Fame stars. The music committee, made up of these executives, compiled a list, but as they worked, they realized there were many more talented industry people who would not qualify to be recognized with a Hollywood Boulevard bronze
    10.00
    2 votes
    34
    Lambda Chi Alpha

    Lambda Chi Alpha

    • Date founded: 1909-11-02
    • Founders: Warren A. Cole
    Lambda Chi Alpha (ΛΧΑ) is one of the largest men's secret general fraternities in North America, having initiated more than 280,000 members and held chapters at more than 300 universities. It is a member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference (NIC) and was founded by Warren A. Cole, while he was a student at Boston University, on November 2, 1909. The youngest of the fifteen largest social fraternities, Lambda Chi Alpha has initiated the third highest number of men ever, based on NIC statistics. Lambda Chi's National Headquarters is located in Indianapolis, Indiana. Lambda Chi Alpha seeks to promote higher education by providing opportunities for academic achievement and leadership. Its open mottos are Vir Quisque Vir (Latin) Every Man a Man; Per Crucem Crescens (Latin) translated variously as Crescent in the Cross or Growth through the Cross; and Χαλεπα Τα Καλα (Greek) Naught Without Labor. Its members are referred to as "Lambda Chis." The history of the founding of Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity resulted from an agreement in late 1912 between Warren A. Cole in Boston and Albert Cross in Philadelphia, holding that on November 2, 1909, Warren A. Cole, Percival C. Morse, and
    6.40
    5 votes
    35
    International Finance Corporation

    International Finance Corporation

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution which offers investment, advisory, and asset management services to encourage private sector development in developing countries. The IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. It was established in 1956 as the private sector arm of the World Bank Group to advance economic development by investing in strictly for-profit and commercial projects which reduce poverty and promote development. The IFC's stated aim is to create opportunities for people to escape poverty and achieve better living standards by mobilizing financial resources for private enterprise, promoting accessible and competitive markets, supporting businesses and other private sector entities, and creating jobs and delivering necessary services to those who are poverty-stricken or otherwise vulnerable. Since 2009, the IFC has focused on a set of development goals which its projects are expected to target. Its goals are to increase sustainable agriculture opportunities, improve health and education, increase access to financing for microfinance and business clients, advance
    7.25
    4 votes
    36
    Tau Alpha Upsilon

    Tau Alpha Upsilon

    Tau Alpha Upsilon ("TAY") is a college social fraternity formed in Spring, 1961 at Binghamton University (State University of New York) initially as a basketball club athletic fraternity.In fact, the motto of the Fraternity remains Quis separabit?, Latin for Who shall separate us? In 1961 the Fraternity officially started accepting general male student membership. Today, TAU has over 600 successful alumni from its one active chapter. Over 75 pledge classes have made it's way through Binghamton University. Tau Alpha Upsilon has been a noticeable part of Binghamton's history; founding the Harpur's Ferry Volunteer Ambulance service, as well as the end of the year carnival, now known as "Spring Fling." The spiritual founder of the fraternity is Bob Teneglius. His idealism is best exemplified with one of his most famous quotes: "From Breadth, Through Depth, To Perspective". Tau Alpha Upsilon was founded in 1961 when it was recognized as a social club by the University. TAU has survived a SUNY-wide ban on fraternities, lifted in 1977, and the turbulence of the sixties and seventies. As a fraternity, Tau Alpha Upsilon set the pace for growth of the fraternity system at Binghamton
    7.25
    4 votes
    37
    United Nations Development Programme

    United Nations Development Programme

    The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network. It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP operates in 177 countries, working with nations on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and its wide range of partners. UNDP is an executive board within the United Nations General Assembly. The UNDP Administrator is the third highest-ranking official of the United Nations after the United Nations Secretary-General and Deputy Secretary-General. Headquartered in New York City, the UNDP is funded entirely by voluntary contributions from member nations. The organization has country offices in 177 countries, where it works with local governments to meet development challenges and develop local capacity. Additionally, the UNDP works internationally to help countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). UNDP provides expert advice, training, and grant support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries. To
    7.25
    4 votes
    38
    Computer History Museum

    Computer History Museum

    The Computer History Museum is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, USA. The Museum is dedicated to preserving and presenting the stories and artifacts of the information age, and exploring the computing revolution and its impact on our lives. The museum's origins date to 1968 when Gordon Bell began a quest for a historical collection and, at that same time, others were looking to preserve the Whirlwind computer. The resulting Museum Project had its first exhibit in 1975; located in a converted coat closet in a DEC lobby. In 1978, the museum, now The Digital Computer Museum (TDCM), moved to a larger DEC lobby in Marlboro, Mass. Maurice Wilkes presented the first lecture at TDCM in 1979 – the presentation of such lectures has continued to the present time. TDCM incorporated as The Computer Museum (TCM) in 1982. In 1984, TCM moved to Boston, locating on Museum Wharf. In 1996/1997, The TCM History Center (TCMHC) in Silicon Valley was established; a site at Moffet Field was provided by NASA (an old building that was previously the Naval Base furniture store) and a large number of artifacts were shipped there from TCM. In 1999, TCMHC incorporated and TCM ceased
    8.33
    3 votes
    39
    Institut de France

    Institut de France

    The Institut de France (French pronunciation: [ɛ̃stity də fʁɑ̃s], French Institute) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française. The institute, located in Paris, manages approximately 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and chateaux open for visit. It also awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of €5,028,190.55 for 2002. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies. The Institut de France was created on 25 October 1795. The Royal Society of Canada, founded in 1882, was modeled after the Institut de France and the Royal Society of London.
    8.33
    3 votes
    40
    Omega Delta Phi

    Omega Delta Phi

    • Date founded: 1987-11-25
    Omega Delta Phi (ΩΔΦ), also known as O D Phi, is an intercollegiate fraternity that was founded on November 25, 1987 by seven students attending Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Its seven founders known as the "Men of Vision" to fraternity members wanted to create an organization to help students graduate. This initial organization became Omega Delta Phi Fraternity. Over the past twenty years the Fraternity has changed and adopted other values such as an emphasis on Community Service. Omega Delta Phi was named Fraternity of the Year for 2003, 2004, and 2005 by the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations. Although one of the Greek organizations that founded NALFO, Omega Delta Phi withdrew their membership in December of 2008. Omega Delta Phi is a multicultural service/social fraternity that aims at graduating its members while giving back to the community. The Fraternity has established itself on over 50 campuses and is predominantly centered in Texas and the Southwest. However, the Fraternity has been experiencing tremendous growth in the Midwest the last 10 years. Although founded mainly by Latinos, the Fraternity has traditionally always been open to men of
    8.33
    3 votes
    41
    Sigma Gamma Tau

    Sigma Gamma Tau

    • Date founded: 1953
    • Sectors: Engineering
    Sigma Gamma Tau is the American honor society in Aerospace Engineering. It seeks to identify and recognize achievement and excellence in the Aerospace field. Sigma Gamma Tau's collegiate chapters elect annually to membership those students, alumni, and professionals who, by conscientious attention to their studies or professional duties, uphold this high standard for the betterment of their profession. The objectives of Sigma Gamma Tau, as stated in the preamble of the society's national constitution, are: "to recognize and honor those individuals in the field of Aeronautics and Astronautics who have, through scholarship, integrity, and outstanding achievement, been a credit to their profession. The society seeks to foster a high standard of ethics and professional practice and create a spirit of loyalty and fellowship, particularly among students of Aerospace Engineering." Sigma Gamma Tau was founded on the campus of Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, on February 28, 1953, "to offer appropriate recognition to persons of superior scholarship, outstanding character, and professional achievement in the field of Aeronautical Engineering." The new society was formed by the
    8.33
    3 votes
    42
    Theta Tau

    Theta Tau

    • Date founded: 1904-10-15
    ΘΤ (Theta Tau) Fraternity was founded in 1904 by four engineering students at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. As defined by the fraternity, the purpose of Theta Tau is to develop and maintain a high standard of professional interest among its members, and to unite them in a strong bond of fraternal fellowship. The goals of the fraternity are to promote the social and professional development of its members during and after their college years. Today, Theta Tau is the oldest and largest professional engineering fraternity in the United States, with a diverse membership of men and women studying engineering at more than 40 campuses. The Fraternity was founded as the "Society of Hammer and Tongs" on October 15, 1904, by Erich Julius Schrader, Elwin Leroy Vinal, William Murray Lewis, and Isaac Baker Hanks. The name was changed to Theta Tau at the fraternity's first national convention at the University of Minnesota in 1911. Since then, approximately 30,000 members have been initiated. The Theta Tau Central Office is located in Austin, Texas. The primary symbols of Theta Tau are the Hammer and Tongs, and the gear wheel. The Open Motto reads: "Whatsoever thy hand findeth to
    8.33
    3 votes
    43
    Science Museum of Minnesota

    Science Museum of Minnesota

    • Date founded: 1907
    The Science Museum of Minnesota is an American museum focused on topics in technology, natural history, physical science and mathematics education. Founded in 1907 and located in Saint Paul, Minnesota, the 501(c)(3) nonprofit institution is staffed by over 500 employees and over 1,600 volunteers. The museum's mission statement is to "turn on the science: realizing the potential of policy makers, educators, and individuals to achieve full civic and economic participation in the world." There are a number of exhibits that are always in the museum, including: The new building has a dual-screen IMAX/Omnimax theater, with both a wall screen for IMAX films and other flat presentations, and a rotatable dome for viewing Omnitheater films, the first such convertible theater in the northern hemisphere. . The counterweights for the system were so massive that they had to be put in place before the rest of the building. The theaters boasts "the largest permanently installed electronic cinema projector in the world," an advanced computer system to coordinate the theater's facilities, and a complex sound system to accommodate both viewing formats, according to the website. The museum has been a
    6.00
    5 votes
    44
    Battelle Memorial Institute

    Battelle Memorial Institute

    • Founders: Gordon Battelle
    Battelle Memorial Institute is a private nonprofit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Battelle is a charitable trust organized as a nonprofit corporation under the laws of the State of Ohio and is exempt from taxation under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code because it is organized for charitable, scientific and education purposes. The institute opened in 1929 but traces its origins to the 1923 will of Ohio industrialist Gordon Battelle which provided for its creation. Originally focusing on contract research and development work in the areas of metals and material science, Battelle is now an international science and technology enterprise that explores emerging areas of science, develops and commercializes technology, and manages laboratories for customers. Battelle has three business divisions: Battelle contributes to education initiatives in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, especially in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Contributions range from a million dollar donation to the National Society of Black Engineers to building Metro High School in conjunction with The Ohio
    8.00
    3 votes
    45
    Delta Xi Nu

    Delta Xi Nu

    • Date founded: 1997-10-07
    Delta Xi Nu Multicultural Sorority, Inc was established at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas by five women who saw a need to promote friendship, diversity, and cultural awareness at the university and in the surrounding community. They envisioned an organization where women of all cultures would feel welcome, create lasting friendships, and educate and serve the community. The motto of Delta Xi Nu Multicultural Sorority, Inc is "Sisterhood, Culture, and Education". In the fall of 1997, Jaime Slaughter, Jetje Brewton, Adrienne Magirl, Rena Kharbat, and Lesliam Quiros met to discuss what they felt was missing from Greek Life at Texas A&M University. After careful discussion and research, they established Delta Xi Nu Multicultural Sorority on October 7, 1997. They decided that the mission of the sorority would be to promote diversity and cultural awareness. Being African American, Dutch, Irish/Mexican, Palestinian, and Puerto Rican, they wanted to tell the world that it was their differences that had brought them together and made them stronger. Beginning with the Beta Chapter in 2001, Delta Xi Nu Multicultural Sorority, Inc. has worked to share that initial vision with
    8.00
    3 votes
    46
    Ferrari S.p.A.

    Ferrari S.p.A.

    • Date founded: 1929
    • Founders: Enzo Ferrari
    Ferrari S.p.A. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929, as Scuderia Ferrari, the company sponsored drivers and manufactured race cars before moving into production of street-legal vehicles as Ferrari S.p.A. in 1947. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it has had great success. Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of luxury and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari (literally "Ferrari Stable", and usually used to mean "Team Ferrari", it is correctly pronounced [skudeˈriːa]) in 1928 as a sponsor for amateur drivers headquartered in Modena. Ferrari prepared, and successfully raced, various drivers in Alfa Romeo cars until 1938, when he was hired by Alfa Romeo to head their motor racing department. In 1941, Alfa Romeo was confiscated by the fascist government of Benito Mussolini as part of the Axis Powers' war effort. Enzo Ferrari's division was small enough to be unaffected by this. Because he was prohibited by contract from racing for four years,
    8.00
    3 votes
    47
    International Organization for Standardization

    International Organization for Standardization

    • Date founded: 1947-02-23
    The International Organization for Standardization (French: Organisation internationale de normalisation, Russian: Международная организация по стандартизации, tr. Myezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya po standartizatsii), widely known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial, and commercial standards. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. The three official languages of the ISO are English, French, and Russian. The organization's logos in two of its official languages, English and French, include the word ISO, and it is usually referred to by this short-form name. The organization says that ISO is not an acronym or initialism for the organization's full name in either official language; rather, recognizing that its initials would be different in different languages, it adopted ISO, based on the Greek word isos (ἴσος, meaning equal), as the universal short form of its name. However, one of the founding delegates, Willy Kuert, recollected the original naming question with the comment: "I recently read that
    8.00
    3 votes
    48
    National Portrait Gallery

    National Portrait Gallery

    The National Portrait Gallery is a historic art gallery, located at Eighth and F Streets, Northwest, Washington, D.C., administered by the Smithsonian Institution. Its collections focus on images of famous individual Americans. It resides in the National Historic Landmarked Old Patent Office Building (now renamed the Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture), located just south of Chinatown in the Penn Quarter district of downtown Washington. The third oldest federal building in the city, constructed between 1836 and 1867, the marble and granite museum has porticoes modeled after the Parthenon in Athens, Greece. The building was used as a hospital during the American Civil War. Walt Whitman worked there and used his experiences as a basis for The Wound Dresser. The Bureau of Indian Affairs moved into the building after the war ended. Whitman used to work as a clerk for the bureau until 1867, when he was fired after a manuscript of Leaves of Grass was found in his desk. It was spared from demolition by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958, and given to the Smithsonian, which renovated the structure and opened the National Museum of American Art (later renamed the
    8.00
    3 votes
    49
    One Laptop per Child

    One Laptop per Child

    • Date founded: 2005
    • Founders: Nicholas Negroponte
    The One Laptop per Child association (OLPC) is a U.S. non-profit organization set up to oversee The Children's Machine project and the construction of the 2B1 "$100 laptop". Both the project and the organization were announced at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland in January 2005. OLPC is funded by a number of sponsor organizations. These include Google, Red Hat, AMD, Brightstar Corporation, News Corporation, SES Global and Nortel Networks. Each company has donated two million dollars. The MIT Media Lab is also involved in the project. The organization gained its most attention after Nicholas Negroponte and Kofi Annan unveiled a working prototype of the CM1 in November 2005 at the World Summit on the Information Society in Tunis, Tunisia. The organization is chaired by Nicholas Negroponte and its CTO is Mary Lou Jepsen. Other principals of the company include former MIT Media Lab director Walter Bender, who is President of OLPC Software and Content, and Jim Gettys, Vice-President of Software Engineering.
    8.00
    3 votes
    50
    Phi Beta Kappa Society

    Phi Beta Kappa Society

    • Date founded: 1776-12-05
    • Founders: John Heath
    The Phi Beta Kappa Society, an academic honor society in the United States, has 280 chapters. It aims to promote and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences, and induct the most outstanding students of arts and sciences at American colleges and universities. Founded at The College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776, as the first collegiate Greek-letter fraternity, it is also the oldest honor society for the liberal arts and sciences and among the oldest undergraduate societies in the United States. Phi Beta Kappa (ΦΒΚ) stands for Φιλοσοφία Βίου Κυβερνήτης or philosophia biou kybernētēs — "Love of learning is the guide of life". Each individual chapter determines its specific application of the Phi Beta Kappa Council's 1952 Stipulations Concerning Eligibility for Membership and sets its own academic standards. Since inception, 17 U.S. Presidents, 37 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, and 136 Nobel Laureates have been inducted members. According to the society, "only about 10 percent of the nation's institutions of higher learning have Phi Beta Kappa chapters," and of the institutions with chapters, only about 10 percent of the arts and sciences graduates are elected to
    8.00
    3 votes
    51
    San Francisco Botanical Garden

    San Francisco Botanical Garden

    The San Francisco Botanical Garden (formerly Strybing Arboretum) is located in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. Its 55 acres (22.3 ha) include over 50,000 individual plants, representing over 8,000 taxa from around the world, with particular focus on Magnolia species, high elevation palms, and cloud forest species from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia. San Francisco's County Fair Building is located at the entrance to the garden. Plans for the garden were originally laid out in the 1880s by park supervisor John McLaren, but funding was insufficient to begin construction until Helene Strybing left a major bequest in 1927. Planting was begun in 1937 with WPA funds supplemented by local donations, and the arboretum officially opened in May 1940. As a part of Golden Gate Park, it is officially managed by the city of San Francisco, but the San Francisco Botanical Garden Society plays an important role in providing educational programs, managing volunteers, and curatorial staff. Formed in 1955, the San Francisco Botanical Garden Society (formerly the Strybing Arboretum Society) operates the Helen Crocker Russell Library of Horticulture, a bookstore, and monthly plant
    8.00
    3 votes
    52
    Association for Computing Machinery

    Association for Computing Machinery

    • Date founded: 1947
    • Founders: Richard Hamming
    • Sectors: Computer
    The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US based international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947 and is the world's largest and most prestigious scientific and educational computing society. It is non-for-profit professional membership group . Its membership is more than 100,000 as of 2011. Its headquarters are in New York City. ACM and the IEEE Computer Society are the primary US umbrella organizations for academic and scholarly interests in computing. Unlike the IEEE, however, the ACM is solely dedicated to computing. ACM is organized into over 170 local chapters and 35 Special Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 college and university chapters. The first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Many of the SIGs, like SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields. The groups also publish a large number of specialized journals, magazines, and newsletters. ACM also sponsors other computer science related events such as the
    6.75
    4 votes
    53
    Chi Upsilon Sigma

    Chi Upsilon Sigma

    • Date founded: 1980-04-29
    Chi Upsilon Sigma (ΧΥΣ) — official name is Corazones Unidos Siempre (Hearts United Always) — is a Latina oriented Greek letter intercollegiate sorority. Chi Upsilon Sigma was founded on April 29, 1980, at the New Brunswick Campus of Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The sorority was officially added to the Rutgers University Greek community on March 11, 1981. Its Founders are seven Latinas. The sorority is a member of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO). Corazones Unidos Siempre founding mothers (With the guidance of Ramonita Santiago): Alpha Rutgers University - New Brunswick New Brunswick, NJ Beta Originally NJIT, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Current: Metro Chapter- Bloomfield College and Rutgers University - Newark, Newark, NJ Gamma Seton Hall University South Orange, NJ Delta The College of New Jersey Ewing, NJ Epsilon Rutgers University - Camden Camden, NJ Zeta St. Peter's College / New Jersey City University Jersey City, NJ Eta Temple University Philadelphia, PA Theta Kutztown University Kutztown, PA Iota Bloomsburg University Bloomsburg, PA Kappa Montclair State University Montclair, NJ Lambda Rowan University Glassboro,
    6.75
    4 votes
    54
    Long Now Foundation

    Long Now Foundation

    • Date founded: 1996
    • Founders: Danny Hillis
    The Long Now Foundation, established in 1996, is a private, non-profit 501(c)(3) organization based in San Francisco that seeks to become the seed of a very long-term cultural institution. It aims to provide a counterpoint to what it views as today's "faster/cheaper" mindset and to promote "slower/better" thinking. The Long Now Foundation hopes to "creatively foster responsibility" in the framework of the next 10,000 years, and so uses 5-digit dates to address the Year 10,000 problem (e.g. by writing 02012 rather than 2012). The Foundation has several ongoing projects, including a 10,000-year clock known as the Clock of the Long Now, the Rosetta Project, the Long Bet Project, the open source Timeline Tool (also known as Longviewer), the Long Server and a monthly seminar series. The purpose of the Clock of the Long Now is to construct a timepiece that will operate with minimum human intervention for ten millennia. It is to be constructed of durable materials, to be easy to repair, and to be made of largely valueless materials in case knowledge of the Clock is lost or it is deemed to be of no value to an individual or possible future civilization; in this way it is hoped that the
    6.75
    4 votes
    55
    World Food Programme

    World Food Programme

    • Sectors: International Health
    The World Food Programme (WFP) (Italian: Programma Alimentare Mondiale) is the food assistance branch of the United Nations, and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger worldwide. WFP provides food, on average, to 90 million people per year, 58 million of whom are children. From its headquarters in Rome and more than 80 country offices around the world, WFP works to help people who are unable to produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee. The WFP was first established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Conference, when George McGovern, director of the US Food for Peace Programmes, proposed establishing a multilateral food aid programme. WFP was formally established in 1963 by the FAO and the United Nations General Assembly on a three-year experimental basis. In 1965, the programme was extended to a continuing basis. The WFP is governed by an Executive Board which consists of representatives from 36 member states. Ertharin Cousin is the current Executive Director, appointed jointly by the UN Secretary General and the
    6.75
    4 votes
    56
    Carnegie Institution for Science

    Carnegie Institution for Science

    • Date founded: 1902
    • Founders: Andrew Carnegie
    The Carnegie Institution for Science (also called the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW)) is an organization in the United States established to support scientific research. Today the CIW directs its efforts in six main areas: plant molecular biology at the Department of Plant Biology (Stanford, California), developmental biology at the Department of Embryology (Baltimore, Maryland), global ecology at the Department of Global Ecology (Stanford, CA), Earth science, materials science, and astrobiology at the Geophysical Laboratory (Washington, DC); Earth and planetary sciences as well as astronomy at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (Washington, DC), and (at the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW; Pasadena, CA and Las Campanas, Chile)). As of June 30, 2011, the Carnegie Institution of Science had assets of $851 million and net external revenue of 53$ million. Expenses for scientific programs and administration was $91.4 million "It is proposed to found in the city of Washington, an institution which...shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage investigation, research, and discovery [and] show the application of knowledge to the
    9.00
    2 votes
    57
    Conférence Olivaint

    Conférence Olivaint

    The Conférence Olivaint is the oldest, and one of the most private French student societies, established in 1875. Its aim is to educate its members for public life. As its name would indicate, its main activity is organizing weekly conferences with notable characters of French public life. It is made up of young people under 30 (branche Jeunes) and an alumni branch (branche Anciens). Named after Father Pierre Olivaint, a French priest martyred during the Paris Commune, the Conference was founded by the Jesuits. At first, the goal was for members to infiltrate the political world of the nascent French Third Republic. After World War I, the Conference opened up and became a forum for men of all stripes such as Georges Bidault, Pierre Mendès-France or Robert Schuman. During World War II, all members joined the fight, half on the side of the Resistance, and half as collaborators. After the war, the majority of members leaned toward Christian democracy and were strongly pro-European. In 1968, the Conference was secularized under the presidency of Laurent Fabius (youth branch) and Hervé de Charette (alumni branch). During the 1980s, many young people were recruited into François
    9.00
    2 votes
    58
    Metropolitan Museum of Art

    Metropolitan Museum of Art

    • Date founded: 1870
    The Metropolitan Museum of Art (colloquially The Met), located in New York City, is the largest art museum in the United States with among the most significant art collections. Its permanent collection contains more than two million works, divided among nineteen curatorial departments. The main building, located on the eastern edge of Central Park along Manhattan's Museum Mile, is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. There is also a much smaller second location at "The Cloisters" in Upper Manhattan that features medieval art. Represented in the permanent collection are works of art from classical antiquity and Ancient Egypt, paintings and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met also maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanic, Byzantine, and Islamic art. The museum is also home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Met's galleries. The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded
    9.00
    2 votes
    59
    QEBH

    QEBH

    QEBH is a senior honor society at the University of Missouri. Founded in 1897, it is the oldest of six recognized secret honor societies on campus. The society was founded in November 1897 by eight men. They were Royall Hill Switzer, Thomas Benton Marbut, Gurry Ellsworth Huggins, William Frank Wilson, Clarence Martin Jackson, Horace Beckley Williams, Antoine Edward Russell, and Galius Lawton Zwick. Royall Hill Switzer organized the first class of the society, and he is therefore credited as being the founder of the QEBH. The introduction of class societies to the Missouri campus is generally attributed to Luther DeFoe, an 1881 graduate and then junior member of the faculty. Defoe was a primary organizer and inspiration for a chapter of Theta Nu Epsilon at Missouri in 1895, and he played an advisory role to the founders of QEBH as well. QEBH's workings, purposes and affairs are known only to its members. The underlying idea of the society is to bring together a few men of recognized standing among their fellows, men who have been long enough on the campus to be in sympathy with the whole body of students, and sufficiently broad and advanced in spirit to take the viewpoint of Alma
    9.00
    2 votes
    60
    Sigma Phi Delta

    Sigma Phi Delta

    • Date founded: 1924-04-11
    Sigma Phi Delta (ΣΦΔ) is an international professional and social fraternity of engineers. Billing itself as "The Premier International Fraternity of Engineers", the organization is the only fraternity of its kind that draws its membership exclusively from male engineering students at ABET-accredited colleges and universities, as other similar organizations are co-ed or admit students not strictly in traditional engineering programs (such as architecture or technical sciences). Sigma Phi Delta enjoys a close working relationship with its female counterpart, ΑΩΕ - Alpha Omega Epsilon. The Object of the Sigma Phi Delta Fraternity shall be to promote the advancement of the Engineering Profession; to foster the advancement of Engineering Education; to instill a greater spirit of cooperation among Engineering students and organizations; to inculcate in its members the highest ideals of Virtuous manhood, good Citizenship, obedience to Law, and Brotherhood; and to encourage excellence in Scholarship. The Code of Ethics of Sigma Phi Delta is founded upon the basic principles of truth and honesty. The quotation, "Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest," should be the light
    9.00
    2 votes
    61
    U.S. Federal Communications Commission

    U.S. Federal Communications Commission

    • Sectors: Content rating
    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government, created by Congressional statute (see 47 U.S.C. § 151 and 47 U.S.C. § 154), and with the majority of its commissioners appointed by the current President. The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, competition, the spectrum, the media, public safety and homeland security. The Commission is also in the process of modernizing itself. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. possessions. The FCC also provides varied degrees of cooperation, oversight, and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America. The FCC is funded entirely by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2011 budget of US$335.8 million and a proposed fiscal-2012 budget of $354.2 million. It has 1,898 federal employees. The FCC's mission, specified in section one of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (amendment to 47 U.S.C. §151) is to "make available so far as possible, to all the
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Zeta Sigma Chi

    Zeta Sigma Chi

    • Date founded: 1991-03-03
    Zeta Sigma Chi (ΖΣΧ), (also known as Z-Chi, pronounced "Zee-Kaii") was founded on March 3, 1991 at the Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois. The eight women who founded Zeta Sigma Chi, known as the "Mommy Chi's," envisioned a sisterhood that would unite all women of diverse backgrounds and encourage sisters to achieve success in higher education and careers. As one of the oldest established intercollegiate multicultural sisterhood in the nation, Zeta Sigma Chi is proud of its ability to provide a strong open-minded organization to its members and the community. The sorority believes in maintaining a true sisterhood that is accepting of one another no matter what their differences are. Members of Zeta Sigma Chi are genuine and successful in their attempts to spread multiculturalism and sisterhood to others in the community, and on a global scale. As a steadily growing organization, Zeta Sigma Chi offers members not only a strong support network and system, but also an active National Board and Alumnae Association. The idea of combining the principles of Education, Success, Culture, Service, and Sisterhood to make an impact in the lives of every woman as well as the
    9.00
    2 votes
    63
    National Museum of African Art

    National Museum of African Art

    • Founders: Warren M. Robbins
    The National Museum of African Art is an African art museum located in Washington, D.C., United States. The museum is one of nineteen under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum, which was started in 1964, was originally located at the Frederick Douglass House in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Washington, D.C. In 1979 the museum was transferred over to the Smithsonian and relocated to the National Mall. It opened in its current location, as one of two institutions, mostly underground, in the quadrangle complex behind the Smithsonian Institution Building (the Castle), in 1987. In 1964, Warren M. Robbins founded the Museum of African Art. It was a privately funded African art museum at the Frederick Douglass House, in Washington, D.C. Robbins owned the building. Robbins, who was a former American Foreign Services officer, was the first museum director. The museum showcased traditional African art and had educational programs about African art and culture. The museum consisted of nine row homes with twelve galleries, a library and a small auditorium. Robbins, who collected African art while serving overseas, sought to "foster an understanding African art in the U.S."
    5.80
    5 votes
    64
    Internet Engineering Task Force

    Internet Engineering Task Force

    • Date founded: 1986-01-16
    The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standards bodies and dealing in particular with standards of the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements. All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors; for instance, the current chairperson is funded by VeriSign and the U.S. government's National Security Agency. The IETF is organized into a large number of working groups and informal discussion groups (BoF)s, each dealing with a specific topic. Each group is intended to complete work on that topic and then disband. Each working group has an appointed chairperson (or sometimes several co-chairs), along with a charter that describes its focus, and what and when it is expected to produce. It is open to all who want to participate, and holds discussions on an open mailing list or at IETF meetings, where the entry fee is currently around USD $650 per person. The mailing list consensus is the primary basis for decision of-making. There is no voting
    7.67
    3 votes
    65
    Kappa Psi Kappa

    Kappa Psi Kappa

    • Date founded: 2001-08-17
    Kappa Psi Kappa (ΚΨΚ) is a non-profit, non-collegiate fraternal service and social organization for men of all colors and sexual preferences. The fraternity was established on August 17, 2001 in Tallahassee, Florida. Since the fraternity's founding, the membership has grown continuously. The fraternity has over 200 members in the United States. The national publication of Kappa Psi Kappa is called Apollo's Dreams and is published quarterly. Kappa Psi Kappa celebrated its 10th anniversary on August 17, 2011. Kappa Psi Kappa was founded by five men; D. Sean Benjamin, Vermeil Haynes, Rollen Scarborro, and John Manual. in Tallahassee, FL on the campus of Florida State University. They were known as the Illustrious Elite. In the summer of 2001, these men set out and started to organize the foundation of the fraternity based upon promoting the high ideals of brotherhood, scholarship, service and leadership. The fraternity was incorporated under the Articles of Corporation in the State of Florida on October 3, 2001. In the Spring of 2002 the fifth and final Founder, Robert Smith would join the Organization and start it on a path of success and continuity. Today, Kappa Psi Kappa
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    National Museum of Natural History

    National Museum of Natural History

    The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States. With free admission and open doors 364 days a year, it is the most visited natural history museum in the world. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an overall area of 1.5 million square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space. In total, the museum has the space of 18 football fields and houses over 1000 employees. The museum's collections total over 126 million specimens of plants, animals, fossils, minerals, rocks, meteorites, and human cultural artifacts. With 7.4 million visitors in 2009, it is the most visited of all of the Smithsonian museums that year and is also home to about 185 professional natural history scientists — the largest group of scientists dedicated to the study of natural and cultural history in the world. The United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    National Museum of the American Indian

    National Museum of the American Indian

    • Founders: George Gustav Heye
    The National Museum of the American Indian is a museum operated under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution that is dedicated to the life, languages, literature, history, and arts of the native Americans of the Western Hemisphere. It has three facilities: the National Museum of the American Indian on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., which opened on September 21, 2004, on Fourth Street and Independence Avenue, Southwest; the George Gustav Heye Center, a permanent museum in New York City; and the Cultural Resources Center, a research and collections facility in Suitland, Maryland. Following controversy over Native leaders' discovery that the Smithsonian Institution held more than 12,000-18,000 Indian remains, mostly in storage, the museum was established by an act of Congress in 1989, Public Law 101-185 - the National Museum of the American Indian Act, as "a living memorial to Native Americans and their traditions". The creation of the museum brought together the collections of the Museum of the American Indian in New York City, founded in 1922, and the Smithsonian Institution. The National Museum of the American Indian Act also required that human remains, funerary
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Peggy Guggenheim Collection

    Peggy Guggenheim Collection

    The Peggy Guggenheim Collection is a modern art museum on the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. The museum was originally the private collection of the American heiress Peggy Guggenheim, who began displaying the artworks to the public seasonally in 1951. After her death in 1979. it passed to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, which eventually opened the collection year-round. The collection is housed in the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, an 18th century palace, which was Guggenheim's home. The collection is principally based on the personal art collection of Peggy Guggenheim, a former wife of artist Max Ernst and a niece of the mining magnate, Solomon R. Guggenheim. She collected the artworks mostly between 1938 and 1946, buying works in Europe "in dizzying succession" as World War II began, and later in America, where she discovered the talent of Jackson Pollock, among others. The museum "houses an impressive selection of modern art. Its picturesque setting and well-respected collection attract some 400,000 visitors per year." Works on display include those of prominent Italian futurists and American modernists. Pieces in the collection embrace Cubism, Surrealism and Abstract
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Phi Sigma Sigma

    Phi Sigma Sigma

    • Date founded: 1913-11-26
    Phi Sigma Sigma (ΦΣΣ), colloquially known as "Phi Sig," was the first collegiate nonsectarian sorority, welcoming women of all faiths and backgrounds. Founded by 10 women on November 26, 1913, Phi Sigma Sigma is now an international sorority with 60,000 initiated members, 115 collegiate chapters and more than 100 alumnae chapters, clubs and associations across the United States and Canada. The ten young women who founded Phi Sigma Sigma are: Lillian Gordon Alpern, Josephine Ellison Breakstone, Fay Chertkoff, Estelle Melnick Cole, Jeanette Lipka Furst, Ethel Gordon Kraus, Shirley Cohen Laufer, Claire Wunder McArdle, Rose Sher Seidman, and Gwen Zaliels Snyder. Dedicated to the twin ideals of promoting the brotherhood of man and alleviation of the world’s pain, Phi Sigma Sigma strives to instill the values of leadership through service, lifelong learning and social inclusiveness in today’s young women and future leaders. In 1918, Phi Sigma Sigma expanded by founding its Beta chapter at Tufts University in Medford, MA, and the Gamma chapter at New York University, although ironically, both of these chapters are inactive as of today. In November 2009, the Delta chapter, at the
    7.67
    3 votes
    70
    Santa Fe Institute

    Santa Fe Institute

    • Founders: Murray Gell-Mann
    The Santa Fe Institute (SFI) is an independent, nonprofit theoretical research institute located in Santa Fe (New Mexico, United States) and dedicated to the multidisciplinary study of the fundamental principles of complex adaptive systems, including physical, computational, biological, and social systems. The Institute houses a small number of resident faculty, who collaborate with many affiliated and visiting scholars. Although theoretical scientific research is the Institute's primary focus, it hosts a number of complex systems summer schools, internships, and other educational programs throughout the year. The Institute's annual funding is derived primarily from private donors, grant-making foundations, government science agencies, and companies affiliated with its Business Network. The Santa Fe Institute was founded in 1984 by scientists George Cowan, David Pines, Stirling Colgate, Murray Gell-Mann, Nick Metropolis, Herb Anderson, Peter A. Carruthers, and Richard Slansky. All but Pines and Gell-Mann were scientists with Los Alamos National Laboratory. In conceiving of the Institute, the scientists sought a forum to conduct theoretical research outside the traditional
    7.67
    3 votes
    71
    United Nations Security Council

    United Nations Security Council

    • Sectors: Law
    The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action. Its powers are exercised through United Nations Security Council resolutions.The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946 at Church House, Westminster, London. Since its first meeting, the Council, which exists in continuous session, has travelled widely, holding meetings in many cities, such as Paris and Addis Ababa, as well as at its current permanent home at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. There are 15 members of the Security Council, consisting of five veto-wielding permanent members—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—based on the great powers that were the victors of World War II, and 10 elected non-permanent members with two-year terms. This basic structure is set out in Chapter V of the UN Charter. Security Council members must always be present at UN
    7.67
    3 votes
    72
    Committee for Economic Development

    Committee for Economic Development

    The Committee for Economic Development (CED) is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan American think tank based in Washington, DC. Its membership consists of senior corporate executives and university leaders. According to its mission statement, the organization is "dedicated to policy research on the major economic and social issues of our time and the implementation of its recommendations by the public and private sectors." CED was founded in 1942 by a group of business leaders led by Paul G. Hoffman, President of the Studebaker Corporation; William Benton, co-founder of Benton & Bowles advertising firm; and Marion B. Folsom, treasurer of Eastman Kodak Company. CED's first mission was to help the U.S. economy transition from war to peace-time prosperity. At the end of World War II, CED played a key role in garnering support among the American business community for the Marshall Plan. CED's work also influenced the Bretton Woods Agreement. In the 1980s, CED became the first national business organization to become actively involved in education policy. Viewing students as future leaders, citizens, and workers, CED saw improving educational outcomes as vital to economic growth.
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Discovery Institute

    Discovery Institute

    • Date founded: 1994
    • Founders: Bruce Chapman
    The Discovery Institute is an American non-profit public policy think tank based in Seattle, Washington, best known for its advocacy of intelligent design. Founded in 1990, the institute describes its purpose as promoting "ideas in the common sense tradition of representative government, the free market and individual liberty." Its Teach the Controversy campaign aims to teach creationist anti-evolution beliefs in United States public high school science courses alongside accepted scientific theories, positing a scientific controversy exists over these subjects. A federal court, along with the majority of scientific organizations, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, say the Institute has manufactured the controversy they want to teach by promoting a false perception that evolution is "a theory in crisis", through incorrectly claiming that it is the subject of wide controversy and debate within the scientific community. In 2005, a federal court ruled that the Discovery Institute pursues "demonstrably religious, cultural, and legal missions", and the institute's manifesto, the Wedge strategy, describes a religious goal: to "reverse the stifling dominance
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Facing History and Ourselves

    Facing History and Ourselves

    Facing History and Ourselves is an international organization that provides professional development services and curricular resources to educators. It was founded in 1976 by Margot Stern Strom and Bill Parsons. It focuses on bringing ethical and moral philosophy to history and social studies classes, particularly regarding issues of racism, civic responsibility and tolerance. Since 1976, Facing History and Ourselves has offered professional development services; curricular resources; and support to secondary school educators and students in the areas of history, social studies, and language arts. The organization is dedicated to helping teachers around the world lead their students in a critical examination of history, with particular focus on genocide and mass violence. In 1976, teacher Margot Stern Strom developed a program that related her work in moral development to the history of the Holocaust. Facing History and Ourselves evolved from classroom experience and a partnership with William Parsons and other colleagues who offered their expertise and support. Facing History deals with the hatreds that exist in the world and how we confront them. By encouraging adolescents to
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    FreeCulture.org

    FreeCulture.org

    Students for Free Culture, formerly known as FreeCulture.org, is an international student organization working to promote free culture ideals, such as cultural participation and access to information. It was inspired by the work of former Stanford, now Harvard, Law professor Lawrence Lessig, who wrote the book Free Culture, and it frequently collaborates with other prominent free culture NGOs, including Creative Commons, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and Public Knowledge. Students for Free Culture has over 30 chapters on college campuses around the world, and a history of grassroots activism. Students for Free Culture is sometimes referred to as "FreeCulture", "the Free Culture Movement", and other variations on the "free culture" theme, but none of those are its official name. It is officially Students for Free Culture, as set for in the new bylaws that were ratified by its chapters on October 1, 2007, which changed its name from FreeCulture.org to Students for Free Culture. Students for Free Culture has stated its goals in a "manifesto": The mission of the Free Culture movement is to build a bottom-up, participatory structure to society and culture, rather than a top-down,
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    Phi Kappa Pi

    Phi Kappa Pi

    • Date founded: 1913-06-13
    Phi Kappa Pi (ΦΚΠ) is an American Local Sorority with its founding chapter located in Geneseo, New York. It has 35 active members. The Alpha Clionian Sorority, or Phi Kappa Pi, was founded in 1872 as a literary society at what was then the Geneseo Normal School, a small teaching college in upstate NY. Clio was the first social organization at SUNY Geneseo. Clio was a sister organization to the Delphic Society for men (now Delta Kappa Tau Fraternity). Around 1902 Clio took on the Greek letters Phi Kappa Pi. Clio was one of the original members of the SUNY Geneseo Inter-Greek Council when it was established in 1915, along with Delphic, Agonian, Arethusa, and Phi Alpha. Clio's colors are Gold and White and its symbol is the Daisy. Before the 1953 ban on Nationally affiliated Greek Organizations by the SUNY system Clio had 10 chapters throughout the Northeast. Beta Clionian- SUNY Oneonta, in 1890 women petitioned the Clionian society to start a Beta chapter which became very close to the Beta chapter of the Delphic Fraternity. In 1946 they then became Beta Xi chapter of Alpha Sigma Alpha National Sorority, after the ban on Nationals in 1953 they returned to being Beta Clio until they
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Australian Red Cross

    Australian Red Cross

    • Date founded: 1914
    The Australian Red Cross is one of the many international Red Cross societies around the world. The Australian organisation was established in 1914, nine days after the commencement of World War I, by Karen Tenenbaum, when she formed a branch of the British Red Cross. The organisation grew at a rapid rate. Lady Andrea wrote to the mayors of every shire and municipality in Australia asking them to initiate a local branch. Few failed to act on her suggestion. Typically, a letter was published in the local newspaper and a meeting called. By November 1914, New South Wales had 88 city or suburban branches and 249 country branches, all established within the previous four months. The Society was accepted by the community from the beginning. Much of the World War I home front activities such as knitting socks and rolling bandages was done by local Red Cross branches. The passion and commitment of the volunteers is widely acknowledged as they rise to every natural disaster or personal crisis they have come across and been faced with, from fire to flood or drought. Today there are more than 60,000 trained volunteers and the entire Australian Red Cross program is funded by public donations
    6.50
    4 votes
    78
    Bentley College

    Bentley College

    • Date founded: 1917
    Bentley University is a private co-educational university in Waltham, Massachusetts, 10 miles (16 km) west of Boston. Founded in 1917 as a school of accounting and finance in Boston's Back Bay neighborhood, Bentley moved to Waltham in 1968. In late 2010, Bentley University was ranked one of the top 20 undergraduate business schools by Business Week and was ranked #6 in Best Career/Job Placement Services by Princeton Review. As a business university, Bentley University's mission is to create new knowledge within and across business and the arts and sciences and to educate creative, ethical, and socially responsible organizational leaders. Bentley University provides a focused undergraduate business curriculum with bachelor of science degrees in 11 business fields and bachelor of arts degrees in six arts and sciences disciplines. The graduate school emphasizes the impact of technology on business practice and offers PhD programs in Business and Accountancy, the Bentley MBA with 16 areas of concentration, an integrated MS+MBA, seven Master of Science degrees, and custom executive education programs. Bentley University was founded in 1917 as the Bentley School of Accounting and Finance
    6.50
    4 votes
    79
    Spanish Navy

    Spanish Navy

    The Spanish Navy (Spanish: Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world. The Armada is responsible for notable achievements in world history such as the discovery of Americas, the first world circumnavigation, and the discovery of a maritime path from the East Asia to America across the Pacific Ocean. For three centuries the Spanish Navy played a crucial defensive and logistical role within the Spanish Empire. It formed part of a vast trade network that sailed the Pacific from Asia to America and the Atlantic from America to Europe escorting the galleon convoys. The Spanish Navy was the most powerful maritime force in the world in the 16th and early 17th centuries, but the political and economic decline of Habsburg Spain caused it to be eclipsed by the rising Dutch, English, and French navies. Wide-ranging reforms under the new Bourbon dynasty reversed this decline in the 18th century, for much of which Spain possessed the world's third-largest navy and, by combining with the allied Marine royale, rivaled Britain for naval supremacy until Trafalgar. As of 2010, the Armada has 25,000 personnel, and the
    6.50
    4 votes
    80
    The Coca-Cola Company

    The Coca-Cola Company

    • Date founded: 1892
    • Founders: John Pemberton
    The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is an American multinational beverage corporation and manufacturer, retailer and marketer of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. The company is best known for its flagship product Coca-Cola, invented in 1886 by pharmacist John Stith Pemberton in Columbus, Georgia. The Coca-Cola formula and brand was bought in 1889 by Asa Candler who incorporated The Coca-Cola Company in 1892. Besides its namesake Coca-Cola beverage, Coca-Cola currently offers more than 500 brands in over 200 countries or territories and serves over 1.7 billion servings each day. The company operates a franchised distribution system dating from 1889 where The Coca-Cola Company only produces syrup concentrate which is then sold to various bottlers throughout the world who hold an exclusive territory. The Coca-Cola Company owns its anchor bottler in North America, Coca-Cola Refreshments. The company is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Its stock is listed on the NYSE and is part of DJIA, S&P 500 Index, the Russell 1000 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index. Its current chairman and chief executive is Muhtar Kent. The company has a long history of
    6.50
    4 votes
    81
    Delta Upsilon

    Delta Upsilon

    • Date founded: 1834-11-04
    Delta Upsilon (ΔΥ) is the sixth oldest international, all-male, college Greek-letter organization, is the oldest non-secret fraternity in North America, and is the only international fraternity that is nonsecret. Founded on November 4, 1834, at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, Delta Upsilon has initiated over 125,000 men into its brotherhood since its founding. Late in the fall of 1834, ten juniors, ten sophomores, and ten freshmen came together in opposition to the activities of the two secret societies on the Williams campus. A meeting was called for the evening of November 4, in the Freshman Recitation Room of Old West College, a Williams College dormitory that still stands today. Within four years, the ideals of an anti-secret brotherhood based on merit spread rapidly, and groups were set up at Union College in 1838, Middlebury College in 1845, and Hamilton College and Amherst College both in 1847. Today, there are 76 DU chapters and colonies across the United States and Canada. Among its members, Delta Upsilon includes James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States; Joseph P. Kennedy, Ambassador to Great Britain and father of two senators and a
    5.60
    5 votes
    82
    Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden

    Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden

    The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden is an art museum beside the National Mall, in Washington, D.C., the United States. The museum was initially endowed during the 1960s with the permanent art collection of Joseph H. Hirshhorn. It was designed by architect Gordon Bunshaft and is part of the Smithsonian Institution. It was conceived as the United States' museum of contemporary and modern art and currently focuses its collection-building and exhibition-planning mainly on the post–World War II period, with particular emphasis on art made during the last 50 years. Notable artists in the collection include: Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Mary Cassatt, Thomas Eakins, Henry Moore, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Franz Kline, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, John Chamberlain, Francis Bacon, Willem de Kooning, Milton Avery, Ellsworth Kelly, Louise Nevelson, Arshile Gorky, Edward Hopper, Larry Rivers, and Raphael Soyer among others. Outside the museum is a sculpture garden, featuring works by artists including Auguste Rodin, David Smith, Alexander Calder, Jeff Koons and others. The building itself is as much of an attraction as anything inside, likened by many to a large
    8.50
    2 votes
    83
    National Museum of American History

    National Museum of American History

    The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, political, cultural, scientific and military history. Among the items on display are the original Star-Spangled Banner and Archie Bunker's chair. The museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. The museum first opened in 1964 as the Museum of History and Technology. The building was one of the last structures designed by renowned architectural firm McKim Mead & White. In 1980, the museum was renamed The National Museum of American History to better represent a refocused mission: the collection, care, study, and interpretation of objects that reflect the experience of the American people. The museum announced in May, 2012, that John Gray would serve as director of the museum. The museum underwent an $85 million renovation from September 5, 2006 to November 21, 2008, during which time it was closed. Skidmore, Owings and Merrill provided the architecture and interior design services for the renovation. Major changes made during the
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    World Federalist Movement

    World Federalist Movement

    The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with member and associate organizations around the world. The WFM International Secretariat is based in New York City across from the United Nations headquarters. The organization was created in 1947 by those concerned that the structure of the new United Nations was too similar to the League of Nations which had failed to prevent World War II, both being loosely structured associations of sovereign nation-states, with few autonomous powers. Supporters continue to advocate the establishment of a global federalist system of strengthened and accountable global institutions with plenary constitutional power and a division of international authority among separate global agencies. The Movement has had Special Consultative Status with the ECOSOC since 1970 and is affiliated with the UN Department of Public Information (DPI) and a current board member of the Conference of NGOs (CONGO). It currently counts 30,000 to 50,000 supporters. In the aftermath of World Wars I & II, activists around the world were forming organizations bent on creating a new world order that could prevent another global war. The Campaign for World
    8.50
    2 votes
    85
    Alpha Gamma Rho

    Alpha Gamma Rho

    • Date founded: 1904
    • Sectors: Agriculture
    Alpha Gamma Rho (ΑΓΡ) is a social-professional fraternity in the United States, currently with 70 university chapters. The fraternity considers the Morrill Act of 1862 to be the instrument of its inception. Having been signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862, it provided land and other financial supports to establish one institution of higher learning in the agricultural and mechanical sciences within each state. Alpha Gamma Rho, referred to as "AGR", was founded when two local fraternities from Ohio State University (Alpha Gamma Rho, founded 1904) and the University of Illinois (Delta Rho Sigma, founded in 1906) met at an International Livestock Competition in Chicago. Sixteen men originally signed the fraternity's charter at the Claypool Hotel in Indianapolis on April 4, 1908. Expansion increased dramatically over the next three decades to almost all land-grant universities in the country. The first chapter at a non-land-grant university was chartered in 1958 at Arizona State University.
    7.33
    3 votes
    86
    American Historical Association

    American Historical Association

    • Sectors: History
    The American Historical Association (AHA) is the oldest and largest society of historians and professors of history in the United States. Founded in 1884, the association promotes historical studies, the teaching of history, and the preservation of and access to historical materials. It publishes The American Historical Review five times a year, with scholarly articles and book reviews. The AHA is the major organization for historians working in the United States, while the Organization of American Historians is the major organization for historians who study and teach about the United States. The group received a congressional charter in 1889, establishing it "for the promotion of historical studies, the collection and preservation of historical manuscripts, and for kindred purposes in the interest of American history, and of history in America." As an umbrella organization for the profession, the AHA works with other major historical organizations and acts as a public advocate for the field. Within the profession, the association defines ethical behavior and best practices, particularly through its "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" The AHA also develops standards
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Bank for International Settlements

    Bank for International Settlements

    • Founders: Owen Young
    The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international organization of central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks." Like all international bodies, and because many central banks are independent institutions, it is not accountable to any single national government. The BIS carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts, and through its annual General Meeting of all member banks. It also provides banking services, but only to central banks and other international organizations. It is based in Basel, Switzerland, with representative offices in Hong Kong and Mexico City. The BIS was established by an intergovernmental agreement in 1930, the founding States being Germany, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Italy, Japan and Switzerland. The Bank was originally intended to facilitate reparation payments imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after the First World War. The need to establish a dedicated institution for this purpose was suggested in 1929 by the Young Committee, and was agreed to in August of that year at a conference at the Hague. A charter for
    7.33
    3 votes
    88
    Barnes Foundation of Philadelphia

    Barnes Foundation of Philadelphia

    • Date founded: 1922
    • Founders: Albert C. Barnes
    The Barnes Foundation is an American educational art and horticultural institution with locations in Merion, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, and Logan Square, Philadelphia. It was founded in 1922 by Albert C. Barnes, a chemist who collected art after making a fortune by co-developing an early anti-gonorrhea drug marketed as Argyrol and selling his company at the right time, before antibiotics came into use. Today, the foundation possesses more than 2,500 objects, including 800 paintings, estimated to be worth about $25 billion. These are primarily works by Impressionist and Modernist masters, but the collection includes many other paintings by leading European and American artists, as well as ancient works from other cultures. In the 1990s, the foundation became embroiled in controversy due to a financial crisis, partially related to longstanding visitor restrictions imposed by the original trust and to the location of its facility in a residential neighborhood. The foundation subsequently decided to relocate the collection, a decision that survived court challenges. Its move from Merion to a site in downtown Philadelphia, on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway for enhanced
    7.33
    3 votes
    89
    California Academy of Sciences

    California Academy of Sciences

    The California Academy of Sciences is among the largest museums of natural history in the world. The academy began in 1853 as a learned society and still carries out a large amount of original research, with exhibits and education becoming significant endeavors of the museum during the 20th century. Completely rebuilt in 2008, the building totals 400,000 square feet (37,000 square metres) and is among the newest natural history museums in the United States. The primary building in Golden Gate Park reopened on September 27, 2008. Prior to being replaced, the old academy building attracted approximately half a million visitors each year. As has been the case from the start, the main thrust of the exhibits is natural history. As such, the public areas of the academy are divided into three general areas. The academy conducts research in numerous fields, largely, but not exclusively, in anthropology, marine biology, botany, entomology, herpetology, ichthyology, invertebrate zoology, mammalogy, and ornithology, all branches of biology. Geological research also has a long history at the academy, with a concentration on paleontology. There also is a strong emphasis on environmental
    7.33
    3 votes
    90
    Lambda Theta Delta

    Lambda Theta Delta

    • Date founded: 1983-03-02
    Lambda Theta Delta (ΛΘΔ), also known as LTDs, is an Asian-Interest Fraternity established in 1983 at the University of California, Irvine. Lambda Theta Delta is the first Asian-American Interest Fraternity to be founded at the University of California, Irvine. On February 17, 1982, a group of close friends started a club at the University of California, Irvine called LTD which held dances and parties on campus. LTD was created initially to fill a previously vacant niche at the University, which at the time, had no organizations on campus to unite the rapidly growing, yet ethnically segregated Asian American student community. As the friendships grew stronger between the members of LTD, four men decided to set forth and charter the first Asian-interest fraternity on campus. On March 3, 1983, Lambda Theta Delta was founded by four founding fathers: Eddie Chang, Steve Chiu, Carson Hsieh, and Paul Woo. The organization is dedicated to the personal development of each individual member, fostering the ideals of friendship, leadership, scholarship, service, and cultural awareness. Since its inception at the University of California, Irvine over two decades ago, Lambda Theta Delta has
    7.33
    3 votes
    91
    NetScreen Technologies

    NetScreen Technologies

    NetScreen provided a family of network/Internet security solutions that integrate firewall, VPN encryption and traffic management functionality all on a single, dedicated ASIC-based hardware platform.
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    Phi Sigma Phi

    Phi Sigma Phi

    • Date founded: 1988-07-30
    Phi Sigma Phi (ΦΣΦ) is a US national fraternity founded on July 30, 1988. There are now 11 chapters of Phi Sigma Phi nationwide. The current National President is Nate Church. The foundation for Phi Sigma Phi stems from the 1985 merger between Phi Sigma Epsilon and Phi Sigma Kappa. After this merger, a small group of Phi Sigma Epsilon alumni and then-current undergraduate college men decided not to participate with the new fraternity, instead electing to form a new national fraternity. Historically, this merger has been discussed as an evolution of ideals and dedication to independence and freedom of choice. On July 30, 1988, in South Bend, Indiana, Phi Sigma Phi National Fraternity®, Inc. was formally organized to serve as a national organization, uniting college men who wished to share in the spirit of true friendship and brotherhood. Leading this small group of Chapters into the formation of a new national fraternity were former Phi Sigma Epsilon Alumni who were elected to serve as Phi Sigma Phi's first National Council: In addition, longtime supporters and former Phi Sigma Epsilon National Presidents Dean Rockwell (1950-1958) and John Sandwell (1978-1984) added their advice and
    7.33
    3 votes
    93
    Sigma Pi

    Sigma Pi

    • Date founded: 1897-02-26
    Sigma Pi (ΣΠ) is an international secret and social collegiate fraternity founded in 1897 at Vincennes University. Sigma Pi Fraternity International currently has 124 chapters and 5 colonies in the United States and Canada and is headquartered in Brentwood, Tennessee. Like most social fraternities, membership is by invitation and limited to men. Currently Sigma Pi has initiated more than 95,000 men and has 6,000 undergraduate members. Andrew, It's a drinking club. Sigma Pi strives to enhance the collegiate experience by building and supporting chapters and alumni organizations for the purpose of maintaining a fellowship of kindred minds united in Brotherhood. Furthermore, Sigma Pi Fraternity is the leading international men's collegiate fraternal organization which provides training, guidance and innovative opportunities for: leadership development, social and personal development, academic achievement, community service, and heightened moral awareness for its brothers throughout their lives. On February 26, 1897 Charlotte N. Mallote, a professor of Latin and French, spoke to a group of students during chapel hour at Vincennes University about College Fraternities. That afternoon,
    7.33
    3 votes
    94
    World Health Organization

    World Health Organization

    • Date founded: 1948-04-07
    • Founders: Brock Chisholm
    • Sectors: International Health
    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations. The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by all 61 countries of the United Nations by 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office International d'Hygiène Publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, WHO has been responsible for playing a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases; sexual and reproductive health, development, and aging; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; substance abuse; and drive the development of reporting, publications, and networking. WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, a leading international
    7.33
    3 votes
    95
    American Library Association

    American Library Association

    • Date founded: 1876
    • Sectors: Library science
    The American Library Association (ALA) is a non-profit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world, with more than 62,000 members. Founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey (Melvil Dui), Fred B. Perkins and Thomas W. Bicknell in 1876 in Philadelphia and chartered in 1879 in Massachusetts, its head office is now in Chicago. During the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, 103 librarians, 90 men and 13 women, responded to a call for a "Convention of Librarians" to be held October 4–6 at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. At the end of the meeting, according to Ed Holley in his essay "ALA at 100," "the register was passed around for all to sign who wished to become charter members," making October 6, 1876 to be ALA's birthday. In attendance were 90 men and 13 women, among them Justin Winsor (Boston Public, Harvard), William Frederick Poole (Chicago Public, Newberry), Charles Ammi Cutter (Boston Athenaeum), Melvil Dewey, and Richard Rogers Bowker. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from
    6.25
    4 votes
    96
    Alpha Pi Lambda

    Alpha Pi Lambda

    • Date founded: 1935-03-03
    Alpha Pi Lambda (ΑΠΛ) is a local, social, Greek-letter, college fraternity. It was founded at Drexel University in the United States on March 3, 1935. It was re-established in April 2006. It is commonly called Apple Pi. In 1934 enrollment of male students at Drexel Institute increased. Only two fraternities existed on campus; Theta Chi established in 1927 and Tau Kappa Epsilon established 1919,. A group of men was not satisfied with their choices and established Alpha Pi Lambda on March 3, 1935. The fraternity itself was "dedicated to eliminate all prejudices and develop character in its members." During the first few years, the primary aim of the fraternity was to gain recognition on campus and insure its permanence. Over a four year period the fraternity outgrew two houses and in 1939 the brothers of Alpha Pi Lambda moved into their current house on the corner of 33rd and Powelton Avenue. In 1941 many brothers left to fight in the Second World War. Despite this the brotherhood reached its highest number in the fall and winter of 1942 and 1943. In the spring of 1943 most of the brothers again joined the Armed Forces. Their absence made it seem like the fraternity would shut down.
    7.00
    3 votes
    97
    Library and Archives Canada

    Library and Archives Canada

    • Date founded: 2004
    Library and Archives Canada (in French: Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a federal memory institution tasked with acquiring, preserving and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible. It combines the functions of the Public Archives of Canada (founded 1872, renamed National Archives of Canada 1987) and the National Library of Canada (founded 1953). Library and Archives Canada (LAC) was created by the Library and Archives of Canada Act (Bill C-8), proclaimed on April 22, 2004. A subsequent order-in-council dated May 21, 2004 united the collections, services and personnel of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada. Since its creation it has reported to Parliament through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. Canada was one of the first countries in the world to combine its national library and its national archives into a single memory institution. As stated in the Preamble of the Library and Archives of Canada Act, LAC's mandate is: One of its important roles includes serving as the continuing memory of the Government of Canada and its institutions by supporting accurate record keeping ensuring transparency and accountability. As part of its mandate,
    7.00
    3 votes
    98
    North American Free Trade Agreement

    North American Free Trade Agreement

    • Date founded: 1994-01-01
    • Founders: George H. W. Bush
    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded the Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. and Canada. In terms of combined GDP of its members, as of 2010 the trade bloc is the largest in the world. NAFTA has two supplements: the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC). Following diplomatic negotiations dating back to 1986 among the three nations, the leaders met in San Antonio, Texas, on December 17, 1992, to sign NAFTA. U.S. President George H. W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos Salinas, each responsible for spearheading and promoting the agreement, ceremonially signed it. The agreement then needed to be ratified by each nation's legislative or parliamentary branch. Before the negotiations were finalized, Bill Clinton came into office in the U.S. and Kim Campbell in Canada, and before the agreement became law, Jean Chrétien had taken
    7.00
    3 votes
    99
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    • Date founded: 1949-04-04
    • Founders: Harry S. Truman
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO ( /ˈneɪtoʊ/ NAY-toh; French: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN)), also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the world's defence spending. For its first few years, NATO was not much more than a political association. However, the Korean War galvanized the member states, and an integrated military structure was built up under the direction of two U.S. supreme commanders. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. The
    7.00
    3 votes
    100
    Sigma Psi Zeta

    Sigma Psi Zeta

    Sigma Psi Zeta (ΣΨΖ), a Multicultural, Asian-Interest sorority, was founded on March 23, 1994 at the University at Albany and incorporated in New York on March 15, 1996 by the 10 Founding Mothers. The sorority's colors are red and gold and its flower is a yellow rose with baby's breath. Sigma Psi Zeta is a cultural, social, educational and community service oriented Greek organization. It stands today as the third largest Asian Interest sorority in the nation. Its philanthropic focus is to combat domestic violence against women in its various forms. On a national level, Sigma Psi Zeta has adopted the New York Asian Women's Center as its adopted shelter. Sigma Psi Zeta currently has active sisterships in the states/commonwealths of California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Washington, and Washington D.C. It has 26 sisterships across the United States and continues to expand. In the Fall of 1993, a group of undergraduate women came together. These women, hailing from different cultural backgrounds, became close friends. While musing about the state of their campus and their friendships, the idea of
    7.00
    3 votes
    101
    Upsilon Sigma Phi

    Upsilon Sigma Phi

    • Date founded: 1918
    The Upsilon Sigma Phi is the oldest Greek-letter fraternity in Asia . Nebulously formed in 1918. It was formally organized on November 19, 1920 in a meeting held at the Metropolitan Restaurant in Intramuros. Four months later, on March 24, 1921, the Greek letters ΥΣΦ standing for the initials of the name "University Students Fraternity" was formally adopted. In the same year, the fraternity also completed its organization with rituals prepared by Graciano Q. Rico, motto (We gather light to scatter), colors (cardinal red, old blue). The head is known as the Illustrious Fellow and the first honorary fellow, University Regent Conrado Benitez, was inducted into the Fraternity. He wrote the Upsilon Hymn which later would be sung before and after every formal meeting. The Upsilon branched out to Los Baños, Laguna and established a chapter there. It extended its reign of interest beyond campus, to include national issues of the day, notably the attainment of Philippine independence. During World War II, some members took the field. Among the Upsilonians who gave up their lives were Wenceslao Q. Vinzons (former UP Student Council President, youngest delegate to the 1934 Constitutional
    7.00
    3 votes
    102
    Alpha Chi Omega

    Alpha Chi Omega

    • Date founded: 1885-10-15
    Alpha Chi Omega (ΑΧΩ, also known as A-Chi-O or Alpha Chi) is a women's fraternity founded on October 15, 1885. Currently, there are 135 chapters of Alpha Chi Omegas represented throughout colleges and universities across the United States, and there are more than 200,000 lifetime members. Diane Wilson Blackwelder is currently the National President of Alpha Chi Omega and oversees all collegiate and alumnae chapters in the nation. Alpha Chi Omega's official symbol is the three-stringed lyre. Alpha Chi Omega was formed at DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana on October 15, 1885. In the fall of 1885, Professor James Hamilton Howe, the first Dean of the Music School, invited seven young women from the school to a meeting with the purpose of forming a fraternity. Those young women were Anna Allen, Olive Burnett, Bertha Deniston, Amy DuBois, Nellie Gamble, Bessie Grooms, and Estelle Leonard. Howe himself was not a member of a Greek fraternity, so he consulted with James G. Campbell, a Beta Theta Pi, on the proper procedures for founding a national-based fraternity. Campbell was thus responsible for laying out the first constitution and by-laws. This first constitution read: "The
    6.00
    4 votes
    103
    European Telecommunications Standards Institute

    European Telecommunications Standards Institute

    • Date founded: 1988
    The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent, non-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ETSI has been successful in standardizing GSM cell phone system, TETRA professional mobile radio system, and Short Range Device requirements including LPD radio. Significant ETSI standardisation bodies include TISPAN (for fixed networks and Internet convergence) and M2M (for machine-to-machine communications). ETSI inspired the creation of, and is a partner in, 3GPP. ETSI was created by CEPT in 1988 and is officially recognized by the European Commission and the EFTA secretariat. Based in Sophia Antipolis (France), ETSI is officially responsible for standardization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe. These technologies include telecommunications, broadcasting and related areas such as intelligent transportation and medical electronics. ETSI has 740 members from 62 countries/provinces inside and outside Europe, including manufacturers, network operators, administrations, service providers, research bodies and users — in
    6.00
    4 votes
    104
    Los Angeles Philharmonic

    Los Angeles Philharmonic

    • Date founded: 1919
    • Founders: William Andrews Clark, Jr.
    The Los Angeles Philharmonic (LA Phil, LAP, or LAPO) is an American orchestra based in Los Angeles, California, United States. It has a regular season of concerts from October through June at the Walt Disney Concert Hall, and a summer season at the Hollywood Bowl from July through September. Gustavo Dudamel is the current Music Director, and Esa-Pekka Salonen is Conductor Laureate. Music critics have described the orchestra as the most "contemporary minded", "forward thinking", "talked about and innovative", "venturesome and admired" orchestra in America. According to Salonen, "We are interested in the future. We are not trying to re-create the glories of the past, like so many other symphony orchestras." The orchestra was founded and single-handedly financed in 1919 by William Andrews Clark, Jr., a copper baron, arts enthusiast, and part-time violinist. He originally asked Sergei Rachmaninoff to be the Philharmonic's first music director; however, Rachmaninoff had only recently moved to New York, and he did not wish to move again. Clark then selected Walter Henry Rothwell, former assistant to Gustav Mahler, as music director, and hired away several principal musicians from East
    6.00
    4 votes
    105
    Outright Libertarians

    Outright Libertarians

    • Date founded: 1998
    • Sectors: LGBT rights
    Outright Libertarians is an association in the United States of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and other self-identified "queer" (LGBTQ) people who are active in the Libertarian Party. The group's motto is "From Liberty Springs Equality." Outright Libertarians was created in 1998 by a group of libertarian gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons that wanted to persuade their fellow LGBTQ persons to support a libertarian perspective on gay rights issues, and to support the United States Libertarian Party. It is the third LGBT organization of the Libertarian Party, with the defunct "Libertarians for Gay and Lesbians Concerns" being the first, and the "Gays and Lesbians for Individual Liberty" being largely inactive since 2001. The group supports the Libertarian Party's positions (which have remained the same since the party's first platform in 1972) on including equal marriage and adoption, equal military service, and the end of sodomy laws. Due to its philosophical basis in libertarianism, the organization is often in the position of having to oppose civil rights legislation for involving what it contends are intrusive and unnecessary government regulations into
    6.00
    4 votes
    106
    Apple Inc.

    Apple Inc.

    • Date founded: 1976-04-01
    • Founders: Steve Jobs
    Apple Inc., (NASDAQ: AAPL) formerly Apple Computer Inc., is an American multinational corporation which designs and manufactures consumer electronics and software products. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the iPod and the iPhone. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system, the iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, the iWork suite of productivity software, and Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products. The company operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.
    8.00
    2 votes
    107
    Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

    Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

    • Date founded: 1910
    • Founders: Andrew Carnegie
    The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington, D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, and Brussels. The organization describes itself as being dedicated to advancing cooperation between nations and promoting active international engagement by the United States. Founded in 1910 by Andrew Carnegie, its work is not formally associated with any political party. Andrew Carnegie, like other leading internationalists of his day, believed that war could be eliminated by stronger international laws and organizations. "I am drawn more to this cause than to any," he wrote in 1907. Carnegie's single largest commitment in this field was his creation of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. On his seventy-fifth birthday, November 25, 1910, Andrew Carnegie announced the establishment of the Endowment with a gift of $10 million. In his deed of gift, presented in Washington on December 14, 1910, Carnegie charged trustees to use the fund to "hasten the abolition of international war, the foulest blot upon our civilization," and he gave his trustees "the widest discretion as to the measures and policy they shall from time to time adopt" in
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Finnish National Gallery

    Finnish National Gallery

    Finnish National Gallery (Finnish: Valtion taidemuseo, Swedish: Statens konstmuseum) is the largest art museum institution of Finland. It consists of the Ateneum art museum, the museum of contemporary art, Kiasma, the Sinebrychoff Art Museum and the Central Art Archives. The organization's functions are supported by the conservation department, the administration and services department and Kehys, the art museum development department. The mission of the Finnish National Gallery is to further the cultural heritage of Finnish visual arts, to enforce the significance of visual culture in contemporary times, and to develop the art museum industry. They also maintain and develop Finland's largest collection of art and the knowledge and research archives of their field. The Sinebrychoff Art Museum has foreign paintings by painters such as;Giovanni Boccati,Giovanni Castiglione,Govaert Flinck,Rembrandt,Jan Cook,Goyen,Carl Wilhelm de Hamilton,Lucas Cranach the Elder,Jurgen Ovens,Frans Wouters,Hieronymous Francken the Second,Joshua Reynolds,Antoine Watteau,Francois Boucher,Carl Von Breda,Alexander Roslin,and Jacob Bjorck.It has an appreciable collection of Swedish miniatures.The Ateneum is
    8.00
    2 votes
    109
    Kappa Kappa Kappa

    Kappa Kappa Kappa

    • Date founded: 1842-07-13
    Kappa Kappa Kappa (Tri-Kap) is a local men's fraternity at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The fraternity was founded in 1842 and is the second-oldest fraternity at Dartmouth College. Tri-Kap is the oldest local fraternity in the United States. It is located at 1 Webster Avenue, Hanover, New Hampshire. Despite offers to establish additional branches at other institutions, the brotherhood of Tri-Kap has remained a single-school institution for the duration of its history and is not a chapter of any national organization. Today it is one of the many recognized Dartmouth College Greek organizations. The organization has no affiliation with the post-American Civil War Ku Klux Klan, which formed in 1866, twenty-four years after the founding of Kappa Kappa Kappa, and adopted the Roman-alphabet initials, “KKK”, similar to the Greek letters of Tri-Kap - ΚΚΚ. Dartmouth College was founded by Eleazar Wheelock in 1769 for "the education of the Indian youth, English youth...and any others." Fourteen years later the first student society came into existence, and student societies and the College have been intertwined ever since. For much of the late 18th and early 19th centuries,
    8.00
    2 votes
    110
    KGB

    KGB

    • Date founded: 1954
    • Founders: Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky
    KGB (КГБ) is the commonly used acronym for the Russian:  Комитет государственной безопасности​ (help·info) (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti or Committee for State Security). It was the national security agency of the Soviet Union from 1954 until 1991, and was the premier internal security, intelligence, and secret police organization during that time. The KGB has been considered a military service and was governed by army laws and regulations, similar to the Soviet Army or MVD Internal Troops. While most of the KGB archives remain classified, two on-line documentary sources are available. Since breaking away from Georgia de facto in the early 1990s with Russian help, South Ossetia established its own KGB (keeping this unreformed name). The State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus also uses the acronym KGB. A 1983 Time magazine article reported that the KGB was the world's most effective information-gathering organization. It operated legal and illegal espionage residencies in target countries where a legal resident gathered intelligence while based at the Soviet Embassy or Consulate, and, if caught, was protected from prosecution by diplomatic immunity. At best, the
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    Ohio Ornithological Society

    Ohio Ornithological Society

    • Date founded: 2004
    Welcoming backyard birdwatchers and researchers in the field alike, the Ohio Ornithological Society is the only statewide organization specifically devoted to fostering a deeper appreciation of wild birds, fellowship and collaboration in advancing our collective knowledge about them, and our ability to speak with one voice to preserve Ohio's bird habitats. Source
    8.00
    2 votes
    112
    Princeton Theological Seminary

    Princeton Theological Seminary

    • Date founded: 1812
    • Founders: Archibald Alexander
    Princeton Theological Seminary (PTS) is a seminary in Princeton, New Jersey associated with the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). While Princeton Theological Seminary and Princeton University are separate entities, there is reciprocity for use of certain facilities such as their libraries, student health clinic, as well as cross enrollment in classes. The seminary is one of the world's preeminent and most influential seminaries, with a number of leading theologians and biblical scholars being alumni of the school. It is also home to the largest theological library in the United States. It currently has 540 students and a faculty of 56. Although the roots of Princeton Seminary are in Presbyterianism, less than 40% of the students are candidates for the ministry in the Presbyterian Church; many are candidates for ministry in other denominations, while others are studying toward careers in academia, and still others are pursuing fields less directly related to theology, such as law, medicine, social work, administration and education. The plan to establish a theological seminary in Princeton was in the interests of advancing and extending the theological curriculum. The educational
    8.00
    2 votes
    113
    Rotary International

    Rotary International

    • Date founded: 1905
    • Founders: Paul P. Harris
    Rotary International (also known as the Rotary Club) is an international service club whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian services, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and help build goodwill and peace in the world. It is a secular organization open to all persons regardless of race, colour, creed, religion, gender, or political preference. There are 34,282 clubs and over 1.2 million members worldwide. The members of Rotary Clubs are known as Rotarians. Members usually meet weekly for breakfast, lunch or dinner, which is a social event as well as an opportunity to organize work on their service goals. Rotary's primary motto is "Service above Self"; an earlier motto, "One profits most who serves best". The object of Rotary is to encourage and foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster: This objective is set against the "Rotary 4-way Test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor during the Great Depression as a set of guidelines for
    8.00
    2 votes
    114
    Scintilla Juris Fraternity

    Scintilla Juris Fraternity

    SCINTILLA JURIS is a Latin-named fraternity in the University of the Philippines. SCINTILLA JURIS was founded by fourteen honor students at the University of the Philippines College of Law on October 14, 1966. Literally, scintilla juris means "Spark of Right". The founders chose this name because they wanted to become the spark that would change the fraternity system in UP. One major change introduced by SCINTILLA JURIS is the equality of all members, regardless of age or seniority. This is reflected in the spelling of the name of the fraternity, using only capital letters. The founders of the Fraternity chose three guiding principles that would become the pillars of the Fraternity and its members. These ideals are the "Rule of Law, Intellectual Integrity, and Academic Excellence". Fraternity members swore to spread these ideals throughout the University. The motto of the Fraternity is ¬タワSCINTILLA JURIS, right or wrong! To keep right when right, to set right when wrong".( Justus Avt Pravus Certamus) Membership is limited only to males and by recruitment only. All members are bound by secret oaths. A simple greeting met by another confirms kinship between members.
    8.00
    2 votes
    115
    SuperWASP

    SuperWASP

    SuperWASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) is an international academic organisation performing an ultra-wide angle search for transiting extrasolar planets with the aim of covering the entire sky down to ~15th magnitude. SuperWASP consists of two robotic observatories; SuperWASP-North at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma in the Canaries and WASP-South at the South African Astronomical Observatory, South Africa. Each observatory consists of an array of eight Canon 200 mm f1.8 lenses backed by high quality 2048 x 2048 science grade CCDs, the model used is the iKon-L manufactured by Andor Technology. The telescopes are mounted on an equatorial telescope mount built by Optical Mechanics, Inc.. The large field of view of the Canon lenses gives each observatory a massive sky coverage of just under 500 square degrees per pointing. The observatories continuously monitor the sky, taking a set of images approximately once per minute, gathering up to 100 gigabytes of data per night. By using the transit method, data collected from SuperWASP can be used to measure the brightness of each star in each image, and small dips in brightness caused by large planets passing
    8.00
    2 votes
    116
    Al-Qaeda

    Al-Qaeda

    • Founders: Ayman al-Zawahiri
    al-Qaeda ( /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KY-də; Arabic: القاعدة‎ al-qāʿidah, Arabic: [ælqɑːʕɪdɐ], translation: "The Base" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden at some point between August 1988 and late 1989, with its origins being traceable to the Soviet War in Afghanistan. It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless army and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad and a strict interpretation of sharia law. It has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, and various other countries (see below). Al-Qaeda has carried out several attacks on non-Muslims, and other targets it considers kafir. Al-Qaeda has attacked civilian and military targets in various countries. For example, it carried out the September 11 attacks, 1998 US embassy bombings and the 2002 Bali bombings. The US government responded to the September 11 attacks by launching the War on Terror. With the loss of key leaders, culminating in the death of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's operations have devolved
    9.00
    1 votes
    117
    Pacific Islands Conservation Research Association

    Pacific Islands Conservation Research Association

    The Pacific Islands Conservation Research Association (PICRA) is a U.S. federally recognized 501(c)3 nonprofit organization. PICRA has a mission of advancing knowledge about insular Pacific species, populations, and ecosystems through unbiased scientific investigations. Research focuses on improving knowledge about islands and the conservation issues that insular fauna face. Results from PICRA’s work are intended for use in the development of applied and theoretical solutions to conservation problems. PICRA was formed when several conservation biologists and scientists felt that Pacific island conservation issues could benefit greatly from additional research. PICRA scientists have addressed basic biological research documenting the distribution, behavior, interactions, and population dynamics of species in Pacific Oceania. Additional focus has been placed on studying multi-species interactions and the evolution of islands species. Recent PICRA projects addressed endangered species in the central and south Pacific basins. PICRA supported projects studying coral reef fish and endangered Micronesian Kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus) in the Federated States of Micronesia.
    9.00
    1 votes
    118
    Pi Rho Zeta

    Pi Rho Zeta

    Pi Rho Zeta (ᅫᅠᅫ괘ヨ) is a U.S. all-male academic and social college fraternity recognized by both the State University of New York College of Technology at Alfred, and the college's Greek Senate. The fraternity was founded by seven young men with a desire for something better; each understood that the college experience, while great, was fraught with many challenges. By uniting in academic pursuits, friendship, and trust the brotherhood could aid its members in the quest for excellence. By promoting scholarship, moral fortitude, and fraternity Pi Rho Zeta inspired many young men to aid in this struggle. Pi Rho Zeta has continued to grow in strength of numbers and diverse membership. Although its commitment to diversity started with its founding fathers, the fraternity has continued with this ideal to expand and become one of the most diverse fraternities on campus. In accordance with the fraternity's ideals, its Beta chapter at Cortland was founded in the Spring of 1998, continuing its mission to transcend barriers, both personal and physical. Pi Rho Zeta is an active member of Alfred State College Greek Senate, and many of its brothers have been Executive Board members. Pi
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Sigma Beta Rho

    Sigma Beta Rho

    Sigma Beta Rho Fraternity, Inc. is a Multicultural fraternity, in the United States founded on August 16, 1996 at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. A service and social fraternity, Sigma Beta Rho is the fastest growing fraternity of its kind, stretching across the nation with over 30 chapters, associate chapters and colonies. The fraternity strives to make an impact not only on the campuses of respective chapters, but also in the surrounding communities through various community service activities. The fraternity's goals are to positiviely impact our society, forge a brotherhood between members, and promote cultural understanding and respect. Before Great Honor Comes Great Humility The Alpha Chapter of Sigma Beta Rho was founded on August 16, 1996 at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - the only institution of its kind founded at an Ivy League institution. The founders came together with a vision of an organization for the betterment and preservation of all cultures. They envisioned a Greek-lettered organization to this extent in which membership would remain constant and growing and would facilitate involvement from its alumni members.
    9.00
    1 votes
    120
    Centre for International Governance Innovation

    Centre for International Governance Innovation

    • Date founded: 2002
    • Founders: Jim Balsillie
    The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI, pronounced "see-jee") is a think tank on global governance. Led by experienced practitioners and distinguished academics, CIGI’s stated vision is to strive to be the world’s leading think tank on international governance, with recognized impact on significant global problems. Its core belief is that better international governance can improve the lives of people everywhere, by increasing prosperity, ensuring global sustainability, addressing inequality and promoting a more secure world. CIGI is headquartered in the former Seagram Museum in the uptown district of Waterloo, Ontario. It is situated on the northeast corner of the CIGI Campus, which also houses the CIGI Auditorium and the Balsillie School of International Affairs (BSIA). The establishment of CIGI has been recognized as a major contributor to the growth of a local knowledge economy in the surrounding Waterloo Region, and in 2007, the city of Waterloo was named the world's "Top Intelligent Community." CIGI was founded in 2001 by Research In Motion (RIM) co-CEO Jim Balsillie, following his vision to lay the framework for an institution tasked with helping solve the
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    Hoover Institution

    Hoover Institution

    • Date founded: 1919
    • Founders: Herbert Hoover
    The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank located at Stanford University in California. It is part of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, a library founded in 1919 by Herbert Hoover, Stanford's first student and first alumnus, before he became President of the United States. The library, known as the Hoover Institution Library and Archives, houses multiple archives related to Hoover, World War I, World War II, and other world history. The Hoover Institution is a unit of Stanford University but has its own board of overseers. It is located on the campus. Its mission statement outlines its basic tenets: representative government, private enterprise, peace, personal freedom, and the safeguards of the American system. The Hoover Institution is influential in the American conservative and libertarian movements. The Institution has long been a place of scholarship for high-profile conservatives with government experience. High-profile conservatives Edwin Meese, Condoleezza Rice, George Shultz, Thomas Sowell, Shelby Steele, and Amy Zegart are all Hoover Institution fellows. In 2007 retired U.S. Army General John P. Abizaid, former commander of the
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    Motion Picture Association of America

    Motion Picture Association of America

    • Date founded: 1922
    • Founders: Jack Valenti
    • Sectors: Content rating
    The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is an American trade association that represents the six big Hollywood studios. Founded in 1922 as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), it advances the business interests of its members and administers the MPAA film rating system. Former Democratic Senator Chris Dodd is the current Chairman. As part of its campaign to curb copyright infringement, the MPAA fights against sharing copyrighted works via peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. The MPAA's anti-piracy campaign has gained much publicity and criticism. In 1922, the "Big Three" motion picture studios; Famous Players-Lasky, Metro-Goldwyn and First National founded the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, headed by former U.S. Postmaster General Will H. Hays. In May 1925 Independent Producers Association, together with Motion Picture Theater Owners Of America, accused the "Big Three" for acting as a trust and denounced Hays as their "mouthpiece". In October they filed claims to the Federal Trade Commission, providing a 280-page report detailing "Big Three's" tactics. The "Big three" made a few concessions to quell the critics but the
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Taliban Movement

    Taliban Movement

    • Founders: Abdul Ghani Baradar
    The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎), alternative spelling Taleban, (ṭālibān, meaning "students" in Pashto) is an Islamic fundamentalist militant movement mostly of Pashtun tribesmen. It ruled large parts of Afghanistan and its capital, Kabul, as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until October 2001. It gained diplomatic recognition from three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The main leader of the Taliban movement is Mullah Mohammed Omar, and Kandahar is considered the birthplace of the Taliban. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia law, and leading Muslims have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal repression of women. The majority of their leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism, and many also strictly follow the social and cultural norm called Pashtunwali. From 1995-2001, the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and military are widely alleged by the international community to have provided support to the Taliban. Pakistan has been accused by many international officials of continuing to support the Taliban
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

    • Sectors: Refugee Services
    The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as The UN Refugee Agency is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981. Following the demise of the League of Nations and the formation of the United Nations, the international community was acutely aware of the refugee crisis following the end of World War II. In 1947, the International Refugee Organization(IRO) was founded by the United Nations. The IRO was the first international agency to deal comprehensively with all aspects pertaining to refugees' lives. Preceding this was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, which was established in 1944 to address the millions of people displaced across Europe as a result of World War II. In the late 1940s, the IRO fell out of favor, but the United Nations agreed that a body was required to oversee
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    African Union

    African Union

    • Founders: Muammar al-Gaddafi
    The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other official languages) is a union consisting of 54 African states. The only all-African state not in the AU is Morocco. Established on 9 July 2002, the AU was formed as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Among the objectives of the AU's leading institutions are: The African Union is made up of both political and administrative bodies. The highest decision-making organ is the Assembly of the African Union, made up of all the heads of state or government of member states of the AU. The Assembly is chaired by Yayi Boni, president of Benin, elected at the 18ordinary meeting of the Assembly in January 2012. The AU also has a representative body, the Pan African Parliament, which consists of 265 members elected by the national parliaments of the AU member states. Its president is Bethel Nnaemeka Amadi. Other political institutions of the AU include The AU
    5.75
    4 votes
    126
    Alpha Kappa Rho

    Alpha Kappa Rho

    • Date founded: 1973-08-08
    Alpha Kappa Rho (or AKP or AKRHO or Skeptron) is a humanitarian fraternity founded and based in the Philippines. Alpha Kappa Rho (AKP or AKRHO) was founded on August 8, 1973 in University of Santo Thomas. In 1976, AKP merged with the Omega Fraternity and Sorority of San Sebastian College and the Zeta Upsilon Fraternity of the University of the East-Recto campus In August 8, 2008, on its 35th anniversary, the fraternity held its first National Convention at the Amaranto Stadium, Quezon City. The first National Supreme Council was established on the said occasion.
    5.75
    4 votes
    127
    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco

    The Asian Art Museum of San Francisco is a museum in San Francisco, California, United States. It has one of the most comprehensive collections of Asian art in the world. The museum owes its origin to a donation to the city of San Francisco by Chicago millionaire Avery Brundage, who was a major collector of Asian art. The Society for Asian Art, incorporated in 1958, was the group that formed specifically to gain Avery Brundage's collection. The museum opened in 1966 as a wing of the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park. Brundage continued to make donations to the museum, including the bequest of all his remaining personal collection of Asian art on his death in 1975. In total, Brundage donated more than 7,700 Asian art objects to San Francisco. Until 2003, the museum shared a space with the de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park. As the museum’s collection grew, the facilities in Golden Gate Park were no longer sufficient to display or even house the collection. In 1987 Mayor Diane Feinstein proposed a plan to revitalize Civic Center which included relocating the museum to the Main Library. In 1995, Silicon Valley entrepreneur Chong-Moon Lee made a $15 million donation
    5.75
    4 votes
    128
    University of Michigan College of Engineering

    University of Michigan College of Engineering

    • Date founded: 1854
    The University of Michigan College of Engineering is the engineering unit of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. With an enrollment of 5,284 undergraduate and 2,810 graduate students as of winter 2012, the College of Engineering is one of the premier engineering schools in the United States. In various ranking systems, the college is frequently ranked as one of the top ten engineering schools in the nation and among the top 15 schools in the world. The median SAT combined critical reading and math score for the incoming class of 2011 was 1420. Between the years 1999-2009, Michigan was ranked 5th globally for papers published and citations. The college was founded in 1854, with courses in civil engineering. Since its founding, the College of Engineering established some of the earliest programs in various fields such aeronautical engineering, computer science, electrical engineering, and nuclear engineering. The Materials Science and Engineering program is the oldest continuing metallurgy and materials program in the United States. Biomedical engineering is one of the newest programs established at the College of Engineering. The college was first located on the University's
    5.75
    4 votes
    129
    Alpha Chi Alpha

    Alpha Chi Alpha

    • Date founded: 1963-05-21
    Alpha Chi Alpha (ΑΧΑ, Alpha Chi) is a fraternity at the American Ivy League university of Dartmouth College. Alpha Chi Alpha is a member of Dartmouth's Greek system, which currently has fourteen fraternities, nine sororities and three co-ed undergraduate houses that fall under the umbrella of the Greek system. Alpha Chi Alpha is referred to among Dartmouth students as simply Alpha Chi. The house which is located at 13 Webster Avenue on the Dartmouth College campus is a college-owned fraternity, meaning that the brothers do not own the land or house. This also means that Dartmouth College paid for $1.3 million in renovations (done during the summer of 2004), which included the razing of the "Barn" structure that was used as social space by the brothers of Alpha Chi to make way for a new expanded basement and main floor area which will act as new social space for the fraternity. The house is nicknamed the "Magic Green Cottage" and the "Cheese Lodge" by its members and has the unique location on fraternity row directly across from the President's House. The green-shingled structure includes a sand volleyball court adjacent to the house. Its perennial pledges are easily recognized by
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    Brookings Institution

    Brookings Institution

    • Date founded: 1916
    • Founders: Peter R. Orszag
    The Brookings Institution is an American liberal think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. One of Washington's oldest think tanks, Brookings conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development. Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous, and cooperative international system". Brookings states that its scholars "represent diverse points of view" and describes itself as non-partisan. Its liberal reputation derived from "being closely identified with the technocratic liberal style of the 1960s." Brookings was founded in 1916 as the Institute for Government Research (IGR), with the mission of becoming "the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level". The Institution's founder, philanthropist Robert S. Brookings (1850–1932), originally financed the formation of three organizations: the Institute
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    Lambda Alpha Upsilon

    Lambda Alpha Upsilon

    • Date founded: 1985-12-10
    Latino America Unida, Lambda Alpha Upsilon Fraternity, Inc. (ΛΑΥ or "LAU" also known as "Lambdas" and "Condors") is a Latino oriented Greek letter intercollegiate fraternity founded on December 10, 1985 at the State University of New York at Buffalo when sixteen men formed a support group to provide a social and cultural outlet for students of Latin American descent. The university's Greek system lacked an organization dedicated to the needs of the Latino community. To meet those needs, the group chose to pursue recognition as the first Latino-oriented Greek-letter organization on campus. The founding fathers represented various ethnic backgrounds, demonstrating the diversity of the Latin American community. The unity realized by these men became the foundation upon which the fraternity was established. The interest group searched for a reputable organization with which to affiliate, however, did not find one to suit its needs. They then decided to create a unique fraternity, with its own principles and philosophies. The founding fathers knew that strength of character, and a common purpose are the foundation of successful institutions. This led them to create a fraternity based
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Manhattan Neighborhood Network

    Manhattan Neighborhood Network

    Manhattan Neighborhood Network (MNN) is a non-profit organization that broadcasts programming on four public-access television cable TV stations in Manhattan, New York City, and provides a community media center that enables individuals and groups to produce shows for its network. It has operated since 1992, and is currently funded by Time Warner Cable, Verizon and RCN Corporation in a franchise agreement with New York City. Its studios were initially in a rented facility on 23rd Street above ETC/Metro-Access Inc. Studios. It currently operates out of a studio it owns at 537 West 59th Street. In 2002 MNN had two satellite facilities: one on the Lower East Side, a partnership with the Downtown Community Television Center, one of the city's oldest community media centers; and another in East Harlem, a partnership with PRdream.com, also known as MediaNoche, the city's oldest new media gallery based in a community. The relationship with PRdream/MediaNoche ended in 2006. MNN reopened a smaller, temporary operation in an East Harlem, basement storefront on Lexington Avenue. MNN instituted one of the first community media grant programs in the country, providing video equipment, staff and
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Royal Institute of British Architects

    Royal Institute of British Architects

    • Founders: Philip Hardwick
    The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally. Originally named the Institute of British Architects in London, it was formed in 1834 by several prominent architects, including Philip Hardwick, Thomas Allom, William Donthorne, Thomas Leverton Donaldson, John Buonarotti Papworth, and Thomas de Grey, 2nd Earl de Grey. After the grant of the royal charter it had become known as the Royal Institute of British Architects in London, eventually dropping the reference to London in 1892. In 1934, it moved to its current headquarters on Portland Place, with the building being opened by King George V and Queen Mary. It was granted its Royal Charter in 1837 under King William IV. Supplemental Charters of 1887, 1909 and 1925 were replaced by a single Charter in 1971, and there have been minor amendments since then. The original Charter of 1837 set out the purpose of the Royal Institute to be: '… the general advancement of Civil Architecture, and for promoting and facilitating the acquirement of the knowledge of the various arts and sciences connected therewith…' The operational framework is
    7.50
    2 votes
    134
    Manhattan Institute

    Manhattan Institute

    • Date founded: 1978
    • Founders: William J. Casey
    The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (renamed in 1981 from the International Center for Economic Policy Studies) is an American conservative, market-oriented think tank established in New York City in 1978 by Antony Fisher and William J. Casey. The organization describes its mission as to "develop and disseminate new ideas that foster greater economic choice and individual responsibility." The Institute, known for its advocacy of free market-based solutions to policy problems, supports and publicizes research on the economy, energy, education, health care, welfare reform, the legal system, crime reduction, and urban life, among other issues. Its message is communicated through books, articles, interviews, speeches, op-eds, and through the institute's quarterly publication City Journal, targeted at policymakers, politicians, scholars, and journalists. The Manhattan Institute received $19,470,416 in grants from 1985–2005, from foundations such as the Koch Family Foundations, the John M. Olin Foundation, Inc., the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, the Scaife Foundations, and the Smith Richardson Foundation. The Manhattan Institute does not disclose its corporate funding, but
    5.50
    4 votes
    135
    Delta Phi Epsilon

    Delta Phi Epsilon

    • Date founded: 1920-01-25
    Delta Phi Epsilon (ΔΦΕ) is the only national professional foreign service fraternity and sorority. Founded at Georgetown University on January 25, 1920, the society's mission is to promote good fellowship and brotherhood among persons studying or engaged in foreign service. The Alpha chapter went on to colonize at many other universities throughout the country in the first half of the twentieth century. The society has notable members in a variety of fields. As of 2009, there are six active chapters. Active chapters are Georgetown's Alpha chapter, New York University's Beta Chapter, George Washington University's Eta Chapter, University of California, Berkeley's Epsilon Chapter, American University's Pi Chapter, and University of Pacific's Psi Chapter. The organization has three chapters in The District of Columbia. Other chapters are currently in the process of being chartered and re-chartered. The current president of Delta Phi Epsilon's national board is James-Michael von Stroebel and the current president of Alpha Chapter is Andrew Mullikin. The current acting president of the Sorority's Alpha Chapter is Geneve Bergeron. The Alpha, Beta, Eta, and Pi chapters do not admit women,
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    Kiasma

    Kiasma

    Kiasma (built 1993–1998) is a contemporary art museum located on Mannerheimintie in Helsinki, Finland. Its name kiasma, Finnish for chiasma, alludes to the basic conceptual idea of its architect, Steven Holl. The museum exhibits the contemporary art collection of the Finnish National Gallery founded in 1990. Its central goal is to make contemporary art better known and strengthen its status. An architectural design competition to design a contemporary arts museum in Helsinki was held in 1992. The competition was meant for architects from the Nordic and Baltic countries. Five internationally renowned architects participated among whom there was only one US citizen. In 1993 the work Chiasma by the American architect Steven Holl was selected from the 516 competitors. The construction of the disputed and controversial Kiasma was started in 1996. It was opened in 1998. Media related to Kiasma at Wikimedia Commons
    6.33
    3 votes
    137
    Lambda Theta Phi

    Lambda Theta Phi

    • Date founded: 1975-12-01
    Lambda Theta Phi (also known as "Lambdas") is a non-profit social fraternity in the United States. It was founded on December 1, 1975 at Kean College in Union, New Jersey. It emphasizes Latin unity and the celebration of the Latin culture. In 1992 Lambda Theta Phi was accepted into the North-American Interfraternity Conference. In 1994, with the release of The History of Lambda Theta Phi, Latin Fraternity, Inc., the fraternity published a historical account about its organization. Lambda Theta Phi has received commendations from the American Red Cross for its fundraising efforts on behalf of victims of earthquakes in Italy and Mexico, mud-slides in Puerto Rico, volcanic eruptions in Colombia, the homeless in the United States and Hurricanes in Florida. Lambda Theta Phi has also received commendations from the Division of Youth and Family Services, various other community service organizations as well as proclamations, resolutions and commendations from the United States Congress and other State Legislatures. The American Heart Association also commends Lambda Theta Phi for adopting the association as their National Philanthropy. Some of the fraternity's chapters have raised $1,000
    6.33
    3 votes
    138
    Metaweb Technologies, Inc.

    Metaweb Technologies, Inc.

    • Date founded: 2005-07
    • Founders: Robert Cook
    Metaweb Technologies, Inc. was a United States company based in San Francisco that developed Freebase, described as an "open, shared database of the world's knowledge". The company was founded by Danny Hillis in July, 2005, and operated in stealth mode until 2007. Metaweb was acquired by Google in July, 2010. Although Metaweb no longer exists as a separate corporate entity, Freebase and its associated website freebase.com continue to be provided as an open database under Metaweb's original CC-BY licensing terms. On March 14, 2006, Metaweb received $15 million in funding. Investors included: Benchmark Capital, Millennium Technology Ventures, and Omidyar Network. Kevin Harvey of Benchmark Capital is a member of Metaweb's board of directors. On January 15, 2008, Metaweb announced a $42.5 million Series B round led by Goldman Sachs and Benchmark Capital. On July 16, 2010, Google acquired Metaweb for an undisclosed sum.
    6.33
    3 votes
    139
    Stevens and Permanente Creeks Watershed Council

    Stevens and Permanente Creeks Watershed Council

    The Stevens & Permanente Creeks Watershed Council was officially formed in August of 2003. Our mission reads: The SPCWC mission is to engage the community in wise stewardship of our watershed, furthering the protection, restoration, and community appreciation of creeks and associated habitats. This will be accomplished through collaboration and consensus in a manner that is sensitive to the needs of the entire community. We are an collection of community residents, city representatives, agency officials, , scientists, environmental advocates, and other interested stakeholders with a common vision for a better watershed. All community members and interested parties are invited and strongly encouraged to attend and participate! For some ideas on how to contribute your time and knowledge, try our section on Getting Involved. We meet every other month to discuss ongoing projects, future goals, and current issues that face the watershed. Browse the minutes for more information.
    6.33
    3 votes
    140
    Young Foundation

    Young Foundation

    • Founders: Geoff Mulgan
    The Young Foundation is a non-profit, non-governmental think tank based in London that specializes in social innovation. It is named after Michael Young, the British sociologist and social activist who created over 60 organisations including the Open University, Which? and Language Line. The Young Foundation was established in 2005 following the merger of the Institute of Community Studies and the Mutual Aid Centre, both creations of Michael Young, later Lord Young of Dartington. The Young Foundation was established to re-energise the powerful combination of research and action demonstrated by Michael Young. During the second half of the 20th century Michael Young was one of the world’s most creative and influential social thinkers and doers. After 1945 he helped shape the UK’s new welfare state. In the early 1950s he set up the Institute of Community Studies and used it as a base for research and action. Together with collaborators including Peter Willmott, Peter Townsend and many others, he wrote a series of bestsellers which changed attitudes to a host of social issues, including urban planning (leading the movement away from tower blocks), education (leading thinking about how
    6.33
    3 votes
    141
    Creative Commons

    Creative Commons

    • Founders: Lawrence Lessig
    Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization headquartered in Mountain View, California, United States devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses known as Creative Commons licenses free of charge to the public. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy to understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses do not replace copyright, but are based upon it. They replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner (licensor) and licensee, which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. The result is an agile, low overhead and cost copyright management regime, profiting both copyright owners and licensees. Wikipedia is using one of its
    8.00
    1 votes
    142
    Delta Kappa Epsilon

    Delta Kappa Epsilon

    • Date founded: 1844-06-22
    • Founders: George Foote Chester
    Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or "Deke") is one of the oldest and largest fraternities in the world with 51 active chapters in the United States and Canada. Delta Kappa Epsilon was founded at Yale College in 1844 by 15 men of the sophomore class part of whom hadn't been invited to join the two existing societies among others who had been invited to join. They therefore formed their own fraternity to establish a fellowship "where the candidate most favored was he who combined in the most equal proportions the gentleman, the scholar, and the jolly good fellow." Since then Delta Kappa Epsilon has produced five presidents of the United States (more than any other fraternity), has had its flag flown on the first expedition to the North Pole and again on a manned landing to the moon. The private Gentleman's club the DKE Club of New York was founded in 1885 and is currently in residence at the Yale Club of New York City. The fraternity was founded June 22, 1844, in room number 12 Old South Hall, Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut. At this meeting, the Fraternity's secret and open Greek mottos were devised, as were the pin and secret handshake. The open motto is
    8.00
    1 votes
    143
    Iron Arrow Honor Society

    Iron Arrow Honor Society

    • Founders: Bowman Foster Ashe
    The Iron Arrow Honor Society is a highly selective secret society and honor society at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida for students, faculty, staff and alumni. It is the highest honor that can be bestowed by the university. Founded at the University of Miami in 1926, the society admits about thirty members annually, including undergraduates, students at the School of Law, and Miller School of Medicine. Membership is based on unanimous votes of the membership. Criteria include scholarship, leadership, character, humility, and love of alma mater. Historically, the society was male-only, founded as the "The Highest Honor Attained by Men". In 1937 Nu Kappa Tau, a sister but distinctly separate organization, was founded as "The Highest Honor Attained by Women", but in 1966 its members chose to affiliate with the national women's honor society, Mortar Board, and as Randy Femmer wrote in his book Iron Arrow: A History, leaving Iron Arrow to carry the tradition alone". In 1976 the federal government notified the University of Miami that it was providing significant assistance to Iron Arrow in violation of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The university
    8.00
    1 votes
    144
    Mathematical Sciences Research Institute

    Mathematical Sciences Research Institute

    The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI), founded in 1982, is an independent nonprofit mathematical research institution whose funding sources include the National Science Foundation, foundations, corporations, and more than 90 universities and institutions. The Institute is located on the University of California, Berkeley campus, close to Grizzly Peak, on the hills overlooking Berkeley. MSRI was founded in 1982 by Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore, and Isadore M. Singer. MSRI hosts about 85 mathematicians and postdoctoral research fellows each semester for extended stays and holds programs and workshops, which draw approximately 2,000 visits by mathematical scientists throughout the year. Unlike many mathematical institutes, it has no permanent faculty or members, and its scientific activities are overseen by its Directorate and its Scientific Advisory Committee, a panel of distinguished mathematicians drawn from a variety of different areas of mathematical research. Its main activity consists of holding four semester-long research programs on specific mathematical topics each year (two at a time), in which senior professors, research members, and postdoctoral fellows
    8.00
    1 votes
    145
    Pasteur Institute

    Pasteur Institute

    • Founders: Louis Pasteur
    • Sectors: Biomedical research
    The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. It is named after Louis Pasteur, who made some of the greatest breakthroughs in modern medicine at the time, including pasteurization and vaccines for anthrax bacillus and rabies virus. The institute was founded on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888. For over a century, the Institut Pasteur has been at the forefront of the battle against infectious disease. This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in 1983. Over the years, it has been responsible for breakthrough discoveries that have enabled medical science to control such virulent diseases as diphtheria, tetanus, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, influenza, yellow fever, and plague. Since 1908, eight Pasteur Institute scientists have been awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology, and the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was shared with two Pasteur scientists. The Institut Pasteur was founded in 1887 by Louis Pasteur, the French scientist whose early
    8.00
    1 votes
    146
    Phi Tau

    Phi Tau

    Phi Tau is a coeducational fraternity at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Founded in 1905 as the Tau Chapter of Phi Sigma Kappa, the organization separated from the national fraternity in 1956 over a dispute regarding the segregationist and antisemitic membership policies of the national organization. The fraternity renamed itself Phi Tau Fraternity, and in 1972 became the first fraternity at Dartmouth to admit women student members. Today, Phi Tau Coeducational Fraternity is one of only three officially recognized coeducational Greek organizations remaining on the Dartmouth College campus. Phi Tau Coeducational Fraternity at Dartmouth College was founded as the Tau Chapter of Phi Sigma Kappa in 1905. Phi Sigma Kappa was the sixteenth fraternity to open a chapter at Dartmouth. Being a relative late arrival on campus, prime lots on Webster Avenue, where most of the other fraternities were located, were unavailable. With the help of the national organization, a house for the fraternity was purchased on what was then the northern edge of the college campus. By the late 1920s, however, the house had begun to show its age, and a building campaign resulted in the
    8.00
    1 votes
    147
    Porcellian Club

    Porcellian Club

    The Porcellian Club is a men-only final club at Harvard University, sometimes called the Porc or the P.C. The year of founding is usually given as 1791, when a group began meeting under the name "the Argonauts," or as 1794, the year of the roast pig dinner at which the club, known first as "the Pig Club" was formally founded. The club's motto, Dum vivimus vivamus (while we live, let us live) is literally Epicurean. The club emblem is the pig and some members sport golden pigs on watch-chains or neckties bearing pig's-head emblems. The club was originally started by a group of 30 students from Massachusetts who wanted to avoid the dining halls and their food by roasting pigs. The Porcellian is the iconic "hotsy-totsy final club," often bracketed with Yale's Skull and Bones, Princeton's Ivy Club and Cornell's Quill and Dagger. A history of Harvard calls the Porcellian "the most final of them all." Also, an urban legends website mentions a belief that "if members of the Porcellian do not earn their first million before they turn 40, the club will give it to them." According to a Harvard Crimson article of February 23, 1887: Known to members as the "Old Barn", the Porcellian clubhouse
    8.00
    1 votes
    148
    The Nature Conservancy

    The Nature Conservancy

    • Sectors: Conservation
    The Nature Conservancy is a US charitable environmental organization that works to preserve the lands and waters on which all life depends. The Indiana Dunes of Northwest Indiana played a role in the formation of the Nature Conservancy. Volo Bog in northern Illinois was the first purchase of the Illinois Nature Conservancy thanks to the fundraising efforts of Cyrus Mark, the first president of the Illinois Nature Conservancy. Founded in 1951, The Nature Conservancy works in more than 30 countries, including all 50 states of the United States. The Conservancy has over one million members, and has protected more than 119 million acres of land and 5,000 miles of rivers worldwide. The Nature Conservancy also operates more than 100 marine conservation projects globally. The organization's assets total $5.64 billion as of 2009. The Nature Conservancy is the Americas' largest environmental nonprofit by assets and by revenue. The Nature Conservancy rates as one of the most trusted national organizations in Harris Interactive polls every year since 2005. Forbes magazine rated The Nature Conservancy's fundraising efficiency at 88% in its 2005 survey of the largest U.S. charities. The
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    1 votes
    149
    United States National Academy of Sciences

    United States National Academy of Sciences

    • Date founded: 1863-03-03
    • Founders: Alexander Dallas Bache
    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a non-profit organization in the United States. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine". As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. The National Academy of Sciences is part of the National Academies, which also includes: The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. The Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni", an informal network of mostly physical scientists working in the vicinity of Cambridge, Massachusetts (c. 1850). In 1863, enlisting the support of Alexander Dallas Bache and Charles Henry Davis, a professional astronomer recently recalled from the Navy to Washington to head the Bureau of Navigation, Louis Agassiz and Benjamin Peirce planned the steps whereby the National Academy of Sciences was to be established. Senator Henry Wilson of
    8.00
    1 votes
    150
    Vormetric, Inc.

    Vormetric, Inc.

    • Date founded: 2001
    • Founders: Duc Pham
    Vormetric is the leader in enterprise encryption and key management. The Vormetric Data Security solution provides a single, manageable and scalable solution to encrypt any file, any database, any application, anywhere it resides— without sacrificing application performance or creating key management complexity.
    8.00
    1 votes
    151
    Argentine Navy

    Argentine Navy

    The Navy of the Argentine Republic or Armada of the Argentine Republic (Spanish: Armada de la República Argentina — ARA, also Armada Argentina or Argentine Navy) is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force. The Argentine Navy day is celebrated on May 17, anniversary of the victory achieved in 1814 in the Battle of Montevideo over the Spanish fleet during the war of Independence. Each ship of the Argentine Navy is designated with the prefix "ARA" before its name. The Argentine Navy was created in the aftermath of the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, which started the war for independence from Spain. The first navy was created to support Manuel Belgrano at the Paraguay campaign, but it was sunk by ships from Montevideo, and did not take part in that conflict. Renewed conflicts with Montevideo led to the creation of a second one, which captured the city. As Buenos Aires had little maritime history, most men in the navy were from other nations, such as the Irish admiral William Brown, who directed the operation. As the cost of maintaining a navy was too high, most of the Argentine naval
    5.25
    4 votes
    152
    American Institute of Architects

    American Institute of Architects

    • Date founded: 1857
    The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, and public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA also works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry. The American Institute of Architects was founded in New York City in 1857 by a group of 13 architects to "promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members" and "elevate the standing of the profession." This initial group included Charles Babcock, Henry W. Cleaveland, Henry Dudley, Leopold Eidlitz, Edward Gardiner, Richard Morris Hunt, Fred A. Petersen, Jacob Wrey Mould, John Welch, Richard M. Upjohn and Joseph C. Wells, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president. They met on February 23, 1857 and decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Walter, and Calvert Vaux. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect, as there were no schools of architecture
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    2 votes
    153
    American Musicological Society

    American Musicological Society

    • Date founded: 1934
    • Founders: Gustave Reese
    The American Musicological Society is a membership-based musicological organization founded in 1934 to advance scholarly research in the various fields of music as a branch of learning and scholarship; it grew out of a small contingent of the Music Teachers National Association and, more directly, the New York Musicological Society (1930-1934). Its founders were George S. Dickinson, Carl Engel, Gustave Reese, Helen Heifron Roberts, Joseph Schillinger, Charles Seeger, Harold Spivacke, Oliver Strunk, and Joseph Yasser; its first president was Otto Kinkeldey, the first American to receive an appointment as professor of musicology (Cornell, 1930). The society consists of over 3,300 individual members divided among fifteen regional chapters across the United States, Canada, and elsewhere, as well as 1,000 subscribing institutions. It was admitted to the American Council of Learned Societies in 1951, and participates in RISM (Répertoire International des Sources Musicales) and RILM (Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale). The society’s annual meetings attract numerous scholars from North America and abroad, and consist of presentations, symposia, and concerts, as well as
    7.00
    2 votes
    154
    British Film Institute

    British Film Institute

    • Date founded: 1933
    • Sectors: Film
    The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to: The BFI runs the BFI Southbank (formerly the National Film Theatre (NFT)) and IMAX theatre, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London. The IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK, and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank (the National Film Theatre screens and the Studio) shows films from all over the world particularly critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing. The BFI also distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues - each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues. The BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with the London Lesbian and Gay Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival. The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. The BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive, previously
    7.00
    2 votes
    155
    Christian fraternity

    Christian fraternity

    While the traditional social fraternity is a well-established mainstay across the United States at institutions of higher learning, alternatives - in the form of social fraternities that require doctrinal and behavioral conformity to the Christian faith - developed in the early 20th century which continue to grow in size and popularity today. A fraternity is an association of men, selected in their college days by a democratic process, because of their adherence to common ideals and aspirations. Out of their association arises a personal relationship which makes them unselfishly seek to advance on another in the arts of life and to add, to the formal instruction of the college curriculum, the culture, and the character which men acquire by contact with great personalities, or when admitted to partnership in great traditions. Newton D. Baker (Johns Hopkins, 1892) The words of Newton Baker are strong ones that describe accurately the matrix of a fraternal organization. [A Christian Fraternity] is a fraternity in all of these respects, but has been taken a step farther than that of a standard fraternity. We are bound by friendship, honor, and common interests. However, we are first
    7.00
    2 votes
    156
    European Union

    European Union

    • Date founded: 1993-11-01
    • Founders: Jean Monnet
    The European Union (EU) (English pronunciation: /ˌjʊərəˈpiːən ˈjuːnjən/) is an economic and political union of 27 member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), formed by six countries in 1951 and 1958 respectively. In the intervening years the EU has grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union under its current name in 1993. The latest amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states. Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Central Bank. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens. The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws which apply in all member states.
    7.00
    2 votes
    157
    Imperial College Gliding Club

    Imperial College Gliding Club

    • Sectors: Aviation
    Imperial College Gliding Club is the oldest, and one of the largest, university gliding clubs in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1930, the club was the second club to become affiliated to the British Gliding Association, and has for most of its life flown from Lasham Airfield in Hampshire. The club maintains an archive website where a details of the clubs history since 1930 are kept.
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    2 votes
    158
    McIntire School of Commerce

    McIntire School of Commerce

    • Date founded: 1921
    The McIntire School of Commerce is the University of Virginia's undergraduate business school and graduate business school for Commerce, Accounting, and Management of Information Technology. It was founded in 1921 through a gift by Paul Goodloe McIntire. The two-year McIntire program offers students B.S. degrees in Commerce with concentrations in Finance, Accounting, Marketing, Management, and Information Technology. McIntire offers three graduate programs: Masters in Management of Information Technology, Masters in Accounting, and a Masters in Commerce. Students at UVA apply to gain admission during their 2nd year; upon acceptance, they enter the Commerce school in their 3rd year. Occasionally, some students apply during their 3rd year, and will enter upon their 4th year (thus spending a total of 5 years as undergraduate). McIntire ranks among the top undergraduate business programs in the world. Citing the school’s job placement rates and high starting salaries, BusinessWeek magazine ranked McIntire as the Number 1 undergraduate business program in the United States in 2009, ahead of the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania for the first time. In 1920, the University
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    Mechanics' Institutes

    Mechanics' Institutes

    • Founders: George Birkbeck
    • Sectors: Literature
    Mechanics' institutes were educational establishments formed to provide adult education, particularly in technical subjects, to working men. As such, they were often funded by local industrialists on the grounds that they would ultimately benefit from having more knowledgeable and skilled employees (such philanthropy was shown by, among others, Robert Stephenson, James Nasmyth, John Davis Barnett and Joseph Whitworth). The mechanics' institutes were used as 'libraries' for the adult working class, and provided them with an alternative pastime to gambling and drinking in pubs. The world's first mechanics' institute was established in Edinburgh, Scotland in October 1821 as the School of Arts of Edinburgh (later Heriot-Watt University), with the provision of technical education for working people and professionals. Its purpose was to "address societal needs by incorporating fundamental scientific thinking and research into engineering solutions". The school revolutionised access to education in science and technology for ordinary people. The second institute in Scotland was incorporated in Glasgow in November 1823, built on the foundations of a group started at the turn of the
    7.00
    2 votes
    160
    Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment

    Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment

    • Founders: Bohdan Paczyński
    The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment or OGLE is a Polish astronomical project based at the University of Warsaw that is chiefly concerned with discovering dark matter using the microlensing technique. Since the project began in 1992, it has discovered several extrasolar planets as a side benefit. The project is led by Professor Andrzej Udalski, who is a co-author of the discovery of OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb. The main targets of the experiment are the Magellanic Clouds and the Galactic Bulge, because of the large number of intervening stars that can be used for microlensing during a stellar transit. Most of the observations have been taken at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Cooperating institutions include Princeton University and the Carnegie Institution. The three phases of the project had already been concluded, OGLE-I (1992–1995), OGLE-II (1996–2000), and OGLE-III (2001–2009). OGLE-I was the project pilot phase; for OGLE-II, a telescope was specially constructed, placed in Las Campanas Observatory and dedicated to the project. The 8-chip mosaic CCD camera was built in Poland and shipped to Chile. OGLE-III was primarily devoted to detecting gravitational microlensing
    7.00
    2 votes
    161
    Story Of My Life Foundation

    Story Of My Life Foundation

    The Story of My Life Foundation was launched in 2006 as a USA 501(c)(3) public benefit, non-for-profit entity, whose purpose is to secure, store, & make available the Stories of peoples’ lives Forever.  The Story of My Life Foundation team is a group that believes that every person is a unique individual with Stories, thoughts, and a full life lived.
    7.00
    2 votes
    162
    United Nations

    United Nations

    • Date founded: 1945-10-24
    • Founders: Harry S. Truman
    • Sectors: International development
    The United Nations (abbreviated UN in English, and ONU in French and Spanish), is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions. There are 193 member states, including every internationally recognized sovereign state in the world but Vatican City. From its offices around the world, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the
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    2 votes
    163
    United Nations Economic and Social Council

    United Nations Economic and Social Council

    The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (French: (Le) Conseil économique et social des Nations unies; CÉSNU) constitutes one of the principal organs of the United Nations. It is responsible for coordinating the economic, social and related work of 14 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions. ECOSOC has 54 members; it holds a four-week session each year in July. Since 1998, it has also held a meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The ECOSOC serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues, and for formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations system. The Economic and Social Council Chamber in the United Nations Conference Building was a gift from Sweden. It was conceived by Swedish architect Sven Markelius, one of the 11 architects in the international team that designed the UN headquarters. Wood from Swedish pine trees was used in the delegates' area for the railings and doors. The pipes and ducts in the ceiling above the public gallery were deliberately left
    7.00
    2 votes
    164
    Zeta Psi

    Zeta Psi

    • Date founded: 1847-06-01
    The Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America (ΖΨ) was founded June 1st 1847 as a social college fraternity. The organization now comprises about fifty active chapters and twenty-five inactive chapters, encompassing roughly fifty thousand brothers, and is a founding member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference. It has historically been selective about the campuses at which it establishes chapters, focusing on forging new territory and maintaining a presence at prestigious institutions: it was the first Fraternity on the West Coast at the University of California at Berkeley June 10, 1870, the first Fraternity in Canada at the University of Toronto, March 27, 1879, and the first Fraternity to have a chapter at an Ivy League institution. It is also the only fraternity to have chapters simultaneously at all eight Ivy League schools with the chartering of Eta at Yale University in 1889 (though this claim lasted only a few years, owing to burgeoning faculty opposition to the Princeton chapter). The fraternity became bi-continental on May 3, 2008 with the chartering of Iota Omicron at the University of Oxford. Spreading to Ireland in February 2012 where Jack O'Connor and Andrew
    7.00
    2 votes
    165
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences

    American Academy of Arts and Sciences

    • Date founded: 1780
    • Founders: James Bowdoin
    The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (American Academy) is one of the oldest and most prestigious honorary societies and a leading center for independent policy research in the United States. Election to the Academy is considered one of the nation’s highest honors since its founding during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin and other scholar-patriots who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, and its Constitution. Today the Academy is with a dual function: to elect to membership finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, scholarship, business, public affairs, and the arts, from each generation, and to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research, humanities and cultural studies, scientific and technological advances, politics, population and the environment, and the welfare of children. Dædalus, the Academy’s quarterly journal, is widely regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Academy was established by Massachusetts
    6.00
    3 votes
    166
    Nu Alpha Kappa

    Nu Alpha Kappa

    • Date founded: 1988-02-26
    Nu Alpha Kappa (ΝΑΚ), is a Latino-based fraternity which encompasses and values all cultures. Currently Nu Alpha Kappa stands as one of the largest Latino-based fraternities on the west coast. Often referred to as "NAK", Nu Alpha Kappa was founded on February 26, 1988 on the campus of California Polytechnic State University, with twenty-four established chapters across California, Nevada, and Colorado. Nu Alpha Kappa was a charter member of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO), but is currently a member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference. "Xinaco", a Nahuatl word used by the Olmecs, describes an educated, amiable individual who's personality and charisma transcends and enlightens all cultures and social classes. The "Xinacos" (CHI-Na-Kos) meeting resulted in the creation of a new fraternity. The foundations of the fraternity were started by fifteen good friends at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, California, of which eleven would become founding fathers of the fraternity. This marked the beginning of Nu Alpha Kappa Fraternity, an organization based the belief of a commitment to "Carnalismo" or brotherhood, the search for knowledge and the
    6.00
    3 votes
    167
    Organisation of African Unity

    Organisation of African Unity

    • Founders: Malcolm X
    The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) (French: Organisation de l'Unité Africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, with 32 signatory governments. It was disbanded on 9 July 2002 by its last chairperson, South African President Thabo Mbeki, and replaced by the African Union (AU). The OAU had the following primary aims: A Liberation Committee was established to aid independence movements and look after the interests of already-liberated states. The OAU also aimed to stay neutral in terms of global politics, which would prevent them from being controlled once more by outside forces – an especial danger with the Cold War. The OAU had other aims, too: Soon after achieving independence, a number of African states expressed a growing desire for more unity within the continent. Not everyone was agreed on how this unity could be achieved, however, and two opinionated groups emerged in this respect: Some of the initial discussions took place at Sanniquellie, Liberia. The dispute was eventually resolved when Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I invited the two groups to Addis Ababa, where the OAU and its headquarters were subsequently established. The Charter of the
    6.00
    3 votes
    168
    Portuguese Navy

    Portuguese Navy

    The Portuguese Navy (Portuguese: Marinha Portuguesa, also known as Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa or as Armada Portuguesa) is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defence of Portugal. The Portuguese Navy also participates in missions related with international compromises assumed by Portugal (mainly with NATO), as well as missions of civil interest. Today, the Portuguese Navy assumes a dual role capacity: Naval combat missions to assure Portugal's sovereignty and international commitments, and coast guard operations in its territorial waters and areas of influence. Portuguese naval history is closely connected to the history of Portugal, and one can say that the Naval history is Portuguese History seen from the sea. The first known battle of the Portuguese Navy was in 1180, during the reign of Portugal's first king, Afonso I of Portugal. The battle occurred when a Portuguese fleet commanded by the knight Fuas Roupinho defeated a Muslim fleet near Cape Espichel. He also made two incursions at Ceuta, in 1181 and 1182, and died during the last of these
    6.00
    3 votes
    169
    The Scripps Research Institute

    The Scripps Research Institute

    • Sectors: Biomedical research
    The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is an American medical research facility that focuses on research in the basic biomedical sciences. Headquartered in La Jolla, California, with a sister facility in Jupiter, Florida, the institute is home to 3,000 scientists, technicians, graduate students, and administrative and other staff, making it among the largest private, non-profit biomedical research organizations in the world. TSRI's roots can be traced to the Scripps Metabolic Clinic, founded near the current site in 1924 by the philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps. In 1946 it evolved into the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation. Initially focusing on the study of immune disorders under the leadership of Frank J. Dixon, over the following 25 years the faculty grew and diversified its research interests, precipitating another name change in 1977, to The Research Institute of Scripps Clinic. In 1991 the Scripps Clinic and research division became separate corporations and The Scripps Research Institute was founded. In 1989 TSRI started a graduate program. The California campus is located on 35 acres (140,000 m) of land between the Torrey Pines State Reserve and the University of
    6.00
    3 votes
    170
    Akros Silicon

    Akros Silicon

    • Date founded: 2005-01
    • Founders: J. Francois Crepin
    Founded in early 2005, Akros designs chips for use in network-connected devices, such as VoIP phones, wireless routers, security cameras and security badge readers.
    5.67
    3 votes
    171
    Anacostia Museum

    Anacostia Museum

    The Anacostia Community Museum (known colloquially as the ACM) is a community museum in the Anacostia neighborhood of Washington, D.C. in the United States. It is one of nineteen museums under the umbrella of the Smithsonian Institution and was the first federally funded community museum in the United States. The museum, founded in 1967, was created with the intention to bring aspects of the Smithsonian museums, located on the National Mall, to the Anacostia neighborhood, with the hope that community members from the neighborhood would visit the main Smithsonian museums. It became federally funded in 1970 and focuses on the community in and around Anacostia in its exhibitions. The Anacostia Community Museum was originally described as "an experimental store-front museum," by the Smithsonian Institution in 1966. Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley intended for the museum to serve as an outreach opportunity to bring more African Americans to the National Mall to visit Smithsonian museums. The idea, which rose from a Smithsonian hosted conference in 1966, came into reality in March, 1967, when the Smithsonian acquired the Carver Theater in the Anacostia neighborhood. The
    5.67
    3 votes
    172
    Asian American Writers' Workshop

    Asian American Writers' Workshop

    • Founders: Marie Lee
    • Sectors: Literature
    The Asian American Writers' Workshop is a nonprofit literary arts organization founded in 1991 to support of writers, literature and community. The Workshop also offers the annual Asian American Literary Awards and sponsors Page Turner: The Asian American Literary Festival. In 2007, The Asian American Writers' Workshop partnered with Hyphen Magazine to start a short story contest called the Hyphen Asian American Short Story Contest, the only national, pan-Asian American writing competition of its kind Previous winners include Preeta Samarasan, Sunil Yapa, Shivani Manghnani, and Timothy Tau. Previous judges include Porochista Khakpour, Yiyun Li, Alexander Chee, Jaed Coffin, Brian Leung, Monique Truong and Monica Ferrell.
    5.67
    3 votes
    173
    Church Mission Society

    Church Mission Society

    • Date founded: 1799
    • Founders: Thomas Babington
    The Church Mission Society, also known as the Church Missionary Society, is a group of evangelistic societies working with the Anglican Communion and Protestant Christians around the world. Founded in 1799, CMS has attracted upwards of nine thousand men and women to serve as mission partners during its 200-year history. On 31 January 2010 CMS had 151 mission partners and co-mission partners (workers jointly sent by CMS and another agency) serving in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. The 2009-10 Annual Review also lists "Other people in mission : 78"; "Cross-cultural programme participants: 126" and "Projects financially supported: 114". This does not take into account work in Latin America, which came with the integration of CMS and the South American Mission Society on 1 February 2010. In 2009-10, CMS had a budget of £8 million, drawn primarily from donations by individuals and parishes, supplemented by historic investments. In June 2007, CMS in Britain moved the administrative office out of London for the first time. It is now based with the new Crowther Centre for Mission Education in east Oxford. In 2008, CMS was acknowledged as a mission community by the Advisory
    5.67
    3 votes
    174
    Hudson Institute

    Hudson Institute

    • Founders: Herman Kahn
    The Hudson Institute is an American conservative not for profit think tank founded in 1961, in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by futurist, military strategist, and systems theorist Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation. The Institute is committed to innovative research and analysis that promotes ‘global security, prosperity and freedom’. It promotes public policy change in accordance with its stated values of a "commitment to free markets and individual responsibility, confidence in the power of technology to assist progress, respect for the importance of culture and religion in human affairs, and determination to preserve America's national security." The Capital Research Center, a conservative group that seeks to rank non-profits and documents their funding, allocates Hudson as a 7 on its ideological spectrum with 8 being "Free Market Right" and 1 "Radical Left". In March 2011, Kenneth R. Weinstein was appointed president and CEO of the institute. Founded 1961 by Herman Kahn and Max Singer colleagues and Oscar Ruebhaused from the RAND corporation in Croton-on-Hudson, New York. Its initial policy focus, whilst right wing, largely reflected Kahn’s personal interested,
    5.67
    3 votes
    175
    Lambda Pi Upsilon

    Lambda Pi Upsilon

    Lambda Pi Upsilon (ΛΠΥ), also known as Latinas Poderosas Unidas Sorority Inc or Lambda Divas is a Latina oriented sorority founded in SUNY Geneseo by six women who believed that the problems of womanhood, particularly those of Latinas, needed to be addressed and resolved on campus by seeking unity, cultural identity, and growth of mind as a whole group. Established on November 6, 1992, Lambda Pi Upsilon Sorority Inc. seeks to show their commitment and desire to help educate others through programs and social events that address issues involving their community, youth, and womanhood. Lambda Pi Upsilon's essence is based on education, commitment, and aspirations that reflect the beliefs of the Founding Mothers and accentuate strong leadership qualities that their members possess. The sorority is a member of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO). Inception: Lambda Pi Upsilon began with six women who sought to fight and address increasing social issues involving women in their community, particularly Latina women. They believed that, as a whole and working as a close support system, they could provide other women, especially Latinas, with the strength and
    5.67
    3 votes
    176
    World Intellectual Property Organization

    World Intellectual Property Organization

    • Date founded: 1967
    • Sectors: Intellectual property
    The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 17 specialized agencies of the United Nations. WIPO was created in 1967 "to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world." WIPO currently has 185 member states, administers 24 international treaties, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The current Director-General of WIPO is Francis Gurry, who took office on October 1, 2008. 184 of the UN Members as well as the Holy See are Members of WIPO. Non-members are the states of Cook Islands, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu, and the states with limited recognition. Palestine has observer status. The predecessor to WIPO was the BIRPI (Bureaux Internationaux Réunis pour la Protection de la Propriété Intellectuelle, French acronym for United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property), which had been established in 1893 to administer the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. WIPO was formally created by the
    5.67
    3 votes
    177
    Alpha Kappa Lambda

    Alpha Kappa Lambda

    • Date founded: 1914-04-22
    Alpha Kappa Lambda (ΑΚΛ) is an American collegiate social fraternity for men founded at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1914. Today, it operates approximately 33 active chapters and colonies and boasts twenty three thousand initiated members. Alpha Kappa Lambda is aiming to be at 40 active chapters by 2014 Alpha Kappa Lambda's cornerstone is its "Five Ideals": Alpha Kappa Lambda teaches men that the commitments outlined in the Fraternity's Ritual are not merely remote ideals, but areas of discipline for daily life. ΑΚΛs support, and in turn have the support of, their brothers in living these principles. Through Alpha Kappa Lambda, men with different backgrounds but similar ideals unite with a common purpose: to foster excellence in scholarship, leadership, individual growth, and involvement in community service. ΑΚΛ is dedicated to Men of Character, Committed to Making A Difference. "Of particular novelty is statement that the Ideals of the Fraternity are to develop the 'social, intellectual, moral, and religious welfare of it members, (and) to foster and encourage among its members Christian principles, service, higher education, culture, and refinement'," reported The
    6.50
    2 votes
    178
    Boy Scouts of America

    Boy Scouts of America

    • Date founded: 1910
    • Founders: Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
    • Sectors: Hiking
    The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with 2.7 million youth members and over 1 million adult volunteers. Since its founding in 1910 as part of the international Scout Movement, more than 110 million Americans have been members of the BSA. The BSA goal is to train youth in responsible citizenship, character development, and self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to inculcate typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, and outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping, aquatics, and hiking. The BSA is a constituent member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for boys ages 7 to 10½ years, Boy Scouting for boys ages 10½ to 18 and Venturing for young men and women ages 14 (or 13 and have completed the 8th grade) through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional subsidiary that provides in-school and career
    6.50
    2 votes
    179
    Flat Earth Society

    Flat Earth Society

    • Founders: Samuel Shenton
    The Flat Earth Society (also known as the International Flat Earth Society or the International Flat Earth Research Society) is an organization that seeks to further the belief that the Earth is flat instead of an oblate spheroid. The modern organization was founded by Englishman Samuel Shenton in 1956 and was later led by Charles K. Johnson, who based the organization in his home in Lancaster, California. The formal society was inactive after Johnson’s death in 2001 but was resurrected in 2004 by its new president Daniel Shenton. The belief that the Earth was flat was typical of ancient cosmologies until about the 4th century BC, when the Ancient Greek philosophers proposed the idea that the Earth was a sphere, or at least rounded in shape. Aristotle was one of the first thinkers to propose a spherical Earth in 330 BC. By the early Middle Ages, it was widespread knowledge throughout Europe that the Earth was a sphere. Modern hypotheses supporting a flat Earth originated with English inventor Samuel Rowbotham (1816–1884). Based on his incorrect interpretation of experiments on the Bedford Level, Rowbotham published a 16-page pamphlet, called "Zetetic Astronomy", which he later
    6.50
    2 votes
    180
    International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

    International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

    • Founders: Gustave Moynier
    The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering, without any discrimination based on nationality, race, sexual orientation, sex, gender identity, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations. The movement's parts are: Until the middle of the 19th century, there were no organized and/or well-established army nursing systems for casualties and no safe and protected institutions to accommodate and treat those who were wounded on the battlefield. In June 1859, the Swiss businessman Jean-Henri Dunant traveled to Italy to meet French emperor Napoléon III with the intention of discussing difficulties in conducting business in Algeria, at that time occupied by France. When he arrived in the small town of
    6.50
    2 votes
    181
    RAND

    RAND

    • Date founded: 1948
    • Sectors: Law
    RAND Corporation (Research ANd Development) is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces by Douglas Aircraft Company. It is currently financed by the U.S. government and private endowment, corporations including the healthcare industry, universities and private individuals. The organization has long since expanded to working with other governments, private foundations, international organizations, and commercial organizations on a host of non-defence issues. RAND aims for interdisciplinary and quantitative problem solving via translating theoretical concepts from formal economics and the hard sciences into novel applications in other areas; that is, via applied science and operations research. Michael D. Rich is president and chief executive officer of the RAND Corporation. RAND has approximately 1,700 employees and three principal North American locations: Santa Monica, California (headquarters); Arlington, Virginia; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The RAND Gulf States Policy Institute has offices in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Jackson, Mississippi. RAND Europe is located in Cambridge, United Kingdom, and Brussels,
    6.50
    2 votes
    182
    Sigma Lambda Gamma

    Sigma Lambda Gamma

    • Date founded: 1990-04-09
    Sigma Lambda Gamma (ΣΛΓ) is a historically Latina-based national sorority with multicultural membership founded on April 9, 1990, at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa. In fall of 1989, the foundation of Sigma Lambda Gamma National Sorority Inc. decided it was important to form an organization that provided empowerment to Latina women. Beginning at the University of Iowa, the vision was to create a network of academic and social support for these women. Under the guidance of Esther Materon Arum and Mary Peterson, the vision came to true on April 9, 1990, as the University of Iowa Panhellenic Council officially recognized the organization as a sorority. Sigma Lambda Gamma is a sisterhood of women who have chosen this affiliation to achieve their desired personal development and to act for the betterment of local, regional, national and global communities through the efforts of a network of more than 3,000 sisters. Sigma Lambda Gamma is a pioneer in the Greek fraternal world through development of innovative programming initiatives, such as the Young Women’s Leadership Program and Emotional Intelligence. Today, Sigma Lambda Gamma is the largest, historically Latina-based
    6.50
    2 votes
    183
    TechNet

    TechNet

    • Founders: John Doerr
    TechNet is the preeminent bipartisan political network of Chief Executive Officers and Senior Executives of leading U.S. technology companies. Our members are the nation’s drivers of innovation in the fields of information technology, e-commerce, biotechnology, venture capital and investment banking – representing over one million employees. TechNet was founded in 1997 by high-tech’s leading CEOs to create a network of the nation’s strongest voices in the industry to unite with both federal and state leaders in helping to shape the public policies that impact the technology industries. TechNet continues to actively promote policies that strengthen the national’s innovation-driven global competitiveness as well as create private sector initiatives that will ensure U.S. competitiveness and economic leadership. In addition, TechNet is an effective political advocacy organization and most active supporter of both Republican and Democrat candidates and elected officials. Through our policies, our advacacy, and the power of our network, TechNet has an extraordinary impact on federal and state issues that are critical to the promotion of U.S. innovation and global competitiveness. OUR MISSION
    TechNet's mission is to serve as the voice and advocate of the innovation economy by uniting CEOs and Senior Executives with leading policy makers in a bipartisan effort to sustain and advance America’s global leadership in technology and innovation. We accomplish this through:
    • Aggressive political advocacy for both Democratic and Republican candidates and elected officials;
    • Promotion of focused public policies that strengthen the innovation economy;
    • Meetings with elected officials, Administration representatives and candidates for elective office;
    • Financial support of political candidates; and
    • Events and industry-based initiatives that educate thought leaders and the public about technology policy issues.
    6.50
    2 votes
    184
    Florida Blue Key

    Florida Blue Key

    • Date founded: 1923
    Florida Blue Key is a student honor and service society at the University of Florida. It is often written and referred to by the initialism "FBK." This organization was started at the University of Florida in 1923 under the presidency of Albert Murphree. Blue Key quickly spawned chapters across the United States, before the other chapters split with the original Florida chapter in the early 1930s. Their original charge was to plan a special weekend celebration for the university. Today, the organization remains the powerful and politically active founding Blue Key chapter. A significant amount of Florida's famous politicians and business leaders became members of Florida Blue Key during their collegiate years and have followed that network for much of their careers. According to a 1997 lawsuit by Charles Grapski, Florida Blue Key maintains tight control over the Student Government and University of Florida. "Florida Blue Key was founded on November 1, 1923, several days prior to the University's Homecoming celebration. At the suggestion of President Albert E. Murphree, Bert C. Riley, Dean of General Extension, brought together a group of student leaders to form an organization
    4.75
    4 votes
    185
    Delta Chi

    Delta Chi

    • Date founded: 1890-10-13
    Delta Chi (ΔΧ) (del-ta kai) or D-Chi is an international Greek letter college social fraternity formed on October 13, 1890, at Cornell University, initially as a professional fraternity for law students. On April 29, 1922, Delta Chi became a general membership social fraternity, eliminating the requirement for men to be studying law, and opening membership to all areas of study. On April 22, 1929 Delta Chi became the first international fraternity to abolish "hell week". Delta Chi is a charter member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference (NIC). The Fraternity is headquartered at 314 Church Street in Iowa City, Iowa 52244. As of Spring 2011, Delta Chi has initiated over 106,000 members. Two incidents have been credited with providing the impetus for interest in the founding of what was to become Delta Chi. One was the election of a Phi Delta Phi as the Law School Editor of the Cornell Daily Sun (the student newspaper) and the second was the election of the law school junior class president. In the case of the class presidency, Alphonse Derwin Stillman had done some campaigning for a student named Iving G. Hubbs and was unaware of any effort being made on anyone else’s
    7.00
    1 votes
    186
    Iota Sigma Beta

    Iota Sigma Beta

    • Date founded: 2001-12-29
    Iota Sigma Beta (ᅫルᅫᆪB) is a college sorority founded at Rutgers University on December 29, 2001. Iota Sigma Beta is the first leadership Greek organization in the nation. Iota Sigma Beta works towards promoting and enhancing the intelligence, strength, and beauty of all women, while concurrently expanding it¬タルs mission and philanthropy. Iota Sigma Beta Sorority began as a vision of Founding Mother, Nicole Lee, Intrigue, of Iota Sigma Beta Sorority in September of 2001 at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. It was her mission to fulfill her vision of founding a sorority based upon the merits of leadership and unceasing personal development. It was her intent to develop and stand with women who would epitomize the perfect fusion of intelligence, strength, and beauty. In order to build a strong foundation for the sorority, she sought to find strong and capable women who would help to place the building blocks for the future success of the sorority. These women were Huey Chan, Diana Chow, Linda Fu, Kay Kim, Jennifer Louie, and Serena Yip. These women would later assume the following nicknames: Wicked, Ice, Precious, Aura, Thunder, and Faith, respectively. Together, they
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Jews for Jesus

    Jews for Jesus

    • Founders: Moishe Rosen
    Jews for Jesus is a conservative, Christian evangelical organization that focuses on the conversion of Jews to Christianity. Its members consider themselves to be Jews – either as defined by Jewish law, or as according to the view of Jews for Jesus. Jews for Jesus defines "Jewish" in terms of parentage and as a birthright, regardless of religious belief. The identification of Jews for Jesus as a Jewish organization is rejected by Jewish religious denominations and secular Jewish groups due to the Christian beliefs of its members. The group's evangelical activities have garnered mixed reactions from other Christian individuals and organizations, largely divided between liberal and conservative lines. Founded in 1973, Jews for Jesus employs more than 200 people, estimates its adherents at 30,000 to 125,000 worldwide and takes in about $20 million a year in donations. The organization was founded by Moishe Rosen an ordained Baptist minister (who was born Jewish and converted to Christianity at the age of 17) and Jhan Moskowitz an ordained Christian and Missionary Alliance minister and son of a holocaust survivor. Rosen was the head of the San Francisco arm of the American Board of
    7.00
    1 votes
    188
    NewSchools Venture Fund

    NewSchools Venture Fund

    • Founders: John Doerr
    The NewSchools Venture Fund is a non-profit venture philanthropy fund that invests in educational entrepreneurship projects at the K-12 levels in United States public schools. NewSchools offers expertise and administrative support as well funding, both through Charter Accelerator Fund, which helps establish charter school systems, and through its Performance Accelerator Fund, which supports entrepreneurial projects in established school systems. The organization invests in both not-for-profit and for-profit organizations, focusing its portfolio on projects that have the potential to benefit underserved children. NewSchools states that: “Our mission is to transform public education so that all children – especially those underserved – have the opportunity to succeed in the 21st century." Public education is in a crisis. Far too few of our nation’s students are receiving a high-quality public education, let alone mastering the advanced content and skills they will need to succeed in the 21st century. This problem is particularly acute in urban areas, where educators struggle to improve achievement for a large, diverse student population – and within the constraints of a bureaucratic
    7.00
    1 votes
    189
    St. Anthony Hall

    St. Anthony Hall

    • Date founded: 1847-01-17
    • Founders: Edward Forbes Travis
    • Sectors: Fraternal and service organizations
    St. Anthony Hall, also known as Saint Anthony Hall and The Order of St. Anthony, is a national college literary society also known as the Fraternity of Delta Psi (ΔΨ) at elite colleges in the United States of America. St. Anthony Hall's activities foster the social and intellectual development of its undergraduate members by encouraging individual expression, promoting the exchange of ideas by providing a forum for discussion and presentations. At several of its chapters, St. Anthony Hall hosts public lecture series. The first, or 'Alpha' Chapter was founded at Columbia University on January 17, 1847, which is the feast day of St. Anthony. In 1879, Baird's Manual characterized the organization as having "the reputation of being the most secret of all the college societies." References appear in several F. Scott Fitzgerald short stories, Tom Wolfe's novels, and the Order has a distinguished architectural inheritance. The organization is often referred to as St. A's or the Hall. It has no official religious affiliation. In 1847, after the organization's 'Alpha' Chapter was founded on January 17 at Columbia University, a 'Beta' Chapter at New York University was also founded, but by
    7.00
    1 votes
    190
    Economic Community of West African States

    Economic Community of West African States

    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen West African countries. Founded on 28 May 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos, its mission is to promote economic integration across the region. Considered one of the pillars of the African Economic Community, the organization was founded in order to achieve "collective self-sufficiency" for its member states by creating a single large trading bloc through an economic and trading union. It also serves as a peacekeeping force in the region. The organization operates officially in three co-equal languages—English, French, and Portuguese. The ECOWAS consists of two institutions to implement policies -- the ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development, formerly known as the Fund for Cooperation until it was renamed in 2001. A few members of the organization have come and gone over the years. In 1976 Cape Verde joined ECOWAS, and in December 2000 Mauritania withdrew, having announced its intention to do so in December 1999.  Benin  Burkina Faso  Cape Verde  Ivory Coast  Gambia  Ghana  Guinea  Guinea-Bissau  Liberia  Mali  Niger  Nigeria  Senegal  Sierra
    5.33
    3 votes
    191
    Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

    Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

    • Date founded: 1937
    • Founders: Solomon R. Guggenheim
    The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is a nonprofit organization founded in 1937 by philanthropist Solomon R. Guggenheim and his long-time art advisor, artist Hilla von Rebay. The foundation is a leading institution for the collection, preservation, and research of modern and contemporary art and operates several museums around the world. The first museum established by the foundation was The Museum of Non-Objective Painting, in New York City. This became The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1952, and the foundation moved the collection into its first permanent museum building, in New York City, in 1959. The foundation next opened the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, Italy, in 1980. Its international network of museums expanded in 1997 to include the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in Bilbao, Spain and the Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin, and it expects to open a new museum, Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, in 2017. The mission of the foundation is "to promote the understanding and appreciation of art, architecture, and other manifestations of visual culture, primarily of the modern and contemporary periods, and to collect, conserve, and study" modern and contemporary art. The Foundation seeks, in
    5.33
    3 votes
    192
    East African Community

    East African Community

    The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organisation comprising five countries in East Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Pierre Nkurunziza, the President of the Republic of Burundi, is the EAC's current Chairman. The organisation was originally founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, and was officially revived on July 7, 2000. In 2008, after negotiations with the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the EAC agreed to an expanded free trade area including the member states of all three. The EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community. The East African Community is a potential precursor to the establishment of the East African Federation, a proposed federation of its five members into a single state. In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods, labour and capital within the region, with the goal of a common currency by 2012 and full political federation in 2015. The geographical region encompassed by the EAC covers an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, with a combined population of about 132 million (July 2009 est.) Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have
    6.00
    2 votes
    193
    International Telecommunication Union

    International Telecommunication Union

    • Date founded: 1865-05-17
    • Sectors: Telecommunications
    The International Telecommunication Union (Union internationale des télécommunications, in French), previously the International Telegraph Union, is the specialized agency of the United Nations which is responsible for information and communication technologies. ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world and establishes worldwide standards. ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks. ITU is based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group and its membership includes 193 Member States and around 700 Sector Members and
    6.00
    2 votes
    194
    Kappa Alpha Theta

    Kappa Alpha Theta

    • Date founded: 1870-01-27
    Kappa Alpha Theta (ΚΑΘ), also known as Theta, is an international fraternity for women founded on January 27, 1870 at DePauw University, formerly Indiana Asbury. Theta is the first Greek letter fraternity for women. The organization currently has over 130 chapters at colleges and universities across the United States and Canada with a total initiated membership of over 250,000, and over 195 alumnae chapters and circles worldwide. Kappa Alpha Theta is a member of the National Panhellenic Conference (NPC). Kappa Alpha Theta was founded in 1870 to give women a support group in the then mostly male college world at Indiana Asbury, now DePauw University. Indiana Asbury, as the university was known then, officially opened its doors to women in 1867, thirty years after the college was first established. Four women, Elizabeth McReynolds Locke Hamilton (Bettie Locke), Alice Olive Allen Brant (Alice Allen), Elizabeth Tipton Lindsey (Bettie Tipton), and Hannah Virginia Fitch Shaw (Hannah Fitch), sought to create an organization for women that would provide the encouragement and support that would draw women to coeducational colleges. Kappa Alpha Theta's ritual, organizational structure,
    6.00
    2 votes
    195
    Lambda Theta Alpha

    Lambda Theta Alpha

    • Date founded: 1975-12
    Lambda Theta Alpha (ΛΘA) is a Latina sorority in the United States established in 1975 making it the first Latina sorority in the nation. The idea for Lambda Theta Alpha began in the late 1970s, when colleges and universities experienced an influx of Latino enrollment; the organization was founded at Kean University in 1975 with by seventeen women of Latin, Caribbean, and European descent. The sorority remains open to women of all races and ethnicities. It is an academic-based organization that stresses social justice and activism. Undergraduate chapters are present at the following schools
    6.00
    2 votes
    196
    Museum of Modern Art

    Museum of Modern Art

    • Date founded: 1929
    • Founders: Abby Aldrich Rockefeller
    The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. It has been important in developing and collecting modernist art, and is often identified as the most influential museum of modern art in the world. The museum's collection offers an unparalleled overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, drawings, painting, sculpture, photography, prints, illustrated books and artist's books, film, and electronic media. MoMA's library and archives hold over 300,000 books, artist books, and periodicals, as well as individual files on more than 70,000 artists. The archives contain primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art. It also houses a restaurant, The Modern, run by Alsace-born chef Gabriel Kreuther. The idea for The Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1928 primarily by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller (wife of John D. Rockefeller Jr.) and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan. They became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in
    6.00
    2 votes
    197
    The United States Constitutional Convention

    The United States Constitutional Convention

    The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 14 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain. Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution, placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States. The most contentious disputes revolved around the composition and election of the Senate, how "proportional representation" was to be defined (whether to include slaves or other property), whether to divide the executive power between three persons or invest the power into a single president, how to elect the president, how long
    6.00
    2 votes
    198
    UC Berkeley College of Engineering

    UC Berkeley College of Engineering

    • Date founded: 1931
    The College of Engineering is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley. The College of Engineering is ranked second in the nation, after MIT, according to the 2010 U.S. News & World Report rankings; It houses one of the most highly regarded and prestigious engineering programs in the world. The college was established in 1931 from a merger of the Colleges of Mechanics and the College of Civil Engineering. The College of Mining was integrated into the college in 1942. The college is currently situated in 11 buildings on the northeast side of the central campus, and also operates at the 150 acre (607,000 m²) Richmond Field Station. There are 54,000 living graduates of the College of Engineering, living in all 50 states and nearly 100 countries, with the majority living in California. The College of Letters and Science also offers a Bachelor of Arts in computer science, which requires many of the same courses as the College of Engineering's Bachelor of Science in EECS, but has different admissions and graduation criteria. Berkeley's chemical engineering department is under the College of Chemistry. All research facilities are managed by one of five
    6.00
    2 votes
    199
    5.50
    2 votes
    200
    Edgeio

    Edgeio

    • Founders: Michael Arrington

    Edgeio is all about edge publishing. They believe that services that try to restrict how users create and consume information cannot ultimately be successful. Users own their data, and services exist not to silo that data, but rather to add value to it. That is what Edgeio is setting out to do.

    5.50
    2 votes
    201
    Microsoft

    Microsoft

    • Date founded: 1975-04-04
    • Founders: Bill Gates
    Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington that develops, manufactures, licenses and supports a wide range of products and services related to computing. The company was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975. Microsoft is the world's largest software maker measured by revenues. It is also one of the world's most valuable companies. Microsoft was established to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. The company's 1986 initial public offering, and subsequent rise in its share price, created an estimated three billionaires and 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions. In May 2011, Microsoft acquired Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in its largest acquisition to date. As of 2012, Microsoft is market dominant in both the PC operating system and office suite markets (the latter with Microsoft
    4.67
    3 votes
    202
    Falcons Order - Gamma Lambda Kappa

    Falcons Order - Gamma Lambda Kappa

    Falcons Order - Gamma Lambda Kappa is an International Service Fraternity and Sorority. The Fraternity is open to all bonafide college students from all cultures, religious backgrounds and interest. Since the day it was founded, The Wings of Brotherhood has successfully spread through- out the Philippine archipelago. In 1973, a group of Law students from Ateneo de Zamboanga, Zamboanga City, Philippines, formed a secret society called "LAMBDANS". The goal of the society was to foster the spirit of brotherhood among Law students. However, because of the growing popularity of Fraternities in the campus, members and officers of the Lambdans society deliberated for months and came to an agreement that the Lambdans society had to drop its current status as a society and chose the Greek-letters Gamma Lambda Kappa (￐モᅫロᅫレ) as the name of the Fraternity. In the 1980's the Fraternity re-constructed the GALKAN by-laws so that the Fraternity would open its doors to the undergraduates, the move was successful and by that time, the Fraternity grew and had more than fifty members on campus, it was also at that time when Gamma Lambda Kappa Fraternity adopted the name Falcons as its second
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    Gamma Psi Lambda

    Gamma Psi Lambda

    Gamma Psi Lambda Christian Fellowship, Inc., (ΓΨΛ) is a Co-Ed based Christian Fraternity Fraternal Organization comprising Collegiate Based Membership as well as a Professional Based Membership. Currently there are Chapters in Georgia, Arizona, Alabama, North Carolina. Founded on the campus of Fort Valley State University on October 21, 1999. The need was based for a True Christian Fellowship that the other Student Organizations could not offer. The purpose of Gamma Psi Lambda Christian Fellowship, Inc., is to uplift Christ and strengthen the community as well as make campus life better for students by upholding the principles Fellowship, Leadership Development, Outreach, Caring, Knowledge and Service. The men and women of Gamma are dedicated to learning more about ourselves as well as the people they encounter. By acting within moral laws and doing what is right by others, respecting our environment, and building the bondbetween us and all of those we encounter. "Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you
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    Indian School of Business

    Indian School of Business

    • Date founded: 2001
    • Founders: Rajat Gupta
    The Indian School of Business is a business school in India with campuses in Hyderabad and Mohali. It offers an MBA-equivalent Post Graduate Programme (PGP), an executive MBA-equivalent Post-Graduate Programme in Management for Senior Executives (PGPMAX) and a doctoral-equivalent Fellow Programme in Management (FPM) as well as short-duration and part-time executive education programs for middle and senior management. The school was founded by two senior executives of McKinsey and Company and is governed by a board comprising both Indian and non-Indian businessmen. ISB maintains close associations with Wharton, the Kellogg School of Management, and the London Business School, referred to as "founding associate schools." Additional associate schools later included MIT Sloan and The Fletcher School. The school's Post Graduate Programe was ranked #20 in the world in the 2012 Financial Times Global MBA Rankings, down from #13. ISB was started in 1996 by a group of business leaders and academicians who recognized the need for a globally ranked business school in Asia. Co-founders and McKinsey & Company senior executives Rajat Gupta and Anil Kumar worked closely together and directed
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    Kappa Sigma Fraternity

    Kappa Sigma Fraternity

    • Founders: Manuel Chrysoloras
    Kappa Sigma (ΚΣ), commonly nicknamed Kappa Sig, is an international fraternity with currently 305 active chapters and colonies in North America. Kappa Sigma has initiated more than 290,000 men on college campuses throughout the United States and Canada. Today, the Fraternity has over 196,000 living alumni and more than 16,000 undergraduate members. In 2012, the Fraternity "pledged more men than any other fraternity in history." It is one of the leaders of all American fraternities in terms of pledges and new initiates per year, service hours, and philanthropic donations. Its endowment fund, founded in 1919 is the oldest college fraternity foundation and has donated more than $6.5 million to undergrads since 1948. In 2012 alone, the Fraternity's endowment fund raised over $1 million in donations. Kappa Sigma Fraternity tradition holds that it evolved from an ancient order said to have been founded at the University of Bologna in the Middle Ages. According to some accounts, the order was known as "Kirjath Sepher" and was founded between 1395 and 1400. According to this story, the corrupt governor of the city, one-time pirate and later papal usurper Baldassare Cossa, took advantage of
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    Sigma Nu

    Sigma Nu

    • Founders: James Frank Hopkins
    Sigma Nu (ΣΝ) is an undergraduate secret-letter college fraternity that was founded by James Frank Hopkins, Greenfield Quarles and James McIlvaine Riley at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Virginia shortly after Hopkins witnessed what he considered a hazing ritual by upperclassmen at the Virginia Military Institute. Sigma Nu's existence remained secret until the founders publicly announced their new society on January 1st, 1869, which is the fraternity's recognized birth date. The fraternity has 278 (active and inactive) chapters and colonies throughout the United States and Canada and has initiated over 227,000 members. Sigma Nu, Kappa Alpha Order and Alpha Tau Omega make up the Lexington Triad. The fraternity sponsors various programming including ethical leadership development through its LEAD program and philanthropic events through its Helping Hand Initiative. It recruits new members using its Values Based Recruitment method. Sigma Nu prides itself on its anti-hazing principles, upon which the organization was founded and continues to uphold through its anti-hazing initiative. The fraternity's values are summarized as an adherence to the principles of love, honor,
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    207
    Smithsonian Institution

    Smithsonian Institution

    • Date founded: 1846
    • Founders: Joel Roberts Poinsett
    The Smithsonian Institution ( /smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOH-nee-ən), established 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge", is a group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 137 million items, the Institution's Washington, D.C. nucleus of nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo—many of them historical or architectural landmarks—is the largest such complex in the world. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, New York City, Virginia, Panama and elsewhere, and 168 other museums are Smithsonian affiliates. The Institutions's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge; funding comes from the Institution's own endowment, private and corporate contributions, membership dues, government support, and retail, concession and licensing revenues. Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines. British scientist James Smithson (d. 1829) left most of his wealth to a nephew, but when the nephew died childless in 1835, under Smithson's will the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of
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    208
    Theta Delta Chi

    Theta Delta Chi

    Theta Delta Chi (ΘΔΧ, Theta Delt) is a social fraternity that was founded in 1847 at Union College. While nicknames differ from institution to institution, the most common nicknames for the fraternity are Theta Delt, Thete, TDX, and TDC. Theta Delta Chi brothers refer to their local organization as Charges rather than using the common fraternity nomenclature of chapter. Theta Delta Chi, the eleventh oldest of the college fraternities, was founded in 1847 at Union College in Schenectady, NY by six members of the class of 1849: William G. Akin, Abel Beach, Theodore Brown, Andrew H. Green, William Hyslop, and Samuel F. Wile. In 1849, Green and Akin along with Francis Martindale (the first initiate), organized the Beta Charge (later renamed Beta Proteron) at Ballston Law School. However, two years later the school itself moved and the new Charge was disbanded and the members put on Alpha's rolls. During the 1850s Theta Delta Chi spread rapidly, adding Charges at Vermont, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, William and Mary, Virginia, Hobart, Wesleyan, Harvard, Brown, Bowdoin, Kenyon, Tufts, Washington and Jefferson, and North Carolina. Few of these remained active for long, although
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    YHA

    YHA

    The Youth Hostels Association (YHA) is a member of Hostelling International, an international federation of hostel associations. YHA and Hostelling International hostels form the world’s first and largest budget accommodation network. The not-for-profit network span over 80 countries and 4000 hostels. Countries with YHAs include New Zealand, Australia and United Kingdom. The YHA, as part of the HI hostel network and with the support of UNESCO, enables young people of differing nationalities, cultures and social background to meet informally, share experiences, learn about themselves, each other and their surroundings. Youth hostels provide accommodation where guests can rent a bed (sometimes a bunk bed) in a dormitory and share a common bathroom, kitchen, and lounge. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms are increasingly common in all types of hostel. All hostels are generally cheaper for both the supplier and the occupant and many hostels employ their long-term residents as desk clerks in exchange for free accommodation. An effort should be made to distinguish between establishments that provide longer term accommodation (often to specific classes of clientèle
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    210
    Library Company of Philadelphia

    Library Company of Philadelphia

    • Founders: Benjamin Franklin
    The Library Company of Philadelphia (LCP) is a non-profit organization based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded by Benjamin Franklin as a library, the Library Company of Philadelphia has accumulated one of the most significant collections of historically valuable manuscripts and printed material in the United States. The current collection size is about 500,000 books and 70,000 other items, including 2,150 items that once belonged to Franklin, the Mayflower Compact, major collections of 17th century and Revolution-era pamphlets and ephemera, maps, and whole libraries assembled in the 18th and 19th centuries. The collection also includes first editions of Moby-Dick and Leaves of Grass. The Library Company was an offshoot of the Junto, a discussion group in colonial Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that gravitated around Benjamin Franklin. On July 1, 1731, Franklin and a number of his fellow members among the Junto drew up articles of agreement to found a library, for they had discovered that their far-ranging conversations on intellectual and political themes foundered at times on a point of fact that might be found in a decent library. In colonial Pennsylvania at the time there were
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    Organization of American States

    Organization of American States

    The Organization of American States (OAS, or, as it is known in the three other official languages, OEA) is a regional international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. Its members are the 35 independent states of the Americas. The notion of an international union in the New World was first put forward by Simón Bolívar who, at the 1826 Congress of Panama, proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, and a supranational parliamentary assembly. This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), Peru, the United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico, but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" was ultimately ratified only by Gran Colombia. Bolívar's dream soon floundered with civil war in Gran Colombia, the disintegration of Central America, and the emergence of national rather than continental outlooks in the newly independent American republics. Bolívar's dream of American unity was meant to unify Latin American nations against imperial domination by external power. The pursuit
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    White Rose

    White Rose

    • Founders: Hans Scholl
    The White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign, lasting from June 1942 until February 1943, that called for active opposition to dictator Adolf Hitler's regime. The six most recognized members of the group were arrested by the Gestapo and beheaded in 1943. The text of their sixth leaflet was smuggled by Helmuth James Graf von Moltke out of Germany through Scandinavia to the United Kingdom, and in July 1943 copies of it were dropped over Germany by Allied planes, retitled "The Manifesto of the Students of Munich." Another member, Hans Conrad Leipelt, who helped distribute Leaflet 6 in Hamburg, was executed on January 29, 1945 for his participation. Today, the members of the White Rose are honoured in Germany amongst its greatest heroes, since they opposed the Third Reich in the face of almost certain death. The core of the White Rose were students from the University of Munich — Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl, St. Alex Schmorell (a canonized New Martyr in the Orthodox Church),
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    Alpha Sigma Phi

    Alpha Sigma Phi

    • Date founded: 1845-12-06
    • Founders: Horace Spangler Weiser
    Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity and Foundation (ΑΣΦ, commonly abbreviated to Alpha Sig) is a fraternity with 82 active chapters and 9 colonies. Founded at Yale in 1845, it is the 10th oldest fraternity in the United States. The fraternity practices many traditions. Their Latin motto is, Causa Latet Vis Est Notissima ("The cause is hidden, the results well-known"). The fraternity's official symbol is the phoenix, as the phoenix rises from the ashes of its old body, signifying the re-founding of the fraternity in the early 1900s. Due to active expansion efforts, Alpha Sigma Phi continues to offer services and opportunities to over 2,500 undergraduate students and 40,000 living alumni. Alpha Sigma Phi was founded by men at Yale College in 1845 as a secret sophomore society composed of many of the school's authors, poets, athletes, and scholars. Upon rising through the ranks of the school, members shared membership with Alpha Sigma Phi in Skull and Bones, Scroll and Key, and eventually Wolf's Head. The founders of Alpha Sigma Phi were: Manigault and Rhea met at St. Paul's Preparatory School near Flushing, New York, where both were members of the same literary society and were preparing
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    California Science Center

    California Science Center

    The California Science Center (sometimes spelled California ScienCenter) is a state agency and museum located in Exposition Park, Los Angeles. Billed as the West Coast's largest hands-on science center, the California ScienCenter is a public-private partnership between the State and the California Science Center Foundation. The museum is also an affiliate in the Smithsonian Affiliations program. Formerly known as the California Museum of Science and Industry, the Museum was remodeled in 1998 as the California Science Center. Currently it consists of the IMAX Theater, the Sketch Foundation Gallery - Air and Space Exhibits (formerly Aerospace Hall), designed by Frank Gehry, and the Science Center itself - including the March 2010 opening of the Ecosystems exhibition wing. The California Science Center hosts the California State Science Fair annually. Once decommissioning of the orbiter is complete, the center will receive the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Aircraft: Manned Spacecraft: Robotic Spacecraft: In 1993, the Museum decided on a long-term renovation and transformation of its role from a science museum to a science education facility. This new facility would be known as the
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    Guggenheim Hermitage Museum

    Guggenheim Hermitage Museum

    The Guggenheim Hermitage Museum was a museum owned and operated by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. It was located in The Venetian Resort Hotel, one of the world's largest hotels, located on the Las Vegas Strip. It was designed by architect Rem Koolhaas and opened on October 7, 2001. It added three more collections and exhibits subsequent to its opening. It was the result of a collaboration agreement between the State Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg, Russia, and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, and its exhibitions featured works held by both institutions. The museum, known as the "Jewel Box", finished its seven-year tenure at The Venetian on May 11, 2008, when it closed permanently. It attracted over 1.1 million visitors with ten exhibitions of masterworks by leading artists from the last six centuries, from Van Eyck, Titian and Velázquez, to Van Gogh, Picasso, Pollock and Lichtenstein.
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    International Maritime Organization

    International Maritime Organization

    • Date founded: 1948-03-06
    • Sectors: Marine conservation
    The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, was established in Geneva in 1948, and came into force ten years later, meeting for the first time in 1959. Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, the IMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations with 170 Member States and three Associate Members. The IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping. IMO is governed by an Assembly of members and is financially administered by a Council of members elected from the Assembly. The work of IMO is conducted through five committees and these are supported by technical subcommittees. Member organizations of the UN organizational family may observe the proceedings of the IMO. Observer status is granted to qualified non-governmental organizations. The IMO is supported by a permanent secretariat of employees who are representative of its members. The secretariat is composed of a Secretary-General who is
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    Saint Mary's College of California

    Saint Mary's College of California

    • Date founded: 1863
    • Founders: Joseph Sadoc Alemany
    Saint Mary's College of California is a private, coeducational college located in Moraga, California, United States, a small suburban community about 10 miles (16 km) east of Oakland and 20 miles east of San Francisco. It has a 420-acre campus in the Moraga hills. It is affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church and administered by the De La Salle Christian Brothers. It is known for its liberal arts education, including its Great Books and Seminar programs, its business program, which in recent years has become the college's most popular program, as well as the nursing program, partnered with Samuel Merritt University, whose campus is in Oakland, and the school of education. The college has seen a lot of success, particularly with its NCAA Division 1 athletic program. Recently the college has garnered national attention for its men's basketball program. Academically, Saint Mary's was ranked the 12th best college in the West by U.S. News & World Report in 2011 and among the top 20 master's colleges by Forbes. The college's official literature states that Saint Mary's mission is guided by three traditions: Catholic, Lasallian and Liberal Arts. St. Mary's College began in 1863 as a
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    218
    Omega Phi Gamma

    Omega Phi Gamma

    • Date founded: 1995-05-21
    Omega Phi Gamma (ΩΦΓ), also known as Omegas or OPhiG, is an Asian-interest fraternity established in the Spring of 1995 at The University of Texas at Austin, with a second chapter founded at the University of Houston in the Spring of 2004. The sisters of Sigma Phi Omega took their fall 1994 Big Brother program and merged it with other close friends of the sorority to form the original fraternity, Beta Omega Phi. What was envisioned by the founding fathers was an Asian-American organization that truly promoted the principles of brotherhood, and an organization that provided a balance between community service and social activity. The founding fathers came together for the first time on November 18, 1994 as Beta Omega Phi. On December 2, 1994, the Betas officially introduced themselves with a new fraternity tradition, the step show. During the Spring of 1995, the Betas began working on gaining a charter from other already established Asian fraternities. However, they were unimpressed with the quality of the fraternities they visited, and so the founders voted unanimously to start a fraternity from scratch, Omega Phi Gamma. On May 21, 1995, the founders met for the first time as Omega
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    America's Promise - The Alliance for Youth

    America's Promise - The Alliance for Youth

    • Founders: Colin Powell
    America's Promise — The Alliance for Youth is a foundation founded by Colin Powell in 1997 to help children and youth from all socioeconomic sectors in the United States. The idea of a presidential summit to encourage greater volunteerism and community service originated with former Michigan Governor and longtime volunteerism leader George W. Romney, in a proposal he drafted just four days before his death in July 1995. In late April 1997, Romney's vision was fulfilled, as Presidents Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, and Gerald Ford and First Lady Nancy Reagan, representing President Ronald Reagan, met at the Presidents' Summit for America's Future in Philadelphia. An estimated 5,000 volunteers were present in Marcus Foster Stadium. Also present were 30 governors, 100 mayors, 145 community delegations, dozens of prominent business leaders and several thousand citizens. Powell was chairman of the conference. At this conference the Presidents asked the nation to make youth a top priority and to support the "Five Promises". Powell subsequently became the Chairman of America's Promise, the outgrowth of the summit. He held that position until his appointment as U.S.
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    Congressional Black Caucus

    Congressional Black Caucus

    • Date founded: 1971
    • Founders: Shirley Chisholm
    The Congressional Black Caucus is an organization representing the black members of the United States Congress. Membership is exclusive to African-Americans, and its chair in the 112th Congress is Representative Emanuel Cleaver of Missouri. The caucus describes its goals as "positively influencing the course of events pertinent to African-Americans and others of similar experience and situation", and "achieving greater equity for persons of African descent in the design and content of domestic and international programs and services." The CBC encapsulates these goals in the following priorities: Closing the achievement and opportunity gaps in education, assuring quality health care for every American, focusing on employment and economic security, ensuring justice for all, retirement security for all Americans, increasing welfare funds and increasing equity in foreign policy. Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson, D-Tex., has said: The Congressional Black Caucus is one of the world's most esteemed bodies, with a history of positive activism unparalleled in our nation's history. Whether the issue is popular or unpopular, simple or complex, the CBC has fought for thirty years to
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    Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum

    Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum

    The Cooper–Hewitt, National Design Museum is a design museum located in New York, New York. It is one of nineteen museums that falls under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution and is one of two Smithsonian museums located in New York City. It is the only museum in the United States devoted to historical and contemporary design. Its collections and exhibitions explore approximately 240 years of design aesthetic and creativity. The museum has one of the world's largest collections of decorative arts. The Cooper-Hewitt Museum was founded in 1896. It was originally named Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration and it fell under the wing of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. In 1895, the granddaughters of Peter Cooper, Sarah Cooper Hewitt, Eleanor Garnier Hewitt and Amy Hewitt Green, asked the Cooper Union for a space to create a Museum for the Arts of Decoration. The museum would take its inspiration from the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris. The museum would serve as a place for Cooper Union students and professional designers to study decorative arts collections. Cooper Union trustees provided the fourth floor of the Foundation Building. It opened in
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    Eudoxa

    Eudoxa

    Eudoxa is a Swedish think tank, formed in 2000. Eudoxa has a transhumanist, and liberal political profile, with a focus on promoting dynamism, emerging technologies, harm reduction policy and discussing the challenges of the environment and the future. It is independent from political parties and other political and religious interest groups. Eudoxa organizes seminars and conferences about these subjects, produces reports for corporations and organizations and promotes public debate. It has a staff consisting both of scientist and humanists, in order to bridge the rift between The Two Cultures on evaluating the effects of emerging technologies, and give a better analysis. Its intellectual inspiration derives much from the book The Future and Its Enemies by Virginia Postrel. Eudoxa has discussed biotechnology, harm reduction, health care, nanotechnology, RFID, and intellectual property. Eudoxa is the Swedish partner in the International Property Rights Index. The think tank currently consists of: Waldemar Ingdahl, Lene Johansen, Alexander Sanchez, Anders Sandberg and Marcus Sjöberg.
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    Goethe-Institut

    Goethe-Institut

    The Goethe-Institut (GI) (German: [ˈɡøːtə ɪnstiˈtuːt]; English: Goethe Institute) is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide, promoting the study of the German language abroad and encouraging international cultural exchange and relations. The Goethe-Institut fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on German culture, society and politics. This includes the exchange of films, music, theatre, and literature. Goethe cultural societies, reading rooms, and exam and language centers have played a role in the cultural and educational policies of Germany for close to 60 years. It is named after German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The Goethe-Institut e.V. is autonomous and politically independent. Partners of the institute and its centers are public and private cultural institutions, the federal states, local authorities and the world of commerce. Much of the Goethe-Institut's overall budget consists of yearly grants from the German Foreign Office and the German Press Office. The relationship with the Foreign Office is governed by general agreement. Self-generated income and contributions from sponsors and patrons, partners and friends broaden
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    Houston Grand Opera

    Houston Grand Opera

    Houston Grand Opera (HGO) Houston Grand Opera (HGO) was founded in 1955 through the joint efforts of Maestro Walter Herbert and cultural leaders Mrs. Louis G. Lobit, Edward Bing and Charles Cockrell. From its modest beginnings – HGO's inaugural season featured a mere two performances of two operas, Salome and Madame Butterfly HGO has grown into a company of international stature that presents six to eight productions per season. HGO's mission is to contribute to the cultural enrichment of Houston and the nation by producing and performing world-class opera, and by creating a diverse, innovative, and balanced program of performances, events, and community and education projects that reach the widest possible public. Its core values are excellence, relevance and affordability. With an operating budget of $20 million in fiscal year 2011 (the 2010/11 season), HGO is a true cultural service provider to the greater Houston area and the Gulf Coast region, serving over 5 million people annually. One of the country's principal commissioners and producers of new works, HGO has introduced 43 world premieres and six American premieres since 1973. HGO has received a Tony Award, two Grammy
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    Institute for International Economics

    Institute for International Economics

    • Date founded: 1981
    • Founders: C. Fred Bergsten
    The Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics (Peterson Institute), formerly the Institute for International Economics, is a private, non-profit, and nonpartisan think tank focused on international economics, based in Washington, D.C. It was founded by C. Fred Bergsten in 1981. The Institute has been ranked as the world's leading think tank in the area of international economics by the Think Tanks and Civil Society Program at the University of Pennsylvania. The Institute was founded by C. Fred Bergsten in 1981, in response to a proposal from the German Marshall Fund. It moved to its current award-winning building on Massachusetts Avenue in 2001. In 2006, a capital campaign led to the creation of a sizeable endowment, strengthening the Institute's independence. Previously known as the Institute of International Economics, it changed its name that same year in recognition of Peter G. Peterson's role in the capital campaign and for his longstanding support of the Institute since the early 1980s. In May 2012, the Institute announced that Adam S. Posen would succeed Bergsten as President, with effect on January 1, 2013. The Institute's annual budget is about $11 million
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    Tall Ships Youth Trust

    Tall Ships Youth Trust

    • Sectors: Sailing
    Tall Ships Youth Trust is a sail training organisation in the United Kingdom that currently owns and operates a two mast brig, the Stavros S Niarchos, and four 22m/72 ft Challenger class racing yachts. The Tall Ships Youth Trust, formerly the Sail Training Association, based in Portsmouth and Liverpool, is a charity registered with the Charity Commission.. No sane reason was ever given for changing the name from STA to TYTS. It was founded in 1956 and is dedicated to the personal development of young people aged 16 to 25 through the crewing of tall ships. It also works to promote sail training around the world. Thanks to this work with young people, Tall Ships is a member of The National Council for Voluntary Youth Services (NCVYS). The Tall Ships Youth Trust has operated a variety of craft; it used to own TS KI Sir Winston Churchill and TS K2 Malcolm Miller. These two three-masted topsail schooners are now privately owned and in the Mediterranean. Recently the TSYT operated a second sister-ship in addition to Stavros S Niarchos, the Prince William. However Prince William was removed from operational status at the end of 2007, to make way for the new Challenge 72 class yachts. In
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    227
    Theta Kappa Nu

    Theta Kappa Nu

    • Date founded: 1924-06-09
    Theta Kappa Nu (ΘΚΝ) Fraternity was founded on June 9, 1924, at Springfield, MO. Delegates from eleven local fraternities from nine different states united to form the new fraternity. Led by the Four Founders, Theta Kappa Nu became the fastest growing fraternity ever, chartering forty chapters in just over two years. Most of Theta Kappa Nu’s chapters had been previously established at small, private colleges as local fraternities. The fraternity placed great emphasis on academics, offering graduate scholarships throughout its history, even during dire financial crises. The Great Depression hit small colleges, and thus Theta Kappa Nu, very hard. Expansion nearly ceased and chapters began closing in the early 1930s. By the end of the decade fraternity leaders realized that a merger with another fraternity was needed to continue. Throughout its lifetime, leaders of Theta Kappa Nu had established numerous friendships with those of Lambda Chi Alpha, which had preferred chapters at larger institutions. Initial informal talks quickly led to a formal merger committee. In 1939, Lambda Chi Alpha merged with the Theta Kappa Nu Fraternity. The ceremony was held at the Howard College, now
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    228
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute

    • Date founded: 1865
    • Founders: Ichabod Washburn
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) is a private university located in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States. The university is one among a small group of polytechnic universities in the United States which tend to be primarily devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences. Founded in 1865 in Worcester, WPI was one of the United States' first engineering and technology universities. WPI's 14 academic departments offer more than 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science, engineering, technology, management, the social sciences, and the humanities and arts, leading to bachelor's, master's and PhD degrees. WPI's faculty works with students in a number of research areas, including biotechnology, fuel cells, information security, materials processing, and nanotechnology. Students may participate with worldwide communities and organizations through the university's innovative Global Perspective Program. There are 25 WPI project centers throughout North America and Central America, Africa, Australia, Asia, and Europe. Worcester Polytechnic Institute ranks No. 11 among "Best Engineering Colleges By Salary Potential" in the United States. Worcester
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    Alpha Delta Phi

    Alpha Delta Phi

    • Date founded: 1832-10-29
    • Founders: Samuel Eells
    Alpha Delta Phi (ΑΔΦ, also Alpha Delt, or ADPhi) is a Greek-letter social college fraternity and the fourth-oldest continuous Greek-letter fraternity in the United States and Canada. Alpha Delta Phi was founded on October 29, 1832 by Samuel Eells at Hamilton College and includes former U.S. Presidents, Chief Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. Senators among its 50,000+ alumni. Today, the name refers to both the all-male fraternity and the Alpha Delta Phi Society, which separated from the fraternity in 1992 and permits co-educated chapters. The Fraternity and the Society are both derived from Eells's vision for a "literary society," with each chapter upholding its literary tradition. The Dartmouth College chapter was the inspiration for National Lampoon's Animal House. Alpha Delta Phi was the first fraternity to establish a chapter west of the Allegheny Mountains when it formed a chapter at Miami University in 1833. This chapter inspired the formation of three national fraternities at Miami in the 19th Century. Alpha Delta Phi was also a charter member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference (formerly known as the National Interfraternity Conference) (NIC), and a
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    230
    Alpha Omicron Pi

    Alpha Omicron Pi

    • Date founded: 1897-01-02
    • Founders: Jessie Wallace Hughan
    Alpha Omicron Pi (ΑΟΠ, AOII) is an international women's fraternity promoting friendship for a lifetime, inspiring academic excellence and lifelong learning, and developing leadership skills through service to the Fraternity and community. ΑΟΠ was founded on January 2, 1897 at Barnard College on the campus of Columbia University in New York. Its founders were Stella George Stern Perry, Helen St. Clair Mullan, Elizabeth Heywood Wyman, and Jessie Wallace Hughan. The four founders met in the Columbia Law Library to begin their fraternity and to forever seal their friendships and the friendships of all future members. The philosophy which the founders guided their principals included membership to women who share their belief in lifelong friendship, service and love. Membership should be offered to women regardless of ethnicity, religion or socio-economic background. Because the founders had ethnicities that included Jewish and Catholic backgrounds, this ideal was in place from the very beginning. Today, Alpha Omicron Pi is an international women's fraternity, with 193 collegiate chapters and 320 alumnae chapters in Canada and the U.S.A. Its international headquarters is located in
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    231
    Beta Sigma Theta

    Beta Sigma Theta

    • Date founded: 1973-06-06
    Beta Sigma Theta (ΒΣΘ) is one of three remaining local fraternities at Michigan Technological University. The objectives of Beta Sigma Theta are: Beta Sigma Theta evolved from a chapter of Gamma Delta, an international Lutheran student organization organized in 1946. In Spring 1961, Dr. Hahn of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church, referred several of Gamma Delta's male members to Beta Sigma Psi, a national fraternity for Lutheran men. Delegates from the group were sent to the Beta Sigma Psi national conventions in Lincoln, Nebraska in Spring 1961 and Spring 1962. They were encouraged by Beta Sigma Psi to start a new colony at Houghton. On April 4, 1962, the group met for the first time officially, adopted a local constitution, elected officers and selected the name Alpha Zeta Chi for the colony. By the end of May 1962, the "Alpha Zets" had voted to accept Brother Dave Kallio's paddle design as the official design of the fraternity. They also formed an honorary alumni chapter consisting of local Lutheran businessmen and university professors. On October 6, 1962, sixteen members and six honorary alumni of Alpha Zeta Chi were initiated into the National Fraternity of Beta Sigma Psi as
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    232
    Beta Theta Pi

    Beta Theta Pi

    • Date founded: 1839-08-08
    Beta Theta Pi (ΒΘΠ), is one of the oldest social collegiate fraternities in North America. It was founded in 1839 at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA. The fraternity currently consists of approximately 140 active chapters and colonies in the United States and Canada. Over 190,000 (2010) members have been initiated worldwide, with approximately 133,000 living initiated members. There are currently more than 8,000 undergraduate members. The fraternity's administrative office is located at 5134 Bonham Road, Oxford, Ohio. The main driveway to the administrative office in 2006 was renamed "Lugar-Bates Drive" in appreciation for the work that Senator Richard Lugar Denison '54 and Bert Bates Missouri '56 performed in a $20 million "Upon These Principles" capital campaign. Beta Theta Pi is one of three major fraternities that, collectively, form a group called the Miami Triad due to their common founding at Miami University. Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi are the other members. The purpose of Beta Theta Pi was laid out publicly in 1879, when Beta Theta Pi became the first college fraternity to publish its constitution. The Fraternity continues to guard certain secrets about membership
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    233
    Burning Spear Society

    Burning Spear Society

    • Date founded: 1993
    Burning Spear is a leadership honorary society at The Florida State University, created in 1993 and originally named the Charlie Ward for Heisman Coalition. Burning Spear was founded on July 14, 1993 by three student leaders who recognized an opportunity to unite students, faculty, alumni, and community members who all shared a desire to make Florida State University one of the world's leading institutions of higher education. The founders believed that leadership and character of exceptional quality should be recognized, and that all Seminoles should meet and work together on a basis of mutual interests, ideals, and love of their alma mater. By August 1993, sixteen diverse student leaders joined together to charter this new organization, and within one year's time seven additional students would be initiated into membership. Burning Spear is fully integrated and has a strong history of inclusion of persons of different gender and race. Burning Spear was rated the Best New Campus Organization for the 1993–94 school year in the State of Florida by the Florida Leader Magazine. Burning Spear serves as the host of the Clock & Seal annual homecoming banquet at FSU. Former keynote
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    234
    Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh

    Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh

    • Founders: Andrew Carnegie
    Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh are four museums that are operated by the Carnegie Institute headquartered in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Museum was added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 30, 1979. Two of the Carnegie museums, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History and the Carnegie Museum of Art, are both located in the Carnegie Institute and Library complex in Oakland, a landmark building listed on the National Register of Historic Places (ref #79002158, added 1979) that also houses the Carnegie Music Hall and the main branch of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. The other two museums, The Andy Warhol Museum and the Carnegie Science Center, are located in separate facilities on Pittsburgh's North Shore. Opened on May 15, 1994, the Andy Warhol Museum is the largest museum in the world dedicated to one artist. The museum's collection includes over 4,000 Warhol art works in all media - paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, sculptures, and installation; the entire Andy Warhol Video Collection, 228 four minute Screen Tests, and 45 other films by Warhol; and extensive archives, most notably Warhol's Time Capsules. While dedicated to Andy
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    235
    Carnegie Science Center

    Carnegie Science Center

    The Carnegie Science Center, located in the Chateau neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, opened in 1991. With a history that dates to October 24, 1939, the Carnegie Science Center is the most visited museum in Pittsburgh. Among its attractions are the newly constructed Buhl Digital Dome (which features the latest in projection), the Rangos Omnimax Theater, the Miniature Railroad & Village, the USS Requin (a World War II submarine) and roboworld, touted as "the world's largest permanent robotics exhibit" with more than 30 interactive displays featuring "all things robotic", including the first physical home for Carnegie Mellon University’s Robot Hall of Fame. Under the leadership of Robert Wilburn, Buhl Science Center merged with the Carnegie Institute and a new $40 million Carnegie Science Center was constructed. Media related to Carnegie Science Center at Wikimedia Commons
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    236
    Delta Sigma Theta

    Delta Sigma Theta

    • Date founded: 1913-01-13
    Delta Sigma Theta (ΔΣΘ) is a not-for profit Greek-lettered sorority of college-educated women who perform public service and place emphasis on the African American community. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority was founded on January 13, 1913, by 22 collegiate women at Howard University. These students wanted to use their collective strength to promote academic excellence and to provide assistance to persons in need. The first public act performed by the Delta founders involved their participation in the Women's Suffrage March in Washington D.C., March 1913. Delta Sigma Theta was incorporated in 1930. Today, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority is the largest African-American Greek-lettered sorority in the world. Membership in Delta Sigma Theta is open to any woman who meets the membership requirements, regardless of religion, race, or nationality. Women may join through undergraduate chapters at a college or university, or after acquiring a college degree through an alumnae chapter. A sisterhood of more than 300,000 predominantly Black college-educated women, the sorority currently has over 1,000 chapters located in the United States, England, Japan (Tokyo and Okinawa), Germany, the Virgin Islands,
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    237
    East Bay Community Law Center

    East Bay Community Law Center

    A core value of our society is equal access to justice. The complex nature of the legal system limits equal access, especially for people in poverty and those faced with language and cultural barriers. Well-trained legal advocates should be available to all people, regardless of economic status. To that end, EBCLC provides:

    • desperately-needed legal services to the low-income community in the areas of housing, welfare, HIV & health, homelessness and economic development; and
    • hands-on clinical education to law students to make these future lawyers aware of and skilled in addressing the needs of indigent communities.

    Since its founding in 1988 by law students at UC Berkeley's Boalt Hall School of Law, EBCLC has become the largest provider of free legal services in the East Bay and a nationally-recognized poverty law clinic.

    EBCLC's work makes the lives of East Bay community members more healthy, secure, productive, and hopeful.

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    238
    Eravita, Inc.

    Eravita, Inc.

    • Founders: Patrick Tardif
    Eravita, Inc. was formed to build and house the Story of My Life website, partner with the non-profit Story of My Life Foundation which is entrusted with funds to maintain and assure continued access to people’s Stories in perpetuity, and to offer additional services and programs to help people write their Stories, and enrich them using modern multi-media such as pictures, video, audio files and more.
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    239
    Federal Reserve System

    Federal Reserve System

    • Date founded: 1913
    • Founders: Woodrow Wilson
    The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve, and informally as the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913 with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907. Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System have expanded and its structure has evolved. Events such as the Great Depression were major factors leading to changes in the system. The Congress established three key objectives for monetary policy—maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates—in the Federal Reserve Act. The first two objectives are sometimes referred to as the Federal Reserve's dual mandate. Its duties have expanded over the years, and today, according to official Federal Reserve documentation, include conducting the nation's monetary policy, supervising and regulating banking institutions, maintaining the stability of the financial system and providing financial services to depository institutions, the U.S. government, and foreign official institutions. The Fed also conducts research into the economy and
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    240
    Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute

    Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute

    • Sectors: History
    The Roosevelt Institute is a progressive non-profit organization devoted to carrying forward the legacy and values of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt by developing progressive ideas and bold leadership in the service of restoring America's health and security. It has offices located in New York, New York, Hyde Park, New York, and Washington, D.C.. The Roosevelt Institute was initially created through the merger of three Roosevelt family organizations in 1987: The purpose of these organizations was not to memorialize Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, but rather to promote the study of the momentous era in which they played such prominent roles and to inspire others to carry forward their public legacy. A series of organizational mergers followed the celebrations, programs, and events that took place around the centennials of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt’s births in 1982 and 1984, respectively. In 1982, the Franklin D. Roosevelt Foundation merged with the Four Freedoms Foundation to strengthen their shared mission of bringing contemporary relevance to the history of the Roosevelt era. In 1987, the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute merged with the FDR Four Freedoms Foundation and the new
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    241
    International Institute for Strategic Studies

    International Institute for Strategic Studies

    The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. It describes itself as "the world’s leading authority on political-military conflict". Since 1997 its headquarters have been Arundel House, in London. Founded in 1958, with its original focus nuclear deterrence and arms control, the IISS has strong establishment links with former US and British government officials among its members. The institute claims that it "was hugely influential in setting the intellectual structures for managing the Cold War." The current Director-General and Chief Executive is Dr John Chipman CMG. The Chairman of the Council is Francois Heisbourg, a former Director. Sir Michael Howard, the British military historian, is President Emeritus. Sir Michael founded the institute together with the British Labour M.P. Denis Healey (Defence Secretary 1964-1970 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1974-1979) and journalist Alastair Buchan. The IISS describes itself as a The Institute claims 2,500 Individual Members and 450 Corporate and Institutional Members from more than 100 countries. The IISS publishes The Military Balance, an
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    242
    John Wiley & Sons

    John Wiley & Sons

    • Date founded: 1807
    John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, (NYSE: JWA) is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields. The company produces books, journals, and encyclopedias, in print and electronically, as well as online products and services, training materials, and educational materials for undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education students. Founded in 1807, Wiley is known for publishing For Dummies and the Frommer's travel series, as well as the Webster's New World Dictionary and CliffsNotes. As of 2011, the company had 5,100 employees and a revenue of US$1.7 billion. Wiley was established in 1807 when Charles Wiley opened a print shop in Manhattan. The company was the publisher of such 19th century American literary figures as James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, and Edgar Allan Poe, as well as of legal, religious, and other non-fiction titles. Wiley later shifted its focus to scientific, technical, and engineering subject areas, abandoning
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    243
    OASIS

    OASIS

    • Founders: Larry Bohn
    The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) is a global consortium that drives the development, convergence, and adoption of e-business and web service standards. With its headquarters in the United States, members of the consortium decide how and what work is undertaken through an open, democratic process. Technical work is carried out under the following categories: Web Services, e-Commerce, Security, Law & Government, Supply Chain, Computing Management, Application Focus, Document-Centric, XML Processing, Conformance/Interop, and Industry Domains. OASIS was first formed as SGML Open in 1993 as a trade association of SGML tool vendors to cooperatively promote the adoption of SGML through mainly educational activities, though some amount of technical activity was also pursued including an update of the CALS Table Model specification and specifications for fragment interchange and entity management. In 1998, with the movement of the high tech industry to XML, SGML Open changed its emphasis from SGML to XML, and changed its name to OASIS Open to be inclusive of XML and any future structured information standards. The focus of the consortium's
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    244
    Royal Society of Arts

    Royal Society of Arts

    • Founders: William Shipley
    The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. It is usually known as the Royal Society of Arts for brevity (and on the building's frieze The Royal Society of Arts — see photograph). The Society was founded in 1754 and was granted a Royal Charter in 1847. Charles Dickens, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin, Karl Marx, William Hogarth, John Diefenbaker and Stephen Hawking are some of the notable RSA's members and it has today more than 27,000 Fellows from 70 countries worldwide. The RSA's Medal winners include Nelson Mandela, Sir Frank Whittle, and Professor Stephen Hawking. The RSA Medals, named Albert Medal, the Benjamin Franklin Medal and the Bicentenary Medal, are still awarded. The RSA members are still among the innovative contributors to the human knowledge, as shown by the Oxford English Dictionary which records the first use of the term "sustainability" in an environmental sense of the word in the RSA's Journal in 1980. The RSA was granted a Royal Charter in 1847, i.e. the right to use the term Royal in its name by King Edward VII in 1908. On the RSA building's frieze The Royal
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    245
    Sigma Xi Epsilon

    Sigma Xi Epsilon

    • Date founded: 2004-10-04
    ᅫᆪᅫ゙ᅫユ (Sigma Xi Epsilon), commonly nickname Sigma or SXE, is a locally chartered social fraternity for male college students at St. Joseph's College, New York. As of May 2008, it has 42 total brothers. The name Sigma Xi Epsilon came about because the symbols represent a transforming E. This transformation signifies the journey that takes place in joining and participating in the Sigma Xi Epsilon fraternity, and throughout one's life. On October 4, 2004, Joseph Pugliese stood in front of the Student Government Association, with his charter class sitting in the audience supporting him. After his speech, Sigma Xi Epsilon was approved with a vote of 27-2. Since there was a rise in the male population of St. Joseph's College, along with many contrasting personalities from the existing fraternity on campus, the decision to start a new fraternity came about. The three founders of Sigma Xi Epsilon, Joseph Pugliese, Philip Layh, and John Krupp carefully picked the Charter Class, due to the vast range of personalities that they each inhibited, as well as an Honorary Brother, who due to extenuating circumstances, could not be part of the charter class. The Charter Class consisted of
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    246
    Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

    Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

    • Founders: Frank Lloyd Wright
    The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (often referred to as "The Guggenheim") is a well-known art museum located on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City. It is the permanent home of a renowned and continuously expanding collection of Impressionist, Post-Impressionist, early Modern and contemporary art and also features special exhibitions throughout the year. The museum was established by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in 1939 as the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, under the guidance of its first director, the artist Hilla von Rebay. It adopted its current name after the death of its founder, Solomon R. Guggenheim, in 1952. Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, the cylindrical museum building, wider at the top than the bottom, was conceived as a "temple of the spirit" and is one of the 20th century's most important architectural landmarks. The building opened on October 21, 1959, replacing rented spaces used by the museum since its founding. Its unique ramp gallery extends from just under the skylight in the ceiling in a long, continuous spiral along the outer edges of the building until it reaches the ground level. The building underwent extensive expansion and
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    247
    Southern African Development Community

    Southern African Development Community

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana. Its goal is to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 southern African states. It complements the role of the African Union. The origins of SADC lie in the 1960s and 1970s, when the leaders of majority-ruled countries and national liberation movements coordinated their political, diplomatic and military struggles to bring an end to colonial and white-minority rule in southern Africa. The immediate forerunner of the political and security cooperation leg of today's SADC was the informal Frontline States (FLS) grouping. It was formed in 1980. The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was the forerunner of the socio-economic cooperation leg of today's SADC. The adoption by nine majority-ruled southern African countries of the Lusaka declaration on 1 April 1980 paved the way for the formal establishment of SADCC in April 1980. Membership of the FLS and SADCC sometimes differed. SADCC was transformed into SADC on 17 August 1992, with the adoption by the founding members of
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    248
    The Lonely Island

    The Lonely Island

    • Date founded: 2001
    • Founders: Jorma Taccone
    The Lonely Island is an American comedy troupe composed of Akiva "Kiv" Schaffer, Jorma "Jorm" Taccone, and Andrew David "Andy" Samberg, best known for their comedic music. Originally from Berkeley, California, the group is currently based in New York City. The group broke out due to their collective work from 2005–2011 on Saturday Night Live. Samberg and Schaffer continue to work at the show, with occasional input from Taccone, though Samberg announced at the end of the 37th season that he would not return to SNL. Once on the show, they wrote "Lazy Sunday", a music parody video that became an instant hit on YouTube. In August 2007, the group premiered its first feature film, Hot Rod. Following the success of "Lazy Sunday", the group produced the Emmy-winning "Dick in a Box", "Jizz in My Pants", "Like a Boss", and the Grammy-nominated "I'm on a Boat", which have subsequently had huge success both on SNL and on the internet, and prompted the release of the 2009 album, Incredibad. In 2011, the group released their second album, Turtleneck & Chain, which featured songs from such SNL digital shorts as "I Just Had Sex" featuring Akon, "The Creep", and "Jack Sparrow". The music video of
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    249
    YMCA

    YMCA

    • Founders: George Williams
    The Young Men's Christian Association (commonly known as YMCA or simply the Y) is a worldwide organisation with more than 58 million beneficiaries from 125 national associations. It was founded on 6 June 1844 in London and it aims to put Christian principles into practice by developing a healthy "body, mind and spirit". These three angles are reflected by the different sides of the (red) triangle – part of all YMCA logos. The different local YMCAs are voluntarily affiliated through their national organisations. The national organisations in turn are part of both an Area Alliance and the World Alliance of YMCAs. The World Alliance's main motto is: "Empowering young people" and it is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The oldest organisation that was similar to the YMCA is the Swiss Basel Association, founded in 1787 as the Lediger Verein. In 1834, the Bremen Jünglingsverein was founded in northern Germany. The Nazis would close all German Jünglingsvereine in the 1930s, but they would be re-established after the war as CVJMs. The oldest association in the United Kingdom similar to the YMCA was founded in Scotland in 1824 as Glasgow Young Men's Society for Religious Improvement.
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    250
    Znanost.org

    Znanost.org

    Society znanost.org is a NGO operating mainly in Croatia. Its main focus is in promoting education, science and knowledge-based values. The word znanost in Croatian means "science". znanost.org was founded in February 2002 by a group of a recent graduates from the University of Zagreb, Croatia. Activities during the first year and a half of operation were mostly limited to providing popular science texts. The first major step towards a broader public engagement was the participation in organization of the First Croatian Science Festival for the Croatian national daily newspaper Vjesnik. . The society was contracted by the organizers (Technical Museum in Zagreb, British Council Croatia and the former Croatian Ministry of Science and Technology, since early 2004 part of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports) to build a web site and help organize media coverage for the event. Projects include: A scientific paper Towards quantitative tools for analysing qualitative properties of virtual communities published in INDECS 2(2) contains a simple quantitative analysis of the inner dynamics of znanost.org between March 2003 and January 2004.
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