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Best Organization founder of All Time

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    1
    Jim Balsillie

    Jim Balsillie

    • Organizations founded: Centre for International Governance Innovation
    James Laurence "Jim" Balsillie (born February 3, 1961) is a Canadian businessman and former co-CEO of the Canadian company Research In Motion. He is a member of the Trilateral Commission, a private political organization. With an estimated net worth of $US 800 million (as of June 2011), Balsillie was ranked by Forbes as the 20th wealthiest Canadian and 692nd in the world. Balsillie is a noted athlete and passionate fitness advocate. He was named Athlete of the Year at Trinity College, University of Toronto, plays hockey and golf at competitive levels, and coaches his son's soccer and basketball teams. He currently trains and competes in Men's Long Course Triathlons. Balsillie is also the Honorary Chair of the Peterborough YMCA's Building New Memories Campaign and on March 2, 2007, that same YMCA announced that the new facility they opened the previous month will forever be known as the Balsillie Family YMCA. Balsillie was born in Seaforth, Ontario, and raised in Peterborough, Ontario, where his family relocated in 1966 and he attended Peterborough Collegiate and Vocational School. He received a Bachelor of Commerce degree from Trinity College at the University of Toronto. He earned
    6.78
    9 votes
    2
    Nano Nagle

    Nano Nagle

    • Organizations founded: Presentation Sisters
    Honora "Nano" Nagle (1718 – 26 April 1784) founded the "Sisters of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary" (PBVM) in Ireland (also known as the "Presentation Sisters"). Of the many schools founded by the Presentation Sisters - a number are named after Nano Nagle. At the time of Nagle's birth, English supremacy in Ireland had been consolidated by force, and English determination to hold what had been gained lay behind the long series of laws which sought to destroy Irish Catholic identity, whether that identity found expression in land ownership, civic position, culture or religion. The great houses, traditional source of civic and social leadership, were for the most part destroyed. Exile of bishops, priests, religious, left the Church equally without leadership. Without legal right to exist, forbidden to worship, forbidden to teach, it was a Church seemingly without hope of future. In an economy controlled for the benefit of the powerful, the poor sank into sub-human conditions, beyond the touch of hope. In Ireland's County Cork, on the road which runs between Fermoy and Mallow lies Blackwater Valley with views of the distant Nagle Mountains. Much of this region was once the
    8.17
    6 votes
    3
    Oprah Winfrey

    Oprah Winfrey

    • Organizations founded: The Oprah Winfrey Foundation
    Oprah Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist. Winfrey is best known for her self-titled, multi-award-winning talk show, which has become the highest-rated program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011. She has been ranked the richest African-American of the 20th century, the greatest black philanthropist in American history, and was for a time the world's only black billionaire. She is also, according to some assessments, the most influential woman in the world. Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and later raised in an inner-city Milwaukee neighborhood. She experienced considerable hardship during her childhood, claiming to be raped at age nine and becoming pregnant at 14; her son died in infancy. Sent to live with the man she calls her father, a barber in Tennessee, Winfrey landed a job in radio while still in high school and began co-anchoring the local evening news at the age of 19. Her emotional ad-lib delivery eventually got her transferred to the daytime-talk-show arena, and after boosting a third-rated
    7.67
    6 votes
    4
    Paul Joseph Nardini

    Paul Joseph Nardini

    The Blessed Paul Joseph Nardini, T.O.S.F., (25 July 1821-27 January 1862) was a German diocesan priest and the founder of the religious congregation of the Poor Franciscan Sisters of the Holy Family, also commonly known as the Nardini Sisters, or the Mallersdorfer Sisters from the town where they are now headquartered. He was beatified in 2006 by the Catholic Church. Nardini was born at Germersheim in the Palatinate, then part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, to Margareta Lichtenberger, an unwed mother who gave him the name Paul Joseph Lichtenberger at his birth. The name of his father, an Austrian military engineer, has remained unknown. Margareta was unemployed and thus not able to provide for herself and her son. After two years of living in deep poverty, she turned her son over to her paternal aunt, Maria Barbara Lichtenberger, who was married to Anton Nardini. The couple adopted young Paul and gave him their own surname. They loved the boy and raised him as if he had been their own son, providing him with the best education possible. Nardini displayed extraordinary diligence in his studies and earned excellent grades. In so doing, he drew the attention of several teachers. After he
    7.67
    6 votes
    5
    Richard Martin

    Richard Martin

    • Organizations founded: Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
    Colonel Richard Martin (15 January 1754 – 6 January 1834), was an Irish politician and animal rights activist. Martin was born at Ballynahinch Castle, County Galway, the only son of Robert Martin Fitz Anthony of Birch Hall, County Galway, and the Hon. Bridget Barnwall, a daughter of Robert Barnewall, 12th Baron Trimlestown. Martin was raised at Dangan House, situated on the Corrib River, four miles upriver from the town of Galway. His father's family were Jacobites and one of "The Tribes of Galway", fourteen merchant families who ruled Galway from the 14th to 17th centuries. The Barnwalls were an ennobled family of Norman descent based in the counties of Dublin, Kildare and Meath in Leinster. Bridget Barnwall died when Richard was nine years old. Richard's father later married Mary Lynch, a member of another "Tribal" family, with whom he had sons Robert and Anthony. Though both of his parents were born to Catholics, Richard Martin was raised a Protestant and educated in England. Martin entered the Irish House of Commons in 1776, sitting for Jamestown until 1783. He was appointed High Sheriff of County Galway in 1782. After a break of fifteen years, he was returned to Parliament for
    7.67
    6 votes
    6
    Michael S. Dell

    Michael S. Dell

    • Organizations founded: Michael & Susan Dell Foundation
    Michael Saul Dell (born February 23, 1965) is an American business magnate and author. He is known as the founder and CEO of Dell, Inc., one of the world’s leading sellers of personal computers (PCs). He is ranked as the 41st richest person in the world on 2012 Forbes Billionaires list, with a net worth of US$15.9 billion as of March 2012. In 2011, his 243.35 million shares of Dell stock were worth $3.5 billion, giving him 12% ownership of the company. His remaining wealth of roughly $10 billion is invested in other companies, and managed by a firm called MSD Capital (named after Dell's initials). Michael Dell was born to a well-off, Jewish family, on February 23, 1965. The son of Lorraine Charlotte (née Langfan), a stockbroker and Alexander Dell, an orthodontist, Dell attended Herod Elementary School in Houston, Texas. In a bid to enter business early, he applied to take a high school equivalency exam at age eight. In his early teens, he invested his earnings from part-time jobs in stocks and precious metals. Dell purchased his first calculator at age seven and encountered his first teletype machine in junior high, which he programmed after school. At age 15, after playing with
    6.57
    7 votes
    7
    Leland Stanford

    Leland Stanford

    • Organizations founded: Stanford University
    Amasa Leland Stanford (March 9, 1824 – June 21, 1893) was an American tycoon, industrialist, robber baron, politician and founder of Stanford University. Migrating to California from New York at the time of the Gold Rush, he became a successful merchant and wholesaler, and continued to build his business empire. He served one two-year term as Governor of California after his election in 1861, and later eight years as Senator from the state. As president of Southern Pacific and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific, he had tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California. Stanford was born in 1824 in what was then Watervliet, New York (now the Town of Colonie). He was one of eight children of Josiah and Elizabeth Phillips Stanford. New York State Senator Charles Stanford (1819–1885) was his brother. His immigrant ancestor, Thomas Stanford, settled in Charlestown, Massachusetts, in the 17th century. Later ancestors settled in the eastern Mohawk Valley of central New York about 1720. Stanford's father was a farmer of some means. Stanford was raised on family farms in Lisha Kill and Roessleville (after 1836) areas of Watervliet. The family home in Roessleville was called
    8.60
    5 votes
    8
    University of Michigan

    University of Michigan

    • Organizations founded: Association of American Universities
    The University of Michigan (commonly referred to as Michigan, U-M, UMich, or U of M) is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan. It is one of the original eight Public Ivy universities and is one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities. It has been ranked among the top five research universities in the US, and among the top 20 universities in the world, including one ranking, as high as the 4th best university in the world. U-M also has satellite campuses in Flint and Dearborn. The university was founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, about 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university has physically expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 31 million gross square feet (712 acres or 2.38 km²), and transformed its academic program from a strictly
    8.60
    5 votes
    9
    University of Chicago

    University of Chicago

    • Organizations founded: Association of American Universities
    The University of Chicago (U of C, UC, UChicago, or simply Chicago) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The University consists of the College of the University of Chicago, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into four divisions, six professional schools, and a school of continuing education. The University enrolls approximately 5,000 students in the College and about 15,000 students overall. In 2008, the University spent $423.7 million on scientific research. University of Chicago scholars have played a role in the development of the Chicago school of economics, the Chicago school of sociology, the law and economics movement in legal analysis, the Chicago school of literary criticism, the Chicago school of religion, the school of political science known as behavioralism, and in the physics leading to the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction. The University is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The University of Chicago is affiliated with 87 Nobel Laureates, 49 Rhodes Scholars and 9 Fields Medalists. It was founded by the American
    7.17
    6 votes
    10
    Richard Rusczyk

    Richard Rusczyk

    • Organizations founded: Art of Problem Solving Foundation
    Richard Rusczyk (/ˈrʌzɪk/ or /ˈrʌʒɪk/; Polish: [ˈrustʂɨk]; born 21 September 1971) is the founder of Art of Problem Solving (AoPS) Inc. and a co-author of the Art of Problem Solving textbooks. He is one of the co-creators of the Mandelbrot Competition, and the director of the USA Mathematical Talent Search (USAMTS). He also founded the San Diego Math Circle. Rusczyk graduated from Princeton University in 1993. He served on the board for ARML and managed the Western ARML site at one point. In 1994, Rusczyk and Sandor Lehoczky wrote the Art of Problem Solving books, designed to prepare students for mathematical competitions by teaching them concepts and problem solving methods rarely taught in school. These books lent their name to the company he founded in 2003. After a successful career as a bond trader working for D.E. Shaw & Company, Rusczyk founded AoPS Incorporated, with the purpose of educating students to excel in mathematics and problem solving. AoPS offers a multitude of free resources for students, mathematical classes, which range from Prealgebra to Group Theory and Calculus, as well as hosting one of the largest math forums on the Internet. Most recently, Rusczyk wrote
    9.50
    4 votes
    11
    Irmgard Möller

    Irmgard Möller

    • Organizations founded: Red Army Faction
    Irmgard Möller (also spelled Irmgard Moeller) (born May 13, 1947, Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German militant and a former member of the Red Army Faction (RAF). Her father was a high school teacher and before joining the RAF, she was a student of German studies. According to prison reports, she attempted suicide by stabbing herself in the chest on the morning of October 18, 1977. Of the imprisoned RAF leaders, only Möller survived what is widely assumed (following extensive inquiries) to have been the result of a suicide pact by the group. The other Red Army members Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe died by gunshot or hanging. With the successful Mogadishu raid there was no more chance to escape jail. During the height of the German Autumn the nature of these suicides was believed by supporters and sympathizers to be suspicious given their location in a maximum security prison; Möller herself has always maintained that she did not attempt suicide and that there was no pre-arranged suicide pact between the prisoners. Möller was released from prison in 1995. Today she lives in anonymity.
    8.20
    5 votes
    12
    Mike Lazaridis

    Mike Lazaridis

    • Organizations founded: Centre for International Governance Innovation
    Mihalis "Mike" Lazaridis, OC, O.Ont (Greek: Μιχαήλ Λαζαρίδης; born March 14, 1961, Istanbul, Turkey) is a Greek Canadian businessman, founder and Vice Chairman of Research In Motion (RIM), which created and manufactures the BlackBerry wireless handheld device. As a passionate advocate for the power of basic science to improve and transform the world, in 1999 he founded Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, where he also serves as Board Chair. He is also a former chancellor of the University of Waterloo, and an Officer of the Order of Canada. With an estimated net worth of $US 800 Million (as of June 2011), Lazaridis was ranked by Forbes as the 17th wealthiest Canadian and 651st in the world. Born in Istanbul, Turkey, to Greek parents (specifically Pontic), Lazaridis was five years old when his family moved to Canada in 1966, settling in Windsor, Ontario. At age 12, he won a prize at the Windsor Public Library for reading every science book in the library. In 1979, he enrolled at the University of Waterloo in electrical engineering with an option in computer science. In 1984, Lazaridis responded to a request for proposal from General Motors to develop a network computer
    6.14
    7 votes
    13
    Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt

    • Organizations founded: Americans for Democratic Action
    Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (/ˈɛlɨnɔr ˈroʊzəvɛlt/; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was the longest serving First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women. In the 1940s, Roosevelt was one of the co-founders of Freedom House and supported the formation of the United Nations. Roosevelt founded the UN Association of the United States in 1943 to advance support for the formation of the UN. She was a delegate to the UN General Assembly from 1945 and 1952, a job for which she was appointed by President Harry S. Truman and confirmed by the United States Senate. During her time at the United Nations she chaired the committee that drafted and approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. President Truman called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute
    7.80
    5 votes
    14
    Robert  E. Kahn

    Robert E. Kahn

    • Organizations founded: Corporation for National Research Initiatives
    Robert Elliot "Bob" Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American Internet pioneer, engineer and computer scientist, who, along with Vinton G. Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet. Kahn was born in Brooklyn, New York City, the son of Beatrice Pauline (née Tashker) and Lawrence Kahn, a high school administrator. Through his father, he is related to futurist Herman Kahn. After receiving a B.E.E. degree in electrical engineering from the City College of New York in 1960, Kahn earned M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Princeton University in 1962 and 1964 respectively. After finishing graduate school, he worked for AT&T Bell Laboratories, and then became an assistant professor at MIT. He then worked at Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), where he helped develop the IMP. In 1972, he began work at the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) within ARPA. In the fall of 1972, he demonstrated the ARPANET by connecting 20 different computers at the International Computer Communication Conference, "the watershed event that made people suddenly realize that packet switching was a
    9.00
    4 votes
    15
    Augustine Kandathil Mar

    Augustine Kandathil Mar

    • Organizations founded: Nirmala College
    Mar Augustine Kandathil (b. at Chempu, near Vaikom, in Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, 25 August 1874; d. at Ernakulam, Travancore-Cochin, India, 10 January 1956) was the first and longest serving Metropolitan and Head of the Syro-Malabar Church, the principal Church of the Saint Thomas Christians in India. He was the first Indian to assume powers and reign as an Archbishop of the Catholic Church. He was ordained a priest on 21 December 1901. In 1911, he was ordained Bishop and appointed Co-adjutor to Mar Aloysius Pazheparambil, and in 1919 succeeded the latter as Vicar Apostolic of Ernakulam. He became Archbishop and Head of the Syro-Malabar Church on 21 December 1923 when the Syro-Malabar Hierarchy was founded, and led the church until his demise. He participated in the canonisation of the "Little Flower", Thérèse of Lisieux in 1925 and also visited and came to know at close quarters the activities of the Congregation of Christian Brothers during his visit to Ireland; this inspired the Archbishop to found ithe Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux on 19 March 1931. He was also the senior founder of the Congregation of the Sisters of Nazareth in 1948.
    6.50
    6 votes
    16
    Hildegard Burjan

    Hildegard Burjan

    Hildegard Burjan, born Hildegard Freund (January 30, 1883 in Görlitz, Germany – June 11, 1933, in Vienna, Austria) was the founder of a Catholic religious congregation for women and an Austrian politician. She was beatified by the Catholic Church in 2012. Hildegard Freund was born into a liberal Jewish family in Germany. She studied literature, philosophy and sociology in Switzerland and Berlin and obtained a Ph.D. in 1908. In 1907, she married the Hungarian entrepreneur Alexander Burjan. In 1909 she was surprisingly healed from a grave sickness, which prompted her conversion to Catholicism. She moved with her husband to Vienna, where she bore her only daughter Elisabeth, even though the pregnancy had at times threatened her life. The industrialist's wife soon started to interest herself in the social issues of the day, especially concerning the working conditions and spiritual welfare of the poor.{fact} In 1912, she founded the "Society of Christian women working at home" and in 1918 the "Society for Social Help". Her main achievement however remains the founding of a religious congregation for serving the poor. On October 4, 1919, Hildegard Burjan founded the congregation of
    7.40
    5 votes
    17
    Marie-Dominique Philippe

    Marie-Dominique Philippe

    Marie-Dominique Philippe (September 8, 1912 in Nord (department) – August 26, 2006 in Loire) was a Dominican philosopher and theologian. He was ordained in 1936. He was a professor of philosophy at the University of Fribourg from 1945 to 1982. Although he remained a Dominican he founded the "Community of St. John" in 1975.
    7.40
    5 votes
    18
    E. Nesbit

    E. Nesbit

    • Organizations founded: Fabian Society
    Edith Nesbit (married name Edith Bland; 15 August 1858 – 4 May 1924) was an English author and poet whose children's works were published under the name of E. Nesbit. She wrote or collaborated on over 60 books of fiction for children, several of which have been adapted for film and television. She was also a political activist and co-founded the Fabian Society, a precursor to the modern Labour Party. Nesbit was born in 1858 at 38 Lower Kennington Lane in Kennington, Surrey (now part of Greater London), the daughter of an agricultural chemist, John Collis Nesbit, who died in March 1862, before her fourth birthday. Her sister Mary's ill health meant that the family moved around constantly for some years, living variously in Brighton, Buckinghamshire, France (Dieppe, Rouen, Paris, Tours, Poitiers, Angoulême, Bordeaux, Arcachon, Pau, Bagnères-de-Bigorre, and Dinan in Brittany), Spain and Germany, before settling for three years at Halstead Hall in Halstead in north-west Kent, a location which later inspired The Railway Children (this distinction has also been claimed by the Derbyshire town of New Mills). When Nesbit was 17, the family moved again, this time back to London, living
    8.50
    4 votes
    19
    Hillary Rodham Clinton

    Hillary Rodham Clinton

    • Organizations founded: Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families
    Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( /ˈhɪləri daɪˈæn ˈrɒdəm ˈklɪntən/; born October 26, 1947) is the 67th United States Secretary of State, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She was a United States Senator for New York from 2001 to 2009. As the wife of the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, she was the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. In the 2008 election, Clinton was a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination. A native of Illinois, Hillary Rodham first attracted national attention in 1969 for her remarks as the first student commencement speaker at Wellesley College. She embarked on a career in law after graduating from Yale Law School in 1973. Following a stint as a Congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas in 1974 and married Bill Clinton in 1975. Rodham cofounded the Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families in 1977 and became the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978. Named the first female partner at Rose Law Firm in 1979, she was twice listed as one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America. First Lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992 with husband Bill
    7.20
    5 votes
    20
    Isaac Mayer Wise

    Isaac Mayer Wise

    • Organizations founded: Central Conference of American Rabbis
    Isaac Mayer Wise (March 29, 1819, Steingrub (now Lomnička), Bohemia, Austrian Empire - March 26, 1900, Cincinnati), was an American Reform rabbi, editor, and author. The son of Rabbi Leo Wise, a school-teacher, Isaac received his early Hebrew education from his father and grandfather, later continuing his Hebrew and secular studies in Prague. He may have received the hattarat hora'ah from the Prague bet din, composed of Rabbis Rapoport, Samuel Freund, and E. L. Teweles, or from Rabbi Falk Kohn. In 1843 he was appointed rabbi at Radnitz (now Radnice, by Pilsen), Bohemia, where he remained for about two years. Wise emigrated to the United States in 1846. He arrived in New York on July 23, and in October was appointed rabbi of the Congregation Beth-El of Albany. He soon began agitating for reforms in the service, and his was the first Jewish congregation in the United States to introduce family pews in the synagogue. A mixed choir, and confirmation were also among the innovations introduced by Wise, who even went so far as to count women in forming a minyan or religious quorum. In 1847, at the suggestion of Max Lilienthal, who was at that time stationed in New York, a bet din was
    7.20
    5 votes
    21
    James Madison

    James Madison

    • Organizations founded: Democratic Party
    James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 (O.S. March 5)  – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and political theorist, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). He is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights. He served as a politician much of his adult life. Like other Virginia statesmen in the slave society, he was a slaveholder and part of the élite; he inherited his plantation known as Montpelier, and owned hundreds of slaves during his lifetime to cultivate tobacco and other crops. After the constitution had been drafted, Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify it. His collaboration with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay produced the Federalist Papers (1788). Circulated only in New York at the time, they would later be considered among the most important polemics in support of the Constitution. He was also a delegate to the Virginia constitutional ratifying convention, and was instrumental to the successful ratification effort in Virginia. Like most of his contemporaries, Madison changed his political
    7.20
    5 votes
    22
    Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton

    Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton

    • Organizations founded: Hellfire Club
    Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton (21 December 1698 – 31 May 1731) was a powerful Jacobite politician, notorious libertine and rake, profligate, and alcoholic, was one of the few people in English history, and the first since the 15th century, to have been raised to a Dukedom whilst still a minor and not closely related to the monarch. He was the son of Thomas "Honest Tom" Wharton, the Whig partisan. When Thomas died in 1715, Philip, then 16 years old, succeeded him as 2nd Marquess of Wharton and 2nd Marquess of Malmesbury in the Peerage of Great Britain and 2nd Marquess of Catherlough in the Peerage of Ireland. Just a month after he inherited his titles, he eloped with Martha Holmes, the daughter of Major-General Richard Holmes. Wharton did not get control of his father's extensive estate, for it was put in the care of Philip's mother and Thomas's Whig party friends. Thereafter, young Wharton began to travel. He had been raised with an excellent education and prepared for a life as a public speaker, and Wharton was eloquent and witty. He traveled to France and Switzerland with a severe Calvinist tutor whom he resented. He met with James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender"
    7.20
    5 votes
    23
    Katie Couric

    Katie Couric

    • Organizations founded: The Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health
    Katherine Anne "Katie" Couric (born January 7, 1957) is an American journalist and author. She serves as special correspondent for ABC News, contributing to ABC World News, Nightline, 20/20, Good Morning America, This Week and primetime news specials. Since September 10, 2012, she has hosted Katie, a syndicated daytime talk show produced by Disney-ABC Domestic Television. She has anchored the CBS Evening News, reported for 60 Minutes, and hosted Today and reported for Dateline NBC. She was the first solo female anchor of a weekday evening news program on one of the three traditional USA broadcast networks. Couric's first book, The Best Advice I Ever Got: Lessons from Extraordinary Lives was a New York Times best-seller. As of May 2012, Couric also has a web show for ABC News, entitled Katie's Take, airing weekly on Yahoo. Couric was born in Arlington, Virginia, the daughter of Elinor Tullie (née Hene), a homemaker and part-time writer, and John Martin Couric Jr., a public relations executive and news editor at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution and the United Press in Washington, D.C. Her mother was Jewish, but Couric was raised Presbyterian. Couric's maternal grandparents, Bert Hene
    8.25
    4 votes
    24
    Hilla von Rebay

    Hilla von Rebay

    • Organizations founded: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation
    Hildegard Anna Augusta Elizabeth Freiin Rebay von Ehrenwiesen, Baroness Hilla von Rebay, or simply Hilla Rebay (31 May 1890, Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine – 27 September 1967, Greens Farms, Connecticut), was a notable woman abstract painter in the early 20th century. After immigrating to the United States in 1927, she may be best known for helping Solomon R. Guggenheim collect the art that formed the basis of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, and for selecting Frank Lloyd Wright to design the new museum, which became a modernist icon in New York. She achieved recognition for abstract works and modern styles such as collage and biogmorphic linear oil paintings. Rebay is remembered for being a key person in first exposing the American public to avant-garde art. Hilla von Rebay was born in 1890 into a German aristocratic family in Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine, then part of Prussia. She studied and lived in Berlin, where she started painting and working as an artist. In 1927, von Rebay immigrated to the United States and settled in New York, which was a center of arts and culture. An avid art collector, she became a friend and confidante of Solomon R. Guggenheim, and helped guide his
    7.00
    5 votes
    25
    Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld

    Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld

    • Organizations founded: HaEdah HaCharedis
    Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld, also spelled Zonnenfeld, (1 Dec 1848 –26 Feb 1932) was the Chief Rabbi and co-founder of the Edah HaChareidis, Haredi Jewish community in Jerusalem, during the years of the British Mandate of Palestine. He was originally given the name "Chaim", however, the name "Yosef" was added to him while he experienced an illness. Sonnenfeld was born in Verbó, Hungary (today: Vrbové, Slovakia). His father, Rabbi Avraham Shlomo Zonnenfeld, died when Chaim was five years old. He was a student of Rabbi Samuel Benjamin Sofer (the Ksav Sofer), the son of Rabbi Moses Sofer (the Chasam Sofer). He was also a student of Rabbi Avraham Schag in Kobersdorf (who was himself a disciple of the Chasam Sofer); Sonnenfeld moved from the latter city to Jerusalem in 1873. He became an important figure in Jerusalem's Old City, serving as the right-hand man of Rabbi Yehoshua Leib Diskin and assisting the latter in communal activities, such as the founding of schools and the Diskin Orphanage, and the fight against secularism. He refused to meet with Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany who visited the Old City because he believed that the Emperor was a descendant of the nation of Amalek. Sonnenfeld sent
    9.33
    3 votes
    26
    Gudrun Ensslin

    Gudrun Ensslin

    • Organizations founded: Red Army Faction
    Gudrun Ensslin (German pronunciation: [ˈɡuːdʁuːn ˈɛnsliːn]; 15 August 1940 – 18 October 1977) was a founder of the German militant group Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion, or RAF, also known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang). After becoming involved with co-founder Andreas Baader, Ensslin was influential in the politicization of Baader's voluntaristic anarchistic beliefs. Ensslin was perhaps the intellectual head of the RAF. She was involved in five bomb attacks, with four deaths, was arrested in 1972 and died on 18 October 1977 in what has been called Stammheim Prison's Death Night. Ensslin, the fourth of seven children, was born in the village of Bartholomä in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Her father, Helmut, was a pastor of the Evangelical Church in Germany. Ensslin was a well-behaved child who did well at school and enjoyed working with the Evangelical Girl Scouts, and doing parish work such as organizing Bible studies. In her family, the social injustices of the world were often discussed, and Gudrun is said to have been sensitized to social problems in West Germany and the world as a whole. At age eighteen, Ensslin spent a year in the United States of America, where she attended
    6.00
    6 votes
    27
    Gaspar Bertoni

    Gaspar Bertoni

    Saint Gaspar Louis Bertoni (October 9, 1777 – June 12, 1853) is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church. He was the founder of the Stigmatines.
    6.80
    5 votes
    28
    John of God

    John of God

    John of God (Portuguese: São João de Deus, born João Cidade Duarte) (March 8, 1495 – March 8, 1550) was a Portuguese-born friar and saint, one of Spain's leading religious figures. John of God was born João Cidade in Montemor-o-Novo, Portugal, into a once-prominent family that was impoverished but had great religious faith. His mother died when he was only a small child, and his father joined a monastic order. As a young man, John worked as a shepherd for a farmer who was very pleased with his strength and diligent work. John had an offer to marry the farmer's daughter and become heir to the property; he refused because he wanted to pursue a spiritual life in the service of God. He moved to Spain, where he served as a soldier under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and fought a few battles. After many heroic exploits, he worked disseminating religious books, using the recent moveable type printing press of Johannes Gutenberg to provide people with the Bible. He experienced a major religious conversion on Sebastian's day (January 20), while listening to a sermon by Saint John of Avila, who was later to become his spiritual mentor and would encourage him in his quest to improve the life
    6.80
    5 votes
    29
    Giacomo Alberione

    Giacomo Alberione

    Blessed Giacomo Alberione or James Alberione (4 April 1884 – 26 November 1971), also known as Santiago Alberione, was an Italian priest and publisher, the founder of the Society of St. Paul and the Daughters of St. Paul, besides other orders and institutes of the Pauline Family. He was born on 4 April 1884 in San Lorenzo di Fossano, near Cuneo, northern Italy. He was a seminarian in Bra and Alba and was the spiritual director for youth and altar servers in the Alba seminary. While doing nightly Eucharistic adoration in Alba on 31 December 1900 he suddenly felt that he was called to do something for the people of the new century. He was ordained on 29 June 1907 and became a parish priest in Narzole. He was a director of the weekly publication Gazzetta d'Alba from September 1913. In 1914 he founded the Society of St. Paul, and in 1915 the Daughters of St. Paul, with the support of Mother Thecla. These congregations use modern media technology and published materials to spread the word of God, and help in personal devotions. Later in his life Blessed Giacomo also founded the Pious Disciples of the Divine Master (1924), the Sisters of the Good Shepherd (1938) and the Sisters of the
    7.75
    4 votes
    30
    César Chávez

    César Chávez

    • Organizations founded: United Farm Workers
    César Estrada Chávez (locally: [ˈsesaɾ esˈtɾaða ˈtʃaβes]; March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW). A Mexican American, Chávez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic members. His public-relations approach to unionism and aggressive but nonviolent tactics made the farm workers' struggle a moral cause with nationwide support. By the late 1970s, his tactics had forced growers to recognize the UFW as the bargaining agent for 50,000 field workers in California and Florida. However, by the mid-1980s membership in the UFW had dwindled to around 15,000. After his death he became a major historical icon for the Latino community, and for liberals generally, symbolizing support for workers and for Hispanic power based on grass roots organizing and his slogan "Sí, se puede" (Spanish for "Yes, it is possible" or, roughly, "Yes, it can be done"). His supporters say his work led to numerous
    6.60
    5 votes
    31
    James Bevel

    James Bevel

    • Organizations founded: Making of a Man Clinic
    James L. Bevel (October 19, 1936 – December 19, 2008) was an American minister and leader of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement who, as the Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) initiated, strategized, directed, and developed SCLC's three major successes of the era: the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade, the 1965 Selma Voting Rights Movement, and the 1966 Chicago Open Housing Movement. James Bevel also called for and initially organized the 1963 March on Washington and initiated and strategized the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches, SCLC's two main public gatherings of the era. For his work in the 1960s he has been referred to as the "Father of Voting Rights", the "Strategist and Architect of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement", and as half of the Bevel/King team that formulated and communicated the actions, issues, and dialogues which created the historical changes of the era. Prior to his time with SCLC, Bevel worked in the Nashville Student Movement, where he participated in the 1960 Nashville Sit-In movement, directed the 1961 Open Theater Movement, chose the riders for the 1961 Nashville Student Movement
    5.67
    6 votes
    32
    Joshua Field

    Joshua Field

    • Organizations founded: Institution of Civil Engineers
    Joshua Field (1786 – 11 August 1863) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer. Field was born in Hackney in 1786, his father was John Field a corn and seed merchant who was later to become Master of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors. Field was a pupil of dockyard engineer Simon Goodrich from 1803 to 1805. Commissioned by Samuel Bentham, the Inspector-general of naval works, he worked with Samuel Goodrich to develop tools for mass producing ships' blocks at Portsmouth Dockyard. The block mills they designed required ten unskilled men to take the place of 110 skilled craftsmen, and have been recognised as the first use of machine tools for mass production. They were built by Henry Maudslay between 1802 and 1806, and represented the first steam-powered manufactory in any dockyard. He then joined Maudslay to form the firm of Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field of Lambeth. One of their projects was to build engines for the SS Great Western's Atlantic crossing of 1838. He was a prolific engineer working with the Atlantic Telegraph Company on machinery for cable laying, the Metropolitan Board of Works on sewage systems and Isambard Kingdom Brunel on his steamships. Field
    7.50
    4 votes
    33
    Andreas Baader

    Andreas Baader

    • Organizations founded: Red Army Faction
    Andreas Bernd Baader (6 May 1943 – 18 October 1977) was one of the first leaders of the German left-wing militant organization Red Army Faction, also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang. Andreas Baader was born in Munich on 6 May 1943. He was the only child of historian and archivist Dr. Berndt Phillipp Baader. Berndt Baader served in the German Wehrmacht, was captured on the Russian Front in 1945, and never returned. Andreas was raised by his doting mother, aunt, and grandmother. Baader was a high school dropout and criminal before his Red Army Faction (RAF) involvement. He was one of the few members of the RAF movement who did not attend a university. In 1968 Baader and his girlfriend Gudrun Ensslin were convicted of the arson bombing of a department store in Frankfurt am Main to protest the public's "indifference" to the genocide in Vietnam. DM675,000 in damage was caused; no-one was injured or killed. After being sentenced, Baader and Ensslin fled in November 1969. They were smuggled out of West Germany by sympathizers and made the tour of the left-wing communities of France, Switzerland, and Italy before re-entering West Germany covertly. Baader was later caught at a
    8.67
    3 votes
    34
    Bruce C. Murray

    Bruce C. Murray

    • Organizations founded: Planetary Society
    Bruce C. Murray was born November 30, 1931 in New York, NY. He is a professor emeritus of planetary science and geology at Caltech and was Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from April 1, 1976 to June 30, 1982. He received his Ph.D. in geology from MIT in 1955 and was employed by Standard Oil of California, the USAF, and the United States Civil Service before joining Caltech in 1960. He became an associate professor in 1963, a full professor in 1969, and a professor emeritus in 2001. With Carl Sagan and Louis Friedman, Murray founded The Planetary Society. He also served a term as its chair. Murray was the recipient of the 1997 Carl Sagan Memorial Award. In 2004, Murray was awarded the Telluride Tech Festival Award of Technology in Telluride, Colorado. Murray is married to Suzanne Moss, and they have five children. Asteroid 4957 Brucemurray is named for after him.
    8.67
    3 votes
    35
    Paul Weyrich

    Paul Weyrich

    • Organizations founded: Heritage Foundation
    Paul M. Weyrich (October 7, 1942 – December 18, 2008) was an American conservative political activist and commentator, most notable as a figurehead of the New Right. He co-founded the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank and the Free Congress Foundation, another conservative think tank. He switched from the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church to that of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church and was ordained protodeacon. Born in Racine, Wisconsin to Virginia M. (née Wickstrom) and Ignatius A. Weyrich, Paul Weyrich became involved in politics while a student at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He was active in the Racine County Young Republicans from 1961 to 1963 and in Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign. He spent his early career in journalism as political reporter for the Milwaukee Sentinel newspaper, as political reporter and weekend anchor for WISN-TV (Milwaukee) and in radio, as a reporter for WAXO-FM (Kenosha), WLIP-AM and as news director of KQXI (Denver). In 1966, he became press secretary to Republican U.S. Senator Gordon L. Allott of Colorado. While serving in this capacity, he met Jack Wilson, an aide of Joseph Coors, patriarch of the Coors brewing
    8.67
    3 votes
    36
    Judy Woodruff

    Judy Woodruff

    • Organizations founded: International Women's Media Foundation
    Judy Woodruff (born November 20, 1946) is an American television news anchor and journalist. She is also a writer. During her career, Woodruff has worked at television organizations including CNN, NBC News and PBS. She is a board member at the International Women's Media Foundation and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Woodruff had her first taste of the limelight when at age 17 she won a hometown beauty pageant and was crowned Miss Augusta Junior Miss 1963. After high school, she attended Meredith College and Duke University, where she earned a degree in political science and was involved in the Student Union, the Publications Board, the Alpha Delta Pi sorority and the Associated Students of Duke University (precursor to Duke Student Government). She began her journalism career at local CBS affiliate WAGA-TV, in Atlanta, Georgia, where she served as a news anchor from 1970 to 1975. Woodruff joined NBC News in 1975 and was originally based in Atlanta, where she covered the 1976 U.S. presidential campaign of then-Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter. She served as the chief White House correspondent for NBC News from 1977 to 1982, and covered Washington
    10.00
    2 votes
    37
    Akiva Schaffer

    Akiva Schaffer

    • Organizations founded: The Lonely Island
    Akiva D. Schaffer (born December 1, 1977) is an American writer for Saturday Night Live, film director, songwriter, member of The Lonely Island and actor. Schaffer was born in Berkeley, California. He majored in film at University of California, Santa Cruz. Schaffer directed, co-wrote, and edited the majority of the SNL Digital Shorts. He was the director of '"Lazy Sunday", "I Just Had Sex", "Natalie's Rap", "Dick in a Box", "Peyton Manning for the United Way", "Iran So Far", "Jizz in My Pants", "Boombox", and sang with Samberg and T-Pain in "I'm on a Boat". He also sang in "The Creep" with Samberg and Taccone. He also sang part of the call-and-response in "We're Back!" On the Internet, Schaffer directed The Lonely Island's The 'Bu, the group's record-breaking contribution to Channel 101, which was a parody of The OC and also starred Sarah Chalke (Roseanne, Scrubs) as Melissa, as well as Samberg and Taccone. Schaffer has also contributed to several other Channel 101 productions as part of The Lonely Island. Schaffer has directed four music videos for the band We Are Scientists and one for Eagles of Death Metal. Schaffer also directed and acted in the film Hot Rod, starring Andy
    7.25
    4 votes
    38
    Francis of Assisi

    Francis of Assisi

    • Organizations founded: Franciscan
    Saint Francis of Assisi (born Giovanni Francesco di Bernardone; 1181 – died: October 3, 1226) was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Franciscan Order, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not living monastic lives. Though he was never ordained to the Catholic priesthood, Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant in Assisi, and he lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man, even fighting as a soldier for Assisi. While going off to war in 1204, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, where he lost his taste for his worldly life. On a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the poor in begging at St. Peter's Basilica. The experience moved him to live in poverty. Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon amassed a following. His Order was authorized by Pope Innocent III in 1210. He then founded the Order of Poor Clares, which became an enclosed religious order for women, as well as the Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance (commonly called the Third Order). In 1219, he went to Egypt in an
    7.25
    4 votes
    39
    Saint Pedro Nolasco

    Saint Pedro Nolasco

    • Organizations founded: Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy
    Saint Peter Nolasco (1189–1256), Pere Nolasc in Catalan, Pierre Nolasque in French and Pedro Nolasco in Spanish, is a Catholic saint, born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, Languedoc, today's France, although some historians claim he was born in Barcelona (see Encyclopædia Britannica). It is clear is that he was in Barcelona when he was a teenager, became part of an army fighting the Moors in the Iberian peninsula, and was appointed tutor to the young king, James I of Aragon. In 1218 he formed a congregation of men that became the Royal and Military Order of Our Lady of Mercy of the Redemption of the Captives with approval by Pope Gregory IX in 1230. St. Peter Nolasco was the first Superior and also held the position of Ransomer, the order being concerned with the freeing of Christian prisoners from the Moors. Saint Raymond Nonnatus later succeeded to this position. He died in 1256 in Barcelona, seven years after having resigned as Superior. The order flourished in France, England, Germany, Portugal, and Spain. According to tradition he died on 25 December, but recent studies of the Royal Archives in Barcelona have indicated that he died on 6 May. St. Peter Nolasco was canonized by Pope
    7.25
    4 votes
    40
    Sweden

    Sweden

    • Organizations founded: Council of Europe
    Sweden (/ˈswiːdən/ SWEE-dən; Swedish: Sverige [ˈsværjɛ] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish:  Konungariket Sverige (help·info)), is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders Norway and Finland, and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Øresund. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the third largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of about 9.5 million. Sweden has a low population density of 21 inhabitants per square kilometre (54 /sq mi) with the population mostly concentrated to the southern half of the country. About 85% of the population live in urban areas. Sweden's capital city is Stockholm, which is also the largest city. Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages. In the 17th century, the country expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire. The empire grew to be one of the great powers of Europe in the 17th and early 18th century. Most of the conquered territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries. The eastern half of Sweden, present-day Finland, was lost to Russia in
    7.25
    4 votes
    41
    Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi

    Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi

    • Organizations founded: Hamas
    Dr. Abdel Aziz Ali Abdulmajid al-Rantissi (Arabic: عبدالعزيز علي عبدالمجيد الحفيظ الرنتيسي‎, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Māǧid al-Rantīsī); 23 October 1947 – 17 April 2004) was the co-founder of the Palestinian Islamist organization Hamas with Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. Rantissi was Hamas's political leader and spokesman in the Gaza Strip following the Israeli killing of Hamas spiritual leader Sheikh Ahmad Yassin in March 2004. Like most Hamas members, Rantissi opposed any compromise with Israel and called for the creation of a state of Palestine (including the whole of the State of Israel) through military exertion against the Jewish state. He was considered a terrorist by the United States, the European Union, and Israel for organizing suicide bombings of civilians. Rantissi was quoted by the Chicago Tribune as saying, "We will kill Jews everywhere. There will be no security for any Jews, those who came from America, Russia or anywhere." On 17 April 2004, the Israeli Air Force killed Rantissi by firing Hellfire missiles from an AH-64 Apache helicopter at his car. Rantissi was born in Yibna, near Jaffa. In 1948 Arab-Israeli War, his family fled to the Gaza Strip. In 1956, when he was
    8.33
    3 votes
    42
    Andrzej Małkowski

    Andrzej Małkowski

    • Organizations founded: Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego
    Andrzej Juliusz Małkowski (31 October 1888, Trębki - 15 January 1919) was a Polish Scoutmaster (harcmistrz) activist of youth and independence organisations. He and his wife, Olga, are widely regarded as the founders of Scouting in Poland. To honor his name, his troop wrote a song about him called Na Polanie. Małkowski decided to join the Polish Legions, along with many of the boys in his Scout troop. Before he left, he organised a cottage for his wife and the boys and girls who had no homes, and she opened a café to earn her living. After he left, there was one Boy Scout troop and one large Girl Guide Company of 300 girls. They paraded each morning in the central square and gave reports to and took orders from his wife. They took on a huge number of tasks including supplementing the postal service, organising a children's home, helping with the harvest, and setting up a hospital. In 1915 they were forced to leave Zakopane by the Austrian government, and they moved through Switzerland to the United States. Their son, Lutyk, was born in the United States on 30 October 1915. Afterwards they returned to Switzerland in 1916, where she worked as a teacher and custodian of the Polish
    8.33
    3 votes
    43
    Jorma Taccone

    Jorma Taccone

    • Organizations founded: The Lonely Island
    Jorma Christopher Taccone (pronounced YAWR-mə tə-KOHN-ay; born March 19, 1977) is an American actor, director and writer for comedy films. Taccone is one third of the sketch comedy troupe The Lonely Island along with childhood friends Andy Samberg and Akiva Schaffer. In 2010, he co-wrote and directed the SNL spin-off film MacGruber, which was his directorial debut. Taccone was born in Berkeley, California, the son of Sue Ellen and Tony Taccone, who is the artistic director of the Berkeley Repertory Theatre. He is of Italian and Puerto Rican descent on his father's side. He is a graduate of UCLA Film School. Jorma's brother, Asa Taccone, is a member of the band Electric Guest. In the fall of 2005, Samberg, Taccone, and Schaffer joined the staff of NBC's late night variety show Saturday Night Live. Since then, The Lonely Island has been responsible for creating more than 100 SNL Digital Short films including the YouTube favorites "Lazy Sunday" (featuring Chris Parnell), "Jizz in My Pants", "I'm on a Boat" (featuring T-Pain) and the Emmy-winning "Dick in a Box" (featuring Justin Timberlake). Taccone produces much of the music for The Lonely Island including Lazy Sunday, "Dick in a
    8.33
    3 votes
    44
    Wendell Willkie

    Wendell Willkie

    • Organizations founded: Freedom House
    Wendell Lewis Willkie (/ˈwɛndəl ˈluːɨs ˈwɪlki/; February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a corporate lawyer in the United States and a dark horse who became the Republican Party nominee for president in 1940. A member of the liberal wing of the GOP, he crusaded against those domestic policies of the New Deal that he thought were inefficient and anti-business. Willkie, an internationalist, needed the votes of the large isolationist element, so he waffled on the bitterly debated issue of America's role in World War II, losing support from both sides. His opponent Franklin D. Roosevelt won the 1940 election with 55% of the popular vote and 85% of the electoral vote. Afterward, Roosevelt found Willkie to be compatible politically with his plans and brought him aboard as an informal ambassador-at-large. Willkie criss-crossed the globe on the former army bomber The Gulliver, bringing home a vision of "One World" freed from imperialism and colonialism. Following his journeys Willkie wrote One World; a bestselling account of his travels and meetings with the Allied heads of state, as well as ordinary citizens and soldiers in regions such as Russia and Iran. His liberalism lost him
    8.33
    3 votes
    45
    Cat Cora

    Cat Cora

    • Organizations founded: Chefs for Humanity
    Catherine "Cat" Cora (born January 1, 1968) is a Greek-American professional chef best known for her featured role as an "Iron Chef" on the Food Network television show Iron Chef America and as co-host of Around the World in 80 Plates on Bravo. Cora, a Greek American, was born in Jackson, Mississippi, where she was raised in a Greek community. Her grandfather and father were both restaurateurs. When she was 15 years old, she brought a business plan to her father and grandfather, knowing they could help her. Cora's style of cooking was influenced by Julia Child, Barbara Tropp, M.F.K. Fisher and her grandmother, Alma. After receiving her Bachelor of Science degree in Exercise Physiology and Biology at the University of Southern Mississippi, she enrolled at the Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park, New York. Cora has appeared on Simplify Your Life. She was also a co-host of the Food Network show Kitchen Accomplished. In January 2005 Cora co-founded Chefs For Humanity, which describes itself as "a grassroots coalition of chefs and culinary professionals guided by a mission to quickly be able to raise funds and provide resources for important emergency and humanitarian aid,
    9.50
    2 votes
    46
    Elizabeth Prout

    Elizabeth Prout

    • Organizations founded: The Prout School
    Servant of God Sister Elizabeth Prout, known as Mother Mary Joseph of Jesus, (September 2, 1820 - January 11, 1864). Founder of the Roman Catholic religious institute originally called the Institute of the Holy Family, but known later as the Passionist Sisters or the Sisters of the Cross and Passion. Elizabeth Prout was born in Coleham, Shrewsbury on September 2, 1820. Little is known of her early life, save that she was born to an Anglican mother and a father who was a lapsed Catholic (both of whom later converted to Catholicism) and in her early twenties converted to Catholicism under the influence of the Passionist missionary to England, Blessed Dominic Barberi, as well as another Passionist, Father Gaudentius Rossi. Her conversion was met with great negativity by her parents who had earlier relocated the family to Stone, where the Passionists were working at the time. Elizabeth began to feel a strong attraction to the religious life and Father Gaudentius advised her to join the Sisters of the Infant Jesus in Northampton. In 1848 Elizabeth joined this community where she initially found great happiness, her health however was poor and the sisters did not think her strong enough
    7.00
    4 votes
    47
    Google

    Google

    • Organizations founded: Open Handset Alliance
    Google Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG) is an American multinational corporation which provides Internet-related products and services, including internet search, cloud computing, software and advertising technologies. Advertising revenues from AdWords generate almost all of the company's profits. The company was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while both attended Stanford University. Together, Brin and Page own about 16 percent of the company's stake. Google was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 4, 1998, and its initial public offering followed on August 19, 2004. The company's mission statement from the outset was "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful" and the company's unofficial slogan is "Don't be evil". In 2006, the company moved to its current headquarters in Mountain View, California. Rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond the company's core web search engine. The company offers online productivity software including email, an office suite, and social networking. Google's products extend to the desktop as well, with applications for web
    7.00
    4 votes
    48
    Vincent de Paul

    Vincent de Paul

    • Organizations founded: Lazarists
    Vincent de Paul (24 April 1581 – 27 September 1660) was a priest of the Catholic Church who dedicated himself to serving the poor. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He was canonized in 1737. St. Vincent was born in 1581 in Pouy, in the Province of Guyenne and Gascony, the Kingdom of France, to a family of peasant farmers. He had four brothers and two sisters. He studied humanities in Dax, France, with the Cordeliers and he graduated in theology at Toulouse. He was ordained in 1600, remaining in Toulouse until he went to Marseille for an inheritance. In 1605, on his way back from Marseille, he was taken captive by Turkish pirates, who brought him to Tunis and sold him into slavery. After converting his owner to Christianity, Vincent de Paul escaped in 1607. After returning to France, de Paul went to Rome. There he continued his studies until 1609, when he was sent back to France on a mission to Henry IV of France; he served as chaplain to Marguerite de Valois. For a while he was parish priest at Clichy, but from 1612 he began to serve the Gondi, an illustrious family. He was confessor and spiritual director to Madame de Gondi, and he began
    6.00
    5 votes
    49
    William Joseph Chaminade

    William Joseph Chaminade

    • Organizations founded: Society of Mary
    The Blessed William Joseph Chaminade, S.M. (French: Guillaume-Joseph Chaminade), (April 8, 1761 – January 22, 1850), was a French Roman Catholic priest who survived persecution during the French Revolution. He founded the Society of Mary, usually called the Marianists, in 1817. The Marianist Family's other three branches—the married and single men and women of the Marianist Lay Communities, the consecrated laywomen of the Alliance Mariale, and the Religious Sisters known as the Daughters of Mary Immaculate—also look to Chaminade as a founder or inspiration. Beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 3, 2000, Blessed Chaminade's feast day is celebrated on January 22. Ordained a priest in 1785, Chaminade moved to Bordeaux in 1790, after the French Revolution had begun. There, he became an enemy of the state by defying the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which would have required him to take an oath affirming the Revolution's secular values and disclaiming the authority of the Church. He secretly continued to work as a priest, risking a possible death penalty. One of his allies in this work was the Venerable Marie-Thérèse Charlotte de Lamourous (1754–1836), whom he assisted in
    6.00
    5 votes
    50
    Howard Hughes

    Howard Hughes

    • Organizations founded: Howard Hughes Medical Institute
    Howard Robard Hughes, Jr. (December 24, 1905 – April 5, 1976) was an American business magnate, investor, aviator, aerospace engineer, film maker and philanthropist. He was one of the wealthiest people in the world. As a maverick film producer, Hughes gained prominence in Hollywood from the late 1920s, making big-budget and often, controversial films like The Racket (1928), Hell's Angels (1930), Scarface (1932) and The Outlaw (1943). Hughes was one of the most influential aviators in history: he set multiple world air speed records, built the Hughes H-1 Racer and H-4 "Hercules" (better known to history as the "Spruce Goose" aircraft), and acquired and expanded Trans World Airlines, which would later on merge with American Airlines. Hughes is also remembered for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle in later life, caused in part by a worsening obsessive–compulsive disorder and chronic pain. His legacy is maintained through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Hughes' birthplace is recorded as either Humble or Houston, Texas. The date is also uncertain, though Hughes claimed his birthday was Christmas Eve. A 1941 affidavit birth certificate of Hughes signed by his aunt
    8.00
    3 votes
    51
    Lancelot Ware

    Lancelot Ware

    • Organizations founded: Mensa International
    Lancelot Lionel Ware OBE (5 June 1915 – 15 August 2000) was an English barrister, biochemist and co-founder of Mensa. Lancelot Ware's main claim to fame is co-founding Mensa, the international society for intellectually gifted people, with the Australian barrister Roland Berrill in 1946. They originally called it the "High IQ Club". Ware was born in Mitcham, Surrey, the eldest son of a businessman father and musical mother. He attended Steyning Grammar School and Sutton Grammar School. He then became a Royal Scholar at Imperial College London, reading mathematics, followed by a PhD in biochemistry. He undertook medical research with Sir Henry Dale at the National Institute for Medical Research in Hampstead, London, and became a non-clinical medical researcher and lecturer in biochemistry at St Thomas' Hospital in London. During World War II, Ware worked at the Porton Down secret research establishment. He then worked as a scientist for the Boots Company in Nottingham. During this time, he learned about IQ tests. At the end of the war in 1945, he started a law degree at Lincoln College, Oxford. While at Oxford, he founded Mensa on 1 October 1946. Initially the society was intended
    8.00
    3 votes
    52
    Louise de Marillac

    Louise de Marillac

    • Organizations founded: Sisters of Charity
    Saint Louise de Marillac, D.C., (August 12, 1591 - March 15, 1660) was the co-founder, with St. Vincent de Paul, of the Daughters of Charity. She is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. Louise de Marillac was born out of wedlock on August 15, 1591 near Le Meux, in the Department of Oise, in the Picardy region of France. She never knew her mother. Louis de Marillac claimed her as his natural daughter yet not his legal heir. Louis was a member of the prominent de Marillac family and was a widower at the time of Louise’s birth. His brother, Michel de Marillac, was a major figure in the court of Queen Marie de' Medici and, though Louise was not a member of the Queen’s court, she lived and worked among the French aristocracy. Thus Louise grew up amid the affluent society of Paris, but without a stable home life. When her father married his new wife, Antoinette Le Camus, she refused to accept Louise as part of their family. Nevertheless, Louise was cared for and received an excellent education at the royal monastery of Poissy near Paris, where her aunt was a Dominican nun. Louise was schooled among the country’s elite and was introduced to the arts and humanities as well as
    8.00
    3 votes
    53
    Margaret C. Norton

    Margaret C. Norton

    • Organizations founded: Society of American Archivists
    Margaret Cross Norton (July 7, 1891 – May 21, 1984) served as the first State Archivist of Illinois from 1922 to 1957 and co-founded the Society of American Archivists in 1936, where she served as the first vice president from 1936–1937 and president from 1943-1945. She also served as editor of the American Archivist from 1946-1949. Norton was recently recognized in the December 1999 American Libraries article naming "100 of the most important leaders we had in the 20th century" for her influence and forward-thinking for the future direction and scope of the archival industry. Norton promoted the establishment of archives as a profession separate from history or library science and developed the American archival tradition to emphasize an administrator/archivist rather than an historian/archivist. She encouraged learning through experimentation, practical usage, and community discussion. While editor of The American Archivist she emphasized technical rather than scholarly issues, believing that these issues were more pertinent to the daily issues an archivist faced. By stressing the legal authority of government records, Norton believed archives could gain funding and government
    8.00
    3 votes
    54
    Richard Hamming

    Richard Hamming

    • Organizations founded: Association for Computing Machinery
    Richard Wesley Hamming (Chicago, February 11, 1915 – Monterey, California, January 7, 1998) was an American mathematician whose work had many implications for computer science and telecommunications. His contributions include the Hamming code (which makes use of a Hamming matrix), the Hamming window (described in Section 5.8 of his book Digital Filters), Hamming numbers, sphere-packing (or hamming bound) and the Hamming distance. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago in 1937, a master's degree from the University of Nebraska in 1939, and finally a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1942. He was a professor at the University of Louisville during World War II, and left to work on the Manhattan Project in 1945, programming one of the earliest electronic digital computers to calculate the solution to equations provided by the project's physicists. The objective of the program was to discover if the detonation of an atomic bomb would ignite the atmosphere. The result of the computation was that this would not occur, and so the United States used the bomb, first in a test in New Mexico, and then twice against Japan. Later, from 1946 to
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    Vincent Pallotti

    Vincent Pallotti

    • Organizations founded: Union of Catholic Apostolate
    Saint Vincent Pallotti (April 21, 1795 – January 22, 1850) was an Italian ecclesiastic, born in Rome, and a saint. He was the founder of the Pious Society of Missions (the Pallotines), He is buried in the church of San Salvatore in Onda. He was descended from the noble families of the Pallotti of Norcia and the De Rossi of Rome. His early studies were made at the Pious Schools of San Pantaleone, and from there he passed to the Roman College. At the age of sixteen, he resolved to become a priest, and was ordained on May 16, 1820. From Rome, Vincenzo Pallotti worked selflessly looking after the poor in the urban areas of the city for most of his life. He had an intense devotion to the mystery of the Most Blessed Trinity, and to the Virgin Mary. His contemporaries, including the pope, considered him a saint during his life. He longed to send missionaries to other parts of the world and founded the Union of Catholic Apostolate, the Society of the Catholic Apostolate. He strongly believed, in the spirit of St. Paul, that God wanted to save all people, and it was his intention to start a Catholic Apostolic Society. Although his visionary desire to unite the factions in the Church and to
    8.00
    3 votes
    56
    William Andrews Clark, Jr.

    William Andrews Clark, Jr.

    • Organizations founded: Los Angeles Philharmonic
    William Andrews Clark, Jr. (March 29, 1877 Montana – June 14, 1934 Salmon Lake, Montana), son of U.S. senator and billionaire William Andrews Clark, was the founder of the Los Angeles Philharmonic in 1919. Clark also had a hand in the construction of the Hollywood Bowl. Clark was an avid collector of rare books, especially fine prints. When he died in 1934, he bequeathed his library of rare books and manuscripts, the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, to the University of California, Los Angeles. He is buried in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery. William was married twice. His first wife was Mabel Foster (1880 – January 1, 1903), whom he married on June 19, 1901. They had one son, William Andrews Clark III (December 2, 1902 – May 23, 1932 Arizona), who died in a plane crash. Mabel died of blood poisoning shortly after the birth of their son. William's second wife was Alice McManus (1883 – 1916). William, his son and both wives are buried in the family mausoleum, which William had built.
    8.00
    3 votes
    57
    Italy

    Italy

    • Organizations founded: Council of Europe
    Italy /ˈɪtəli/ (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja]), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. To the north, it borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia–the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea–and many other smaller islands. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. The territory of Italy covers some 301,338 km (116,347 sq mi) and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. With 60.8 million inhabitants, it is the fifth most populous country in Europe, and the 23rd most populous in the world. Rome, the capital of Italy, has for centuries been a political and religious centre of Western civilisation as the capital of the Roman Empire and site of the Holy See. After the decline of the Roman Empire, Italy endured numerous invasions by foreign peoples, from Germanic tribes such as the Lombards and Ostrogoths, to the Byzantines and later, the Normans, among others. Centuries later, Italy became
    6.75
    4 votes
    58
    Marcial Maciel

    Marcial Maciel

    • Organizations founded: Legion of Christ
    Marcial Maciel Degollado (March 10, 1920 – January 30, 2008) was a Mexican-born Roman Catholic priest. He founded the Legion of Christ and the Regnum Christi movement but was revealed to have abused boys and fathered at least one child himself. Maciel maintained relationships with at least two women and fathered up to six children, two of whom he allegedly abused as well. In 2006, Pope Benedict XVI removed Maciel from active ministry after an investigation started under John Paul II, ordering him to spend the rest of his days in prayer and penance. On March 25, 2010, a communiqué on the Legion's website acknowledged as factual "reprehensible actions" by Maciel, including sexual abuse of minor seminarians. Pope Benedict XVI appointed Cardinal Velasio De Paolis his delegate to examine the Legionaries’ constitution and conduct a visitation of its lay affiliate Regnum Christi. Maciel was born in Cotija, Michoacán, Mexico and became a priest after a troubled youth. Maciel was expelled from two seminaries for reasons that have never been explained. He became a priest only when one of his uncles ordained him after private studies. Maciel founded the Legion of Christ in 1941, with the
    6.75
    4 votes
    59
    Samuel Eells

    Samuel Eells

    • Organizations founded: Alpha Delta Phi
    Samuel Eells (1810–1842) was a 19th-Century American philosopher, essayist and orator who founded the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity in 1832 at Hamilton College in Clinton, New York. Eells was born in Westmoreland, New York, in the rural western part of the state, in 1810. He could trace his family back to early settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and his father was a Congregationalist missionary who worked amongst the Native Americans in Western New York. He was educated at home, probably primarily by his mother, before attending the nearby Clinton Academy and finally Hamilton College. Eells' constitution was feeble, and through all of his short life he struggled with tuberculosis and possibly other illnesses. Nevertheless, he was known amongst his friends and colleagues for his intense intellectual curiosity, drive, and "personal magnetism." Besides his praiseworthy writing and oration, he often undertook seemingly impossible projects; for example, before going to Hamilton, in order to improve his health, he traveled on foot from Maryland to Massachusetts, then sailed to Newfoundland and back, paying for his passage by fishing. Samuel Eells studied at Hamilton College from 1828
    6.75
    4 votes
    60
    Joan Antidea Thouret

    Joan Antidea Thouret

    Joan Antidea Thouret (in French Jeanne Antide) was a nun and is a Roman Catholic saint. She founded the Sisters of Divine Charity congregation. Joan Antidea was born in 1765. When she was 22 she joined the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul in Paris but during the French Revolution she was in exile in Switzerland and Germany. In 1797, she returned to France where she founded a school for poor girls. In 1799, she founded a new congregation, the Sisters of Charity, with the support of Letizia Ramolino, Napoleon's mother. In 1819, her institute was approved by Pope Pius VII who gave canonical privileges to her convents. She died at Regina Coeli monasterium, Naples, in 1828.
    9.00
    2 votes
    61
    Eva Longoria

    Eva Longoria

    • Organizations founded: Eva's Heroes
    Eva Jacqueline Longoria (born March 15, 1975) is an American actress, best known for portraying Gabrielle Solis on the ABC television series Desperate Housewives. Longoria received a nomination for the 2006 Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Comedy Series for her performance on Desperate Housewives. Longoria first rose to fame on television for portraying Isabella Braña on the CBS soap opera The Young and the Restless from 2001 to 2003. She became nationally recognized in the 2000s after appearing in several high-profile advertising campaigns and numerous men's magazines, reaching #14 in the FHM "Sexiest Women 2008" poll, and having appeared on the cover of various international women's magazines including Vogue, Marie Claire and Harper's Bazaar. Longoria has also starred in films such as Harsh Times (2005), The Sentinel (2006) and Over Her Dead Body (2008). Eva Jacqueline Longoria was born in Corpus Christi, Nueces County, Texas, the youngest of four daughters born to Mexican-Americans Enrique Longoria, Jr. and Ella Eva Mireles. The first of Longoria’s ancestors to arrive in the New World came from Spain in 1603. She was raised Roman Catholic. She received her Bachelor of
    5.80
    5 votes
    62
    Bennie Fowler

    Bennie Fowler

    • Organizations founded: Powerstroke Athletic Club
    Bennie Fowler is group vice president, Global Quality, Ford Motor Company, effective April 1, 2008.
    7.67
    3 votes
    63
    Frederick D. Patterson

    Frederick D. Patterson

    • Organizations founded: United Negro College Fund
    Frederick Douglass Patterson (October 10, 1901 – April 26, 1988), born in Washington D.C. and orphaned at the age of two. Patterson would later become president of what is now Tuskegee University (1935–1953) and founder of the United Negro College Fund (1944, UNCF). In 1987, President Ronald Reagan awarded Dr. Patterson the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor. In 1988, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. Patterson received his DVM in 1923 and M.S. in 1927 from Iowa State University, and his Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1933. Patterson is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity.
    7.67
    3 votes
    64
    Jane Frances de Chantal

    Jane Frances de Chantal

    • Organizations founded: Visitation Academy of St. Louis
    Saint Jane Frances de Chantal (Jeanne-Françoise Frémiot, Baronne de Chantal, 28 January 1572 – 13 December 1641) is a Roman Catholic Saint, who founded a religious order after the death of her husband. Jane Frances was born in Dijon, France on 28 January 1572. The mother of six children (three died shortly after they were born), she was widowed at the age of 28. She met Saint Francis de Sales when he preached at the Sainte Chapelle in Dijon. They became intimate friends. She was inspired to start a religious order for women, the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary with his support, an order for women who were rejected by other orders because of poor health or age. When people criticized her, she famously said, "What do you want me to do? I like sick people myself; I'm on their side." She died on 13 December 1641 at the age of 69, at the Visitation Convent in Moulins, one of those she founded, and was buried in Annecy. She was beatified on 21 November 1751 by Pope Benedict XIV, and canonized on 16 July 1767 by Pope Clement XIII. Saint Jane Frances's feast day is currently celebrated in the Roman Catholic Calendar of saints on 12 August. When in 1769 it was for the first time
    7.67
    3 votes
    65
    Jane Stanford

    Jane Stanford

    • Organizations founded: Stanford University
    Jane Lathrop Stanford (August 25, 1828 - February 28, 1905) was the co-founder of Stanford University together with her husband, Leland Stanford. They founded the university in 1891 as a memorial to their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. After her husband's death in 1893, she funded and operated the university almost single-handedly until her death in 1905. Born Jane Eliza Lathrop in Albany, New York, she was the daughter of shopkeeper Dyer Lathrop and Jane Anne (Shields) Lathrop. She attended The Albany Academy for Girls, the longest running girls' day school in the country. She married Leland Stanford on September 30, 1850, and went to live with him in Port Washington, Wisconsin, where he had practiced law since 1848. The Stanfords lived in Port Washington until 1852 when his law library and other property were lost to fire; they then returned to Albany. Stanford went to California to join his brothers in mercantile businesses related to the California Gold Rush, while Jane remained in Albany with her family. He returned in 1855, and the following year they moved to San Francisco, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits on a large scale. Stanford was a co-founder of the Central
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    Liliane Bettencourt

    Liliane Bettencourt

    • Organizations founded: Bettencourt Schueller Foundation
    Liliane Bettencourt (French pronunciation: [li.li.jan be.tɑ̃.kuːʁ]; born Liliane Henriette Charlotte Schueller; 21 October 1922) is a French heiress, socialite, businesswoman and philanthropist. She is one of the principal shareholders of L'Oréal and, with a fortune estimated at US$23.5 billion, is one of the wealthiest people in the world. Bettencourt was born in Paris, France, the only child of Louise Madeleine Berthe (née Doncieux) and Eugène Schueller, the founder of L'Oréal, one of the world's largest cosmetics and beauty companies. Her mother died in 1927 when Liliane was 5 years old, and she formed a close bond with her father, who later married Liliane's British governess. At the age of 15, she joined her father’s company as an apprentice, mixing cosmetics and labelling bottles of shampoo. In 1950, she married French politician André Bettencourt, who served as a cabinet minister in French governments of the 1960s and 1970s and rose to become deputy chairman of L’Oréal. Bettencourt had been a member of La Cagoule, a violent French fascist group that Liliane's father had funded and supported in the 1930s and that collaborated with the Nazis during World War II. After the war,
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Morgan Tsvangirai

    Morgan Tsvangirai

    • Organizations founded: Movement for Democratic Change
    Morgan Richard Tsvangirai (/ˈtʃæŋɡɪraɪ/, Shona: [ts͎aŋɡira.i]; born 10 March 1952) is the Prime Minister of Zimbabwe. He is President of the Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai (MDC-T) and a key figure in the opposition to President Robert Mugabe. He sustained non-life-threatening injuries in a car crash on 6 March 2009 when heading towards his rural home in Buhera. His wife, Susan Tsvangirai, was killed in the head-on collision. Tsvangirai was the MDC candidate in the controversial 2002 presidential election, losing to Mugabe. He later contested the first round of the 2008 presidential election as the MDC-T candidate, taking 47.8% of the vote according to official results, placing him ahead of Mugabe, who got 43.2%. Tsvangirai claimed to have won a majority and said that the results could have been altered in the month between the election and the reporting of official results. Tsvangirai initially planned to run in the second round against Mugabe, but withdrew shortly before it was held, arguing that the election would not be free and fair due to widespread violence and intimidation by government supporters. Tsvangirai was born in the Gutu area in then-Southern Rhodesia,
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Antonio Rosmini-Serbati

    Antonio Rosmini-Serbati

    • Organizations founded: Ratcliffe College
    Blessed Antonio Rosmini-Serbati (25 March 1797 – 1 July 1855) was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and philosopher. He founded the Rosminians, officially the Institute of Charity or Societas a charitate nuncupata. Born at Rovereto in the Austrian Tyrol, he belonged to a noble and wealthy family. At an early age decided to enter the priesthood. After studying at Pavia and Padua, he was ordained priest in 1821. In 1848 Rosmini was invited to serve in the Roman Curia of Pius IX as prime minister of the Papal States. He participated in the intellectual struggle which had for its object emancipation from Austria, but as a trusted ecclesiastical advisor and diplomat he was not an initiator of the movement which ended in the freedom and unity of Italy. In fact, while eager for the deliverance of Italy from Austria, his aim was to bring about a confederation of the states of the country, which was to be under the control of the pope. However upon establishment of the Roman Republic, the Pontiff was forced to flee and became estranged from his former advisor in political matters. The tenuous political circumstances made it very difficult to reconcile the two men's differing projects:
    10.00
    1 votes
    69
    Henry E. Huntington

    Henry E. Huntington

    • Organizations founded: The Huntington Library
    Henry Edwards Huntington (February 27, 1850, Oneonta, New York–May 23, 1927, Philadelphia) was a railroad magnate and collector of art and rare books. Born in Oneonta, New York, Huntington settled in Los Angeles, where he owned the Pacific Electric Railway as well as substantial real estate interests. In addition to being a businessman and art collector, Huntington was a major booster for Los Angeles in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry E. Huntington was the nephew of Collis P. Huntington, one of The Big Four, the men instrumental in creating the Central Pacific Railroad (later called Southern Pacific), one of the two railroads that built the transcontinental railway in 1869. Huntington held several executive positions working alongside his uncle with the Southern Pacific Transportation Company. After Collis P. Huntington's death, Henry E. Huntington assumed Collis Huntington's leadership role with Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company in Virginia, and married his widow Arabella Huntington. His divorce from his first wife, Mary Alice Prentice, in 1910 and marriage to Arabella in 1913 after Mary Alice's death shocked San Francisco society. He had four children
    10.00
    1 votes
    70
    Joseph Hirshhorn

    Joseph Hirshhorn

    Joseph Herman Hirshhorn (August 11, 1899 – August 31, 1981) was an entrepreneur, financier and art collector. Born in Mitau, Latvia, the twelfth of thirteen children, Hirshhorn emigrated to the United States with his widowed mother at the age of six. Hirshhorn went to work as an office boy on Wall Street at age 14. Three years later, in 1916, he became a stockbroker and earned $168,000 that year. A shrewd investor, he sold off his Wall Street investments two months before the collapse of 1929, realizing $4 million in cash. Hirshhorn made his fortune in the mining and oil business. In the 1930s, he focused much of his attention on gold and uranium mining prospects in Canada, establishing an office in Toronto in 1933. In the 1950s, he and geologist Franc Joubin were primarily responsible for the "Big Z" uranium discovery in northeastern Ontario and the subsequent founding of the city of Elliot Lake. Hirshhorn Avenue, a residential street in that city, is named after him. By 1960, when he sold the last of his uranium stock, he had made over $100 million in cash from the uranium business. His business dealings in Canada were not without controversy. He was investigated by the Ontario
    10.00
    1 votes
    71
    Luisa Diogo

    Luisa Diogo

    • Organizations founded: MUNIPA
    Luísa Dias Diogo (born 11 April 1958) was Prime Minister of Mozambique from February 2004 to January 2010. She replaced Pascoal Mocumbi, who had been Prime Minister for the previous nine years. Before becoming Prime Minister, she was Minister of Planning and Finance, and she continued to hold that post until February 2005. She was the first female Prime Minister of Mozambique. Diogo represents the party FRELIMO, which has ruled the country since independence in 1975. Diogo studied economics at Maputo's Eduardo Mondlane University. She graduated with a bachelor's degree in 1983. She went on to obtain a master's degree in financial economics at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London in 1992. In 1980, she began working in Mozambique's Finance Ministry. She became a department's head in 1986 and in 1989 became national budget director. Then she worked for the World Bank as program officer in Mozambique. In 1994 she joined the FRELIMO government as Deputy Minister of Finance. In September 2005, she was the international guest speaker at the British Labour Party Conference. Diogo has urged the African health ministers to offer reproductive and sexual health
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    Mary McLeod Bethune

    Mary McLeod Bethune

    • Organizations founded: United Negro College Fund
    Mary Jane McLeod Bethune (July 10, 1875 – May 18, 1955) was an American educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida, that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University and for being an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Born in South Carolina to parents who had been slaves and having to work in fields at age five, she took an early interest in her own education. With the help of benefactors, Bethune attended college hoping to become a missionary in Africa. When that did not materialize, she started a school for African-American girls in Daytona Beach. From six students it grew and merged with an institute for African-American boys and eventually became the Bethune-Cookman School. Its quality far surpassed the standards of education for African-American students, and rivaled those of schools for white students. Bethune worked tirelessly to ensure funding for the school, and used it as a showcase for tourists and donors, to exhibit what educated African-Americans could do. She was president of the college from 1923 to 1942 and 1946 to 1947, one of the few women in the world who served as a college
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Michael Garicoits

    Michael Garicoits

    Saint Michael Garicoits (Garicoïts) (April 15, 1797 – May 14, 1863) was a Basque saint. He was ordained priest at Bayonne in December 1823 and combated Jansenism in his parish of Cambo. He founded the Society of Priests of the Sacred Heart of Betharram, which received official approval from the Pope after his death.
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Thomas W. Luce III

    Thomas W. Luce III

    • Organizations founded: National Center for Educational Accountability
    Mr. Luce currently serves and President, Chief Executive Officer and Director of the National Math and Science Initiative Inc., a non-profit organization dedicated to expanding programs that have a proven impact on math and science.
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    Tony Stewart

    Tony Stewart

    • Organizations founded: Tony Stewart Foundation
    Anthony Wayne "Tony" Stewart (born May 20, 1971) is an American auto racing driver and owner. Throughout his racing career, Stewart has won titles in Indy cars and stock cars as well as midget, sprint and USAC Silver Crown cars, giving him the recognition of "one of the finest racers of his generation." Stewart currently owns and drives the No. 14 Office Depot/Mobil 1/Burger King Chevrolet Impala in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series for his own team, Stewart-Haas Racing under crew chief Steve Addington. From 1999 until 2008, he drove the No. 20 Joe Gibbs Racing car, under crew chief Greg Zipadelli, with The Home Depot as the primary sponsor. His ten year tenure with the same team, sponsor, and crew chief is a NASCAR record. Stewart is also the only driver to win both the Winston Cup under the old points system and the Nextel Cup under the chase playoff format, winning those championships in 2002 and 2005 respectively. In 2011, Stewart became the first owner-driver since Alan Kulwicki to win the Cup Series championship, which ended Jimmie Johnson's streak of consecutive championships at five. He is the only driver to win the NASCAR championship under three different sponsorship titles
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    William Lacy Clay, Jr.

    William Lacy Clay, Jr.

    • Organizations founded: Congressional Black Caucus
    William Lacy Clay, Jr., usually known as Lacy Clay (born July 27, 1956) is the U.S. Representative for Missouri's 1st congressional district, serving since 2001. He is a member of the Democratic Party. The district includes the northern two-thirds of the city of St. Louis as well as most of northern St. Louis County (North County), taking in cities such as Maryland Heights, University City, and Florissant. The state of Missouri lost population in the 2010 Census which contributed to Missouri losing a Congressional seat effective 2013. Initial redistricting indicates that the other St. Louis district -- the 3rd district -- would be absorbed into the 1st district placing Clay and Russ Carnahan in the same district. He beat Carnahan in the August 7, 2012 primary, 63% to 34%. Clay, Jr. was born in St. Louis, Missouri, but his family moved to Washington, D.C. when his father, Bill Clay, was elected to U.S. Congress. In his teenage years, Clay Jr. attended public schools in Silver Spring, Maryland and graduated in the Springbrook High School Class of 1974. He then attended the University of Maryland-College Park, from which he earned a degree in political science and certification to
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Cleve Jones

    Cleve Jones

    • Organizations founded: San Francisco AIDS Foundation
    Cleve Jones (born October 11, 1954) is an American AIDS and LGBT rights activist. He conceived of the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt which has become, at 54 tons, the world's largest piece of community folk art as of 2009. In 1983, at the onset of the AIDS pandemic Jones co-founded the San Francisco AIDS Foundation which has grown into one of the largest and most influential People with AIDS advocacy organizations in the United States. Jones was born in West Lafayette, Indiana, and raised in Scottsdale, Arizona. His career as an activist began in San Francisco during the turbulent 1970s when he was befriended by pioneer gay rights leader Harvey Milk. He worked as a student intern in Milk’s office while studying political science at San Francisco State University. In 1978, Milk was assassinated along with San Francisco’s Mayor George Moscone. Jones went to work in the district office of State Assemblyman Art Agnos. In 1983, when AIDS was still a new and poorly understood threat, Jones co-founded the San Francisco AIDS Foundation. Jones conceived the idea of the AIDS Memorial Quilt at a candlelight memorial for Harvey Milk in 1985 and in 1987 created the first quilt panel in honor
    6.50
    4 votes
    78
    Denmark

    Denmark

    • Organizations founded: Council of Europe
    Denmark (/ˈdɛnmɑrk/; Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈd̥ɛnmɑɡ̊] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Denmark (Danish: Kongeriget Danmark, [ˈkɔŋəʁiːəð ˈd̥ɛnmɑɡ̊] ( listen)), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe, with two additional overseas constituent countries also forming integral parts of the kingdom; the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic and Greenland in North America. Denmark proper is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, located southwest of Sweden, with which it is connected by a bridge-tunnel, and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The country consists of a large peninsula, Jutland and many islands, most notably Zealand, Funen, Lolland, Falster and Bornholm, as well as hundreds of minor islands often referred to as the Danish Archipelago. The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy organised in the form of a parliamentary democracy, with its seat of government in the capital city of Copenhagen. The kingdom is unitary, with powers to manage internal affairs being devolved from the central government to Greenland and the Faroe Islands; this polity is referred to as the rigsfællesskab (the Danish Realm). Denmark proper is the hegemonial
    6.50
    4 votes
    79
    Harkishan Singh Surjeet

    Harkishan Singh Surjeet

    • Organizations founded: All India Kisan Sabha
    Harkishan Singh Surjeet (23 March 1916 – 1 August 2008) was a communist politician from Punjab, India. He was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) from 1992 to 2005 and was a member of the party's Political Bureau from 1964 to 2008. Born in Bundala, Jalandhar district, Surjeet started his political career in the national liberation movement in his early teens, as a follower of Bhagat Singh. In 1930 he joined the movement of Bhagat Singh, Naujawan Bharat Sabha. On the anniversary of the martyrdom of Bhagat Singh, Surjeet hoisted the Indian tricolour at the court in Hoshiarpur, an action during which he was shot at twice. Later he was imprisoned by the colonial regime for his action. In court he stated his name as London Tod Singh (one who breaks London). In 1936, Surjeet joined the Communist Party of India. He was a co-founder of the Kisan Sabha (Peasants Union) in Punjab. In the pre-war years he started publishing Dukhi Duniya and Chingari. During the War, Surjeet was imprisoned by the colonial authorities. When India became independent and partitioned in 1947, Surjeet was the Secretary of CPI in Punjab. Throughout his life, Surjeet remained a lifelong
    6.50
    4 votes
    80
    K. Eric Drexler

    K. Eric Drexler

    • Organizations founded: Foresight Institute
    Kim Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955) is an American engineer best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology (MNT), from the 1970s and 1980s. His 1991 doctoral thesis at Massachusetts Institute of Technology was revised and published as the book Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery Manufacturing and Computation (1992), which received the Association of American Publishers award for Best Computer Science Book of 1992. He also coined the term grey goo, though he now wishes he had not. K. Eric Drexler was strongly influenced by ideas on Limits to Growth in the early 1970s. His response in his first year at Massachusetts Institute of Technology was to seek out someone who was working on extraterrestrial resources. He found Dr. Gerard K. O'Neill of Princeton University, a physicist famous for a strong focus on particle accelerators and his landmark work on the concepts of space colonization. Drexler was involved in NASA summer studies in 1975 and 1976. Besides working summers for O'Neill building mass driver prototypes, he delivered papers at the first three Space Manufacturing conferences at Princeton. The 1977 and 1979 papers were co-authored with Keith Henson, and
    6.50
    4 votes
    81
    Peter Wirth

    Peter Wirth

    Friar James was born in Niederbreitbach / Wied-Valley in Rhineland-Palatinate on 15 October 1830 as Peter Wirth. He was the fourth child of Theodor and Katharina Wirth. His father was a shepherd; his mother ran a small pub. When he was nine, Peter lost his father, and he lost his mother a year later. Because of this tragedy, the impoverished family was torn apart, and Peter was raised by his godfather / uncle, Johann Peter Andries, who was a teacher in Niederbreitbach. Although his godfather eventually made Peter his assistant at school, for financial reasons, Peter could not attend the teacher seminar. He started instead an apprenticeship as a shoemaker in the workshop of Johann Schmitz where he lived (now St. James Wirth-Straße 19). Peter was an introverted young man. He joined the Franciscan Tertiary, which worked in social and religious areas in Peter’s homeland. However, he found the prospect of monastic life appealing, and therefore he and a friend founded a house of pious craftsmen in the summer of 1854. They nourished, educated and trained orphan boys. In 1862 he founded the Congregation of the Franciscan Brothers of the Holy Cross (FFSC) with the help of father Gomm and
    6.50
    4 votes
    82
    Francis de Sales

    Francis de Sales

    • Organizations founded: Visitation Academy of St. Louis
    Francis de Sales, C.O., T.O.M., A.O.F.M. Cap., (French: François de Sales) (August 21, 1567 – December 28, 1622) was a Bishop of Geneva and is honored as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. He became noted for his deep faith and his gentle approach to the religious divisions in his land resulting from the Protestant Reformation. He is known also for his writings on the topic of spiritual direction and spiritual formation, particularly the Introduction to the Devout Life and the Treatise on the Love of God. Francis de Sales was born on the 21 August 1567 in the Château de Sales into the noble Sales family of the Duchy of Savoy, in what is today Thorens-Glières, Haute-Savoie, France. His father was François de Sales, Lord of Boisy, Sales and Novel, and his mother was Françoise de Sionnz, the only child of a prominent magistrate. Because he was the first of six children, his father wanted him to attend the best schools, and he enjoyed a privileged education in the nearby towns of La Roche-sur-Foron and Annecy and his spiritual formation and academics were entrusted to the Jesuits. In 1583, he went to the Collège de Clermont in Paris. A year later, at the age of 17, Sales was
    8.50
    2 votes
    83
    Luxembourg

    Luxembourg

    • Organizations founded: Council of Europe
    Luxembourg (/ˈlʌksəmbɜrɡ/ LUKS-əm-burg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg), is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland ("good country") in the south. Luxembourg has a population of 512,353 (as of February 2011) in an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi). A representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by a grand duke and is the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. Luxembourg is one of the world's most developed countries, with an advanced economy and the world's second highest GDP (PPP) per capita, according to the IMF. Its historic and strategic importance dates back to its founding as a Roman era fortress and Frankish count's castle site in the Early Middle Ages. It was an important bastion along the Spanish Road when Spain was the principal European power influencing the whole western hemisphere and beyond in the 16th–17th centuries. Luxembourg is a member of the European Union,
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    Sheldon Adelson

    Sheldon Adelson

    • Organizations founded: Adelson Family Charitable Foundation
    Sheldon Gary Adelson (born August 4, 1933) is an American business magnate. He is the chairman and chief executive officer of the Las Vegas Sands Corporation, the parent company of Venetian Macao Limited which operates The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino and the Sands Expo and Convention Center. He also owns the Israeli daily newspaper Israel HaYom. He is listed in the Forbes 400 as the 12th wealthiest American. His personal wealth is estimated to be $20.5 billion as of September 2012. Adelson was born and grew up in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Sarah (née Tonkin) and Arthur Adelson. His father drove a taxi and his mother, who immigrated from the U.K., ran a knitting store. His family was Jewish. He worked as a mortgage broker, investment adviser and financial consultant. He started a business selling toiletry kits, and in the 1960s he started a charter tours business. Adelson went to college at the City College of New York, but dropped out. The original source of Adelson's wealth and current investments was the computer trade show COMDEX, which he and his partners developed for the computer industry; the first show was in 1979. It was the premier
    8.50
    2 votes
    85
    Ford Foundation

    Ford Foundation

    • Organizations founded: International Rice Research Institute
    The Ford Foundation is a private foundation based in New York City and created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and Henry Ford. It was funded originally by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford but by 1947 after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90 percent of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company (the Ford family kept the voting shares to themselves). The foundation sold off its Ford holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company. For years, it was the largest and one of the two or three most influential foundations in the world, with a global reach and special interests in education, the arts, and Third World development. The foundation makes grants through its headquarters and ten international field offices. For fiscal year 2011, it reported assets of US$10.0 billion and approved US$413 million in grants. The grants are made for projects that focus on reducing poverty and injustice; promoting democratic values; and advancing human knowledge, creativity and achievement. The foundation was established on January 15, 1936, in Michigan by Edsel Ford (president of the Ford Motor Company) and two other executives "to receive and administer funds for scientific,
    7.33
    3 votes
    86
    Gerard Thom

    Gerard Thom

    Gerard (c. 1040 – September 3, 1120), variously surnamed Tum, Tune, Tenque or Thom, is accredited as the founder of the Knights Hospitaller which is currently divided into the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem and the Order of Malta, as well as numerous other groups who trace their descent and/or inspiration to the original Hospitaller's order. He may have been born in Amalfi, in Southern Italy, and may have had some connection to the convent of Saint Lawrence in Amalfi. Other accounts hold he was born in Martigues, Provence, while one authority even names the Chateau d'Avesnes in Hainaut as his birthplace. Either as a soldier or a merchant, he found his way to Jerusalem, where a pair of hospices (one for men and one for women) had recently been built in the neighborhood of Muristan. These hospices were financed in large part by wealthy merchants from Amalfi. Gerard became guardian or provost of the Men's Hospice at a date not later than 1100, and it was there he laid the foundations for the Religious Order of St. John which received papal recognition from Paschal II in 1113, by the bull Geraudo institutori
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Jacques Gaillot

    Jacques Gaillot

    Jacques Jean Edmond Georges Gaillot (born 11 September 1935;  pronunciation (help·info); generally known in French as Monseigneur Gaillot) is a French Catholic clergyman and social activist. He was Bishop of Évreux in France from 1982 to 1995. In 1995, by decision of Pope John Paul II, he was demoted to be Titular Bishop of Partenia, an extinct diocese, for having expressed too controversial and heretodox positions on religious, political and social matters. In reason of these views he earned the popular nickname of The Red Cleric. Jacques Gaillot was born in Saint-Dizier, Haute-Marne. As a teenager, he already desired to become a priest. After his secondary studies, he entered the seminary in Langres. From 1957 to 1959, he carried out his compulsory military service in Algeria during the war of independence. From 1960 to 1962 he was sent to Rome to complete his studies in theology and get his bachelor's degree. He was ordained a priest in 1961. From 1962 to 1964, he was sent to the Higher Institute for Liturgy in Paris, while teaching at the major seminary in Châlons-en-Champagne. From 1965, he was a Professor at the regional seminary of Reims. He chaired many sessions to
    7.33
    3 votes
    88
    John Curtiss Underwood

    John Curtiss Underwood

    • Organizations founded: Alpha Delta Phi
    John Curtiss Underwood (March 14, 1809 - December 7, 1873) was a lawyer, Abolitionist politician, and federal judge. Underwood graduated from Hamilton College in 1832 and was a founding member of the Alpha Delta Phi society. He practiced law from 1839-1856. Originally from New York, he married a granddaughter of Edward B. Jackson (whose brother John G. Jackson and great-nephew John Jay Jackson, Jr. were also federal judges), and they had a farm in Clarke County. In 1856 he was a delegate to the Republican convention that nominated John C. Fremont for president. He took a position as Secretary of the Emigrant Aid and Homestead Society from 1856-1861. He left Virginia in 1857 because he was threatened for his abolitionist views. In 1861 he declined an offer to serve as U.S. consul at Callao, Peru, but accepted instead the office of fifth auditor in the United States Department of the Treasury, at which he served from 1861 to 1864. Given a recess appointment by Abraham Lincoln and later confirmed by the United States Senate, Underwood served as judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia from 1863-1864. Early in the American Civil War he affirmed the
    7.33
    3 votes
    89
    Kuriakose Elias Chavara

    Kuriakose Elias Chavara

    • Organizations founded: Carmelites of Mary Immaculate
    The Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara, T.O.C.D., was the co-founder and first Prior General of the first congregration for men in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate, and of a similar one for women, the Sisters of the Mother of Carmel. He was born Kuriakose Chavara on February 10, 1805, at Kainakary, Kerala, India, the son of Iko (Kuriakose) Chavara and Mariam Thoppil. He was baptized on February 17, 1805, at Chennamkary Parish Church in Alappuzha. In his childhood,he attended the village school. There he studied language and elementary sciences. He entered the seminary in 1818 in Pallipuram where Father Thoma Palackal was the Rector. He was ordained on November 29, 1829, at Arthunkal and presided over the Holy Qurbana (Eucharist) for the first time at Chennamkary Church. Desirous of living in a religious community, Chavara joined with two other priests, Fathers Thoma Palackal and Thomas Porukara, in order to live in a community following Carmelite spirituality. The name of the community was the Servants of Mary Immaculate of Mount Carmel. The foundation for the first monastery at Mannanam was laid on May 11, 1831, and the trio took vows
    7.33
    3 votes
    90
    Léon Blum

    Léon Blum

    • Organizations founded: European Movement
    André Léon Blum (French: [le.ɔ̃ blum]; 9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, usually identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France. While in his youth an avid reader of the works of the nationalist writer Maurice Barrès, Blum had little interest in politics until the Dreyfus Affair of 1894, which had a traumatic effect on him as it did on many French Jews. Campaigning as a Dreyfusard brought him into contact with the socialist leader Jean Jaurès, whom he greatly admired. He began contributing to the socialist daily, L'Humanité, and joined the Socialist Party, then called the SFIO. Soon he was the party's main theoretician. In July 1914, just as the First World War broke out, Jaurès was assassinated, and Blum became more active in the Socialist party leadership. In August 1914 Blum became assistant to the Socialist Minister of Public Works Marcel Sembat. In 1919 he was chosen as chair of the party's executive committee, and was also elected to the National Assembly as a representative of Paris. Believing that there was no such thing as a "good dictatorship", he opposed participation in the Comintern. Therefore, in 1920, he worked to
    7.33
    3 votes
    91
    Peter Coudrin

    Peter Coudrin

    Peter Coudrin or Pierre Coudrin of France was the founder of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, a religious institute of the Roman Catholic Church famous for its missionary work in Hawaii. He was born on March 1, 1768, at Coussay-le-Bois, just south of Paris. In 1792, Coudrin was secretly ordained to the presbyterate just as France was becoming embroiled in revolution against its monarchy. Coudrin went into hiding in an attic of the granary of the Chateau d'Usseau where he was confined for six months. During his hiding, Coudrin woke up one evening surrounded by illuminated apparitions of priests, brothers and nuns in white albs. He took the vision to be a divine calling to establish a religious institute that would become the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. Coudrin quickly left the granary and traveled to Poitiers to begin an underground ministry, waiting for the right moment to start his group. During his underground ministry in 1794, Coudrin met Henriette Aymer de Chevalerie. She had been released from a revolutionary prison, accused of hiding a priest. She told Coudrin of a heaven-sent vision she had while in prison calling her to
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    Phyllis Schlafly

    Phyllis Schlafly

    • Organizations founded: Eagle Forum
    Phyllis McAlpin Stewart Schlafly ( /ˈfɪlɨs ˈʃlæfli/; born August 15, 1924) is a constitutional lawyer, politically conservative activist and author who founded the Eagle Forum. She is known for her opposition to modern feminism and for her campaign against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment. Her self-published book, A Choice, Not An Echo, was published in 1964 from her home in Alton, Illinois, across the Mississippi River from her native St. Louis. She formed Pere Marquette Publishers company. She has co-authored books on national defense and was highly critical of arms-control agreements with the former Soviet Union. Schlafly founded the Eagle Forum in the 1970s and the Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund, St. Louis. As of 2012, she is still the president of the organizations, and also has a presence on the lecture circuit. Since 1967, she has published a newsletter, the Phyllis Schlafly Report. Schlafly's great-grandfather Stewart, a Presbyterian, came from Scotland to New York in 1851 and moved westward through Canada before settling in Michigan. Her grandfather, Andrew F. Stewart, was a master mechanic with the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway. Schlafly's father, John Bruce
    7.33
    3 votes
    93
    St. Albert Chmielowski

    St. Albert Chmielowski

    Albert Chmielowski, C.F.A.P.U. (1845–1916) was a Polish Religious Brother and founder of the Albertine Brothers and Sisters. He is honored as a saint of the Catholic Church. Albert is known in Polish as Brat Albert (English: Brother Albert); in recognition of his holiness, he is often called "Our God's Brother". He was born in Igołomia, on the outskirts of Krakow, Poland, on 20 August 1845, to a wealthy aristocratic family, one of the four children of Adelbert Chmielowski and his wife, Josephine Borzyslawska. At an early age, however, he and his siblings lost their parents and were raised by relatives. When he was of age, he initially studied agriculture at the Polytechnical Institute at Puławy, to prepare himself for managing the family estate. Becoming involved in politics, Chmielowski lost a leg at the age of 18 while taking part in the Polish nationalist Uprising of 1863. As a result of the severe response of the Czarist authorities to this insurrection, Chmielowski had to leave Poland. He settled in Ghent, Belgium, where he began to study engineering. During this period, he discovered that he had also a talent for painting, which he began to develop. For this he even traveled
    7.33
    3 votes
    94
    Wells Coates

    Wells Coates

    • Organizations founded: MARS Group
    Wells Wintemute Coates OBE (December 17, 1895 – June 17, 1958) was an architect, designer and writer. He was, for most of his life, an ex-patriate Canadian architect who is best known for his work in England. His most notable work is the Isokon building in Hampstead, London. The oldest of six children, Wells Coates was born in Tokyo, Japan on December 17, 1895 to Methodist missionaries Sarah Agnes Wintemute Coates (1864–1945) and Harper Havelock Coates (1865–1934). The young man's desire to be an architect was inspired by his mother, who had herself studied architecture under Louis Sullivan and planned one of the first missionary schools in Japan. Coates spent his youth in the Far East, and voyaged around the world with his father in 1913. He served in World War I, first as a gunner and later as a pilot with the Royal Air Force. He attended the University of British Columbia where he obtained a BA degree in May 1920 and a BSc degree in May 1922, and in October 1922 he registered at East London College where he studied engineering (obtaining a PhD in 1924). Among his first jobs in England was as a journalist and then with the design firm of Adams and Thompson in 1924. He established
    7.33
    3 votes
    95
    Abby Aldrich Rockefeller

    Abby Aldrich Rockefeller

    • Organizations founded: Museum of Modern Art
    Abby Aldrich Rockefeller (October 26, 1874 – April 5, 1948) was a prominent American socialite and philanthropist and the second-generation matriarch of the renowned Rockefeller family. Referred to as the "woman in the family", she was especially noteworthy for being the driving force behind the establishment of the Museum of Modern Art, on 53rd Street in New York, in November 1929. She was born Abigail "Abby" Greene Aldrich in Providence, Rhode Island, the daughter of the influential Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich, chairman of the powerful Senate Finance Committee, and the former Abby Pearce Truman Chapman, a distant descendant of the fourth signer of the Mayflower Compact. Her sister, Lucy Aldrich, who was nearly completely deaf (at the time thought because of a childhood bout of scarlet fever, now believed to be the result of waardenburg syndrome, a genetic anomaly found in several generations of the Aldrich family), would be one of her closest friends throughout their lives, and is believed to have fostered Abby's interest in American folk art. Her early education came at the hands of Quaker governesses. In 1891, aged 18, she enrolled at the Miss Abbott's School for Young
    6.25
    4 votes
    96
    Arthur Jaffe

    Arthur Jaffe

    • Organizations founded: Clay Mathematics Institute
    Arthur Jaffe is an American mathematical physicist and a professor at Harvard University. Born on December 22, 1937 he attended Princeton University as an undergraduate obtaining a degree in chemistry, and later Clare College, Cambridge, as a Marshall Scholar, obtaining a degree in mathematics. He then returned to Princeton, obtaining a doctorate in physics. With James Glimm, he founded the subject called constructive quantum field theory. One of their major achievements was to show the mathematical compatibility of quantum theory, special relativity, and interaction. They did this by proving the existence of the first examples of non-linear, relativistic quantum fields with non-trivial scattering. Jaffe's work in several related fields of mathematics and physics is well-known, including contributions to gauge theory and to non-commutative geometry. For several years Jaffe was president of the International Association of Mathematical Physics, and later of the American Mathematical Society. He chaired the Council of Scientific Society Presidents. Jaffe conceived the idea of the Clay Mathematics Institute and its programs, including the employment of research fellows and the
    6.25
    4 votes
    97
    Philip Neri

    Philip Neri

    • Organizations founded: Oratory of Saint Philip Neri
    Philip Romolo Neri (Italian: Filippo Neri), CO, (21 July 1515 – 25 May 1595), known as Apostle of Rome, was an Italian priest noted for founding a society of Secular clergy called the "Congregation of the Oratory". He was born in Florence, On July 22, 1515 and he was born the youngest child of Francesco, a lawyer, and his wife Lucrezia da Mosciano, whose family were nobility in the service of the state. Neri was carefully brought up, and received his early teaching from the friars at San Marco, the famous Dominican monastery in Florence. He was accustomed in later life to ascribe most of his progress to the teaching of two amongst them, Zenobio de' Medici and Servanzio Mini. At the age of 18, Philip was sent to his uncle, Romolo, a wealthy merchant at San Germano, a Neapolitan town near the base of Monte Cassino, to assist him in his business, and with the hope that he might inherit his uncle's fortune. He did gain Romolo's confidence and affection, but soon after coming to San Germano Philip had a conversion. He no longer cared for things of the world, and chose to relocate to Rome in 1533. After arriving in Rome, he became a tutor in the house of a Florentine aristocrat named
    6.25
    4 votes
    98
    Denis de Rougemont

    Denis de Rougemont

    • Organizations founded: Union of European Federalists
    Denis de Rougemont (September 8, 1906, Couvet – December 6, 1985, Geneva) was a Swiss writer and European federalist, who wrote in French. He studied at the University of Neuchâtel, and then moved to Paris in 1930. There he wrote for and edited various publications, associating with the personalist groupings and the non-conformists of the 1930s. He founded in Geneva the "Centre Européen de la Culture" in 1950 and in 1963 the "Institut Universitaire d'Etudes Européennes" (IUEE, "Graduate Institute of European Studies", attached to the University of Geneva). The 1989–1990 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour.
    7.00
    3 votes
    99
    Andy Samberg

    Andy Samberg

    • Organizations founded: The Lonely Island
    Andrew David Samberg (born August 18, 1978) is an American actor, comedian, writer, rapper and member of the comedy group The Lonely Island. He is known as a cast member on Saturday Night Live from 2005–2012, where he and The Lonely Island have been credited with popularizing the Emmy-winning SNL Digital Shorts, the comical short films and music videos starring Samberg and other members of the SNL cast. As a film actor, Samberg has starred in Hot Rod, That's My Boy, and Celeste and Jesse Forever, and appeared in Space Chimps, Nick and Norah's Infinite Playlist, I Love You, Man, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, Friends with Benefits, and What's Your Number?. Samberg was born in Berkeley, California. His mother, Marjorie "Margi" (née Marrow), is an elementary school teacher who taught at Old Mill School, and his father, Joe Samberg, is a photographer. Samberg has two sisters, Johanna and Darrow. His family is Jewish, and his maternal grandfather, industrial psychologist and philanthropist Alfred J. Marrow, served as the executive chair of the American Jewish Congress. Samberg has described himself as "not particularly religious." Samberg is a third cousin of U.S. Representative
    6.00
    4 votes
    100
    Ann N. Reese

    Ann N. Reese

    • Organizations founded: Center for Adoption Policy
    Ann N. Reese spent over 25 years in a career in finance. Formerly the CFO of ITT, she also worked with such companies as Mobil Oil, Union Carbide, Bankers Trust and Clayton, Dubilier & Rice. She has an MBA from New York University and a BA from the University of Pennsylvania. Ann is a director of Jones Apparel Group, Kmart, Merrill Lynch and Xerox. She is an Executive Director of CAP.
    8.00
    2 votes
    101
    Bill Ayers

    Bill Ayers

    • Organizations founded: Weather Underground Organization
    William Charles "Bill" Ayers (born December 26, 1944) is an American elementary education theorist and a former leader in the movement that opposed U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. He is known for his 1960s activism as well as his current work in education reform, curriculum, and instruction. In 1969 he co-founded the Weather Underground, a self-described communist revolutionary group that conducted a campaign of bombing public buildings (including police stations, the U.S. Capitol Building, and the Pentagon) during the 1960s and 1970s in response to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. He is a retired professor in the College of Education at the University of Illinois at Chicago, formerly holding the titles of Distinguished Professor of Education and Senior University Scholar. During the 2008 US presidential campaign, a controversy arose over his contacts with then-candidate Barack Obama. He is married to Bernardine Dohrn, who was also a leader in the Weather organization. Ayers grew up in Glen Ellyn, a suburb of Chicago, Illinois. He attended public schools there until his second year in high school, when he transferred to Lake Forest Academy, a small prep school. Ayers
    8.00
    2 votes
    102
    Bill Gates

    Bill Gates

    • Organizations founded: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
    William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate and philanthropist. Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world’s largest personal-computer software company, which he co-founded with Paul Allen. He is consistently ranked among the world's wealthiest people and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009, excluding 2008, when he was ranked third; in 2011 he was the wealthiest American and the second wealthiest person. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock. He has also authored or co-authored several books. Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Gates has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts. In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates
    8.00
    2 votes
    103
    Edith Cowan

    Edith Cowan

    • Organizations founded: Karrakatta Club
    Edith Dircksey Cowan (née Brown), MBE (2 August 1861 – 9 June 1932) was an Australian politician, social campaigner and the first woman elected to an Australian parliament. Edith Brown was born and raised in Glengarry (HI) Station near Geraldton, Western Australia on 2 August 1861. The second daughter of Kenneth Brown and Mary Eliza Dircksey née Wittenoom, she was born into an influential and respected family that included her grandfathers Thomas Brown and John Burdett Wittenoom, and an uncle, Maitland Brown. When she was seven years old her mother died in childbirth, and her father sent her to a Perth boarding school run by the Cowan sisters, whose brother James she would later marry. Her father remarried, but the marriage was unhappy and he began to drink heavily. When Edith was fifteen, her father shot and killed his second wife, and was subsequently hanged for the crime. After her father's death, Edith Brown left her boarding school and moved to Guildford, probably to live with her grandmother. There, she attended the school of Canon Sweeting, a former headmaster of Bishop Hale's School who had taught a number of prominent men including John Forrest and Septimus Burt. According
    8.00
    2 votes
    104
    Eric S. Raymond

    Eric S. Raymond

    • Organizations founded: Open Source Initiative
    Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American computer programmer, author and open source software advocate. After the 1997 publication of The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Raymond was for a number of years frequently quoted as an unofficial spokesman for the open source movement. He is also known for his 1990 edit and later updates of the Jargon File, currently in print as the The New Hacker's Dictionary. Born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1957, Raymond lived in Venezuela as a child. His family moved back to Pennsylvania in 1971. Raymond said in an interview that his cerebral palsy motivated him to go into computing. Raymond has spoken in more than fifteen countries on six continents, including a lecture at Microsoft. He wrote CML2, a source code configuration system; while originally intended for the Linux kernel, it was rejected by kernel developers. Raymond attributed this rejection to "kernel list politics". Linus Torvalds on the other hand said in a 2007 mailing list post that as a matter of policy, the development team preferred more incremental changes. In 2000–2002 Raymond wrote a number of HOWTOs still included in the Linux Documentation
    8.00
    2 votes
    105
    Joseph Marello

    Joseph Marello

    Saint Joseph Marello (December 26, 1844 - May 30, 1895) was the son of Vincenzo and Anna Maria Marello. Joseph's mother died when he was very young, and the family moved from Turin to San Martino Alfieri, Italy. Joseph entered the seminary at age 12. At age 19 he contracted typhus and promised Our Lady that if he survived, he would continue his studies to be ordained. He recovered, attributed the cure to Our Lady of Consolation, and was ordained on 19 September 1868. Joseph became the secretary to Bishop Carlo Savio at Asti, Italy for 13 years. He attended the First Vatican Council with Bishop Savio in 1869-1870. Later, he took over an Asti retirement home to save it from bankruptcy. Joseph became the spiritual director and catechist in his diocese. In 1878, Joseph became the founder of the Oblates of Saint Joseph, a congregation dedicated to caring for the poor, educating the young, and assisting bishops in any capacity required. On February 17, 1889, he became the Bishop of Acqui, Italy. Joseph visited all the parishes in his diocese, and wrote six pastoral letters to his flock. He died while participating in a celebration of the 3rd centennial of St. Philip Neri. The first
    8.00
    2 votes
    106
    Saint Dominic

    Saint Dominic

    • Organizations founded: Dominican Order
    Saint Dominic (Spanish: Santo Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán (1170 – August 6, 1221), was the founder of the Dominican Order. Dominic is the patron saint of astronomers. Dominic was born in Caleruega, halfway between Osma and Aranda de Duero in Old Castile, Spain. He was named after Saint Dominic of Silos, who is said to be the patron saint of hopeful mothers. The Benedictine abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos lies a few miles north of Caleruega. In the earliest narrative source, by Jordan of Saxony, Dominic's parents are not named. The story is told that before his birth his barren mother made a pilgrimage to Silos and dreamed that a dog leapt from her womb carrying a torch in its mouth, and "seemed to set the earth on fire". This story is likely to have emerged when his order became known, after his name, as the Dominican order, in Latin is Dominicanus and by a play of words was interpreted as Domini canis: "Dog of the Lord." Jordan adds that Dominic was brought up by his parents and a maternal uncle who was an archbishop. He was named in honour of Dominic of Silos as well as the Lord's Day
    8.00
    2 votes
    107
    Saint Humility

    Saint Humility

    Saint Humility (Humilitas; Italian: Umiltà) (c. 1226 – May 22, 1310) was a founder of Vallumbrosan convents, and is considered the founder of the Vallumbrosan Nuns. Born Rosanna Negusanti to a noble family from Faenza, she was married at the age of fifteen to a nobleman named Ugoletto (Ugonotto) dei Caccianemici (d. 1256). She bore two children, both of whom died in infancy. In 1250, Ugoletto became a monk upon recovering from an illness that nearly killed him. Rosanna entered the same double monastery of canonesses named Saint Perpetua, near Faenza, becoming a nun and taking the name Humilitas. She became an anchoress in a cell attached to the Vallumbrosan church of Saint Apollinaris in Faenza, where she lived as a hermit or recluse for twelve years. However, at the request of the abbot-general she founded a monastery outside Faenza and became its abbess. Blessed Margherita became one of her disciples. In 1282, she founded a second convent at Florence, where she died in 1310 of natural causes. She left a number of mystical writings. She was canonized on January 27, 1720, by Pope Clement XI. Her feast day is celebrated on May 22. The relics of Humility and her disciple Margherita
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson

    • Organizations founded: Democratic Party
    Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 (April 2, 1743 O.S.) – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801–1809). At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781). Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat, stationed in Paris. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France. Jefferson was the first United States Secretary of State (1790–1793) serving under President George Washington. With his close friend James Madison he organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and subsequently resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice President in 1796, when he came in second to John Adams of the Federalists, Jefferson opposed Adams and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts. Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of 1800, he oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and
    8.00
    2 votes
    109
    Bernard Kouchner

    Bernard Kouchner

    • Organizations founded: Médecins Sans Frontières
    Bernard Kouchner (born 1 November 1939) is a French politician, and doctor. He is co-founder of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and Médecins du Monde. From 2007 until 2010 he was the French Minister of Foreign and European Affairs in the center-right Fillon government under president Nicolas Sarkozy, although he had been in the past a minister in socialist governments. Kouchner was born in Avignon to a Jewish father and a Protestant mother, he began his political career as a member of the French Communist Party (PCF), from which he was expelled in 1966 for attempting to overthrow the leadership. On a visit to Cuba in 1964, Kouchner spent the night fishing and drinking with Fidel Castro. In the protests of May 1968, he ran the medical faculty strike committee at the Sorbonne. Kouchner has three children (Julie, Camille and Antoine) by his first wife, Évelyne Pisier, a professor of law, and one child, Alexandre, by his present wife Christine Ockrent, a television journalist. He worked as a physician for the Red Cross in Biafra in 1968 (during the Nigerian Civil War). He co-founded Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) in 1971, and then, due to a conflict of opinion with
    9.00
    1 votes
    110
    Charles Taze Russell

    Charles Taze Russell

    • Organizations founded: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
    Charles Taze Russell (February 16, 1852 – October 31, 1916), or Pastor Russell, was a prominent early 20th century Christian restorationist minister from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and founder of what is now known as the Bible Student movement, from which Jehovah's Witnesses and numerous independent Bible Student groups emerged after his death. Beginning in July 1879 he began publishing a monthly religious journal, Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence. The journal is now published by Jehovah's Witnesses on a semi-monthly basis under the name, The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah's Kingdom. In 1881 he co-founded Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society and in 1884 the corporation was officially registered, with Russell as president. Russell wrote many articles, books, tracts, pamphlets and sermons, totaling approximately 50,000 printed pages. From 1886 to 1904, he published a six-volume Bible study series originally entitled Millennial Dawn, later renamed Studies in the Scriptures, nearly 20 million copies of which were printed and distributed around the world in several languages during his lifetime. (A seventh volume was commissioned by his successor as society president,
    9.00
    1 votes
    111
    Emma Samms

    Emma Samms

    • Organizations founded: Starlight Starbright Children's Foundation
    Emma Samms (born Emma E. W. Samuelson; 28 August 1960) is a British television actress best known for her role as Holly Sutton on the American daytime soap opera General Hospital and for replacing Pamela Sue Martin as Fallon Carrington Colby on the prime time soap opera Dynasty. Samms was born in Willesden, London, England, the daughter of Madeleine U. (née White), a ballet dancer, and Michael E. W. Samuelson, who owned a film equipment rental company. Her grandfather, G. B. Samuelson, was a pioneer of British cinema. Samms was raised in the Jewish religion. She trained as a ballet dancer at the Royal Ballet School but stopped dancing at 15 after a hip injury. Next training as an actress, she changed her name to "Emma Samms" as there was already an "Emma Samuelson" registered at the actors union Equity. Samms first played Holly Sutton Scorpio on the ABC daytime soap opera General Hospital from 1982 to 1985. With Samms choosing to leave the series amicably to go to ABC's prime time hit Dynasty, her character Holly seemingly perished in a plane crash. On May 15, 1985, Samms appeared in the fifth season finale "Royal Wedding" as Fallon Carrington Colby, a role originated by Pamela Sue
    9.00
    1 votes
    112
    Jack Abramoff

    Jack Abramoff

    • Organizations founded: International Freedom Foundation
    Jack A. Abramoff (/ˈeɪbrəmɒf/; born February 28, 1958) is an American former lobbyist, businessman, movie producer, and writer. He was at the heart of an extensive corruption investigation that led to his conviction and to 21 persons either pleading guilty or being found guilty, including White House officials J. Steven Griles and David Safavian, U.S. Representative Bob Ney, and nine other lobbyists and Congressional aides. Abramoff was College Republican National Committee National Chairman from 1981 to 1985, a founding member of the International Freedom Foundation, allegedly financed by apartheid South Africa, and served on the board of directors of the National Center for Public Policy Research, a conservative think tank. From 1994 to 2001 he was a top lobbyist for the firm of Preston Gates & Ellis, and then for Greenberg Traurig until March 2004. After a guilty plea in the Indian lobbying scandal and his dealings with SunCruz Casinos in January 2006, he was sentenced to six years in federal prison for mail fraud, conspiracy to bribe public officials, and tax evasion. He served 43 months before being released on December 3, 2010. After his release from prison, he wrote the book
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Ulrike Meinhof

    Ulrike Meinhof

    • Organizations founded: Red Army Faction
    Ulrike Marie Meinhof (7 October 1934 – 9 May 1976) was a German left-wing militant. She co-founded the Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) in 1970 after having previously worked as a journalist for the monthly left-wing magazine Konkret. She was arrested in 1972, and eventually charged with numerous murders and the formation of a criminal association. Before the trial concluded, Meinhof was found hanged in her cell in 1976. Ulrike Meinhof was born in 1934 in Oldenburg, Germany. In 1936, her family moved to Jena when her father, art historian Dr. Werner Meinhof, became director of the city's museum. Her father died of cancer in 1940, causing her mother to take in a boarder, Renate Riemeck, to make money. In 1946, the family moved back to Oldenburg because Jena fell under Soviet rule as a result of the Yalta agreement. Ulrike's mother, Dr. Ingeborg Meinhof, worked as a teacher after World War II and died 8 years later from cancer. Renate Riemeck took on the role of guardian for Ulrike and her elder sister. In 1952, she took her Abitur at a school in Weilburg. She then studied philosophy, sociology, education and German at Marburg where she became involved with reform movements. In
    9.00
    1 votes
    114
    Albert C. Barnes

    Albert C. Barnes

    • Organizations founded: Barnes Foundation of Philadelphia
    Albert Coombs Barnes (January 2, 1872 – July 24, 1951) was an American physician and chemist, businessman, art collector, writer, and educator, the founder of the Barnes Foundation in Lower Merion, Pennsylvania. With a fortune made from the development of the antiseptic drug Argyrol, used to treat gonorrhea; a business to promote it; and the well-timed sale of his company in 1929, in his 30s Barnes began to study and collect art. He acquired his first 20 pieces by commissioning his friend, the artist William Glackens, to buy modern work for him in Paris. After selling his business, he devoted himself to the study and collecting of art. In 1922, Barnes established the Barnes Foundation, an educational institution, and housed his collection in a mansion built for that purpose in Lower Merion, Pennsylvania. It was an educational institution based on his private collection of art, which was hung according to his theories of aesthetics and without curatorial commentary. The collection has numerous paintings by Impressionist, Post-Impressionist and Modernist masters, as well as furniture, ancient artifacts, and highly crafted objects from different time periods. He created numerous
    5.00
    5 votes
    115
    Bruce Perens

    Bruce Perens

    • Organizations founded: Open Source Initiative
    Bruce Perens is a computer programmer and advocate in the open source community. He created the Open Source Definition and published the first formal announcement and manifesto of open source. He co-founded the Open Source Initiative (OSI) with Eric S. Raymond. In 2005, Perens represented Open Source at the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society, at the invitation of the United Nations Development Program. He has appeared before national legislatures and is often quoted in the press, advocating for open source and the reform of national and international technology policy. Perens is also an amateur radio operator, with callsign K6BP. He is well known in the amateur radio community for his efforts towards open radio communications standards. Perens poses Open Source as a means of marketing the free software philosophy of Richard Stallman to business people who are more concerned with profit than freedom, and states that open source and free software are only two ways of talking about the same phenomenon. This differs from Stallman and Raymond. Perens postulates an economic theory for business use of Open Source in his paper The Emerging Economic Paradigm of Open
    6.67
    3 votes
    116
    Emmeline Pankhurst

    Emmeline Pankhurst

    • Organizations founded: Women's Social and Political Union
    Emmeline Pankhurst (born Emmeline Goulden) (15 July 1858 – 14 June 1928) was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement which helped women win the right to vote. In 1999 Time named Pankhurst as one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time; she shook society into a new pattern from which there could be no going back." She was widely criticized for her militant tactics, and historians disagree about their effectiveness, but her work is recognized as a crucial element in achieving women's suffrage in Britain. Born Emmeline Goulden and raised in Moss Side, Manchester, England by politically active parents, Pankhurst was introduced at the age of 8 to the women's suffrage movement. Although her parents encouraged her to prepare herself for life as a wife and mother, she attended the École Normale de Neuilly in Paris. In 1878 she married Richard Pankhurst, a barrister 24 years her senior known for supporting women's right to vote; they had five children over the next ten years. He also supported her activities outside the home, and she quickly became involved with the Women's Franchise League,
    6.67
    3 votes
    117
    Jean-Baptiste de la Salle

    Jean-Baptiste de la Salle

    • Organizations founded: La Salle College
    Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle or John Baptist de La Salle (30 April 1651 – 7 April 1719) was a priest, educational reformer, and founder of Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. He is a saint of the Roman Catholic church and the patron saint of teachers. He dedicated much of his life for the education of poor children in France; in doing so, he started many lasting educational practices. He is considered the founder of the first Catholic schools. Born in Reims, France, Jean-Baptiste de La Salle received the tonsure at age eleven and was named canon of Rheims Cathedral when he was fifteen. Though he had to assume the administration of family affairs after his parents died, he completed his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood at the age of 26 on April 9, 1678. Two years later he received a Doctorate in Theology. De La Salle became involved in education little by little, without ever consciously setting out to do so. In 1679, what began as a charitable effort to help Adrian Nyel establish a school for the poor in De La Salle's home town gradually became his life's work. He thereby began a new religious institute, the Institute of the Brothers of the
    6.67
    3 votes
    118
    Julian Bond

    Julian Bond

    • Organizations founded: Southern Poverty Law Center
    Horace Julian Bond (born January 14, 1940), known as Julian Bond, is an American social activist and leader in the American civil rights movement, politician, professor, and writer. While a student at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, during the early 1960s, he helped to establish the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He was the first president of the Southern Poverty Law Center. Bond was elected to four terms in the Georgia House of Representatives and later to six terms in the Georgia Senate, having served a combined twenty years in both legislative chambers. From 1998 to 2010, he was chairman of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Julian Bond was born at Hubbard Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee, to the former Julia Agnes Washington a graduate of Fisk University, and Horace Mann Bond a prominent educator. At the time the family resided in on campus at Fort Valley State College where Horace Mann Bond was president. The house of the Bonds was a frequent stop for scholars and celebrities passing by such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Paul Robeson. In 1945 his father was offered the position as the first African-American president of Lincoln
    6.67
    3 votes
    119
    Richard Dawkins

    Richard Dawkins

    • Organizations founded: Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science
    Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS, FRSL (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist and author. He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford, and was the University of Oxford's Professor for Public Understanding of Science from 1995 until 2008. Dawkins came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centred view of evolution and introduced the term meme. In 1982, he introduced into evolutionary biology the influential concept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not necessarily limited to an organism's body, but can stretch far into the environment, including the bodies of other organisms; this concept is presented in his book, The Extended Phenotype. Dawkins is an atheist, a vice president of the British Humanist Association, and a supporter of the Brights movement. He is well known for his criticism of creationism and intelligent design. In his 1986 book The Blind Watchmaker, he argues against the watchmaker analogy, an argument for the existence of a supernatural creator based upon the complexity of living organisms. Instead, he describes evolutionary processes as analogous to a blind watchmaker. He has since
    6.67
    3 votes
    120
    Mother Teresa

    Mother Teresa

    • Organizations founded: Missionaries of Charity
    Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta, born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (Albanian: [aˈɲɛs ˈɡɔɲdʒa bɔjaˈdʒiu]) and commonly known as Mother Teresa of Calcutta (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was an Albanian-born Indian Roman Catholic nun. "By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus." In late 2003, she was beatified, the third step toward possible sainthood. A second miracle credited to Mother Teresa is required before she can be recognized as a saint by the Catholic church. Mother Teresa was fluent in five languages: Bengali, the local language of the people of Kolkata, Albanian, Serbo-Croatian, English, and Hindi. Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and is active in 133 countries. Members of the order must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience, and the fourth vow, to give "Wholehearted and Free service to the poorest of the poor". The Missionaries of Charity at the time of her death had 610 missions in 123 countries including hospices
    5.75
    4 votes
    121
    Alcide De Gasperi

    Alcide De Gasperi

    • Organizations founded: European Movement
    Alcide De Gasperi (Italian pronunciation: [alˈtʃiːde de ˈɡasperi]; April 3, 1881 – August 19, 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician and founder of the Christian Democratic Party. From 1945 to 1953 he was the prime minister of eight successive coalition governments. His eight-year rule remains a landmark of political longevity for a leader in modern Italian politics. A conservative Catholic, he was one of the Founding fathers of the European Union, along with the Frenchman Robert Schuman and the West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. De Gasperi was born in Pieve Tesino in Tyrol, which at that time belonged to Austria-Hungary, now part of the Trentino in Italy. His father was a local police officer of limited financial means. From 1896 De Gasperi was active in the Social Christian movement. In 1900 he joined the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy in Vienna, where he played an important role in the inception of the Christian student movement. He was very much inspired by the Rerum Novarum encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891. In 1904 he took an active part in the student demonstrations in favour of an Italian-language university. Imprisoned with other protesters
    7.50
    2 votes
    122
    Bruno of Cologne

    Bruno of Cologne

    • Organizations founded: Carthusian
    Bruno of Cologne (Cologne, c. 1030 – Serra San Bruno, 6 October 1101), the founder of the Carthusian Order, personally founded the order's first two communities. He was a celebrated teacher at Reims, and a close advisor of his former pupil, Pope Urban II. His funeral elegies celebrate his eloquence, which is a way with words, and his poetic, philosophical, and theological talents; his merit as a teacher is reflected in the merits of his pupils, amongst whom were Eudes of Châtillon, afterwards Pope Urban II; Rangier, Cardinal Bishop of Reggio; Robert, Bishop of Langres; and a large number of prelates and abbots. In 1075, Bruno was appointed chancellor of the Diocese of Reims, which involved him in the daily administration of the diocese. Meanwhile, the pious Bishop Gervais de Château-du-Loir, a friend to Bruno, had been succeeded by Manasses de Gournai, a violent aristocrat with no real vocation for the Church. In 1077, at the urging of Bruno and the clergy at Reims, de Gournai was suspended at a council at Autun. He responded, in typical eleventh century fashion, by having his retainers pull down the houses of his accusers. He confiscated their goods, sold their benefices, and even
    7.50
    2 votes
    123
    Elia Kazan

    Elia Kazan

    • Organizations founded: The Actors Studio
    Elia Kazan (IPA: [eˈlia kaˈzan]; September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was an American director, producer, writer and actor, described by The New York Times as "one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history". He was born in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire, to Greek parents. After studying acting at Yale, he acted professionally for eight years, later joining the Group Theater in 1932, and co-founded the Actors Studio in 1947. With Lee Strasberg, he introduced Method acting to the American stage and cinema as a new form of self-expression and psychological "realism". Kazan acted in only a few films, including City for Conquest (1940). Kazan introduced a new generation of unknown young actors to the movie audiences, including Marlon Brando and James Dean. Noted for drawing out the best dramatic performances from his actors, he directed 21 actors to Oscar nominations, resulting in nine wins. He became "one of the consummate filmmakers of the 20th century" after directing a string of successful films, including, A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), On the Waterfront (1954), and East of Eden (1955). During his career, he won two Oscars as Best Director
    7.50
    2 votes
    124
    Lakshmi Mittal

    Lakshmi Mittal

    • Organizations founded: Mittal Champions Trust
    Lakshmi Niwas Mittal  pronunciation (help·info) (born 15 June 1950) is an Indian steel magnate. He is the chairman and CEO of ArcelorMittal, the world’s largest steelmaking company. Mittal owns 41 percent of ArcelorMittal and holds a 34 percent stake in the Queens Park Rangers F.C. football team. Mittal is the richest man living in Europe and the richest man with an Asian nationality. Despite being the wealthiest man in Britain, he does not hold British citizenship. He was ranked the sixth richest person in the world by Forbes in 2011, but dropped to 21st place in 2012, due to having lost $10.4 billion the previous year. In spite of the drop, Forbes estimates that he still had a personal wealth of US$20.7 billion in March 2012. He is also the 47th "most powerful person" of the 70 individuals named in Forbes' "Most Powerful People" list for 2012. His daughter Vanisha Mittal's wedding was the second most expensive in recorded history. Mittal has been a member of the board of directors of Goldman Sachs since 2008, and is also member of the board of directors of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company. He sits on the World Steel Association's executive committee, and is a
    7.50
    2 votes
    125
    Mary Ward

    Mary Ward

    • Organizations founded: Sisters of Loreto
    The Venerable Mary Ward, I.B.V.M., (23 January 1585 – 30 January 1645) was an English Catholic Religious Sister who founded the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, also known as the Loreto Sisters (not to be confused with the Sisters of Loretto). She was declared "Venerable" by Pope Benedict XVI on 19 December 2009; this is the first of three steps on the path to being declared a saint. She was born to Marmaduke Ward and Ursula Wright. Mary's first word was "Jesus", which was a sign of things to come. Mary was born at a time of great conflict for Roman Catholics in England. She was born in Ripon and in 1595 saw her family home burned down in anti-Catholic rioting. As the home was burning, Mary and her sisters knelt down and prayed for the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary; the children were saved by their father. In 1599 she moved to the house of Sir Ralph Babthorpe at Osgodby, Selby. It was there at the age of 15 that Mary felt called to the religious life. She entered a monastery of Poor Clares at Saint-Omer in northern France, then in Spanish Flanders, as a lay sister in 1606 and the following year she founded a new monastery of the Order for English women at nearby
    7.50
    2 votes
    126
    Mary White Ovington

    Mary White Ovington

    • Organizations founded: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    Mary White Ovington (April 11, 1865 – July 15, 1951) was an American suffragette, Republican, Unitarian, journalist, and co-founder of the NAACP. Mary White Ovington was born April 11, 1865 in Brooklyn, New York. Her parents, members of the Unitarian Church were supporters of women's rights and had been involved in anti-slavery movement. Educated at Packer Collegiate Institute and Radcliffe College, Ovington became involved in the campaign for civil rights in 1890 after hearing Frederick Douglass speak in a Brooklyn church. In 1895 she helped found the Greenpoint Settlement in Brooklyn. Appointed head of the project the following year, Ovington remained until 1904 when she was appointed fellow of the Greenwich House Committee on Social Investigations. Over the next five years she studied employment and housing problems in black Manhattan. During her investigations she met W.E.B. Du Bois, from Harvard University and was introduced to the founding members of the Niagara Movement. Influenced by the ideas of William Morris, Ovington joined the Republican Party in 1905, where she met people including Daniel De Leon, Asa Philip Randolph, Floyd Dell, Max Eastman and Jack London, who
    7.50
    2 votes
    127
    Meir Kahane

    Meir Kahane

    • Organizations founded: Jewish Defense League
    Martin David Kahane (/kəˈhɑːnə/; 1 August 1932 – 5 November 1990), also known as Meir Kahane (Hebrew: הרב מאיר דוד כהנא‎), was an American-Israeli rabbi and ultra-nationalist writer and political figure, whose work became either the direct or indirect foundation of most modern Jewish terrorist and right-wing political groups. He was an ordained Orthodox rabbi and later served as a member of the Israeli Knesset. Kahane also used the pen names Benyac and David Sinai and the pseudonyms Michael King, David Borac and Martin Keene. Kahane gained recognition as an activist for Jewish causes, such as organizing Jewish self-defense groups in deteriorating neighborhoods and the struggle for the right of Soviet Jews to immigrate. He later became known in the United States and Israel for political and religious views that included proposing emergency Jewish mass-immigration to Israel due to the imminent threat of a "second Holocaust" in the United States, advocating that Israel's democracy be replaced by a state modeled on Jewish religious law, and promoting the idea of a Greater Israel in which Israel would annex the West Bank and Gaza Strip. In order to keep Arabs, whom he stated would never
    7.50
    2 votes
    128
    Samuel Morse

    Samuel Morse

    • Organizations founded: National Academy of Design
    Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor. He contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs, was co-inventor of the Morse code, and also an accomplished painter. Samuel F.B. Morse was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, the first child of the pastor Jedidiah Morse (1761–1826)—who was also a geographer—and Elizabeth Ann Finley Breese (1766–1828). His father was a great preacher of the Calvinist faith and supporter of the American Federalist party. He thought it helped preserve Puritan traditions (strict observance of Sabbath, among other things), and believed in the Federalist support of an alliance with Britain and a strong central government. Morse strongly believed in education within a Federalist framework, alongside the instillation of Calvinist virtues, morals and prayers for his first son. After attending Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, Samuel Morse went on to Yale College to receive instruction in the subjects of religious philosophy, mathematics and science of horses. While at Yale, he attended lectures on electricity from Benjamin Silliman and Jeremiah Day. He supported
    7.50
    2 votes
    129
    William Booth

    William Booth

    • Organizations founded: Salvation Army
    William Booth (10 April 1829 – 20 August 1912) was a British Methodist preacher who founded The Salvation Army and became its first General (1878–1912). The Christian movement with a quasi-military structure and government founded in 1865 has spread from London, England to many parts of the world and is known for being one of the largest distributors of humanitarian aid. William Booth was born in Sneinton, Nottingham, England, the only son of four surviving children born to Samuel Booth and Mary Moss. Booth's father was wealthy by the standards of the time, but during his childhood, as a result of bad investments, the family descended into poverty and his father became an alcoholic. In 1842, Samuel Booth, who by then was bankrupt, could no longer afford his son's school fees, and 13-year-old William Booth was apprenticed to a pawnbroker. Samuel Booth died later that same year. Two years into his apprenticeship Booth was converted to Methodism. He then read extensively and trained himself in writing and in speech, becoming a Methodist lay preacher. Booth was encouraged to be an evangelist primarily through his best friend, Will Sansom. Sansom and Booth both began in the 1840s to
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    Alexander Hamilton

    Alexander Hamilton

    • Organizations founded: Federalist Party
    Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757  – July 12, 1804) was a Founding Father, soldier, economist, political philosopher, one of America's first constitutional lawyers and the first United States Secretary of the Treasury. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the primary author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration, especially the funding of the state debts by the Federal government, the establishment of a national bank, a system of tariffs, and friendly trade relations with Britain. He became the leader of the Federalist Party, created largely in support of his views, and was opposed by the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Hamilton served in the American Revolutionary War. At the start of the war, he organized an artillery company and was chosen as its captain. He later became the senior aide-de-camp and confidant to General George Washington, the American commander-in-chief. He served again under Washington in the army raised to defeat the Whiskey Rebellion, a tax revolt of western farmers in 1794. In 1798, Hamilton called for mobilization against France after the XYZ Affair and secured an appointment
    5.50
    4 votes
    131
    Saint Alberic

    Saint Alberic

    Saint Albéric of Cîteaux (died January 26, 1108), sometimes known as Aubrey of Cîteaux, was a Christian saint and abbot, one of the founders of the Cistercian Order. Albéric was a hermit in the forest of Collan in France who, along with five other hermits, invited Saint Robert of Molesme to begin a new monastery with them that would operate under the Rule of St. Benedict. Robert led these hermits to the forest of Molesme and established a religious settlement there in 1075, Molesme Abbey. Robert served as the first abbot, and Albéric as the prior. However, as the settlement's fame grew, gifts came in and the wealth attracted new monks more lax in their observance of the rule. The Molesmes community was divided, and the monks opposed Robert and Albéric. Robert twice left the monastery to live as a hermit, and twice the pope ordered him back to his community. During one of Robert's absences, the brothers imprisoned Albéric so that they might have their way. The stricter group left Molesme for Cîteaux. Initially, Robert was abbot of Cîteaux with Albéric serving as prior. However, the monks of Molesme petitioned Robert to return to them and vowed obedience to the Rule of St. Benedict.
    5.50
    4 votes
    132
    Anne-Marie Javouhey

    Anne-Marie Javouhey

    Blessed Anne-Marie Javouhey (November 10, 1779 – July 15, 1851) was a French nun who founded the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Cluny. She is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church. She is known as the Liberator of the Slaves in the New World, and as the mother of the town of Mana, French Guiana. She was born in the commune of Jallanges, Côte-d'Or, the fifth of ten children of a local wealthy farm couple, Balthazar and Claudine Javouhey. When she was very young, she smelled wine and was about to drink the wine when one of the servants saw her and asked her not to drink the wine. She always added water to her wine for the rest of her life. Through her teen years, she helped to hide and care for a number of priests persecuted by the French Revolution, including keeping watch for them as they said Mass. She made a private vow when she was nineteen years old, but was not able to become a nun because the revolutionary government had closed convents and churches. Later on, she joined the Sisters of Charity at Besançon. While there is reported to have a vision of St. Teresa of Avila entrusting children of different races to her. She did not understand its meaning at the time, but it would
    6.33
    3 votes
    133
    Archibald Grimke

    Archibald Grimke

    • Organizations founded: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    Archibald Henry Grimké (August 17, 1849 – February 25, 1930) was an American lawyer, intellectual, journalist, diplomat and community leader in the 19th and early 20th century. A graduate of freedmen's schools, Lincoln University and Harvard Law School, he later was appointed as American Consul to the Dominican Republic from 1894–1898. He was an activist for rights for blacks, working in Boston and Washington, DC. He was a national vice-president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), as well as president of its Washington, DC branch. Grimké was born into slavery near Charleston, South Carolina in 1849. He was the eldest of three sons of Nancy Weston, an enslaved woman of European and African descent, and her master Henry W. Grimké. His brothers were Francis and John. As a widower, Grimké took Weston as his concubine and had a second family with her. He was a member of a prominent, large slaveholding family in Charleston. His father and relatives were active in political and social circles. After becoming a widower, Grimké moved with Weston to his plantation outside Charleston in order to live with her without social oversight. He was a father to
    6.33
    3 votes
    134
    Ireland

    Ireland

    • Organizations founded: Council of Europe
    Ireland (/ˈaɪərlənd/ or /ˈɑrlənd/; Irish: Éire, pronounced [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen)), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. It is a parliamentary republic with an elected president serving as head of state. The head of government—called the Taoiseach—is nominated by the lower house of parliament (Dáil Éireann). The capital is Dublin in the east of the island. The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel to the south east, and the Irish Sea to the east. The modern Irish state gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1922 following a war of independence resulting in the Anglo-Irish Treaty, with Northern Ireland exercising an option to remain in the United Kingdom. Initially a dominion within the British Empire called the Irish Free State, a new constitution and the name of "Ireland" were adopted in 1937. In 1949 the remaining duties of the British monarch were removed and Ireland was declared a republic, with the
    6.33
    3 votes
    135
    Raj Thackeray

    Raj Thackeray

    • Organizations founded: Maharashtra Navnirman Sena
    Raj Shrikant Thackeray (Marathi: राज श्रीकांत ठाकरे) (born 14 June 1968) is the founder and president of the right-wing Marathi ethnocentric regional political party, the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena ("Maharashtra Reformation Army") in the state of Maharashtra, India. He is the nephew of Shiv Sena chief Bal Thackeray, and a cousin of the current Shiv Sena Executive President Uddhav Thackeray. Raj was born on 14 June 1968 in a Marathi Kayastha (CKP) family to Shrikant Thackeray (younger brother of Bal Thackeray) and Kunda Thackeray (younger sister of Bal Thackeray's wife Meena Thackeray). Raj’s father Shrikant Thackeray was a musician, cartoonist and was also well versed in the language of Urdu. He studied in Balmohan Vidyamandir, Mumbai and graduated from the esteemed Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art, Mumbai. As a child he learnt the Tabla, the Guitar and the Violin. He had a keen sense of music. He also loved drawing which later turned into a passion for drawing cartoons. He used to contribute cartoons to Marmik, their weekly magazine when he was in school. But somehow both music and drawing did not turn out to be his chosen career. He says, "The only RAAG that I understand is
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    Benedict of Nursia

    Benedict of Nursia

    Benedict of Nursia (Italian: San Benedetto da Norcia) (c.480–543) is a Christian saint, honored by the Roman Catholic Church as the patron saint of Europe and students. Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, Italy (about 40 miles (64 km) to the east of Rome), before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. There is no evidence that he intended to found a Roman Catholic religious order. The Order of St Benedict is of later origin and, moreover, not an "order" as commonly understood but merely a confederation of autonomous congregations. Benedict's main achievement is his "Rule of Saint Benedict", containing precepts for his monks. It is heavily influenced by the writings of John Cassian, and shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master. But it also has a unique spirit of balance, moderation and reasonableness (ἐπιείκεια, epieikeia), and this persuaded most religious communities founded throughout the Middle Ages to adopt it. As a result, his Rule became one of the most influential religious rules in Western Christendom. For this reason, Benedict is often called the founder of western monasticism. Apart from a short poem attributed to Mark
    8.00
    1 votes
    137
    Francis Caracciolo

    Francis Caracciolo

    Francis Caracciolo (October 13, 1563 – June 4, 1608), born Ascanio Pisquizio, was an Italian Catholic priest who co-founded the Congregation of the Clerics Regular Minor with John Augustine Adorno. He decided to adopt a religious life at the age of 22. St Francis Caracciolo was born in Villa Santa Maria in the Abruzzo region, in the Kingdom of Naples. He belonged to the Pisquizio branch of the Caracciolo family and received in baptism the name of Ascanio. From his infancy, he had a reputation for gentleness and uprightness. He vowed himself to an ecclesiastical life, and distributing his goods to the poor, went to Naples in 1585 to study theology. In 1587 he was ordained priest and joined the confraternity of the Bianchi della Giustizia (The White Robes of Justice), whose object was to assist condemned criminals to die holy deaths. A letter from Giovanni Agostino Adorno to another Caracciolo, Fabrizio, begging him to take part in founding a new religious institute, was delivered by mistake to the newly ordained priest, and he saw in this circumstance an assurance of the Divine Will towards him (1588). He assisted in drawing up rules for the new congregation, which was approved by
    8.00
    1 votes
    138
    Ignatius of Loyola

    Ignatius of Loyola

    • Organizations founded: Society of Jesus
    Ignatius of Loyola (Basque: Iñigo Loiolakoa, Spanish: Ignacio de Loyola) (1491 – July 31, 1556) was a Spanish knight from a Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and was its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by unquestioning obedience to the Catholic Church's authority and hierarchy. After being seriously wounded in the Battle of Pamplona in 1521, he underwent a spiritual conversion while in recovery. De Vita Christi by Ludolph of Saxony inspired Loyola to abandon his previous military life and devote himself to labour for God, following the example of spiritual leaders such as Francis of Assisi. He experienced a vision of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus while at the shrine of Our Lady of Montserrat in March 1522. Thereafter he went to Manresa, where he began praying for seven hours a day, often in a nearby cave, while formulating the fundamentals of the Spiritual Exercises. In September 1523, Loyola reached the Holy Land to settle there, but was sent back to Europe by the
    8.00
    1 votes
    139
    Jackie Joyner-Kersee

    Jackie Joyner-Kersee

    • Organizations founded: Jackie Joyner-Kersee Foundation
    Jacqueline "Jackie" Joyner-Kersee (born March 3, 1962) is a retired American athlete, ranked among the all-time greatest athletes in the women's heptathlon as well as in the women's long jump. She won three gold, one silver, and two bronze Olympic medals, in those two events at four different Olympic Games. Sports Illustrated for Women magazine voted Joyner-Kersee the Greatest Female Athlete of the 20th century, just ahead of Babe Didrikson Zaharias. After retiring as a competitive athlete, Joyner-Kersee has been involved with many philanthropic efforts and has joined the Board of Directors for USA Track & Field (USATF), the national governing body of the sport. Jacqueline Joyner was born March 3, 1962, in East St. Louis, Illinois, and was named after Jackie Kennedy. Her brother, Al Joyner, is also an Olympic gold medalist. As a high school athlete at East St. Louis Lincoln High School, she qualified for the finals in the Long Jump at the 1980 Olympic Trials, finishing 8th behind another high schooler, Carol Lewis. She was inspired to compete in multi-disciplinary track & field events after seeing a 1975 made-for-TV movie about Babe Didrikson Zaharias. Interestingly, Didrikson, the
    8.00
    1 votes
    140
    Othniel Charles Marsh

    Othniel Charles Marsh

    Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 – March 18, 1899) was an American paleontologist. Marsh was one of the preeminent scientists in the field; the discovery or description of dozens of new species and theories on the origins of birds are among his legacies. Born into a modest family, Marsh was able to afford higher education thanks to the generosity of his wealthy uncle George Peabody. After graduating from Yale College in 1860 he traveled the world studying anatomy, mineralogy and geology. He obtained a teaching position at Yale upon his return. From the 1870s to 1890s he competed with rival paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope in a period of frenzied Western American Bone Wars. Marsh was born in Lockport, New York, United States, to a family of modest means. However, he was the nephew of the very wealthy banker and philanthropist, George Peabody. He graduated from Phillips Academy, Andover in 1856 and Yale College in 1860. He later studied geology and mineralogy in the Sheffield Scientific School, New Haven, and afterwards paleontology and anatomy in Berlin, Heidelberg and Breslau. He returned to the United States in 1866 and was appointed professor of vertebrate paleontology
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Scholastica

    Scholastica

    Scholastica (c. 480 – 10 February 547) is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Born in Italy, she was the twin sister of St. Benedict of Nursia. St. Gregory the Great, in his Dialogues, tells us that she was a nun and leader of a community for women at Plombariola, about five miles from Benedict's abbey at Monte Cassino. We do not know what rule this community followed, although it seems most likely it was the Rule of St. Benedict. Scholastica was dedicated to God from a young age (some tellings of her story indicate that she preceded Benedict in godliness, and he came to holiness after she did). The most commonly told story about her is that she would, once a year, go and visit her brother at a place near his abbey, and they would spend the day worshiping together and discussing sacred texts and issues. She also is the founder of women's branch of Benedictine Monasticism like her brother Benedict of Nyssa who found the Benedictine Missionary movement whose headquarter is in Monte Cassino. One year at the end of the day, they had supper and continued their conversation. When Benedict indicated it was time for him to leave, she protested, and
    8.00
    1 votes
    142
    Dan Rooney

    Dan Rooney

    • Organizations founded: The Ireland Funds
    Daniel Milton "Dan" Rooney, (born July 20, 1932) is the United States Ambassador to Ireland. He is chairman emeritus of the Pittsburgh Steelers football team in the National Football League (NFL), which was founded by his father, Art Rooney. Rooney was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2000 for his contributions to the game. He is credited with spearheading a requirement that NFL teams with head coach and general manager vacancies interview at least one minority candidate, which has become known as the "Rooney Rule". Rooney is also co-founder of the Ireland-related fundraising organization The Ireland Funds. Rooney was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the son of Kathleen (née McNulty) and Pittsburgh Steelers' owner Art Rooney. In the Steelers organization, Rooney has been involved in every aspect of the franchise since he was a young boy, often assisting his father at Pitt Stadium and Forbes Field. He grew up in the North Side neighborhood of Pittsburgh and attended North Catholic High School where he excelled as the team's quarterback. He shared quarterback duties with future CIA Director and lifelong friend Michael Hayden, both of whom also attended Duquesne
    5.25
    4 votes
    143
    Catherine Booth

    Catherine Booth

    • Organizations founded: Salvation Army
    Catherine Booth (17 January 1829 – 4 October 1890) was the wife of the founder of The Salvation Army, William Booth. Because of her influence in the formation of The Salvation Army she was known as the 'Mother of The Salvation Army'. She was born as Catherine Mumford in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, England, the daughter of John Mumford and Sarah Milward. Her father was a coach builder. Her family later moved to Boston, Lincolnshire, and later lived in Brixton, London. From an early age, Catherine was a serious and sensitive girl. She had a strong Christian upbringing and was said to have read the Bible through eight times before the age of 12. At age 14, she was seriously ill and spent a great deal of time in bed. She kept herself busy, however, and was especially concerned about the problems of alcohol. She wrote articles for a temperance magazine, which encouraged people not to drink. Catherine was a member of the local Band of Hope and a supporter of the national Temperance Society. She met William Booth, a Methodist minister, when he came to preach at her church in 1852. They soon fell in love and became engaged. During their three year engagement, Catherine constantly wrote letters
    7.00
    2 votes
    144
    Charles Lang Freer

    Charles Lang Freer

    Charles Lang Freer (February 25, 1854 – October 25, 1919) was an American railroad-car manufacturer from Detroit, Michigan, who gave to the United States his art collections and funds for a building to house them. The Freer Gallery of Art founded by him is part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. Freer was born in Kingston, New York, in 1854 or 1856. As a teen, rather than finish high school, he went to work as a business clerk for a business. There, he was noticed by Frank J. Hecker, the manager of a local railroad, who hired Freer as a bookkeeper. In the 1870s, a group of investors from Detroit decided to build a rail line in Logansport, Indiana; they hired Hecker to manage the project. Hecker brought the younger Freer along. Although the project was eventually merged out of existence, the investors were happy with Hecker and Freer, and invited the two to Detroit. In 1885, using their own capital and that of investors, Hecker and Freer formed the Peninsular Car Company to build rail cars. The investment made both wealthy, as Peninsular became Detroit's second largest car manufacturer, merging to become the Michigan-Peninsular Car Company in 1892. At the time,
    7.00
    2 votes
    145
    Charles Seeger

    Charles Seeger

    • Organizations founded: American Musicological Society
    Charles (Louis) Seeger, Jr. (December 14, 1886 – February 7, 1979) was a noted musicologist, composer, and teacher. He was the father of iconic American folk singer Pete Seeger (b. 1919). He graduated from Harvard University in 1908, then studied in Cologne, Germany and conducted with the Cologne Opera. He left Europe to take a position as Professor of Music at the University of California at Berkeley, where he taught from 1912 to 1916 before being dismissed for his public opposition to U.S. entry into World War I. His brother Alan Seeger was killed in action on July 4, 1916, while serving as a member of the French Foreign Legion. Charles Seeger then took a position at Juilliard before teaching at the Institute of Musical Art in New York from 1921 to 1933 and the New School for Social Research from 1931 to 1935. In 1936, he was in Washington, DC, working as a technical advisor to the Music Unit of the Special Skills Division of the Resettlement Administration (later renamed the Farm Security Administration). From 1957 to 1961, he taught at the University of California Los Angeles. From 1961 to 1971 he was a research professor at the Institute of Ethnomusicology at UCLA. In 1949-50
    7.00
    2 votes
    146
    Columbanus

    Columbanus

    Columbanus (540 – 23 November 615; Irish: Columbán, meaning "the white dove") was an Irish missionary notable for founding a number of monasteries on the European continent from around 590 in the Frankish and Lombard kingdoms, most notably Luxeuil (in present-day France) and Bobbio (Italy), and stands as an exemplar of Irish missionary activity in early medieval Europe. He spread among the Franks a Celtic monastic rule and Celtic penitential practices for those repenting of sins, which emphasized private confession to a priest, followed by penances levied by the priest in reparation for the sin. He is also one of the earliest identifiable Hiberno-Latin writers. Columbanus (the Latinised form of Columbán) was born in Nobber, County Meath, Ireland, in the year Saint Benedict died, and from childhood was well instructed. His name may be looked on as the diminutive of "Colm" (a dove), or as Colm (Colum) Bán meaning the 'white dove'. He left home to study under Sinell, Abbot of Cluaninis in Lough Erne. The Irish words "Cluan Innish", which mean "meadow and island", have been contracted to "Cleenish", where the remains of the monastery can be seen at Bellanaleck, County Fermanagh. Under
    7.00
    2 votes
    147
    Eliezer Yudkowsky

    Eliezer Yudkowsky

    • Organizations founded: Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence
    Eliezer Shlomo Yudkowsky (born September 11, 1979) is an American writer, blogger, and advocate for the development of friendly artificial intelligence and the understanding of a possible future singularity. Yudkowsky, who lives in Redwood City, California, did not attend high school and is an autodidact, having no formal education in computer science or artificial intelligence. He co-founded the nonprofit Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence (SIAI) in 2000 and continues to be employed as a full-time Research Fellow there. Yudkowsky's interest focuses on Artificial Intelligence theory for self-understanding, self-modification, and recursive self-improvement (seed AI); and also on artificial-intelligence architectures and decision theories for stably benevolent motivational structures (Friendly AI, and Coherent Extrapolated Volition in particular). Apart from his research work, Yudkowsky has written explanations of various philosophical topics in non-academic language, particularly on rationality, such as "An Intuitive Explanation of Bayes' Theorem". Yudkowsky is also a strong proponent of cryonics, the practice of freezing one's body after death in the hope of future
    7.00
    2 votes
    148
    George O'Meara

    George O'Meara

    • Organizations founded: Cisco Customer Experience Council
    George O'Meara is Senior Vice President of Cisco Services for the US and Canada. He leads a diverse organization with responsibilities for technical and advanced services sales, field marketing, channel partners, and customer support. O'Meara's experience includes computer telephony integration, next-generation call centers, billing convergence, systems management, and customer relationship management.
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    Julie Billiart

    Julie Billiart

    • Organizations founded: St. Julie's Catholic High School
    Saint Julie Billiart (12 July 1751 — 8 April 1816) was a French religious leader who founded, and was the first Superior General of, the Congregation of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. She was born on 12 July 1751, at Cuvilly, Picardy, Beauvais, Oise, France, the sixth of seven children of Jean-François Billiart and Marie-Louise-Antoinette (née Debraine). By the age of seven, she knew the catechism by heart, and used to gather her companions around her to hear her recite it and to explain it to them. Her education was confined to the rudiments obtained at the village school kept by her uncle, Thibault Guilbiert. In spiritual things her progress was so rapid that the parish priest, Father Dangicourt, allowed her to make her First Communion and to be confirmed aged 9. She took a vow of chastity five years later. She was held in very high esteem for her virtue and piety, and was commonly called, "the saint of Cuvilly". When twenty-two years old, a nervous shock, occasioned by a pistol-shot fired at her father by an unknown enemy, brought on a paralysis of the lower limbs. Within a few years she was confined to her bed, and remained incapacitated for 22 years. During this time,
    7.00
    2 votes
    150
    Louis Friedman

    Louis Friedman

    • Organizations founded: Planetary Society
    Louis Friedman is an American astronautics engineer and space spokesperson. He was born in New York and raised in the Bronx. Dr. Friedman was a co-founder of The Planetary Society with Carl Sagan and Bruce C. Murray. In 1961 he earned his Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematics and Engineering Physics from University of Wisconsin. In 1963 he graduated from Cornell University with a Masters of Science in Engineering Mechanics. In 1971 he graduated with a Ph.D. from the Aeronautics and Astronautics Department of MIT with his thesis on “Extracting Scientific Information from Spacecraft Tracking Data.” He worked for AVCO Space Systems Division from 1963-1968. From 1970 through 1980 he was with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) leading the Advanced Planetary Studies and the post-Viking Mars Program. Other projects at the JPL include Mariner-Venus-Mercury, Planetary Grand Tour (Voyager), Venus Orbital Imaging Radar (Magellan probe), Halley's Comet Rendezvous-Solar Sail, and the Mars Program.
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    Nicholas Negroponte

    Nicholas Negroponte

    • Organizations founded: One Laptop per Child
    Nicholas Negroponte (born December 1, 1943) is an American architect best known as the founder and Chairman Emeritus of Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Media Lab, and also known as the founder of the One Laptop per Child Association (OLPC). Negroponte was born to Dimitri John Negroponte, a Greek shipping magnate, and grew up in New York City's Upper East Side. He is the younger brother of John Negroponte, former United States Deputy Secretary of State. He attended Buckley School in New York City, Le Rosey in Switzerland, and The Choate School (now Choate Rosemary Hall) in Wallingford, Connecticut, from which he graduated in 1961. Subsequently, he studied at MIT as both an undergraduate and graduate student in Architecture where his research focused on issues of computer-aided design. He earned a Master's degree in architecture from MIT in 1966. Negroponte joined the faculty of MIT in 1966. For several years thereafter he divided his teaching time between MIT and several visiting professorships at Yale, Michigan and the University of California, Berkeley. In 1967, Negroponte founded MIT's Architecture Machine Group, a combination lab and think tank which studied new
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    Richard Stallman

    Richard Stallman

    • Organizations founded: Free Software Foundation
    Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often shortened to rms, is an American software freedom activist and computer programmer. In September 1983, he launched the GNU Project to create a free Unix-like operating system, and he has been the project's lead architect and organizer. With the launch of the GNU Project, he initiated the free software movement; in October 1985 he founded the Free Software Foundation. Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft, and he is the main author of several copyleft licenses including the GNU General Public License, the most widely used free software license. Since the mid-1990s, Stallman has spent most of his time advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against software patents, digital rights management, and what he sees as excessive extension of copyright laws. Stallman has also developed a number of pieces of widely used software, including the original Emacs, the GNU Compiler Collection, the GNU Debugger, and various tools in the GNU coreutils. He co-founded the League for Programming Freedom in 1989. Stallman was born to Alice Lippman and Daniel Stallman, in 1953 in New York City. His first experience with computers
    7.00
    2 votes
    153
    Tiger Woods

    Tiger Woods

    • Organizations founded: The Tiger Woods Foundation
    Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer whose achievements to date rank him among the most successful golfers of all time. Formerly the World No. 1, he is the highest-paid professional athlete in the world, having earned an estimated US$90.5 million from winnings and endorsements in 2010. Woods turned professional in 1996, and by April 1997 he had already won his first major, the 1997 Masters. He first reached the number one position in the world rankings in June 1997. Through the 2000s, Woods was the dominant force in golf, spending 264 weeks from August 1999 to September 2004 and 281 weeks from June 2005 to October 2010 as world number one. From December 2009 to early April 2010, Woods took leave from professional golf to focus on his marriage after he admitted infidelity. His multiple infidelities were revealed by several different women, through many worldwide media sources. This was followed by a loss of form, and his ranking gradually fell to a low of #58 in November 2011. He snapped a career-long winless streak of 107 weeks when he captured the Chevron World Challenge in December 2011. As of June 4, 2012, he is ranked #4, after
    7.00
    2 votes
    154
    United Kingdom

    United Kingdom

    • Organizations founded: Council of Europe
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state located off the north-western coast of continental Europe. The country includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea. The United Kingdom is a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system, with its seat of government in the capital city of London. It is a country in its own right and consists of four administrative divisions (or countries): England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The latter three of these are devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capital cities Belfast, Edinburgh and Cardiff respectively. Associated with the UK, but not constitutionally part of it, are the three Crown dependencies: Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man. The United Kingdom has fourteen
    7.00
    2 votes
    155
    Walter Reuther

    Walter Reuther

    • Organizations founded: Americans for Democratic Action
    Walter Philip Reuther (September 1, 1907 – May 9, 1970) was an American labor union leader, who made the United Automobile Workers a major force not only in the auto industry but also in the Democratic Party in the mid 20th century. He was a socialist in the early 1930s and became a leading liberal and supporter of the New Deal coalition. Reuther was born in Wheeling, West Virginia on September 1, 1907, the son of a socialist brewery worker who had immigrated from Germany. Throughout his career he was close to his brothers and co-workers Victor Reuther and Roy Reuther. Reuther joined the Ford Motor Company in 1927 as an expert tool and die maker. Henry Ford helped build a large truck and tractor plant (GAZ) in the late 1920s in Nizhny Novgorod, Soviet Union, sending along engineers and mechanics, including Reuther. He was laid off in 1932 as the Great Depression worsened. His Ford employment record states that he quit voluntarily, but Reuther himself always maintained that he was fired for his increasingly visible socialist activities. He and his brothers went to Europe and then worked 1933–35 in an auto plant at Gorky in the Soviet Union. While a committed socialist, he never
    7.00
    2 votes
    156
    Zhang Xin

    Zhang Xin

    • Organizations founded: SOHO China Foundation
    Zhang Xin (simplified Chinese: 张欣; traditional Chinese: 張欣; pinyin: Zhāng Xīn, born 1965) is a Chinese businesswoman. Presently, she is the CEO of SOHO China, the largest commercial real estate developer in Beijing. In the 1950s, her Burmese Chinese parents left Burma and relocated to China, working as translators at the Bureau of Foreign Languages. They separated during the Cultural Revolution. Born in Beijing in 1965, Zhang Xin moved to Hong Kong at age of 14 with her mother and lived in a room just big enough for two bunk beds. She worked for five years in small factories that make garment and electronic products to save for education abroad. She has described the 'conditions there were similar to those in mainland China today'. By 19, she had saved enough for airfare to London and supporting herself for English study at secretarial school. Later, she studied Economics at the University of Sussex. In 1992, she graduated with a Master’s Degree in Development Economics from Cambridge University. Upon graduation, she was hired by Barings Plc to work in Hong Kong. She soon moved to Goldman Sachs and started working for the investment bank in New York City. In 1994 she switched to
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    2 votes
    157
    Archer M. Huntington

    Archer M. Huntington

    • Organizations founded: The Hispanic Society of America
    Archer Milton Huntington (March 10, 1870 – December 11, 1955) was the son of Arabella (née Duval) Huntington and the stepson of railroad magnate and industrialist Collis P. Huntington. A lifelong friend of the arts, he is known for his scholarly works in the field of Hispanic Studies and for founding The Hispanic Society of America in New York City. He was also a major benefactor of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and the American Numismatic Society which he convinced to relocate next to the Hispanic Society at the Beaux Arts Audubon Terrace complex in New York's Washington Heights. In 1932, he founded the Brookgreen Gardens sculpture center in South Carolina; and the Mariners' Museum which is one of the largest maritime museums in the world, in Newport News, Virginia, a new independent city that was established in the late 19th century largely though the efforts of his stepfather Collis P. Huntington. Archer Huntington was married twice. On August 6, 1895, he married, Helen Manchester Gates, the daughter of Rev. Isaac E. Gates and Ellen M.H. Gates (his stepfather's sister). Like her mother, Helen was a writer. Archer and Helen were temporarily detained and effectively
    6.00
    3 votes
    158
    Dr. An Wang

    Dr. An Wang

    • Organizations founded: Wang Laboratories
    Dr. An Wang (Chinese: 王安; pinyin: Wáng Ān; February 7, 1920 – March 24, 1990) was a Chinese American computer engineer and inventor, and co-founder of computer company Wang Laboratories, which was known primarily for its dedicated word processing machines. An Wang was an important contributor to the development of magnetic core memory. A native of Kunshan County in Suzhou Prefecture, he was born in Shanghai, China, and graduated from Chiao Tung University with a degree in electrical engineering in 1940. He emigrated to the United States in June 1945 to attend Harvard University for graduate school, earning a PhD in applied physics in 1948. After graduation, he worked at Harvard with Dr Howard Aiken on the design of the Mark IV, Aiken's first fully electronic computer. Wang co-invented the pulse transfer controlling device with Way-Dong Woo, a schoolmate from China who fell ill before their patent was issued. The new device implemented write-after-read which made magnetic core memory possible. Harvard reduced its commitment to computer research in 1951, prompting Wang's departure. Wang founded Wang Laboratories in June 1951 as a sole proprietorship. The first years were lean and
    6.00
    3 votes
    159
    Ida B. Wells

    Ida B. Wells

    • Organizations founded: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931) was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor and, with her husband, newspaper owner Ferdinand L. Barnett, an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented lynching in the United States, showing how it was often a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites. She was active in the women's rights and the women's suffrage movement, establishing several notable women's organizations. Wells was a skilled and persuasive rhetorician, and traveled internationally on lecture tours. Ida B. Wells was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1862, just before President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Her father James Wells was a carpenter and her mother was Elizabeth "Lizzie" Warrenton Wells. Both parents were enslaved until freed under the Proclamation, one year after she was born. Ida’s father James was a master at carpentry and known as a "race man", someone who worked for the advancement of blacks. He was very interested in politics, and was a member of the Loyal League. He attended public speeches and campaigned for local black candidates, but he never ran for office. Her mother
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    3 votes
    160
    José Rizal

    José Rizal

    • Organizations founded: La Liga Filipina
    José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), is the most venerated and acclaimed patriot in the Philippines recognized for his unselfish and non-violent contributions to the historical and social transformations in the country. He is one of the national heroes of the Philippines regarded by the National Heroes Committee, together with Andres Bonifacio. He was the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era that led to his execution on December 30, 1896, now celebrated as Rizal Day, a national holiday in the country. Rizal was born to a wealthy family in Calamba, Laguna and was the seventh of eleven children. He attended the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, earning a Bachelor of Arts diploma and studied medicine at the University of Santo Tomas in Manila. He continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid in Madrid, Spain, earning the degree of Licentiate in Medicine, making him eligible to practice medicine. He also attended the University of Paris and earned a second doctorate at the University of Heidelberg. Rizal was a polymath; besides medicine, he was also an artist who dabbled in painting,
    6.00
    3 votes
    161
    James Randi

    James Randi

    • Organizations founded: James Randi Educational Foundation
    James Randi (born Randall James Hamilton Zwinge; August 7, 1928) is a Canadian-American stage magician and scientific skeptic best known for his challenges to paranormal claims and pseudoscience. Randi is the founder of the James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF). Randi began his career as a magician named The Amazing Randi, but after retiring at age 60, he was able to devote most of his time to investigating paranormal, occult, and supernatural claims, which he collectively calls "woo-woo". Although often referred to as a "debunker", Randi dislikes the term's connotations and prefers to describe himself as an "investigator". He has written about the paranormal, skepticism, and the history of magic. He was a frequent guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and was occasionally featured on the television program Penn & Teller: Bullshit!. The JREF sponsors The One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge offering a prize of US$1,000,000 to eligible applicants who can demonstrate evidence of any paranormal, supernatural or occult power or event under test conditions agreed to by both parties. Randi was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the son of Marie Alice (née Paradis) and
    5.67
    3 votes
    162
    Jimmie Johnson

    Jimmie Johnson

    • Organizations founded: Jimmie Johnson Foundation
    Jimmie Kenneth Johnson (born September 17, 1975) is an American NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race car driver. He currently drives the No. 48 Lowe's Chevrolet for Hendrick Motorsports. Johnson was born in El Cajon, California, and began racing motorcycles at the age of five. After graduating from Granite Hills High School he competed in off-road series. He raced in Mickey Thompson Entertainment Group (MTEG), Short-course Off-road Drivers Association (SODA) and SCORE International, winning rookie of the year in each series. In 1998, Johnson and his team began stock car racing. He moved to the national American Speed Association (ASA) series for late model touring cars, and won another rookie of the year title. In 2000, he switched to the NASCAR Busch Series (now Nationwide Series). He moved to Hendrick Motorsports in the Sprint Cup Series in 2002. After finishing fifth in the points in his first full season, he was second in 2003 and 2004 and fifth in 2005. Johnson won his first Cup series championship in 2006 and with further wins in 2007, 2008, 2009 and in 2010 became the only driver in NASCAR history to win five consecutive championships. During the 2011 season, Johnson finished sixth
    5.67
    3 votes
    163
    Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

    Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

    • Organizations founded: Boy Scouts of America
    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, Bt, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB ( /ˈbeɪdən ˈpoʊ.əl/; 22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B.-P., B-P or Lord Baden-Powell, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, founder and Chief Scout of the Scout Movement. After having been educated at Charterhouse School, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell successfully defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were also read by boys. Based on those earlier books, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Sir Arthur Pearson, for youth readership. In 1907, he held the first Brownsea Island Scout camp, which is now seen as the beginning of Scouting. After his marriage to Olave St Clair Soames, Baden-Powell, his sister Agnes Baden-Powell and notably his wife actively gave guidance to the Scouting Movement and the Girl Guides Movement. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, Kenya, where he died and was buried in 1941. Baden-Powell was
    5.67
    3 votes
    164
    William English Walling

    William English Walling

    • Organizations founded: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    William English Walling (1877–1936) (known as "English" to friends and family) was an American labor reformer and Republican born in Louisville, Kentucky. He was the grandson of William Hayden English, the Democratic candidate for vice president in 1880, and was born into wealth. He was educated at the University of Chicago and at Harvard Law School. He was a co-founder of the NAACP, and founded the National Women's Trade Union League in 1903. In 1906, following a trip to Russia to report on the abortive Russian Revolution of 1905 he married Anna Strunsky, a Jewish immigrant and an aspiring novelist from San Francisco. In 1908 he published Russia's Message, a book inspired by the social unrest he and his wife had observed in Russia. In 1908 Walling and his wife went to Springfield, Illinois to investigate a race riot. As a result of their investigations, Walling wrote an article The Race War in the North for the September 3 issue of The Independent, in which he stated, “the spirit of the abolitionists, of Lincoln and Lovejoy, must be revived and we must come to treat the negro on a plane of absolute political and capitalist equality.” He also appealed for a “large and powerful body
    5.67
    3 votes
    165
    Charlie Ergen

    Charlie Ergen

    • Organizations founded: Satellite Broadcasting Communications Association
    Charles William Ergen better known as Charlie Ergen (born March 1, 1953) is the co-founder and current Chairman of the Board, and former President and CEO of the Dish Network, formerly known as the EchoStar Communications Corporation. He stepped down in May 2011. Charles Ergen was born in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on March 1, 1953. He received a Bachelor of Arts the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, and an M.B.A. Wake Forest University. He was a blackjack and poker professional player. In 1980, he founded EchoStar with his wife Cantey McAdam ("Candy"), and friend Jim DeFranco. He started selling satellite dishes door to door in Colorado. Both Cantey Ergen and Jim DeFranco still sit on EchoStar's eight-member board. He purchased Sling Media in 2008. He is worth US$10 billion. He is the 46th richest American citizen. He supported John McCain in the 2008 presidential election. He is married with five children. He lives in Littleton, Colorado.
    6.50
    2 votes
    166
    Gerald L. Baliles

    Gerald L. Baliles

    • Organizations founded: Patrick County Education Foundation
    Gerald L. Baliles (born July 8, 1940) was the 65th Governor of Virginia and is the director of the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Founded in 1975, the Miller Center is a leading public policy institution that serves as a national meeting place where engaged citizens, scholars, students, media representatives and government officials gather in a spirit of nonpartisan consensus to research, reflect and report on issues of national importance to the governance of the United States, with special attention to the central role and history of the presidency. Baliles served as the 65th Governor of Virginia from 1986 to 1990, and ushered in a period of economic development for Virginia. A Democrat, Baliles won the 1985 Gubernatorial election with 55.2% of the vote. He could not run for re-election, as Virginia governors are limited to non-consecutive single terms in office. However, Baliles' popularity helped secure the narrow election of Lieutenant Governor Douglas Wilder in 1989. Improving Virginia's transportation infrastructure and increasing its revenues was one of his signature accomplishments. Recognized by colleagues for his emphasis on strategic
    6.50
    2 votes
    167
    Harry Chapin

    Harry Chapin

    • Organizations founded: World Hunger Year
    Harry Forster Chapin (December 7, 1942 – July 16, 1981) was an American singer-songwriter best known for his folk rock songs including "Taxi", "W*O*L*D", and the No. 1 hit "Cat's in the Cradle". Chapin was also a dedicated humanitarian who fought to end world hunger; he was a key player in the creation of the Presidential Commission on World Hunger in 1977. In 1987, Chapin was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal for his humanitarian work. Chapin was born into a middle-class family in New York City, the second of four children—including future musicians Tom and Steve (born to Jeanne Elspeth (née Burke) and Jim Chapin, himself a percussionist ). He had English ancestry, his great-grandparents having emigrated in the late 19th century. His parents divorced in 1950, with Elspeth retaining custody of their four sons, as Jim spent much of his time on the road as a drummer for Big band era acts such as Woody Herman. She married Films in Review magazine editor Henry Hart a few years later. Chapin's maternal grandfather was literary critic Kenneth Burke. Chapin's first formal introduction to music was while singing in the Brooklyn Boys Choir. It was here that Chapin met "Big"
    6.50
    2 votes
    168
    Hubert Humphrey

    Hubert Humphrey

    • Organizations founded: Americans for Democratic Action
    Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978), served under President Lyndon B. Johnson as the 38th Vice President of the United States. Humphrey twice served as a United States Senator from Minnesota, and served as Democratic Majority Whip. He was a founder of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party and Americans for Democratic Action. He also served as Mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota from 1945 to 1948. Humphrey was the nominee of the Democratic Party in the 1968 presidential election but lost to the Republican nominee, Richard Nixon. Humphrey was born in a room over his father's drugstore in Wallace, South Dakota. He was the son of Ragnild Kristine Sannes (1883–1973), a Norwegian immigrant, and Hubert Humphrey, Sr. (1882–1949). Humphrey spent most of his youth in Doland, South Dakota, on the Dakota prairie; the town's population was about 700 people when he lived there. His father was a pharmacist who served as mayor and a town-council member. In the late 1920s a severe economic downturn hit Doland; both of the town's banks closed and Humphrey's father struggled to keep his drugstore open. After his son graduated from Doland's high school, Hubert Humphrey,
    6.50
    2 votes
    169
    Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska

    Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska

    • Organizations founded: Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego
    Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska (January 9, 1888, Krzeszowice, Poland — January 15, 1979, Zakopane, Poland), with her husband, founded scouting in Poland. Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska was born in Krzeszowice, the second daughter of Zofia and Karol Drahonowski. Her father, Karol, whose background was Armenian, was a trustee of a farm for a Polish baron. Although she has Czech origins, she always emphasized her Polish nationality. She finished her primary and secondary school extramural (at home) with very good grades. After baccalaureate she started studies in the Music Conservatory of Lwów, when she discovered talents in poetry and sculpture. She was also an instructor of physical education in Sokół, and a member of the Eleusis organization, where she met Andrzej Małkowski. He convinced her to join Zarzewie, a Polish independence organization, where she became an Lieutenant. Olga Drahonowska was introduced to Scouting by her friend, and later husband, Andrzej Juliusz Małkowski. She became Scoutmaster (harcmistrzyni) of the 3rd Lwów Girl Scout Company (the 1st, 2nd and 4th Companies were Boy Scouts). This consisted of about twenty girls aged between 15 and 20 years. She was also first
    6.50
    2 votes
    170
    Stanford University

    Stanford University

    • Organizations founded: Association of American Universities
    The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is an American private research university located in Stanford, California on an 8,180-acre (3,310 ha) campus near Palo Alto. It is situated in the northwestern Silicon Valley, approximately 20 miles (32 km) northwest of San Jose and 37 miles (60 km) southeast of San Francisco. Leland Stanford, Governor and Senator of California and leading railroad tycoon, and his wife Jane Lathrop Stanford founded the university in 1891 in honor of their son, Leland Stanford, Jr., who died of typhoid two months before his 16th birthday. The university was established as a coeducational and nondenominational institution. Tuition was free until the 1930s. The university struggled financially after the senior Stanford's 1893 death and after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would become known as Silicon Valley. By 1970, Stanford was home to a linear accelerator, and was one of the original four ARPANET nodes (precursor to
    6.50
    2 votes
    171
    Steven Spielberg

    Steven Spielberg

    • Organizations founded: USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education
    Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, video game designer, and studio entrepreneur. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg's films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg's early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood blockbuster filmmaking. In later years, his films began addressing such issues as the Holocaust, slavery, war and terrorism. He is considered one of the most popular and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. He is also one of the co-founders of DreamWorks movie studio. Spielberg won the Academy Award for Best Director for Schindler's List (1993) and Saving Private Ryan (1998). Three of Spielberg's films—Jaws (1975), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), and Jurassic Park (1993)—achieved box office records, each becoming the highest-grossing film made at the time. To date, the unadjusted gross of all Spielberg-directed films exceeds $8.5 billion worldwide. Forbes puts Spielberg's wealth at $3.0 billion. Spielberg was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, to a Jewish family. His mother, Leah Adler (née Posner, 1920- ), was a restaurateur and concert
    6.50
    2 votes
    172
    Victor J. Dzau

    Victor J. Dzau

    • Organizations founded: Society of Vascular Medicine and Biology
    Victor J. Dzau, M.D., was elected a director of PepsiCo in 2005. Dr. Dzau is chancellor for health affairs at Duke University and President and CEO of the Duke University Health System since July 2004. 
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Albert Lasker

    Albert Lasker

    • Organizations founded: Lasker Foundation
    Albert Davis Lasker (May 1, 1880 – May 30, 1952) was an American businessman who is often considered to be the founder of modern advertising. He was born in Freiburg, Germany when his American parents Morris and Nettie Heidenheimer Davis Lasker were visiting their homeland; he was raised in Galveston, Texas, where Morris was the president of several banks. He started out as a newspaper reporter while a teenager and worked on Republican congressman Robert Hawley's successful 1896 campaign, but his father persuaded him to move to Chicago to try an advertising position at Lord & Thomas advertising agency, which he did in 1898. After he worked as an office boy for a year, one of the agency's salesmen left, and Lasker acquired his territory. It was during this time that Lasker created his first campaign. He hired a friend, Eugene Katz, to write the copy for a series of Wilson Ear Drum Company ads. They featured a photograph of a man cupping his ear. George Wilson, president of the Ear Drum company, adopted the ads and sales increased. When Lord retired in 1903, Lasker purchased his share and became a partner. He purchased the firm in 1912 at the age of 32. Chicago, along with New York,
    7.00
    1 votes
    174
    Gloria Steinem

    Gloria Steinem

    • Organizations founded: Choice USA
    Gloria Marie Steinem (born March 25, 1934) is an American feminist, journalist, and social and political activist who became nationally recognized as a leader of, and media spokeswoman for, the women's liberation movement in the late 1960s and 1970s. A prominent writer and political figure, Steinem has founded many organizations and projects and has been the recipient of many awards and honors. She was a columnist for New York magazine and co-founded Ms. magazine. In 1969, she published an article, "After Black Power, Women's Liberation" which, along with her early support of abortion rights, catapulted her to national fame as a feminist leader. In 2005, Steinem worked alongside Jane Fonda and Robin Morgan to co-found the Women's Media Center, an organization that works to amplify the voices of women in the media through advocacy, media and leadership training, and the creation of original content. Steinem currently serves on the board of the organization. She continues to involve herself in politics and media affairs as a commentator, writer, lecturer, and organizer, campaigning for candidates and reforms and publishing books and articles. Steinem was born in Toledo, Ohio. Her
    7.00
    1 votes
    175
    Juan Pablo Montoya

    Juan Pablo Montoya

    • Organizations founded: Formula Smiles Foundation
    Juan Pablo Montoya Roldán (born September 20, 1975) is a Colombian race car driver known internationally for participating in and winning Formula One and CART race competitions. Currently, he competes in NASCAR, driving the No. 42 Target Chevrolet Impala for Earnhardt Ganassi Racing in the Sprint Cup Series. He and wife Connie have three children: son Sebastian and daughters Paulina and Manuela. The highlights of his career include winning the International F3000 championship in 1998, and the CART Championship Series in 1999, as well as victories in some of the most prestigious races in the world. He is the only driver to have won the premier North American open-wheel CART title, the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Daytona, all at the first attempt. Montoya is one of two drivers to have won the CART title in his rookie year, the first being Formula One World Champion Nigel Mansell in 1993. He has also equalled Graham Hill's feat of being a Monaco Grand Prix and Indianapolis 500 race winner; Montoya is currently one of only two active drivers (along with Jacques Villeneuve) who has won two legs of the Triple Crown of Motorsport. Montoya has also become a crossover race winner
    7.00
    1 votes
    176
    Larry Bohn

    Larry Bohn

    • Organizations founded: OASIS
    As a Managing Director of General Catalyst Partners, Larry invests in both new and existing technology businesses. Areas of special interest include: open source, information technology; systems; and software on-demand business models.  Larry is a board member of Advanced Electron Beams; Black Duck Software; ChoiceStream; Demandware; HubSpot; Optaros; QUMAS and VisibleMeasures, which are all active General Catalyst investments. Larry also served on the Board of Venetica, a General Catalyst investment that was acquired by IBM in October 2004.

    Prior to joining General Catalyst, Larry was the chairman, president and CEO of NetGenesis, a market leading software and analytic solutions provider.  Larry led NetGenesis from 1997 to 2001, overseeing the company’s business, product strategy and direction.  During this time, NetGenesis was a two-time Deloitte & Touche Fast 50 award winner and was included among the Inc 500.  In February 2000, Larry took the company public (NTGX) and in December 2001, NetGenesis was acquired by SPSS, Inc. (SPSS).

    Prior to his role as CEO and president of NetGenesis, Larry was president of PC DOCS, Inc. (DOCSF), a leading developer of document management software for enterprise networks. Under his leadership, PC DOCS’ product advanced to the number one market position.  He also led the company's public offering in 1998.  Prior to joining PC DOCS, Larry was senior vice president of marketing and business development at Interleaf, Inc. (LEAF), where he defined and implemented the corporate strategy that put its electronic publishing solutions in a top market position and helped grow the business to more than $120 million in revenue. 

    An acknowledged thought leader, Larry has spoken at leading industry events and has been a guest lecturer at Harvard, Stanford, and the Amos Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth.  He was also a founder and the first president of OASIS, the industry consortium promoting XML adoption. 

    Larry is an honors graduate of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and holds a masters of arts degree in Linguistics from Clark University.
    7.00
    1 votes
    177
    Marcellin Champagnat

    Marcellin Champagnat

    • Organizations founded: St Joseph's College, Dumfries
    Saint Marcellin Joseph Benedict Champagnat (May 20, 1789 – June 6, 1840) was born in Rozet, village of Marlhes, near St. Etienne (Loire), France. He was the founder of the Marist Brothers, a religious congregation of men in the Roman Catholic Church dedicated to education. Champagnat was ordained as a priest in 1816, and was part of a group led by Jean-Claude Colin which founded the Society of Mary, also called the Marist Fathers and Brothers, a separate religious congregation to the Brothers Marcellin founded later. From 1805 to 1813, Marcellin attended the minor seminary in Verrieres. At one stage, quite discouraged, he overcame the temptation to leave religious life. He then attended the major seminary in Lyon for his spiritual and theological formation as a priest. It was here that the idea for the Society of Mary was conceived and promoted by a group of seminarians, including Marcellin. From the start, he announced the Society should include Teaching Brothers to work with children deprived of Christian education in remote rural areas because others were not going to them. After his ordination as a priest on 22 July 1816, Champagnat’s first posting was as curate to the parish
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
    Sima Samar

    Sima Samar

    • Organizations founded: Shuhada Organization
    Sima Samar (Persian: سیما سمر‎) (born 3 February 1957) is a politician in Afghanistan, who served as Minister of Women's Affairs of Afghanistan from December 2001 to 2003. She is currently the Chairperson of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) and, since 2005, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Sudan. In 2011, she was part of the newly founded Truth and Justice party. Samar was born in Jaghori, in Ghazni Province of Afghanistan, on 3 February 1957. She belongs to the ethnic Hazara group. She obtained her degree in medicine in February 1982 from Kabul University. She practiced medicine at a government hospital in Kabul, but after a few months was forced to flee for her safety to her native Jaghori, where she provided medical treatment to patients throughout the remote areas of central Afghanistan. She was an active member Hazara group under the leadership of Baba Mazari, a Hazara leader who was fighting against Racial injustice, and promoting unity and brotherhood of all ehtnicities, therefore equal rights in Afghanistan; she is head of human rights commission in Afghanistan. Baba Mazari was a remarkable supporter of Women
    7.00
    1 votes
    179
    Sylvester Gozzolini

    Sylvester Gozzolini

    Sylvester Gozzolini (Italian: Silvestro Guzzolini) (1177 – November 26, 1267) was an Italian saint, the founder of the religious order known as the Sylvestrines. Born of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, Marche, he was sent to study jurisprudence at Bologna and Padua, but feeling within himself a call to the ecclesiastical state, abandoned the study of law for that of theology and Holy Scripture, daily giving long hours to prayer. On his return home we are told that his father, angered at his change of purpose, refused to speak to him for ten years. Sylvester then accepted a canonry at Osimo and devoted himself to pastoral work with such zeal as to arouse the hostility of his bishop, whom he had respectfully rebuked for the scandals caused by the prelate's irregular life. Gozzolini was threatened with the loss of his canonry, but decided to leave the world on seeing the decaying corpse of one who had formerly been noted for great beauty. In 1227 he retired to a desert place about thirty miles from Osimo and lived there in the utmost poverty until he was recognized by the owner of the land, a certain nobleman named Conrad, who offered him a better site for his hermitage.
    7.00
    1 votes
    180
    Aida M. Alvarez

    Aida M. Alvarez

    • Organizations founded: Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight
    Ms. Alvarez is the former Administrator of the U.S. Small Business Administration and was a member of President Clinton's Cabinet from 1997 to 2001. She was the founding Director of the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight, the financial regulator of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, from 1993 to 1997. Ms. Alvarez was a vice president in public finance at First Boston Corporation and Bear Stearns & Co., Inc. prior to 1993. She is presently Chair of the Latino Community Foundation of San Francisco and a director of UnionBanCal Corporation. Ms. Alvarez also serves on the diversity advisory board for Deloitte & Touche LLP. Ms. Alvarez has been a member of the Board since 2006. 
    5.33
    3 votes
    181
    Jeff Gordon

    Jeff Gordon

    • Organizations founded: The Jeff Gordon Foundation
    Jeffery Michael "Jeff" Gordon (born August 4, 1971) is an American professional stock car racing driver. He drives the No. 24 Drive to End Hunger/DuPont Chevrolet Impala for Hendrick Motorsports in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. He is a four-time series champion and a three-time Daytona 500 winner. He is third on the all-time wins list, with 86 career wins, and has the most wins in NASCAR's modern era (1972–present). In 2009, Gordon became the first driver to reach $100 million USD in career winnings in the Cup series. Gordon, along with Rick Hendrick, are the co-owners of the No. 48 Lowe's Chevrolet, driven by Jimmie Johnson, who won five consecutive Cup championships from 2006 to 2010. Gordon also has an equity stake in his own No. 24 team. He was born in Vallejo, California, raised in Pittsboro, Indiana, and currently resides in Charlotte, North Carolina. Gordon began racing at the age of five, racing quarter midgets. Before, he originally rode a BMX bike that his stepfather bought for him. The Roy Hayer Memorial Race Track (Previously the Cracker Jack Track) in Rio Linda, California is noted as the first track Gordon ever competed on. By the age of six Gordon had won 35 main
    5.33
    3 votes
    182
    Louis Stokes

    Louis Stokes

    • Organizations founded: Congressional Black Caucus
    Louis Stokes (born February 23, 1925 in Cleveland, Ohio) is a Democratic politician from Ohio. He served in the United States House of Representatives. Born in Cleveland, Stokes and his brother Carl B. Stokes lived in one of the first federally funded housing projects, the Outhwaite Homes. Louis attended Central High School. Stokes served in the U.S. Army from 1943 to 1946. After attending Western Reserve University and Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Stokes began practicing law in Cleveland in 1953. Stokes argued the seminal "stop and frisk" case of Terry v. Ohio before the United States Supreme Court in 1968. Later in 1968, he was elected to the House, representing the 21st District of Ohio on Cleveland's East Side. He shifted to the newly created 11th District, covering much of the same area following a 1992 redistricting. Stokes served 15 terms in total, retiring in 1999. Stokes' tenure in the House of Representatives included service on the House Appropriations Committee, where he was influential in bringing revenue to Cleveland. He was particularly interested in veterans' issues and secured funds for health-care facilities for veterans in Cleveland. In the 1970s, Stokes
    5.33
    3 votes
    183
    Asher Brown Durand

    Asher Brown Durand

    • Organizations founded: National Academy of Design
    Asher Brown Durand (August 21, 1796 – September 17, 1886) was an American painter of the Hudson River School. Durand was born in and eventually died in Maplewood, New Jersey (then called Jefferson Village), the eighth of eleven children; his father was a watchmaker and a silversmith. Durand was apprenticed to an engraver from 1812 to 1817 and later entered into a partnership with the owner of the firm, who asked him to run the firm's New York branch. He engraved Declaration of Independence for John Trumbull in 1823, which established Durand's reputation as one of the country's finest engravers. Durand helped organize the New York Drawing Association in 1825, which would become the National Academy of Design; he would serve the organization as president from 1845 to 1861. His interest shifted from engraving to oil painting around 1830 with the encouragement of his patron, Luman Reed. In 1837, he accompanied his friend Thomas Cole on a sketching expedition to Schroon Lake in the Adirondacks and soon after he began to concentrate on landscape painting. He spent summers sketching in the Catskills, Adirondacks, and the White Mountains of New Hampshire, making hundreds of drawings and
    6.00
    2 votes
    184
    Edmund Ignatius Rice

    Edmund Ignatius Rice

    • Organizations founded: Stella Maris College
    Blessed Edmund Ignatius Rice (Irish: [Éamann] Iognáid Rís; 1 June 1762 – 29 August 1844), was a Roman Catholic missionary and educationalist. Edmund was the founder of two religious institutes of religious brothers: the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Presentation Brothers. Rice was born in Ireland at a time when Catholics faced oppression under Penal Laws enforced by the British authorities, though reforms started in 1778 when he was a teenager. He forged a successful career in business and, after a tragic accident which killed his wife and left his daughter disabled, devoted his life to the education, servicing the poor and the Irish republican cause. Christian Brothers and Presentation Brothers schools around the world continue to follow the system of education and traditions established by Edmund Rice (see List of Christian Brothers schools). Edmund Rice was born to Robert Rice and Margaret Rice (née Tierney) on the farming property of "Westcourt", in Callan, County Kilkenny. Edmund Rice was the fourth of seven sons, although he also had two half sisters, Joan and Jane Murphy, the offspring of his mother's first marriage. At this time, Irish Catholics were punished
    6.00
    2 votes
    185
    Francis Libermann

    Francis Libermann

    Francis Mary Paul Libermann (French: François-Marie-Paul Libermann; born Jacob Libermann; 14 April 1804 – 2 February 1852) was a 19th-century Jewish convert to Catholicism who was a member of the Spiritan order. He is best known for founding the Congregation of the Sacred Heart, which later merged with the Congregation of the Holy Ghost. He is often referred to as "The Second Founder of the Holy Ghost Fathers". He was declared venerable in the Roman Catholic Church on June 1, 1876, by Pope Pius IX. Jacob Libermann was born into an Orthodox Jewish family in the ghetto of Saverne, Alsace, France in 1802. As a young man, Libermann prepared to follow in the footsteps of his father, the Chief Rabbi of Saverne. He would later relate how he lost his faith in Judaism after entering a yeshiva. Treated with disdain by two of the professors there, he began to read French literature, especially Rousseau, with the result that he became an agnostic. Later during this period of agnosticism, another rabbinical student gave him a Hebrew translation of the Gospels. Being always a very moral person, Libermann was captivated by the high moral tone of Jesus' discourses, though he could not accept the
    6.00
    2 votes
    186
    Geevarghese Mar Ivanios

    Geevarghese Mar Ivanios

    Geevarghese Panickerveetil aka Archbishop Aboon Geevarghese Mor Ivanios (Malayalam:അബൂന്‍ ഗീവര്ഘെസേ മോര്‍ ഇവനിഒസ്), Servant of God, OIC (September 21, 1882 – July 15, 1953), born as Geevarghese Panickeruveetil, was a Christian bishop and the founder of the Bethany Ashram order of monks.In different periods.Mar Ivanios was known under different names.Panickar,The Deacon,M.A Father, Principal of the M.D seminary, Professor of the college at Serampur, Founder of the Bethany Ashram, the architect of the reunion movement.All these names signify his personality and the different movements to which he gave leadership. Geevarghese Panicker was born in Mavelikkara, India, on September 21, 1882 to Thomas Panicker and Annamma Panicker, descendant of the 'Mylitta Panicker' of Panickervettil in Mavelikkara. He had his early education in Protestant and government schools. From 1897 he attended M. D. Seminary High School, Kottayam. In 1899 he completed his matriculation education before which he received minor orders (of clerical life) on September 20, 1898. He was ordained deacon by Pulikkottil Mar Dionysius on January 9, 1900, he then continued his studies at CMS College, Kottayam and obtained
    6.00
    2 votes
    187
    Lawrence Lessig

    Lawrence Lessig

    • Organizations founded: Creative Commons
    Lawrence "Larry" Lessig (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic and political activist. He is best known as a proponent of reduced legal restrictions on copyright, trademark, and radio frequency spectrum, particularly in technology applications, and he has called for state-based activism to promote substantive reform of government with a Second Constitutional Convention. He is a director of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics at Harvard University and a professor of law at Harvard Law School. Prior to rejoining Harvard, he was a professor of law at Stanford Law School and founder of its Center for Internet and Society. Lessig is a founding board member of Creative Commons and Rootstrikers, and also is on the board of MapLight. He is on the advisory boards of the Sunlight Foundation and Americans Elect. He is a former board member of the Free Software Foundation, Software Freedom Law Center and the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Born in Rapid City, South Dakota, Lessig grew up in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and earned a B.A. in Economics and a B.S. in Management (Wharton School) from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.A. in philosophy from the University of
    6.00
    2 votes
    188
    Shoko Asahara

    Shoko Asahara

    • Organizations founded: Aum Shinrikyo
    Shoko Asahara (麻原 彰晃, Asahara Shōkō), born Chizuo Matsumoto (松本 智津夫, Matsumoto Chizuo) on March 2, 1955, is a founder of the Japanese new religious group Aum Shinrikyo. He was convicted of masterminding the 1995 sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway and several other crimes, for which he was sentenced to death in 2004. In June 2012, his execution has been postponed due to further arrests of Aum Shinrikyo members. Shoko Asahara was born into a large, poor family of tatami mat makers in Japan's Kumamoto Prefecture. Afflicted at birth with infantile glaucoma, he went blind at a young age in his left eye and is only partially sighted in his right. As a child, Asahara was enrolled in a school for the blind. Asahara graduated in 1977 and turned to the study of acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine, which are traditional careers for the blind in Japan, and married in 1978. In 1981, Asahara was convicted of practicing pharmacy without a license and selling unregulated drugs and was fined 200,000 yen. Asahara's religious quest reportedly started at this time, while he was working to support his family. He dedicated his free time to the study of various religious concepts, starting
    6.00
    2 votes
    189
    Vagit Alekperov

    Vagit Alekperov

    • Organizations founded: The Russian Olympians Foundation
    Vagit Alekperov (Azerbaijani: Vahid Yusuf oğlu Ələkbərov); (Russian: Вагит Юсуфович Алекперов, born September 1, 1950 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is an Azerbaijani businessman and currently a President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL. He is currently rated by Forbes magazine as the eighth richest person in Russia with $13.9 billion of net worth and the 50th richest person in the world. He was born in Baku, one of the earliest centers of the international petroleum industry. His father, who died when Vagit was a boy, worked in the oil fields all his life and inspired Alekperov to follow in his footsteps. Alekperov's father was a Muslim and his mother, Russian Orthodox. Alekperov is religious, but does not define himself as either Muslim or Orthodox. He was eighteen when he landed his first job in the industry. Alekperov graduated in 1974 from the Azerbaijan Oil and Chemistry Institute. As a student he also worked as a drilling operator in Kaspmorneft, a Caspian regional production company. After graduation, he continued to work there, and by 1979 he had advanced from engineer to deputy head of a production unit. He had to work in extreme conditions on offshore oil rigs. On one
    6.00
    2 votes
    190
    Caspar del Bufalo

    Caspar del Bufalo

    • Organizations founded: Missionaries of the Precious Blood
    Saint Gaspar del Bufalo (January 6, 1786 – December 28, 1837), also known as Gaspare del Bufalo, was a Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Missionaries of the Precious Blood. Gaspar del Bufalo was born in Rome. He was the son of a cook employed by the Altieri family, whose palace was across from the Church of the Gesù in Rome. Through the influence of his mother, Annunziata, he became greatly devoted to Saint Francis Xavier, whose relic is prominently displayed on an altar of the Gesù. He was ordained to the priesthood in the diocese of Rome in 1808. Along with other clergy who refused to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1808 after the deportation of Pope Pius VII, he was sent into exile to northern Italy. Upon his return to Rome in 1814, he considered joining the Jesuits, who had recently been reestablished. However, in view of the needs of the time and in response to Pius VII, he engaged in the ministry of preaching and founded, despite facing considerable difficulties, a society of priests, the Missionaries of the Precious Blood, at the abbey of San Felice in Giano, Umbria, in 1815. Until his death on 28 December 1837, he worked tirelessly to
    5.00
    3 votes
    191
    Franciszka Siedliska

    Franciszka Siedliska

    Blessed Franciszka (Frances) Siedliska (12 November 1842–21 November 1902), also known as Mother Mary of Jesus the Good Shepherd, was the founder of a Roman Catholic religious institute, the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth. In 1842, Franciszka Siedliska was born to a Polish noble family in Roszkowa Wola, Congress Poland. Franciszka was educated privately by governesses, remaining indifferent to religion until she met a zealous Capuchin priest, who prepared her for her first Holy Communion, at which time she offered herself completely to God. She strongly desired a religious vocation, but because her father opposed the idea, she had to wait to execute her mission of founding a new religious congregation. Having submitted a petition on 1 October 1873, Siedliska founded her new congregation in Rome on the first Sunday of Advent in 1875, having received the blessing of Pope Pius IX. Siedliska named her order after the Holy Family, viewing it as the perfect model of total abandonment to the love of God. The congregation spread rapidly to Poland, England, France, and, in 1885, the United States. Siedliska led eleven sisters to found a community in Des Plaines, moving to Pittsburgh
    5.00
    3 votes
    192
    Carl Sagan

    Carl Sagan

    • Organizations founded: Planetary Society
    Carl Edward Sagan ( /ˈseɪɡən/; November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, astrophysicist, cosmologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and natural sciences. He spent most of his career as a professor of astronomy at Cornell University where he directed the Laboratory for Planetary Studies. He published more than 600 scientific papers and articles and was author, co-author or editor of more than 20 books. He advocated scientifically skeptical inquiry and the scientific method, pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Sagan is known for his popular science books and for the award-winning 1980 television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, which he narrated and co-wrote. The book Cosmos was published to accompany the series. Sagan wrote the novel Contact, the basis for a 1997 film of the same name. Carl Sagan was born in Brooklyn, New York,. His father, Sam Sagan, was an immigrant garment worker from Russia. Carl's mother, Rachel Molly Gruber, was a housewife from New York. Carl was named in honor of Rachel's biological mother, Chaiya Clara, in Sagan's words, "the mother she never
    5.50
    2 votes
    193
    Joseph Calasanctius

    Joseph Calasanctius

    • Organizations founded: Piarists
    Joseph Calasanctius (Spanish: José de Calasanz) (September 11, 1557 – August 25, 1648), also known as Joseph Calasanz and Josephus a Matre Dei, was the founder of the Pious Schools and the Order of the Piarists. Sam Eldrin Senillo, or José de Calasanz, as he is called in Spanish, was born at Peralta de la Sal, Aragón, in the Kingdom of Spain on September 11, 1557. His parents were Don Pedro Calasanz and Doña María Gaston, who gave him, the youngest of eight children, a good education at home and then at the school of Peralta. After his classical studies at Estadilla, he took up philosophy and jurisprudence at Lleida and earned the degree of Doctor of Laws, and then, with honors completed, his theological course at Valencia and Alcalá de Henares. Joseph's mother and brother having died, Don Pedro wanted him to marry and perpetuate the family. But a sickness in 1582 soon brought Joseph to the brink of the grave. On his recovery, he was ordained a priest on December 17, 1583, by Hugo Ambrosio de Moncada, Bishop of Urgel. During his ecclesiastical career in Spain, Calasanz held various offices in his native region. Joseph began his ministry in the Diocese of Albarracín, where Bishop de
    5.50
    2 votes
    194
    Marguerite Bourgeoys

    Marguerite Bourgeoys

    • Organizations founded: Congregation of Notre Dame
    Saint Marguerite Bourgeoys (17 April 1620 – 12 January 1700) was the founder of the Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal in the colony of New France, now part of Canada. She lived in Ville-Marie (Montreal) as of 1653, educating young girls, the poor, and natives until her death at the turn of the 18th century. She is also significant for developing one of the first uncloistered religious communities in the Catholic Church. Saint Marguerite Bourgeoys was born in Troyes (France), on 17 April 1620. The daughter of Abraham Bourgeoys and Guillemette Garnier, she was the sixth of their twelve children.. Marguerite came from a middle-class and socially connected background, her father being a candle maker and coiner. Her father ultimately died when she was young, and her mother soon followed when Marguerite was 19. In her early years, Marguerite had never held much of an interest in joining the Congregation Notre-Dame, which had been founded earlier in France in 1598 and had a major convent in her hometown. The nuns present in this external congregation helped the poor but remained cloistered and did not have the right teach outside of the convent. However, it is said that she had a
    5.50
    2 votes
    195
    Marie Louise Trichet

    Marie Louise Trichet

    Blessed Marie Louise Trichet also known as Marie-Louise de Jésus was a French Catholic figure who, with Saint Louis de Montfort, founded the Congregation of religious women called Daughters of Wisdom and since the age of seventeen devoted her life to caring for the poor and the sick. She is also referred to as the First Daughter of Wisdom. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II and currently awaits canonizaton. She was born in Poitiers, on the Clain River in west central France on May 7, 1684 and baptized at the church of St. Etienne. Her father Julien was a court magistrate in Poitiers and her mother Françoise Lecocq was deeply religious, as was most of her family. She was the fourth child, and had seven siblings. Her younger brother Alexis, born just one year earlier, was ordained a priest in 1710 and later died because he volunteered to minister to plague striken inmates in a prison camp. The youngest of her sisters later joined the Daughters of Wisdom. Marie Louise grew up in an atmosphere of religion and education, and when seven years old, was sent to the boarding school at Poitiers run by the Sisters of St. Jeanne de Lestonac to acquire the social qualifications suitable for
    4.67
    3 votes
    196
    Peter Fourier

    Peter Fourier

    Peter Fourier, C.R.S.A., (French: Pierre Fourier) was a French canon regular who is honored as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. He served as an exemplary pastor in Mattaincourt in the Vosges, and also helped to found a religious congregation of canonesses dedicated to the care of poor children. Fourier was born in the village of Mirecourt, in the Department of Vosges, then in the Duchy of Lorraine. He began his monastic career as a canon regular in the abbey at Chaumousey, where he made his profession of vows in 1687and was ordained a priest at the extraordinary age of twenty-four. He was a scholastic theologian who knew the Summa Theologica by heart, and earned the great respect of both the university officials and the Count-Bishop of Metz, who offered him a high ecclesiastical post. Fourier chose, instead, to return to his abbey. After his return to his canonical community, however, he was subjected to two years of hostility and abuse by his fellow canons, even by some accounts a case of attempted poisoning. He chose not to confront his abbot with the situation and accepted this persecution patiently. The care of local parishes in that region of France was routinely
    4.67
    3 votes
    197
    Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.

    Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.

    • Organizations founded: Americans for Democratic Action
    Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr. (October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian and social critic whose work explored the American liberalism of political leaders including Franklin D. Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Robert F. Kennedy. A Pulitzer Prize winner, Schlesinger served as special assistant and "court historian" to President Kennedy from 1961 to 1963. He wrote a detailed account of the Kennedy Administration, from the transition period to the president's state funeral, titled A Thousand Days. In 1968, Schlesinger actively supported the presidential campaign of Senator Robert F. Kennedy, which ended with Kennedy's assassination in Los Angeles. Schlesinger wrote the biography Robert Kennedy and His Times several years later. He popularized the term "imperial presidency" during the Nixon administration by writing the book The Imperial Presidency. He was also an avid supporter of Harry Truman. Schlesinger was born in Columbus, Ohio, the son of Elizabeth Harriet (née Bancroft) and Arthur M. Schlesinger (1888–1965), who was an influential social historian at Ohio State University and Harvard University. His paternal grandfather was a Prussian Jew (who later
    6.00
    1 votes
    198
    Mary McAleese

    Mary McAleese

    • Organizations founded: Irish Commission for Prisoners Overseas
    Mary Patricia McAleese ( /mækəˈliːs/; née Leneghan; Irish: Máire Pádraigín Mhic Ghiolla Íosa; born 27 June 1951) served as the eighth President of Ireland from 1997 to 2011. She was the second female president and was first elected in 1997 succeeding Mary Robinson, making McAleese the world's first woman to succeed another as president. She was re-elected unopposed for a second term in office in 2004. McAleese is the first President of Ireland to have come from either Northern Ireland or Ulster. McAleese graduated in Law from Queen's University Belfast. In 1975, she was appointed Professor of Criminal Law, Criminology and Penology at Trinity College, Dublin and in 1987, she returned to her Alma Mater, Queen's, to become Director of the Institute of Professional Legal Studies. In 1994, she became the first female Pro-Vice Chancellor of Queen's University. She worked as a barrister and also worked as a journalist with RTÉ. McAleese used her time in office to address issues concerning justice, social equality, social inclusion, anti-sectarianism and reconciliation. She described the theme of her Presidency as "Building Bridges". This bridge-building materialised in her attempts to
    6.00
    1 votes
    199
    Philip Lader

    Philip Lader

    • Organizations founded: Renaissance Weekends
    Philip Lader (born 1946) was the United States Ambassador to the Court of St. James's (1997–2001) and since 2001 has been chairman of WPP Group plc, the global media and communications firm that includes Ogilvy & Mather, J. Walter Thompson, Young & Rubicam, Grey, Hill & Knowlton, Burson-Marseller, Kantar & Group M (with 158,000 people in 2,500 offices in 107 countries). As a Senior Adviser to Morgan Stanley, he has served on the investment committees of its global real estate and infrastructure funds, as well as the boards of its Russia bank ad several of its private equity portfolio companies (including Songbird plc-Canary Wharf and Executive Offices Group). He was a member of the board of Lloyd's of London (2004-11) (the international insurance market), a director of Marathon Oil, UC Rusal (the world's largest aluminum producer), and AES (the global power company), and a trustee (formerly Vice Chairman) of RAND Corporation, the Smithsonian Museum of American History, The Atlantic Council, and the Salzburg Global Seminar. He is an adviser to [Palantir Technologies], the Silicon Valley "big data" software firm, and formerly was a director of Duck Creek Technologies, the insurance
    6.00
    1 votes
    200
    Henriette DeLille

    Henriette DeLille

    Venerable Henriette DeLille (1813–1862) founded the Catholic order of the Sisters of the Holy Family in New Orleans, which was composed of free women of color. The order provided nursing care and a home for orphans, later establishing schools as well. In 1989 the order formally opened its cause with the Vatican in the canonization of Henriette DeLille. She was declared venerable in 2010. Henriette Delille was born in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1813. Her father Jean-Baptiste Lille Sarpy (var. de Lille) was born about 1758 in Fumel, Lot-et-Garonne, France. Her mother, Marie-Josèphe "Pouponne" Díaz, a free quadroon, was a Creole of color of French, Spanish and African ancestry and born in New Orleans. Their union was a common-law marriage typical of the contemporary plaçage system. Her maternal grandparents were Juan José (var. Jean-Joseph) Díaz, a Spanish merchant, and Henriette (Dubreuil) Laveau, a Créole of color. Her paternal grandfather was Jean-Baptiste Lille Sarpy Sr., who had been born at Fumel to Charles Sarpy and Susanne Trenty. Her maternal great-grandmother is said to be Cécile Marthe Basile Dubreuil; she is considered to be a daughter of Claude Villars Dubreuil, born in
    5.00
    2 votes
    201
    Juliette Gordon Low

    Juliette Gordon Low

    • Organizations founded: Girl Scouts of the USA
    Juliette Gordon Low (born Juliette Magill Kinzie Gordon in Savannah, Georgia, October 31, 1860 – January 17, 1927) was an American youth leader and the founder of the Girl Scouts of the USA in 1912. Juliette Gordon Low's mother's family came from Chicago. Her father William Washington Gordon II was a Confederate Captain in the American Civil War, and a Brigadier General in the United States Army during the Spanish-American War. Among her friends and family, Juliette was always called by her nickname "Daisy". The families of Confederate officers were required to leave Savannah after the December 1864 surrender to General William T. Sherman. Four-year-old Daisy went with her mother, Eleanor "Nellie" Kinzie Gordon, and her sisters, six-year-old Eleanor and one-year-old Alice, to the Chicago home of Eleanor's parents, John H. Kinzie and Juliette Augusta Magill Kinzie. Daisy loved to hear the family stories of her great-grandmother, Eleanor Lytle McKillip Kinzie, who had been captured by Native Americans at the age of nine. Even though she was a captive, she was always joyful, so the Native Americans started calling her "Little-Ship-Under-Full-Sail." She was the adopted daughter of the
    4.50
    2 votes
    202
    Norbert of Xanten

    Norbert of Xanten

    • Organizations founded: Premonstratensian
    Norbert of Xanten (c. 1080 – 6 June 1134) was a bishop of the Catholic Church, founder of the Premonstratensian order of canons regular, and is venerated as a saint. Saint Norbert was born in Xanten on the left bank of the Rhine, near Wesel, in the Electorate of Cologne. He grew up there and was also educated there. His father, Heribert, Count of Gennep, was related to the imperial house of Germany and the House of Lorraine. His mother was Hedwig of Guise. Ordained as a subdeacon, Norbert was appointed to a canonry at Xanten where he lived a life of pleasure. Soon after, he was summoned to the court of Frederick of Cologne and later to that of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, where he became the emperor's almoner (a church officer in charge of distributing charity). He avoided ordination to the priesthood and even declined an appointment as bishop of Cambrai in 1113. Following a near-fatal horse-riding accident, his faith deepened and he renounced his appointment at Court. He returned to Xanten to lead a life of penance, placing himself under the direction of Cono, Abbot of St Sigeberg, near Cologne. In 1115, Norbert founded the Abbey of Fürstenberg, endowed it with a portion of his
    4.50
    2 votes
    203
    Winston Churchill

    Winston Churchill

    • Organizations founded: European Movement
    Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, DL, FRS, Hon. RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British Conservative politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the past century, he served as Prime Minister twice (1940–45 and 1951–55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. He is the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States. Churchill was born into the aristocratic family of the Dukes of Marlborough. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India, the Sudan, and the Second Boer War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns. At the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as
    4.50
    2 votes
    204
    Charles Bradlaugh

    Charles Bradlaugh

    • Organizations founded: National Secular Society
    Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 – 30 January 1891) was a political activist and one of the most famous English atheists of the 19th century. He founded the National Secular Society in 1866. Born in Hoxton (an area in the East End of London), Bradlaugh was the son of a solicitor's clerk. He left school at the age of eleven and then worked as an office errand-boy and later as a clerk to a coal merchant. After a brief spell as a Sunday school teacher, he became disturbed by discrepancies between the Thirty-nine Articles of the Anglican Church and the Bible. When he expressed his concerns, the local vicar, John Graham Packer, accused him of atheism and suspended him from teaching. He was thrown out of the family home and was taken in by Elizabeth Sharples Carlile, the widow of Richard Carlile, who had been imprisoned for printing Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason. Soon Bradlaugh was introduced to George Holyoake, who organized Bradlaugh's first public lecture as an atheist. At the age of 17, he published his first pamphlet, A Few Words on the Christian Creed. However, refusing financial support from fellow freethinkers, he enlisted as a soldier with the Seventh Dragoon Guards
    5.00
    1 votes
    205
    Dean Kamen

    Dean Kamen

    • Organizations founded: FIRST
    Dean L. Kamen (born April 5, 1951) is an American entrepreneur and inventor from New Hampshire. Born in Long Island, New York, he attended Worcester Polytechnic Institute, but dropped out before graduating after five years of private advanced research for drug infusion pump AutoSyringe. He is the son of Jack Kamen, an illustrator for Mad, Weird Science and other EC Comics publications. Kamen is best known for inventing the product that eventually became known as the Segway PT, an electric, self-balancing human transporter with a sophisticated, computer-controlled gyroscopic stabilization and control system. The device balances on two parallel wheels and is controlled by moving body weight. The machine's development was the object of much speculation and hype after segments of a book quoting Steve Jobs and other notable IT visionaries espousing its society-revolutionizing potential were leaked in December 2001. Kamen has worked extensively on a project involving Stirling engine designs, attempting to create two machines; one that would generate power, and the Slingshot that would serve as a water purification system. He hopes the project will help improve living standards in
    5.00
    1 votes
    206
    Guy Laliberté

    Guy Laliberté

    • Organizations founded: One Drop Foundation
    Guy Laliberté, OC CQ (born September 2, 1959) is a Canadian entrepreneur, philanthropist, poker player, space tourist and the current CEO of Cirque du Soleil. With an estimated net worth of US$2.6 billion (as of March 2012), Laliberté was ranked by Forbes as the 11th wealthiest Canadian and 459th in the world. Starting out busking as an accordion player, stiltwalker and fire-eater, in 1984 Laliberté founded Cirque du Soleil, a Canadian circus company whose shows have since been seen by more than 90 million people worldwide. In 2006, Laliberté was named the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year. Laliberté was born in 1959 in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. His interest in show business began at a relatively young age. His parents took him to watch the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, an experience which led Laliberté to read the biography of P. T. Barnum. While in school, Guy produced several performing arts events. After school, he entered the world of street performance, playing the harmonica and accordion on the streets of Quebec. Laliberté joined a performing troupe that included fire-breathers, jugglers, and acrobats who hitched around the country from show to show.
    5.00
    1 votes
    207
    Maria Merkert

    Maria Merkert

    Maria Merkert (born in Neiße, Prussian Silesia (present-day Nysa, Opole Voivodeship) on September 21, 1817; died November 14, 1872) was the co-Foundress and first Superior General of the Congregation of St Elizabeth. Her father died when she was an infant and her mother died in 1842. Along with her sister she devoted herself to the poor. She was declared venerable in 2004. Her beatification was held on September 30, 2007 in Nysa.
    5.00
    1 votes
    208
    Mary Lasker

    Mary Lasker

    • Organizations founded: Lasker Foundation
    Mary Woodard Lasker (November 30, 1900 – February 21, 1994) was an American health activist and philanthropist. She worked to raise funds for medical research, and founded the Lasker Foundation. Born in Watertown, Wisconsin, Lasker attended the University of Wisconsin, Madison and graduated from Radcliffe College with a major in Art History. Her mother, Sarah Woodard, who was an active civic leader instilled upon her the values of urban beautification while growing up. Lasker worked as an art dealer at Reinhardt Galleries in New York City. She married the owner Paul Reinhardt. After divorcing she created a fabric company Hollywood Patterns. In 1938 she became the president of the Birth Control Federation of America, the precursor of the Planned Parenthood Federation. Her second marriage was to Lord and Thomas advertising executive Albert Lasker until his death in the early 1950s of colon cancer. Ironically, her husband's ad agency had promoted smoking with the slogan, "L.S.M.F.T.—Lucky Strike Means Fine Tobacco" back when the dangers of smoking were not well known. The Laskers supported National Health Insurance under Truman. After its failure Mary Lasker saw research funding
    5.00
    1 votes
    209
    Octavia Hill

    Octavia Hill

    • Organizations founded: National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
    Octavia Hill (3 December 1838 – 13 August 1912) was an English social reformer, whose main concern was the welfare of the inhabitants of cities, especially London, in the second half of the nineteenth century. Born into a family with a strong commitment to alleviating poverty, she herself grew up in straitened circumstances owing to the financial failure of her father. With no formal schooling, she worked from the age of 14 for the welfare of working people. Hill was a moving force behind the development of social housing, and her early friendship with John Ruskin enabled her to put her theories into practice with the aid of his initial investment. She believed in self-reliance, and made it a key part of her housing system that she and her assistants knew their tenants personally and encouraged them to better themselves. She was opposed to municipal provision of housing, believing it to be bureaucratic and impersonal. Another of Hill's concerns was the availability of open spaces for poor people. She campaigned against development on existing suburban woodlands, and helped to save London's Hampstead Heath and Parliament Hill Fields from being built on. She was one of the three
    5.00
    1 votes
    210
    Ryan Newman

    Ryan Newman

    • Organizations founded: Ryan Newman Foundation
    Ryan Joseph Newman (born December 8, 1977, in South Bend, Indiana) is a driver in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. He drives the No. 39 Chevrolet Impala for Stewart Haas Racing under crew chief Tony Gibson. Newman graduated from Purdue University in 2001 with a B.S. in engineering. In 2002, he was the Raybestos Rookie of the Year. He enjoys driving and working on vintage cars, particularly 1950s Chryslers. Newman's car was featured on the cover of the 2005 EA Sports computer game NASCAR SimRacing, and he was actively involved in its development. Brooklyn Sage Newman, first child of Ryan and wife Krissie, arrived on Thursday, November 18, 2010. Ashlyn Olivia Newman, Ryan and wife Krissie's second child, arrived on Monday, July 16, 2012. Newman began working for legendary racing icon Roger Penske in 2000, winning 3 of the five ARCA RE/MAX Series races he entered, and making his Winston Cup debut at Phoenix International Raceway. In 2001, Newman continued in both ARCA and NASCAR, while attending Purdue. Newman ran 15 Busch Series races that season, winning poles in his 2nd and 3rd career starts and scoring his first career win at Michigan International Speedway in just his 9th career
    5.00
    1 votes
    211
    Saint Cajetan

    Saint Cajetan

    • Organizations founded: Theatines
    Saint Cajetan (October 1, 1480 – August 7, 1547), born Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene is a saint of the Catholic Church and a founder of the Theatines. Predisposed to piety by his mother, he studied law in Padua, receiving his degree as doctor utriusque juris (i.e., in civil and canon law) at age 24. In 1506 he worked as a diplomat for Pope Julius II, with whom he helped reconcile the Republic of Venice. But he was not ordained a priest until the year 1516. Recalled to Vicenza in the following year by the death of his mother, he founded a hospital for incurables there. His interests were as much or more devoted to spiritual healing than the physical kind. He intended to form a group that would combine the spirit of monasticism with the exercises of the active ministry. The death of Pope Adrian VI in 1523 led him to withdraw from the Papal Court, founding an order based on these ideals, "the Oratory of Divine Love." This new congregation was canonically erected by Pope Clement VII in the year 1524. One of his four companions was Giovanni Pietro Carafa, the Bishop of Chieti, elected first superior of the order, who later became Pope as Paul IV. From the name of the city of Chieti (in
    5.00
    1 votes
    212
    W.E.B. Du Bois

    W.E.B. Du Bois

    • Organizations founded: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    William Edward Burghardt "W. E. B." Du Bois (pronounced /duːˈbɔɪz/ doo-BOYZ; February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. Born in western Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a tolerant community and experienced little racism as a child. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta Compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities. Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the
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    213
    Alphonsus Liguori

    Alphonsus Liguori

    • Organizations founded: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer
    Saint Alphonsus Maria de Liguori (September 27, 1696 – August 1, 1787) was an Italian Catholic bishop, spiritual writer, scholastic philosopher and theologian, and founder of the Redemptorists, an influential religious congregation. He was canonized in 1839 by Pope Gregory XVI. Pope Pius IX proclaimed him a Doctor of the Church in 1871. Saint Alphonsus Maria de Liguori was born in Marianella, near Naples, then part of the Kingdom of Naples. He was the first-born of seven belonging to the Neapolitan nobility. Two days after he was born he was baptized at the Church of Our Lady the Virgin as Alphonsus Mary Antony John Cosmas Damian Michael Gaspard de' Liguori. Alphonsus Liguori went to law school at age sixteen, becoming a very well known lawyer. He was thinking of leaving the profession, and wrote to someone: "My friend, our profession is too full of difficulties and dangers; we lead an unhappy life and run risk of dying an unhappy death. For myself, I will quit this career, which does not suit me; for I wish to secure the salvation of my soul." At the age of twenty-seven, after having lost an important case - the first he had lost in eight years of practicing law - he made a firm
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    214
    Patricia Soltysik

    Patricia Soltysik

    • Organizations founded: Symbionese Liberation Army
    Patricia "Mizmoon" Monique Soltysik (May 17, 1950 - May 17, 1974) was one of the founders of the Symbionese Liberation Army. She was the daughter of a pharmacist, the third of seven children, the oldest of five girls. She grew up in Goleta, California, and graduated from Dos Pueblos High School in 1968 in the top 10 percent of her class and was the student body treasurer of her high school. She enrolled in the University of California, Berkeley on a state scholarship in 1968. While at Berkeley she became embittered by the "Bloody Thursday" incident where a protester was killed. Drifting into radical groups she became a radical feminist and self avowed revolutionary. When her brother asked about her plans of becoming a lawyer, she replied, "Sisters, none of us are free until we are all free." In 1971 she attached herself to the radical ex-convict group United Prisoners Union and dropped out of school. She and her neighbor, Camilla Hall, became lovers, and it was Hall who gave Soltysik the name "Mizmoon." On March 5, 1973, Donald DeFreeze escaped prison and future SLA members Russell Little and Willy Wolfe took him to Soltysik's house because unlike their other associates, Soltysik
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    215
    Wau Holland

    Wau Holland

    • Organizations founded: Chaos Computer Club
    Herwart Holland-Moritz, known as Wau Holland, (20 December 1951 - 29 July 2001) cofounded the Chaos Computer Club (CCC) in 1981, one of the world's oldest hacking clubs. The CCC became world famous when its members exposed security flaws in Germany's "Bildschirmtext" (Btx) online television service by getting a bank to send them DM 134,000 for accessing its Btx page many times. They returned the money the following day. Holland also co-founded the CCC's hacker magazine Datenschleuder in 1984, which praised the possibilities of global information networks and powerful computers, and included detailed wiring diagrams for building your own modems cheaply. The then-monopolist phone company of Germany's Deutsche Bundespost had to approve modems and sold expensive, slow modems of their own. The telecommunications branch of Deutsche Bundespost was privatized and is now Deutsche Telekom. Because of Holland's continuing participation in the club, the CCC gained popularity and credibility. He gave speeches on information control for the government and the private sector. Holland fought against copy protection and all forms of censorship and for an open information infrastructure. He compared
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    216
    William F. Buckley, Jr.

    William F. Buckley, Jr.

    • Organizations founded: Young Americans for Freedom
    William Frank Buckley, Jr. (November 24, 1925 – February 27, 2008) was a conservative American author and commentator. He founded the political magazine National Review in 1955, which had a major impact in stimulating the conservative movement. He hosted 1,429 episodes of the television show Firing Line from 1966 until 1999, where his public persona was famous for a wide vocabulary. He also wrote a nationally syndicated newspaper column, and wrote numerous spy novels. George H. Nash, a historian of the modern American Conservative movement, states that Buckley was "arguably the most important public intellectual in the United States in the past half century... For an entire generation, he was the preeminent voice of American conservatism and its first great ecumenical figure." Buckley's primary contribution to politics was a fusion of traditional American political conservatism with laissez-faire economic theory and anti-communism, laying groundwork for the new American conservatism of U.S. presidential candidate Barry Goldwater and President Ronald Reagan. Buckley wrote God and Man at Yale (1951) and over 50 other books on writing, speaking, history, politics and sailing,
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    217
    Deepak Sharma

    Deepak Sharma

    • Organizations founded: Indiapore Trust
    Deepak Sharma is Chief Executive Officer of Citi Global Wealth Management International for Citi.
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    218
    Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Huerta

    • Organizations founded: United Farm Workers
    Dolores Clara Fernandez Huerta (born April 10, 1930) is a labor leader and civil rights activist who, along with César Chávez, co-founded the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW). Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', immigrants', and womens' rights, including the Eugene V. Debs Foundation Outstanding American Award, the United States Presidential Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. As a role model to many in the Latin community, Huerta is the subject of many corridos (ballads) and murals. Born on April 10, 1930, in the mining town of Dawson, New Mexico, Huerta was the daughter of Juan Fernandez—a miner, field/farm worker, union activist and state assemblyman—and Alicia Chavez. Huerta was the couple's second child and only daughter; the couple divorced when Huerta was three years old. Chavez raised Huerta and her two brothers, in the central California farm worker community of Stockton, California. Huerta's mother was known for her kindness and compassion towards others and was active in community affairs, numerous civic organizations, and the
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    219
    John Baptist Scalabrini

    John Baptist Scalabrini

    Blessed Giovanni Battista Scalabrini (John Baptist Scalabrini) (8 July 1839 – 1 June 1905) was ordained priest on 30 May 1863. He was made Bishop of Piacenza in Italy, on 28 November 1887 he founded the Congregation of the Missionaries of St. Charles now known as the Scalabrinian Fathers and Brothers. Its initial mission is to "maintain Catholic faith and practice among Italian emigrants in the New World." Today, they and their sister organizations, the Missionary Sisters of St. Charles Borromeo (founded by Scalabrini on 25 October 1895) and Secular Institute of the Scalabrinian Missionary Women (founded 25 July 1961) minister to migrants, seafarers, refugees and displaced persons. Ordained to the priesthood Paolo Miraglia-Gulotti in 1879.
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    John Kenneth Galbraith

    John Kenneth Galbraith

    • Organizations founded: Americans for Democratic Action
    John Kenneth "Ken" Galbraith (properly  /ɡælˈbreɪθ/ gal-BRAYTH, but commonly /ˈɡælbreɪθ/ GAL-brayth; October 15, 1908 – April 29, 2006), OC, was a Canadian-American economist. He was a Keynesian, an institutionalist, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism. His books on economic topics were bestsellers from the 1950s through the 2000s and he filled the role of public intellectual from the 1950s to the 1970s on matters of economics. Galbraith was a prolific author who produced four dozen books and over a thousand articles on various subjects. Among his most famous works was a popular trilogy on economics, American Capitalism (1952), The Affluent Society (1958), and The New Industrial State (1967). He taught at Harvard University for many years. Galbraith was active in Democratic Party politics, serving in the administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson; he served as United States Ambassador to India under Kennedy. Due to his prodigious literary output he was arguably the best known economist in the world during his lifetime and was one of a select few people to be awarded the Medal of Freedom, in 1946, and the
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    221
    John of the Cross

    John of the Cross

    • Organizations founded: Discalced Carmelites
    John of the Cross, O.C.D., (San Juan de la Cruz) (1542 – 14 December 1591), was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, Catholic saint, Carmelite friar and priest, born at Fontiveros, Old Castile. John of the Cross was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered, along with Saint Teresa of Ávila, as a founder of the Discalced Carmelites. He is also known for his writings. Both his poetry and his studies on the growth of the soul are considered the summit of mystical Spanish literature and one of the peaks of all Spanish literature. He was canonized as a saint in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. He is one of the thirty-five Doctors of the Church. He was born Juan de Yepes y Álvarez into a Jewish converso family in a small community, Fontiveros, near Ávila. His father, Gonzalo, was an accountant to richer relatives who were silk merchants. However, when in 1529 he married John's mother, Catalina, who was an orphan of a lower class, Gonzalo was rejected by his family and forced to work with his wife as a weaver. John's father died in 1545, while John was still only around seven years old. Two years later, John's older brother Luis died, probably as a result of
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    222
    Johns Hopkins University

    Johns Hopkins University

    • Organizations founded: Association of American Universities
    The Johns Hopkins University (informally Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins) is a private research university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist Johns Hopkins. Daniel Coit Gilman was inaugurated as the first president on February 22, 1876. Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Italy; China and Singapore. The university is organized into two undergraduate divisions and five graduate divisions on two main campuses—the Homewood campus and the Medical Institutions campus—both located in Baltimore. The university also consists of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the Peabody Institute, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities. Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years. As of 2011,
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    223
    Madeline Sophie Barat

    Madeline Sophie Barat

    • Organizations founded: Society of the Sacred Heart
    Saint Madeleine Sophie Barat, R.S.C.J., (December 12, 1779 – May 25, 1865) was a French saint of the Catholic Church and was the foundress of the Society of the Sacred Heart. Madeleine Sophie was born on the night of December 12, 1779, in Joigny, France, in the raging fire. The stress and terror of the fire caused Sophie’s mother, Madame Madeleine Fouffé Barat (1740–1822), then pregnant with her third child, to go into labor. Born two months premature, Madeleine Sophie was considered so fragile that early the next morning, she was baptized in St. Thibault Church, located just a few yards from the Barat family home. Although her parents had arranged godparents in advance, there was no time to call them to the church, and so at 5:00 a.m. on December 13, 1779, Louise-Sophie Cédor, a local woman on her way to early Mass, and Sophie’s older brother, Louis, stood in as her godparents. Madeleine Sophie was born into a financially comfortable family whose ancestors had lived in Joigny for generations and were proud of their roots in the Bourgogne. Her father, Jacques Barat (1742–1809), was a barrel maker and wine-grower. Both of these professions were considered to be noble trades, with
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    224
    Maxwell Fry

    Maxwell Fry

    • Organizations founded: MARS Group
    Edwin Maxwell Fry, CBE, RA, FRIBA, FRTPI, known as Maxwell Fry (2 August 1899 – 3 September 1987), was an English modernist architect of the middle and late 20th century, known for his buildings in Britain, Africa and India. Originally trained in the neo-classical style of architecture, Fry grew to favour the new modernist style, and practised with eminent colleagues including Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. Fry was a major influence on a generation of young architects. Among the younger colleagues with whom he worked was Denys Lasdun. In the 1940s Fry designed buildings for west African countries that were then part of the British Empire, including Ghana and Nigeria. In the 1950s he and his wife, the architect Jane Drew, worked for three years on an ambitious development to create a new capital city of Punjab at Chandigarh. Fry's works in Britain range from railway stations to private houses to large corporate headquarters. Among his best known works in the UK is Kensal House in Ladbroke Grove, London, aimed at providing high quality low cost housing, in which he collaborated with Elizabeth Denby to set new standards. Fry was born in Liscard, near Wallasey in
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    225
    Philip Vera Cruz

    Philip Vera Cruz

    • Organizations founded: United Farm Workers
    Philip Vera Cruz (December 25, 1904 – June 12, 1994) was a Filipino American labor leader, farmworker, and leader in the Asian American civil rights movement. He was a co-founder of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, which later merged with the National Farm Workers Association to become the United Farm Workers. As the union's long-time vice president, he worked to improve the working conditions for migrant workers. Vera Cruz was born in Saoag, Ilocos Sur, the Philippines on December 25, 1904. As he grew older, he undertook some farm work there, which he described as much easier than the work he would do in California. In 1926, Vera Cruz moved to the United States, where he performed a wide variety of jobs, including working in an Alaskan cannery, a restaurant, and a box factory. He was briefly a member of the Industrial Workers of the World. Vera Cruz eventually settled in California, where he became a farmworker. He joined the AFL-CIO-affiliated union, the National Farm Labor Union, in the 1950s. His union local, based in Delano, California, had an Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC). The prime focus of AWOC was to add members to the National Farm Labor
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    Shirley Chisholm

    Shirley Chisholm

    • Organizations founded: Congressional Black Caucus
    Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm (November 30, 1924 – January 1, 2005) was an American politician, educator, and author. She was a Congresswoman, representing New York's 12th Congressional District for seven terms from 1969 to 1983. In 1968, she became the first African-American woman elected to Congress. On January 25, 1972, she became the first major-party black candidate for President of the United States and the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination (Margaret Chase Smith had previously run for the Republican presidential nomination). She received 152 first-ballot votes at the 1972 Democratic National Convention. Shirley Anita St. Hill was born in Brooklyn, New York, of immigrant parents. Her father, Charles Christopher St. Hill, was born in British Guiana and arrived in the United States via Antilla, Cuba, on April 10, 1923, aboard the S.S. Munamar in New York City. Her mother, Ruby Seale, was born in Christ Church, Barbados, and arrived in New York City aboard the S.S. Pocone on March 8, 1921. At age three, Chisholm was sent to Barbados to live with her maternal grandmother, Emaline Seale, in Christ Church; where she attended the Vauxhall Primary School.
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    227
    Van Jones

    Van Jones

    • Organizations founded: Ella Baker Center for Human Rights
    Anthony Kapel "Van" Jones (born September 20, 1968) is an American environmental advocate, civil rights activist, and attorney. Jones is a co-founder of three non-profit organizations. In 1996, he founded the Ella Baker Center for Human Rights, a California non-governmental organization (NGO) working for alternatives to violence. In 2005, he co-founded Color of Change, an advocacy group for African Americans. In 2007, he founded Green for All, a national NGO dedicated to "building an inclusive green economy strong enough to lift people out of poverty." His first book, The Green Collar Economy, was released on October 7, 2008, and reached number 12 on the New York Times Best Seller list. In 2008, Time magazine named Jones one of its "Heroes of the Environment". Fast Company called him one of the "12 Most Creative Minds of 2008". In March 2009 Jones was appointed by President Barack Obama to the newly created position of Special Advisor for Green Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation at the White House Council on Environmental Quality, where he worked with various "agencies and departments to advance the administration's climate and energy initiatives, with a special focus on improving
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    Yisrael Ariel

    Yisrael Ariel

    • Organizations founded: Temple Institute
    Rabbi Yisrael Ariel (1939 - ) was the chief rabbi of the evacuated Israeli settlement of Yamit in the Sinai desert during the years when the Sinai was controlled by Israel, and the founder of the Temple Institute (Machon HaMikdash). His brother, Rabbi Yaakov Ariel, served as the rosh yeshiva in the yeshiva in Yamit and is currently the chief rabbi of Ramat Gan. As a young man, Ariel served in the Paratroopers Brigade unit that liberated the Western Wall (kotel) in the Six-Day War. For the 1981 Knesset elections, Ariel ran as number two on the Kach list with Rabbi Meir Kahane in the number one spot. As of 2006, aside from being the head of the Temple Institute, he is also involved in an attempt to revive the Sanhedrin. Rabbi Ariel urges that the Pesach sacrificial service on the Temple Mount should be resumed, and that the Temple should be rebuilt as soon as possible. In December 2006, he was briefly arrested and interrogated by Israeli police after confronting General Elazar Stern, before being released.
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    Ahmed Yassin

    Ahmed Yassin

    • Organizations founded: Hamas
    Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Hassan Yassin (1937 – 22 March 2004) (Arabic: الشيخ أحمد إسماعيل حسن ياسين‎ ash-shaykh Aḥmad Ismāʻīl Ḥasan Yāsīn) was a founder of Hamas, an Islamist Palestinian paramilitary organization and political party. Yassin also served as the spiritual leader of the organization. Hamas gained popularity in Palestinian society by establishing hospitals, education systems, libraries and other services, but it has also claimed responsibility for a number of suicide attacks targeting Israeli civilians, leading to its being characterized by the European Union, Israel, Japan, Canada, and the United States as a terrorist organization. Yassin, a quadriplegic who was nearly blind, had used a wheelchair since a sporting accident at the age of 12. He was assassinated when an Israeli helicopter gunship fired a missile at him as he was being wheeled from early morning prayers. His killing, in an attack that claimed the lives of both his bodyguards and nine bystanders, precipitated both criticism and praise of Israel, and many observers suggested that the act would negatively impact the peace process. 200,000 Palestinians attended his funeral procession. Ahmed Yassin was born in
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    230
    Andrew Fournet

    Andrew Fournet

    Andrew Fournet (1752–1834) was a priest who, with St. Elizabeth Bichier, established the Congregation of the Daughters of the Holy Cross. He was born near Poitiers in 1752. He was bored by many things, including religion, as a youth. However, he was later influenced by one of his uncles, a rural pastor, and later became a priest himself, and eventually the parish priest of his hometown Maillé. Upon the arrival of the French Revolution, he refused to take the oath for the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and continued his now illegal ministry in secret. On Good Friday, 1792, he was arrested for his activities. He declined being taken to jail in a carriage, saying since the day Jesus carried his cross it behooved his followers to travel on foot. He would escape, at one point taking the place of a dead body on a bier. He made the acquaintance of Elizabeth Bichier, and collaborated with her in the establishment of her new religious congregation, the Daughters of the Cross. He even drew up the monastic rule the new congregation would follow. He is said to have miraculously multiplied food for the members of the new congregation and their charges a number of times. He retired from his
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    Arabella Huntington

    Arabella Huntington

    • Organizations founded: The Huntington Library
    Arabella Yarrington "Belle" Huntington (c.1850-1924) was the second wife of American railway tycoon and industrialist Collis P. Huntington, and then the second wife of Henry E. Huntington. She was once known as the richest woman in America, and as the force behind the art collection that is housed at the Huntington Library. Arabella Huntington was the second wife of Collis P. Huntington. After his death, she married his nephew Henry E. Huntington, who was also a railway magnate and the founder of the famous Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens, in San Marino, California. She had a son, Archer Milton Huntington. Compared to her famous family, information about Arabella is scarce. She was apparently born in 1850 or 1851, probably in Richmond, Virginia (see Wark, p. 312). Her first husband was a Mr. Worsham, of New York, who died shortly after they were married, leaving her with a young son, named Archer. (some other sources have suggested that they were not actually married, but that she was his mistress). (It has also been suggested that Archer's father was actually Collis Huntington, who legally adopted the boy when he was a teenager.). In 1877 she was able to
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    232
    Arnold Janssen

    Arnold Janssen

    • Organizations founded: School of the Holy Spirit
    Saint Arnold Janssen, S.V.D., (November 5, 1837 – January 15, 1909) was a Roman Catholic priest and missionary, and is venerated as a saint. He is best known for founding the Society of the Divine Word, a Roman Catholic missionary religious congregation, also known as the Divine Word Missionaries, as well as two congregations for women. Janssen was born in Goch, in the Rhineland, Germany, not far from the Dutch border, one of eleven siblings. He developed a deep, simple faith. His first school was the Catholic Augustinianum High School in Gaesdonck, which is near his birthplace. He did his college degree, then studied theology and was ordained to the priesthood on 15 August 1861. For a while worked as a high school teacher in Bocholt, Germany, teaching physics and catechism. His real passion, however, was the mission. In 1867 he became the director of the Apostolaat des Gebeds for Germany and Austria and founded a scientific institute in Mödling, near Vienna. He also founded a journal, Bode van het Heilig Hart van Jezus, which looked to enlist the faithful in prayer and support for the mission. The Kulturkampf, however, hampered his efforts, and Janssen purchased land in Steyl, the
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    233
    Belgium

    Belgium

    • Organizations founded: Council of Europe
    Belgium (/ˈbɛldʒəm/ BEL-jəm), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO. Belgium covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres (11,787 sq mi), and it has a population of about 11 million people. Straddling the cultural boundary between Germanic and Latin Europe, Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups, the Dutch-speakers, mostly Flemish (about 60%), and the French-speakers, mostly Walloons (about 40%), plus a small group of German-speakers. Belgium's two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region, officially bilingual, is a mostly French-speaking enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in the political history and a complex system of government. Historically, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, which used to cover a somewhat
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    234
    Bernard L. Madoff

    Bernard L. Madoff

    • Organizations founded: Madoff Charitable Foundation
    Bernard Lawrence "Bernie" Madoff ( /ˈmeɪdɒf/; born April 29, 1938) is an American former businessman, stockbroker, investment advisor, financier and white collar criminal. He is the former non-executive chairman of the NASDAQ stock market, and the admitted operator of a Ponzi scheme that is considered to be the largest financial fraud in U.S. history. In March 2009, Madoff pleaded guilty to 11 federal felonies and admitted to turning his wealth management business into a massive Ponzi scheme that defrauded thousands of investors of billions of dollars. Madoff said he began the Ponzi scheme in the early 1990s. However, federal investigators believe the fraud began as early as the 1970s, and those charged with recovering the missing money believe the investment operation may never have been legitimate. The amount missing from client accounts, including fabricated gains, was almost $65 billion. The court-appointed trustee estimated actual losses to investors of $18 billion. On June 29, 2009, he was sentenced to 150 years in prison, the maximum allowed. Jeffry Picower, rather than Madoff, appears to have been the largest beneficiary of Madoff's Ponzi scheme, and his estate settled the
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    235
    Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod

    Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod

    • Organizations founded: Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate
    Saint Eugene de Mazenod (August 1, 1782 - May 21, 1861) born Charles Joseph Eugene de Mazenod and more commonly known as Eugene de Mazenod, was a French Catholic clergyman, beatified on 19 October 1975 by Pope Paul VI, and canonized on 3 December 1995 by Pope John Paul II. The saint was born on the Cours Mirabeau in Aix-en-Provence to an aristocratic family. His family fled France during the Revolution. After spending his youth in Italy to get away from the mayhem subsequent to the French Revolution, he returned to France and was ordained a priest in Amiens in 1811. In 1816 he founded the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. From 1837 to 1861 he was bishop of Marseille. During his episcopacy he commissioned Notre-Dame de la Garde, an ornate Neo-Byzantine basilica on the south side of the old port of Marseille. He has three colleges in Australia named in his behalf: St. Eugene Catholic College in Burpengary, Queensland, Mazenod College in Perth, Western Australia, and Mazenod College in Victoria, Australia. There is also a college in Sri Lanka named for him, De Mazenod College, governed by the De La Salle Brothers.
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    236
    Clare of Assisi

    Clare of Assisi

    • Organizations founded: Order of Poor Ladies
    Clare of Assisi (sometimes spelled Clair, Claire, etc.) (July 16, 1194 – August 11, 1253), born Chiara Offreduccio, is an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. She founded the Order of Poor Ladies, a monastic religious order for women in the Franciscan tradition, and wrote their Rule of Life—the first monastic rule known to have been written by a woman. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honor as the Order of Saint Clare, commonly referred to today as the Poor Clares. Clare was born in Assisi, Italy, as the eldest daughter of Favorino Scifi, Count of Sasso-Rosso and his wife Ortolana. Ortolana was a very devout woman who had undertaken pilgrimages to Rome, Santiago de Compostela and the Holy Land. Later on in her life, Ortolana entered Clare's monastery, together with Agnes, Clare's sister. Clare was always devoted to prayer as a child. When she turned 15 her parents wanted her to marry a young and wealthy man but she originally wanted to wait until she was 18. But when she was 18 she had heard Francis's preachings. Those preachings were beginning to change her life. He told her she was a chosen soul from God. Soon on
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    237
    Donald DeFreeze

    Donald DeFreeze

    • Organizations founded: Symbionese Liberation Army
    Donald David DeFreeze (November 15, 1943 – May 17, 1974), also known as Cinque Mtume, was the leader of the American guerilla group Symbionese Liberation Army, a group operating in the mid-1970s, under the nom de guerre "Field Marshal Cinque." DeFreeze was born in Cleveland, Ohio to Louis and Mary DeFreeze. He began his criminal career at age 14, after he ran away from home and became a street gang member in Buffalo, New York before moving to California. From December 1969 to January 1972, he was serving a sentence in Vacaville Prison for armed robbery. Those who remember him in prison considered him an unimpressive criminal. He was first arrested for stealing $10 from a prostitute and framed his friend as having committed the crime. While incarcerated at Vacaville Prison, DeFreeze met with some far-left radicals who were working as volunteers in the prison and was converted to their political ideas. He was transferred to Soledad Prison in Soledad, California in January 1972, from which he escaped on March 5, 1973. DeFreeze adopted the name "Field Marshal Cinque" (pronounced "SINK-you"), having taken this name from Joseph Cinqué, the reported leader of the slave rebellion which
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    238
    Hardwicke Rawnsley

    Hardwicke Rawnsley

    • Organizations founded: National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
    Canon Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley (29 September 1851 – 28 May 1920), was an English clergyman, poet, writer of hymns and conservationist, known as one of the co-founders of the National Trust. As an Anglican vicar in the English Lake District for more than 30 years, he worked for the protection of the countryside, and secured the support of people of influence for his campaigns. Rawnsley was born at the rectory, Shiplake, Oxfordshire, England, the fourth of ten children of the Rev Robert Drummond Burrell Rawnsley (1817–1882) and his wife, Catherine Ann, née Franklin (1818–1892). He was educated at Uppingham School and Balliol College, Oxford, where he was prominent in university athletics and rowing. He gained a third class degree in natural science in 1874 and was awarded his Master of Arts degree in 1875. In the same year he was ordained as a deacon in the Church of England and became the first chaplain of Clifton College mission, ministering to one of Bristol's poorest areas. In 1877 Rawnsley was ordained as a priest, and in 1878 he took up the post of Vicar of Wray, Windermere, in the Lake District. In January 1878, he married Edith Fletcher, and the couple had one child, a
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    239
    Horst Mahler

    Horst Mahler

    • Organizations founded: Red Army Faction
    Horst Mahler (born 23 January 1936 in Haynau, Lower Silesia, Germany, now Chojnów, Poland) is a former German lawyer and political activist. He once was an extreme-left militant, a founding member of the Red Army Fraction. Subsequently he became a Maoist and later shifted to the extreme-right. He was for a time a member of the National Democratic Party of Germany. He has been repeatedly convicted of Volksverhetzung ("incitement of popular hatred") and Holocaust denial and is currently serving a 12-year prison sentence. Mahler became known as a founding member of the radical leftist Red Army Fraction in 1970. While imprisoned he became a Maoist, but later turned sharply to the right. In 2000 he joined the NPD and represented the party in court. In an interview to an Israeli reporter, Naftali Glicksberg, Mahler claimed that he himself is of part-Jewish descent. He described his mother telling him and his brothers while bursting into tears that they have Jewish ancestry and are ⅛ Jewish. Mahler studied law at the Free University of Berlin with support of the German National Merit Foundation. In 1964 he founded a law firm in Berlin and practised microeconomic law. In 1966 he
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    Ingvar Kamprad

    Ingvar Kamprad

    • Organizations founded: Stichting INGKA Foundation
    Ingvar Feodor Kamprad ( pronunciation (help·info); born 30 March 1926) is a Swedish business magnate and the founder of IKEA, a retail company. Kamprad was born in Pjätteryd (now part of Älmhult Municipality), Sweden. He was raised on a farm called Elmtaryd (presently standardized Älmtaryd) near the small village of Agunnaryd in Ljungby Municipality in the province of Småland, Sweden. His paternal grandfather was from Germany but moved the family to Sweden. Kamprad has lived in Epalinges, Switzerland since 1976. According to an interview with TSR, the French language Swiss TV broadcaster, Kamprad drives a 1993 Volvo 240, flies only economy class, and encourages IKEA employees always to write on both sides of a piece of paper. He reportedly recycles tea bags and is known to pocket the salt and pepper packets at restaurants." In addition, Kamprad has been known to visit IKEA for a "cheap meal." He is known for purchasing Christmas paper and presents in post-Christmas sales. The firm he created is still known for the attention it gives to cost control, operational details and continuous product development, allowing it to lower its prices by an average of 2-3% over the decade to 2010,
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    241
    Kristen Nygaard

    Kristen Nygaard

    • Organizations founded: Norwegian Operational Research Society
    Kristen Nygaard (August 27, 1926 – August 10, 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist, programming language pioneer and politician. He was born in Oslo and died of a heart attack in 2002. Internationally he is acknowledged as the co-inventor of object-oriented programming and the programming language Simula with Ole-Johan Dahl in the 1960s. Object-oriented programming enables software developers to manage the complexity of computer systems. Nygaard got his master's degree in mathematics at the University of Oslo in 1956. His thesis on abstract probability theory was entitled "Theoretical Aspects of Monte Carlo Methods". Nygaard worked full time at the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment from 1948 to 1960 - in computing and programming (1948–1954) and operational research (1952–1960). From 1957 to 1960 he was head of the first operations research groups in the Norwegian defense establishment. He was cofounder and first chairman of the Norwegian Operational Research Society (1959–1964). In 1960 he was hired by the Norwegian Computing Center (NCC), responsible for building up the NCC as a research institute in the 1960s, becoming its Director of Research in 1962. Together with
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    Leon Panetta

    Leon Panetta

    • Organizations founded: Leon & Sylvia Panetta Institute for Public Policy
    Leon Edward Panetta (born June 28, 1938) is the 23rd and current United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama since 2011. Prior to taking office, he served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. An Italian-American Democratic politician, lawyer, and professor, Panetta served as President Bill Clinton's White House Chief of Staff from 1994 to 1997, Director of the Office of Management and Budget from 1993–1994, and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1977 to 1993. He is the founder of the Panetta Institute for Public Policy, served as Distinguished Scholar to Chancellor Charles B. Reed of the California State University System and professor of public policy at Santa Clara University. In January 2009, President Obama nominated Panetta for the post of CIA Director. Panetta was confirmed by the full Senate in February 2009. As director of the CIA, Panetta oversaw the U.S. military operation that led to Osama bin Laden's death. On April 28, 2011, Obama announced the nomination of Panetta as Defense Secretary when Robert Gates retired. In June the Senate confirmed Panetta unanimously as Secretary of
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    Mel White

    Mel White

    • Organizations founded: Soulforce
    James Melville "Mel" White (born July 26, 1940) is an American clergyman and author. White was a behind-the-scenes member of the Evangelical Protestant movement through the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, writing speeches and ghostwriting books for televangelists such as Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson, and Billy Graham. After years of writing for the Christian right, he came out as gay in 1994. In 1962, White graduated from Warner Pacific College. That same year, he married his wife Lyla. They had two children, one of whom is the actor/comedian and screenwriter Mike White. After receiving his B.A. from Warner Pacific College, then graduating with an M.A. in communications from the University of Portland, White followed with graduate work in communications and film at University of Southern California, UCLA, and Harvard. He received his Doctorate of Ministry from, and was a professor of communications and preaching for over a decade at, Fuller Theological Seminary. During this time he also worked as an evangelical pastor. After their marriage, White admitted to his wife that he had always been attracted to men. He embarked on a long process of attempted cures for his homosexuality, including
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    Netherlands

    Netherlands

    • Organizations founded: Council of Europe
    The Netherlands (/ˈnɛðərləndz/; Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərˌlɑnt] ( listen)) is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with some islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. It is a parliamentary democracy organised as a unitary state. The country capital is Amsterdam and the seat of government is The Hague. The Netherlands in its entirety is often referred to as Holland, although North and South Holland are actually only two of its twelve provinces. The Netherlands is a geographically low-lying country, with about 20% of its area and 21% of its population located below sea level, and 50% of its land lying less than one metre above sea level. This distinct feature contributes to the country's name: in Dutch (Nederland), English, and in many other European languages (e.g. German: Niederlande, Portuguese: Países Baixos, Croatian: Nizozemska, Welsh: Yr Iseldiroedd, Irish: An Ísiltír, Spanish: Países Bajos, French: Les Pays-Bas, Danish: Nederlandene, Swedish:
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    Paul P. Harris

    Paul P. Harris

    • Organizations founded: Rotary International
    Paul Percy Harris (April 19, 1868–January 27, 1947) was a Chicago, Illinois, attorney best known for founding Rotary International in 1905, a service organization that currently has well over one million members worldwide. Harris was born in Racine, Wisconsin. At age 3, when his family fell on hard times, they moved to Vermont to live with Harris' paternal grandparents. He attended Princeton University, the University of Vermont, and the University of Iowa. For the next five years, he worked odd jobs for a newspaper as a salesman and a reporter, on fruit farms, as an actor and cowboy, and on cattle ships that traveled to Europe. Harris would settle in the Beverly neighborhood of Chicago, where he lived until his death in 1947. He began his law practice in 1896 in Chicago. In 1905, Harris organized the first Rotary Club "in fellowship and friendship" with three clients, Silvester Schele, Gustavus Loehr, and Hiram Shorey . His initial goal was to create a club of professional and business men for friendship and fellowship. Early on, Harris realized that Rotary needed a greater purpose. While Harris served as president of the Chicago Rotary Club in 1907, the club initiated its first
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    Peter Julian Eymard

    Peter Julian Eymard

    • Organizations founded: Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
    Saint Peter Julian Eymard (4 February 1811 – 1 August 1868) was a French Catholic priest, founder of two religious institutes, and a canonized saint. Eymard was born 4 February 1811 at La Mure, Isère, France. His first attempt as a seminarian ended when he departed because of poor health. Nevertheless, on 20 July 1834, he was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Grenoble. In 1839, he joined the Marist Fathers, where he worked as a well-respected spiritual advisor with seminarians and priests. He worked with the Third Order of Mary and other lay organizations promoting devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and to the Eucharist, particularly in the Forty Hours. He rose to the position of Provincial of the Society at Lyon in 1845. In 1856, due to disputes with the Marists, Eymard left them and founded the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament and, in 1858, together with Marguerite Guillot founded the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament, a contemplative congregation for women. The Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament began working with children in Paris to prepare them to receive their First Communion. It also reached out to non-practicing Catholics, inviting them to repent and begin
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    Robert of Molesme

    Robert of Molesme

    • Organizations founded: Cistercians
    Saint Robert of Molesme (c. 1028 – 1111) was a Christian saint and abbot, one of the founders of the Cistercian Order in France. Robert was a member of the nobility in Champagne, a younger son, who entered the abbey of Montier-la-Celle, near Troyes, at age fifteen and later rose to the status of prior. He was made the abbot of Saint Michel-de-Tonnerre at some point after the year 1060, but he was unable to reform the abbey, which had become known for its laxity, and so he returned to Montier-la-Celle. He was later prior of Saint-Aiyoul. Some hermits living in the forest of Colan sought Robert out there and asked to be put together under his direction in a new monastery. He obtained the permission of Pope Gregory VII to found a monastery at Molesme in Burgundy in 1075. Initially, the establishment consisted of only huts made of branches surrounding a chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity in the forest. Molesme Abbey quickly became known for its piety and sanctity, and Robert's reputation as a saintly man grew. When the house grew increasingly wealthy, new and unsuitable monks came to the area and divided the brothers, challenging Robert's severity. Robert twice tried to leave Molesme
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    Romuald

    Romuald

    • Organizations founded: Camaldolese
    Romuald (c. 950– traditionally 19 June, c. 1025/27) was the founder of the Camaldolese order and a major figure in the eleventh-century "Renaissance of eremitical asceticism". According to the vita by Peter Damian, written about fifteen years after Romuald's death, Romuald was born in Ravenna, in northeastern Italy, to the aristocratic Onesti family. His father was Sergius degli Onesti and his mother was Traversara Traversari. As a youth, according to early accounts, Romuald indulged in the pleasures and sins of the world common to a tenth-century nobleman. After watching his father kill an opponent in a duel however, the 20-year old Romuald was devastated, and fled to the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe. After some indecision, Romuald became a monk there. Led by a desire for a stricter way of life than he found in that community, three years later he withdrew to become a hermit on a remote island in the region, accompanied solely by an older monk, Marinus, who served as his spiritual master. Romuald apparently having gained a reputation for holiness, the Doge of Venice, Pietro I Orseolo, accepted his advice to become a monk, abdicated his office, and fled in the night to
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    Stephen Harding

    Stephen Harding

    Saint Stephen Harding (Spanish: San Esteban Harding, French: Saint Étienne Harding, Hungarian: Harding Szent István, Slovene: Sveti Štefan Harding, Prekmurian: Števan Harding Svéti) (died 28 March 1134) is a Christian saint and abbot, one of the founders of the Cistercian Order. Stephen Harding was born in Dorset, England. He was placed in Sherborne Abbey at a young age, but eventually put aside the cowl and became a travelling scholar. He eventually moved to Molesme Abbey in Burgundy, under the abbot Saint Robert of Molesme (c. 1027-1111). When Robert left Molesme to avoid its corruption and laxity, Stephen and Saint Alberic of Cîteaux went with him. Unlike Alberic, Stephen was not ordered to return, and he remained in solitude with Robert. When twenty-one monks deserted Molesme to join Robert, Harding and Alberic, the three leaders formed a new monastery at Cîteaux. Robert was initially abbot of Cîteaux Abbey, returning to Molesme after a year. Alberic then took over, serving as abbot until his death in 1108. Stephen Harding, the youngest of the three men, became the third abbot of Cîteaux. As abbot, Stephen Harding guided the new monastery over a period of great growth. Bernard
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    Thomas Cole

    Thomas Cole

    • Organizations founded: National Academy of Design
    Thomas Cole (February 1, 1801 – February 11, 1848) was an English-born American artist. He is regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that flourished in the mid-19th century. Cole's Hudson River School, as well as his own work, was known for its realistic and detailed portrayal of American landscape and wilderness, which feature themes of romanticism and naturalism. He was born in Bolton, Lancashire, England, in 1801. In 1818 his family emigrated to the United States, settling in Steubenville, Ohio, where Cole learned the rudiments of his profession from a wandering portrait painter named Stein. However, he had little success painting portraits, and his interest shifted to landscape. Moving to Pittsburgh in 1823 and then to Philadelphia in 1824, where he drew from casts at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, he rejoined his parents and sister in New York City early in 1825. In New York Cole sold five paintings to George W. Bruen, who financed a summer trip to the Hudson Valley where the artist produced two Views of Coldspring, the Catskill Mountain House and painted famous Kaaterskill Falls and the ruins of Fort Putnam. Returning to New
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