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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Operating System of All Time

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    1
    MythDora

    MythDora

    MythDora is a specialized operating system based on Fedora and MythTV. Since 2009, the version number comes from the version of Fedora used followed by the version of MythTV used. For example, the current version 12.23 uses Fedora 12 and MythTV 0.23. Like KnoppMyth, MythDora is designed to simplify the installation of MythTV on a home theatre PC. MythDora has since version 10.21 had Live CD support. In addition to MythTV and its plugins, Mythdora includes extra Linux packages that are necessary for MythTV to run, and drivers for hardware commonly encountered in machines intended to run MythTV. Also included in Mythdora are several video game emulators, and extra tools and scripts. These aid with the initial configuration of the system and allow the user to perform such tasks as rebooting the machine and backing up program data, directly through the MythTV interface. On August 3, 2011 the project maintainers indicated they no longer have time to keep the project going.
    7.60
    10 votes
    2

    RSX-11

    • Developer: Digital Equipment Corporation
    RSX-11 is a family of real-time operating systems mainly for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), common in the late 1970s and early 1980s. RSX-11D first appeared on the PDP-11/40 in 1972. It was designed for and much used in process control, but was also popular for program development. Garth Wolfendale was the project leader for RSX-11D from 1972–1976 and led the redesign and commercial release of the operating system as well as adding support for the 22-bit PDP-11/70 system. Dr Wolfendale, originally from the U.K. set up the team that designed and prototyped IAS in the U.K. providing time-shared user access to operating system resources. Andy Wilson then led the full development and release of the IAS system, based in Digital's U.K. development facility. Dave Cutler was the project leader for RSX-11M, which was an adaptation of the earlier RSX-11D for a smaller memory footprint. Principles first tried in RSX-11M later appeared in DEC's VMS. Microsoft's Windows NT system is a conceptual descendant of RSX-11M but is more directly descended from an object based operating system Cutler developed for a RISC processor (PRISM) which was never released. This
    6.80
    10 votes
    3
    Ubuntu

    Ubuntu

    • Parent OS: Debian GNU/Linux
    • Developer: Mark Shuttleworth
    • Includes OS Versions: Kubuntu
    Ubuntu ( /ʊˈbʊntuː/ u-BUN-too) is a computer operating system based on the Debian Linux distribution and distributed as free and open source software, using its own desktop environment. It is named after the Southern African philosophy of ubuntu ("humanity towards others"). As of 2012, according to online surveys, Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution on desktop/laptop personal computers, and most Ubuntu coverage focuses on its use in that market. However, it is also popular on servers and for cloud computing. Ubuntu is sponsored by the UK-based company Canonical Ltd., owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Canonical generates revenue by selling technical support and services related to Ubuntu, while the operating system itself is entirely free of charge. The Ubuntu project is committed to the principles of free software development; people are encouraged to use free software, improve it, and distribute it. Ubuntu is a fork of the Debian project's codebase. The original aim of the Ubuntu developers was to create an easy-to-use Linux desktop with new releases scheduled on a predictable six-month basis, resulting in a frequently updated system. Ubuntu's first
    7.86
    7 votes
    4
    GNU/Linux

    GNU/Linux

    • Parent OS: Unix
    • Developer: Linus Torvalds
    • Includes OS Versions: Ubuntu
    Linux (/ˈlɪnəks/ LIN-əks or /ˈlɪnʊks/ LIN-uuks) is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86-based personal computers. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. It is a leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers and supercomputers: more than 90% of today's 500 fastest supercomputers run some variant of Linux, including the 10 fastest. Linux also runs on embedded systems (devices where the operating system is typically built into the firmware and highly tailored to the system) such as mobile phones, tablet computers, network routers, televisions and video game consoles; the Android system in wide use on mobile devices is built on the Linux kernel. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration: the underlying source code may be used,
    9.60
    5 votes
    5
    GNU Hurd

    GNU Hurd

    GNU Hurd (usually referred to as the Hurd) is a computer operating system kernel designed as a replacement for Unix, released as free software under the GNU General Public License. It has been under development since 1990 by the GNU Project of the Free Software Foundation. GNU Hurd consists of a set of protocols and server processes (or daemons, in Unix terminology) that run on the GNU Mach microkernel; together they are intended to form the kernel of the GNU operating system. The Hurd aims to surpass Unix operating systems in functionality, security, and stability, while remaining largely compatible with them. The GNU Project chose the microkernel server–client architecture for the operating system, due to perceived advantages over the traditional Unix monolithic kernel architecture. In December 1991, the primary architect of the Hurd, explained the name mutually recursive acronym meaning: As both hurd and hird are just alternate spellings for the English word herd, the full name GNU Hurd is also a play on the words herd of gnus, reflecting how the kernel works. The logo is called the Hurd boxes and it also reflects on architecture. The logo is a graph where nodes represent the
    8.33
    6 votes
    6
    Android

    Android

    • Parent OS: Linux kernel
    • Developer: Open Handset Alliance
    • Includes OS Versions: Honeycomb
    Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, developed by Google in conjunction with the Open Handset Alliance. Initially developed by Android Inc, whom Google financially backed and later purchased in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google releases the Android code as open source, under the Apache License. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP), led by Google, is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of Java. They are available for download through Google Play or third-party sites. In September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play was 25 billion. The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008, and by the end of 2010
    8.00
    6 votes
    7

    Linspire

    • Parent OS: Debian GNU/Linux
    • Developer: Digital Cornerstone
    • Includes OS Versions: Freespire
    Linspire, previously known as LindowsOS, was a commercial operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux and later Ubuntu. Linspire was published by Linspire, Inc. and focused on ease-of-use, targeting home PC users. The last stable release of Linspire was version 6.0, which was released in October 2007. On July 1, 2008, Linspire stockholders elected to change the company's name to Digital Cornerstone, and all assets were acquired by Xandros. On August 8, 2008, Andreas Typaldos, CEO of Xandros, announced that Linspire would be discontinued in favor of Xandros; Freespire would change its base code from Ubuntu to Debian; and the Linspire brand would cease to exist. Based in San Diego, California, Lindows, Inc. was founded in August 2001 by Michael Robertson with the goal of developing a Linux-based operating system capable of running major Microsoft Windows applications. It based its Windows compatibility on the Wine API. The company later abandoned this approach in favor of attempting to make Linux applications easy to download, install and use. To this end a program named "CNR" was developed: based on Debian's Advanced Packaging Tool, it provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface
    8.00
    6 votes
    8
    Psion 3

    Psion 3

    The Psion Series 3 range of personal digital assistants were made by Psion PLC. The four main variants are the Psion Series 3 (1991), the Psion Series 3a (1993), the Psion Series 3c (1996), and the Psion Series 3mx (1998), all sized 165 × 85 × 22 mm. In addition, a Psion Series 3a variant with factory installed software for the Russian language was called a Psion Series 3aR, and Acorn Computers sold a rebadged version of the Psion Series 3 and 3a marketed as the Acorn Pocket Book and Acorn Pocket Book II. The Psion Series 3 range is regarded by Scottish writer Charles Stross as an unsurpassed PDA because of its long battery life (20 to 35 hours), its stable and versatile software, and its durable hardware. About 1.5 million Psion 3s were made. The Psion Series 3 models were a major advance on the Psion Organiser. They had an original way of managing files: the available program icons are shown in a horizontal line and the associated files drop down beneath them. Manufacture of Psion 3s was discontinued in 1998 shortly after the launch of the Psion Series 5 (a Psion Series 4 does not exist, due to Psion's concern of tetraphobia in their Asian markets) and the Psion Siena. Psion's
    8.00
    6 votes
    9
    SunOS

    SunOS

    • Developer: Sun Microsystems
    • Includes OS Versions: Solaris Operating System
    SunOS is a version of the Unix operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstation and server computer systems. The SunOS name is usually only used to refer to versions 1.0 to 4.1.4 of SunOS. These versions were based on BSD, while SunOS version 5.0 and later are based on UNIX System V Release 4, and are marketed under the brand name Solaris. SunOS 1 and 2 supported the Sun-2 series systems, including Sun-1 systems upgraded with Sun-2 (68010) CPU boards. SunOS 3 supported Sun-2 and Sun-3 (68020) series systems. SunOS 4 supported Sun-2 (until release 4.0.3), Sun-3 (until 4.1.1), Sun386i (4.0, 4.0.1 and 4.0.2 only) and Sun-4 (SPARC) architectures. Although SunOS 4 was intended to be the first release to fully support Sun's new SPARC processor, there was also a SunOS 3.2 release with preliminary support for Sun-4 systems. SunOS 4.1.2 introduced support for Sun's first sun4m-architecture multiprocessor machines (the SPARCserver 600MP series); since it had only a single lock for the kernel, only one CPU at a time could execute in the kernel. The last release of SunOS 4 was 4.1.4 (Solaris 1.1.2) in 1994. The sun4, sun4c and sun4m architectures were supported in 4.1.4;
    6.71
    7 votes
    10

    Quark

    In computing, Quark is an operating system kernel used in MorphOS. It is a microkernel designed to run totally virtualized computers, called "boxes" (see sandbox). Currently only one "Box" is available, the ABox, that lets users run existing AmigaOS software compiled for MC680x0 and PowerPC processors. Quark microkernel borrows concepts from L4 microkernel family but is not an L4 implementation itself. For example the clan, id concept and recursive address mapping comes from L4. Quark also has an asynchronous/synchronous message interface similar to Amiga's Exec kernel but adapted to the memory protected environment. Other Quark features include: For this new kernel a hardware abstraction layer is used which provides the necessary hardware resource information like scanning all zorro boards, PCI boards and local hardware resources.
    8.20
    5 votes
    11

    OS/2

    • Developer: IBM
    OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2," because it was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal System/2 (PS/2)" line of second-generation personal computers. The first version was released in December 1987 and many newer versions were released after, until December 2001. OS/2 was intended as a protected mode successor of PC-DOS. Notably, basic system calls were modeled after MS-DOS calls; their names even started with "Dos" and it was possible to create "Family Mode" applications: text mode applications that could work on both systems. Because of this heritage, OS/2 shares similarities with Unix, Xenix, and Windows NT in many ways. OS/2 is no longer marketed by IBM, and IBM standard support for OS/2 was discontinued on 31 December 2006. The development of OS/2 began when IBM and Microsoft signed the "Joint Development Agreement" in August 1985. It was code-named "CP/DOS" and it took two years for the first product to be delivered. OS/2 1.0 was announced in April 1987 and released in December. The original release was
    7.80
    5 votes
    12
    Windows Phone 8

    Windows Phone 8

    • Developer: Microsoft
    Windows Phone 8 (codename Apollo) is the next generation of Windows Phone, as officially confirmed by Microsoft at an MSDN seminar in August 2011 and previewed at Microsoft's 'sneak peek' at Windows Phone on June 20, 2012. The expected release date for this update is late October 2012. Devices will be launched by four companies: Nokia, Huawei, Samsung, and HTC. All devices will be based on System on Chips from Qualcomm. Current Windows Phone 7.x devices will not be able to run or update to Windows Phone 8 and new applications compiled specifically for Windows Phone 8 will not be made available for Windows Phone 7.x devices. It was released to manufacturing on September 14, 2012. and will be officially released on October 29. On June 20, 2012, Microsoft unveiled Windows Phone 8, a new generation of the operating system for release later in 2012. Windows Phone 8 will replace its previously Windows CE-based architecture with one based off the Windows NT kernel with many components shared with Windows 8, allowing applications to be easily ported between the two platforms. Windows Phone 8 will also allow devices with larger screens (the 3 confirmed sizes are "WVGA 800x480 15:9","WXGA
    6.67
    6 votes
    13

    POSIX

    POSIX ( /ˈpɒzɪks/ POZ-iks), an acronym for "Portable Operating System Interface", is a family of standards specified by the IEEE for maintaining compatibility between operating systems. POSIX defines the application programming interface (API), along with command line shells and utility interfaces, for software compatibility with variants of Unix and other operating systems. Originally, the name "POSIX" referred to IEEE Std 1003.1-1988, released in 1988. The family of POSIX standards is formally designated as IEEE 1003 and the international standard name is ISO/IEC 9945. The standards, formerly known as IEEE-IX, emerged from a project that began circa 1985. Richard Stallman suggested the name POSIX in response to an IEEE request for a memorable name. The POSIX specifications for Unix-like operating system environments originally consisted of a single document for the core programming interface, but eventually grew to 19 separate documents (for example, POSIX.1, POSIX.2 etc.) . The standardized user command line and scripting interface were based on the Korn shell. Many user-level programs, services, and utilities including awk, echo, ed were also standardized, along with required
    7.60
    5 votes
    14
    Sinclair BASIC

    Sinclair BASIC

    Sinclair BASIC (taking its name from innovator Sir Clive Sinclair) is a dialect of the BASIC programming language used in the 8-bit home computers from Sinclair Research and Timex Sinclair. The Sinclair BASIC interpreter was made by Nine Tiles Networks Ltd. Originally developed in 1979 to fit in the 4 kB ROM of the ZX80, it was initially an incomplete implementation of the 1978 ANSI minimal BASIC standard and evolved through the 8 kB ROM ZX81 and TS1000 to be an almost complete version in the 16 kB ROM ZX Spectrum. On the ZX Spectrum, there are 86 reserved words in Sinclair BASIC, denoting commands (of which there were 50), functions (31), and other keywords (5). They are entered via Sinclair's somewhat unorthodox keyword entry system. The most common commands require just a single keystroke; for example, pressing P causes the entire command PRINT to appear. Less frequent commands require more complex key sequences: BEEP (for example) is keyed by pressing CAPS SHIFT plus SYMBOL SHIFT to access extended mode (later models include an EXTENDED MODE key), keeping SYMBOL SHIFT held down and pressing Z. Keywords are colour-coded on the keyboard to indicate which SHIFT-sequence is
    7.60
    5 votes
    15

    Trustix

    Trustix Secure Linux was a Linux distribution intended for use on servers and focused on security and stability. It was a hardened and secure OS, meaning that non-essential services and binaries are not installed, while UNIX staples like Sendmail are replaced by programs like Postfix. Trustix was originally produced by Trustix AS. The company was established late in 1997 by entrepreneurs from USA and Norway. The company went bankrupt in 2003 and Comodo Group bought the assets in November 2003. Shortly thereafter Comodo announced the end of the free version of Trustix Secure Linux. Not long thereafter Comodo changed their minds and the free version reappeared. By late 2005 a series of budget cuts had resulted in many of the developers being laid off, and by early 2006 all members of the original Trustix team had left the company. Trustix Secure Linux continues to be maintained by a very small team of developers in India. By late 2007 Comodo announced that it will discontinue all distribution, updates and direct support for Trustix Secure Linux effective December 31, 2007.
    7.60
    5 votes
    16
    Ubuntu 9.10

    Ubuntu 9.10

    • Developer: Canonical Ltd.
    Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala), was released on 29 October 2009 and is Canonical's eleventh release of the distribution and will be supported until April 2011. In an announcement to the community on 20 February 2009, Mark Shuttleworth explained that 9.10 would focus on improvements in cloud computing on the server using Eucalyptus, further improvements in boot speed as well as development on the Netbook Remix. The initial announcement of version 9.10 indicated that this release might include a new theme, however the project has been moved forward to 10.04, and only minor revisions have been made to the default theme. Other graphical improvements include a new set of boot up and shutdown splash screens, a new login screen that transitions seamlessly into the desktop, and greatly improved performance on Intel graphics chipsets. In June 2009 Canonical created the One Hundred Paper Cuts project, focusing developers to fix minor usability issues. A paper cut is defined as: "a trivially fixable usability bug that the average user would encounter on his/her first day of using a brand new installation of the latest version of Ubuntu Desktop Edition." The desktop installation of Ubuntu 9.10 includes, among other programs, GIMP 2.6, GNOME 2.28, Mozilla Firefox 3.5, OpenOffice.org 3.1, Linux 2.6.31, X.Org 7.5 and Empathy Instant Messenger instead of Pidgin. The default filesystem is ext4, and the Ubuntu One client, which interfaces with Canonical's new online storage system, is installed by default. It also debuts a new application called the Ubuntu Software Center that unifies package management. Canonical intends for this application to replace Add/Remove Programs (gnome-app-install) in 9.10 and possibly Synaptic, Software Sources, Gdebi and Update Manager in Ubuntu 10.04. Karmic Koala also includes a slideshow during the installation process (through ubiquity-slideshow) that highlights applications and features in Ubuntu.
    7.60
    5 votes
    17

    TRON Project

    • Developer: Ken Sakamura
    • Includes OS Versions: CTRON
    TRON is an open real-time operating system kernel design, and is an acronym for "The Real-time Operating system Nucleus". The project was started by Prof. Dr. Ken Sakamura of the University of Tokyo in 1984. The project's goal is to create an ideal computer architecture and network, to provide for all of society's needs. The Industrial TRON (ITRON) derivative is one of the world's most used operating systems, being present in billions of electronic devices such as cellphones, appliances and even cars. The operating system is mainly used by Japanese companies, although interest in ITRON is growing worldwide. However, it has been said that there is much misinformation in the English speaking world about TRON due to the majority of the documentation being in Japanese. The TRON Project has been integrated into T-Engine Forum in 2010. TRON itself does not specify the source code for the kernel, but instead is a "set of interfaces and design guidelines" for creating the kernel. This allows different companies to create their own versions of TRON, based on the specifications, which can be suited for different microprocessors. While the specification of TRON is publicly available,
    8.75
    4 votes
    18

    PSOS

    • Developer: Wind River Systems
    pSOS is a real time operating system (RTOS), created in about 1982 by Alfred Chao, and developed/marketed for the first part of its life by his company Software Components Group (SCG). In the 1980s pSOS rapidly became the RTOS of choice for all embedded systems based on the Motorola 68000 family architecture, because it was written in 68000 assembler and was highly optimised from the start. It was also modularised, with early support for OS-aware debugging, plug-in device drivers, TCP/IP stacks, language libraries and disk subsystems. Later came source-level debugging, multi-processor support and further networking extensions. In about 1991, Software Components Group was acquired by Integrated Systems Inc. (ISI) who further developed pSOS - now restyled pSOS+ - for other microprocessor families, by rewriting the greater part of it in C. Attention was also paid to supporting successively more integrated development environments, culminating in pRISM+. In July 1994, Integrated Systems acquired Digital Research's modular real-time multi-tasking operating system FlexOS from Novell. In 1999 Integrated Systems Inc. was acquired by Wind River Systems, the originators of rival RTOS
    6.33
    6 votes
    19

    Mac OS 9

    • Parent OS: Mac OS
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    Mac OS 9 is the final major release of Apple's Classic Mac OS operating system. Introduced on October 23, 1999, Apple positioned it as "The Best Internet Operating System Ever," highlighting Sherlock 2's Internet search capabilities, integration with Apple's free online services known as iTools and improved Open Transport networking. While Mac OS 9 lacks protected memory and full pre-emptive multitasking, lasting improvements include the introduction of an automated Software Update engine and support for multiple users. Apple discontinued development of Mac OS 9 in 2002, transitioning all future development to OS X. Since that time, no updates have been released. The final updates to Mac OS 9 addressed compatibility issues with OS X while running in the Classic Environment and compatibility with Carbon applications. At the 2002 World Wide Developers Conference, Steve Jobs began his keynote address by staging a mock funeral for OS 9. However, there are still users of Mac OS 9 today. Specifically retro-gamers, people using old software that was discontinued before the introduction of OS X or users of old hardware incompatible with OS X . (PowerPC Macs made before the introduction of
    7.20
    5 votes
    20
    Debian GNU/Linux

    Debian GNU/Linux

    • Parent OS: Linux kernel
    • Developer: Debian Project
    • Includes OS Versions: Ubuntu
    Debian ( /ˈdɛbiən/) is a computer operating system composed of software packages released as free and open source software primarily under the GNU General Public License along with other free software licenses. Debian GNU/Linux, which includes the GNU OS tools and Linux kernel, is a popular and influential Linux distribution. It is distributed with access to repositories containing thousands of software packages ready for installation and use. Debian is known for relatively strict adherence to the philosophies of Unix and free software as well as using collaborative software development and testing processes. Debian can be used on a variety of hardware, from NAS devices to phones, laptops, desktops and servers. It focuses on stability and security and is used as a base for many other distributions. The Debian Project is governed by the Debian Constitution and the Social Contract which set out the governance structure of the project and explicitly states that the goal of the project is the development of a free operating system. Debian is developed by over three thousand volunteers from around the world and supported by donations through several nonprofit organizations around the
    8.25
    4 votes
    21
    Internet Explorer

    Internet Explorer

    Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the OEM service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows. Internet Explorer is one of the most widely used web browsers, attaining a peak of about 95% usage share during 2002 and 2003. Its usage share has since declined with the launch of Safari (2003), Firefox (2004), and Google Chrome (2008), each of which now have significant market share. Estimates for Internet Explorer's overall market share range from 16.7% to 32.31%, as of May 2012 (browser market share is notoriously difficult to calculate). Microsoft spent over US$100 million per year on Internet Explorer in the late 1990s, with over 1000 people working on it by 1999. Since its first release, Microsoft has added features and technologies such as basic table display (in version
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop

    SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop

    • Parent OS: SUSE Linux
    SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop (SLED), formerly introduced as Novell Linux Desktop, is a Linux distribution supplied by Novell and targeted at the business market. It is targeted for desktops. New major versions are released at an interval of 24–36 months, while minor versions (called service packs) are released every 9–12 months. SUSE Linux Enterprise products, including SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, receive much more intense testing than the openSUSE community product, with the intention that only mature, stable versions of the included components will make it through to the released enterprise product. The current version is SLED 11, which is developed from a common codebase with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server and other SUSE Linux Enterprise products. SLED includes Novell Evolution 2.6 and many other popular open source packages as well as some proprietary software such as Adobe Reader and RealPlayer. There have been a number of Service Packs (SP's) released for NLD 9. SP1 was released on February 11, 2005 and contained many updates. After that, SP2 was released on August 9, 2005, containing all the released updates and bugfixes since August 2004. SP3 was released on December 22,
    7.00
    5 votes
    23
    PlayStation

    PlayStation

    The PlayStation (プレイステーション, Pureisutēshon, officially abbreviated as PS; unofficially referred to as the PSX or PS1) is a 32-bit fifth-generation video game console first released by Sony Computer Entertainment in Japan on December 3, 1994. The PlayStation was the first of the PlayStation series of consoles and handheld game devices. The PlayStation was also the first console offered by an Japanese company after the TurboDuo ceased production in 1995. In 2000, a re-designed, "slim" version was released, called the PSone, replacing the original grey console, and also being renamed to avoid confusion with its successor, the newly-released PlayStation 2. The PlayStation was the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. The last game for the system was FIFA Football 2005 released in October 2004, and the last PSone units were sold on Christmas 2004 for a total of 102 million units shipped. Games continued to sell until Sony ceased production of PlayStation games on March 23, 2006; eleven years after it was released, and just over half a year before the release of the PlayStation 3. The first
    9.33
    3 votes
    24

    SLAX

    • Parent OS: Slackware
    • Developer: Tomas Matejicek
    Slax is a LiveCD Linux distribution based on Slackware and is currently being developed by Tomáš Matějíček. Packages can be selected in a website where users can build a custom Slax iso image. Slax slogan refers to the software as a "Pocket Operating System". The latest version of Slax is 6.1.2, which was released on 4 August 2009. The developer has stated that work on Slax 7 will begin once a stable kernel (version 2.6.34) is released with LZMA support for squashFS. One of the main benefits of the Slax distribution is its ease of customization. Additional software can be added and removed, using Slackware packages and Slax modules. A traditional package manager such as Debian's APT is not required to load additional software; Slax modules are completely self-contained. Users can also modify the default CD image or USB drive installation to customize the packages available in the distribution on boot. Slax also allows Slackware packages to be converted to Slax modules with the tgz2lzm command. The Slax homepage offers a software repository for downloading user created modules and uploading new ones. Slax modules are compressed read-only SquashFS file system images that are
    9.33
    3 votes
    25
    Atari TOS

    Atari TOS

    TOS (The Operating System) is the operating system of the Atari ST range of computers. This range includes the 520 and 1040ST, their STF/M/FM and STE variants and the Mega ST/STE. Later, 32-bit machines (TT, Falcon030) were developed using a new version of TOS, called MultiTOS, which allowed multitasking. More recently, users have developed TOS further into FreeMiNT. The Atari TOS (The Operating System) debuted with the Atari 520ST in 1985. TOS combines Digital Research's GEM GUI running on top of the DOS-like GEMDOS. Features include a flat memory model, MS-DOS-compatible disk format, support for MIDI, and a variant of SCSI called ACSI in later versions. Atari's TOS is usually run from ROM chips contained in the computer: Thus, before local hard drives were available in home computers, it was an almost instant-running OS. TOS booted off floppy disks in the very first STs, but only about half a year after the ST was introduced, all ST models started shipping with the latest version of TOS in ROM. TOS consisted of the following: The following were extensions to TOS (loaded separately): True multitasking was not directly supported, TOS allows desk accessories to be loaded into the
    8.00
    4 votes
    26
    Freespire

    Freespire

    • Parent OS: Linspire
    Freespire was a community-driven Linux distribution which was composed mostly of free, open source software, while providing users the choice of including proprietary software including multimedia codecs, device drivers and application software. Freespire was originally derived from Linspire. Freespire 1.0 was based on Debian, while Freespire 2.0 was based on Ubuntu. Linspire was bought by Xandros, who originally planned to switch back to Debian for future Freespire releases. In August 2005, a distribution Live CD based on Linspire's source pools named Freespire hit the web by accident. This distribution was created by Andrew Betts and was not produced or released by Linspire Inc. Freespire was confused by some users to be an actual product from Linspire, and at the request of Linspire the distribution adopted a development codename Squiggle and began looking for a new name. Linspire then, on the back of the generated publicity, offered users a "free Linspire" (purchase price discounted to $0) by using the coupon code "Freespire" until September 9, 2005. Squiggle OS is no longer in active development. On April 24, 2006, Linspire announced its own project named "Freespire". The new
    8.00
    4 votes
    27

    Mac OS X v10.1

    • Parent OS: Mac OS X
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    Mac OS X version 10.1, code named "Puma", is the second major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system. It superseded Mac OS X v10.0 and preceded Mac OS X v10.2. Version 10.1 was released on 25 September 2001 as a 'free update' to version 10.0. The operating system was handed out for no charge by Apple employees after Steve Jobs' keynote speech at the Seybold publishing conference in San Francisco. It was subsequently distributed to Macintosh users on 25 October 2001 at Apple Stores and other retail stores that carried Apple products. The operating system was better received than Mac OS X version 10.0, although critics claimed that the operating system was still lacking features and was plagued with bugs. Apple introduced many features that were missing from the last version, as well as improving overall system performance. This system release brought some major new features to the Mac OS X platform: Although version 10.1 was a more efficient operating system than its predecessor, it still received its share of criticism. Critics claimed that Mac OS X was still not fully developed in terms of reliability or functionality, and as such could not be used as a
    6.80
    5 votes
    28
    PikeOS

    PikeOS

    PikeOS is a microkernel-based real-time operating system made by SYSGO AG. It is targeted at safety and security critical embedded systems. It provides a partitioned environment for multiple operating systems with different design goals, safety requirements, or security requirements to coexist in a single machine. If several programs having different criticality levels are to coexist in one machine, the underlying OS must ensure that they remain independent. Resource partitioning is a widely accepted technique to achieve this. PikeOS combines resource partitioning and virtualisation: Its virtual machine environments (VMs) are able to host entire operating systems, along with their applications. Since PikeOS uses paravirtualisation, operating systems need to be adapted in order to run in one of its VMs. Application programs, however, can run unmodified. Since each VM has its own, separate set of resources, programs hosted by one VM are independent of those hosted by another. This allows for legacy (e.g. Linux) programs to coexist with safety-critical programs in one machine. Unlike other popular virtualisation systems, PikeOS features not only separation of spatial resources, but
    6.80
    5 votes
    29

    Syllable

    Syllable Desktop is a free and open source operating system for Pentium and compatible processors. Its purpose is to create an easy-to-use desktop operating system for the home and small office user. It was forked from the stagnant AtheOS in July 2002. It has a native web browser (Webster which is WebKit-based), email client (Whisper), media player, IDE, and many more applications. Features according to the official website include: Another version of Syllable OS is the Syllable Server, which is based on Linux core.
    9.00
    3 votes
    30

    Coherent

    • Developer: Mark Williams Company
    The Coherent operating system was a Version 7 Unix clone by the now-defunct Mark Williams Company, originally produced for the PDP-11 in 1980. A port was introduced in 1983 as the first Unix-like system for IBM PC compatible computers. Coherent was able to run on most Intel-based PCs with Intel 8088, 286, 386, and 486 processors. Coherent version 3 for Intel-based PCs required at least a 286, Coherent version 4 for Intel-based PCs required at least a 386. Like a true Unix, Coherent was able to multitask and support multiple users. From version 4 on Coherent also had support for X11 and MGR windowing systems. Later versions of Coherent (version 4 and higher) supported features common in modern Unix-like systems, including a version of MicroEMACS, access to DOS FAT16 File systems, an optimizing C compiler with linker, and a modified version of Taylor UUCP. The final releases of Coherent also fully supported the iBCS COFF binary standard, which allowed binary compatibily with SCO Unix applications, including WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3, and several Microsoft applications including QuickBASIC, Microsoft Word, and MultiPlan. There was no support for virtual memory or demand paging.
    7.75
    4 votes
    31
    Safari

    Safari

    Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Inc. and included with the Mac OS X and iOS operating systems. First released as a public beta on January 7, 2003 on the company's OS X operating system, it became Apple's default browser beginning with Mac OS X v10.3 "Panther". Safari is also the native browser for iOS. A version of Safari for the Microsoft Windows operating system was first released on June 11, 2007, and supported Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7,but it is no longer promoted or updated. According to Net Applications, Safari accounted for 62.17 percent of mobile web browsing traffic and 5.43 percent of desktop traffic in October 2011, giving a combined market share of 8.72 percent. Until 1997, Apple Macintosh computers were shipped with the Netscape Navigator and Cyberdog web browsers only. Internet Explorer for Mac was later included as the default web browser for Mac OS 8.1 and onwards, as part of a five year agreement between Apple and Microsoft. During that time, Microsoft released three major versions of Internet Explorer for Mac that were bundled with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9, though Apple continued to include Netscape Navigator as an alternative. Microsoft
    7.75
    4 votes
    32
    Tru64 UNIX

    Tru64 UNIX

    • Developer: Digital Equipment Corporation
    Tru64 UNIX is a 64-bit UNIX operating system for the Alpha instruction set architecture (ISA), currently owned by Hewlett-Packard (HP). Previously, Tru64 UNIX was a product of Compaq, and before that, Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), where it was known as Digital UNIX (formerly DEC OSF/1 AXP). As its original name suggests, Tru64 UNIX is based on the OSF/1 operating system. DEC's previous UNIX product was known as Ultrix and was based on BSD. It is unusual among commercial UNIX implementations, as it is built on top of the Mach kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University. (Other UNIX implementations built on top of the Mach kernel are NeXTSTEP, MkLinux, Mac OS X and Apple iOS.) Tru64 UNIX requires the SRM boot firmware found on Alpha-based computer systems. In 1988, during the so-called "Unix wars", DEC joined with IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and others to form the Open Software Foundation (OSF) to develop a version of Unix. Dubbed OSF/1, the aim was to compete with System V Release 4 from AT&T Corporation and Sun Microsystems, and it has been argued that a primary goal was for the operating system to be free of AT&T intellectual property. The fact that OSF/1 was one of the first
    6.60
    5 votes
    33
    Derrick Operating System

    Derrick Operating System

    Derrick is a freeware hobby 32-bit protected mode operating system programmed in FASM. It is aimed for stability and speed and it can run on as little as a 80386 DX with EGA and 4 MB of RAM. Currently, it can be run from a floppy disk and has a pretty stable and fast shell along with some interesting functions, like CPUID and CPU speed detection, temporary unreal mode switching for legacy disk access, three shell keyboard layout drivers, text-mode fonts loading on the fly, VGA SPIRAL demo, selection between 9-bit and 8-bit VGA dot-clock fonts and much more. The current version is 0.0.2 and it has many improvements and bugfixes from 0.0.1, including a simple FAT12 file reading and a 32-bit DMA floppy driver (legacy BIOS INT 13h is used as a last resort). Derrick is available in Slovak and English, thus both language versions fully support the Kamenický text encoding. Currently, there is no support for user programs.
    7.50
    4 votes
    34
    Foresight Linux

    Foresight Linux

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    • Developer: Thomas Schönhoff
    Foresight Linux is an operating system comprising free and proprietary software with the stated goal of showcasing the latest in Linux desktop technologies. Foresight is developed by the Foresight community and follows a rolling release cycle, instead of a time based release schedule. Foresight was created by Ken VanDine as a Linux distribution to showcase the most current releases of GNOME while working on the GNOME Marketing team. Since then it has undergone change through generally minor revisions (via rolling release). This is in contrast to the system of major changes with each version number employed by many other distributions. However, there have been occasional major changes, most notably the transition from Foresight 1.x to Foresight 2. Along the way several original deficiencies have been cured as well, among them the lack of 64 bit support, which was introduced in Foresight 2, and the lack of a graphical package manager, which was filled by PackageKit. After the release of Foresight 2, the developers held a packaging contest within the community in order to boost the number of applications available for the new release, either by porting them from Foresight 1, or
    7.50
    4 votes
    35

    Mac OS 8

    • Parent OS: Mac OS
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    Mac OS 8 is an operating system that was released by Apple Computer on July 26, 1997. It represented the largest overhaul of the Mac OS since the release of System 7, some six years previously. It puts more emphasis on color than previous operating systems. Released over a series of updates, Mac OS 8 was an effort to integrate many of the technologies developed for Apple's overly-ambitious operating system known as Copland. Mac OS 8 helped modernize the Mac OS while Apple developed its next generation operating system, OS X. Mac OS 8 is one of Apple's most successful software releases, selling over 1.2 million copies in the first two weeks. Coming as it did at a difficult time in Apple's history, many pirate groups refused to traffic in the new operating system, encouraging people to buy it instead. Mac OS 8.0 brought about the most significant changes in the line-up, including the introduction of the Platinum interface and a native PowerPC multi-threaded Finder. Mac OS 8.1 introduced a new, more efficient file system known as HFS Plus. Mac OS 8.5 was the first version of the Mac OS to require a PowerPC processor. It featured PowerPC native versions of QuickDraw and AppleScript,
    7.50
    4 votes
    36
    Aurora SPARC Linux

    Aurora SPARC Linux

    Aurora SPARC Linux is an operating system, based on Fedora Core, for SPARC-based computers. Aurora was originally created after Red Hat dropped support for the SPARC architecture after Red Hat Linux 6.2. The name derives from the internal Sun codename for the SPARCStation 5 chassis. Since Aurora is derived from Fedora, and most of its developers are located in the US, it only maintains packages legally distributable in the United States. Like Fedora (and Red Hat Linux before that), Aurora names all of its releases. Like Fedora Core, Aurora only includes a core set of packages. For downloading and installing programs or codecs not distributed with Aurora, there are several repositories available. Currently only Aurora Extras has an official status. This repository supports the currently released version of Aurora SPARC Linux Build 2.0. Aurora Extras is maintained by a group of volunteers. As a link to Extras is currently included in the base distribution, no extra configuration is required to enable it.
    10.00
    2 votes
    37
    Psion 5

    Psion 5

    The Psion Series 5 was a PDA from Psion. It came in two main variants, the Series 5 (launched in 1997) and the Series 5mx (1999), the latter having a faster processor, clearer screen, and updated software. There was also a rare Series 5mx Pro, which differed only in having the operating system loaded into RAM and hence upgradeable. Ericsson marketed a rebadged version of the Series 5mx called the MC218. The Psion Series 5 was a major upgrade from the Psion Series 3. A Psion Series 4 does not exist, due to Psion's concern of tetraphobia in their Asian markets. The external appearance of the Psion Series 5 and the Psion Series 5mx are broadly similar, but their mainboards and other internal components were different and not interchangeable. The screens are not interchangeable because of different screen cables. The Series 5 was the first to feature a unique sliding-clamshell design, whereby the keyboard slides forward as the device opens to counterbalance the display, and brace it such that touchscreen actuation does not topple the device, a feature mentioned in the granted European patent EP 0766166B1. This novel design approach was the work of Martin Riddiford, an industrial
    10.00
    2 votes
    38

    Red Flag Linux

    Red Flag Linux (Chinese: 红旗Linux) is a Chinese Linux distribution developed by Red Flag Software. The distribution logo is Tux carrying a prominent red flag. As of 2009, the executive president of Red Flag Software is Jia Dong (贾栋). Red Flag Linux 6.0 was first released on September 29, 2007. Version 6.9 is based on the Linux distribution Asianux 3.0, which was released on September 22, 2007. It includes Linux 2.6.22.6, KDE 3.5.7 and X.Org 7.2. Red Flag Linux Desktop 6.0 is intended to be a comprehensive desktop operating system and has some major improvements concerning installation, hardware, and multimedia support, and desktop configuration. Beside specialised solutions, Red Flag Linux has the following products: The internal structure of Red Flag Linux is very similar to Red Hat Linux, using a similar installer. The desktop of Red Flag Linux bears a high resemblance to that of Windows XP, ranging from its desktop theme to icons, which the distributor claims eases operating system transition. Red Flag Linux first appeared in August 1999, when it was created by the Institute of Software Research at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Financial help came from government-owned
    10.00
    2 votes
    39
    E/OS

    E/OS

    E/OS (Emulator Operating System) is a virtual machine emulation system. E/OS is primarily based on the Linux kernel, QEMU, XFree86, and Wine, and is intended to be a replacement for operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, BeOS, OS/2, DOS, and Linux. It aims to make it possible to run any program designed for any operating system without the need to actually install any other operating system. Thus only one operating system, in this case a free alternative to the systems mentioned, would be needed to implement all programs. The project was discontinued in July 2008. As of version 0.2.8, E/OS also integrates MESS to emulate many home computer and video game systems, which could eliminate the need to download a different emulator for each console, and add compatibility to older and more obscure home computers. The project was started in 1995 with the goal of a free DOS. Until 1998 it was based exclusively on FreeDOS, and since then has been based on SEAL GUI. In 2000 the E/OS project switched to a larger focus, to create a system capable of running programs written for multiple platforms, including BeOS, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, OS/2, MS-DOS, and Linux, on the same
    8.67
    3 votes
    40
    MCNLive

    MCNLive

    MCNLive is a Live CD and Live USB Linux distribution based on Mandriva Linux. It is a desktop system. It contains graphical wizards to put it on a USB key, the copy2ram feature to speed things up. MCNLive features the KDE desktop environment and includes Internet applications, video, music and imaging software, games, networking tools and the KOffice suite.
    8.67
    3 votes
    41

    UNIX System V

    • Developer: AT&T
    • Includes OS Versions: IBM AIX
    UNIX System V, commonly abbreviated SysV (and usually pronounced—though rarely written—as "System Five"), is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system. It was originally developed by American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) and first released in 1983. Four major versions of System V were released, termed Releases 1, 2, 3 and 4. System V Release 4, or SVR4, was commercially the most successful version, being the result of an effort, marketed as Unix System Unification, which solicited the collaboration of the major Unix vendors. It was the source of several common commercial Unix features. While AT&T sold their own hardware that ran System V (see AT&T Computer Systems), most customers ran a version from a reseller, based on AT&T's reference implementation. A standards document called the System V Interface Definition outlined the default features and behavior of implementations. The most widely used versions of System V today are IBM's AIX, based on System V Release 3, and Sun's Solaris and Hewlett-Packard's HP-UX, both based on System V Release 4. In the 1980s and early-1990s, System V was considered one of the two major "flavors" of UNIX, the other being
    8.67
    3 votes
    42

    Mac OS X Server

    • Parent OS: Mac OS
    • Includes OS Versions: Mac OS X Server 1.0
    OS X Server, formerly Mac OS X Server, was a separately sold Unix server operating system from Apple Inc. architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart Mac OS X—with additional server programs and management and administration tools. As of version 10.7 (Lion), Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server were combined into one release and re-branded as OS X. A separate "server" operating system is no longer sold; the server-specific server applications and work group management and administration software tools from Mac OS X Server are now offered as Server App, an add-on package for OS X sold through the Mac App Store along with Server Admin Tools 10.7, available from the Apple support web site. These tools simplify access to key network services, including a mail transfer agent, AFP and SMB servers, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others. Also included (particularly in later versions) are numerous additional services and the tools to manage them, such as web server, wiki server, chat server, calendar server, and many others. Mac OS X Server was provided as the operating system for Xserve computers, rack mounted server computers designed by Apple. Also, it was optionally
    6.40
    5 votes
    43
    Sidux

    Sidux

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    aptosid is a desktop-oriented operating system based on the "unstable" branch of Debian, which uses the codename Sid. It was known as sidux until September 2010. The distribution consists of a Live CD (bootable CD-ROM) for the x86 architecture installable to a hard drive through a graphical installer. The goal of the distribution is to provide a stable, easy-to-use and cutting-edge free and open source operating system. sidux was maintained by a team of developers including former Kanotix developer Stefan Lippers-Hollmann (slh). Initial administration was managed by The sidux Foundation, Inc. located in the United States. The Berlin, Germany based non-profit organization sidux e.V. was administering and supporting the project. Due to disagreement between sidux e.V. and the sidux developers, all development of sidux was halted in summer 2010 until September 2010. The project was renamed as aptosid, announced on September 11, 2010. aptosid is a direct upgrade from sidux. At one time, the upgrade between the two was seamless, but the migration utilities are gone, now (at this point it is better to reinstall using the latest ISO). aptosid and sidux are based on Debian's most modern
    6.40
    5 votes
    44

    Windows 3.1x

    • Parent OS: Windows 3.0
    • Developer: Microsoft
    Windows 3.1x is a series of 16-bit operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. The series began with Windows 3.1, which was first sold during March 1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0. Further editions were released between 1992 and 1994 until the series was superseded by Windows 95. Windows 3.1 (originally codenamed Janus, of which two betas were published), released on April 6, 1992, includes a TrueType font system (and a set of highly legible fonts), which effectively made Windows a viable desktop publishing platform for the first time. Similar functionality was available for Windows 3.0 through the Adobe Type Manager (ATM) font system from Adobe. Windows 3.1 was designed to have backward compatibility with older Windows platforms. As with Windows 3.0, version 3.1 had File Manager and Program Manager, but unlike all previous versions, Windows 3.1 and later support 32-bit disk access, cannot run in real mode, and included Minesweeper instead of Reversi (though Reversi was included in some copies). Windows 3.1 Multimedia PC Version (Beta only, released Nov 1992 – codenamed Bombay) included a media viewer, and the ability to play video files. It was
    7.25
    4 votes
    45

    AtheOS

    AtheOS was a free and open source operating system for x86-based computers. It was initially intended as an AmigaOS clone, but that objective was later abandoned. It is no longer in development, and has been superseded by the Syllable operating system. It was created entirely by a Norwegian programmer, Kurt Skauen, from 1994 to the early 2000s; AtheOS was announced to the world in March 2000 on Usenet. Although it was licensed as free software, Skauen was more hesitant to accept contributions from the public than other free and open source operating system projects. The availability of the code under the GNU GPL allowed other developers to launch Syllable, a fork from the AtheOS code base, with ongoing development. Skauen ported KHTML to AtheOS in order to create the ABrowse web browser.
    9.50
    2 votes
    46
    Honeycomb

    Honeycomb

    • Parent OS: Android
    • Developer: Google
    Android 3.0, codenamed Honeycomb, introduces a completely new user interface suitable for tablet devices. Google has also extended the platform's APIs so that third-party developers can make their applications work better on large form factors.
    9.50
    2 votes
    47

    Novell NetWare

    NetWare is a computer network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. It initially used cooperative multitasking to run various services on a personal computer, with network protocols based on the archetypal Xerox Network Systems stack. The original NetWare product in 1983 supported clients running both CP/M and MS-DOS, ran over a proprietary star network topology and was based on a Novell-built file server using the Motorola 68000 processor. The company soon moved away from building its own hardware, and NetWare became hardware-independent, running on any suitable Intel-based IBM PC compatible system, and a wide range of network cards. From the beginning NetWare implemented a number of features inspired by mainframe and minicomputer systems that were not available in its competitors. In the early 1990s, Novell introduced separate cheaper networking products, unrelated to classic NetWare. These were NetWare Lite 1.0 (NWL), and later Personal NetWare 1.0 (PNW) in 1993. In 1993 the main product line took a dramatic turn when Version 4 introduced NetWare Directory Services (NDS), a global directory service broadly similar to Microsoft's Active Directory released seven years later.
    9.50
    2 votes
    48

    OS/400

    • Developer: IBM
    IBM i is an EBCDIC based operating system that runs on IBM Power Systems and on IBM PureSystems. It is the current evolution of the operating system, previously named i5/OS, and originally named OS/400 when it was introduced with the AS/400 computer system in 1988. It is one of the operating systems supported on IBM Power Systems alongside AIX and Linux and on IBM PureSystems alongside AIX, Linux and Windows. The early IBM System/36 and IBM System/38 series customers were a key target of the AS/400, so OS/400 (and its descendants i5/OS and IBM i), have built-in subsystems that provide backward compatibility with these earlier IBM general business systems. IBM i programs, like System/38 programs before them, contain both processor-independent "virtual" binary code and processor-dependent executable binary code. Compilers for IBM i produce the processor-independent code as their output; the operating system automatically translates the processor-independent code into the processor-dependent code as needed, without the need for source code or attention by IT personnel. Notably, when migrating from a legacy processor, the only effect that most organizations notice is that the program
    9.50
    2 votes
    49
    Plurix

    Plurix

    Plurix is a Unix-like operating system developed in Brazil in the early 1980s. Plurix was developed in the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), at the Electronic Computing Center (NCE). The NCE researchers, after returning from postgraduate courses in the USA, attempted to license the UNIX source code from AT&T in the late 1970s without success. In 1982, due to AT&T refusing to license the code, a development team led by Newton Faller decided to initiate the development of an alternative system, called Plurix (**), using as reference UNIX Version 7, the most recent at the time, that they had running on an old Motorola computer system. In 1985, the Plurix system was up and running on the Pegasus 32-X, a shared-memory, multi-processor computer also designed at NCE. Plurix was licensed to some Brazilian companies in 1988. Two other Brazilian universities also developed their own UNIX systems: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) developed the DCC-IX operating system, and University of São Paulo (USP) developed the REAL operating system in 1987. The NCE/UFRJ also offered technical courses on OS design and implementation to local computer companies, some of which later
    9.50
    2 votes
    50
    SOS

    SOS

    The Sophisticated Operating System, or SOS ( /ˈsɔːs/), is the primary operating system developed for the Apple III computer. The system was developed by Apple Computer, Inc. and released in 1980. SOS makes the resources of the Apple III available in the form of a menu-driven utility program as well as a programming API. The Apple III System Utilities program shipped with each Apple III computer. It provided what today would be called the end user "experience" of the operating system if the user were running it instead of an application program. The System Utilities program was menu-driven and performed tasks in three categories: SOS was a single-tasking operating system. A single program is loaded at boot time, called the interpreter. Once running, the interpreter could then use the SOS application programming interface to make requests of the system. The SOS API was divided into four main areas: SOS had two types of devices it communicated with via their device drivers: character devices and block devices. Examples of SOS character devices are keyboards and serial ports. Disk drives are typical block devices. Block devices could read or write one or more 512-byte blocks at a time;
    9.50
    2 votes
    51

    TOPS-10

    • Developer: Digital Equipment Corporation
    The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total OPerating System) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967. TOPS-10 evolved from the earlier "Monitor" software for the PDP-6 and -10 computers; this was renamed TOPS-10 in 1970. TOPS-10 supported shared memory and allowed the development of one of the first true multiplayer computer games. The game was called DECWAR and was a text-oriented Star Trek type game. Users at terminals typed in commands and fought each other in real time. Another groundbreaking application was called FORUM. This application was perhaps the first so-called CB Simulator that allowed users to converse with one another in what is now known as a chat room. This application showed the potential of multiuser communication and led to the development of CompuServe's chat application. TOPS-10 had a very robust API that used a mechanism called a UUO which is an acronym for Unimplemented User Operation. UUOs implemented operating system calls in a way that made them look like machine instructions. The API was called Monitor Calls and was very much ahead of its time like most of
    9.50
    2 votes
    52
    VPS/VM

    VPS/VM

    VPS/VM (Virtual Processing System/Virtual Machine) was an operating system that ran on IBM System/370 - System/3090 computers at Boston University in general use from 1977 to around 1990, and in limited use until at least 1993. During the 1980s VPS/VM was the main operating system of Boston University and often ran up to 250 users at a time when rival VM/CMS computing systems could only run 120 or so users. Each user ran in a Virtual Machine under VM, an IBM hypervisor operating system. VM provided the virtual IBM 370 machine which the VPS operating system ran under. The VM code was modified to allow all the VPS virtual machines to share pages of storage with read and write access. VPS utilized a shared nucleus, as well as pages used to facilitate passing data from one VPS virtual machine to another. This organization is very similar to that of MVS; substituting Address Spaces for Virtual Machines. According to Craig Estey, who worked at the Boston University Academic Computing Center between 1974 and 1977: "VPS's original name was RACS (remote access computing system), originally developed at McGill University in Toronto from 1966 onward. The name got shortened to RAX. It was up
    9.50
    2 votes
    53

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    • Includes OS Versions: CentOS
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a Linux-based operating system developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for x86, x86-64, Itanium, PowerPC and IBM System z, and desktop versions for x86 and x86-64. All of Red Hat's official support and training and the Red Hat Certification Program center around the Red Hat Enterprise Linux platform. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is often abbreviated to RHEL, although this is not an official designation. The first version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to bear the name originally came onto the market as "Red Hat Linux Advanced Server". In 2003 Red Hat rebranded Red Hat Linux Advanced Server to "Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS", and added two more variants, Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS. While Red Hat uses strict trademark rules to restrict free re-distribution of their officially supported versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat freely provides the source code for the distribution's software even for software where this is not mandatory. As a result, several distributors have created re-branded and/or community-supported re-builds of Red Hat
    7.00
    4 votes
    54

    Transaction Processing Facility

    • Developer: IBM
    TPF is an IBM real-time operating system for mainframes descended from the IBM System/360 family, including zSeries and System z9. The name is an initialism for Transaction Processing Facility. TPF evolved from the Airlines Control Program (ACP), a free package developed in the mid-1960s by IBM in association with major North American and European airlines. In 1979, IBM introduced TPF as a replacement for ACP — and as a priced software product. The new name suggests its greater scope and evolution into non-airline related entities. Current users include Sabre (reservations), Amadeus (reservations), VISA Inc (authorizations), American Express (authorizations), EDS SHARES (reservations), Holiday Inn (central reservations), CBOE (order routing), Singapore Airlines, Emirates, KLM, Garuda Indonesia, Amtrak, Marriott International, Travelport and the NYPD (911 system). TPF delivers fast, high-volume, high-throughput transaction processing, handling large, continuous loads of essentially simple transactions across large, geographically dispersed networks. The world's largest TPF-based systems are easily capable of processing tens of thousands of transactions per second. TPF is also
    7.00
    4 votes
    55

    Windows Server 2003

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    • Developer: Microsoft
    Windows Server 2003 (sometimes referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft, released on April 24, 2003. An updated version, Windows Server 2003 R2, was released to manufacturing on December 6, 2005. Its successor, Windows Server 2008, was released on February 4, 2008. It is based on Windows XP, basically becoming an enhanced version of XP (Windows eXPerience) According to Microsoft, Windows Server 2003 is more scalable and delivers better performance than its predecessor, Windows 2000. The following features are new to Windows Server 2003: The ability to create rescue disk was removed in favor of Automated System Recovery (ASR). Windows Server 2003 comes in a number of editions, each targeted towards a particular size and type of business. In general, all variants of Windows Server 2003 have the ability to share files and printers, act as an application server, host message queues, provide email services, authenticate users, act as an X.509 certificate server, provide LDAP directory services, serve streaming media, and to perform other server-oriented functions. Windows Server 2003 Web is meant for building and hosting Web applications, Web pages, and
    7.00
    4 votes
    56
    Windows 7

    Windows 7

    • Parent OS: Windows Vista
    • Developer: Microsoft
    • Includes OS Versions: Ultimate
    Windows 7 is the current release of Microsoft Windows, a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009, and reached general retail availability worldwide on October 22, 2009, less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time. Unlike Windows Vista, which introduced a large number of new features, Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista was already compatible. Presentations given by Microsoft in 2008 focused on multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows shell with a new taskbar, referred to as the Superbar, a home networking system called HomeGroup, and performance improvements. Some standard applications that have been included with prior releases of Microsoft Windows, including Windows Calendar, Windows Mail, Windows Movie Maker, and Windows Photo Gallery, are
    6.00
    5 votes
    57
    FLEX

    FLEX

    • Developer: Technical Systems Consultants
    The FLEX single-tasking operating system was developed by Technical Systems Consultants (TSC) of West Lafayette, Indiana, for the Motorola 6800 in 1976. The original version was for 8" floppy disks and the (smaller) version for 5.25" floppies was called mini-Flex. It was also later ported to the Motorola 6809; that version was called Flex9. All versions were text-based and intended for use on display devices ranging from printing terminals like the Teletype Model 33 ASR to smart terminals. While no graphic displays were supported by TSC software, some hardware manufacturers supported elementary graphics and pointing devices. It was a disk-based operating system, using 256-byte sectors on soft-sectored floppies; the disk structure used linkage bytes in each sector to indicate the next sector in a file or free list. The directory structure was much simplified as a result. TSC (and others) provided several programming languages including BASIC in two flavors (standard and extended) and a tokenizing version of extended BASIC called Pre-compiled BASIC, FORTH, C, FORTRAN, and PASCAL. TSC also wrote a version of FLEX, Smoke Signal DOS, for the California hardware manufacturer Smoke Signal
    8.00
    3 votes
    58

    TRS-DOS

    TRS-DOS (which stood for the Tandy Radio Shack - Disk Operating System) was the operating system for the Tandy TRS-80 line of 8-bit Zilog Z80 microcomputers that were sold through Radio Shack through the late 1970s and early 1980s. Tandy's manuals recommended that it be pronounced triss-doss. TRS-DOS should not be confused with Tandy DOS a version of MS-DOS licensed from Microsoft for Tandy's x86 line of personal computers (PCs). TRS-DOS was primarily a way of extending the MBASIC (BASIC in ROM) with additional I/O (input/output) commands that worked with disk files rather than the cassette tapes that were used by most other TRS-80 systems. TRS-DOS supported up to four floppy (mini-diskette) drives which used 5⁄4" (five and one quarter inch) diskettes with a capacity of 89K (kilobytes) each (later 160K). The drives were numbered 0 through 3 and the system diskettes (which contained the TRS-DOS code and utilities) had to be in drive 0. Some typical TRS-DOS utilities: Although MS-DOS owes its heritage most closely to CP/M and thence to TOPS-10, many of the file manipulation commands are very similar to those of TRS-DOS. By comparison the CP/M command for copying files was called pip
    8.00
    3 votes
    59
    Puppy Linux

    Puppy Linux

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    Puppy Linux is a lightweight Linux distribution that focuses on ease of use. The entire system can be run from RAM, allowing the boot medium to be removed after the operating system has started. Applications such as AbiWord (a free word processing application), Gnumeric (a spreadsheet) and MPlayer (a free multimedia player) are included, along with a wide choice of web browsers that can be installed. The distribution was originally developed by Barry Kauler and other members of the community. The tool Woof can build a Puppy Linux distribution from the binary packages of other Linux distributions. Puppy Linux is a full-fledged operating system, bundled with a collection of application suites for a wide variety of tasks suitable for general use. Puppy is small-sized, so it can boot from many types of media. It is also useful as a rescue disk, a demonstration system, leaving the original/existing operating system unaltered, or as an OS to a system with a blank or missing hard drive, or for keeping old computers useful. Puppy can boot from: Puppy Linux features built-in tools which can be used to create bootable USB drives, create new Puppy CDs, or remaster a new live CD with different
    6.75
    4 votes
    60
    MS-DOS

    MS-DOS

    • Parent OS: PC-DOS
    • Developer: Microsoft
    • Includes OS Versions: MS-DOS 1.25
    MS-DOS ( /ˌɛmɛsˈdɒs/ EM-es-DOSS; short for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of operating systems, and was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s to the mid 1990s, until it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in particular by various generations of the Microsoft Windows operating system. MS-DOS grew from a 1981 request by IBM for an operating system for its IBM PC range of personal computers. Microsoft quickly bought the rights to QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System), also known as 86-DOS, from Seattle Computer Products, and began work on modifying it to meet IBM's specification. The first edition, MS-DOS 1.0, was launched in 1982. The version shipped with IBM's PCs was called PC DOS. Although MS-DOS and PC DOS were initially developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products eventually went their separate ways. During its life, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, and MS-DOS itself would go through eight versions, until development
    9.00
    2 votes
    61

    RT-11

    • Developer: Digital Equipment Corporation
    RT-11 ('RT' for Real Time) was a small, single-user real-time operating system for the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 family of 16-bit computers. RT-11 was first implemented in 1970 and was widely used for real-time systems, process control, and data acquisition across the full line of PDP-11 computers. RT-11 systems did not support preemptive multitasking, but most versions could run multiple simultaneous applications. All variants of the monitors provided a Background Job. The FB, XM and ZM monitors also provided a Foreground Job, as well as six System Jobs if selected via the SYSGEN System Generation program. These tasks had fixed priorities, with the Background Job lowest and the Foreground Job highest. It was possible to switch between jobs from the system console user interface, and SYSGEN could generate a monitor that provided a single Background Job (the SB, XB and ZB variants). RT-11 was written in assembly language. Heavy use of the conditional assembly and macro programming features of the MACRO-11 assembler allowed a significant degree of configurability and allowed programmers to specify high-level instructions otherwise unprovided for in machine code. RT-11
    9.00
    2 votes
    62

    CTSS

    • Developer: Fernando J. Corbató
    The Compatible Time-Sharing System, or the CTSS, was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at MIT's Computation Center. CTSS was first demonstrated in 1961, and was operated at MIT until 1973. During part of this time, MIT's Project MAC had a second copy of CTSS, but the system did not spread beyond two sites (though this applies to many early computer systems). CTSS was described in a paper presented at the 1962 Spring Joint Computer Conference. The "Compatible" in the name refers to compatibility with the standard batch processing OS for the IBM 7094, the FORTRAN Monitor System (FMS) (history of IBM mainframe operating systems shows information on the FMS). CTSS ran an unaltered copy of FMS, processing a standard batch stream, in a pseudo-virtual 7094 provided by its background facility. (The hardware was partly but not fully virtualized; see History of CP/CMS for further details.) Background FMS jobs could access tapes normally, but could not interfere with foreground time-sharing processes or the resources used to support them. CTSS was very influential. It showed that time-sharing was viable; it fostered important new applications for computers; it
    7.67
    3 votes
    63
    SabayonLinux

    SabayonLinux

    • Parent OS: Gentoo Linux
    • Developer: Fabio Erculiani
    Sabayon Linux or Sabayon (formerly RR4 Linux and RR64 Linux), is a Gentoo-based Linux distribution created by Fabio Erculiani and the Sabayon development team. Sabayon follows the "Out of the box" philosophy, aiming to give the user a wide number of applications ready to use and a self-configured operating system. Sabayon Linux features a rolling release cycle, its own software repository and a package management system called Entropy. Sabayon is available in both x86 and AMD64 distributions and there is support for ARMv7 in development for the BeagleBone. It is named after an Italian dessert, zabaione which is made from eggs. Sabayon's logo is an impression of a Gentoo Penguin foot. Sabayon has been released since version 4.1 in two different flavors featuring either the GNOME or KDE desktop environments, with the ultralight Fluxbox environment included as well. (In the previous versions all three environments were included in a DVD ISO image). Since Sabayon's initial release, additional versions of Sabayon have added four other X environments, including XFCE and LXDE. A CoreCD edition which featured a minimal install of Sabayon was released to allow the creation of spins of the
    7.67
    3 votes
    64

    Berry Linux

    Berry Linux is a Live CD Linux distribution that has English and Japanese support. Berry Linux is based on and is compatible with Fedora 15 packages. The distribution is primarily focused on use as a Live CD, but it can also be installed to a live USB drive. Berry Linux can be used to try out and showcase Linux, for educational purposes, or as a rescue system, without the need to make changes to a hard disk. The current version is 1.15 as of 23 June 2012. Berry includes read/write NTFS support, and AIGLX and Beryl are bundled for 3D desktop effects. Berry also uses bootsplash, giving it a graphical startup. The full version (v1.12) includes and runs on Linux Kernel 3.0.4. It has the ALSA sound system, ACPI support, and SELinux. Berry Linux features automatic hardware detection, with support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI, USB devices and many other peripherals. Network devices are automatically configured with DHCP. The full version of Berry Linux uses KDE (Version 4.6.5) while Berry Linux Mini uses the Fluxbox window manager. The full version is 512.7MB, while the mini version is 273.4MB. To test Berry Linux it is not necessary to install the distribution to a hard
    10.00
    1 votes
    65

    FreeBSD

    • Parent OS: 386BSD
    • Developer: FreeBSD Project
    • Includes OS Versions: FreeBSD 1.x
    FreeBSD is a free Unix-like operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via BSD UNIX.  Although for legal reasons FreeBSD cannot be called "UNIX", as the direct descendant of BSD UNIX (many of whose original developers became FreeBSD developers), FreeBSD's internals and system APIs are UNIX-compliant. Thanks to its permissive licensing terms, much of FreeBSD’s code base has become an integral part of other operating systems such as Apple's OS X that have subsequently been certified as UNIX-compliant and have formally received UNIX branding.  With the exception of the proprietary OS X, FreeBSD is the most widely used BSD-derived operating system in terms of number of installed computers, and is the most widely used freely licensed, open-source BSD distribution, accounting for more than three-quarters of all installed systems running free, open-source BSD derivatives. FreeBSD, characterised in 2005 as "the unknown giant among free operating systems", is a complete operating system. The kernel, device drivers, and all of the userland utilities, such as the shell, are held in the same source code revision tracking tree. (This is in contrast to Linux distributions, for which the kernel,
    10.00
    1 votes
    66

    Freeware

    Freeware (portmanteau of "free" and "software") is software that is available for use at no cost or for an optional fee, but usually with one or more restricted usage rights. Freeware is in contrast to commercial software, which is typically sold for profit, but might be distributed for a business or commercial purpose in the aim to expand the marketshare of a "premium" product. According to the Free Software Foundation, "freeware" is a loosely defined category and it has no clear accepted definition, although FSF says it must be distinguished from free software (libre). Popular examples of closed-source freeware include Adobe reader and Skype. The term freeware was coined by Andrew Fluegelman when he wanted to sell a communications program named PC-Talk that he had created but for which he did not wish to use traditional methods of distribution because of their cost. Fluegelman actually distributed PC-Talk via a process now referred to as shareware. Current use of the term freeware does not necessarily match the original concept by Andrew Fluegelman. The term freeware was used often in the 1980s for programs released only as executables, with source code not available. Software
    10.00
    1 votes
    67

    Gentoo Linux

    • Parent OS: Linux kernel
    • Developer: Daniel Robbins
    • Includes OS Versions: SabayonLinux
    Gentoo Linux (/ˈdʒɛntuː/ JEN-too) is a computer operating system built on top of the Linux kernel and based on the Portage package management system. It is distributed as free and open source software. Unlike a conventional software distribution, the user compiles the source code locally according to their chosen configuration. Where source code is available, Portage normally supplies no precompiled binaries, continuing in the tradition of the ports collection, although for convenience, some large packages (such as Mozilla Firefox and LibreOffice) are also available as precompiled binaries for various architectures where compiling would otherwise be very time consuming. The development project and its products are named after the fastest-swimming penguin, the Gentoo, to reflect the potential speed improvements of machine-specific optimization. Gentoo package management is designed to be modular, portable, easy to maintain, flexible, and optimized for the user's machine. Gentoo describes itself as a meta-distribution, "because of its near-unlimited adaptability", in that the majority of users have configurations and sets of installed programs which are unique to themselves. Gentoo
    10.00
    1 votes
    68

    GNU/NetBSD

    GNU/NetBSD is a term for an Unix-like operating system using the NetBSD kernel but GNU userland software, like Debian GNU/NetBSD, a Debian version currently available for IA-32 and Alpha architectures.
    10.00
    1 votes
    69

    Oberon operating system

    Oberon is an operating system developed in the late 1980s at ETH Zürich using the Oberon programming language. It has an innovative visual text-based user interface for activating commands. The Oberon operating system was originally developed as part of the NS32032-based Ceres workstation project. It is written almost entirely in the Oberon programming language. The basic system was designed and implemented by Niklaus Wirth and Jürg Gutknecht and is fully documented in their book "Project Oberon". It was later extended and ported to other hardware by a team at ETHZ and there was recognition in popular magazines. Wirth and Gutknecht (although being active ICT professors) referred to themselves as 'part time programmers' in the book 'Project Oberon'. Oberon has a text user interface (TUI). It combines the point-and-click convenience of a graphical user interface (GUI) with the linguistic strength of a command line interface (CLI) and is closely tied to naming conventions of the Oberon language. Any text appearing on the screen can be edited and used as command input. Nothing like a prompt is required. Although radically different from a command line, the TUI is very efficient and
    10.00
    1 votes
    70

    PC-DOS

    • Developer: Microsoft
    • Includes OS Versions: MS-DOS
    IBM PC DOS (full name: The IBM Personal Computer Disk Operating System) is a DOS system for the IBM Personal Computer and compatibles, manufactured and sold by IBM from the 1980s to the 2000s. From its inception until 1993, PC DOS was a rebranded version of Microsoft MS-DOS. The DOS INT 21h function 30h get DOS version returns OEM code 00h for IBM instead of FFh for Microsoft. This is relevant for DOS 7, because various features introduced in MS DOS 7 (a part of Windows 95) are not supported in PC DOS 7, and vice versa, e.g., MS DOS 7 does not support REXX, and PC DOS 7 does not support FAT32. The IBM task force assembled to develop the PC decided that critical components of the machine, including the operating system, would come from outside vendors. This radical break from company tradition of in-house development was the key decision that made the IBM PC an industry standard. But it was done out of necessity, to save time. Microsoft was selected for the operating system. IBM wanted Microsoft to retain ownership of whatever software it developed, and wanted nothing to do with helping Microsoft, other than making suggestions from afar. According to task force member Jack Sams,
    10.00
    1 votes
    71

    Windows 98

    • Developer: Microsoft
    Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft. It is the second major release in the Windows 9x line of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on May 15, 1998 and to retail on June 25, 1998. Windows 98 is the successor to Windows 95. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic product with an MS-DOS based boot stage. Windows 98 was succeeded by Windows 98 Second Edition on May 5, 1999, then by Windows Me (Millennium Edition) on September 14, 2000. Microsoft ended support for Windows 98 on July 11, 2006. Development of Windows 98 began in the 1990s, initially using the codename "Memphis" to refer to the product. Many builds were released or leaked, starting with build 1351 on December 15, 1996 and ending with Windows 98 Second Edition. The startup and shutdown sounds of Windows 98's final version was composed during circa September 1997 and were first featured in the Beta 2.1 (build 1602) in October that year. Windows 98 includes Internet Explorer 4.01. Besides Internet Explorer, many other Internet companion applications are included such as Outlook Express, Windows Address Book, FrontPage Express, Microsoft Chat,
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    Derrick

    Derrick

    Derrick is a hobby 32-bit operating system programmed in FASM. It's aimed for stability and speed and it can run on as low as 386 with 4 megs of ram. Currently, it can run from a floppy disk and has a pretty stable and fast shell along with some interesting functions. The current version is 0.0.2 and has many improvements and bugfixes from 0.0.1, including a simple FAT12 file reading. Currently, there is no support for user programs.
    6.50
    4 votes
    73
    Lubuntu

    Lubuntu

    • Parent OS: Ubuntu
    • Developer: Canonical Ltd.
    Lubuntu (pronounced /luːˈbuːntuː/ "loo-BOON-too") is a lightweight Linux operating system based on Ubuntu but using the LXDE desktop environment in place of Ubuntu's Unity shell and GNOME desktop. LXDE is touted as being "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient". Lubuntu received official recognition as a formal member of the Ubuntu family on 11 May 2011, commencing with Lubuntu 11.10, which was released on 13 October 2011. Like Xubuntu, Lubuntu is intended to be a low-system-requirement, low-RAM environment for netbooks, mobile devices and older PCs - but tests show it can use half as much RAM as Xubuntu, making it an attractive choice for installing on older hardware being refurbished for charitable distribution. The name Lubuntu is a portmanteau of LXDE and Ubuntu. LXDE stands for Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment, while the word Ubuntu means "humanity towards others" in the Zulu and Xhosa languages. The LXDE desktop was first made available for Ubuntu in October 2008, with the release of Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex. These early versions of Lubuntu, including 8.10, 9.04 and 9.10, were not available as separate ISO image downloads, and could only be installed on
    6.50
    4 votes
    74

    Solaris Operating System

    • Parent OS: SunOS
    • Developer: Sun Microsystems
    Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification. Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software, then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license, and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. With OpenSolaris, Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010, Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. Just ten days before the internal Oracle memo announcing this decision to employees was "leaked", Garrett D'Amore had announced the illumos project,
    6.50
    4 votes
    75

    SystemRescueCD

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    SystemRescueCd is an operating system for the x86 computer platform, though the primary purpose of SystemRescueCD is to repair unbootable or otherwise damaged computer systems after a system crash. SystemRescueCD is not intended to be used as a permanent operating system. It runs from a Live CD or a USB flash drive. It was designed by a team led by François Dupoux, and is based on the Gentoo Linux distribution. SystemRescueCD is capable of graphics using the Linux framebuffer option for tools such as GParted. It uses version 3.2.28/3.4.9 of the Linux kernel and has options such as connecting to the Internet through an ADSL modem or Ethernet and graphical web browsers such as Midori. SystemRescueCD has several features, some of them include: The CD can also boot from a customized DVD which has almost 4.6 GB of free space for backed-up files. This makes it good for storing all the information that is needed from a hard drive and then formatting it. To burn the DVD, one has to burn the image file first and then add all the separate files as well as folders. This should not affect the general way in which the DVD works. Then the DVD can be used to insert those files into the hard drive
    6.50
    4 votes
    76

    Windows NT

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    • Developer: Microsoft
    • Includes OS Versions: Windows NT 4.0
    Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It was a powerful high-level-language-based, processor-independent, multiprocessing, multiuser operating system with features comparable to Unix. It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS. NT was the first fully 32-bit version of Windows, whereas its consumer-oriented counterparts, Windows 3.1x and Windows 9x, were 16-bit/32-bit hybrids. Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Home Server, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2012 are members of the Windows NT family, although they are not branded using the name "Windows NT". It is popularly believed that Dave Cutler intended the initialism "WNT" as a pun on VMS, incrementing each letter by one. However, the project was originally intended as a follow-on to OS/2 and was referred to as "NT OS/2" before receiving the Windows brand. One of the original NT developers, Mark Lucovsky, states that the name was taken from the original target processor—the Intel i860, code-named N10 ("N-Ten"). Various Microsoft publications,
    6.50
    4 votes
    77

    EmuTOS

    EmuTOS is a replacement for TOS (the operating system of the Atari ST and its successors), released as free software. It does not add any functionality and is mainly intended to be used with Atari emulators, such as Hatari. This way, the use of the old, proprietary TOS versions can be avoided, as they are usually difficult to obtain.
    8.50
    2 votes
    78

    NetBSD

    • Parent OS: 386BSD
    NetBSD is a freely available open source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It was the second open source BSD descendant to be formally released, after 386BSD, and continues to be actively developed. The NetBSD project is primarily focused on high quality design, stability and performance of the system. Due to its portability and Berkeley-style license, NetBSD is often used in embedded systems. The current stable release of NetBSD is version 5.1.2 (11 February 2012). NetBSD was originally derived from the 4.3BSD release of the Berkeley Software Distribution from the Computer Systems Research Group of the University of California, Berkeley, via their Net/2 source code release and the 386BSD project. The NetBSD project began as a result of frustration within the 386BSD developer community with the pace and direction of the operating system's development. The four founders of the NetBSD project, Chris Demetriou, Theo de Raadt, Adam Glass and Charles Hannum, felt that a more open development model would be beneficial to the project: one which was centered on
    8.50
    2 votes
    79
    OpenIndiana

    OpenIndiana

    • Developer: Sun Microsystems
    OpenIndiana is a Unix-like computer operating system released as free and open source software. It forked from OpenSolaris after the discontinuation of that project by Oracle and aims to continue development and distribution of the OpenSolaris codebase. The project operates under the umbrella of the Illumos Foundation. The stated aim of the project is "[...] to become the defacto OpenSolaris distribution installed on production servers where security and bug fixes are required free of charge". Project Indiana was originally conceived by Sun Microsystems, to construct a binary distribution around the OpenSolaris source code base. OpenIndiana was conceived after negotiations of a takeover of Sun Microsystems by Oracle were proceeding, in order to ensure continued availability and further development of an OpenSolaris-based OS, as it is widely used. Uncertainty among the OpenSolaris development community led some developers to form tentative plans for a fork of the existing codebase. These plans came to fruition following the announcement of discontinuation of support for the OpenSolaris project by Oracle. The formal announcement of the OpenIndiana project was made on September 14,
    8.50
    2 votes
    80
    Phoenix OS

    Phoenix OS

    Originally the project Doscore was known as Phoenix OS but because there was a Linux distribution carrying the same name, the project was scrapped and reborn as Doscore. The original Phoenix OS plans were far too ambitious and were also scrapped. Doscore is a FreeDOS-based LiveCD distribution developed by a community of DOS users. There are no full ambitions or goals for Doscore but it does aim to be a graphical user interface distribution with the heart of "FreeDOS". The current GUI is Aura: based on the open source "Ozone Gui" and originally developed in 2004 by Point Mad Lukas Lipka and Florian Xaver, Aura itself remains closed source and is only available as Freeware inside the Doscore distribution. The developers don't plan to release the code nor to add developers to the crew at this point. Aura Milestone 1 Released in 2009, This was the first public release from the Finn Technologies & Doscore Teams as a milestone of rebuilding the Ozone GUI code as-well as introducing the new Aura Desktop and sample applications. Aura Milestone 2 codenamed:Netdock i007 Released in 2011, The milestone 2 distribution was a collaboration effort between Finn Technologies and doscore to
    8.50
    2 votes
    81
    Singularity

    Singularity

    • Developer: Microsoft
    Singularity is an experimental operating system built by Microsoft Research between 2003 and 2010. It was designed as a highly-dependable OS in which the kernel, device drivers, and applications are all written in managed code. The lowest-level x86 interrupt dispatch code is written in assembly language and C. Once this code has done its job, it invokes the kernel, whose runtime and garbage collector are written in Sing# (an extended version of Spec#, itself an extension of C#) and runs in unprotected mode. The hardware abstraction layer is written in C++ and runs in protected mode. There is also some C code to handle debugging. The computer's BIOS is invoked during the 16-bit real mode bootstrap stage; once in 32-bit mode, Singularity never invokes the BIOS again, but invokes device drivers written in Sing#. During installation, Common Intermediate Language (CIL) opcodes are compiled into x86 opcodes using the Bartok compiler. Singularity is a microkernel operating system. Unlike most historical microkernels, its components execute in the same address space (process), which contains "software-isolated processes" (SIPs). Each SIP has its own data and code layout, and is independent
    8.50
    2 votes
    82

    SUSE Linux

    • Parent OS: Slackware
    • Developer: Novell
    • Includes OS Versions: OpenSUSE
    SUSE (pronounced /ˈsuːsə/, German: IPA: [ˈzuːzə]) is a major retail operating system, produced worldwide and supported by Novell, Inc. SUSE is also a founding member of the Desktop Linux Consortium. As of version 10.2 Alpha 3, the distribution is officially named openSUSE. Several desktop environments such as KDE and GNOME and window managers like Window Maker and Blackbox are included, with the YaST2 installer allowing the user to choose a preselection of GNOME, KDE, or no desktop at all. SUSE ships with multimedia software such as K3b (CD/DVD burning), Amarok (audio playback), and Kaffeine (movie playback). It contains OpenOffice.org, and software for reading and/or creating other common document formats such as PDF. Due to their patented nature, the distribution does not install codecs for proprietary formats like avi by default, but these can be installed with packages available on the internet. MP3s are handled in the fully capable graphical media studio Amarok with the Helix engine (part of RealNetworks' RealPlayer), when RealPlayer is installed. This is due to an agreement between Novell and RealNetworks to ship RealPlayer with SUSE as a solution to MP3 patent
    8.50
    2 votes
    83
    VxWorks

    VxWorks

    • Developer: Wind River Systems
    VxWorks is a real-time operating system developed as proprietary software by Wind River Systems of Alameda, California, USA. First released in 1987, VxWorks is designed for use in embedded systems. VxWorks started as a set of enhancements to a simple real-time operating system called VRTX sold by Ready Systems (later becoming a Mentor Graphics product in 1995). At the time, VRTX lacked features such as a file system or an integrated development environment. Wind River created VxWorks to turn the VRTX kernel into a full embedded operating system and development environment. The VxWorks name is believed to be a pun on VRTX ("VRTX Works"). Initially, Wind River had an agreement to sell VRTX with VxWorks. However, in 1987, anticipating the termination of its reseller contract, Wind River developed its own kernel (written by an intern) to replace VRTX within VxWorks. Intel acquired Wind River Systems on July 17, 2009. VxWorks is designed for use in embedded systems. Some of the features of the current OS are: VxWorks has been ported to a number of platforms and now runs on practically any modern CPU that is used in the embedded market. This includes the x86 family, MIPS, PowerPC (and
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    Apple Pascal

    Apple Pascal

    Apple Pascal is a language and operating system based on the UCSD Pascal system. Apple Pascal refers to an operating system for the Apple II family of computers released in August 1979 between the Apple DOS 3.2 and 3.3 versions. The system was included as part of a software/hardware package adding support for the Pascal language to the Apple II. It added a number of features that would later be incorporated into the 3.3 version, as well as others that would not be seen again until the introduction of ProDOS. The biggest changes were to the disk format and file storage methods, as Apple Pascal was designed to take advantage of 140K 5.25" floppy disks. Instead of dividing the disk into 256-byte sectors as with DOS 3.2, Apple Pascal divided it into "blocks" of 512 bytes each, each block thus contained two sectors. This made for a different method for saving and retrieving files. Under Apple DOS, files were saved to any available sector that the OS could find, regardless of location. This caused larger files to become fragmented and slowed down access to the disk when loading and saving. Apple Pascal attempted to rectify this by saving only to consecutive blocks on the disk. Drawbacks
    7.33
    3 votes
    85

    DNIX

    DNIX was a Unix-like real-time operating system from the Swedish company Dataindustrier AB (DIAB). A version called ABCenix was also developed for the ABC1600 computer from Luxor. (Daisy Systems also had something called Daisy DNIX on some of their CAD workstations. It was unrelated to DIAB's product.) ISC Systems Corporation (ISC) purchased the right to use DNIX in the late 1980s for use in its line of Motorola 68k-based banking computers. (ISC was later bought by Olivetti, and was in turn resold to Wang, which was then bought by Getronics. This corporate entity, most often referred to as 'ISC', has answered to a bewildering array of names over the years.) This code branch was the SVR2 compatible version, and received extensive modification and development at their hands. Notable features of this operating system were its support of demand paging, diskless workstations, multiprocessing, asynchronous I/O, the ability to mount processes (handlers) on directories in the file system, and message passing. Its real-time support consisted largely of internal event-driven queues rather than list search mechanisms (no 'thundering herd'), static process priorities in two classes (run to
    7.33
    3 votes
    86
    Kubuntu

    Kubuntu

    • Parent OS: Linux kernel
    • Developer: Canonical Ltd.
    • Includes OS Versions: Kubuntu 5.04
    Kubuntu ( /kuːˈbuːntuː/ koo-BOON-too) is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system using the KDE Plasma Desktop instead of the Unity graphical environment. Blue Systems took over as sponsor from Canonical Ltd., and Kubuntu will retain use of Ubuntu project servers. It is part of the Ubuntu project and uses the same underlying system. It is possible to install both the KDE Plasma Desktop (kubuntu-desktop) as well as the Unity desktop (ubuntu-desktop) on the same machine. Every package in Kubuntu shares the same repositories as Ubuntu. It is released regularly on the same schedule as Ubuntu. "Kubuntu" means "towards humanity" in Bemba, and is derived from ubuntu ("humanity"). The K at the beginning represents the KDE community on whose platform Kubuntu is built. By coincidence, Kubuntu also means "free" in Kirundi. Ubuntu and Kubuntu differ typically in only the graphical applications and tools. Kubuntu's Plasma Desktop is fully customizable without extra tools or configuration file editing. Originally designed to ease transition for users from other operating systems (such as Microsoft Windows) by allowing a similar desktop layout, the KDE Plasma Desktop incorporates
    7.33
    3 votes
    87

    Windows 1.0

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    Microsoft Windows 1.0 is a 16-bit graphical operating environment, developed by Microsoft Corporation and released on November 20, 1985. It was Microsoft's first attempt to implement a multi-tasking graphical user interface-based operating environment on the PC platform. Windows 1.0 was the first version of Windows launched. It was succeeded by Windows 2.0. Microsoft ended support for Windows 1.0 on December 31, 2001. Windows 1.01 was first released on November 20, 1985. Version 1.02, released in May 1986, was an international release. Version 1.03, released in August 1986 included enhancements that made it consistent with the international release. It included drivers for European keyboards and additional screen and printer drivers. Version 1.04, released in April 1987, added support for the new IBM PS/2 computers, although no support for PS/2 mice or new VGA graphics modes was provided. At the same time, Microsoft and IBM announced the introduction of OS/2 and its graphical OS/2 Presentation Manager, which were supposed to ultimately replace both MS-DOS and Windows. In November 1987, Windows 1.0 was succeeded by Windows 2.0. Microsoft supported Windows 1.0 for 16 years, the
    7.33
    3 votes
    88

    GnuLinEx

    gnuLinEx, or LinEx, is a Debian-based GNU-Linux operating system that uses GNOME for its desktop. An initiative of the regional government of Extremadura, Spain, gnuLinEx is intended to be used in all schools in Extremadura, as well as in official institutions. It is actively promoted for business and home use as well. gnuLinEx is only compatible with computers based on the i386 architecture. The aim of the project is the promotion of a technologically literate information-based society in order to improve the citizens' quality of life. School LinEx is a gnuLinEx variant oriented toward teachers. It consists of three user profiles. Each profile is personalised for a particular student with content and software for each pupil. 200,000 LinEx CDs have been distributed for free by local newspapers and 70,000 copies of the operating system have been downloaded from the website as of May 2003. About 10% of the inhabitants of Extremadura are estimated to use LinEx. Nowadays gnuLinEx is mainly used in the public secondary schools of Extremadura, having a computer (with gnuLinEx installed) for every two pupils, or for every table.
    6.25
    4 votes
    89

    Inferno

    • Developer: Dennis Ritchie
    Inferno is a distributed operating system started at Bell Labs, but is now developed and maintained by Vita Nuova Holdings as free software. Inferno was based on the experience gained with Plan 9 from Bell Labs, and the further research of Bell Labs into operating systems, languages, on-the-fly compilers, graphics, security, networking and portability. The name of the operating system and many of its associated programs, as well as that of the current company, were inspired by Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. Inferno programs are portable across a broad mix of hardware, networks, and environments. It defines a virtual machine, known as Dis, that can be implemented on any real machine, provides Limbo, a type-safe language that is compiled to portable byte code, and, more significantly, it includes a virtual operating system that supplies the same interfaces whether Inferno runs natively on hardware or runs as a user program on top of another operating system. A communications protocol called Styx is applied uniformly to access both local and remote resources, which programs use by calling standard file operations, open, read, write, and close. As of the fourth edition of Inferno,
    6.25
    4 votes
    90

    Mac OS 7

    • Parent OS: Mac OS
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    System 7 (codenamed "Big Bang" and sometimes called Mac OS 7) is a single-user graphical user interface-based operating system for Macintosh computers. It was introduced on May 13, 1991 by Apple Computer. It succeeded System 6, and was the main Macintosh operating system until it was succeeded by Mac OS 8 in 1997. Features added with the System 7 release included virtual memory, personal file sharing, QuickTime, QuickDraw 3D, and an improved user interface. "System 7" is often used generically to refer to all 7.x versions. With the release of version 7.6 in 1997, Apple officially renamed the operating system "Mac OS", a name which had first appeared on System 7.5.1's boot screen. System 7 was developed for Macs that used the Motorola 680x0 line of processors, but was ported to the PowerPC after Apple adopted the new processor. Compared with System 6, System 7 offered: System 7 was the first version of the Mac OS that required a Macintosh equipped with a hard disk as it was too large to work comfortably from a floppy disk. It was also the first Apple operating system to be available on CD although it shipped on a set of 15 floppy disks initially. System 7 itself did not come bundled
    6.25
    4 votes
    91

    Xenix

    • Developer: Microsoft
    Xenix is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T Corporation in the late 1970s. The Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) later acquired exclusive rights to the software, and eventually superseded it with SCO UNIX (now known as SCO OpenServer). Xenix was Microsoft's version of Unix intended for use on microcomputers; because Microsoft was not able to license the "UNIX" name itself, they gave it an original name. Microsoft purchased a license for Version 7 Unix from AT&T in 1979, and announced on August 25, 1980 that it would make it available for the 16-bit microcomputer market. The initial port of Xenix was to the Zilog Z8000 series and subsequently to the Intel 8086/8088 architecture ported by The Santa Cruz Operation. Xenix varied from its 7th Edition origins by incorporating elements from BSD, and soon (for a time) possessed the most widely installed base of any Unix version due to the popularity of the inexpensive x86 processor. Microsoft did not sell Xenix directly to end users; instead, they licensed it to software OEMs such as Intel, Tandy, Altos and SCO, who then ported it to their own proprietary computer architectures. Microsoft Xenix
    6.25
    4 votes
    92

    CP/M

    CP/M (Control Program/Monitor) was a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. Initially confined to single-tasking on 8-bit processors and no more than 64 kilobytes of memory, later versions of CP/M added multi-user variations, and were migrated to 16-bit processors. The combination of CP/M and S-100 bus computers loosely patterned on the MITS Altair was an early "industry standard" for microcomputers, and this computer platform was widely used in business through the late 1970s and into the mid-1980s, expanding to include 16-bit CPUs and multiuser capability. By greatly reducing the amount of programming required to install an application on a new manufacturer's computer, CP/M increased the market size for both hardware and software. The acronym CP/M for "Control Program/Monitor" was later backronymed "Control Program for Microcomputers". A minimal 8-bit CP/M system would contain the following components: The only hardware system that CP/M, as sold by Digital Research, would support was the Intel 8080 Development System. Manufacturers of CP/M compatible systems customized portions of the operating system
    5.40
    5 votes
    93
    Arch Linux

    Arch Linux

    • Parent OS: CRUX
    • Developer: Judd Vinet
    • Includes OS Versions: Chakra Linux
    Arch Linux (or Arch /ˈɑrtʃ/) is a Linux-based operating system for i686 and x86-64 computers. It is composed predominantly of free and open source software, and supports community involvement. The design approach of the development team focuses on simplicity from a developer's standpoint rather than a user's standpoint, elegance, code correctness, and minimalism. A package manager written specifically for Arch Linux, pacman, is used to install, remove and update software packages. Arch Linux uses a rolling release model, such that a regular system update is all that is needed to obtain the latest Arch software; the installation images released by the Arch team are simply up to date snapshots of the main system components. Inspired by CRUX, another minimalist distribution, Judd Vinet started Arch Linux in March 2002. Vinet led the project until 1 October 2007, when he stepped down due to lack of time, transferring control of the project to Aaron Griffin. Arch is largely based around binary packages. Packages are targeted for i686 and x86-64 microprocessors to assist performance on modern hardware. A ports/ebuild-like system is also provided for automated source compilation, known as
    7.00
    3 votes
    94

    Darwin

    Darwin is an open source POSIX-compliant computer operating system released by Apple Inc. in 2000. It is composed of code developed by Apple, as well as code derived from NeXTSTEP, BSD, and other free software projects. Darwin forms the core set of components upon which Mac OS X and iOS are based. It is compatible with the Single UNIX Specification version 3 (SUSv3) and POSIX UNIX applications and utilities. Darwin's heritage began with NeXT's NeXTSTEP operating system (later known as OPENSTEP), first released in 1989. After Apple bought NeXT in 1997, it announced it would base its next operating system on OPENSTEP. This was developed into Rhapsody in 1997 and the Rhapsody-based Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999. In 2000, Rhapsody was forked into Darwin and released as open-source software under the Apple Public Source License (APSL), and components from Darwin are present in Mac OS X today. Up to Darwin 8.0.1, Apple released a binary installer (as an ISO image) after each major Mac OS X release that allowed one to install Darwin on PowerPC and Intel x86 computers as a standalone operating system. Minor updates were released as packages that were installed separately. Darwin is now only
    7.00
    3 votes
    95
    INTERACTIVE UNIX

    INTERACTIVE UNIX

    Interactive Unix System V/386 is a port of the UNIX System V operating system for Intel x86 processors. The system was first released by Interactive Systems Corporation (ISC) as 386/ix in 1985. At that time it was based on System V.3.0. Later versions were based on System V.3.2. Sun Microsystems acquired ISC in 1992 from its parent Eastman Kodak; the last version was "System V/386 Release 3.2 Version 4.1.1" released in July 1998. Official support ended in July 2006, five years after Sun withdrew the product from sale. Until version ISA 3.0.1, Interactive Unix supported only 16 MB of RAM. In the next versions, it supported 256MB RAM and PCI bus. EISA versions always support 256MB RAM.
    7.00
    3 votes
    96

    IRIX

    IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI) to run natively on their MIPS architecture workstations and servers. It was based on UNIX System V with BSD extensions. IRIX was the first operating system to include the XFS file system. The last major version of IRIX was IRIX 6.5 which was released in May 1998. New minor versions of IRIX 6.5 were released every quarter until 2005; since then there have been four further minor releases. Through version 6.5.22, there were two branches of each release: a maintenance release (identified by an m suffix to the version number) that included only fixes to the original IRIX 6.5 code, and a feature release (with an f suffix) that included improvements and enhancements. An overlay upgrade from 6.5.x to the 6.5.22 maintenance release is available as a free download, whereas versions 6.5.23 and higher require an active Silicon Graphics support contract, despite only running on Silicon Graphics hardware. The IRIX name was first used around the time of release 3.0 of the operating system for SGI's IRIS 4D series of workstations and servers, in 1988. Previous releases were identified only by the release number prefixed
    7.00
    3 votes
    97

    Knoppix

    • Parent OS: Debian GNU/Linux
    • Developer: Klaus Knopper
    Knoppix, or KNOPPIX ( /kᵊˈnɒpɪks/ k-NOP-iks), is an operating system based on Debian designed to be run directly from a CD / DVD (Live CD) or a USB flash drive (Live USB), one of the first of its kind for any operating system. Knoppix was developed by Linux consultant Klaus Knopper. When starting a program, it is loaded from the removable medium and decompressed into a RAM drive. The decompression is transparent and on-the-fly. Although Knoppix is primarily designed to be used as a Live CD, it can also be installed on a hard disk like a typical operating system. Computers that support booting from USB devices can load Knoppix from a live USB flash drive or memory card. There are two main editions of Knoppix: the traditional Compact Disc (700 megabytes) edition and the DVD (4.7 gigabytes) "Maxi" edition. Each of these main editions have two language-specific editions: English and German. Knoppix mostly consists of free and open source software, but also includes some proprietary software, so long as it fulfils certain conditions. Knoppix can be used to copy files easily from hard drives with inaccessible operating systems. To quickly and more safely use Linux software, the Live CD
    7.00
    3 votes
    98
    MicroEmpix

    MicroEmpix

    MicroEmpix is the microkernel (much nearer to an exokernel) version of Empix, an operating system developed at the Computing Systems Laboratory of the Electrical & Computer Engineering department at the National Technical University of Athens. Empix started out in the late 80's as the laboratory's effort to write a small Unix-like modern multi-tasking operating system, intended for educational use. Borrowing most of its basic characteristics (file system, binary format, shell) from other popular operating systems of the time (Xinu, Minix, DOS). Empix is quite small (about 10,000 lines of code) and supports PC XT and AT architectures, floppy disks and hard drives (with the FAT16 limitations), as well as EGA graphics (80x25 color terminal) and the serial ports. It has a shell with some basic commands, and the ability to execute multiple processes. Now, MicroEmpix is far different. It's about 1,600 lines of code (over which about 1,000 devoted to serial port control), and it's a microkernel, meaning that it creates and runs processes in kernel-space, with no distinction between process-space and kernel space. What the kernel sees, the process sees and vice-versa. There are no system
    7.00
    3 votes
    99
    Windows CE

    Windows CE

    • Includes OS Versions: Windows Phone 7
    Microsoft Windows CE (now officially known as Windows Embedded Compact and previously also known as Windows Embedded CE, and sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is an operating system developed by Microsoft for embedded systems. Windows CE is a distinct operating system and kernel, rather than a trimmed-down version of desktop Windows. It is not to be confused with Windows Embedded Standard which is an NT-based componentized version of desktop Microsoft Windows. Microsoft licenses Windows CE to OEMs and device makers. The OEMs and device makers can modify and create their own user interfaces and experiences, with Windows CE providing the technical foundation to do so. The current version of Windows Embedded Compact supports Intel x86 and compatibles, MIPS, and ARM processors. Windows CE is optimized for devices that have minimal storage; a Windows CE kernel may run in under a megabyte of memory. Devices are often configured without disk storage, and may be configured as a "closed" system that does not allow for end-user extension (for instance, it can be burned into ROM). Windows CE conforms to the definition of a real-time operating system, with a deterministic interrupt latency. From
    7.00
    3 votes
    100

    DragonFly BSD

    • Parent OS: FreeBSD 4.8
    • Developer: Matthew Dillon
    • Includes OS Versions: Firefly BSD
    DragonFly BSD is a free Unix-like operating system created as a fork of FreeBSD 4.8. Matthew Dillon, an Amiga developer in the late 1980s and early 1990s and a FreeBSD developer between 1994 and 2003, began work on DragonFly BSD in June 2003 and announced it on the FreeBSD mailing lists on 16 July 2003. Dillon started DragonFly in the belief that the methods and techniques being adopted for threading and symmetric multiprocessing in FreeBSD 5 would lead to poor system performance and cause maintenance difficulties. He sought to correct these suspected problems within the FreeBSD project. Due to ongoing conflicts with other FreeBSD developers over the implementation of his ideas his ability to directly change the FreeBSD code was eventually revoked. Despite this, the DragonFly BSD and FreeBSD projects still work together contributing bug fixes, driver updates and other system improvements to each other. Intended to be the logical continuation of the FreeBSD 4.x series, DragonFly's development has diverged significantly from FreeBSD's, including a new Light Weight Kernel Threads implementation (LWKT), a light weight ports/messaging system, and feature-rich HAMMER file system. Many
    6.00
    4 votes
    101

    RISC OS

    • Developer: RISCOS Ltd
    RISC OS ( /rɪskoʊˈɛs/) is a series of graphical user interface-based computer operating systems (OSes) designed for ARM architecture systems. It takes its name from the RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) architecture supported. The OS was originally developed by Acorn Computers for use with their 1987 range of Archimedes personal computers using the Acorn RISC Machine processors. It comprises a command-line interface and desktop environment with a windowing system. From 1988 to 1998, the OS was bundled with nearly every ARM-based Acorn computer model, including the Archimedes range, RiscPC, NewsPad and A7000. A version of the OS (called NCOS) was used in Oracle's Network Computer and compatible systems. After the breakup of Acorn in 1998, development of the OS was forked and separately continued by several companies, including RISCOS Ltd, Pace Micro Technology and Castle Technology. Since 1998 it has been bundled with a number of ARM-based desktop computers such as the Iyonix and A9home. As of 2012, the OS remains forked and is independently developed by RISCOS Ltd and the RISC OS Open community. Most recent stable versions run on the ARMv3/ARMv4 RiscPC (or under emulation
    6.00
    4 votes
    102

    Sprite operating system

    Sprite was an experimental Unix-like distributed operating system developed at the University of California, Berkeley by John Ousterhout's research group between 1984 and 1992. Its notable features included support for single system image on computer clusters and for the introduction of the log-structured filesystem. The Tcl scripting language also originated in this project. Early work on Sprite was based on the idea of making the operating system more "network aware", and thereby at the same time make it invisible to the user. The primary area of work was the building of a new network file system which made heavy use of local client-side caching in order to improve performance. After opening the file and some initial reads, the network was only used on-demand, and most user actions would occur against the cache. Similar utilities allowed remote devices to be mapped into the local computer's space, allowing for network printing and similar duties. Many of the key Unix files were based on the network, including things like the password file. All machines in a network shared the root directory as well. Other common Unix utilities such as finger were re-written to make them network
    6.00
    4 votes
    103
    BBC Micro

    BBC Micro

    The BBC Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, was a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. Designed with an emphasis on education, it was notable for its ruggedness, expandability and the quality of its operating system. After the Literacy Project's call for bids for a computer to accompany the TV programmes and literature, Acorn won the contract with the Proton, a successor of its Atom computer prototyped at short notice. Renamed the BBC Micro, the system was adopted by most schools in the United Kingdom, changing Acorn's fortunes. It was also moderately successful as a home computer in the UK despite its high cost. Acorn also employed the machine to simulate and develop the ARM architecture which is much used for embedded systems as of 2012. While nine models were eventually produced with the BBC brand, the term "BBC Micro" is usually used colloquially to refer to the first six (Model A, B, B+64, B+128, Master 128, and Master Compact), with the subsequent models considered as part of Acorn's Archimedes series. During the early 1980s,
    8.00
    2 votes
    104
    GeckOS

    GeckOS

    GeckOS is an experimental operating system for MOS 6502 and compatible processors. It offers some Unix-like functionality including preemptive multitasking, multithreading, semaphores, signals, binary relocation, TCP/IP networking via SLIP and a 6502 standard library. GeckOS includes native support for the Commodore PET (32 KiB and 96KiB models), Commodore 64 and the CS/A65 homebrew system. Due to the platform independent nature of the kernel code, GeckOS is advertised as an extremely easy OS to port to alternative 6502 platforms. Binary compatibility with the LUnix operating system can be attained when the lib6502 shared library is used. Due to the lack of an MMU and the small fixed-location stack of the 6502, multitasking is somewhat limited. The OS supports a maximum of four tasks when a shared stack space is used. This can be increased to sixteen tasks when stack snapshotting is enabled, although this is done at the expense of some system speed.
    8.00
    2 votes
    105
    Google Chrome OS

    Google Chrome OS

    • Developer: Google
    Google Chrome OS is a Linux-based operating system designed by Google to work exclusively with web applications. Google announced the operating system on July 7, 2009 and made it an open source project, called Chromium OS, in November. Unlike Chromium OS, which can be compiled from the downloaded source code, Chrome OS only ships on specific hardware from Google's manufacturing partners. The user interface takes a minimalist approach, resembling that of the Google Chrome web browser. Since Google Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Web, the only application on the device is a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager. The launch date for retail hardware featuring Chrome OS slipped after Google first announced the operating system: from an initial forecast date in late 2010 to June 15, 2011, when "Chromebooks" from Samsung (and then Acer in July) actually shipped. Google developers began coding the operating system in 2009, inspired by the growing popularity and lower power consumption of netbooks and the focus of these small laptops on Internet access. To ascertain marketing requirements for an operating system focused on netbook
    8.00
    2 votes
    106

    L4 microkernel family

    L4 is a family of second-generation microkernels, generally used to implement Unix-like operating systems, but also used in a variety of other systems. L4 was a response to the poor performance of earlier microkernel-base operating systems. German computer scientist Jochen Liedtke felt that a system designed from the start for high performance, rather than other goals, could produce a microkernel of practical use. His original implementation in hand-coded Intel i386-specific assembly language code sparked off intense interest in the computer industry. Since its introduction, L4 has been developed for platform independence and also in improving security, isolation, and robustness. There have been various re-implementations of the original binary L4 kernel interface (ABI) and its higher level successors, including L4Ka::Pistachio (Uni Karlsruhe), L4/MIPS (UNSW) and Fiasco (TU Dresden). For this reason, the name L4 has been generalized and no longer only refers to Liedtke's original implementation. It now applies to the whole microkernel family including the L4 kernel interface and its different versions. L4 is widely used; Open Kernel Labs claims deployment of one billion L4
    8.00
    2 votes
    107

    Mac OS

    • Parent OS: NEXTSTEP
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    • Includes OS Versions: Mac OS 9
    Mac OS is a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. Mac OS is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. The original form of what Apple now calls OS X was the integral and unnamed system software first introduced in 1984 with the original Macintosh, and referred to simply as the System software. Apple deliberately sought to minimize the user's conceptual awareness of the operating system: Tasks which required more operating system knowledge on other systems would be accomplished by intuitive mouse gestures and simple graphic controls on a Macintosh, making the system more user-friendly and easily mastered. This would differentiate it from then current systems such as MS-DOS which were more technically challenging to operate. The core of the system software was held in ROM, with updates provided free of charge by Apple dealers (on floppy disk). The user's involvement in an upgrade of the operating system was also minimized to running an installer, or simply replacing system files, the simplicity of which again differentiated the product from others. Early versions of Mac OS were
    8.00
    2 votes
    108

    OS-9

    OS-9 is a family of real-time, process-based, multitasking, multi-user, Unix-like operating systems, developed in the 1980s, originally by Microware Systems Corporation for the Motorola 6809 microprocessor. It is currently owned by RadiSys Corporation. The OS-9 family was popular for general-purpose computing and remains in use in commercial embedded systems and amongst hobbyists. Today, OS-9 is a product name used by both a Motorola 68000-series machine language OS and a portable (PowerPC, x86, etc.) version written in C, originally known as OS-9000. The first version ("OS-9 Level One"), which dates back to 1979–80, was written in assembly language for the Motorola 6809 CPU, and provided a single 64 KB address space in which all processes ran. It was developed as a supporting operating system for the BASIC09 project, contracted for by Motorola as part of the 6809 development. A later 6809 version ("Level Two") takes advantage of memory mapping hardware, supported up to 2 MB of memory (ca 1980) in most implementations, and included a GUI on some platforms. In 1983, OS-9/6809 was ported to Motorola 68000 assembly language and extended (called OS-9/68K); and a still later (1989)
    8.00
    2 votes
    109
    PlayStation Portable

    PlayStation Portable

    • Parent OS: XrossMediaBar
    The PlayStation Portable (プレイステーション・ポータブル, Pureisutēshon Pōrutaburu, officially abbreviated PSP) is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Corporation Development of the console was announced during E3 2003, and it was unveiled on May 11, 2004, at a Sony press conference before E3 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in the PAL region on September 1, 2005. The PlayStation Portable is the only handheld video game console to use an optical disc format, Universal Media Disc (UMD), as its primary storage medium. Other distinguishing features of the console include its large viewing screen, robust multi-media capabilities, and connectivity with the PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, other PSPs and the Internet. After the release of a slimmer, lighter, remodeled version of the PlayStation Portable (the PSP-2000/"Slim & Lite") in early September 2007, sales quadrupled in the United Kingdom the following week and increased by nearly 200% in North America for the month of October. This model was later replaced by another remodeling, the PSP-3000, which included a new screen and an inbuilt microphone. Since then, a
    8.00
    2 votes
    110
    SUSE Linux distributions

    SUSE Linux distributions

    SUSE Linux (/ˈsuːsə/; German: [ˈzuːzə]) is a computer operating system. It is built on top of the open source Linux kernel and is distributed with system and application software from other open source projects. SUSE Linux is of German origin and mainly developed in Europe. The first version appeared in early 1994, making SUSE one of the oldest existing commercial distributions. It is known for its YaST configuration tool. Novell bought the SuSE brands and trademarks in 2003. Novell, one of the founding members of the Open Invention Network, decided to make the community an important part of their development process by opening widely the distribution development to outside contributors in 2005, creating the openSUSE distribution and the openSUSE Project. Novell employed over 500 developers working on SUSE in 2004. On 27 April 2011, Novell (and SUSE) were acquired by The Attachmate Group. The Attachmate Group made SUSE an independent business unit. Gesellschaft für Software und System Entwicklung mbH (Lit. Society for Software and System Development) was founded on 2 September 1992 in Nuremberg, Germany, by twenty-somethings Roland Dyroff, Thomas Fehr, Burchard Steinbild, and
    8.00
    2 votes
    111

    A/UX

    A/UX (from Apple Unix) was Apple Computer’s implementation of the Unix operating system for some of their Macintosh computers. A/UX required a 68k-based Macintosh with an FPU and a paged memory management unit (PMMU), and various versions ran on the Macintosh II, SE/30, Quadra and Centris series of machines. A/UX was first released in 1988, with the final version (3.1.1) released in 1995. No Macintosh emulation software currently supports A/UX as a hosted operating system. The operating system was based on UNIX System V Release 2.2. It included some additional features from System V Releases 3 and 4 and BSD versions 4.2 and 4.3. It was POSIX and System V Interface Definition (SVID) compliant and included TCP/IP networking from version 2 onward. There were rumors of a later version using OSF/1 as its primary code base, but this system was never released to the public, if it existed. A/UX 3.x provided a graphical user interface with the familiar Finder windows, menus, and controls. The A/UX Finder was not the same program as the System 7 Finder, but a customized version adapted to run as a Unix process and designed to interact with the Unix kernel and file systems. A/UX 3.x also
    9.00
    1 votes
    112

    AmigaOS

    • Includes OS Versions: Amiga OS 2.0
    AmigaOS is the proprietary native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. It was developed first by Commodore International and introduced with the launch of the first Amiga, the Amiga 1000, in 1985. Early versions of AmigaOS required the Motorola 68000 series of 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessors. Later versions were developed by Haage & Partner (AmigaOS 3.5 and 3.9) and then Hyperion Entertainment (AmigaOS 4.0-4.1). A PowerPC microprocessor is required for the most recent release, AmigaOS 4. AmigaOS is a single-user operating system based on a preemptive multitasking kernel, called Exec. It includes an abstraction of the Amiga's hardware, a disk operating system called AmigaDOS, a windowing system API called Intuition and a desktop file manager called Workbench. A command-line interface (CLI), called AmigaShell, is also integrated into the system, though it too is entirely window based. The CLI and Workbench components share the same privileges. Notably, early versions of AmigaOS lack any built-in memory protection. The current holder of the Amiga intellectual properties is Amiga Inc. In 2001 they contracted AmigaOS 4 development to Hyperion Entertainment and in 2009 they
    9.00
    1 votes
    113

    Berkeley Software Distribution

    • Parent OS: Unix
    • Developer: Computer Systems Research Group
    • Includes OS Versions: FreeBSD
    Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995. Today the term "BSD" is often used non-specifically to refer to any of the BSD descendants which together form a branch of the family of Unix-like operating systems. Operating systems derived from the original BSD code remain actively developed and widely used. Historically, BSD has been considered a branch of UNIX—"BSD UNIX", because it shared the initial codebase and design with the original AT&T UNIX operating system. In the 1980s, BSD was widely adopted by vendors of workstation-class systems in the form of proprietary UNIX variants such as DEC ULTRIX and Sun Microsystems SunOS. This can be attributed to the ease with which it could be licensed, and the familiarity it found among the founders of many technology companies of this era. Though these proprietary BSD derivatives were largely superseded by the UNIX System V Release 4 and OSF/1 systems in the 1990s (both of which incorporated BSD code and are the basis of other modern Unix
    9.00
    1 votes
    114

    DOS/BATCH 11

    DOS/BATCH 11, also known simply as DOS-11, was released in 1970 and was the first operating system to run on the Digital PDP-11 minicomputer. DOS/BATCH 11 was not known to be easy to use even in its day and became much less used in 1973 with the release of the RT-11 operating system. DOS/BATCH 11 came with XXDP, a diagnostics and monitor program for the PDP-11. Like other Digital operating systems, DOS/BATCH 11 also had a FORTRAN compiler.
    9.00
    1 votes
    115
    LoseThos

    LoseThos

    LoseThos is a public-domain, x86-64 opcode, operating system, developed by Terry A. Davis. The stated goal of this project is "programming as entertainment." It is oriented toward video games, not the Internet, desktop publishing or multimedia. It is not derived from any existing operating system, nor claims compatibility with such.
    9.00
    1 votes
    116

    MS/8

    MS/8 or The RL Monitor System was an operating system developed for the PDP-8 in 1966 by Richard F. Lary. It was submitted to DECUS in 1970. It was a disk oriented system, faster than its predecessor the 4K Disk Monitor System, with tricks to make it run quickly on DECtape based systems. MS/8 has since been replaced by P?S/8 and COS-310.
    9.00
    1 votes
    117

    86-DOS

    86-DOS was an operating system developed and marketed by Seattle Computer Products (SCP) for its Intel 8086-based computer kit. Initially known as QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) the name was changed to 86-DOS once SCP started licensing the operating system. 86-DOS had a command structure and application programming interface that imitated that of Digital Research's CP/M operating system, which made it easy to port programs from the latter. The system was purchased by Microsoft and developed further as MS-DOS and PC DOS. 86-DOS was created because sales of the Seattle Computer Products 8086 computer kit, demonstrated in June 1979 and shipped in November, were languishing due to the absence of an operating system. The only software which SCP could sell with the board was the stand-alone Microsoft BASIC-86, which Microsoft had developed on a prototype of SCP's hardware. SCP wanted to offer the 8086 version of CP/M that Digital Research had announced, but its release date was uncertain. This was not the first time Digital Research had lagged behind hardware developments; two years earlier it had been slow to adapt CP/M for new floppy disk formats and hard disks. In April 1980
    6.67
    3 votes
    118

    Haiku

    Haiku is a free and open source operating system compatible with BeOS. Its development began in 2001, and the operating system became self-hosting in 2008, with the first alpha release in September 2009, the second in May 2010 and the third in June 2011. Haiku is supported by Haiku, Inc., a non-profit organization founded in 2003 by former project leader Michael Phipps. Haiku, Inc. is based in Rochester, New York. Haiku began as the OpenBeOS project in 2001, the year that Be, Inc. was bought by Palm, Inc. and BeOS development was discontinued; the focus of the project was to support the BeOS user community by creating an open-source, backward-compatible replacement for BeOS. The first project by OpenBeOS was a community-created "stop-gap" update for BeOS 5.0.3 in 2002. In 2003, a non-profit organization (Haiku Inc.) was registered in Rochester, New York, to financially support development, and in 2004, after a notification of infringement upon Palm's trademark on the BeOS name was sent to OpenBeOS, the project was renamed as Haiku. However, development would only reach its first milestone in September 2009 with the release of Haiku R1/Alpha 1. This was followed in May 2010 by
    6.67
    3 votes
    119

    IBM AIX

    • Parent OS: UNIX System V
    • Developer: IBM
    AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, pronounced /ˌeɪaɪˈɛks/) is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms. Originally released for the IBM 6150 RISC workstation, AIX now supports or has supported a wide variety of hardware platforms, including the IBM RS/6000 series and later IBM POWER and PowerPC-based systems, IBM System i, System/370 mainframes, PS/2 personal computers, and the Apple Network Server. AIX is based on UNIX System V with 4.3BSD-compatible extensions. It is one of four commercial operating systems that are presently certified to The Open Group's UNIX 03 standard. (The others are Mac OS X, Solaris and HP-UX.) The AIX family of operating systems debuted in 1986, became the standard operating system for the RS/6000 series on its launch in 1990, and is still actively developed by IBM. It is currently supported on IBM Power Systems alongside IBM i and Linux. AIX was the first operating system to utilize journaling file systems, and IBM has continuously enhanced the software with features like processor, disk and network virtualization, dynamic hardware resource allocation (including fractional processor
    6.67
    3 votes
    120

    Integer BASIC

    Integer BASIC, written by Steve Wozniak, was the BASIC interpreter of the Apple I and original Apple II computers. Originally available on cassette, then included in ROM on the original Apple II computer at release in 1977, it was the first version of BASIC used by many early home computer owners. Thousands of programs were written in Integer BASIC. Steve Wozniak, who had earlier been involved with Atari in the development of the original version of Breakout, set as an internal goal in the design of the Apple II computer to be able to faithfully reproduce that game, using only BASIC instructions. This is seen in the design of the "low-res" graphic modes and making the Apple II one of the first microcomputers to use color graphics. This design goal was realized with the program "Little Brick Out" when it was demonstrated at a meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club in 1976. It should also be noted that Wozniak did not have any software development tools for the 6502 processor other than an assembly language reference manual, and instead wrote out the software with pen and paper and then hand assembled the instructions into 4096 bytes of raw machine code for the 6502. The most
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    Minix

    Minix

    • Includes OS Versions: MINIX 3
    MINIX is a Unix-like computer operating system based on a microkernel architecture created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum for educational purposes; MINIX also inspired the creation of the Linux kernel. MINIX (from "mini-Unix") was first released in 1987, with its complete source code made available to universities for study in courses and research. It has been free and open source software since it was re-licensed under the BSD license in April 2000. Andrew S. Tanenbaum created MINIX at Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam to exemplify the principles conveyed in his textbook, Operating Systems: Design and Implementation (1987). An abridged 12,000 lines of the C source code of the kernel, memory manager, and file system of MINIX 1.0 are printed in the book. Prentice-Hall also released MINIX source code and binaries on floppy disk with a reference manual. MINIX 1 was system-call compatible with Seventh Edition Unix. Tanenbaum originally developed MINIX for compatibility with the IBM PC and IBM PC/AT microcomputers available at the time. MINIX 1.5, released in 1991, included support for MicroChannel IBM PS/2 systems and was also ported to the Motorola 68000 and SPARC architectures, supporting the
    6.67
    3 votes
    122

    PTS-DOS

    PTS-DOS is a disk operating system, a DOS clone, developed in Russia by PhysTechSoft. PhysTechSoft was formed in 1991 in Moscow, Russia by graduates and members of MIPT, informally known as PhysTech. At the end of 1993, PhysTechSoft released the first commercially available PTS-DOS as PTS-DOS v6.4. The version numbering followed MS-DOS version numbers, as Microsoft released MS-DOS 6.2 in November 1993. In 1995, some programmers left PhysTechSoft and founded Paragon Software Group. They took source code with them and released their own version named PTS-DOS v6.51CD. According to official PhysTechSoft announcements, these programmers violated both copyright laws and Russian military laws, as PTS-DOS was developed in close relationship with Russia's military and thus may be subject to military secrets law. PhysTechSoft continued development on their own and released PTS-DOS v6.6 somewhere between and presented PTS-DOS v6.65 at the CeBIT exhibition in 1997. The next version from PhysTechSoft, formally PTS/DOS Extended Version 6.70 was labeled PTS-DOS 2000 and is still being distributed as a last 16-bit PTS-DOS system, as of 2007. Paragon continued their PTS-DOS line and released
    6.67
    3 votes
    123

    Qtopia

    Qt Extended (named Qtopia before September 30, 2008) is an application platform for embedded Linux-based mobile computing devices such as personal digital assistants, video projectors and mobile phones. It was developed by Qt Software, a subsidiary of Nokia. Qt Extended features: Qt Extended is dual licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and proprietary licenses. As of 2006, Qtopia was running on several million devices, including 11 mobile phone models and 30 other handheld devices. Models included the Sharp Corporation Zaurus line of Linux handhelds, the Sony mylo, the Archos Portable Media Assistant (PMA430) (a multimedia device), the Gamepark Holdings GP2X, Greenphone (an open phone initiative), Pocket PC, FIC Openmoko phones: Neo 1973 and FreeRunner. An unofficial hack allows its use on the Archos wifi series of portable media players (PMP) 604, 605, 705, and also on several Motorola phones such as E2, Z6 and A1200. The U980 of ZTE is the last phone running it. Native applications could be developed and compiled using C++. Managed applications could be developed in Java. On March 3, 2009, Qt Software announced the discontinuation of Qt Extended as a standalone
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    Windows Vista Ultimate

    Windows Vista Ultimate

    • Parent OS: Windows Vista
    The most complete edition of Windows Vista—with the power, security, and mobility features that you need for work, and all of the entertainment features that you want for funWhen you want to have it all, including the ability to shift smoothly between the worlds of play and productivity, there's Windows Vista Ultimate. You'll never have to worry about having the most advanced capabilities—they're all here. This edition of Windows Vista offers an advanced, business-focused infrastructure, mobile productivity, and a premium home digital entertainment experience, all in a single offering.Specifically, Windows Vista Ultimate offers all of the features found in Windows Vista Home Premium, including Windows Media Center, Windows Movie Maker with high-definition support, and Windows DVD Maker. It also offers all of the features found in Windows Vista Business, including business networking, centralized management tools, and advanced system backup features. And Windows Vista Ultimate has all of the new security and data protection features that help take Windows Vista to a whole new level of dependability.In addition, Windows Vista Ultimate includes support for all of the new mobility features in Windows Vista, including Windows Tablet and Touch Technology, Windows SideShow, Windows Mobility Center, and other new, advanced mobility features.Exclusive to Windows Vista Ultimate are Windows Ultimate Extras. Windows Ultimate Extras are add-ons that extend certain capabilities of your operating system or just make using your PC more fun. Windows Ultimate Extras currently available include:
    • Windows DreamScene, an Extra that enables you to use looped, full-motion video as your desktop wallpaper instead of a static image
    • Windows Hold’em, a poker game for players of all skill levels
    • Language packs for Windows multi-language interface, where users can install and use multiple languages on a single PC. Great for multi-lingual households or if you are learning a new language.
    • Secure Online Key Backup, where Ultimate users can store their BitLocker recovery password and Encrypting File System certificate on Windows Marketplace’s Digital Locker website for access to the key anytime, anyplace, and from any computer that has an Internet connection
    • BitLocker Drive Preparation Tool, an automated tool which removes the complexity of setting up your PC to use this exclusive data security feature.
    6.67
    3 votes
    125

    BeOS

    BeOS is an operating system for personal computers which began development by Be Inc. in 1991. It was first written to run on BeBox hardware. BeOS was built for digital media work and was written to take advantage of modern hardware facilities such as symmetric multiprocessing by utilizing modular I/O bandwidth, pervasive multithreading, preemptive multitasking and a 64-bit journaling file system known as BFS. The BeOS GUI was developed on the principles of clarity and a clean, uncluttered design. BeOS was positioned as a multimedia platform which could be used by a substantial population of desktop users and a competitor to Mac OS and Microsoft Windows (Linux was not relevant as a desktop OS at the time). However, it was ultimately unable to achieve a significant market share and proved commercially unviable for Be Inc. The company was acquired by Palm Inc. and today BeOS is mainly used and developed by a small population of enthusiasts. The open-source OS Haiku is designed to start up where BeOS left off. Alpha 3 of Haiku was released in June 2011. BeOS was optimized for digital media work and was written to take advantage of modern hardware facilities such as symmetric
    5.75
    4 votes
    126

    Microsoft Windows

    • Developer: Microsoft
    • Includes OS Versions: Windows NT
    Microsoft Windows is a series of graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7; the most recent server version is Windows Server 2012; the most recent mobile version is Windows Phone 7.5. The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are generally categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when Chase Bishop, a computer scientist, designed the first model of an electronic device and project "Interface Manager" was started. It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985. The shell of Windows 1.0 was a program known as the MS-DOS Executive.
    5.75
    4 votes
    127
    Pinguy OS

    Pinguy OS

    • Parent OS: Ubuntu
    Pinguy OS is an Ubuntu-based distribution targeted at beginning Linux users. It features numerous user-friendly enhancements, out-of-the-box support for multimedia codecs and browser plugins, a heavily tweaked GNOME user interface with enhanced menus, panels and dockbars, and a careful selection of popular desktop applications for many common computing tasks.
    5.75
    4 votes
    128
    SymbOS

    SymbOS

    SymbOS is a free multitasking operating system for Z80-based 8-bit computer systems. At present it is available for the Amstrad CPC series of computers, as well as for all MSX models starting from the MSX2 standard and for most Amstrad PCW models. Contrary to early 8-bit operating systems it is based on a microkernel, which provides pre-emptive and priority oriented multitasking and manages RAM with a size of up to 1024 kB. SymbOS contains a Microsoft Windows like Graphical user interface, supports hard disks with a capacity of up to 128 GB and can already be booted on an unexpanded Amstrad CPC-6128, a 128K-MSX2 and an Amstrad PCW. Although only an 8-bit CPU, the Z80 is capable of running a pre-emptive multitasking operating system. Features such as memory protection, which the Z80 does not support, are not essential in such an OS. For example, AmigaOS does not feature memory protection either. The MP/M OS proved that multitasking on the Z80 CPU was possible; however, it was not generally available for home computers. While the MOS Technology 6502 cannot move the stack pointer, the Z80 can freely relocate it to any position in memory, which is more or less a requirement for
    5.75
    4 votes
    129

    Windows 2.0

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    Windows 2.0 is a 16-bit Microsoft Windows GUI-based operating environment that was released on December 9, 1987 and is the successor to Windows 1.0. With Windows 2.1x in 1988, Windows 2.0 was supplemented by Windows/286 and Windows/386. Windows 2.0, Windows/286 and Windows/386 were superseded by Windows 3.0 in May 1990, but supported by Microsoft for fourteen years until December 31, 2001. The first Windows versions of Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel ran on Windows 2.0. Third-party developer support for Windows increased substantially with this version (some shipped the Windows Runtime software with their applications, for customers who had not purchased the full version of Windows). However, most developers still maintained DOS versions of their applications, as Windows users were still a distinct minority of their market. There were some applications that shipped with Windows 2.0. They are: On March 17, 1988, Apple filed a lawsuit against Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard, accusing them of violating copyrights Apple held on the Macintosh System Software. Apple claimed the "look and feel" of the Macintosh operating system, taken as a whole, was protected by copyright and that
    5.75
    4 votes
    130

    Windows 95

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    • Developer: Microsoft
    Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. It was released on August 24, 1995 by Microsoft, and was a significant progression from the company's previous Windows products. During development, it was referred to as Windows 4.0 or by the internal codename Chicago. Windows 95 integrated Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products. It featured significant improvements over its predecessor, Windows 3.1, most notably in the graphical user interface (GUI) and in its relatively simplified "plug-n-play" features. There were also major changes made at lower levels of the operating system, such as moving from a mainly 16-bit architecture to a pre-emptively multitasked 32-bit architecture. Accompanied by an extensive marketing campaign, Windows 95 was a major success in the marketplace at launch and shortly became the most popular desktop operating system. It also introduced numerous functions and features that were featured in later Windows versions, such as the taskbar, the 'Start' button, and the way the user navigates. It was also suggested that Windows 95 had an effect of driving other major players (including OS/2) out of business,
    5.75
    4 votes
    131

    Apple DOS

    Apple DOS refers to operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from late 1978 through early 1983. Apple DOS had three major releases: DOS 3.1, DOS 3.2, and DOS 3.3; each one of these three releases was followed by a second, minor "bug-fix" release, but only in the case of Apple DOS 3.2 did that minor release receive its own version number, Apple DOS 3.2.1. The best-known and most-used version was Apple DOS 3.3 in the 1980 and 1983 releases. Prior to the release of Apple DOS 3.1, Apple users had to rely on audio cassette tapes for data storage and retrieval, but that method was notoriously slow, inconvenient and unreliable. Apple DOS was largely written by Steve Wozniak, Randy Wigginton, and outside contractor Paul Laughton. To the dismay of many programmers, Apple published no official documentation until release 3.2. There was no Apple DOS 1 or 2, per se. Versions 0.1 through 2.8 were serially enumerated revisions during development (which might as well have been called builds 1 through 28). Apple DOS 3.0 (a renamed issue of version 2.8) was never publicly released due to bugs. Apple DOS 3.1 was publicly released in June 1978 (slightly less than one year after the
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Caixa Mágica

    Caixa Mágica

    Caixa Mágica (English: "Magic Box") is a Portuguese Linux distribution based on Debian and maintained by Caixa Mágica Software. It uses the .deb format. There are two editions: Desktop and Server. This project was created in 2000 by Paulo Trezentos and Daniel Neves at ADETTI, a Portuguese research centre. In 2004 there was a need to restructure the project because of the growth of the team and new challenges faced, so a spin-off of ADETTI was created, designated by "Caixa Mágica Software". Caixa Mágica used to be based on Mandriva Linux and used the RPM Package Manager, but version 16 started to be based on Debian. The "Magalhães" computers also included Caixa Mágica.
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Cisco IOS

    Cisco IOS

    Cisco IOS (originally Internetwork Operating System) is software used on most Cisco Systems routers and current Cisco network switches. (Earlier switches ran CatOS.) IOS is a package of routing, switching, internetworking and telecommunications functions integrated into a multitasking operating system. The IOS command line interface provides a fixed set of multiple-word commands. The set available is determined by the "mode" and the privilege level of the current user. "Global configuration mode" provides commands to change the system's configuration, and "interface configuration mode" provides commands to change the configuration of a specific interface. All commands are assigned a privilege level, from 0 to 15, and can only be accessed by users with the necessary privilege. Through the CLI, the commands available to each privilege level can be defined. Cisco IOS is versioned using three numbers and some letters, in the general form a.b(c.d)e, where: Rebuilds - Often a rebuild is compiled to fix a single specific problem or vulnerability for a given IOS version. For example, 12.1(8)E14 is a Rebuild, the 14 denoting the 14th rebuild of 12.1(8)E. Rebuilds are produced to either
    7.50
    2 votes
    134

    DOS/360

    Disk Operating System/360, also DOS/360, or simply DOS, was an operating system for IBM mainframes. It was announced by IBM on the last day of 1964, and it was first delivered in June 1966. In its time DOS was the most widely used operating system in the world; Although their names are similar, there are no technical similarities between DOS/360 of the 1960s and the x86-DOS of the 1980s. TOS/360 (Tape Operating System/360) was an IBM operating system for the System/360, used in the early days around 1965 to support the IBM 360 model 30 and similar platforms. TOS was a predecessor to IBM's DOS/360. TOS died out quickly as disks such as the IBM 2311 and IBM 2314 became common with the System/360, whereas they had been an expensive luxury on the IBM 7090. DOS/VS was released in 1972. The first DOS/VS release was numbered "Release 28" to signify an incremental upgrade from DOS/360. It added virtual memory in support of the new System/370 series hardware. It used a fixed page table which mapped a single address space of up to 16 megabytes for all partitions combined. DOS/VS increased the number of partitions (separate simultaneous programs) from three (named Background, Foreground 1 and
    7.50
    2 votes
    135

    ECos

    eCos (embedded configurable operating system) is a free and open source real-time operating system intended for embedded systems and applications which need only one process with multiple threads. It is designed to be customizable to precise application requirements of run-time performance and hardware needs. It is implemented in C/C++ and has compatibility layers and APIs for POSIX and µITRON. eCos was designed for devices with memory size in the tens to hundreds of kilobytes, or with real-time requirements. It can be used on hardware with too little RAM to support embedded Linux, which currently needs a minimum of about 2 MB of RAM, not including application and service needs. eCos runs on a wide variety of hardware platforms, including ARM, CalmRISC, FR-V, Hitachi H8, IA-32, Motorola 68000, Matsushita AM3x, MIPS, NEC V8xx, Nios II, PowerPC, SPARC, and SuperH. Included with the eCos distribution is RedBoot, an open source application that uses the eCos Hardware Abstraction Layer to provide bootstrap firmware for embedded systems. eCos was initially developed by Cygnus Solutions which was later bought by Red Hat. In early 2002, Red Hat ceased development of eCos and laid off the
    7.50
    2 votes
    136

    Fedora Core

    • Parent OS: Red Hat Linux
    Fedora Core is an RPM-based Linux distribution, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat. The name derives from Red Hat's characteristic fedora used in its "Shadowman" logo. However, the Fedora community project had existed as a volunteer group providing extra software for the Red Hat Linux distribution before Red Hat got involved as a direct sponsor. Fedora aims to be a complete, general-purpose operating system built from open source software. Fedora is designed to be easily installed and configured with a simple graphical installer and the 'system-config' suite of configuration tools. The installation system includes an option to use GNU GRUB, a boot loader, facilitating the use of Fedora in conjunction with another operating system. Packages and their dependencies can be easily downloaded and installed with the yum utility. New releases of Fedora come out every six to eight months. Fedora can run GNOME or KDE, and spans 5 CDs or a single DVD. Network installations are available from a single small 6 MB boot.iso image. The installer supports installation via HTTP, FTP, and NFS, and remote installation progress can be monitored via VNC.
    7.50
    2 votes
    137
    GP32

    GP32

    The GP32 (GamePark 32) is a handheld game console developed by the Korean company Game Park. It was released on November 23, 2001, in South Korea only. The GP32 is based on a 133 MHz ARM CPU and 8 MB of RAM. Unlike other hand held gaming systems, which tend to be proprietary cartridge-based, the GP32 uses SmartMedia cards (SMC) for storing programs and data, making it accessible for amateur developers as no further development hardware is required. The console has a four-way mini-joystick controller, two main buttons ('A' and 'B'), two shoulder buttons on each side of the SMC slot ('L' and 'R') and two other menu buttons on each side of the screen ('SELECT' and 'START'), made from a softer, translucent rubber. The console also has a USB 1.1 port for connection with a host computer, a serial expansion port, a 3.3 V power adapter input, a headphone connector and a rear compartment which holds two AA sized batteries. The overall design is not unlike the original version of the Game Boy Advance. Commercial units are white in color with either grey or white buttons and trim. There are also a number of differently colored promotional units, and several prototype units with different
    7.50
    2 votes
    138
    Hikarunix

    Hikarunix

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    Hikarunix is a Linux distribution in Live CD format for the x86 architecture. It was based on Damn Small Linux. The name is a portmanteau of the name of the manga and anime series Hikaru no Go and the Linux operating system kernel that Hikarunix is based on (which is a Unix-like operating system). Hikarunix intended to provide a complete and ultra-portable environment for study and playing the game Go; from complete beginner (for whom Mori's "The Interactive Way To Go" is included in addition to several books in PDF form, as well as a complete offline copy of Sensei's Library), to intermediate players (who can take advantage of a comprehensive joseki library and a collection of about 9500 challenging problems to work through called GoGrinder) to the expert (who can use the many online Go clients or study annotated games of Go masters, or even have their own games analyzed), all contained within an OS which can fit on a mini- or regular-sized CD or be installed to a harddrive, or be put onto a USB memory stick, so Go enthusiasts can use Hikarunix everywhere.
    7.50
    2 votes
    139
    IOS

    IOS

    • Parent OS: Mac OS X
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    • Includes OS Versions: iOS 6
    iOS (previously iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple Inc. Originally released in 2007 for the iPhone and iPod Touch, it has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPad and Apple TV. Unlike Microsoft's Windows Phone (Windows CE) and Google's Android, Apple does not license iOS for installation on non-Apple hardware. As of September 12, 2012 (2012 -09-12), Apple's App Store contained more than 700,000 iOS applications, which have collectively been downloaded more than 30 billion times. It had a 23% share of the smartphone operating system units sold in the first quarter of 2012, behind only Google's Android. In June 2012, it accounted for 65% of mobile web data consumption (including use on both the iPod Touch and the iPad). At the half of 2012, there were 410 million devices activated. According to the special media event held by Apple on September 12, 2012, 400 million devices have been sold through June 2012. The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such
    7.50
    2 votes
    140
    Scientific Linux

    Scientific Linux

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    Scientific Linux (SL) is a Linux distribution produced by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It is a free and open source operating system based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux and aims to be "as close to the commercial enterprise distribution as we can get it." This product is derived from the free and open source software made available by Red Hat, Inc., but is not produced, maintained or supported by Red Hat. Specifically, this product is built from the source code for Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions, under the terms and conditions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux's EULA and the GNU General Public License. Fermilab already had a Linux distribution known as Fermi Linux LTS 3.0.1, based on RHEL. CERN was creating their next version of Cern Linux, also based on RHEL. CERN contacted Fermilab about doing a joint collaboration. Connie Sieh was the main developer and driver behind the first prototypes and initial release. The first official release was on May 10, 2004. At the release of Scientific Linux 3.0.1, CERN joined in the collaboration and became co-developers of Scientific Linux. Historical releases of Scientific Linux are
    7.50
    2 votes
    141

    System Software 6

    • Parent OS: Mac OS
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    System 6 (also referred to as System Software 6) is a graphical user interface-based operating system for Macintosh computers. It was released in 1988 by Apple Computer and was part of the Mac OS line of operating systems. System 6 was shipped with various Macintosh computers until it was succeeded by System 7 in 1991. The boxed version of System 6 cost 49 USD when introduced. System 6 is classed as a monolithic operating system. It featured an improved MultiFinder, which allowed for co-operative multitasking. The last version of System 6 was released in 1991. A new feature called MacroMaker was included with System 6. When enabled, it allowed users to record mouse and keyboard input as "macros." MacroMaker had a unique user interface, which aimed to look and act like a tape recorder. MacroMaker was criticized for its lack of features when compared to Microsoft's AutoMac III, which was already available commercially. As MacroMaker only recorded the locations of mouse-clicks inside windows and not what was being clicked or exactly when, users soon found that it could not be used to automate more sophisticated programs. The pre-recorded clicks would miss buttons if they had moved or
    7.50
    2 votes
    142
    Ubuntu 11.10

    Ubuntu 11.10

    • Parent OS: Ubuntu
    The naming of Ubuntu 11.10 was announced on 7 March 2011 by Mark Shuttleworth. He explained that Oneiric means "dreamy". Ubuntu 11.10 is scheduled for stable release on 13 October 2011. It will be Canonical's 15th release of Ubuntu. In April 2011 Mark Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 11.10 would not include the classic GNOME desktop as a fall back to Unity, unlike Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal. Instead, 11.10 will include a 2D version of Unity, as a fallback for computers that lack the hardware resources for the Compiz-based 3D version. Shuttleworth also did confirm that Unity in Ubuntu 11.10 will run as a shell for GNOME 3 on top of GNOME 3 libraries, unlike in Ubuntu 11.04 where it ran as a shell for GNOME 2. Moreover, users will also be able to install the entire GNOME 3 stack along with GNOME Shell directly from the Ubuntu repositories to be presented with a 'GNOME 3 desktop' choice at login. In May 2011 it was announced that PiTiVi would be no longer part of the Ubuntu ISO, starting with Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot. The reasons given for removing it included poor user reception, lack of fit with the default user-case for Ubuntu, lack of polish and the application's lack of development maturity. PiTiVi will not be replaced on the ISO with another video editor but it will remain available to users for installation from the Ubuntu repositories. Other changes include removing Computer Janitor as it caused broken systems for users and adding the backup tool Deja Dup. The development team will also evaluate whether to replace the Evolution email client with Mozilla Thunderbird
    7.50
    2 votes
    143
    OpenVMS

    OpenVMS

    • Developer: Hewlett-Packard
    OpenVMS (Open Virtual Memory System), previously known as VAX-11/VMS, VAX/VMS or (informally) VMS, is a computer server operating system that runs on VAX, Alpha and Itanium-based families of computers. Contrary to what its name suggests, OpenVMS is not open source software; however, the source listings are available for purchase. Unlike many other mainframe-oriented operating systems, OpenVMS has a graphical user interface (GUI) with complete graphics support. Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX was one of the three top-selling workstations lines in the 1980s and 1990s. VMS had support for professional DTP and CAE software. Software for AXP based systems was promoted by Digital's ASAP program (Association of Software and Application Partners) and could be found in the extensive "Alpha Applications Catalog". AXP VMS supported OpenGL and Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) graphics adapters. OpenVMS is a multi-user, multiprocessing virtual memory-based operating system (OS) designed for use in time sharing, batch processing, real-time (where process priorities can be set higher than OS kernel jobs), and transaction processing. It offers high system availability through clustering, or the
    5.50
    4 votes
    144
    SAM Linux

    SAM Linux

    SAM Linux Desktop, a live and installation CD based on PCLinuxOS 2007, is a Xfce 4.4 Linux distribution for home users. The distribution is enhanced by several popular applications, such as Adobe Flash plugin, Java and RealPlayer. These applications are non-free. Others include Mozilla Firefox, Wine and OpenOffice.org 2.2, which are all free. In Autumn 2004 saw the first release of the Mandriva Linux-based version of SAM Linux. Originally only about 200 MB the mini-distribution was gradually made into a fully-fledged, fully bootable CD desktop system. Since the 2007 version of SAM is based on PCLinuxOS and closely follows the publication cycle.
    5.50
    4 votes
    145
    Cygwin

    Cygwin

    Cygwin ( /ˈsɪɡwɪn/ SIG-win) is a Unix-like environment and command-line interface for Microsoft Windows. Cygwin provides native integration of Windows-based applications, data, and other system resources with applications, software tools, and data of the Unix-like environment. Thus it is possible to launch Windows applications from the Cygwin environment, as well as to use Cygwin tools and applications within the Windows operating context. Cygwin consists of two parts: a dynamic-link library (DLL) as an API compatibility layer providing a substantial part of the POSIX API functionality, and an extensive collection of software tools and applications that provide a Unix-like look and feel. Cygwin was originally developed by Cygnus Solutions, which was later acquired by Red Hat. It is free and open source software, released under the GNU General Public License version 3. Today it is maintained by employees of Red Hat, NetApp and many other volunteers. Cygwin consists of a library that implements the POSIX system call API in terms of Win32 system calls, a GNU development toolchain (including GCC and GDB) to allow software development, and a large number of application programs
    6.33
    3 votes
    146

    Mac OS X v10.0

    • Parent OS: Mac OS X
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    Mac OS X version 10.0, code named "Cheetah", is the first major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server operating system. Mac OS X v10.0 was released on March 24, 2001 for a price of US$129. It was the successor of the Mac OS X Public Beta and the predecessor of Mac OS X v10.1. Mac OS X v10.0 was a radical departure from the previous “classic” Macintosh operating system and was Apple’s long awaited answer to the call for a next generation Macintosh operating system. It introduced a brand new code base completely separate from Mac OS 9's, as well as all previous Apple operating systems. Mac OS X introduced the new Darwin Unix-like core and a totally new system of memory management. It proved to be a rocky start to the Mac OS X line, plagued with missing features and performance issues, although it was praised for being a good start to an operating system still in its infancy, in terms of completeness and overall operating system stability. Unlike later releases of Mac OS X, the cat-themed code name was not used in marketing the new operating system. The system requirements for Mac OS X v10.0 were not well received by the Macintosh community, as at the time the amount of RAM
    6.33
    3 votes
    147

    OS/8

    • Developer: Digital Equipment Corporation
    OS/8 was the primary operating system used on the PDP-8 minicomputer developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts. OS/8 was originally called MS/8 and, for a brief time, PS/8 ("Programming System/8") before Digital settled on the name OS/8 in 1971. A virtually identical version of OS/8, called OS/12, was later used with Digital's PDP-12 computer. Digital released OS/8 images for non-commercial purposes which can be emulated through SIMH. OS/8 provided a simple operating environment that was commensurate in complexity and scale with the PDP-8 computers on which it ran. I/O was supported via a series of supplied drivers which used polled (not interrupt-driven) techniques. The device drivers had to be cleverly written as they could only occupy one or two memory pages of 128 12-bit words, and had to be able to run in any page in field 0. This often required considerable cleverness, such as the use of the OPR instruction (7XXX) for small negative constants. The memory-resident "footprint" of OS/8 was only 256 words; 128 words at the top of Field 0 and 128 words at the top of Field 1. The rest of the operating system (the USR, "User Service Routines") was swapped
    6.33
    3 votes
    148

    Unix

    • Developer: Bell Labs
    • Includes OS Versions: Linux kernel
    Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix in small caps) is a multitasking, multi-user computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Douglas McIlroy, Michael Lesk and Joe Ossanna. The Unix operating system was first developed in assembly language, but by 1973 had been almost entirely recoded in C, greatly facilitating its further development and porting to other hardware. Today's Unix system evolution is split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors, universities (such as University of California, Berkeley's BSD), and non-profit organizations. The Open Group, an industry standards consortium, owns the UNIX trademark. Only systems fully compliant with and certified according to the Single UNIX Specification are qualified to use the trademark; others might be called Unix system-like or Unix-like, although the Open Group disapproves of this term. However, the term Unix is often used informally to denote any operating system that closely resembles the trademarked system. During the late 1970s and early
    6.33
    3 votes
    149

    Amiga Unix

    Commodore-Amiga, Inc., in 1990, did a full port of AT&T Unix System V Release 4 for the Amiga computer family (in addition to the proprietary AmigaOS shipping with these systems by default), informally known as Amix. Bundled with the Amiga 3000UX, Commodore's Unix was one of the first ports of SVR4 to the 68k architecture. The Amiga A3000UX model even got the attention of Sun Microsystems, though ultimately nothing came of it. Unlike Apple's A/UX, Amiga Unix contained no compatibility layer to allow AmigaOS applications to run under Unix. With few native applications available to take advantage of the Amiga's significant multimedia capabilities, it failed to find a niche in the quite-competitive Unix workstation market of the early 1990s. The A3000UX's price tag of approximately $7,000 was also not very attractive compared to other Unix workstations at the time, such as the NeXTstation ($5,000 for a base system, with a full API and many times the number of applications available), the SGI Indigo (starting at $8,000), or the Personal DECstation 5000 Model 25 (starting at $5,000). Sun, HP, and IBM had similarly priced systems. The A3000UX's 68030 was noticeably underpowered compared
    8.00
    1 votes
    150
    Palm OS

    Palm OS

    • Includes OS Versions: WebOS
    Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is a mobile operating system initially developed by Palm, Inc., for personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 1996. Palm OS is designed for ease of use with a touchscreen-based graphical user interface. It is provided with a suite of basic applications for personal information management. Later versions of the OS have been extended to support smartphones. Several other licensees have manufactured devices powered by Palm OS. Following Palm's purchase of the Palm trademark, the currently licensed version from ACCESS was renamed Garnet OS. In 2007, ACCESS introduced the successor to Garnet OS, called Access Linux Platform and in 2009, the main licensee of Palm OS, Palm, Inc., switched from Palm OS to webOS for their forthcoming devices. Palm OS was originally developed under the direction of Jeff Hawkins at Palm Computing, Inc. Palm was later acquired by U.S. Robotics Corp., which in turn was later bought by 3Com, which made the Palm subsidiary an independent publicly traded company on March 2, 2000. In January 2002, Palm set up a wholly owned subsidiary to develop and license Palm OS, which was named PalmSource. PalmSource was then spun off from Palm as
    8.00
    1 votes
    151
    PS2 Linux

    PS2 Linux

    • Parent OS: Linux kernel
    • Developer: Sony
    Linux for PlayStation 2 (or PS2 Linux) is a kit released by Sony Computer Entertainment in 2002 that allows the PlayStation 2 console to be used as a personal computer. It included a Linux-based operating system, a USB keyboard and mouse, a VGA adapter, a PS2 network adaptor (Ethernet only), and a 40 GB hard disk drive (HDD). An 8 MB memory card is required; it must be formatted during installation, erasing all data previously saved on it, though afterwards the remaining space may be used for savegames. It is strongly recommended that a user of Linux for PlayStation 2 have some basic knowledge of Linux before installing and using it, due to the command-line interface for installation. The official site for the project was closed at the end of October 2009 and communities like ps2dev are no longer active. There is still a small group of enthusiasts that meets on irc.freenode.net in channel sps2. The Linux Kit turns the PlayStation 2 into a full-fledged computer system, but it does not allow for use of the DVD-ROM drive except to read PS1 and PS2 discs due to piracy concerns by Sony. Although the HDD included with the Linux Kit is not compatible with PlayStation 2 games,
    8.00
    1 votes
    152
    ReactOS

    ReactOS

    ReactOS is an open source computer operating system intended to be binary compatible with application software and device drivers made for Microsoft Windows NT versions 5.x and up (Windows 2000 and its successors). A spin-off of a previous attempt to clone Windows 95, development started in early 1998, and has continued with the incremental addition of features already found in Windows. ReactOS is primarily written in C, with some elements, such as ReactOS Explorer, written in C++. The project has been ported to the ARM and AMD64 processor architectures, and partially implements Windows API functionality. The latter is assisted by including parts from the Wine compatibility layer for Unix-like operating systems, but other functionality is implemented by the developers themselves. However, progress has been hampered by a lack of developers with the relevant skill-sets. An extensive code audit is in place to protect against legal problems, such that implementation of the Windows API is only done by means of a complete clean room reverse engineering process. This has been in place following claims made in 2006 by a former developer that the project contains disassembled assembly code
    8.00
    1 votes
    153

    Tinfoil Hat Linux

    Tinfoil Hat Linux (THL) was a compact Linux distribution designed for high security. Version 1.000 was released in February 2002. It appears to be no longer actively maintained as of 2010, though the files are still available in gzip format. THL requires a 386DX computer or better, with at least 8 MB of RAM. The distribution fits on a single ordinary HD floppy. The small footprint provides additional benefits beyond making the system easy to understand and verify- the computer need not even have a hard drive, making it easier to "sanitize" the computer after use. The logo of Tinfoil Hat is Tux, the Linux mascot, wearing a tinfoil hat. Tinfoil Hat uses a number of measures to defeat hardware and software surveillance methods like keystroke logging, video camera, and TEMPEST: An advantage of THL is that it can be used on virtually any modern PC using the x86 processor architecture. For example, one might install it on a computer that is kept in a locked room, not connected to any network, and used only for cryptographically signing keys. While the paranoid mode security measures may seem over the top and might be found funny, they are a good education in the types of issues that must
    8.00
    1 votes
    154
    Web browser

    Web browser

    A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. A web browser can also be defined as an application software or program designed to enable users to access, retrieve and view documents and other resources on the Internet. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems. The major web browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari. The first web browser was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee. It was called WorldWideWeb (no spaces) and was later renamed Nexus. In 1993, browser software was further innovated by Marc Andreessen with the release of Mosaic (later Netscape), "the world's first popular browser", which made the World Wide Web system easy to use and more accessible to the average person. Andreesen's browser
    8.00
    1 votes
    155

    Z/OS

    • Developer: IBM
    z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for mainframe computers, produced by IBM. It derives from and is the successor to OS/390, which in turn followed a string of MVS versions. Like OS/390, z/OS combines a number of formerly separate, related products, some of which are still optional. z/OS offers the attributes of modern operating systems but also retains much of the functionality originating in the 1960s and each subsequent decade that is still found in daily use (backward compatibility is one of z/OS's central design philosophies). z/OS was first introduced in October, 2000. z/OS supports stable mainframe systems and standards such as CICS, IMS, DB2, RACF, SNA, WebSphere MQ, record-oriented data access methods, REXX, CLIST, SMP/E, JCL, TSO/E, and ISPF, among others. However, z/OS also supports 64-bit Java, C/C++, and UNIX (Single UNIX Specification) APIs and applications through UNIX System Services  — The Open Group certifies z/OS as a compliant UNIX operating system — with UNIX/Linux-style hierarchical HFS and zFS file systems. As a result, z/OS hosts a broad range of commercial and open source software of any vintage. z/OS can communicate directly via TCP/IP, including IPv6, and
    8.00
    1 votes
    156
    BlackBerry

    BlackBerry

    • Developer: Research In Motion
    BlackBerry is a brand of wireless handheld devices and services developed by Research In Motion (RIM). The first BlackBerry device, an email pager, was released in 1999; the 100 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped in June quarter of 2010 and the 200 millionth smartphone was shipped in September quarter of 2012. Most BlackBerry devices are smartphones and are primarily known for their ability to send and receive push email and instant messages while maintaining a high level of security through on-device message encryption. They are also designed to function as personal digital assistants, portable media players, internet browsers, gaming devices, cameras and more. BlackBerry devices support a large variety of instant messaging features, with the most popular being the proprietary BlackBerry Messenger service. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet computer offered by RIM. BlackBerry accounts for 3% of mobile device sales worldwide in 2011, making its manufacturer RIM the sixth most popular device maker (25% of mobile device sales are smartphones). The consumer BlackBerry Internet Service is available in 91 countries worldwide on over 500 mobile service operators using various
    7.00
    2 votes
    157

    DOS

    • Developer: Microsoft
    DOS (/dɒs/), short for "Disk Operating System", is an acronym for several closely related operating systems that dominated the IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995, or until about 2000 if one includes the partially DOS-based Microsoft Windows versions 95, 98, and Millennium Edition. Related systems include MS-DOS, PC-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS, PTS-DOS, ROM-DOS, Novell DOS, OpenDOS, 86-DOS and several others. In spite of the common usage, none of these systems were simply named "DOS" (a name given only to an unrelated IBM mainframe operating system in the 1960s). A number of unrelated, non-x86 microcomputer disk operating systems had "DOS" in their name, and are often referred to simply as "DOS" when discussing machines that use them (e.g. AmigaDOS, AMSDOS, ANDOS, Apple DOS, Atari DOS, Commodore DOS, CSI-DOS, ProDOS, and TRS-DOS). While providing many of the same operating system functions for their respective computer systems, programs running under any one of these operating systems would not run under others. IBM PC-DOS (and the separately sold MS-DOS) and its predecessor, 86-DOS, were loosely inspired by Digital Research's CP/M, which was the dominant disk operating system
    7.00
    2 votes
    158

    GNU Mach

    GNU Mach is an implementation of the Mach microkernel. It is the default microkernel in the GNU Hurd operating system. GNU Mach runs on IA-32 machines. GNU Mach is maintained by developers on the GNU project. Anybody can use, modify, and redistribute it under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). Early versions of the Hurd were developed on top of CMU's Mach 3.0. In 1994, CMU stopped working on Mach, and the GNU Project switched to Utah's Mach 4. The kernel known as "GNU Mach" was derived from Mach 4 once Utah stopped development. The first ChangeLog entry by Thomas Bushnell (rather than by a Utah researcher) is from 16 December 1996. In 2002, Roland McGrath branched the OSKit-Mach branch from GNU Mach 1.2, intending to replace all the device drivers and some of the hardware support with code from OSKit. After the release of GNU Mach 1.3, this branch was intended to become the GNU Mach 2.0 main line; however, as of 2006, OSKit-Mach is not being developed. As of 2007, development continues on the GNU Mach 1.x branch, and is working towards a 1.4 release.
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    Jari OS

    Jari OS

    Jari OS is a microkernel based real-time operating system with multi-server architecture and preemptible kernel. The source code of Jari OS is published under GNU General Public License. Jari is a not a name, it stands for Just another Research in i.e. full name looks as Just another Research in Operating Systems. Jari OS was an attempt to create a system that operates only with files (in other words, in Jari OS all is a file including address space areas). The project appeared in 2005. After several months of development, project has to be frozen for several years. In summer 2008, project founder decided to continue development with new exokernel-like design, real-time support, multi-server architecture, but several month later Jari OS was sponsored by software development company. Jari OS founder has been employed and he has made a small R&D team. Exokernel design was rejected during research, and microkernel architecture was taken, but instead of classical solutions Jari OS microkernel (μString) doesn't works with services protocols and all intercommunications between services and users going peer-to-peer via IPC. Currently project has a complete design and middle-sized team
    7.00
    2 votes
    160
    S60 platform

    S60 platform

    The S60 Platform (formerly Series 60 User Interface) is a software platform for mobile phones that runs on Symbian OS. It was created by Nokia (with Sony, as co-creator of the software), who made the platform open source and contributed it to the Symbian Foundation. The first S60 was developed in 2001 and released in 2002 for the Nokia 7650, and the OS platform has since seen 5 updated editions. The S60 has since been replaced for smartphones by Nokia Belle OS, as well as the non-Nokia Windows Phone. Symbian (all Symbian products) was the most popular smartphone OS in the market back in 2010 with 37.6% of the sector’s total sales and 111.6m handsets sold in 2010. But now with the strong presence of the Android and iOS, the share of Symbian OS has been reduced to an all time low of 6.8%. S60 consists of a suite of libraries and standard applications, such as telephony, personal information manager (PIM) tools, and Helix-based multimedia players. It is intended to power fully featured modern phones with large colour screens, which are commonly known as smartphones. The S60 software is a multivendor standard for smartphones that supports application development in Java MIDP, C++,
    7.00
    2 votes
    161

    Slackware

    • Parent OS: Linux kernel
    • Developer: Patrick Volkerding
    • Includes OS Versions: Zenwalk Linux
    Slackware is a free and open source Linux-based operating system. It was one of the earliest operating systems to be built on top of the Linux kernel and is the oldest currently being maintained. Slackware was created by Patrick Volkerding of Slackware Linux, Inc. in 1993. The current stable version is 14.0, released on 28 September 2012. Slackware aims for design stability and simplicity, and to be the most "Unix-like" Linux distribution, making as few modifications as possible to software packages from upstream and using plain text files and a small set of shell scripts for configuration and administration. The name "Slackware" stems from the fact that the distribution started as a private side project with no intended commitment. To prevent it from being taken too seriously at first, Volkerding gave it a humorous name, which stuck even after Slackware became a serious project. Slackware refers to the "pursuit of slack", a tenet of the Church of the Subgenius. Certain aspects of Slackware logos reflect this — the pipe which Tux is smoking, and the image of J. R. "Bob" Dobbs' head. A humorous reference to the Church of the Subgenius can be found in many versions of the install.end
    7.00
    2 votes
    162
    Ubuntu Studio

    Ubuntu Studio

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    Ubuntu Studio is an officially recognized derivative of the Ubuntu Linux distribution, which is explicitly geared to general multimedia production. The original version, based on Ubuntu 7.04, was released on May 10, 2007. The real-time kernel, first included with Ubuntu Studio 8.04, was modified for intensive audio, video or graphics work. The 8.10 release lacks this real-time kernel. It has been reimplemented in the 9.04 release and stabilized with the release of 9.10. 10.04, in contrast, does not include the real-time kernel by default. As of version 10.10, the real-time kernel is no longer available in the repositories, but work is in progress to include a low-latency kernel back into the release. Typically, computers used as audio workstations rely on hardware monitoring which may provide low latency, but does not allow the live signal to be manipulated beyond available hardware effects. To manipulate a live signal, software processing of the signal is necessary, which most audio work stations can only achieve with latencies greater than several tens of milliseconds. Thus, a notable advantage of the Linux real-time kernel is being able to achieve software processing with
    7.00
    2 votes
    163

    Ultrix

    Ultrix (officially all-caps ULTRIX) was the brand name of Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) native Unix systems. While ultrix is the Latin word for avenger, the name was chosen solely for its sound. The initial development of Unix occurred on DEC equipment, notably DEC PDP-7 and PDP-11 (Programmable Data Processor) systems. Later DEC computers, such as their VAX systems, were also popular platforms on which to run Unix; the first port to VAX, UNIX/32V, was finished in 1978 (the VAX was only released in October 1977). However DEC only supplied their own proprietary operating system, VMS, prior to officially supporting Unix. Absolutely key to bringing Unix to inside the company, DEC's Unix Engineering Group (UEG) was started by Bill Munson with Jerry Brenner and Fred Canter, both from DEC's premier Customer Service Engineering group, Bill Shannon (from Case Western Reserve University), and Armando Stettner (from Bell Labs). Other later members of UEG included Joel Magid, Bill Doll, and Jim Barclay recruited from DEC's various marketing and product management groups. The UEG team, under Canter's direction, released V7M, a modified version of Unix 7th Edition (q.v.). Shannon and
    7.00
    2 votes
    164

    Windows XP Media Center Edition

    • Parent OS: Windows XP
    Windows XP Media Center Edition (MCE) is a version of the Windows XP operating system designed to serve as a home-entertainment hub. The last version, Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005, was released in October 2004. Windows XP Media Center Edition has had the following releases, all based on Windows XP Professional with all features enabled except domain-joining ability disabled in Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 and Terminal Services in the original release. A preview version of Windows XP Media Center Edition from Microsoft's eHome division, was shown at CES 2002, with the final version released later that year. To determine the underlying edition of Windows XP on which a particular revision of MCE is based, the System Properties Control Panel applet can be used. To determine the revision of MCE that is being used, select the About Media Center option from the General -> Settings area inside MCE. Windows XP Media Center Edition is distinguished from other editions of Windows XP by an exclusive preinstalled application, Media Center, which provides a large-font ("10-foot"), remotely accessible interface for TV viewing on the computer as well as recording and playback, DVD
    7.00
    2 votes
    165

    YOPER

    Yoper Linux—Your Operating System—is a Linux distribution for PCs with i686 (Pentium Pro) or higher processor types. It can be used for both personal computers and server use and uses hardware recognition tools known from Knoppix. The defining feature of the distribution is a set of custom optimizations intended to make it the "fastest out-of-the-box distribution." The project was originally founded by Andreas Girardet and is currently maintained by Tobias Gerschner. The distribution is scratch-built as opposed to modifying one of the more popular distributions to create a new distribution. Yoper is also the Auckland, New Zealand based company which is developing and selling Yoper Linux.
    7.00
    2 votes
    166

    386BSD

    386BSD, sometimes called "Jolix", was a free Unix-like operating system based on BSD, first released in 1992. It ran on PC-compatible computer systems based on the Intel 80386 microprocessor. 386BSD innovations include role-based security, ring buffers, self-ordered configuration and modular kernel design. 386BSD was written mainly by Berkeley alumni Lynne Jolitz and William Jolitz. William Jolitz had considerable experience with prior BSD releases while at the University of California at Berkeley (2.8 and 2.9BSD) and both contributed code to Berkeley developed at Symmetric Computer Systems during the 1980s. Work on porting 4.3BSD-Reno and later 4.3BSD Net/2 to the Intel 80386 was done for the University of California by William Jolitz at Berkeley. 4.3BSD Net/2 was an incomplete non-operational release, with portions withheld by the University of California as encumbered (i.e. subject to an AT&T UNIX source code license). The 386BSD releases made to the public beginning in 1992 were based on portions of the 4.3BSD Net/2 release coupled with additional code (see Missing Pieces I and II, Dr. Dobb's Journal, May–June 1992) written by William and Lynne Jolitz to make a complete
    6.00
    3 votes
    167
    Ark Linux

    Ark Linux

    Ark Linux is a Linux distribution maintained by a group of volunteers and aims to be easy to install and use. Its default desktop environment is KDE. Ark Linux is available both as an installable CD and as a Live CD, and is free software. The primary goals of Ark Linux are: The Ark Linux core system is made up of one CD that tries to provide what the typical new desktop user will need, such as an office suite, Internet access tools, instant messaging and filesharing clients. Nothing else is included, for example server-centric applications and development tools are not part of the core system. Many applications that are not included in the core system can be installed online using Advanced Packaging Tool, and are available on add-on CDs. Additionally, a separate online repository of unsupported software (this includes software that's free to use, but not open source, such as Adobe Flash) is available. Ark Linux uses APT-RPM, a version of the APT for the RPM, with Kynaptic (a KDE port of Synaptic) as the graphical frontend, to manage its packages. Future releases of Ark will use ZYpp as a replacement, making Ark the first third-party distribution to use the native package manager of
    6.00
    3 votes
    168

    Plan 9

    • Parent OS: Unix
    • Developer: Ken Thompson
    Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a free software distributed operating system. It was developed primarily for research purposes as the successor to Unix by the Computing Sciences Research Center at Bell Labs between the mid-1980s and 2002. Plan 9 continues to be used and developed by operating system researchers and hobbyists. Plan 9 has novel features such as the 9P protocol for accessing local and remote resources as files, union mounts, an improved proc file system, and native unicode support throughout the system. In Plan 9, all system interfaces, including those required for networking and the user interface, are represented through the file system rather than specialized interfaces. The name Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a reference to the Ed Wood 1959 cult science fiction Z-movie Plan 9 from Outer Space. Also, Glenda, the Plan 9 Bunny, is presumably a reference to Wood's film Glen or Glenda. Plan 9 was a Bell Labs internal project from its start during the mid 1980s. It replaced Unix as Bell Labs's primary platform for operating systems research. It explored several changes to the original Unix model that facilitate the use and programming of the system, notably in distributed multi-user
    6.00
    3 votes
    169

    V

    The V operating system (sometimes written V-System) is a microkernel operating system that was developed by faculty and students in the distributed systems group at Stanford University from 1981 to 1988, led by Professors David Cheriton and Keith A. Lantz. V was the successor to the Thoth and Verex operating systems that Cheriton had developed in the 1970s. The key concepts in V are multithreading and synchronous message passing. The original V terminology uses "process" for what is now commonly called a "thread", and "team" for what is now commonly called a "process" consisting of multiple threads sharing an address space. Communication between threads in V uses synchronous message passing, with short, fixed-length messages that can include access rights for the receiver to read or write part of the sender's address space before replying. The same message-passing interface is used both between threads within one process, between threads of different processes within one machine, and between threads on different machines connected by a local Ethernet. A thread receiving a message is not required to reply to it before receiving other messages; this distinguished the model from Ada
    6.00
    3 votes
    170
    HP-UX

    HP-UX

    • Developer: Hewlett-Packard
    HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packard's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on UNIX System V (initially System III) and first released in 1984. Recent versions support the HP 9000 series of computer systems, based on the PA-RISC processor architecture, and HP Integrity systems, based on Intel's Itanium architecture. Earlier versions of HP-UX supported the HP Integral PC and HP 9000 Series 200, 300, and 400 computer systems based on the Motorola 68000 series of processors, as well as the HP 9000 Series 500 computers based on HP's proprietary FOCUS processor architecture. HP-UX was the first Unix to offer access control lists for file access permissions as an alternative to the standard Unix permissions system. HP-UX was also among the first Unix systems to include a built-in logical volume manager. HP has had a long partnership with Veritas Software, and integrates VxFS as the primary file system. In 2008 HP-UX 11i was credited with leadership in integrated mission-critical virtualization, observed performance, high availability and manageability. The current shipping release is HP-UX 11i v3 with the March 2012 update release (the 10th update for
    5.67
    3 votes
    171
    Ubuntu Buddhist Remix

    Ubuntu Buddhist Remix

    • Parent OS: Ubuntu
    Ubuntu-Buddha is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. It is tailored for Buddhist users and includes Buddhist Scriptural study tools. It is notable In North America because Ubuntu Buddhist Remix follows recent trends in Linux-based distros (specefically Ubuntu) to be religiously-oriented, like Ubuntu Christian Edition and Sabily (formerly Ubuntu Muslim Edition). Its origin derived from a felt need in the Ubuntu community to develop a Buddhist-oriented distribution of Ubuntu that paralleled, matched, or outperformed its respective cousin distributions. A Linux-Live CD for Buddhist Studies has already been made available by the Linux Live CD for Buddhist Studies/International School of Buddhism; however Ubuntu Buddhist Remix is unique in that it promises to take the said CD and enhance it to a more Americanized and mainstreamed flavor, promising unique and cutting edge software such as a User-Adaptive Operating System, that will be based on existing debian packages related to machine learning. It is notable in its user adaptive in that not only does it reflect current American trends towards the Buddhist religion, but promises to deliver an Ubuntu-based distribution that can learn
    5.67
    3 votes
    172
    Google Chrome

    Google Chrome

    Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google that uses the WebKit layout engine. It was released as a beta version for Microsoft Windows on September 2, 2008, and as a stable public release on December 11, 2008. As of September 2012, according to StatCounter, Google Chrome had 34% worldwide usage share of web browsers making it the most widely used web browser. W3Counter indicated that Chrome became the leading browser globally in August 2012 with 28% marketshare. However, Net Applications indicates that Chrome is only third when it comes to the size of its user base, behind Internet Explorer and Firefox. In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome's source code as an open source project called Chromium, which Chrome releases are still based on. Google's Chief Executive Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that "at the time, Google was a small company", and he did not want to go through "bruising browser wars". After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, however, Schmidt admitted that "It was so good that it
    6.50
    2 votes
    173

    Mac OS X v10.3

    • Parent OS: Mac OS X
    Mac OS X Panther (version 10.3) is the fourth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server operating system. It followed Mac OS X v10.2 "Jaguar" and preceded Mac OS X Tiger (version 10.4). Apple released Panther on October 24, 2003. Since a New World ROM is required for Mac OS X Panther, certain older computers (such as beige Power Mac G3s and “Wall Street” PowerBook G3s) are unable to run Panther by default. Third-party software (such as XPostFacto) can, however, override checks made during the install process; otherwise, installation or upgrades from Jaguar will fail on these older machines. The system requirements are: Video conferencing requires: Panther still supported the Classic environment fully for running older Mac OS 9 applications but made Classic application windows double-buffered, which interfered with some applications expecting to directly draw to the screen. Apple advertised that Mac OS X Panther had 150+ new features, including:
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    MEPIS

    MEPIS

    • Parent OS: Debian GNU/Linux
    • Developer: Waren Woodford
    MEPIS ( /ˈmɛpɨs/) is a set of Linux distributions, distributed as Live CDs that can be installed onto a hard disk drive. MEPIS is developed and maintained by an active community begun by Warren Woodford and the eponymous company MEPIS LLC. The most popular MEPIS distribution is SimplyMEPIS, which is based primarily on Debian stable. It can either be installed onto a hard drive or used as a Live CD, which makes it externally bootable for troubleshooting and repairing many operating systems. It includes the KDE desktop environment. MEPIS LLC offers senior consulting services for product strategy, architecture design, business and systems analysis, and cross-platform software development. MEPIS was designed as an alternative to SUSE Linux, Red Hat Linux, and Mandriva Linux (formerly Mandrake) which, in the creator Warren Woodford's opinion, were too difficult for the average user. MEPIS's first official release was on May 10, 2003. In 2006, MEPIS made a transition from using Debian packages to using Ubuntu packages. SimplyMEPIS 6.0, released in July 2006, was the first version of MEPIS to incorporate the Ubuntu packages and repositories. SimplyMEPIS 7.0 discontinued the use of Ubuntu
    6.50
    2 votes
    175
    OpenBSD

    OpenBSD

    • Parent OS: Berkeley Software Distribution
    • Developer: OpenBSD Project
    OpenBSD is a Unix computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It was forked from NetBSD by project leader Theo de Raadt in late 1995. As well as the operating system, the OpenBSD Project has produced portable versions of numerous subsystems, most notably PF, OpenSSH and OpenSSL, which are very widely available as packages in other operating systems. The project is also widely known for the developers' insistence on open-source code and quality documentation, uncompromising position on software licensing, and focus on security and code correctness. The project is coordinated from de Raadt's home in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Its logo and mascot is a pufferfish named Puffy. OpenBSD includes a number of security features absent or optional in other operating systems, and has a tradition in which developers audit the source code for software bugs and security problems. The project maintains strict policies on licensing and prefers the open-source BSD licence and its variants—in the past this has led to a comprehensive license audit and moves to remove or replace code under licences
    6.50
    2 votes
    176
    OpenWrt

    OpenWrt

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    • Developer: Mike Baker
    OpenWrt is an operating system primarily used on embedded devices to route network traffic. The main components are the Linux kernel, uClibc and BusyBox. All components have been optimized for size, to be small enough to fit the limited storage and memory available in home routers. OpenWrt is configured using a command-line interface (ash), or a web interface (LuCI). There are about 2000 optional software packages available for install via the opkg package management system. OpenWrt can be run on CPE routers, residential gateways, smartphones (e.g. Neo FreeRunner), pocket computers (e.g. Ben NanoNote), and small laptops (e.g. One Laptop per Child (OLPC)). But it is also possible to run on ordinary computers (e.g. x86). The project incorporates a wiki, a forum, SVN source version control and Trac for project management, bug-tracking, and code development. Additional technical support is also provided via Internet Relay Chat (IRC). The features include: Before release 8.09, OpenWrt had a minimal web interface. In release 8.09 a new, more capable web interface is included. This interface is based on LuCI, an MVC framework written in Lua. The X-Wrt project provides an alternative web
    6.50
    2 votes
    177

    VM/CMS

    VM/CMS (Virtual Machine/Conversational Monitor System, originally called CP/CMS when it first appeared) is a bundled pair of operating system used on IBM System/360, System/370, System/390, zSeries, and System z9 mainframe (and compatible systems). (Other operating systems for IBM mainframe include z/OS, z/TPF, z/VSE, Linux on zSeries, MVS, and MUSIC/SP.) VM/CMS has two main components, VM and CMS, each an independent operating system. VM is a virtual machine operating system which provides each user with what seems to be their own personal mainframe. CMS is a relatively simple single-user operating system, designed to run principally in a virtual machine. Each VM/CMS user is given their own virtual machine in which to run CMS. When used with CMS, VM is an operating system which can support users, not just a hypervisor. Development started on what was then called the "CP-40 Project," working with a modified System 360 Model 40, at IBM's Cambridge Scientific Center (CSC) in the autumn of 1964. CP-40 was a virtual machine operating system. A simple interactive computing single-user operating system, CMS, was designed to go along with it. Actual implementation started in 1965,
    6.50
    2 votes
    178
    Windows Vista

    Windows Vista

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    • Developer: Microsoft
    • Includes OS Versions: Windows Vista Home Basic
    Windows Vista is an operating system released in several variations by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Prior to its announcement on July 22, 2005, Windows Vista was known by its codename "Longhorn". Development was completed on November 8, 2006, and over the following three months, it was released in stages to computer hardware and software manufacturers, business customers and retail channels. On January 30, 2007, it was released worldwide and was made available for purchase and download from Microsoft's website. The release of Windows Vista came more than five years after the introduction of its predecessor, Windows XP, the longest time span between successive releases of Microsoft Windows desktop operating systems. It was succeeded by Windows 7, which was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009 and released worldwide for retail on October 22, 2009. Windows Vista contained many changes and new features, including an updated graphical user interface and visual style dubbed Aero, a redesigned search function, multimedia tools including Windows DVD Maker, and redesigned networking, audio,
    4.20
    5 votes
    179
    ALinux

    ALinux

    aLinux ( /ˌeɪˈlɪnəks/) is a Linux distribution created and maintained by Jay Klepacs. It uses KDE as its default desktop environment. It is designed to have a Windows-style "look". Retrieved on May 22, 2007 aLinux's original name was Peanut Linux. Peanut began as a mini-OS, along the lines of Xubuntu or DSL. Peanut went through several revisions between 9.6 and 12.0, and was not officially released to the public during this period. During version 12.1 development, a Peanut package repository (for use with the new Synaptic clone) was released. Retrieved on May 24, 2007
    7.00
    1 votes
    180

    Mac OS X

    • Parent OS: Mac OS
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    • Includes OS Versions: Mac OS X v10.3
    OS X ( /oʊ ˌɛs ˈtɛn/), formerly Mac OS X, is a series of Unix-based graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. OS X is designed to run exclusively on Macintosh computers, having been pre-loaded on all Macs since 2002. OS X, whose X is the Roman numeral for 10 and is a prominent part of its brand identity, is built on technologies developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in late 1996. It was the successor to Mac OS 9, released in 1999, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Apple also uses 'X' in 'OS X' to emphasize the relatedness between OS X and UNIX. Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" running on Intel processors, Mac OS X v10.6 "Snow Leopard", OS X v10.7 "Lion" and OS X v10.8 "Mountain Lion" have obtained UNIX 03 certification. iOS, which runs on the iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, and the 2nd and 3rd generation Apple TV, shares the Darwin core and many frameworks with OS X. An unnamed variant of Mac OS X 10.4 powered the first generation Apple TV. OS X originally ran on PowerPC-based Macs. In 2006, the first Intel Macs had a specialized
    7.00
    1 votes
    181
    Moblin

    Moblin

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    • Developer: Intel Corporation
    • Includes OS Versions: MeeGo
    Moblin, short for 'mobile Linux', was an open source operating system and application stack for Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs), netbooks, nettops and embedded devices. It has since been merged into the MeeGo project, and bears its name. Built around the Intel Atom processor, current builds are designed to minimize boot times and power consumption to create a netbook and MID-centric operating system. The netbook/desktop version of Moblin currently supports other chipsets based on the SSSE3 instruction set, such as the Core2 and some Celeron processors. Commercial products built around Moblin 2 include a Foxconn netbook and an InvenTech smartphone, both announced at Computex 2009. Acer has also announced the replacement of Linpus Linux with Moblin on their Acer Aspire One netbooks. For its mobile Internet device class smartphone LG GW990, LG Electronics chose Moblin OS 2.1. More recently, Dell began accepting orders for its Ubuntu Moblin Remix, a Canonical Ltd. project that builds Moblin using a more full-featured Ubuntu distribution as base . Mandriva has started to offer Moblin's v2 version to all Mandriva distribution and netbook owners. At the Consumer Electronics Show in
    7.00
    1 votes
    182

    MSX BASIC

    MSX BASIC is a dialect of the BASIC programming language. It is an extended version of Microsoft Standard BASIC Version 4.5, and includes support for graphic, music, and various peripherals attached to MSX Personal Computers. Generally, MSX-BASIC is designed to follow GW-BASIC, which is one of the standard BASICs running on 16-bit computers. During the creation of MSX-BASIC, a major effort was made to make the system as flexible and expandable as possible. MSX BASIC came bundled in the ROM of all MSX computers. At system start-up MSX BASIC is invoked, causing its command prompt to be displayed, unless other software placed in ROM takes control (which is the typical case of game cartridges and disk interfaces, the latter causing the MSX-DOS prompt to be shown if there is a disk present which contains the DOS system files). When MSX BASIC is invoked, the ROM code for BIOS and the BASIC interpreter itself are visible on the lower 32K of the Z80 addressing space. The upper 32K are set to RAM, of which about 23K to 28K are available for BASIC code and data (the exact amount depends on the presence of disk controller and on the MSX-DOS kernel version). MSX BASIC development environment
    7.00
    1 votes
    183
    OpenGEU

    OpenGEU

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    OpenGEU was a free computer operating system based upon the popular GNU/Linux distribution, Ubuntu, which in turn is based on Debian GNU/Linux. OpenGEU combined the strengths and ease of use of GNOME desktop environment with the lightweight, and graphical eye candy features of the Enlightenment window manager into a unique and user-friendly desktop. While OpenGEU was originally derived from Ubuntu, the design of the user interface made it appear significantly different to the user with original art themes, software, and tools. Initially called Geubuntu (a mix of GNOME, Enlightenment and Ubuntu), OpenGEU was an unofficial re-working of Ubuntu. The name change from Geubuntu to OpenGEU occurred on 21 January 2008 in order to remove the "-buntu" suffix from its name. This was done in respect for Ubuntu's own trademark policies, which require all officially recognized Ubuntu derivatives to be based upon software found only in the official Ubuntu repositories–a criterion not met by OpenGEU. Installation of OpenGEU was generally performed via a Live CD, which allowed the user to first test OpenGEU on their system prior to installation (albeit with a performance limit from loading
    7.00
    1 votes
    184
    OpenSolaris

    OpenSolaris

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    OpenSolaris ( /ˈoʊpən sɵˈlɑrɨs/) was an open source computer operating system based on Solaris created by Sun Microsystems. It was also the name of the project initiated by Sun to build a developer and user community around the software. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in 2010, Oracle decided to discontinue open development of the core software, and replaced the OpenSolaris distribution model with the proprietary Solaris Express. Prior to Oracle's moving of core development "behind closed doors", a group of former OpenSolaris developers decided to "fork" the core software under the name OpenIndiana. The project, a part of the Illumos Foundation, aims to continue the development and distribution of the OpenSolaris codebase. OpenSolaris is a descendant of the UNIX System V Release 4 (SVR4) code base developed by Sun and AT&T in the late 1980s. It is the only version of the System V variant of UNIX available as open source. OpenSolaris is developed as a combination of several software consolidations that were open sourced subsequent to Solaris 10. It includes a variety of free software, including popular desktop and server software. On Friday, August 13, 2010, details
    7.00
    1 votes
    185

    TOPS-20

    The TOPS-20 operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) was the second proprietary OS for the PDP-10 mainframe computer. TOPS-20 began in 1969 as the TENEX operating system of Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN). TOPS-20 is almost entirely unrelated to the similarly named TOPS-10, but it was shipped with the PA1050 TOPS-10 Monitor Calls emulation facility which allowed most, but not all, TOPS-10 executables to run unchanged. As a matter of policy, DEC did not update PA1050 to support later TOPS-10 additions except where required by DEC software. TOPS-20 was preferred by most PDP-10 users over TOPS-10 (at least by those who were not ITS or WAITS partisans). In the 1960s, BBN was involved in a number of LISP-based artificial intelligence projects for DARPA, many of which had very large (for the era) memory requirements. One solution to this problem was to add paging software to the LISP language, allowing it to write out unused portions of memory to disk for later recall if needed. One such system had been developed for the PDP-1 at MIT by Daniel Murphy before he joined BBN. Early DEC machines were based on an 18-bit word, allowing addresses to encode for a 262-kword memory.
    7.00
    1 votes
    186

    UserLinux

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    UserLinux was a project to create a operating system based on Debian, and targeted at business customers. The goal was to provide businesses with a freely available, high quality operating system accompanied by certifications, service, and support options. The project was initiated by Bruce Perens in late 2003. With the success of Ubuntu since 2005 which had the same aims, the project stalled. As of 2006, the project has not been able to ship any software, and all activity has ceased.
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Damn Small Linux

    Damn Small Linux

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    • Includes OS Versions: Hikarunix
    Damn Small Linux or DSL is a computer operating system for the x86 family of personal computers. It is free and open source software under the terms of GNU GPL and other free and open source licenses. It was designed to run graphical applications on older PC hardware—for example, machines with 486/early Pentium processors and very little memory. DSL is a Live CD with a size of 50 MB. What originally started as an experiment to see how much software could fit in 50 MB eventually became a full-fledged Linux distribution. It can be installed on storage media with small capacities, like bootable business cards, USB flash drives, various memory cards, and Zip drives. DSL was originally conceived and maintained by John Andrews. For five years the community included Robert Shingledecker who created the MyDSL system, DSL Control Panel and other features. After issues with the main developers, Robert was, according to himself, exiled from the project. He currently continues his work on Tiny Core Linux which he created in April 2008. DSL was originally based on Model-K, a 22 MB stripped down version of Knoppix, but soon after was based on Knoppix proper, allowing much easier remastering and
    5.33
    3 votes
    188

    MiNT

    MiNT ("MiNT is Now TOS") is a free software alternative operating system kernel for the Atari ST and its successors. Together with the free system components fVDI (device drivers), XaAES (GUI widgets), and TeraDesk (a file manager), MiNT provides a free TOS compatible replacement OS that is capable of multitasking. MiNT was originally released by Eric Smith as "MiNT is Not TOS" (a play on "GNU's Not Unix"). Atari adopted MiNT as an official alternative kernel with the release of the Atari Falcon, slightly altering the MiNT acronym into "MiNT is Now TOS". Atari bundled MiNT with AES 4.0 (a multitasking version of GEM) under the name MultiTOS. After Atari left the computer market, MiNT development has been continued by a core of volunteers. Nowadays the official name has been changed to "FreeMiNT" upon request by Eric Smith. The reason for this was to distinguish it from the versions that were released by Atari. There are several distributions, most notably the RPM-based SpareMiNT as well as the Debian GNU/MiNT porting effort. Geneva The only known AES project from the US was contributed by programmer Dan Wilga of Gribnif software. The initial aim of Geneva was to provide a
    5.33
    3 votes
    189
    Mozilla Firefox

    Mozilla Firefox

    Mozilla Firefox is a free and open source web browser developed for Microsoft Windows, OS X, and Linux, coordinated by Mozilla Corporation and Mozilla Foundation. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. As of October 2012, Firefox has approximately 20% to 24% of worldwide usage share of web browsers, making it the second or third most widely used web browser, according to different sources. According to Mozilla, Firefox counts with over 450 milllion users around the world. The browser has had particular success in Indonesia, Germany, and Poland, where it is the most popular browser with 65%, 47% and 47% of the market share, respectively. The Firefox project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt and Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser. To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that
    5.33
    3 votes
    190
    Mythbuntu

    Mythbuntu

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    Mythbuntu is a media center operating system (OS). It is based on Ubuntu and integrates the MythTV Media center software as its main function, and does not install with all of the programs included with Ubuntu. Following the principles of KnoppMyth and Mythdora, Mythbuntu is designed to simplify the installation of MythTV on a home theater PC. After Mythbuntu has been installed the MythTV setup program begins in which it can be configured as a frontend (a media viewer), backend (a media server), or combination of the two. Mythbuntu aims to keep close ties with Ubuntu thus allowing changes to be moved upstream for the greater benefit of the Ubuntu Community. Due to the close link with Ubuntu, easy conversions between desktop and standalone Mythbuntu installations are possible. The development cycle of Mythbuntu closely follows that of Ubuntu, with releases occurring every six months. Mythbuntu uses the Xfce desktop interface by default, but users can install ubuntu-desktop, kubuntu-desktop, or xubuntu-desktop through the Mythbuntu Control Centre, allowing users to get the default interfaces from those flavors of Ubuntu. The only software that is included in this release is
    5.33
    3 votes
    191
    PCLinuxOS

    PCLinuxOS

    • Parent OS: Mandriva Linux
    • Developer: Bill Reynolds
    PCLinuxOS, often shortened to PCLOS, is a GNU/Linux distribution, with KDE Plasma Desktop as its default user interface. It is a primarily free software operating system for personal computers aimed at ease of use. It is partially considered as a rolling release. The precursor to PCLinuxOS was a set of RPM packages created to improve successive versions of Mandrake Linux (now Mandriva Linux). These packages were created by Bill Reynolds, a packager better known as Texstar. From 2000 to 2003, Texstar maintained his repository of RPM packages in parallel with the PCLinuxOnline site. In an interview, Reynolds said he started PCLinuxOS "to provide an outlet for [his] crazy desire to package source code without having to deal with egos, arrogance and politics." In October 2003, Texstar created a fork of Mandrake Linux 9.2. Working closely with The Live CD Project, Texstar has since developed that fork independently into a full-fledged distribution. The initial releases were successively numbered as "previews": p5, p7, p8 up to p81a, then p9, p91, p92, and p93. Almost all major releases have been accompanied by new boot-up and login screens, along with some changes in icon sets, and
    5.33
    3 votes
    192
    Ubuntu Netbook Remix

    Ubuntu Netbook Remix

    • Parent OS: Ubuntu
    Ubuntu Netbook Edition (UNE), known as Ubuntu Netbook Remix (UNR) prior to the release of Ubuntu 10.04, was a version of Ubuntu that had been optimized to enable it to work better on netbooks and other devices with small screens or with the Intel Atom CPU. UNE was available starting with Ubuntu release 8.04 ("Hardy Heron"). UNE was also an optional preinstalled operating system (OS) on some netbooks such as Dell Inspiron Mini 10v and the Toshiba NB100, and also ran on popular models such as the Acer Aspire One and the Asus Eee PC. Canonical, the developers of Ubuntu, are collaborating with Moblin project to ensure optimization for lower hardware requirements and longer battery life. Beginning with version 10.10, Ubuntu Netbook Edition used the Unity desktop as its desktop interface. The classic netbook interface was available in Ubuntu's software repositories as an option. Because Ubuntu's desktop edition has moved to the same Unity interface as the netbook edition, starting with Ubuntu 11.04, the netbook edition has been merged into the desktop edition. UNE could be installed in several ways: Starting with UNE 10.10, the interface was switched to Unity. Due to the desktop version
    5.33
    3 votes
    193

    VM

    • Developer: IBM
    VM (often: VM/CMS) refers to a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers. The first version, released in 1972, was VM/370, or officially Virtual Machine Facility/370. This was a System/370 reimplementation of earlier CP/CMS operating system. Milestone versions included VM/SP. The current version is z/VM, and is still widely used as one of the main full virtualization solutions for the mainframe market. VM's differences with other IBM mainframe operating systems are primarily due to the unique circumstances in which CP/CMS was built and distributed. The heart of the VM architecture is a control program or hypervisor called VM-CP (usually: CP; sometimes, ambiguously: VM). It runs on the physical hardware, and creates the virtual machine environment. VM-CP provides full virtualization of the physical machine – including all I/O and other privileged operations. It performs the system's resource-sharing, including device management, dispatching, virtual storage management, and other traditional operating system tasks. Each VM user is
    5.33
    3 votes
    194

    Windows XP

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    • Developer: Microsoft
    • Includes OS Versions: Windows XP Home Edition
    Windows XP is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops and media centers. First released to computer manufacturers on August 24, 2001, it is the second most popular version of Windows, based on installed user base. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience", highlighting the enhanced user experience. Windows XP, the successor to Windows 2000 and Windows Me, was the first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoft to be built on the Windows NT kernel. Windows XP was released worldwide for retail sale on October 25, 2001, and over 400 million copies were in use in January 2006. It was succeeded by Windows Vista in January 2007. Direct OEM and retail sales of Windows XP ceased on June 30, 2008. Microsoft continued to sell Windows XP through their System Builders (smaller OEMs who sell assembled computers) program until January 31, 2009. On April 10, 2012, Microsoft reaffirmed that extended support for Windows XP and Office 2003 would end on April 8, 2014 and suggested that administrators begin preparing to migrate to a newer OS. The NT-based versions of Windows, which are programmed in C, C++, and
    5.33
    3 votes
    195
    Commodore 64

    Commodore 64

    The Commodore 64, commonly called C64, C=64 (after the graphic logo on the case) or occasionally CBM 64 (for Commodore Business Machines), or VIC-64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. Volume production started in the spring of 1982, with machines being released on to the market in August at a price of US$ 595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes (65,536 bytes) of RAM, and had favourable sound and graphical specifications when compared to contemporary systems such as the Apple II, at a price that was well below the circa US$ 1200 demanded by Apple. During the C64's lifetime, sales totalled between 12.5 and 17 million units, making it the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. For a substantial period of time (1983–1986), the C64 dominated the market with between 30% and 40% share and 2 million units sold per year, outselling the IBM PC compatibles, Apple Inc. computers, and Atari 8-bit family computers. Sam Tramiel, a later Atari president and the son of Commodore's founder, said in a 1989 interview "When I was at Commodore we were building 400,000 C64s a
    6.00
    2 votes
    196

    CP/M-86

    CP/M-86 was a version of the CP/M operating system that Digital Research (DR) made for the Intel 8086 and Intel 8088. The commands are those of CP/M-80. Executable files used the relocatable .CMD file format (the same filename extension .CMD is used by Microsoft Windows for unrelated batch files). Digital Research also produced a multi-user multitasking operating system compatible with CP/M-86, MP/M-86, which later evolved into Concurrent CP/M-86. When an emulator was added to provide PC DOS compatibility, the system was renamed to Concurrent DOS, which later became Multiuser DOS. The DOS Plus, FlexOS and DR DOS families of operating systems started as derivations of Concurrent DOS. When IBM contacted other companies to obtain components for the IBM PC, the as-yet unreleased CP/M-86 was its first choice for an operating system because CP/M had the most applications at the time. Negotiations between Digital Research and IBM quickly deteriorated over IBM's non-disclosure agreement and its insistence on a one-time fee rather than DRI's usual royalty licensing plan. After discussions with the small company Microsoft, IBM decided to use 86-DOS (QDOS), a CP/M-like operating system that a
    6.00
    2 votes
    197
    Nintendo DS

    Nintendo DS

    The Nintendo DS (ニンテンドーDS, Nintendō DS), is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The console first launched in North America on November 21, 2004. The DS, short for dual screen, introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: an LCD screen working in tandem with a touchscreen, a built-in microphone, and support for wireless connectivity. Both screens are encompassed within a clamshell design similar to the Game Boy Advance SP. The Nintendo DS also features the ability for multiple DS consoles to directly interact with each other over Wi-Fi within a short range without the need to connect to an existing wireless network. Alternatively, they can interact online using the Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service. The Nintendo DS is the first console from Nintendo to be released in North America before Japan. Prior to its release, the Nintendo DS was marketed as a "third pillar" in Nintendo's console lineup, meant to complement the Game Boy Advance and GameCube. However, backward compatibility with Game Boy Advance titles and a strong market share led to the Nintendo DS becoming a successor to the Game Boy series. On March 2, 2006, Nintendo
    6.00
    2 votes
    198
    Pandora

    Pandora

    The Pandora is a handheld game console designed to take advantage of existing open source software and to be a target for homebrew development. It is developed by OpenPandora, which is made up of former distributors and community members of the GP32 and GP2X handhelds. When announcing the system, the designers of Pandora stated that it would be more powerful than any handheld video game console that had yet existed. It includes several features that no handheld game consoles have previously had, making it a cross between a handheld game console and a subnotebook. Development of the Pandora began when Craig Rothwell, Fatih Kilic, Michael Mrozek and (later) Michael Weston teamed up and planned a portable system that would excel in the areas where they thought the GP32 and GP2X systems (from Gamepark and Gamepark Holdings respectively) were flawed. The Pandora was designed based on ideas and suggestions contributed by GP32X forum members, with the goal of creating the ultimate open source handheld device. The final case and keymat design was made by DaveC, who was known on the forums for custom hardware modifications. The initial development and setup costs were funded through a Crowd
    6.00
    2 votes
    199
    SCO OpenServer

    SCO OpenServer

    SCO OpenServer, previously SCO UNIX and SCO Open Desktop (SCO ODT), is a closed source version of the Unix computer operating system developed by Santa Cruz Operation (SCO), later acquired by SCO Group, and now owned by UnXis. SCO UNIX was the successor to SCO Xenix, derived from UNIX System V Release 3.2 with an infusion of Xenix device drivers and utilities. SCO UNIX System V/386 Release 3.2.0 was released in 1989 as the commercial successor to SCO Xenix. The base operating system did not include TCP/IP networking or X Window System graphics; these were available as optional extra-cost add-on packages. Shortly after the release of this bare OS, SCO shipped an integrated product under the name of SCO Open Desktop, or ODT. 1994 saw the release of SCO MPX, an add-on SMP package. At the same time, AT&T completed its merge of Xenix, BSD, SunOS, and UNIX System V Release 3 features into UNIX System V Release 4. SCO UNIX remained based on System V Release 3, but eventually added home-grown versions of most of the features of Release 4. The 1992 releases of SCO UNIX 3.2v4.0 and Open Desktop 2.0 added support for long file names and symbolic links. The next major version, OpenServer
    6.00
    2 votes
    200

    White Box Enterprise Linux

    White Box Enterprise Linux was a free Linux distribution that was an alternative to Red Hat Enterprise Linux, primarily funded by the Beauregard Parish Library in Louisiana. White Box aimed to be 100% binary compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This product was derived from the free software made available by Red Hat, Inc but was not produced, maintained or supported by Red Hat. Specifically, this product was forked from the source code of Red Hat Enterprise Linux under the terms and conditions of the free software licences under which it is distributed. This project is no longer active; the last release was in 2007 . A distribution with the same goals, which is still actively maintained, is CentOS.
    6.00
    2 votes
    201
    Windows XP Professional x64 Edition

    Windows XP Professional x64 Edition

    • Parent OS: Windows XP
    Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition released on April 25, 2005 is an edition of Windows XP for x86-64 personal computers. It is designed to use the expanded 64-bit memory address space provided by the x86-64 architecture. The primary benefit of moving to 64-bit is the increase in the maximum allocatable system memory (RAM). Windows XP 32-bit is limited to a total of 4 gigabytes. Windows XP Professional x64 Edition can support much more memory; although the theoretical memory limit of a 64-bit computer is about 16 exabytes (16 billion Gigabytes), Windows XP x64 is limited to 128 GB of physical memory and 16 terabyte of virtual memory. Microsoft claims this limit will be increased as hardware capabilities improve. Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is in fact an edition of Windows Server 2003. Both Windows Server 2003 x64 and Windows XP Professional x64 Edition use identical kernels and are built based on the same code bases. Although based on the Windows Server 2003 code base, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition does include client features of 32-bit Windows XP such as System Restore, Windows Messenger, Fast User Switching, Welcome Screen, Security Center, Games, etc.
    6.00
    2 votes
    202

    Windows 2000

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    • Developer: Microsoft
    • Includes OS Versions: Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
    Windows 2000 is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use on both client and server computers. Windows 2000 was released to manufacturing on December 15, 1999 and launched to retail on February 17, 2000. It is the successor to Windows NT 4.0, and is the last version of Microsoft Windows to display the "Windows NT" designation. It is succeeded by Windows XP for (released in October 2001) and Windows Server 2003 (release in April 2003). During development, Windows 2000 was known as Windows NT 5.0. Four editions of Windows 2000 were released: Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. Additionally, Microsoft sold Windows 2000 Advanced Server Limited Edition and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Limited Edition, which ran on 64-bit Intel Itanium microprocessors and they were released in 2001. While each edition of Windows 2000 was targeted at a different market, they shared a core set of features, including many system utilities such as the Microsoft Management Console and standard system administration applications. Support for people with disabilities has been improved over Windows NT 4.0 with a number of new assistive technologies, and Microsoft increased
    4.25
    4 votes
    203

    Amiga

    The Amiga is a family of personal computers marketed by Commodore in the 1980s and 1990s. The first model was launched in 1985 as a high-end home computer and became popular for its graphical, audio and multi-tasking abilities. The Amiga provided a significant upgrade from 8-bit computers, such as the Commodore 64, and the platform quickly grew in popularity among computer enthusiasts. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became the leading home computer of the late 1980s and early 1990s in much of Western Europe. In North America success was more modest. The Amiga went on to sell approximately six million units. Second generation Amiga systems (the A1200 and the A4000) were released in 1992. However, poor marketing and failure to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga quickly lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles, Apple Macintosh and IBM PC compatibles. Based on the Motorola 68000 family of microprocessors, the machine sports a custom chipset with graphics and sound capabilities that were unprecedented for the price, and a pre-emptive multitasking operating system
    5.50
    2 votes
    204
    FreeDOS

    FreeDOS

    FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is an operating system for IBM PC compatible computers. FreeDOS is made up of many different, separate programs that act as "packages" to the overall FreeDOS Project. As a member of the DOS family, it provides mainly disk access through its kernel, and partial memory management, but no default GUI (although OpenGEM is listed on the official FreeDOS website). FreeDOS 1.1 was released on 2 January 2012; few of the packages making up FreeDOS are updated or added to frequently. FreeDOS supports vintage hardware IBM PCs as well as modern ones, in addition to embedded computers. Unlike MS-DOS, it is composed of free and open source software, licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). Its "BASE" distribution does not require license fees or royalties and creation of custom distributions is permitted. However, other sections like "UTIL" include non-GPL software considered worth preserving, such as 4DOS. FreeDOS has a sparsely populated IRC channel, #freedos, on irc.i7c.org. The FreeDOS project began 29 June 1994, after Microsoft announced it would no longer sell or support MS-DOS. Jim Hall then posted a manifesto proposing the
    5.50
    2 votes
    205
    Game Boy Advance

    Game Boy Advance

    The Game Boy Advance (ゲームボーイアドバンス, Gēmu Bōi Adobansu, often shortened to GBA) is a 32-bit handheld video game console developed, manufactured and marketed by Nintendo. It is the successor to the Game Boy Color. It was released in Japan on March 21, 2001; in North America on June 11, 2001; in Australia and Europe on June 22, 2001; and in the People's Republic of China on June 8, 2004 (excluding Hong Kong). The technical specifications of the original Game Boy Advance are, as provided by Nintendo: Backward compatibility for Game Boy and Game Boy Color games is provided by an 4/8 MHz Z80 coprocessor (Game Boy Advance software can use the audio tone generators to supplement the primary sound system), while a link port at the top of the unit allows it to be connected to other devices via use of a Nintendo Game Link cable or GameCube cable. When playing Game Boy or Game Boy Color games on the Game Boy Advance, the L and R buttons can be used to toggle between a stretched widescreen format (240×144) and the original screen ratio of the Game Boy (160×144). Game Boy games can be played using the same selectable color palettes as on the Game Boy Color. Every Nintendo handheld system
    5.50
    2 votes
    206
    OpenSUSE

    OpenSUSE

    • Parent OS: SUSE Linux
    openSUSE (/ˌoʊpənˈsuːzə/) is a general purpose operating system built on top of the Linux kernel, developed by the community-supported openSUSE Project and sponsored by SUSE and a number of other companies. After Novell acquired SUSE Linux in January 2004, Novell decided to release the SUSE Linux Professional product as a 100% open source project. The initial release of the community project was a beta version of SUSE Linux 10.0, and as of September 5, 2012 the current stable release is openSUSE 12.2. In openSUSE the openSUSE Project community, sponsored by SUSE, develops and maintains SUSE Linux distributions components. openSUSE is the successor to "SUSE Linux Professional". Beyond the distribution, the openSUSE Project provides a web portal for community involvement. The community developing openSUSE collaboratively with its corporate sponsors through the Open Build Service, writing documentation, designing artwork, fostering discussion on open mailing lists and in Internet Relay Chat channels, and improving the openSUSE site through its wiki interface. openSUSE aims to offer a stable base and allow users to use the Open Build Service to get additional or more up to date
    5.50
    2 votes
    207

    OS/360

    • Developer: IBM
    OS/360 (Operating System/360) was a batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964. OS/360 was amongst the earliest operating systems to make direct access storage device a prerequisite for its operation. OS/360 was developed as a family of three control programs, which increased in size as well as functionality. Initially, the single task PCP (Primary Control Program) processed jobs sequentially; the next, MFT (Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks) added multitasking, but only allowed a fixed number of concurrent tasks, each one having a preset memory allocation. Finally MVT (Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks) allowed varying numbers of tasks whose memory size could change dynamically. OS/360 also introduced IBM's batch-scripting language JCL. OS/360 was late being delivered, due to a combination of organizational disarray inside IBM and lack of experience with the pitfalls of large software projects, as well as the significant technical challenges. Originally scheduled for delivery in 1965 (for the simplest versions) and 1966 (for the more complex ones), it ended up being a year
    5.50
    2 votes
    208
    Pardus

    Pardus

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    Pardus is a Linux distribution developed with support from the Turkish government. Pardus’ main focus is office-related work, including the use in Turkish government agencies. Despite that, Pardus ships in several languages. Its ease of use and availability free of charge spawned numerous communities throughout the world. The name is derived from the Latin scientific name for the Anatolian leopard. Pardus was started and is developed by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology (UEKAE), which is a division of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK). The first live CD version of Pardus was a fork of Gentoo Linux. PiSi (/ˈpiːsiː/; Packages Installed Successfully as Intended) is the package management system of Pardus. It is the primary tool for installing, upgrading and removing software packages. PiSi stores and handles the dependencies for the various packages, libraries, and COMAR tasks. "Pisi" is a Turkish word meaning "kitty", intended as a pun on the distribution's name. Some features of PiSi include: YALI (Yet Another Linux Installer) is the first Pardus software a user encounters. Basically, it recognizes the hardware and
    5.50
    2 votes
    209

    Sinclair QDOS

    QDOS (sometimes written as Qdos in official literature; the name is not regarded as an acronym; also see the identically-pronounced word kudos) is the multitasking operating system found on the Sinclair QL personal computer and its clones. It was designed by Tony Tebby whilst working at Sinclair Research, as an in-house alternative to 68K/OS, which was later cancelled by Sinclair, but released by original authors GST Computer Systems. QDOS was implemented in Motorola 68000 assembly language, and on the QL, resided in 48 kB of ROM, consisting of either three 16 kB EPROM chips or one 32 kB and one 16 kB ROM chip. These ROMs also held the SuperBASIC interpreter, an advanced variant of BASIC with structured programming additions. This also acted as the QDOS command line interpreter. Facilities provided by QDOS included management of processes (or "jobs" in QDOS terminology), memory allocation, and an extensible "redirectable I/O system", providing a generic framework for filesystems and device drivers. Very basic screen window functionality was also provided. This, and several other features, were never fully implemented in the released versions of QDOS, but were improved in later
    5.50
    2 votes
    210

    VA Kernel

    The VA Kernel is a set of programs, developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs of the United States Government, which provide an operating system and MUMPS implementation independent abstraction to the VistA Hospital Information System. These programs (called 'routines' in MUMPS) are the only programs which are expected to not be written in ANSI Standard MUMPS. The MUMPS language used in the kernel is amazingly simple, consisting of a single language (MUMPS), a single data type (string), a single data storage mechanism (global arrays stored on disk), 19 commands and 22 functions. MUMPS is a symbolic language with linguistic roots closer to LISP than Fortran or Cobol. Because of this simple software layer, the VistA software architecture has been able to adapt to changing hardware environments over the decades with only the minimum amount of software changes at higher levels of abstraction. The CHCS system and the RPMS system have a Kernel as well, which provides a similar degree of support to those systems as the VA Kernel does to VistA. The VA Kernel provides abstractions for: Video Interview of Tom Munnecke on the design of the kernel
    4.67
    3 votes
    211
    Elive

    Elive

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    Elive ("Enlightenment live") is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Debian for legacy and commodity hardware with Intel processors. Elive uses the Enlightenment X window manager instead of GNOME or KDE. Elive is a fully functional distribution with a Live CD counterpart that allows the user to sample the distribution before installing it on the system. Elive can be used like any Live CD or installed to the hard drive to access its full features. Elive utilizes UnionFS, which allows users to install software packages using Synaptic Package Manager and/or APT, while the user's computer is running from the Live CD. Administration of Elive is centralized by its flagship application Elpanel, which was developed especially for Elive. Elpanel is an animated Administration applet that is written in Edje. Elpanel is a virtual launchpad to various other administration tools which are nested within Elpanel via labeled custom icons. Elive utilizes the Iceweasel browser and the Icedove mail client with pre-configured GnuPG extensions to encrypt and digitally sign emails. These tools allow the user to digitally sign, encrypt and decrypt correspondence with minimal effort. Elive has support for
    6.00
    1 votes
    212

    Mac OS X v10.4

    • Parent OS: Mac OS X
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    Mac OS X v10.4 Tiger is the fifth major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. Tiger was released to the public on 29 April 2005 for US$129.95 as the successor to Mac OS X Panther (version 10.3), which had been released 18 months earlier. Tiger was succeeded by Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard on 26 October 2007, after 30 months, making Tiger the longest running version of Mac OS X. Some of the new features include a fast searching system called Spotlight, a new version of the Safari web browser, Dashboard, a new 'Unified' theme, and improved support for 64-bit addressing on Power Mac G5s. Tiger was included with all new Macintosh computers, and was also available as an upgrade for existing Mac OS X users, or users of supported pre-Mac OS X systems. The server edition, Mac OS X Server 10.4, was also available for some Macintosh product lines. Tiger is also the first version of any released Apple operating system to work on Apple–Intel architecture machines (Apple machines using x86 processors). The Apple TV, as released in March 2007, ships with a customized version of Mac OS X Tiger branded "Apple TV OS" that replaces the usual graphical
    6.00
    1 votes
    213

    MenuetOS

    MenuetOS is an operating system with a monolithic preemptive, real-time kernel, including video drivers, all written in FASM assembly language, for 64-bit and 32-bit x86 architecture computers, by Ville M. Turjanmaa. It has a graphical desktop, games, and networking abilities (TCP/IP stack), yet it still fits on one 1.44 MB floppy disk. On a Intel Pentium MMX 200 MHz it can boot in 5 seconds. MenuetOS was originally written for 32-bit x86 architectures and released under the GPL, thus many of its applications are distributed under the GPL. The 64-bit MenuetOS, often referred to as Menuet 64, remains a platform for learning 64-bit assembly language programming. The 64-bit Menuet is distributed without charge for personal and educational use only, but without the source code. Multi-core support was added on 24 Feb 2010. MenuetOS development has focused on fast, simple, efficient implementation. MenuetOS has networking abilities, and a working TCP/IP stack. Most of the networking code is written by Mike Hibbett. The main focus of Menuet has been on making an environment for easy assembly programming, but it is still possible to run software written in high-level programming languages
    6.00
    1 votes
    214
    Ubuntu JeOS

    Ubuntu JeOS

    • Parent OS: Ubuntu
    Ubuntu JeOS (pronounced "juice") is a variant of Ubuntu that is described as "an efficient variant ... configured specifically for virtual appliances." It's a concept for what an operating system should look like in the context of a virtual appliance. JeOS stands for "Just enough Operating System." Its first release was Ubuntu JeOS 7.10, and since the release of Ubuntu 8.10 it has been included as an option as part of the standard Ubuntu Server Edition. The current version of JeOS is optimized for virtualization technologies by VMware, Inc. and the Linux Kernel-based Virtual Machine. Specifications for version 8.10 and above include:
    6.00
    1 votes
    215

    UnixWare

    UnixWare is a Unix operating system maintained by The SCO Group (SCO). UnixWare is typically deployed as a server rather than desktop. Binary distributions of UnixWare are available for x86 architecture computers. It was originally released by Univel, a jointly owned venture of AT&T's Unix System Laboratories (USL) and Novell. UnixWare is primarily marketed as a reliable, scalable, secure Unix server. After the SVR4 effort to merge SunOS and System V, AT&T's Unix System Laboratories (USL) formed the Univel partnership with Novell to develop a desktop version of Unix, codenamed Destiny. Destiny was based on the Unix System V release 4.2 kernel. The MoOLIT toolkit was used for the windowing system, allowing the user to choose between an OPEN LOOK or MOTIF like look and feel at run time. In order to make the system more robust on commodity desktop hardware the Veritas VXFS journaling file system was used in place of the UFS file system used in SVR4. Destiny was released in 1992 as UnixWare 1.0 in two editions - a Personal Edition which included Novell IPX networking but not TCP/IP and an Advanced Server edition which included TCP and other server software. The personal edition was
    6.00
    1 votes
    216

    HydrixOS

    HydrixOS is a project that aims to develop a free operating system published under the GNU General Public License. This free operating system aims to make it possible to integrate programs written for different platforms into one system such that programs can communicate and work together with programs of heterogeneous platforms without having to care about the differences of said platforms. To realize this the operating system will use a transparent communication protocol for its client–server interactions. The new kernel of HydrixOS - called hymk - can now be described as a real microkernel. As a difference to other microkernel systems the IPC of the hymk doesn't contain system calls for transferring message data through the kernel. All data transferred between two processes are transferred by areas of shared memory. The kernel just provides system calls for connecting memory areas of two processes and it provides also functions to synchronize two threads. The developers of the hymk think that this mechanism will improve the performance of the whole system because there is no need for buffering message data in kernel mode. The project restarted in September 2004 when the old
    5.00
    2 votes
    217
    Linux-based devices

    Linux-based devices

    Linux-based devices or Linux devices are computer appliances that are powered by the Linux kernel and possibly parts of the GNU operating system. They are often minimalistic and purpose-built, thus may be environmentally friendly and create less electronic waste per unit. Linux devices are built to run Linux by their manufacturers. This reduces their initial development, on-going support costs and usually aids in time to market. The reasons of using Linux may be various - low cost, security, stability, scalability or customizability. Many original equipment manufacturers use free and open source software to brand their products. Community maintained Linux devices are also available. Due to its nature of being open source, Linux is available for many computer architectures and can be easily ported. These devices were not intended to run Linux at the time of their production, but a community effort made possible either full or partial Linux support. Because of the open source philosophy that free and open source software brings to the software world, many people have ported the Linux kernel to run on devices other than a typical desktop, laptop or server computer. Some ports are
    5.00
    2 votes
    218
    Opera

    Opera

    Opera is a web browser and Internet suite developed by Opera Software with over 270 million users worldwide. The browser handles common Internet-related tasks such as displaying web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, chatting on IRC, downloading files via BitTorrent, and reading web feeds. Opera is offered free of charge for personal computers and mobile phones. Opera is the most popular desktop browser in Belarus. Opera Mini, which is the most popular mobile web browser as of May 2011, has been chosen as the default integrated web browser in several mobile handsets by their respective manufacturers. Features include tabbed browsing, page zooming, mouse gestures, and an integrated download manager. Its security features include built-in phishing and malware protection and the ability to delete private data such as HTTP cookies. Opera has been noted for originating many features later adopted by other web browsers. Opera runs on a variety of personal computer operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and FreeBSD. Opera editions are available for devices using the Maemo, BlackBerry, Symbian, Windows Mobile, Android, and iOS
    5.00
    2 votes
    219
    Super OS

    Super OS

    • Parent OS: Ubuntu
    Super OS (formerly: Super Ubuntu) is a freely available Linux distribution. It is a remastered version of Ubuntu focused on an out-of-the-box experience and offline usability. The most recent available version is based on Ubuntu 11.10. Super OS includes a graphical way to run executable files and scripts with App runner, and includes support for MP3 files and video-DVDs. Also preinstalled are Opera, Google Chrome, Adobe Flash Player, (aMSN and Skype), Wine, and the GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall. The RUNZ Framework is a tool that allows the use of portable apps and SuperDebs (an installer with a .deb file + its dependencies that can be installed offline). In addition to the official Ubuntu repositories Super OS has its own repositories, which include third-party software like Adobe Reader, Skype, RealPlayer, TrueCrypt, and Google Chrome. Previous versions of Super OS has received some positive reviews, with Softpedia saying of Super Ubuntu 2008.11: "The 'super powers' of Super Ubuntu can be translated into the inclusion of applications, tools and technologies that are missing from a standard Ubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid Ibex) installation." Super Ubuntu 2008.11 was a featured download on
    4.50
    2 votes
    220
    AROS Research Operating System

    AROS Research Operating System

    AROS Research Operating System (AROS - pronounced "AR-OS") is a free and open source multi media centric implementation of the AmigaOS 3.1 APIs. Designed to be portable and flexible, ports are currently available for x86-based and PowerPC-based PCs in native and hosted flavors, with other architectures in development. AROS, in a show of full circle, was also ported to the m68k-based Amiga 1200. AROS used to mean Amiga Research Operating System, but to avoid any trademark issues with the Amiga name, it was changed to the recursive acronym AROS Research Operating System. The mascot of AROS is Kitty created by Eric Schwartz and officially adopted by the AROS Team in the 2nd of December 2002. Used in the core AROS About and installer tools, it was also adopted by several AROS community sites and early distributions. Other AROS identifiable symbols and logos are used around the cat shape, such as IcAROS logo which is stylised cat Eye, or AFA (Aros for Amiga). The project, started in 1995, has over the years become an almost "feature complete" implementation of AmigaOS - with currently (as of October 2008) only a few lacking areas of functionality. This was achieved by the efforts of a
    5.00
    1 votes
    221

    Extremely Reliable Operating System

    EROS (The Extremely Reliable Operating System) is an operating system developed by The EROS Group, LLC., the Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Pennsylvania. Features include automatic data and process persistence, some preliminary real-time support, and capability-based security. EROS is purely a research operating system, and was never deployed in real world use. As of 2005, development has stopped in favor of two successor systems, CapROS and Coyotos. The overriding goal of the EROS system (and its relatives) is to provide strong support at the operating system level for the efficient restructuring of critical applications into small communicating components. Each component can communicate with the others only through protected interfaces, and is isolated from the rest of the system. A "protected interface", in this context, is one that is enforced by the lowest level part of the operating system (the kernel). The kernel is the only portion of the system that can move information from one process to another. It also has complete control of the machine and (if properly constructed) cannot be bypassed. In EROS, the kernel-provided mechanism by which one component
    5.00
    1 votes
    222
    Mandriva Linux

    Mandriva Linux

    • Parent OS: Red Hat Linux
    • Developer: Mandriva
    • Includes OS Versions: PCLinuxOS
    Mandriva Linux (result of fusion of the French distribution Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux and the Brazilian distribution Conectiva Linux) is a Linux distribution distributed by Mandriva. It uses the RPM Package Manager. The product lifetime of Mandriva Linux releases is 18 months for base updates (Linux, system software, etc.) and 12 months for desktop updates (window managers, desktop environments, web browsers, etc.). Server products receive full updates for at least 5 years after their release. The first release was based on Red Hat Linux (version 5.1) and K Desktop Environment 1 in July 1998. It has since moved away from Red Hat's distribution and has become a completely separate distribution in its own right. Mandriva now includes a number of original tools, mostly to ease system configuration. Mandriva Linux the brainchild of Gaël Duval, who wanted to focus on ease of use for new users. Duval became the co-founder of Mandrakesoft, but was laid off from the company in 2006 along with many other employees. Later Duval announced to NewsForge that he was going to bring suit against Mandriva for "abusive layoff". On May 8, 2010, Mandriva announced that due to financial distress,
    5.00
    1 votes
    223
    MINIX 3

    MINIX 3

    • Parent OS: Minix
    MINIX 3 is a project to create a small, highly reliable and functional Unix-like operating system. It is published under a BSD license and is a successor project to the earlier MINIX 1 and MINIX 2 operating systems. The main goal of the project is for the system to be fault-tolerant by detecting and repairing its own faults on the fly, without user intervention. The main uses of the operating system are envisaged to be embedded systems and education, such as universities or the OLPC XO-1 laptop. MINIX 3 currently supports IA-32 architecture PC compatible systems. It is also possible to run MINIX under emulators or virtual machines, such as Bochs, VMware Workstation, Microsoft Virtual PC, and QEMU. Ports to the PowerPC and ARMs (Intel XScale) are in development. The distribution comes on a Live CD and also can be downloaded as a USB stick image. Reflecting on the nature of monolithic kernel based systems, where a driver (which has, according to MINIX creator Tanenbaum, approximately 3–7 times as many bugs as a usual program) can bring down the whole system, MINIX 3 aims to create an operating system that is a "reliable, self-healing, multiserver UNIX clone". In order to achieve
    5.00
    1 votes
    224

    MorphOS

    MorphOS is an Amiga-compatible computer operating system. It is a mixed proprietary and open source OS produced for the Pegasos PowerPC processor based computer, PowerUP accelerator equipped Amiga computers, and a series of Freescale development boards that use the Genesi firmware, including the EFIKA and mobileGT. Since MorphOS 2.4, Apple's Mac Mini G4 is supported as well, and with the release of MorphOS 2.5 and MorphOS 2.6 the eMac and PowerMac G4 models are respectively supported. The core, based on the Quark microkernel, is proprietary, although several libraries and other parts are open source, such as Ambient desktop. Developed for PowerPC processors from Freescale and IBM while supporting the original AmigaOS MC680x0 applications via proprietary task-based emulation, and most AmigaOS/PPC applications via API wrappers. It is API compatible with AmigaOS 3.1 and has a GUI based on MUI. Besides the Pegasos version of MorphOS, there is a version for Amiga computers equipped with PowerUP accelerator cards produced by Phase5. This version is free, although it does slow down after each two hour session if it has not been registered. Registration is free. PowerUP MorphOS was most
    5.00
    1 votes
    225

    QNX

    • Developer: Research In Motion
    QNX (/ˌkjuː ˌɛn ˈɛks/ or /ˈkjuːnɨks/) is a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market. The product was originally developed by Canadian company QNX Software Systems, which was later acquired by Research In Motion. As a microkernel-based OS, QNX is based on the idea of running most of the OS in the form of a number of small tasks, known as servers. This differs from the more traditional monolithic kernel, in which the operating system is a single very large program composed of a huge number of "parts" with special abilities. In the case of QNX, the use of a microkernel allows users (developers) to turn off any functionality they do not require without having to change the OS itself; instead, those servers are simply not run. The system is quite small, with earlier versions fitting on a single floppy disk. QNX Neutrino (2001) has been ported to a number of platforms and now runs on practically any modern CPU that is used in the embedded market. This includes the PowerPC, x86 family, MIPS, SH-4 and the closely related family of ARM, StrongARM and XScale CPUs. QNX offers a license for non-commercial & academic users. QNX Neutrino is
    5.00
    1 votes
    226

    Red Hat Linux

    • Parent OS: Linux kernel
    • Includes OS Versions: Fedora Core
    Red Hat Linux, assembled by the company Red Hat, was a popular Linux based operating system until its discontinuation in 2004. Red Hat Linux 1.0 was released on November 3, 1994. It was originally called "Red Hat Commercial Linux" It was the first Linux distribution to use the RPM Package Manager as its packaging format, and over time has served as the starting point for several other distributions, such as Mandriva Linux and Yellow Dog Linux. Since 2003, Red Hat has discontinued the Red Hat Linux line in favor of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) for enterprise environments. Fedora, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat, is the free version best suited for home use. Red Hat Linux 9, the final release, hit its official end-of-life on 2004-04-30, although updates were published for it through 2006 by the Fedora Legacy project until that shut down in early 2007. Version 3.0.3 was one of the first Linux distributions to support Executable and Linkable Format instead of the older a.out format. Red Hat Linux introduced a graphical installer called Anaconda, intended to be easy to use for novices, and which has since been adopted by some other Linux
    5.00
    1 votes
    227

    Multics

    • Developer: Ken Thompson
    Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was an influential early time-sharing operating system. The project was started in 1964 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The last known running Multics installation was shut down on October 30, 2000, at the Canadian Department of National Defence in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Initial planning and development for Multics started in 1964. Originally it was a cooperative project led by MIT (with Fernando Corbató) along with General Electric and Bell Labs. Bell Labs pulled out in 1969, and in 1970 GE's computer business including Multics was taken over by Honeywell. Multics was conceived as a commercial product for GE, and became one for Honeywell, but not a very successful one. Due to its many novel and valuable ideas, Multics had a significant impact in the computer field even though it was derided by some critics at the time. Multics had numerous features intended to result in high availability so that it would support a computing utility similar to the telephone and electricity services. Modular hardware structure and software architecture were used to achieve this. The system could grow in size by simply adding more of the
    4.00
    2 votes
    228

    Windows Me

    Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (pronounced as an abbreviation, "M-E"), is a graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft, and was the last operating system released in the Windows 9x series. Windows Me was the successor to Windows 98 and was targeted specifically at home PC users. It included Internet Explorer 5.5, Windows Media Player 7, and the new Windows Movie Maker software, which provided basic video editing and was designed to be easy to use for home users. Microsoft also updated the graphical user interface, shell features, and Windows Explorer in Windows Me with some of those first introduced in Windows 2000, which had been released as a business-oriented operating system seven months earlier. Windows Me could be upgraded to Internet Explorer 6 SP1 (but not to SP2 (SV1) or Internet Explorer 7), Outlook Express 6 SP1 and Windows Media Player 9 Series. Microsoft .NET Framework up to and including version 2.0 is supported, however versions 2.0 SP1, 3.x, and greater are not. Office XP was the last version of Microsoft Office to be compatible with Windows Me. Windows Me is a continuation of the Windows 9x model, but with restricted access to
    4.00
    2 votes
    229
    Amstrad CPC

    Amstrad CPC

    The Amstrad CPC (short for Colour Personal Computer) is a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad between 1984 and 1990. It was designed to compete in the mid-1980s home computer market dominated by the Commodore 64 and the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, where it successfully established itself primarily in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and the German-speaking parts of Europe. The series spawned a total of six distinct models: The CPC464, CPC664, and CPC6128 were highly successful competitors in the European home computer market. The later plus models, 464plus and 6128plus, efforts to prolong the system's lifecycle with hardware updates, were considerably less successful, as was the attempt to repackage the plus hardware into a game console as the GX4000. The CPC models' hardware is based on the Zilog Z80A CPU, complemented with either 64 or 128 kB of memory. Their computer-in-a-keyboard design prominently features an integrated storage device, either a compact cassette deck or 3" floppy disk drive. The main units were only sold bundled with a colour or monochrome monitor that doubles as the main unit's power supply. Additionally, a wide range of first and third party
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    Java Platform, Micro Edition

    Java Platform, Micro Edition, or Java ME, is a Java platform designed for embedded systems (mobile devices are one kind of such systems). Target devices range from industrial controls to mobile phones (especially feature phones) and set-top boxes. Java ME was formerly known as Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME). Java ME was designed by Sun Microsystems, acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010; the platform replaced a similar technology, PersonalJava. Originally developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 68, the different flavors of Java ME have evolved in separate JSRs. Sun provides a reference implementation of the specification, but has tended not to provide free binary implementations of its Java ME runtime environment for mobile devices, rather relying on third parties to provide their own. As of 22 December 2006, the Java ME source code is licensed under the GNU General Public License, and is released under the project name phoneME. As of 2008, all Java ME platforms are currently restricted to JRE 1.3 features and use that version of the class file format (internally known as version 47.0). Should Oracle ever declare a new round of Java ME configuration versions that
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    Kurumin Linux

    Kurumin Linux

    Kurumin Linux was a Live CD operating system based on Debian. Its main features are the advanced hardware auto-detection (inherited from Knoppix) and a Portuguese user interface, and its main goal is ease of use. As of release 7.0, the size of the disk image is approximately 603 MB. Version NG 8.06, based on Ubuntu 8.04, was released June 24, 2008, and was discontinued on January 29, 2009. The distribution boasts an open-source control center (a series of shell scripts and Kommander based panels) named ClicaAki (roughly: "ClickHere"), which features a series of "magic icons" that install software not included in the live CD (including games and proprietary video drivers) and configure a wide range of networking options. It also provides access to the Synaptic package manager. The name comes from the Tupi word "kurumi", which means boy. The usage of the letter K, instead of the usual Portuguese spelling ("curumi" or "curumim"), brings it in line with KDE (Kurumin's default desktop environment), as well as with Knoppix. The Kurumin control panel ( AKA ClicaAki ), has shortcuts to scripts that perform tasks like downloading and installing free games, with apps divided into categories
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    RSTS/E

    RSTS/E

    • Developer: Digital Equipment Corporation
    RSTS (pronounced as "RIST-ess" or "RIST-uhs") is a multi-user time-sharing operating system, developed by Digital Equipment Corporation ("DEC"), (now part of Hewlett Packard) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers. The first version of RSTS (RSTS-11, Version 1) was implemented in 1970 by DEC software engineers that developed the TSS-8 time-sharing operating system for the PDP-8. The last version of RSTS (RSTS/E, Version 10.1) was released in September 1992. RSTS-11 and RSTS/E are usually referred to just as "RSTS" and this article will generally use the shorter form. The kernel of RSTS was programmed in the assembly language MACRO-11, compiled and installed to a disk using the CILUS program, running on a DOS-11 operating system. RSTS booted into an extended version of the BASIC programming language which DEC called "BASIC-PLUS". All of the system software CUSPS for the operating system, including the programs for resource accounting, login, logout and managing the system, were written using BASIC-PLUS. From 1970 to 1973, RSTS ran in only 56K bytes of magnetic core memory (64K bytes including the memory-mapped I/O space). This would allow a system to have up to 16 terminals
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    Commodore BASIC

    Commodore BASIC

    Commodore BASIC, also known as PET BASIC, is the dialect of the BASIC programming language used in Commodore International's 8-bit home computer line, stretching from the PET of 1977 to the C128 of 1985. The core was based on 6502 Microsoft BASIC, and as such it shares most of the core code with other 6502 BASICs of the time, such as Applesoft BASIC. Commodore licensed BASIC from Microsoft on a "pay once, no royalties" basis for US$25,000 (Different sources range this amount between $10,000 and $30,000). Bill Gates first offered it at a $3 per unit royalty fee but Jack Tramiel turned it down stating "I'm already married", said he would pay no more than $25,000 for a perpetual license and Gates later came back and accepted the deal. Commodore took the source code of the flat-fee BASIC and further developed it internally for all their other 8-bit home computers. It was not until the Commodore 128 (with V7.0) that a Microsoft copyright notice was displayed. However, Microsoft had built an easter egg into the version 2 or "upgrade" Commodore Basic that proved its provenance: typing the (obscure) command WAIT 6502, 1 would result in Microsoft! appearing on the screen. (The easter egg
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    234
    Windows 8

    Windows 8

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    • Developer: Microsoft
    Windows 8 is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablets, and home theater PCs. Development of this operating system started before the release of its predecessor in 2009. Its existence was first announced in January 2011 at Consumer Electronics Show. During its development and test phases, Microsoft released three pre-release versions: Developer Preview (September 13, 2011), Consumer Preview (February 29, 2012), and Release Preview (May 31, 2012). On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 graduated from the development stage and was released to manufacturing. Windows 8 is scheduled for general availability on October 26, 2012. Windows 8 introduces significant changes to the operating system's graphical user interface and platform, such as a new interface design incorporating a new design language used by other Microsoft products, a new Start screen to replace the Start menu used by previous versions of Windows, a new online store that can be used to obtain new applications, along with a new platform for apps with an emphasis on touchscreen input. Additional security features were added to the operating system,
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    Acorn MOS

    Acorn MOS

    Acorn's Machine Operating System (MOS) or OS was a computer operating system used in the Acorn BBC computer range. It included support for four-channel sound and graphics, file system abstraction, and digital and analogue I/O including a daisy-chained fast expansion bus. The implementation was single-tasking, monolithic and non-reentrant. Versions 0.10 to 1.20 were used on the BBC Micro, version 1.00 on the Electron, version 2 was used on the B+, and versions 3 to 5 were used in the BBC Master Series range. The final BBC computer, the BBC A3000, was 32-bit and ran RISC OS. Its operating system used portions of the Acorn MOS architecture and shared a number of characteristics (commands, VDU system) with the earlier 8-bit MOS. Versions 0 and 1 of the MOS were 16KiB in size, written in 6502 machine code, and held in ROM on the motherboard. The upper quarter of the 16-bit address space (0xC000 to 0xFFFF) is reserved for its ROM code and I/O space. Versions 2 to 5 were still restricted to a 16KiB address space but managed to hold more code and hence more complex routines, partly because of the alternative 65C102 CPU with its denser instruction set plus the careful use of paging. The
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    Banyan VINES

    Banyan VINES (for Virtual Integrated NEtwork Service) was a computer network operating system and the set of computer network protocols it used to talk to client machines on the network. Banyan Systems ran as a collection of services on top of AT&T System 5 Unix, and based its core network protocols on the archetypical Xerox XNS stack. VINES formed one of a group of XNS-based systems which also included Novell NetWare and ARCNET; like most of these earlier products it has since disappeared from the market, Banyan along with it. James Allchin, who has since worked as Group Vice President for Platforms at Microsoft Corporation until his retirement at January 30, 2007, worked as the chief architect of Banyan VINES. VINES ran on a low-level protocol known as VIP, the VINES Internetwork Protocol: essentially identical to the lower layers of XNS. Addresses consisted of a 32-bit address and a 16-bit subnet which mapped onto the 48-bit Ethernet address in order to route to machines. This meant that, like other XNS-based systems, VINES could only support a two-level internet. A set of routing algorithms, however, set VINES apart from other XNS systems at this level. The key differentiator,
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    237
    Cosmos

    Cosmos

    Cosmos is an open source operating system building kit written in C# and a tiny bit of X#. It also encompasses a compiler (IL2CPU) for converting Common Intermediate Language (.NET) bytecode into native instructions. The operating system is compiled together with a user program and associated libraries using IL2CPU to create a bootable standalone native binary. The binary can be booted from a floppy disk, USB flash drive, CD-ROM, over the network using PXE booting, or inside a virtual machine. The currently supported architecture is x86, with more planned, and although the system is aimed at C#, it can be used with most .NET compliant languages (requirements are that the language must compile to pure CIL without using P/Invokes). Cosmos is primarily intended for use with Microsoft's .NET Framework, but Mono support is also in the works. According to the Cosmos website, Cosmos is a backronym for C# Open Source Managed Operating System, in that the name was chosen before the meaning. Cosmos does not currently aim to become a full operating system, but rather a toolkit to allow other developers to simply and easily build their own operating systems, or as one of the project leaders
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    Dex4u

    Dex4u

    DexOS is a standalone operating system for x86 and ARM architectures, written in the assembly programming language. It is designed for coders that want direct access to all hardware (including CPU and graphics), with well-commented code and documentation. It's licensed under a free to use license for commercial and non-commercial use. It is written and maintained by Craig Bamford and other voluntary developers from around the world. DexOS has two modes for interaction: the graphical user interface GUI or the command line interface, both of which are available to user from boot. As of the version 5.0 release, DexOS has: a fasm port, text editor, image viewer, full tcp/ip stack, many games, web server and support for some sound and Ethernet cards, plus many programs.
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    239
    Dingoo

    Dingoo

    The Dingoo A320 is a gaming handheld that supports music and video playback and open game development. The system features an on-board radio and recording program. It is available to consumers in three colors: white, black, and pink. It was released in February 2009 and has since sold over 1 million units. Dingoo focuses on games and digital products, and is located in the Futian District, Shenzhen. Some original games are Chinese and English; others are Chinese only. Team Dingoo released the first unofficial firmware with user customizable theming possibilities. The system files were moved from hidden memory to an accessible memory location, allowing users to change the graphical settings. This firmware is updated regularly. The native operating system of the Dingoo A320 is µC/OS-II, a low-cost priority-based pre-emptive real time multitasking operating system kernel for microprocessors, written mainly in the C programming language. It is mainly intended for use in embedded systems. All official software for the Dingoo A320 (including its emulators) run on µC/OS-II. A Linux kernel was generally released by Booboo on Google Code on May 18, 2009. A dual boot installer called
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    GNU

    • Parent OS: Unix
    GNU /ɡnuː/ is a Unix-like computer operating system developed by the GNU Project, ultimately aiming to be a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed wholly of free software. Development of GNU was initiated by Richard Stallman in 1983 and was the original focus of the Free Software Foundation (FSF). Non-GNU kernels, most famously the Linux kernel, can also be used with GNU. The FSF maintains that Linux, when used with GNU tools and utilities, should be considered a variant of GNU, and promotes the term GNU/Linux for such systems (leading to the GNU/Linux naming controversy). GNU is a recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix!", chosen because GNU's design is Unix-like, but differs from Unix by being free software and containing no Unix code. Programs released under the auspices of the GNU Project are called GNU packages or GNU programs. The system's basic components include the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), the GNU C library (glibc), and GNU Core Utilities (coreutils), but also the GNU Debugger (GDB), GNU Binary Utilities (binutils), and the bash shell. GNU developers have contributed Linux ports of GNU applications and utilities, which are now also widely used on other
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    241
    GP2X

    GP2X

    The GP2X is an open-source, Linux-based handheld video game console and portable media player developed by South Korean company GamePark Holdings. It was released on November 10, 2005, in South Korea only. The GP2X is designed for homebrew developers as well as commercial developers. It is commonly used to run emulators for classic game consoles such as Neo Geo, Sega Mega Drive, Sega Master System, Sega Game Gear, Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64, Nintendo Entertainment System, PC-Engine/TurboGrafx-16, MAME and others. The GP2X was designed to play music and videos, view photos, and play games. It had an open architecture (Linux based), allowing anybody to develop and run software. Also, there was the possibility for additional features (such as support for new media formats) to be added in the future due to the upgradeable firmware. A popular use of the GP2X was to run emulators, which allows one to use software from a video game of another system on the GP2X. Shortly after the release of the GP32 in 2001, its maker Game Park began to design their next handheld. A disagreement within the company about the general direction of this system prompted many of the staff to leave and create
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    LUnix

    LUnix

    LUnix, short for "Little Unix", is a Unix-like operating system designed to run natively on the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 home computer systems. It supports TCP/IP networking (SLIP or PPP using an RS232 interface). Unlike most Unix-like systems, LUnix is written in 6502 assembly language instead of C. The first version of LUnix was released in 1993, the current version 0.21 dates from 2004. Amongst others, it supports preemptive multitasking, unix pipes, a variety of protocols like TCP/IP, SLIP, PPP and RS232, dynamic memory management and virtual consoles. It contains a web server and clients for telnet, POP3 and FTP and can act as a terminal or terminal server over RS232. LUnix was developed by Daniel Dallmann and contributed by Ilker Ficicilar, Stefan Haubenthal and Paul Gardner-Stephen in late 1990s. The first generation LUnix had support for faster RS232 via clever software tricks, 80 column VIC and VDC screen support, PS2 keyboard support, and small set of standard Unix commands. It is possible with this first distribution to attach two keyboards and two monitors and one RS232 terminal to set up a 3 simultaneous, multitasking sessions on a C128. OS-9 was similarly
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    Mac OS X v10.2

    • Parent OS: Mac OS X
    • Developer: Apple Inc.
    Mac OS X version 10.2 "Jaguar" is the third major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system. It superseded Mac OS X v10.1 code name Puma and preceded Mac OS X Panther (version 10.3). The operating system was initially available on 23 August 2002 either for single-computer installations, and in a "family pack", which allows five installations on separate computers in one household. The operating system was generally well received by Macintosh users as a large step forward in the areas of stability, general speed enhancements, compatibility with other flavors of Unix and the lineup of both graphical and command line applications available; however, many critics still claimed that significant user interface speed issues existed and that the operating system was still a big step up from OS9. Jaguar was the first Mac OS X release to publicly use its code name in marketing and advertisements, a practice that has continued in subsequent releases of the operating system. Apple advertised that Mac OS X v10.2 "Jaguar" had new features, such as: In October 2002, Apple offered free copies of Jaguar to all U.S K-12 teachers in the "X For Teachers" program. Teachers who
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    NEXTSTEP

    • Developer: NeXT
    • Includes OS Versions: Mac OS X
    NeXTSTEP (also written NeXTstep, NeXTStep, and NEXTSTEP) was an object-oriented, multitasking operating system developed by NeXT Computer to run on its range of proprietary workstation computers, such as the NeXTcube. It was later ported to several other computer architectures. A preview release of NeXTSTEP (version 0.8) was shown at the launch of the NeXT Computer on October 12, 1988. The first full release, NeXTSTEP 1.0, shipped on September 18, 1989. The last version, 3.3, was released in early 1995, by which time it ran not only on the Motorola 68000 family processors used in NeXT computers, but also Intel x86, Sun SPARC, and HP PA-RISC-based systems. NeXTSTEP was later modified to separate the underlying operating system from the higher-level object libraries. The result was OpenStep API, which ran on multiple underlying operating systems, including NeXT's own OPENSTEP. Apple's OS X and iOS are direct descendants of NeXTSTEP, through the OPENSTEP lineage. NeXTSTEP was a combination of several parts: NeXTSTEP was notable for the last three items. The toolkits offered considerable power, and were used to build all of the software on the machine. Distinctive features of the
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    Nokia 9210

    Nokia 9210

    The Nokia 9210 Communicator is a third generation Communicator series smartphone produced by Nokia, introduced November 21, 2000. It greatly improved on the second generation Nokia 9110 Communicator, providing colour main screen, changing to Symbian OS platform and ARM processor. It is one of the few mobile phones able to send and receive fax. It is used as a normal though bulky mobile phone in closed mode, when it is flipped open it can be used like a very small notebook computer with a 640×200 screen. The earpiece and microphone are located on the back so one must hold it with the front screen and keypad facing out to make a call. The phone also has speakerphone functionality. The American variant is the Nokia 9290. The 9210i launched in 2002 increased the internal memory to 40 MB, video streaming and Flash 5 support for the web browser. Nokia replaced the 9210 in first quarter of 2005 with: Both new models include other improvements such as: EDGE, colour external displays and Bluetooth. The Nokia 9290 is the American variant of the Europe-only Nokia 9210 Communicator phone.
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    Real-time operating system

    A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete an application's task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time operating system. The chief design goal is not high throughput, but rather a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. An RTOS that can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real-time OS. An RTOS has an advanced algorithm for scheduling. Scheduler flexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow set of applications. Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal interrupt latency and minimal thread switching latency; a real-time OS is valued more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for the amount of work it can perform in a given period of time. The most common designs are: Time-sharing designs switch tasks more often than strictly needed, but give smoother multitasking, giving the illusion that a process or user has sole use of a
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    TinyMe

    TinyMe

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    TinyMe is a lightweight Unity Linux-based operating system, using the Openbox window manager. It is aimed at making the computing experience as bloat- and lag-free as possible and is well-suited to older computers, enthusiasts devoted to small/fast systems, or users who just want a minimal environment. TinyMe is comparable to other lightweight Linux distributions like Puppy Linux, Damn Small Linux and Feather Linux. The distribution produces two Live CD ISO images. The larger, codenamed "Acorn", is a 200 MB ISO image. The other, "Droplet", is a 150 MB ISO image. Both can be installed onto a hard drive or a USB flash drive. The project started in November 2006. Development took place between several members of the MyPCLinuxOS website until KDulcimer took over in April 2007. The first stable version of TinyMe was released in May 2008. Development continued on the MyPCLinuxOS forum with other MyPCLinuxOS projects until September 2007, when the TinyMe project moved to its own subdomain of MyPCLinuxOS. In September 2008, TinyMe moved to its own site hosted off MyPCLinuxOS. Its second release was codenamed "Droplet" and released December 2008, as a 150 MB ISO. On 11 March 2009, TinyMe's
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    Unicos

    UNICOS is the name of a range of Unix-like operating system variants developed by Cray for its supercomputers. UNICOS is the successor of the Cray Operating System (COS). It provides network clustering and source code compatibility layers for some other Unixes. UNICOS was originally introduced in 1985 with the Cray-2 system and later ported to other Cray models. The original UNICOS was based on UNIX System V Release 2, and had numerous BSD features (e.g., networking and file system enhancements) added to it. CX-OS was the original name given to what is now UNICOS. This was a prototype system which ran on a Cray X-MP in 1984 before the Cray-2 port. It was used to demonstrate the feasibility of using Unix on a supercomputer system, prior to the availability of Cray-2 hardware. The operating system revamp was part of a larger movement inside Cray Research to modernize their corporate software: including rewriting their most important Fortran compiler (cft to cft77) in a higher-level language (Pascal) with more modern optimizations and vectorizations. As a migration path for existing COS customers wishing to transition to UNICOS, a Guest Operating System capability was introduced into
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    Windows 3.0

    • Parent OS: Microsoft Windows
    • Includes OS Versions: Windows 3.1x
    Windows 3.0, a graphical environment, is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and was released on May 22, 1990. It became the first widely successful version of Windows and a rival to Apple Macintosh and the Commodore Amiga on the GUI front. It was followed by Windows 3.1. Windows 3.0 originated in 1989 when a group of Microsoft programmers independently decided to develop a protected mode Windows as an experiment. They cobbled together a rough prototype and presented it to company executives, who were impressed enough to approve it as an official project. Windows 3.0 succeeded Windows 2.1x and included a significantly revamped user interface as well as technical improvements to make better use of the memory management capabilities of Intel's 80286 and 80386 processors. Text-mode programs written for MS-DOS could be run within a window (a feature previously available in a more limited form with Windows/386 2.1), making the system usable as a crude multitasking base for legacy programs. However, this was of limited use for the home market, where most games and entertainment programs continued to require raw DOS access. The MS-DOS Executive file manager/program launcher was
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    Yellow Dog Linux

    • Parent OS: GNU/Linux
    Yellow Dog Linux (YDL) is a free and open source operating system for high-performance computing on multi-core processor computer architectures. It focuses on GPU systems and computers using the Power Architecture (Power7). YDL is currently developed by Fixstars (which acquired Terra Soft Solutions in October 2008). Yellow Dog Linux was first released in the spring of 1999 for the Apple Macintosh PowerPC-based computers. The most recent version, Yellow Dog Enterprise Linux for CUDA, was released on March 2, 2010. Yellow Dog Linux is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS and relies on the RPM Package Manager. Its software includes user applications such as Ekiga (a voice-over-IP and videoconferencing application), GIMP (a raster graphics editor), Gnash (a free Adobe Flash player), gThumb (an image viewer), the Mozilla Firefox Web browser, the Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail and news client, the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, Pidgin (an instant messaging and IRC client), the Rhythmbox music player, and the Noatun and Totem media players. Since YDL version 5.0 ‘Phoenix,’ Enlightenment has been the default desktop environment in Yellow Dog Linux, although GNOME and KDE are also
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