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Best Online Jewish Press of All Time

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    1

    The Student Leader

    The Student Leader was an online student newspaper published in Sydney, Australia between 2004 and 2005. Drawing inspiration from Britain's National Student, the publication was established in late 2004 to create "a nationwide, independent and privately-funded student newspaper"—one free from political interference by student politicians. Australia's first national student newspaper was National U, published in the 1970s by the then Australian Union of Students. The Student Leader began publishing in February 2005 with contributions from students at the University of New South Wales, the University of Technology, Sydney and the University of Sydney. The project received strong support from the contributor base of Tharunka, the UNSW student newspaper. Former Tharunka editor Joe Stella served as editor of the Leader. The publication contained student and higher education related news, reviews and opinion. A particular editorial focus was voluntary student unionism, a controversial government proposal that became law in 2005. After publication failed to launch a planned print edition in July, relations between the principals soured. "The chief executive officer and the editor-in-chief
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    Jewish Standard

    The Jewish Standard is a newspaper based in Teaneck, New Jersey, USA, that serves the Jewish community in Bergen County. The Jewish Standard was founded in 1931 and is the oldest Jewish weekly in New Jersey. Unaffiliated with any program, organization, or movement, it claims to be dedicated to giving expression to all phases of Jewish life. The Jewish Standard is independently owned, and says it is committed to "Jewish continuity and to Israel and America's well-being that have made both countries blessed." In 1984, the company took over publishing of the Jewish Community News, the Jewish newspaper of Passaic County. In 1991, the company began publishing the Rockland Jewish Reporter as the official publication of The Jewish Federation of Rockland County. In 2002, the company began publishing About Our Children, a source for information for Jewish families. The papers have won numerous awards from the American Jewish Press Association, the North Jersey Press Club, the Society of Professional Journalists and from Parenting Publications of America. The Jewish Standard competes with the New Jersey Jewish News.
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    Abraham Geiger

    Abraham Geiger

    Abraham Geiger (24 May 1810 in Frankfurt am Main – 23 October 1874 in Berlin) was a German rabbi and scholar who led the founding of Reform Judaism. He sought to remove all nationalistic elements (particularly the "Chosen People" doctrine) from Judaism, stressing it as an evolving and changing religion. As a child, Geiger started doubting the traditional understanding of Judaism when his studies in classical history seemed to contradict the biblical claims of divine authority. At the age of seventeen, he began writing his first work, a comparison between the legal style of the Mishnah and Biblical and Talmudic law. He also worked on a dictionary of Mishnaic (Rabbinic) Hebrew. Geiger's friends provided him with financial assistance which enabled him to attend the University in Heidelberg, to the great disappointment of his family. His main focus was centered on the areas of philology, Syriac, Hebrew, and classics, but he also attended lectures in Old Testament, philosophy, and archaeology. After one semester, he transferred to the University of Bonn, where he studied at the same time as Samson Raphael Hirsch. Hirsch initially formed a friendship with Geiger, and with him organized a
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    Ludwig Philippson

    Ludwig Philippson

    Ludwig Philippson (28 December 1811, at Dessau – 29 December 1889, at Bonn) was a German rabbi and author, the son of Moses Philippson. He was educated at the gymanasium of Halle and at the University of Berlin, and maintained himself by tutoring and by doing literary work. He published his first effort, a translation of the prophets Hosea, Joel, Obadiah, and Nahum, when fifteen years old. In 1830 he translated and annotated the works of two Judæo-Greek poets of Alexandria. A philological treatise on medical terms (Hyle Anthropine, 1831, etc.) which followed revealed his qualities as a scholar, and his versatility was emphasized by the publication in 1832 of a vindication of Spinoza. When twenty-two years old he was called as preacher by the Jewish congregation of Magdeburg and remained in that city for twenty-eight years. In order to promote the interests of Judaism he founded the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums in 1837 and edited that journal until his death. Two years later (1839) he began an annotated German translation of the Hebrew Bible, which he completed in 1853. This translation, with a commentary in German, was issued in several editions, one being illustrated with
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    28

    American Jewish Year Book

    The American Jewish Year Book (AJYB), was published for 108 years. Publication was initiated by the Jewish Publication Society (JPS). In 1908 American Jewish Committee (AJC) assumed responsibility for compilation and editing while JPS remained the publisher. From 1950 through 1993 the two organizations were co-publishers, and in 1994 AJC became the sole publisher. The American Jewish Year Book was "The Annual Record of Jewish Civilization." This volume has been a very important and prestigious annual publication because it has acted as a major resource for academic researchers, researchers at Jewish institutions and organizations, practitioners at Jewish institutions and organizations, the media, both Jewish and secular, educated leaders and lay persons, and libraries, particularly University and Jewish libraries, for up-to-date information about the American and Canadian Jewish communities. For decades, the American Jewish Year Book has been the premiere place for leading academics to publish long review chapters on topics of interest to the American Jewish community. Publication of the American Jewish Year Book ceased with the 2008 volume, a victim of both the economic slowdown
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    Joseph Wittig

    Joseph Wittig (January 22, 1879 – August 22, 1949) was a German theologian and writer who was born in Neusorge, a village in the district of Neurode, Silesia. In 1903 he received his doctorate of theology from the University of Breslau, and was ordained a priest by Cardinal Georg von Kopp (1837-1914). Subsequently he worked as a chaplain in Lauban, and beginning in 1904 studied Christian art and architecture in Rome as a member of the German Archaeological Institute. During this time he also took part on a study trip to North Africa with theologian Franz Joseph Dölger (1879-1940). After returning to Germany he was a chaplain in Patschkau, and later in Breslau. In 1911 Wittig became an associate professor of church history and Christian archaeology, and in 1915 was a full professor of patrology, church history and art at the Theological Faculty of the University of Breslau. In 1917-18 he attained the office of Dean at the University. Wittig is remembered for his work as a religious reformer at Breslau. His theological and literary ideas often placed him at odds with Catholic Church hierarchy. In 1922 he wrote an article titled Die Erlösten (The Redeemed) that was openly critical of
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    36

    Kurt Hellmer

    Kurt Hellmer, d 11 May 1975 was a literatus who, as a New York literary agent represented Max Frisch and Friedrich Dürrenmatt, amongst others. A widely experienced director and playwright in Germany and Austria, Hellmer, having fled Nazi Germany in the 1930s, was a prominent figure in the German exile community in New York, editor of Aufbau, forcefully advocating avant garde forms and sensibilities such as the epic theatre of Brecht, the Theatre of the Absurd, advocating and advancing the work of such figures as Erwin Piscator. Hellmer became a producer and literary agent in the 1940s, representing, in addition to Frisch and Dürrenmatt, such figures as Sławomir Mrożek, Michael Noonan, Jacob Picard, and Jane Rule, and producing the work of authors such as George Bernard Shaw. Hellmer's ideals and commitments, both aesthetic and social, are illustrated by the instance of Jane Rule for whom he ultimately succeeded in securing publication of her first novel, Desert of the Heart, in 1963, at a time of considerable resistance to the publication of such work.
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    38
    Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums

    Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums

    The Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums, or Higher Institute for Jewish Studies, was a rabbinical seminary, established in Berlin in 1872 destroyed by the Nazi government of Germany in 1942. Upon the order of the government, the name was officially changed in 1883 (until 1923) to LEHRANSTALT FÜR DIE WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS, and again 1933-1942. Abraham Geiger, who had been active in establishing Reform Judaism wanted a University for Jewish Studies in Berlin, unable to become part of the University of Berlin, he was involved in 1870 in creating a separate institution. Also involved were David Cassel, Israel Lewy and Heyman Steinthal, the Jewish “intellectuals” and professors at the University of Berlin. Geiger's "General Introduction to the Science of Judaism," "Introduction to the Biblical Writings," and "Lectures on Pirḳe Abot" were originally delivered as lectures at the seminary. They taught in the spirit of the Wissenschaft des Judentums movement. Teachers included some of the best German-Jewish teachers: Hanoch Albeck, Ismar Elbogen, Julius Grünthal, Julius Guttmann, Franz Rosenthal, Harry Torczyner, and Leo Baeck. Moritz Steinschneider referred to the Hochschule
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    3 votes
    40

    Herbert Weichmann

    Herbert Weichmann (23 February 1896 – 9 October 1983) was a German lawyer and politician (Social Democratic Party SPD) and First Mayor of Hamburg (1965–1971). In his position as mayor of Hamburg, he served as President of the Bundesrat (1968–1969). Weichmann was born in Landsberg, Upper Silesia, then part of the German Reich, to a Jewish family of physicians. In 1914 he began to study medicine, but volunteered at the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. After the war Weichmann studied law at the Silesian Friedrich Wilhelm University, Breslau, and graduated (Dr. iur.) in 1922. In 1928 he married Elsbeth Greisinger and was appointed as liaison officer to Prime Minister of Prussia Otto Braun. After the takeover of power (1933) by the Nazi Party Weichmann fled first to Czechoslovakia, then to France—with a short term of imprisonment (1939–1940)—Spain, Portugal and later the United States. In 1948 he returned to Germany at the invitation of the mayor of Hamburg, Max Brauer, and started his political career there. In 1956 he became a member of the faculty of the University of Hamburg. Weichmann died in Hamburg and is buried at Ohlsdorf Cemetery. Weichmann's son lives in
    10.00
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    43
    Julius Fürst

    Julius Fürst

    Julius Fürst (also Julius Furst) (b. 12 May 1805, South Prussia; d. 9 February 1873, Leipzig), was a Jewish German orientalist. Fürst was a distinguished scholar of Semitic languages and literature. During his years as chairman of the department of Oriental languages and literature at the University of Leipzig (1864–1873), he wrote major works on literary history and linguistics. His most important scholarly works include the Bibliotheca Judaica (Leipzig, 1849–1863), Kultur and Literaturgeschichte der Juden in Asien (Cultural and literary history of Jews in Asia, 1849), several dictionaries as well as numerous contributions to the periodical "Der Orient" (Leipzig 1840-1851), whose chief editor he was. "Der Orient" was mainly devoted to scientific study of the language, literature and history of the Jews.
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    45

    Ludwig Hirschfeld Mack

    Ludwig Hirschfeld Mack (born Frankfurt-am-Main 11 July 1893, died Allambie Heights, in Sydney 7 January 1965) was a German/Australian artist. His formative education was 1912-1914 at Debschitz art school in Munich, and 1922 at the Bauhaus-University Weimar where following Kurt Schwerdtfeger he further developed "Farblichtmusiken" ('coloured-light-music'), a light and colour modulator which provided a visual translation of music; in fact an early form of multimedia. Hirschfeld Mack was joint participant, with the former Bauhaus master Gertrud Grunow, in the Second Congress of color-sound research in 1930 in Hamburg. Music and colour theory remained lifelong interests, informing his art production in a number of media, and it was the inspiration for his well-respected and influential teaching. Hirschfeld Mack was born in Frankfurt am Main and attended Arts and Music School in Frankfurt, and later was taught by Hermann Obrist and Wilhelm von Debschitz in Munich, taking art history with Heinrich Woelfflin and Fritz Burger. During the First World War, Ludwig Hirschfeld Mack was an infantry officer. In 1919 he enrolled at the Weimar Bauhaus, where he studied under Johannes Itten, Paul
    8.33
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    46
    8.33
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    48
    Julius Bab

    Julius Bab

    Julius Bab (December 11, 1880 – February 12, 1955) was a German dramatist and theater critic. He was a cofounder of the Kulturbund Deutscher Juden. Bab was a close friend of journalist and theater critic Siegfried Jacobsohn and a key contributor to the early years of the magazine Schaubühne, the later Weltbühne. In 1939 he emigrated to the United States through France. In 1951 he visited Germany in a lecture tour. He died in Roslyn Heights, New York in 1955. Around 90 books and biographies about the theater including:
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    49
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    50
    Franz Oppenheimer

    Franz Oppenheimer

    Franz Oppenheimer (born 30 March 1864; died 30 September 1943) was a German-Jewish sociologist and political economist, who published also in the area of the fundamental sociology of the state. After studying medicine in Freiburg and Berlin, Oppenheimer practiced as a physician in Berlin from 1886 to 1895. From 1890 onwards, he began to concern himself with sociopolitical questions and social economics. After his activity as a physician, he was editor-in-chief of the magazine Welt am Morgen, where he became acquainted with Friedrich Naumann, who was, at the time, working door-to-door for different daily papers. In 1909, Oppenheimer earned a Ph. D. in Kiel with a thesis about economist David Ricardo. From 1909 to 1917, Oppenheimer was Privatdozent in Berlin, then for two years Titularprofessor. In 1914 he was one of co-founders of the German Committee for Freeing of Russian Jews. In 1919, he accepted a call to serve as Chair for Sociology and Theoretical Political Economy at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt/Main. This was the first chair dedicated to Sociology in Germany. A Moshav, Merhavia, was founded by Jews using a plan for Agricultural cooperation written by
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    52
    Nathan Birnbaum

    Nathan Birnbaum

    Nathan Birnbaum (Hebrew: נתן בירנבוים‎; pseudonyms: "Mathias Acher", "Dr. N. Birner", "Mathias Palme", "Anton Skart", "Theodor Schwarz", and "Pantarhei") (16 May 1864 – 2 April 1937) was an Austrian writer and journalist, Jewish thinker and nationalist. His life had three main phases, representing a progression in his thinking: a Zionist phase (ca. 1883 – ca. 1900); a Jewish cultural autonomy phase (ca. 1900 – ca. 1914) which included the promotion of the Yiddish language; and religious phase (ca. 1914–1937), in which he also continued to promote Yiddish. He married Rosa Korngut (1869 – 1934) and they had three sons: Solomon (Salomo) Birnbaum (1891–1989), Menachem Birnbaum (1893–1944), and Uriel Birnbaum (1894–1956). Nathan Birnbaum was born into an Eastern European Jewish family in Vienna. He studied law, philosophy and Near Eastern studies at the University of Vienna from 1882 to 1886. In 1883, at the age of 19, he founded Kadimah, the first Jewish (Zionist) student association in Vienna, many years before Theodor Herzl became the leading spokesman of the Zionist movement. While still a student, he founded and published the periodical Selbstemanzipation! ("Self-Emancipation!"
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    Jüdischer Kulturbund

    Jüdischer Kulturbund, or (with the definite article) Der Jüdische Kulturbund, was a Cultural Federation of German Jews, established in 1933. It hired over 1300 men and 700 women artists, musicians, and actors fired from German institutions, and grew to about 70,000 members. The organisation was originally named Kulturbund Deutscher Juden (Cultural Federation of German Jews in 1933, but in April 1935 the Nazi authorities – forcing the organisation to delete the term German from the name – imposed a change of the name into Jüdischer Kulturbund, i.e. Jewish Cultural Federation.), also known as the Kubu, was an institution created by unemployed Jewish performers with the consent of the Nazis "for" the Jewish population. After the exclusion of Jewish Germans and gentile Germans of Jewish descent from participating in almost all organisations and public events, the Kulturbund Deutscher Juden tried to provide some compensation, as tried Israelitisches Familienblatt. Kulturbund put on theatrical performances, concerts, exhibitions, operas and lectures all over Germany, performed by Jewish entertainers, artists, writers, scientists etc., which were no longer permitted by the Nazi Party
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    Jewish Herald-Voice

    Jewish Herald-Voice

    The Jewish Herald-Voice is a weekly community newspaper serving the Jewish community of Texas' Gulf Coast. Established in 1908, it bills itself as the longest-running Jewish paper in the Southwest. Known as the Herald, it is subscribed to by approximately 7,000 households, and claims a readership of more than 30,000. The paper is owned by the Samuels family, also publishers, and is edited by Michael Duke. In 2001, a group of volunteers from the Greater Houston Jewish Genealogical Society began indexing all "life-cycle information" — announcements of births, engagements, marriages, deaths, and burials — for use in historical and genealogical projects. As of August, 2011, the index database included all events from the beginning of the paper's publication through June 2011.
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    Josef Samuel Bloch

    Josef Samuel Bloch

    Joseph Samuel Bloch, Josef Samuel Bloch (November 20, 1850, Dukla, Galicia - 1923) was an Austrian rabbi and deputy. Bloch's parents, who were poor, destined him for the rabbinical career, and he devoted himself to the exclusive study of the Talmud. He frequented the yeshivot, especially that of Rabbi Josef Saul Nathanson at Lemberg, who, in his responsa, mentions Bloch, when he was only fifteen years old, as one of his most intelligent pupils. After having finished his studies at the colleges (gymnasia) of Magdeburg and Liegnitz, he went to the University of Munich. Thence he went to the University of Zurich, where he obtained his degree of doctor of philosophy. He was appointed rabbi in Rendsburg, Holstein, afterward in Kobylin, Posen, and Brüx, Bohemia; and finally he ended his rabbinical career in Floridsdorf, near Vienna. Antisemitism was endemic in Austria during the late 19th century and was taking political center-stage from the 1870s on. Taking advantage of this, August Rohling, a Professor of Theology at one of the German universities, published a book, Der Talmudjude (1871), which became a bestseller and was read by hundreds of thousands (one Catholic organization
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    Jakob Klatzkin

    Jakob Klatzkin, Yakov/Jakub Klaczkin (Hebrew: יעקב קלצקין‎; Russian: Яков Клачкин, 3 October Biaroza (now Belarus), 1882 - 26 March 1948, Vevey, Switzerland) was a Jewish philosopher, publicist, publisher. He was a son of Rabbi Eliyahu Klaczkin (1852, Oshpol - 1932, Jerusalem). His birthplace Kartoz-Brioza was the place his father was called rabbinate. He rejected the notion of chosenness for the Jewish people, either religious or secular. He argued that the only meaningful goal for Zionism was regaining the land of Israel and normalizing the conditions of Jewish existence also that assimilationist were "traitors to their Judaism". He criticized Ahad Ha-Am for the notion that morality was the key to Israel's uniqueness. He believed that ethic is universal, not the possession of a particular people. He maintained that the spiritual definition of Judaism denied freedom of thought and led to national chauvinism.
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    Alliance Israélite Universelle

    Alliance Israélite Universelle

    The Alliance Israélite Universelle (Hebrew: כל ישראל חברים‎) is a Paris-based international Jewish organization founded in 1860 by the French statesman Adolphe Crémieux to safeguard the human rights of Jews around the world. The organization promotes the ideals of Jewish self-defense and self-sufficiency through education and professional development. The motto of the organization is the Jewish rabbinic injunction Kol yisrael arevim ze laze (כל ישראל ערבים זה לזה), translated into French as Tous les israélites sont solidaires les uns des autres ("All Jews bear responsibility for one another"). In 1860, Alliance Israelite Universelle embarked on a "mission civilisatrice" to advance the Jews of the Middle East through French education and culture. It was founded in Paris, and opened its first school in Tetouan, Morocco in 1862. The original members of the society were Jews, and by far the largest number of its members belong to that faith, but the association has enjoyed at all times the sympathy and cooperation of many prominent Christians. As outlined in its prospectus, the program of the society included the emancipation of the Jews from oppressive and discriminating laws,
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    88

    Gustav Karpeles

    Gustav Karpeles (November 11th, 1848, Ivanovice na Hané, Moravia – 1909) was a German Jewish historian of literature and editor; son of Elijah Karpeles. He studied at the University of Breslau, where he attended also the Jewish Theological Seminary. He embraced journalism, and was successively attached to the editorial staffs of Auf der Höhe, the Breslauer Nachrichten, the Breslauer Zeitung, the Deutsche Union, and Westermann's Deutsche Monatshefte. In 1870 he became coeditor with Samuel Enoch of the Jüdische Presse. In 1883 Karpeles settled in Berlin, where in 1890 he became editor of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums. Karpeles stimulated into active life the Jewish literary societies in Germany, but made himself most widely known through his writings on Heinrich Heine. In addition to several editions of Heine's works (1885, 1887, 1888, 1902) he published the following monographs: The following are among his general writings: He also edited the works of Schiller (Leipsic, 1895), Lenau (ib. 1896), and Eichendorff (ib. 1896). His contributions to Jewish literature include: Karpeles also wrote drama:
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    Manfred George

    Manfred George (October 22, 1893 – December 30, 1965), born Manfred Georg Cohn, later shortened to Manfred Georg, was a German journalist, author and translator. He left Germany after the Nazis came to power, living in several different European countries and eventually emigrating penniless to the United States in 1939. He became the editor of Aufbau, a periodical published in German, and transformed it from a small monthly newsletter into an important weekly newspaper, especially during World War II and the postwar era, when it became an important source of information for Jews trying to establish new lives and for Nazi concentration camp survivors to find each other. George remained Editor in Chief of Aufbau until his death. Manfred George was born on October 22, 1893 in Berlin, the son of a businessman. He studied law at universities in Berlin, Greifswald and Geneva. After a serious injury during World War I, he was discharged from military service and continued his studies, graduating in 1917 with a doctorate in law. He began his journalism career before graduation, writing for the newspaper, Deutsche Montagszeitung and he began contributing to Die Weltbühne in 1915. He then
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    108
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    112

    Reich's Deputation of the German Jews

    The Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden (English: Reich's Deputation of the German Jews) was founded on 17 September 1933. It established as the umbrella organisation, which for the first time ever united all the quarrelling Jewish organisations and religious bodies on a nationwide range. It was organized to represent Jewish interests at a national level. The Berlin Rabbi Leo Baeck was elected president of the Reichsvertretung with Otto Hirsch acting as chairman. The Reichsvertretung helped Jewish Germans to organise self-help, established central welfare organisations, occupational retraining for dismissed officials (fired in accordance with the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed 7 April 1933), preparation for emigration, built up schools and institution of elementary to higher education open for Jewish students and pupils. Thus the Reichsvertretung could develop - at least to some extent - a response to the Racial policy of Nazi Germany. With the passing of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, the Reichsvertretung was forced to rename itself as Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (Reich's Deputation of the Jews in Germany). In the same year
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    113

    Voskhod

    Voskhod was a Russian-Jewish periodical in the Russian Empire. It was published in St. Petersburg from 1881 to 1906.
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    Viktor von Weizsäcker

    Viktor Freiherr von Weizsäcker (21 April 1886 in Stuttgart – 9 January 1957 in Heidelberg) was a German physician and physiologist. He was the brother of Ernst von Weizsäcker, and uncle to Richard von Weizsäcker and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker. (For his family tree, see Weizsäcker). He studied at Tübingen, Freiburg, Berlin, and Heidelberg, where he earned his medical degree in 1910. In 1920 he became head of the neurological department at Ludolf von Krehl's clinic in Heidelberg. In 1941 he succeeded Otfrid Foerster as professor of neurology in Breslau, and in 1945 returned to Heidelberg as a professor of clinical medicine. Weizsäcker is known for his pioneer work in psychosomatic medicine, and for his theories regarding medical anthropology. He is remembered for his concept of Gestaltkreis, an elaboration of Gestalt psychology, in which he explains that biological events are not fixed responses, but are dependent upon previous experience and are constantly being repatterned through experience. Via Gestalt, Weizsäcker attempted to represent the unit of perception and movement theoretically. In the late 1920s Weizsäcker was co-author of Die Kreatur with philosopher Martin Buber
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    Nahum Sokolow

    Nahum Sokolow

    Nahum Sokolow (Nahum ben Joseph Samuel Sokolow, Hebrew: נחום ט' סוקולוב‎ Nachum ben Yoseph Shmuel Soqolov, Yiddish: סאָקאָלאָוו, 1859 - 1936) was a Zionist leader, author, translator, and a pioneer of Hebrew journalism. Born to a rabbinic family in Wyszogród, Poland (then Russian Empire), Sokolow began writing for the local Hebrew newspaper, HaTzefirah, when he was only seventeen years old. He quickly won himself a huge following that crossed the boundaries of political and religious affiliation among Polish Jews, from secular intellectuals to anti-Zionist Haredim, and eventually had his own regular column. Over the years, he would eventually become the newspaper's senior editor and a co-owner. In 1906 Sokolow was asked to become the secretary general of the World Zionist Congress. In the ensuing years, he crisscrossed Europe and North America to promote the Zionist cause. During World War I, he lived in London, where he was a leading advocate for the Balfour Declaration of 1917, in which the British government declared its support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. In 1931 he was elected President of the World Zionist Congress, and served in that capacity until 1935, when he was
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    129
    Union for Reform Judaism

    Union for Reform Judaism

    The Union for Reform Judaism (URJ), formerly known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC), is an organization which supports Reform Jewish congregations in North America. The current President is Rabbi Richard Jacobs, and the Chairman of the Board is Stephen Sacks. The origins of the URJ began with the founding of the UAHC by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise in 1873, based at Cincinnati, Ohio. At the time it consisted of 34 congregations. In 1951, the UAHC relocated its headquarters to New York City. In 2003, the UAHC was officially renamed the Union for Reform Judaism by the General Assembly at the organization's Biennial Convention. The former name was dropped because it reflected Wise's unrealized expectation that the whole of American Jewry would eventually affiliate with the Reform movement, and also because it failed to acknowledge the Reform-affiliated congregations outside the United States. Today, the organization is often referred to simply as "the Union." As of 2012, over 900 synagogues were affiliated with it. In 1875, the Union created Hebrew Union College (HUC) in Cincinnati, the Reform movement seminary to train rabbis and later cantors and other Jewish
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Isaac Leeser

    Isaac Leeser

    Isaac Leeser (December 12, 1806 - February 1, 1868) was an American, Ashkenazi Jewish lay minister of religion, author, translator, editor, and publisher; pioneer of the Jewish pulpit in the United States, and founder of the Jewish press of America. He produced the first Jewish translation of the Bible into English to be published in the United States. He is considered one of the most important American Jewish personalities of the nineteenth century America. Born as Isaak Leeser in Neuenkirchen (Rheine), Westphalia, Germany, Isaac Leeser received his education at the primary school of nearby Dülmen and thereupon at a gymnasium in Münster. He was well-grounded in Latin, German, and Hebrew. He also studied the Talmud tractates Moed, Bava Metzia, and portions of Kodashim and Bava Batra under Hebrew masters. At the age of seventeen he emigrated to America, arriving at Richmond, Virginia, in May, 1824. His uncle, Zalma Rehiné, a respected merchant in that city, sent Leeser to a private school but after ten weeks the school closed, and for the next five years Leeser was employed in his uncle's counting-room. Although his circumstances were inhospitable for the growth of his Jewish
    6.33
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    Gabriel Riesser

    Gabriel Riesser

    Gabriel Riesser (2 April 1806 – 22 April 1863) was a German politician and lawyer. Both of Riesser's grandfathers were rabbis; yet his father chose to work as a secretary at the Jewish law court of Altona before he finally became a merchant in Hamburg. After his education at the renowned grammar school Johanneum, Gabriel Riesser went to Heidelberg and Kiel, where he studied law from 1824 to 1828, writing his doctorate dissertation in Heidelberg. He became a leading advocate of Jewish emancipation. He had himself suffered discrimination because of his religion: in Heidelberg and Jena he was denied the position of a university lecturer, in Hamburg in 1829 he was not allowed to practice as a lawyer. In his application he had recurred to a privilege of equal treatment that had been granted during the French occupation. His application, however, was refused because he formally was no citizen (which he as a Jew could not become) of the city of Hamburg. As a reaction Riesser in 1831 published an essay "Stellung der Bekenner des mosaischen Glaubens in Deutschland" (On the Position of Confessors of the Jewish Faith in Germany) and founded the journal "Der Jude, periodische Blätter für
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    The Jewish Chronicle

    The Jewish Chronicle

    The Jewish Chronicle ("The JC") is a London-based Jewish newspaper. Founded in 1841, it is the oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the world. The Jewish Chronicle appears every Friday (except on days which are Jewish festivals, when it appears earlier in the week) providing news, views, social, cultural and sports reports, as well as editorials and a spectrum of readers' opinions on the letter page. It is independent and owned by the Kessler Foundation (UK), a charitable trust in the United Kingdom which has overall control of the newspaper and its assets. The overall readership is estimated at 90,000 weekly reaching up to 35% of the total UK Jewish population. The newspaper's website includes paid-for searchable archives of all editions from the first issue to the present, making it valuable for Anglo-Jewish genealogists and historians. The website was launched in 2000 and has won three successive Weekly Newspaper on the Web awards. It was relaunched in 2008. On 17 January 2010, the site was briefly hacked by a group calling themselves "Palestinian Mujaheeds" who changed the front page to protest against Israel's blockade of the Gaza Strip. The JC sponsors the Jewish
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    Robert Weltsch

    Robert Weltsch (1891, Prague – 1982, Jerusalem) was a journalist, editor and prominent Zionist. He was editor of the Jüdische Rundschau (Jewish Review), a newspaper published twice a week in Berlin, Germany during the years the Nazis were gaining influence. The newspaper had a peak readership of 37,000. He edited and wrote for the Rundschau from 1919 through its demise under the Nazi regime in 1938 . His best-known contribution was a reaction to the April 1, 1933 Nazi-led boycott of Jewish shops, which was the first meaningful anti-Jewish action of the newly-empowered Nazis. In his editorial Weltsch used the phrase, "Wear it with pride, the yellow badge." This was a call for strength and solidarity, and a lone voice in reaction to the Nazi boycott. It was not a reference to the forced-wearing of yellow armbands, which the Nazis didn't force on Jews until 1941, but rather a call for unity to a German-Jewish community that had until then thought of itself as comfortably assimilated into German life. Weltsch was born in Prague when it was part of Austria-Hungary. The city had a strong Jewish community which was culturally German. Weltsch fought in World War I on the German side. His
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    The American Jewess

    The American Jewess

    The American Jewess (1895–1899) described itself as "the only magazine in the world devoted to the interests of Jewish women." It was the first English-language periodical targeted to American Jewish women, covering an evocative range of topics that ranged from women's place in the synagogue to whether women should ride bicycles. Founded and edited by Rosa Sonneschein (1847–1932), it offered the first sustained critique, by Jewish women, of gender inequities in Jewish worship and communal life. Assembled and digitized for online access by the Jewish Women's Archive, 8 volumes of The American Jewess were assembled from the collections of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Klau Library, Brandeis University Libraries, the Library of Congress, and the Jewish Women's Archive.
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    Siegfried Bernfeld

    Siegfried Bernfeld

    Siegfried Bernfeld (May 7, 1892, Lemberg, Galicia, Austria-Hungary (today Ukraine) – April 2, 1953, San Francisco) was an Austrian psychologist and educator who was a native of Lemberg, which is now Lviv, Ukraine. In 1915 he earned his degree in philosophy from the University of Vienna, where he also studied psychoanalysis, biology and sociology. Siegfried Bernfeld was of Jewish ancestry. While still a student, he was involved in the psychoanalytical movement, and later became an important member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. From 1922 until 1925 he practiced psychoanalysis in Vienna, and from 1925 to 1932 worked at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute. Subsequently he returned to Vienna, and with the threat of Nazism, went into exile in Menton on the French Riviera, where he stayed until 1936. Afterwards he emigrated to the United States, where he worked as an educator in San Francisco. Bernfeld is remembered for his research in providing a link between psychoanalysis and educational theory. He was interested in the role of education, and how it related to issues such as social change and social inequality. He was an early proponent of Freudo-Marxism, and developed theories
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    Palestine Post

    The Palestine Post was an English language Zionist newspaper founded on December 1, 1932 by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor, Gershon Agron in the British mandate of Palestine and subsequently, in Israel. In 1950 its name was changed to The Jerusalem Post. During its time as the Palestine Post, the publication supported the struggle for a Jewish homeland in Palestine and openly opposed British policy restricting Jewish immigration during the Mandate period. It reported on the birth of the State of Israel and its struggles and accomplishments over the years. On the evening of February 1, 1948, a car exploded outside the Jerusalem building housing the Palestine Post. The building also contained other newspaper offices, the British press censor, the Jewish settlement police, and a Hagana post with a cache of weapons. The bomb destroyed the Hagana post, a large part of the Palestine Post offices, and badly damaged several nearby buildings. One typesetter died and about 20 people were injured. The morning edition of the Palestine Post appeared in reduced format. The bombing was the work of Fawzi el-Kuttub, under the command of Arab leader Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni.
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    Robert Stricker

    Robert Stricker (b. 16 August 1879, Brno, d. 1944, Auschwitz) was a Jewish Austrian politician. Born in Brno (present-day Czech Republic) on 16 August 1879, Stricker graduated from high school at the technical college. He entered the service of the Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways, where he was active in management. He was elected at the 1919 Constituent National Assembly as the only representative of the Jewish National Party, founded in 1907 under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which never again succeeded in sending a representative to the Austrian Parliament. He was the publisher of the Jewish weekly magazine Die Neue Welt, established in 1926. In addition, Stricker was a Zionist activist, and for many years was a board member of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien. After the Anschluss, Robert Stricker was deported from Vienna. He is reported to have died in 1944 in Auschwitz.. Contrary to a post war report he did not have a son in the US Army air corps who was captured and killed in Austria in 1945
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    Marcus Lehmann

    Marcus or Meyer Lehmann (1831 in Verden, Hanover – 1890 in Mainz) was a rabbi in Germany who strove to preserve Orthodox Judaism against the growing influence of the Reform movement. After graduating from the gymnasium, Lehmann studied in Halberstadt under Rabbi Azriel Hildesheimer. He then went to Berlin University, and thence to Prague, to continue his theological and secular studies. He was graduated Ph.D. from the University of Halle. In 1853 the congregation of Mayence, when building its new temple, provided for the introduction of an organ. Those of the members who were opposed to this innovation organized a Religionsgesellschaft (private religious society - it was illegal to form a new community until 1871), which in 1854 extended to Lehmann a call as rabbi and preacher. He accepted the position and remained with the congregation until his death. In 1856 he dedicated a new synagogue, which the congregation owed mostly to his efforts (this was replaced in 1879), and he founded a religious school which in 1859 was developed into a Jewish school where both religious and secular studies were taught. With the establishment of the Israelit, Lehmann attained a high position as one
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    Jewish Publication Society

    The Jewish Publication Society (JPS), originally known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English. Founded in Philadelphia in 1888, by reform Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf among others, JPS is especially well known for its English translation of the Hebrew Bible, the JPS Tanakh, today regarded as the authoritative Jewish translation. As a nonprofit publisher, JPS continues to develop projects that for-profit publishers will not invest in: significant scholarly projects that may take years to complete. The JPS Bible translation is used in rabbinical and Christian seminaries, on hundreds of college campuses, in informal adult study settings, in synagogues, and in Jewish day schools and supplementary programs. It has been licensed in a wide variety of books as well as in electronic media. Other core JPS projects include the ongoing JPS Bible commentary series, books on Jewish lifestyle and customs, new JPS Guides, and its many Bible editions and Bible study resources. Beginning in 2012, JPS will be distributed by the University of Nebraska Press. The first Jewish Publication Society was founded in 1845 in
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    193
    Nahum Goldmann

    Nahum Goldmann

    Nahum Goldmann (Hebrew: נחום גולדמן‎) (July 10, 1895–August 29, 1982) was a leading Zionist and the founder and longtime president of the World Jewish Congress. Nahum Goldmann was born in Vishnevo, Russian Empire, a shtetl in the Pale of Settlement (now Višnieva, Belarus), the son of a teaching and writing Litvak family, whose father was an ardent Zionist. At the age of six, he moved with his parents to Frankfurt, Germany, where his father entertained leading Zionists and intellectuals. In 1911, while still in high school, he and his father attended the Tenth Zionist Congress. Goldmann went on to study law, history, and philosophy in Marburg, Heidelberg, and Berlin. He graduated in law and philosophy. In 1913, he visited Palestine for four months, publishing his impressions the following year in his book, Eretz Israel, Reisebriefe aus Palästina (Eretz Israel, Travel letters from Palestine), which was published in two editions. In 1918, while working at the Jewish division of the German Foreign Ministry, he attempted to enlist Kaiser Wilhelm's support for the Zionist ideal. In 1922 he founded the Eschkol-Publikations-Gesellschaft (Eschkol Publication Society), and was involved in
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    The Occident and American Jewish Advocate

    The Occident (1843-1869), was the first general Jewish periodical published in the United States. (The only earlier periodical, Solomon Henry Jackson's The Jew was published as an anti-missionary journal). Compiled by Rabbi Isaac Leeser from inception through 1868, in 1869 the publication was edited by Mayer Sulzberger. (Sulzberger, a successful attorney was a disciple of Leeser's in his youth. Leeser hoped Sulzberger would enter the rabbinate, but Sulzberger chose a career in law instead, but pledged to Leeser that he would edit the Occident for a year, which he fulfilled after Leeser's death.) A monthly publication, the Occident did print weekly from April 1859 - March 1861 until returning to the monthly format. It contained a broad array of contents, including sermons, obituaries, juvenile literature, scholarly research, theology, spiritual poetry, domestic and foreign news of Jewish interest, resolutions adopted by congregations and organizations, book reviews and correspondence. The Occident is one of the most important records of American Jewish life in the middle decades of the 19th century. Over ten years worth of this news monthly have been transcribed and are available
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    Arnold Deutsch

    Dr. Arnold Deutsch (1903-1942?), variously described as Austrian, Czech, or Hungarian, was an academic who worked as a Soviet spy, most well known for having recruited Kim Philby. Much of his life remains unknown or disputed. He was a cousin of Oscar Deutsch, the millionaire proprietor of the Odeon Cinemas chain. Though he claimed to be an observant Jew to disguise his role as a Communist agent, Deutsch was in fact lapsed in his religious beliefs. At the age of 24, Deutsch received with distinction his PhD in political science, from the University of Vienna. He was also a sexologist, a follower of Wilhelm Reich and his "SexPol" movement. His remarkable academic record opened opportunities to penetrate the highest institutions in many Western countries. At the same time, Deutsch embarked on his lifelong involvement with Communism and the Soviet Union. In the 1920s he was working for the OMS, the International Liaison Department of the Comintern. A co-worker of his there was Edith Suschitzky, whom he met at 1926 in Vienna and who would be instrumental in his later espionage career. In 1933, Deutsch was arrested by the Nazi authorities in Germany, but was freed from custody with the
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    Ludwig Geiger

    Ludwig Geiger

    Ludwig Geiger (originally Lazarus Abraham Geiger; 5 June 1848, Breslau – 9 February 1919, Berlin) was a German author and historian. He was born at Breslau, Silesia, a son of Abraham Geiger. After study at Heidelberg, Göttingen, and Bonn, he became docent in history at Berlin in 1873 and in 1880 was appointed to a chair of modern history there. His more important researches have been concerned with the history of humanism, to which he contributed such studies as Nikolaus Ellenbog, ein Humanist und Theolog des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts (1870); Johann Reuchlin, sein Leben und seine Werke (1871); Petrarca (1874), an examination of Petrarch's significance as author and scholar; and Renaissance und Humanismus in Italien und Deutschland (1882). He also revised Jakob Burckhardt's Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (seventh edition, two volumes, Leipzig, 1899). In 1880, he began the publication of the Goethe-Jahrbuch, and from 1886–1892 was proprietor and an editor of the Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland (five volumes), in connection with which subject he published Das Studium der hebräischen Sprache in Deutschland vom Ende des 15ten bis zur Mitte des 16ten
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    The Jewish Chronicle of Pittsburgh

    The Jewish Chronicle of Pittsburgh

    The Jewish Chronicle of Pittsburgh is a weekly newspaper published every Thursday for the Jewish community in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and the surrounding area. The newspaper is owned and distributed by the Jewish Publication and Education Foundation. The founding executive editor of the Jewish Chronicle in 1962 was Albert W. Bloom, then a reporter and science editor of the Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Bloom wrote the editorials and a weekly column "People and Issues" for over 20 years. Under Bloom's leadership, the paper became one of the leading Jewish papers in the US, and ran a number of prize winning series. Bloom continued as editor until his retirement in 1983, when he also served as President of the American Jewish Press Association. Joel Roteman succeeded Bloom and edited the paper from 1983. Because Pittsburgh has a relatively large population of Jews, especially in Squirrel Hill, the publication has a higher circulation than most other local Jewish newspapers. The Chronicle reports on news occurring in the local Jewish community and city as a whole as well as national and global news that is of Jewish interest, especially news related to Israel. It also extensively
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    Aufbau

    Aufbau

    Aufbau is a journal for German-speaking Jews around the globe. It was founded in 1934 and is a member of Internationale Medienhilfe (IMH). Hannah Arendt, Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, and Stefan Zweig wrote for the publication. Until 2004 it was published in New York. It is now published in Zürich. The Aufbau was originally founded by the German-Jewish Club, which was later renamed the New World Club. The original purpose of the journal was as a monthly newsletter for the club, which included information and helpful facts for Jewish refugees. The purpose of the publication changed markedly when, in 1939, Manfred George was nominated as the new editor. George took the journal from a monthly newsletter to one of the leading anti-Nazi publications of the German press in exile (Exilpresse). George, within the first 5 years of his tenure, took the circulation of the journal from 8,000 to 40,000. Manfred George was nominated as the new editor of the Aufbau in 1939. Before that he was a well-known editor of a Berlin daily, Tempo, and a left-wing journalist in the Weimar Republic From September 1, 1944 through September 27, 1946, the Aufbau printed numerous lists of Jewish Holocaust
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    Arthur Ruppin

    Arthur Ruppin

    Arthur Ruppin (1 March 1876 – 1 January 1943) was a Zionist thinker and leader. He was also one of the founders of the city of Tel Aviv, and a pioneering sociologist credited as being "The Father Of Jewish Sociology", directing Berlin's Bureau for Jewish Statistics and Demography from 1902 to 1907. In 1926 Ruppin joined the faculty of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and founded the sociology department. A building there is now named in his honor. His most celebrated sociological work is "The Jews In The Modern World" (1934). Arthur Ruppin was born in Rawicz in the German Empire (today in Poland). When he was fifteen, his family's poverty forced him to work to support it. Nonetheless, he was able to complete his studies in law and economics. He was to distinguish himself both in furthering practical Zionist settlement and in the academic world. Ruppin joined the World Zionist Organization (WZO) in 1905. In 1907 he was sent by David Wolfsohn, the President of the WZO, to study the condition of the Yishuv (the Jewish community in Palestine), then in the Ottoman Empire, to investigate the possibilities for development of agriculture and industry. He reported on what he saw, which
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    American Jewish Committee

    The American Jewish Committee (AJC) is a Jewish advocacy group. It was established in 1906 with the purpose of safeguarding the welfare and security of Jews worldwide. It is one of the oldest Jewish advocacy organizations in the United States and has been described by the New York Times as "the dean of American Jewish organizations." AJC is an international advocacy organization whose key areas of focus are: building bridges of understanding, advancing the security of Americans and the democratic world, combating anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry; supporting Israel's quest for peace and security; advocating for energy independence; strengthening Jewish life. The organization has regional offices in 26 American cities, 7 overseas offices, and 31 international partnerships with Jewish communal institutions around the world. AJC's programs and departments include the Asia and Pacific Rim Institute, the Belfer Center for American Pluralism, the Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights, Contemporary Jewish Life, Government and International Affairs, Interreligious and Intergroup Relations, the Latino and Latin American Institute, Middle East and International
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    Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith

    The Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens (Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith, Central Verein, CV) was founded by German Jewish intellectuals on 26 March 1893 in Berlin, with the intention of opposing the rise of Anti-Semitism in the German Empire. Shortly after its founding it had 1,420, and in 1926 approximately 60,000 members. The CV’s aim was to unify German citizens of Jewish faith, to fight for the Jews' rights as citizens and to combat rising Anti-Semitism. Commitment to the German Nation was an important part of the CV's agenda - the members saw themselves primarily as German citizens with their own religion. Consequently, the CV repudiated Zionism. Beginning in 1922, the CV published a weekly newspaper, called “C.V.-Zeitung” (C.V.-Newspaper) and continued fighting the rising Anti-Semitic threat. Through publications and conversations with the President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg and economic leaders the CV tried to call attention to the threat. In 1928 the “Büro Wilhelmstrasse” (Wilhelmstrasse Office) was created with instrumental support of Alfred Wiener. It documented Nazi activities and issued anti-Nazi materials until 1933,
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    Ernst Simon

    Ernst Akiba/Akiva Simon, or 'aqibhah Ernst Simon Hebrew: עקיבא ארְנְסְט סימון‎, (March 15, 1899, Berlin - August 18, 1988, Jerusalem) was a German-Israeli Jewish educator, and religious philosopher. Along with Martin Buber, he founded in the 1920s one of the earliest Israeli peace groups, Brit Shalom, which advocated for a binational state including Jews and Arabs. From 1930 to 1933 he taught at the Hebrew Reali School Haifa, headed by Arthur Biram. In 1942, he was one of the founders of the binationalist Ihud party. In 1967, Simon was awarded the Israel Prize, for education.
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    Gustav Wyneken

    Gustav Wyneken

    Gustav Wyneken (March 19, 1875, Stade, Province of Hanover  – December 8, 1964, Göttingen, Lower Saxony) was a German educational reformer, free thinker and charismatic leader. His ideas and practice on education and youth became highly influential but were also controversial. He was born to a Christian family, and studied Theology and Philology in Berlin. In 1900 he married Luise Margaretha Dammermann, from whom he was divorced in 1910. From 1900 to 1906 he worked as a teacher in boarding schools, where he was a colleague of Hermann Lietz. Wyneken coined two influential terms: The first term was "pedagogic eros", the name given to erotic attraction and/or love between a teacher and a pupil. Pedagogic eros (or Pädagogischer Eros in German) was embodied as a set of concepts popularised by Wyneken's Wickersdorf Free School Community in Germany, and based around the Ancient Greek Platonic 'Ladder of Beauty' model of same-sex pedagogic relationships, but blended with high Germanic philosophical ideas. Although focused on same-sex relationships, his ideas could also be applied to heterosexuality. He led the wider Free School (or Freie Schulgemeinde in German) movement, a movement that
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    Jewish Quarterly Review

    The Jewish Quarterly Review is an peer-reviewed academic journal that focuses on Jewish studies. It is published quarterly for the Herbert D. Katz Center for Advanced Judaic Studies at the University of Pennsylvania by the University of Pennsylvania Press. The current editors are Elliott Horowitz and David N. Myers, a professor of Jewish studies at UCLA. It is available online through Project MUSE and JSTOR. The journal was established in London in 1889 by Israel Abrahams and Claude G. Montefiore as an outgrowth of the Wissenschaft des Judentums movement and is the oldest English-language journal of Judaic scholarship. Notable contributors include Solomon Schechter, Alexander Altmann, Solomon Zeitlin, Louis Ginzberg, Menachem Kellner, Michael Friedländer, E. N. Adler, W. Bacher, L. Blau, A. Büchler, T.K. Cheyne, D. Kaufmann, A. Neubauer, M. Steinschneider, and I. Zangwill.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:  Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901–1906.
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    Martin Buber

    Martin Buber

    Martin Buber (Hebrew: מרטין בובר‎; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I-Thou relationship and the I-It relationship. Born in Vienna, Buber came from a family of observant Jews, but broke with Jewish custom to pursue secular studies in philosophy. In 1902, he became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement, although he later withdrew from organizational work in Zionism. In 1923, Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du (later translated into English as I and Thou), and in 1925, he began translating the Hebrew Bible into the German language. In 1930, Buber became an honorary professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main, but resigned in protest from his professorship immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. He then founded the Central Office for Jewish Adult Education, which became an increasingly important body as the German government forbade Jews to attend public education. In 1938, Buber left Germany and settled in Jerusalem, Mandate Palestine (later Israel), receiving a
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    Otto Warburg

    Otto Warburg

    Otto Warburg (1859–1938), was a German botanist. He was also a notable industrial agriculture expert, as well as an active member of the Zionist Organization (ZO). From 1911–21, he served as the president of the ZO, which among other things, sought 'for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine." Otto Warburg was born in Hamburg on 20 July 1859 to a family whose ancestors came to Germany in 1566, possibly from Bologna. He completed his studies at the Johanneum Gymnasium in Hamburg in 1879, and continued his education in the field of botany at the University of Bonn which he left after one semester to move to the University of Berlin, and later to University of Strasbourg, where he received his Ph.D in 1883. He went on to study chemistry in Munich and physiology in Tübingen with Wilhelm Pfeffer. In 1885 he embarked on a 4 year expedition to Southern and Southeastern Asia, ending in Australia in 1889. His findings were later (1913–1922) published in three volumes titled Die Pflanzenwelt. Upon his return to Berlin he co founded Der Tropen Pflanzer, a journal specializing in tropical agriculture which he edited for 24 years. Realizing that as a Jew he would not
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    Pinchas Rosen

    Pinchas Rosen (Hebrew: פנחס רוזן‎, born Felix Rosenblüth, 1 May 1887 - 3 May 1978) was an Israeli politician and statesman, and the country's first Minister of Justice, serving three times during 1948-51, 1952–56, and 1958-61. He was also leader of the Independent Liberals during the 1960s. Rosen was born in Berlin, Germany. He studied law in universities in Freiburg and Berlin, graduating in 1908, and later served in the Imperial German Army in World War I. Always active in Zionist circles, Rosen was Chairman of Zionist Federation in Germany from 1920–1923, and eventually migrated to Palestine in 1926 where he practiced as a lawyer and helped create the Central European Immigrants Association. In 1942 Rosen founded the New Aliyah Party, and was elected to the Assembly of Representatives on its list in 1944. In 1948 he was among the signatories of the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, which he helped drafting. The New Aliyah Party evolved into the Progressive Party, and Rosen was elected to the Knesset in the 1949 elections. The party joined David Ben-Gurion's Mapai in forming a coalition, and Rosen was made Israel's first Minister of Justice, an office to
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    The Jewish Press

    The Jewish Press is an American weekly newspaper, geared toward the Orthodox Jewish community. It describes itself as "America's Largest Independent Jewish Weekly." The newspaper has a politically conservative viewpoint and editorial policy. The paper was founded as a national weekly in January 1960 by Rabbi Sholom Klass (1916-1980) and his father-in-law, Raphael Schreiber (1885-1980). The Jewish Press was founded to fill the void of Jewish news media left by the declining newspapers in the late 1950's. Approached by Rabbi Moshe Feinstein and Rabbi Simcha Elberg, Rabbi Klass resolved to publish an English newspaper that, he said, "everyone in America will be able to read." The first issue was published on January 29, 1960. Jason Maoz currently serves as the paper's senior editor. Former editors have included Meir Kahane, Arnold Fine, and Steve Walz. The Jewish Press covers the Jewish news from New York, the United States, and Israel. The newspaper has a politically conservative viewpoint and editorial policy. Major sections include: Some of the Jewish Press's notable contributors include: Hollywood screenwriter Robert Avrech, Jerold Auerbach, Dr. Morris Mandel, Dr. Louis Rene
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    World Zionist Organization

    World Zionist Organization

    The World Zionist Organization (Hebrew: ההסתדרות הציונית העולמית‎ HaHistadrut HaTsionit HaOlamit), or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization (Hebrew: ההסתדרות הציונית‎ HaHistadrut HaTsionit), or ZO, in 1897 at the First Zionist Congress, held from August 29 to August 31 in Basel, Switzerland. It changed its name to World Zionist Organization in January 1960. The ZO served as an umbrella organization for the Zionist movement, whose objective was the creation of a Jewish homeland in Eretz Yisrael - at that time under the Ottoman Empire and following the First World War The British Mandate of Palestine. When the State of Israel was declared 51 years later on May 14, 1948, many of its new administrative institutions were already in place, having evolved during the regular Zionist Congresses of the previous decades. Some of these institutions remain to this day. The WZO today consists of the following institutions: The World Zionist Unions, international Zionist Federations; and international organizations that define themselves as Zionist, such as WIZO, Hadassah, Bnai-Brith,Maccabi, the International Sephardic Federation, the three streams of world Judaism (Orthodox,
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