A Noble person is an individual with state-privileged status who holds a title of nobility. The term originally referred to those who were "known" or "notable" and was applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies. In the feudal system (in Europe and elsewhere), the nobility were generally those who held a fief, often land or office, under vassalage, i.e., in exchange for allegiance and various, mainly military, services to the Monarch and at lower levels to another nobleman. It rapidly came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status formerly conferred significant privileges, today, in most Western countries, noble status is a purely honorary dignity. In the United Kingdom, where some peerage titles, until recently, guaranteed a seat in the Upper House of the Parliament, there are still some residual privileges.Nobility is a historical, social and often legal notion, distinct from socio-economic status which is mainly based on income and possessions. Being wealthy or influential does not automatically make one a noble, nor are all nobles wealthy and influential (aristocratic families have lost their fortunes in various ways, and the concept of the 'poor nobleman' is almost as old as nobility itself).
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Prince Frederick Charles Alexander of Prussia (June 29, 1801- January 21, 1883) born in Charlottenburg, was a younger son of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Although he served as a Prussian general for much of his adult life, Prince Charles is often remembered for his vast patronage and collections of art and armor.
On May 26, 1827 in Charlottenburg, he married Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, a daughter of Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and his wife Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia. She was an older sister of Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, wife of his brother Wilhelm I. They had three children together:
The family lived in Wilhelmstrasse, opposite the residence of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. In possession of great wealth and a great art collector, their palace contained many art treasures. Charles was also a collector of rare weaponry, and carefully acquired and preserved knives, swords, daggers, rifles, pistols, and revolvers from many different countries and time periods. As a result of his vast collection, one source stated his palace was "one of the most famous repositories of bric-a-brac in
Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom (7 August 1783 – 2 November 1810) was a member of the British Royal Family as the youngest daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Amelia was born on 7 August 1783, at the Royal Lodge, Windsor, the youngest of George III and Queen Charlotte's fifteen children as well as the only of her siblings born at Windsor Castle. It is often said that she was her father's favorite, and accordingly, he affectionately called her, "Emily". She was born after the early deaths of her two elder brothers: Octavius (23 February 1779 - 3 May 1783) and Alfred (22 September 1780 - 20 August 1782). The death of these two princes left a gap of almost six years between Amelia and her nearest surviving sibling, Princess Sophia. She was twenty-one years younger than her eldest sibling George and nearly seventeen years younger than her eldest sister Charlotte. As the daughter of the monarch, she was styled HRH The Princess Amelia from birth.
Amelia was christened at the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace by John Moore, The Archbishop of Canterbury, on 17 September 1783. Her godparents were The Prince
Virginia Kahoa Kaahumanu Kaihikapumahana Ninito Wilcox (1895–1954) was related to the royal family of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Her father was Robert Kalanihiapo Wilcox (1855–1903), a military and political leader of Hawaiian and English descent. Her mother was Theresa Owana Kaohelelani of the House of Laanui, a collateral branch of the House of Kamehameha.
Born May 27, 1895, a few years after the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, Virginia was the younger sister of Robert Kalanikupuapaikalaninui Wilcox (1893–1934) and elder sister of Elizabeth Kaʻakaulani Wilcox (died young 1898). Her half sisters (from her mother's first marriage) were Daisy Napulahaokalani Cartwright and Eva Kuwailanimamao Cartwright.
She inherited the Wilcox estate and married John Kilioe Miller (1897–1969). Their eldest daughter was Kaihikapumahana Daisy, who married Cliff Weaver, the owner of the Spence Cliff chain of restaurants in Hawaii. Her youngest daughter was Kapiolani Gertrude Miller. Miss Hawaii in 1954, she traveled around the world with the original Harlem Globetrotters as a personal friend of Abe Saperstein, their founder. Returning to Hawaii, she became the owner of the Toledo Dairy, Hawaii's
Constance of Castile (1354 – 24 March 1394) was claimant of the Castilian throne after the death of her father Peter the Cruel, her mother being María de Padilla, whom Peter had secretly married but was then forced to repudiate, only to keep her as a mistress. She married, at Roquefort, near Bordeaux, Guienne, on 21 September 1371, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, as his second wife. Her younger sister, Infanta Isabella, married Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth son of King Edward III and Queen Philippa.
On 9 February 1372 Constance made a ceremonial entry into London as Queen of Castile, accompanied by Edward, the Black Prince, and an escort of English and Castilian retainers and London dignitaries. Crowds lined the streets to see her as she processed to the Savoy Palace in the Strand where she was ceremonially received by her husband, who had proclaimed himself King of Castile and León on 29 January.
This was the way for Gaunt to obtain a kingdom of his own (he had also pursued Scotland), as his nephew Richard II and the descendants of his brother Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence stood between
William III & II (Dutch: Willem III; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau by birth. From 1672 he governed as Stadtholder William III of Orange (Dutch: Willem III van Oranje) over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic. From 1689 he reigned as William III over England and Ireland. By coincidence, his regnal number (III) was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy". In what became known as the "Glorious Revolution", on 5 November 1688 William invaded England in an action that ultimately deposed King James II & VII and won him the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland. In the British Isles, William ruled jointly with his wife, Mary II, until her death on 28 December 1694. The period of their joint reign is often referred to as "William and Mary".
A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a
For the ship HTMS Pin Klao, see USS Hemminger (DE-746); for the bridge, see Phra Pin-klao Bridge
Phrabat Somdet Phra Pinklao Chaoyuhua (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระปิ่นเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) (September 4, 1808 – January 7, 1866) was the younger brother of King Mongkut (Rama IV) and the Second King of Siam, who crowned him as a monarch with equal honor to himself.
Prince Chutamani was born on September 4, 1808 as a son of Prince Isarasundhorn and Princess Bunrod at the Old Thonburi Palace. Prince Chutamani also had an elder brother - Prince Mongkut - who was seven years older. In 1809, Prince Isarasundhorn was crowned as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai and his mother became Queen Sri Suriyendra. They all moved to the Grand Palace.
The government of Buddha Loetla Nabhalai, however, was dominated by Krom Meun Jessadabodindra - Buddha Loetla Nabhalai's son with Concubine Riam. In 1824, Prince Mongkut became a monk according to Siamese traditions. However, Buddha Loetla Nabhalai fell ill and died in the same year. The nobility, led by Chao Phraya Abhay Pudhorn the Samuha Nayok and Tish Bunnag the minister of Krom Tha supported Prince Jessadabodindra for the throne as he was proved to be very competent to
Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Empress of India, as the wife of King-Emperor George V.
Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and brought up in the United Kingdom. Her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, who was of German extraction, and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a member of the British Royal Family. To her family, she was informally known as "May", after her birth month. At the age of 24 she was betrothed to Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, but six weeks after the announcement of the engagement he died unexpectedly of pneumonia. The following year she became engaged to Albert Victor's next surviving brother, George, who subsequently became king. Before her husband's accession she was successively Duchess of York, Duchess of Cornwall and Princess of Wales. As his queen consort from 1910, she supported her husband through the First World War, his ill-health and major political changes arising from the aftermath of the war and
Prince William Pitt Leleiohoku II, born William Pitt Leleiohoku Kalahoʻolewa (1854–1877), was a prince of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and member of the reigning House of Kalākaua. He is remembered for composing the Hawaiian War Chant. Leleiohoku means "Fled in the time of Hoku" in Hawaiian and commemorates the day Kamehameha I died on the Hawaiian calendar.
Leleiohoku was the youngest brother of Moses, James Kaliokalani, David Kalākaua, Liliʻuokalani, Anna Kaiulani, Kaʻiminaʻauao, Kinini, and Miriam K. Likelike. At birth he became the hānai (adopted son) of Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani who named him after her late husband High Chief William Pitt Leleiohoku. Princess Ruth also named Leleiohoku II heir to her vast holding of most of the Kamehameha lands but he predeceased her. He was educated at Saint Alban's College. An accomplished musician, he founded several royal choral societies that survive today including the Kawaihaʻo Church Singing Club. He was named the Crown Prince by his brother Kalākaua in 1874, with the consent of the House of Nobles and granted the title of Prince and style of "His Royal Highness". He became a member of the Privy Council and House of Nobles and ruled as
The Princess Elizabeth (22 May 1770 – 10 January 1840) was a member of the British Royal Family, the seventh child and third daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. After marrying the Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, Frederick VI, she took permanent residence in Germany under the title Landgravine.
The Princess Elizabeth was born at Buckingham Palace, London on 22 May 1770. Her father was the reigning British monarch, George III, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. Her mother was Queen Charlotte (née Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz). She was christened in the Great Council Chamber at St. James's Palace, on 17 June 1770 by Frederick Cornwallis, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were The Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Cassel (her paternal first cousin once-removed, for whom The Earl of Hertford, Lord Chamberlain, stood proxy), The Princess of Nassau-Weilburg (her paternal first cousin once-removed, for whom The Dowager Countess of Effingham, former Lady of the Bedchamber to The Queen, stood proxy) and The Crown Princess of Sweden (another paternal first cousin once-removed, for whom The Countess of
Margaret of England (29 September 1240 – 26 February 1275) was a medieval English princess who became Queen of Scots. A daughter of the Plantagenet king Henry III of England and his queen, Eleanor of Provence, she was Queen consort to Alexander III "the Glorious", King of the Scots.
She was the second child of Henry III of England and his wife, Eleanor of Provence, and was born at Windsor Castle.
Margaret was married on 26 December 1251, when she was eleven years old, at York Minster, to King Alexander III of Scotland, with whom she had three children. The groom was only ten years of age.
Margaret is said to have been unhappy in Scotland, and created some tensions between England and Scotland by writing to her family in England that she was poorly treated in Scotland.
It was said that Margaret was responsible for the death of a young courtier, who reputedly had killed her uncle Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester. While walking along the River Tay, she became annoyed with the young man. She jokingly pushed him into the river, but he was swept to his death by a powerful current before anyone could help.
Margaret died on 26 February 1275 at Cupar Castle, and was buried
Mary, Princess Royal, Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau (Mary Henrietta; 4 November 1631 – 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria of France. She was the wife of William II, Prince of Orange and Count of Nassau (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650) and the mother of King William III of England and Ireland, II of Scotland (14 November 1650 – 8 May 1702). Mary Stuart or Mary of Orange, as she was also known, was the first daughter of a British Sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal. She was co-regent in the regency of her son, 1651–1661.
Princess Mary Henrietta was born at St. James's Palace, London. Charles I designated her Princess Royal in 1642, thus establishing the tradition that the eldest daughter of the British Sovereign might bear this title. The title came into being when Queen Henrietta Maria, the daughter of King Henry IV of France wished to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the French king was styled (Madame Royale). Until that time, the eldest daughters of English and Scottish kings were variously titled Lady or Princess (The younger daughters of British Sovereigns were not
Joan of England (December 19, 1333 or January 28, 1334 - July 1, 1348 ) was a daughter of King Edward III of England and his Queen, Philippa of Hainault. Joan, also known as Joanna, was born on either December 19, 1333 or January 28, 1334 in the Tower of London. As a child she was placed in the care of Marie de St Pol, wife of Aymer de Valence and foundress of Pembroke College, Cambridge. She grew up together with her sister Isabella, her brother Edward, and their cousin Joan of Kent. Joan died in the Black Death that struck Europe in 1348.
In 1338, Joan was taken on her father's journey to Coblence, where they met Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and were his special guests at the Imperial Diet in the church of Saint Castor. Edward III had formed an alliance with Louis against Philip VI of France, but in 1341 the emperor deserted him.
It is possible that Joan was betrothed to one of the sons Louis had with his wife Margaret of Holland, Philippa's older sister, and actually stayed in their court to be educated there. However, Edward III withdrew her in 1340.
In 1345, she was betrothed to Peter of Castile, son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Maria of Portugal. A few years later, in the
William I (Old Norman: Williame I; circa 1028 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes as William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. Descended from Viking raiders, he had been Duke of Normandy since 1035 under the title of William II. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.
William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy by his mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process that was not complete until about 1060. His marriage in the 1050s to
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John as King of England, reigning for 56 years from 1216 until his death. His contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of Æthelred the Unready. England prospered during his reign and his greatest monument is Westminster, which he made the seat of his government and where he expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor. He is the first of only five monarchs to reign in the Kingdom of England or its successor states for 50 years or more, the others being Edward III (1327–1377), George III (1760–1820), Victoria (1837–1901) and Elizabeth II (1952–present).
He assumed the crown under the regency of the popular William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, but the England he inherited had undergone several drastic changes in the reign of his father. He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over Magna Carta and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first "parliament" in 1264. He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine.
Henry III was born in
Eleanor of Leicester (also called Eleanor Plantagenet and Eleanor of England) (1215 – 13 April 1275) was the youngest child of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême.
At the time of Eleanor's birth at Gloucester, King John's London was in the hands of French forces, John had been forced to sign the Magna Carta and Queen Isabella was in shame. Eleanor never met her father, as he died at Newark Castle when she was barely a year old. The French, led by Philip Augustus, were marching through the south. The only lands loyal to her brother, Henry III, were in the Midlands and southwest. The barons ruled the north, but they united with the royalists under William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who protected the young king Henry, and Philip was defeated.
Before William the Marshal died in 1219 Eleanor was promised to his son, also named William. They were married on 23 April 1224 at New Temple Church in London. The younger William was 34 and Eleanor only nine. He died in London on 6 April 1231, days before their seventh anniversary. There were no children of this marriage. The widowed Eleanor swore a holy oath of chastity in the presence of Edmund Rich, Archbishop of
Princess Adityadhornkitikhun (Thai: อทิตยาทรกิติคุณ; RTGS: —Athityathon Kitikhun—; Literally: "Princess Adityadhornkitikhun, the Royal Granddaughter") or commonly known as Princess Dita (born 6 May 1984), is the second daughter of Princess Chulabhorn and Royal Thai Air Force Flight Lieutenant Virayudh Tishyasarin (now, Air Vice Marshal).
Princess Adityadhornkitikhun received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Communication Design from Mahidol University International College on 4 July 2011. Her graduating thesis titled "Redesign Packaging for Royal Chitralada Agricultural Products" was displayed at the annual Media Arts Exhibition at Bangkok Art and Culture Centre hosted by the Fine and Applied Arts division during 2–5 August 2011.
Mary of York (11 August 1467 – 23 May 1482) was the second daughter of Edward IV of England and his queen consort Elizabeth Woodville.
She was a younger sister of Elizabeth of York and an older sister of Cecily of York, Edward V of England, Margaret Plantagenet (Princess of York), Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, Anne of York, George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, Catherine of York and Bridget of York.
Little is known about the second York princess except that she was born in Windsor Castle, and one of her sponsors was Cardinal Bourchier. There were reportedly plans to marry her to Hans (heir and future King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) but nothing came of them; Hans married Christina of Saxony in 1478.
In 1480, Mary was named a Lady of the Garter along with her younger sister Cecily of York. Their older sister Elizabeth had already been a Lady of the Garter since 1477.
Mary died at Greenwich on 23 May 1482, and was buried in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. In 1789, workmen carrying out repairs in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, rediscovered and accidentally broke into the vault of Edward IV and Queen Elizabeth Woodville, discovering in the process what appeared to be
Princess Charlotte of Wales (Charlotte Augusta; 7 January 1796 – 6 November 1817) was the only child of George, Prince of Wales (later to become King George IV) and Caroline of Brunswick. Had she outlived her father and her grandfather, King George III, she would have become Queen of the United Kingdom, but she died following childbirth at the age of 21.
Charlotte's parents disliked each other from before their pre-arranged marriage and soon separated. Prince George left most of Charlotte's care to governesses and servants, but only allowed her limited contact with Princess Caroline, who eventually left the country. As Charlotte grew to adulthood, her father pressured her to marry William, Hereditary Prince of Orange (later King of the Netherlands), but after initially accepting him, Charlotte soon broke off the match. This resulted in an extended contest of wills between her and her father, and finally the Prince of Wales permitted her to marry Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (later King of the Belgians). After a year and a half of happy marriage, Charlotte died after giving birth to a stillborn son.
Charlotte's death set off tremendous mourning among the British, who had
Elizabeth I (known simply as "Elizabeth" until the accession of Elizabeth II; 7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called "The Virgin Queen", "Gloriana", or "Good Queen Bess", Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI, bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey, cutting his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Catholic Mary, out of the succession in spite of statute law to the contrary. His will was set aside, Mary became queen, and Lady Jane Grey was executed. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel, and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley. One of her first moves as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This
The Princess Amelia (Amelia Sophia Eleanor; 30 May 1711 – 31 October 1786) was a member of the British Royal Family, the second daughter of George II.
Princess Amelia was born at Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, Germany on 30 May 1711. Her father was The Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the son of the Elector of Hanover. Her mother was Caroline of Ansbach, daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. At her birth she was styled HSH Princess Amelia of Hanover. She was known to her family as Emily.
Under the Act of Settlement 1701, Princess Amelia's grandfather became King of Great Britain on 1 August 1714 following the death of Queen Anne. Amelia's father became Duke of Cornwall, and was created Prince of Wales on 27 September 1714. Amelia became HRH Princess Amelia. She moved to Great Britain with her family and resided at St James's Palace in London.
She was a sickly child, but was comparatively healthy as an adult. In 1722, her mother, who had progressive ideas, had Amelia and her sister Caroline inoculated against smallpox by an early type of immunisation known as variolation, which had been brought to England from Constantinople by Lady Mary Wortley
Rangsit Prayurasakdi, Prince of Chainat or Somdej Phra Chao Boromawongse Ther Krom Phraya Jainad Narendhorn (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ พระองค์เจ้ารังสิตประยูรศักดิ์ กรมพระยาชัยนาทนเรนทร) (12 November 1885 - 7 March 1951) was the Thai Founder of the Public Health Ministry and Prince Regent.
Prince Rangsit was born as the 52nd child of King Chulalongkorn and the second child of Chao Chom Manda Nueng (common name Mom Rajawongse Nueng Snidvongs), the 22nd wife of Chulalongkorn. After the early death of his mother, Prince Rangsit and his elder sister Princess Yaovabha Bhonghsanids were adopted by Queen Savang Vadhana. As a result, he grew up as a half-brother and childhood friend of Prince Mahidol. He started his education at the Royal School in the Grand Palace. At the age of 14, he was sent to Germany for his education. At first the Martineum gymnasium in Halberstadt where he graduated with Abitur in 1905 and later Heidelberg-University in Heidelberg. Though he was more interested in medicine, his father insisted on an education in jurisdiction, which he completed at the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg. He additionally studied philosophy in 1908. It was during his study
Clementina Maude, Viscountess Hawarden, née Clementina Elphinstone Fleeming (1 June 1822 – 19 January 1865), commonly known as Lady Clementina Hawarden, was a noted portrait photographer of the 1860s. A daughter of Admiral Charles Elphinstone Fleeming, she married Cornwallis Maude, 4th Viscount Hawarden in 1845; the couple had ten children. She turned to photography in late 1857 or early 1858, whilst living on the estate of her husband's family in Dundrum, Co. Tipperary, Ireland. A move to London in 1859 allowed her to set up a studio in her elegant home in South Kensington. There she took many of the characteristic portraits for which she is principally remembered, many of which include her children.
The Viscountess Hawarden first exhibited in the annual exhibition of the Photographic Society of London in January 1863 and was elected a member of the Society the following March. Her work was widely acclaimed for its "artistic excellence", winning her the medal for composition at the exhibition.
Lewis Carroll, also a photographer, was an admirer of Hawarden's work.
A collection of her portraits is held by the Victorian and Albert Museum, London.
Joel Hulu Mahoe (1831–1891) was a noted Hawaiian pastor and missionary and half-uncle of two of Hawaii's future monarchs, King David Kalākaua and Queen Lydia Kamakaeha Liliʻuokalani.
Mahoe was born about December 31, 1831, at Opihihale in the South Kona district on the island of Hawaii. His father was Chief Kamanawa II and mother was Aulani. He was a great-grandson of Kameʻeiamoku, one of the five Kona chiefs who supported Kamehameha I in his founding of the Kingdom of Hawaii, one of the royal twins on the Coat of Arms of Hawaii. His half-brother was Kaluaiku Kapaakea by his father's first wife Kamokuiki. His half-sister was Kekahili, the daughter of Kamokuiki and Chief Alapai, from which the House of Kawānanakoa descends.
His family was of high rank. In 1840 his father murdered his wife Kamokuiki because Kamanawa II was angry when he found out his wife Kamokuiki had daughter Kekahili with another man. Due to the influence of the conservative American missionaries, Judge John Papa ʻĪʻī and Queen Kaʻahumanu, he had been prevented from re-marrying. Kamanawa Elua was convicted and hung.
Mahoe converted at an early age to Christianity and was given the name Joel by Rev. David Belden
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died without surviving legitimate issue. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively few direct political powers. Privately, she attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
She married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of
Princess Srirasmi of Thailand (Thai: พระเจ้าวรวงศ์เธอ พระองค์เจ้าศรีรัศมิ์ พระวรชายาในสมเด็จพระบรมโอรสาธิราชฯ สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร; RTGS: —Si Rat—; Literal: "HRH Princess Srirasmi, the Princess Consort to the Crown Prince of Siam"), or Srirasmi, Princess of Thailand, (born Srirasmi Akharapongpreecha, 9 December 1971; Thai: ศรีรัศมิ์ อัครพงศ์ปรีชา; RTGS: Sirat Akkharaphongpricha) is the consort of Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn. Born to a family of modest means, she entered the service of the Crown Prince at the age of 22. She married the crown prince in February 2001.
HRH Princess Srirasmi was born in Samut Songkhram Province to a family of modest means. She was the third child of Aphirut (Thai: อภิรุจ) and Wanthanee (Thai: วันทนีย์) Akharaphongpreecha. She has four siblings. She attended college at Bangkok Business College and 1993, at age 22, entered the service of Vajiralongkorn as a "lady-in-waiting". Srirasmi enrolled in Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University in 1997 and graduated in 2002 with a bachelor’s degree in management science. Vajiralongkorn personally bestowed her with her diploma. In 2007 she received a Master of Arts degree in Home Economics from Kasetsart
Matilda of England (also called Maud; 1156 – 28 June 1189) was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Through her marriage with Henry the Lion, she was Duchess of Saxony and later of Bavaria.
Matilda was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. She was a younger sister of William IX, Count of Poitiers and Henry the Young King. She was also an older sister of Richard I of England, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of Aquitaine, Joan of England and John of England. Matilda seems to have spent much of her early life in the company of her mother, Queen Eleanor. She was named after her paternal grandmother.
In 1165 Rainald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne, arrived at the court of King Henry II at Rouen, to negotiate a German match for Matilda. There was conflict during the negotiations, however, when Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester refused to greet the archbishop, alleging him to be a schismatic and a supporter of the anti-pope, Victor IV. The original plan to match a daughter of Henry II with a son of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, was abandoned, and instead Matilda left England in September 1167 to marry
Isabella Anne Seymour-Conway, Marchioness of Hertford (1759 – 12 April 1834) was an English courtier and mistress of King George IV when he was Prince of Wales. She was a daughter of Charles Ingram, 9th Viscount of Irvine, and married Francis Seymour-Conway, the second Marquess of Hertford in 1776, at age sixteen.
Tall, handsome and elegant, she soon caught the attention of the Prince of Wales. His attentions were not welcomed by her husband, who took her to Ireland to keep her from the Prince. However, this only increased his passion for Lady Hertford, and she became George's mistress in 1807. As a result, the Prince was a regular guest at Hertford House, Hertford's London residence, and Ragley Hall in Warwickshire. A Tory herself, she was influential in turning the Prince toward the Tories, and used her London residence as the headquarters for Tory sympathizers.
On the death of her mother in 1807, she inherited Temple Newsam in West Yorkshire, where the Prince of Wales had paid her a visit. She and her husband added the name of Ingram to their surname due to the fortune they received.
Lady Hertford's relationship with the Prince, now Prince Regent, ended in 1819, when he turned
Charles Kanaʻina (1801–1877) was a Hawaiian noble during the Kingdom of Hawaii, and father of King William Charles Lunalilo.
Kanaʻina was born circa 1801. His parents were nobility (aliʻi) who were from the non-ruling elite. Some sources give his father as chief Eia Kamakakaualii and his mother Kauwa Palila, the 9th descendant of Piʻilani. Other sources give his father as High Chief Kapalahaole and mother Princess Kaumaka-o-Kapaa. He was named Kanaʻina, after a nickname of Kalanimanokahoowaha, the chief who was portrayed by John Webber and who later is reputed to have killed Captain James Cook. In the Hawaiian language, ka naʻina means "the conquering".
Kanaʻina married Miriam Auhea Kekāuluohi, who had been one of several wives of both Kamehameha I and Kamehameha II. However, under the influence of Christian missionaries, Kamehameha II renounced all his other wives except one. Kekāuluohi was then free to marry Kanaʻina after they both took Christian first names. They had at least one son, and perhaps other children. The couple were hānai parents to Queen Kalama (his maternal niece), the wife of Kamehameha III, and their second son Keaweaweulaokalani II.
Kanaʻina served as a member
Nadejda Mikhailovna Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven (28 March 1896 – 22 January 1963) was the second daughter of Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia and his morganatic wife Sophie, Countess von Merenberg. She was a younger sister of Countess Anastasia de Torby.
Her paternal grandparents were Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and Princess Cecily of Baden. Michael was the seventh and last child of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. Her mother was a granddaughter of Aleksandr Pushkin, who in turn was a great-grandson of Peter the Great's African protégé, Abram Petrovich Gannibal.
Nicknamed "Nada," she married Prince George of Battenberg, later the 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, in London, England, on 15 November 1916. They had two children:
During the 1934 Gloria Vanderbilt custody trial, a former maid of Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt's offered testimony regarding a possible lesbian relationship between Lady Milford Haven and her former employer. Lady Milford Haven also appeared as a witness at the trial. Before leaving for the United States to testify, Lady Milford Haven publicly denounced the maid's testimony as "a set of malicious, terrible
Thelma, Viscountess Furness (August 23, 1904 – January 29, 1970), born Thelma Morgan, was a mistress of King Edward VIII while he was still the Prince of Wales; she preceded Wallis Simpson (for whose sake Edward abdicated and became the Duke of Windsor) in his affections.
During most of her close relationship with the Prince, she was married to another British nobleman, Marmaduke Furness, 1st Viscount Furness. That marriage ended the year before her relationship with the Prince ended.
Her first name was pronounced in Spanish fashion as "TEL-ma." Her niece is fashion designer Gloria Vanderbilt.
Born in Lucerne, Switzerland, she was a daughter of Harry Hays Morgan Sr, an American diplomat who was U.S. consul in Buenos Aires and in Brussels, and his half-Chilean, half-Irish-American wife, Laura Delphine Kilpatrick. Married in 1893, they were divorced in 1927.
Her maternal grandfather was a Union general, Hugh Judson Kilpatrick (1836–1881), who was also U.S. minister to Chile, and through her maternal grandmother Luisa Fernandez de Valdivieso, who was a niece of Crescente Errázuriz Valdivieso, Archbishop of Santiago, she reportedly was a descendant of Spain's royal house of
Elizabeth Conyngham (née Denison), Marchioness Conyngham (31 July 1769 – 11 October 1861), was an English courtier and noblewoman. She was the last mistress of George IV of the United Kingdom.
She was born in 1769. Her father was Joseph Denison, who had made a fortune in banking. Her mother was Elizabeth Butler. On 5 July 1794, Elizabeth married Henry Conyngham, Viscount Conyngham, an Irish peer. Despite her beauty, she was considered vulgar, shrewd, greedy, and a voluptuous woman by the aristocratic society, on account of her common background, however, she attracted lovers and admirers, including the Tsarevitch of Russia, the future Nicholas I.
The Conynghams were not well-connected, and according to the Duke of Wellington, Elizabeth decided as early as 1806 to become a mistress of the Prince of Wales, the future George IV. She probably became his lover in 1819, when the Prince was Prince Regent, but finally supplanted her predecessor, Isabella Seymour-Conway, Marchioness of Hertford after he became king in 1820. He became besotted with her, constantly "kissing her hand with a look of most devoted submission", and while his wife, Queen Caroline, was on her divorce "trial", the
Adela of Normandy also known as Adela of Blois and Adela of England (c. 1062 or 1067 – 8 March 1137) was, by marriage, Countess of Blois, Chartres, and Meaux. She was a daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders. She was also the mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester.
Her birthdate is generally believed to have been between 1060 and 1064; however, there is some evidence she was born after her father's accession to the English throne in 1066. She was the favourite sister of King Henry I of England; they were probably the youngest of the Conqueror's children. Adela was a high-spirited and educated woman, with a knowledge of Latin.
She married Stephen Henry, son and heir to the count of Blois, in 1080. Stephen inherited Blois, Chartres and Meaux in 1089, and owned over 300 properties, making him one of the wealthiest men of his day. He was a pious and revered leader who managed huge areas of France which he inherited from his father and added to by his sharp administrations. He was, essentially a king in his own right. Stephen-Henry joined the First Crusade, along with his brother-in-law Robert Curthose. Stephen's letters to Adela
Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth, and Emperor of India, from 20 January to 11 December 1936.
Before his accession to the throne, Edward was Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay. As a young man, he served in the British Armed Forces during the First World War and undertook several foreign tours on behalf of his father, George V. He was associated with a succession of older, married women but remained unmarried until after his abdication as king.
Edward became king when his father died in early 1936. He showed impatience with court protocol and politicians were concerned by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing marriage to the American socialite Wallis Simpson, who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing that the people would never accept a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands as
Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (8 August 1824 – 8 June 1880) was a princess of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and, as Maria Alexandrovna (in Russian Мария Александровна), Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. She was born in Darmstadt, the capital of the Grand Duchy, and died in Saint Petersburg. The Mariinsky Theatre and the city Mariehamn in Åland are named after her.
Marie was the youngest of seven children born to the Grand Duchess Wihelmine of Hesse (1788–1836), the youngest sister of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Alexeievna. The younger four were likely the biological children of Baron August von Senarclens de Grancy, but to avoid a scandal, Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse acknowledged Alexander and Marie as his own children; the other two had died young.
When in 1838, the Tsarevich Alexander Nikolayevich toured Europe to find a wife, he fell in love with the 14-year-old Marie. He married her on 16 April 1841, even though he was well aware of the "irregularity" of her birth. His mother Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna objected, but Alexander insisted.
As she was very shy, she was regarded as stiff, austere, and with no taste in dress, no conversation, no charm. The damp climate of St.
Naihe-Kukui Kapihe (died 1825), known as "Captain Jack" or "Jack the Pilot" to visitors, served as Honolulu harbor master and admiral of the royal fleet in the early Kingdom of Hawaii. His daughter would become a Queen consort.
He was royal harbor pilot at Honolulu during the time of Kamehameha I, and was the commander of native fleet of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was known as "Captain Jack" by the non-Hawaiians visiting or living in Hawaii. His name was also sometimes spelled "Naihi-kukui" or "Naihi tutui". Other times he is mentioned having the name "Kapihe". He is recorded as guiding Russian Vasily Golovnin in 1818 and French explorers Louis de Freycinet and Camille de Roquefeuil in 1819. Louis de Freycinet calls him in French "premier pilote Kéihé-Koukoui, surnommé Jack".
His daughter Kalama Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili (c. 1817–1870) would marry King Kamehameha III and become Queen consort. Kalama was the King's pick for a bride, despite having others with better family connections available. Naihe-kukui is often called a "chief of low rank", not to be confused with other people of that time with similar names.
His wife might have been I-Kapeʻekukai Moana-wahine, daughter of
Princess Soamsawali of Thailand (Thai: โสมสวลี; RTGS: Som Sawali; Literal: "Soamsawali, the Princess Mother of the King's First Grandchild"), née Mom Luang Soamsawali Kitiyakara (Thai: หม่อมหลวง โสมสวลี กิติยากร; RTGS: Somsawali Kitiyakon; born 13 July 1957) is a member of Thai Royal Family, and is the former wife of her first cousin, Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn. She was titled "the Princess Mother of the King's First Grandchild" after her divorce with the Crown Prince in 1991. She is also niece of Queen Sirikit.
Princess Soamsawali was born on 13 July 1957 at Guy's Hospital in London, United Kingdom. She is the eldest child of Mom Rajawongse Adulyakit Kitiyakara (Her father was a elder brother of Queen Sirikit of Thailand) and Thanpuying Bandhu Savali Kitiyakara (née Princess Bandhu Savali Yugala). She also has one younger sister Mom Luang Sarali Kitiyakara, born 8 April 1966.
Her father was the second child of Prince Nakkhatra Mangkala Kitiyakara, the Prince of Chanthaburi II and Mom Luang Bua Sanidvongs. Her mother was daughter of Prince Bhanubandhu Yugala and Mom Luang Soiraya Sanidvongs.
She first attended the primary level at Chitralada School, then moved to Chiang Mai
Fyodor (Theodore) I Ivanovich (Russian: Фёдор I Иванович or Feodor I Ioannovich Russian: Феодор I Иоаннович; 31 May 1557 – 16/17 January (NS) 1598) was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598), son of Ivan IV (The Terrible) and Anastasia Romanovna. He was born in Moscow and crowned Tsar and Autocrat of all Russia at Assumption Cathedral, Moscow, on 31 May 1584.
Being unhealthy and, by some reports, intellectually disabled, Feodor was only the nominal ruler, having his duties handed over to his wife's brother and trusted minister Boris Godunov, who would later succeed Feodor as tsar. Feodor's childless death left the Rurikid dynasty extinct, and spurred Russia's descent to the catastrophic Time of Troubles.
In English he is sometimes called Feodor the Bellringer in consequence of his strong faith and inclination to travel the land and ring the bells at churches. However, in Russian the name "Bellringer" is hardly ever used. In Russian documents he is sometimes called blessed (Russian: Блаженный).
Feodor was a simple minded man who took little interest in politics, and was never considered a candidate for the Russian throne until the death of his elder brother Ivan Ivanovich. He
Jane Loftus (née Hope-Vere), Marchioness of Ely (3 December 1821 – 11 June 1890) was an English lady of the bedchamber and a close friend of Queen Victoria. Her parents were James Hope-Vere and Lady Elizabeth Hay, and through her mother she was a cousin of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington. After her marriage to John Loftus, the third Marquess of Ely, she developed friendships with Queen Sophie of the Netherlands and the Empress Eugénie. Jane arrived at court as a Lady of the Bedchamber in 1851, and despite her own nervousness and lack of discretion, she became a close companion of Queen Victoria until her resignation in 1889. Her service was marred by her constant illnesses and fear of the Queen, but she proved a loyal and devoted servant, deferring to her royal mistress in all matters. Jane died on June 1, 1890 and is buried at Kensal Green cemetery in London.
Jane was the daughter of James Hope-Vere, Member of Parliament for Ilchester, and Lady Elizabeth Hay. Through her cousin Elizabeth, Lady Douro, she became a friend of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington. On 29 October 1844, Jane Married John Loftus, the third Marquess of Ely, and the couple spent
The Princess Charlotte, Princess Royal (Charlotte Augusta Matilda; later Queen Charlotte of Württemberg; 29 September 1766 – 5 October 1828) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest daughter of George III. She was later the Queen Consort of Frederick of Württemberg. Charlotte was the third holder of the title Princess Royal.
Princess Charlotte was born on 29 September 1766 at Buckingham Palace, London. Her father was the reigning British monarch, George III. Her mother was Queen Charlotte (née Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz). She was christened on 27 October 1766 at St James's Palace, by The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Thomas Secker, and her godparents were The King and Queen of Denmark (her paternal aunt and her husband, for whom The Duke of Portland, Lord Chamberlain, and The Dowager Countess of Effingham, Lady of the Bedchamber to The Queen, stood proxy, respectively) and Princess Louisa (her paternal aunt).
As the daughter of the British monarch, Charlotte was styled HRH The Princess Charlotte at birth. She was styled HRH The Princess Royal from October 1766 and officially designated as such on 22 June 1789. After the birth of three sons in a row, her
Joan of England (October 1165 – 4 September 1199) was the seventh child of Henry II of England and his queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Joan was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. She was a younger sister of William IX, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King, Matilda, Duchess of Saxony, Richard I of England, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany and Leonora of Castile. She was also an older sister of John of England.
Joan was born at Château d'Angers in Anjou, and spent her youth at her mother's courts at Winchester and Poitiers. In 1176, William II of Sicily sent ambassadors to the English court to ask for Joan's hand in marriage. The betrothal was confirmed on 20 May and on 27 August Joan set sail for Sicily, escorted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and her uncle, Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. In Saint Gilles, her entourage was met by representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily: Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Richard Palmer, Bishop of Syracuse.
After a hazardous voyage, Joan arrived safely, and on 13 February 1177, she married William II of Sicily and was crowned Queen of Sicily at Palermo Cathedral. They had one son, Bohemond,
Nancy Witcher Astor, Viscountess Astor, CH, (19 May 1879 – 2 May 1964) was the first woman to sit as a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) in the British House of Commons. She was the wife of Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor.
Astor was born Nancy Witcher Langhorne in Danville, Virginia, in the United States. Her father was Chiswell Dabney Langhorne and her mother was Nancy Witcher Keene. Her father's earlier business venture had depended at least in part upon slave labour, and the outcome of the American Civil War caused the family to live in near-poverty for several years before Nancy was born. After her birth her father began working to regain the family wealth, first with a job as an auctioneer and later with a job that he obtained with the railroad by using old contacts from his work as a contractor. By the time she was thirteen years old, the Langhornes were again a rich family with a sizeable home. Chiswell Langhorne later moved the family to their estate, known as Mirador, in Albemarle County, Virginia.
Nancy Langhorne had four sisters and three brothers. All of the sisters were known for their beauty; her sister Irene later married the artist Charles Dana Gibson and
Anne of York (2 November 1475 – 23 November 1511) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of Edward IV, King of England, and his queen Elizabeth Woodville.
She was born in the Palace of Westminster, London. She was a younger sister of Elizabeth of York, Mary of York, Cecily of York, Edward V, Margaret of York and Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York. She was also an older sister of George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, Catherine of York and Bridget of York.
On 18 July 1479, Edward IV signed an agreement with Maximilian, Archduke of Austria. According to its terms Anne was supposed to marry his eldest son Philip the Handsome. The agreement also included the term that Maximilian would not pursue other contracts of marriage for the following three years.
Maximilian was the eldest son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and had a good chance for pursuing the title of the Holy Roman Emperor for himself later. His wife and mother to Philip was Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. Both relations made Maximilian a valuable ally for Edward IV. However, the marriage treaty was repudiated after Edward's death and was never concluded.
On 4 February 1494/1495, Anne was instead married to Thomas
Queen consort Miriam Auhea Kalani Kui Kawakiu o Kekāuluohi Kealiiuhiwaihanau o Kalani Makahonua Ahilapalapa Kai Wikapu o Kaleilei a Kalakua also known as Kaʻahumanu III (July 27, 1794 –June 7, 1845), was Kuhina Nui of the Kingdom of Hawaii, a queen consort of both King Kamehameha I and Kamehameha II, and mother of another king.
She was born on July 27, 1794, the only daughter of her father Chief Kalaʻimamahu (half-brother of Kamehameha I) and her mother Kalākua Kaheiheimālie of Maui, who herself was married Kamehameha I. She was hānai to (adopted by) her grandparents Namahana and Keʻeaumoku, who "fondled her as if she were a feather lei from the precious mamo bird."
Through her mother she was a step-daughter of Kamehameha I, founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and through her father she was a cousin of Kamehameha I. She was also half-sister of Kamāmalu and Kīnaʻu.
She was betrothed to a prince of the Tahitian Pōmare Dynasty at birth, but never married him because of the prince's early death. In 1809 she was chosen along with Manono II by Kamehameha I "to warm his old age". When Kamehameha I died in 1819 she gave herself the name Auhea (where has he gone) in memory of her first
Anna of Russia or Anna Ioannovna (Russian: Анна Иоанновна) (7 February [O.S. 28 January] 1693, Moscow – 28 October [O.S. 17 October] 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.
Anna was the daughter of Ivan V of Russia, as well as the niece of Peter the Great. The latter married her to Frederick William, Duke of Courland in November 1710, but on the return trip from Saint Petersburg in January 1711, her husband died. Anna proceeded to rule Courland (now western Latvia) from 1711 to 1730, with the Russian resident, Peter Bestuzhev, as her adviser (and sometimes lover). She never remarried after the death of her husband, but her enemies said she conducted a love affair with Ernst Johann von Biron for many years.
On the death of Peter II, Emperor of Russia, the Russian Supreme Privy Council under Prince Dmitri Galitzine made Anna Empress in 1730. They had hoped that she would feel indebted to the nobles for her unexpected fortune and remain a figurehead at best, and malleable at worst. In the hope of establishing a constitutional monarchy in Russia, they convinced her to sign laws that limited her power. However, these proved a
Elizaveta Petrovna (Russian: Елизаве́та (Елисаве́т) Петро́вна) (29 December [O.S. 18 December] 1709 – 5 January 1762 [O.S. 25 December 1761]), also known as Yelisavet and Elizabeth, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death. She led the country into the two major European conflicts of her time: the War of Austrian Succession (1740–8) and the Seven Years' War (1756–63). On the eve of her death, Russia spanned almost 4,000,000,000 acres (16,000,000 km).
Her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in local government while shortening their terms of service to the state. She encouraged Mikhail Lomonosov's establishment of the University of Moscow and Ivan Shuvalov foundation of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg. She also spent exorbitant sums of money on the grandiose baroque projects of her favourite architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli, particularly in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo. The Winter Palace and the Smolny Cathedral in Saint Petersburg remain the chief monuments of her reign. She remains one of the most popular Russian monarchs due to her strong opposition to Prussian policies and her abstinence from executing a single person during her
Victoria, Princess Royal (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa; 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was the eldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert. She was created Princess Royal of the United Kingdom in 1841. She became German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. After her husband's death, she became widely known as Empress Frederick (German: Kaiserin Friedrich).
Princess Victoria was born on 21 November 1840 at Buckingham Palace, London. Her mother was Queen Victoria, the only child of George III's fourth eldest son, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Her father was Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. She was baptised in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace on 10 February 1841 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley. Her godparents were her grand-aunt in law Queen Adelaide, her grand-uncle King Leopold I of Belgium, her paternal grandfather Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (for whom The Duke of Wellington, Tory Leader in the Lords, stood proxy), her maternal grand-uncle The Duke of Sussex, her maternal grand-aunt The Duchess of Gloucester and her
Beatrice of England (25 June 1242 – 24 March 1275), also known as Beatrice de Dreux, was a Princess of England as the daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. Her siblings were Edward I of England, Margaret, Queen of Scotland, Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Richard of England, John of England, Katherine of England, William of England, and Henry of England. She and her family were members of the Royal house of Plantagenet, which first ruled in the 12th century and was founded by Henry II of England.
Beatrice was born in Bordeaux, France, the second eldest daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. Beatrice's childhood was plagued by tragedy, and the stresses of her father's reign coupled with her mother's unpopularity with the English people.
Her oldest brother Edward became dangerously ill when she was very young. Though he recovered, Beatrice's younger siblings Richard, Henry, William, Katharine, and John died at very young ages, leaving Beatrice's parents grief-stricken. Eleanor was especially upset about the death of her youngest daughter Katharine, who possibly had a degenerative disease that had caused her to become deaf and
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. He was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was renamed the House of Windsor by his son, George V.
Before his accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of his mother, Queen Victoria, he was largely excluded from political power and came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite.
The Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including powered flight and the rise of socialism. Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet, the reform of the Army Medical Services, and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. Edward fostered good relations between Great Britain and other European countries, especially France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker."
Edward was born at 10:48 in the
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (Margaret Rose; 21 August 1930 – 9 February 2002) was the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II and the younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. She was the only sibling of Queen Elizabeth II.
Margaret spent much of her childhood years in the company of her older sister and parents. Her life changed dramatically in 1936, when her paternal uncle, King Edward VIII, abdicated to marry the divorced American Wallis Simpson. Margaret's father became King in Edward's place, and her older sister became heiress presumptive with Margaret second in line to the throne. During World War II, the two sisters stayed at Windsor Castle, despite government pressure to evacuate to Canada. During the war years, Margaret was not expected to perform any public or official duties, and instead continued her education.
After the war, Margaret fell in love with a recently divorced commoner 16 years her elder, Group Captain Peter Townsend, her father's equerry. Her father died in 1952, and her sister became Queen. Margaret told her sister in early 1953 that she wished to marry Townsend. Many in the government felt that Townsend would be an unsuitable
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain (Danish: Caroline Mathilde) (11 July 1751 – 10 May 1775) was Queen of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1772 and a member of the British Royal Family.
Caroline Matilda was the youngest child of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. Her father died suddenly about three months before her birth. She was born at Leicester House in London, and was given the style and title HRH Princess Caroline Matilda, as daughter of the Prince of Wales, though, by the time of her birth, the title of Prince of Wales had passed to her brother George. Both of her names were used due to her aunt, Princess Caroline, being alive. The princess was christened ten days later, at the same house, by The Bishop of Norwich, Thomas Hayter. Her godparents were her brother The Prince of Wales, her paternal aunt The Princess Caroline and her sister Princess Augusta. She was brought up by her strict mother away from the English court and was described as natural and informal; she enjoyed out-doors life and riding. She could speak Italian, French and German, and was described as an accomplished singer with a beautiful voice.
At the age of fifteen, Caroline
Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (full name: Frederica Louise Caroline Sophie Charlotte Alexandrine) (3 March 1778 – 29 June 1841), Duchess of Cumberland and later Queen of Hanover (now part of Germany), was the consort of Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, the fifth son and eighth child of George III and Queen Charlotte.
She was born in the Altes Palais of Hanover as the fifth daughter of Charles II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and his first wife, Frederica, daughter of George William, Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt. From birth until her first marriage her title was Her Serene Highness Duchess Frederica of Mecklenburg, Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Her father assumed the title of Grand Duke of Mecklenburg on 18 June 1815. Duchess Frederica was the niece of her future mother-in-law, Queen Charlotte (formerly Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz), since her last husband was her first cousin.
Frederica's mother died on 22 May 1782 after giving birth to her tenth child. Two years later (28 September 1784), her father remarried the younger sister of his deceased wife, Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Darmstadt, but this union ended just one year later, when Charlotte died of
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (30 November 1719 – 8 February 1772) was Princess of Wales between 1736 and 1751, and Dowager Princess of Wales thereafter. She was one of only three Princesses of Wales who never became queen consort. Princess Augusta's eldest son succeeded as George III of the United Kingdom in 1760, as her husband, Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died nine years earlier.
Princess Augusta was born in Gotha to Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1676–1732) and Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst (1676–1740). Her paternal grandfather was Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, eldest surviving son of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg.
At age sixteen and speaking virtually no English, Augusta arrived in Great Britain in order to marry 28-year old Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of King George II and Queen Caroline. The wedding ceremony took place almost immediately, on 27 April 1736, at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace, London.
The marriage seems to have been a happy one. Augusta and Frederick had nine children, the last born after Frederick's death. The birth of their first daughter, Princess Augusta, on 31 August 1737, took place
Liliʻuokalani (Hawaiian pronunciation: [liliˌʔuokəˈlɐni]; September 2, 1838 – November 11, 1917), born Lydia Liliʻu Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamakaʻeha, was the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She was also known as Lydia Kamakaʻeha Pākī, with the chosen royal name of Liliʻuokalani, and her married name was Lydia K. Dominis.
Liliʻuokalani was born on September 2, 1838 to High Chiefess Analea Keohokālole and High Chief Caesar Kaluaiku Kapaʻakea. In accordance with the Hawaiian tradition of hānai, she was adopted at birth by Abner Pākī and his wife Laura Kōnia. Liliʻuokalani’s childhood years were spent studying and playing with her foster sister Bernice Pauahi, the Pākīs' natural daughter.
The Premier Elizabeth Kīnaʻu had developed an eye infection at the time of Liliʻu's birth. She gave her the names Liliʻu (smarting), Loloku (tearful), Walania (a burning pain), and Kamakaʻeha (sore eyes)'. Liliʻu's brother changed it when he named her Crown Princess, calling her Liliʻuokalani, "the smarting of the royal ones".
Liliʻuokalani received her education at the Chiefs' Children's School (later known as the Royal School), and became fluent in English. She attended
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (sometime anachronistically Elizabeth Plantagenet; 7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316) was the eighth and youngest daughter of Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother Edward II of England, as they were only two years apart in age.
In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland. The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich. In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret, her father, Edward I of England, her brother Edward, and Humphrey de Bohun. After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.
After some time travelling England, it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through the Southern Netherlands between Antwerp, Mechelen, Leuven and Brussels, before ending up in Ghent. There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sisters Eleanor and Margaret. On 10 November 1299, John died of
Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (25 November 1876 – 2 March 1936), was the third child and second daughter of Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. She was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria as well as of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Born a British Princess, Victoria spent her early life in England and for three years in Malta, where her father was serving in the Royal Navy. In 1889 the family moved to Coburg, where Victoria's father became the reigning Duke in 1893. In her teens Victoria fell in love with her maternal first cousin Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia, but they could not marry because the Orthodox Christian religion forbids the marriage between first cousins. Instead, bowing to family pressure, Victoria married in 1894 a paternal first cousin, Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, following the wishes of their shared grandmother, Queen Victoria. Their marriage was a failure. Victoria scandalized the royal families of Europe when she divorced her husband in 1901. The couple's only daughter died of typhoid fever in 1903.
Victoria married Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich in 1905. They wed without the
Eleanor of England (known in Castilian as Leonor) (13 October 1162 – 31 October 1214) was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was a daughter of Henry II of England and his wife, Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Eleanor was born in the castle at Domfront, Normandy, and was baptised by Henry of Marcy. She was the sixth child and second daughter of King Henry II and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine. She received her first name as a namesake of her mother, whose name "Eleanor" (or Alienor) had previously been unrecorded though may have been related to the Greek Helen or the Italian Elena. Another view holds that in the Occitan language, Eleanor simply meant "the other Aenor," since Eleanor of Aquitaine was named for her mother, called Aenor.
Eleanor was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. She was a younger sister of William IX, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King, Matilda, Duchess of Saxony, Richard I of England and Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany. She was also an older sister of Queen Joan of Sicily and King John of England.
When she was 14 years old, before 17 September 1177, she was married to King Alfonso VIII of
James II & VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was King of England and King of Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Members of Britain's political and religious elite increasingly opposed him for being pro-French and pro-Catholic, and for his designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, the tension exploded, and leading nobles called on William III of Orange (his son-in-law and nephew) to land an invasion army from the Netherlands, which he did. James fled England (and thus was held to have abdicated) in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was replaced by William of Orange, who became king as William III, ruling jointly with his wife (James's daughter) Mary II. Thus William and Mary, both Protestants, became joint rulers in 1689. James made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689 but, after the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamite forces at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France. He lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a
Princess Eugenie of York ( /ˈjuːʒəni/ Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is the younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. As such she is sixth, and the second female, in the line of succession to the thrones of the 16 Commonwealth realms.
Her first royal engagement was opening Teenage Cancer Trust's unit for young cancer patients in Leeds on 23 October 2008. She also makes appearances with the Royal Family at events, such as when she and her sister, Princess Beatrice, represented their father at a service of thanksgiving for her late aunt Diana, Princess of Wales, in 2007.
Princess Eugenie was born in London at the Portland Hospital on 23 March 1990, the second child of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York, and sixth grandchild of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. She is also a distant cousin of her late aunt Diana, Princess of Wales, whose father was John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer for Eugenie's mother Sarah, Duchess of York is a direct descendant of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, daughter of John Spencer, 1st Earl Spencer, (via Georgiana's illegitimate daughter Eliza Courtney). She was
Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (German: Viktoria Adelheid Helene Luise Marie Friederike; 31 December 1885 – 3 October 1970) was the consort of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Princess Victoria Adelaide was born on 31 December 1885 at Grünholz Manor in Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia as the eldest daughter of Frederick Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and his wife Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg.
Victoria Adelaide's father was the eldest son of Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and a nephew of Christian IX of Denmark. One month before the birth of Victoria Adelaide, he had succeeded to the headship of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and the title of duke upon the death of his father on 27 November 1885.
On 11 October 1905, at Glücksburg Castle, Schleswig, she married Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Charles Edward was born HRH Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and was the only son of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany by his wife Princess Helena of Waldeck and a grandson of Queen Victoria. Five years
Pridi Banomyong (Thai: ปรีดี พนมยงค์; RTGS: Pridi Phanomyong; May 11, 1900 – May 2, 1983) was a Thai politician. He was a former Prime Minister and Senior Statesman of Thailand, and was named one of the world's great personalities of the 20th century by UNESCO in 2000.
Pridi wrote that his great-great-great grandfather, Heng, was a native of Etang village in Chenghai District, China who came to Siam during the reign of Boromaracha V, leaving behind his wife, who was pregnant with their son, Seng. Heng lived in Siam among the Chinese relatives of King Taksin, who recruited some of the local Chinese, including Heng, to fight against the Burmese invaders in 1767. Heng died in the service of the half-Chinese king. Taksin compensated Heng's family, after they sent a letter inquiring about him. Seng chose to live his life in China as a rice farmer.
However, Seng's son, Tan Nai Kok (陳盛于/陈盛于; Chen Chengyu; Tan Sêng-u), emigrated to Siam in 1814, during the reign of King Rama II. Nai Kok settled in Ayutthaya and made his living by selling Chinese and Thai sweets; it is said he had made innovations by combining Chinese and Thai culinary skills. A devout Buddhist, Nai Kok married a Thai woman
Alexandra Feodorovna, born Princess Charlotte of Prussia (13 July 1798 – 1 November 1860), was Empress consort of Russia. She was the wife of Tsar Nicholas I, and mother of Tsar Alexander II.
Alexandra Feodorovna was born on 13 July 1798 at the Charlottenburg Palace, as Princess Frederica Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina of Prussia. She was the eldest surviving daughter and fourth child of Frederick William III, King of Prussia, and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and a sister of Frederick William IV of Prussia and of Wilhelm I, German Emperor.
Princess Charlotte's childhood was marked by the Napoleonic Wars. After the French defeat of the Prussian army, Princess Charlotte and her whole family were forced to flee to East Prussia, where they were given protection by Tsar Alexander I. Soon, Berlin fell under Napoleon’s control, and Princess Charlotte grew up in war-torn Memel, Prussia. Her mother died in 1810 shortly after Charlotte’s twelfth birthday, and for the rest of her life she treasured her mother’s memory. From her early childhood, Princess Charlotte occupied the first female rank in Prussia as the eldest daughter of her widower father. She would remain attached to Prussia and
Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia (Friederike Charlotte Ulrike Katharina; 7 May 1767 – 6 August 1820) was the only daughter of Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia, later King Frederick William II and his first wife and double first cousin Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg. She was later The Duchess of York and Albany following her marriage to Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.
Frederica Charlotte was born in Charlottenburg, on 7 May 1767. She was the only child of her parents, whose union was extremely unhappy due to their mutual infidelities. After several affairs with musicians and officers, Fredrica's mother, the Crown Princess, became pregnant in 1769. Then she planned to escape from Prussia with her lover, but she was betrayed and captured, causing a public scandal. After a divorce was quickly granted, Elisabeth Christine (who retained her title) was placed under house arrest in the castle of Stettin, where she remained for the next seventy-one years until her death in 1840, aged 93. Frederica Charlotte never saw her mother again; she was raised by her paternal grandmother Princess Luise Amalie and her stepmother Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt,
Hariot Georgina Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava VA CI DBE (5 February 1843 – 25 October 1936) was a British peeress, known for her success in the role of "diplomatic wife", and for leading an initiative to improve medical care for women in British India.
Born Hariot Georgina Rowan-Hamilton, she was the eldest of the seven children of Archibald Rowan-Hamilton of Killyleagh Castle. On 23 October 1862 she married her distant cousin, the 5th Baron Dufferin and Claneboye and they later had three daughters and six sons.
Her husband was created Earl of Dufferin in 1871 and she and their children travelled with him to Canada a year later, upon his appointment as Governor General. Lady Dufferin was one of the most popular of governor-general's wives, and was starting to build up her reputation as "the most effective diplomatic wife of her generation". (ODNB) She was sad to leave when the earl's term ended in 1878.
Next he was ambassador to Russia from 1879–81, and to the Ottoman Empire from 1881–84, where she received the Grand Crescent of the Turkish Order of the Chefakat in 1883, followed by the Persian Order of the Sun in 1887. In both St. Petersburg and
Princess Marie of Hanover (German: Marie Ernestine Josephine Adolphine Henrietta Theresa Elizabeth Alexandrina Prinzessin von Hannover und Cumberland; 2 December 1849 – 4 June 1904) was the younger daughter of King George V of Hanover and of his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg.
Marie was born in the city of Hanover. She held the title of Princess with the style of Royal Highness in the Kingdom of Hanover. In the United Kingdom, she held the title of Princess with the style Her Highness as a male line great-granddaughter of King George III.
In 1866 Marie's father was deposed as king of Hanover. Marie and her mother remained in Hanover for over a year, residing at Schloss Marienburg, until they went into exile in Austria in July 1867. Eventually the family settled at Gmunden.
Marie visited England with her family in May 1876, and again, after her father's death, in June 1878. Her sister Frederica moved to England where she married, but Marie returned to Gmunden where she remained single and lived with her mother at Schloss Cumberland (named after her father's British ducal title). An American newspaper suggests that Marie twice turned down an offer of marriage from Queen
Princess Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth of Cambridge (27 November 1833 – 27 October 1897), was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III, and great-grandmother of Elizabeth II. She held the title of Duchess of Teck through marriage.
Mary Adelaide is remembered as the mother of Queen Mary, the consort of George V. She was one of the first Royals to patronise a wide range of charities.
Mary Adelaide was born on 27 November 1833 in Hanover, Germany. Her father was Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the youngest surviving son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Her mother was Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel, the daughter of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Cassel. The young princess was christened on 9 January 1834 at Cambridge House, Hanover by Rev John Ryle Wood, Chaplain to the Duke of Cambridge. Her godmother and paternal aunt The Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg was the only godparent who was present. The rest (who were absent, possibly represented by proxies) were The King and Queen (her paternal uncle and his wife), The Duchess of Gloucester (her paternal aunt), The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (her maternal aunt) and Princess
Somdet Chao Phraya Borom Maha Si Suriyawongse (Thai: สมเด็จเจ้าพระยาบรมมหาศรีสุริยวงศ์) (personal name Chuang Bunnag) December 23, 1808 – January 19, 1883) was a prominent 19th century Thai figure and served as the regent during the early years of the reign of King Chulalongkorn.
A member of a family originally of Persian origin, Si (or Sri) Suriyawongse was born the eldest son of Dis (ดิศ) Bunnag (Prayurawongse, สมเด็จเจ้าพระยาบรมมหาประยูรวงศ์) and Than Phuying Chan. Chuang was well educated for the time. King Mongkut made him Samuha Kalahom (สมุห สะ-ม-ุหะ กลาโหม), one of the two Ministers of old Siam.
Si Suriyawongse, was one of the most important figures in the Mongkut's court. As he was the main supporter of Prince Mongkut to be enthroned, he eventually held the position of the Chancellor, or Samuha Kralahome, or the chief of the armed forces department. He was very well known as a pro-British official, or as a 'new generation' among the court's officials. He was interested in western learning in various fields such as science, engineering and steamship building, He had a very close relation with Prince Mongkut, the future Rama IV, supporting him to welcome British influence,
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall GCVO (Camilla Rosemary; née Shand, previously Parker Bowles; born 17 July 1947) is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, and member of the British Royal Family. By her second marriage she shares her husband's titles as Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester and Baroness of Renfrew. Although she is the Princess of Wales because of her marriage to the Prince of Wales, she prefers to be known by the secondary title of Duchess of Cornwall (Duchess of Rothesay in Scotland) out of respect for her husband's first wife, the late Diana, Princess of Wales.
The Duchess had two children from her marriage to Andrew Parker Bowles and has five grandchildren.
Born at King's College Hospital, London,on 17 July 1947, Shand was raised opposite the Plumpton Racecourse, East Sussex by her parents, Major Bruce Shand (1917–2006) (a British Army officer, turned wine merchant, as well as prisoner of war in World War II who received the Military Cross with Bar) and The Honourable Rosalind Cubitt (1921–1994, eldest child of Roland Calvert Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe). Her siblings are Mark Shand and Annabel Shand Elliot. Her maternal
For Isabella of England, the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, see Isabella de Coucy.
Isabella of England, also called Elizabeth (1214 – 1 December 1241) was an English princess and, by marriage, Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, and Queen consort of Sicily.
She was the fourth child but second daughter of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême.
At a friendly meeting at Rieti, Pope Gregory IX suggested to emperor Frederick II that he marry princess Isabella, a sister of Henry III of England. At first Frederick II was concerned to lose his French allies; but when he realised that an English marriage would end English support for his opponents, he agreed. The betrothal was formalized in London on February 1235.
The beautiful Isabella was about twenty-one years old when she set out to marry the twice-widowed Emperor Frederick II, who was forty. On her way through Cologne, she delighted the local women when she removed the traditionally worn veil so that they could see her face.
The marriage between Isabella and Frederick took place in Worms Cathedral on 15 or 20 July 1235; in the ceremony, she was also crowned Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Germany and
Joan of Acre (April 1272 – 23 April 1307) was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile. The name "Acre" derives from her birthplace in the Holy Land while her parents were on a crusade.
She was married twice; her first husband was Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, one of the most powerful nobles in her father's kingdom; her second husband was Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household whom she married in secret.
Joan is most notable for the claim that miracles have allegedly taken place at her grave, and for the multiple references to her in literature.
Joan (or Joanna, as she is sometimes called) of Acre was born in the spring of 1272 in Syria, while her parents, Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, were on crusade. At the time of Joan's birth, her grandfather, Henry III, was still alive and thus her father was not yet king of England. Her parents departed from Acre shortly after her birth, traveling to Sicily and Spain before leaving Joan with Eleanor's mother, Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, in France. Joan lived for several years in France where she spent her time being educated by a bishop and “being thoroughly spoiled by an
Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales (1 February 1707 – 20 March 1751) was a member of the House of Hanover and therefore of the Hanoverian and later British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II and father of George III, as well as the great-grandfather of Queen Victoria. Under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick was in the direct line of succession to the British throne. He moved to Great Britain following the accession of his father, and was created Prince of Wales. He predeceased his father George II, however, and upon the latter's death on 25 October 1760, the throne passed to Prince Frederick's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, who reigned as King George III from 1760 until 1820.
Prince Frederick had a hostile relationship with his parents.
Prince Frederick Louis (sometimes rendered Lewis) was born in Hanover, Germany, as Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg. His godparents were his paternal grandfather George I, the Elector of Hanover and later King of Great Britain, and his grand-uncle Frederick I, King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg. Frederick was nicknamed "Griff" within the family.
His parents, Prince George (later
Gunhilda of Denmark (c. 1020 – 18 July 1038) was the first spouse of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.
Gunhilda was a daughter of Canute the Great and Emma of Normandy. Her maternal grandparents were Richard I of Normandy and his second wife Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy.
She was a sister of Harthacanute. She was a paternal half-sister of Svein of Norway and Harold Harefoot. She was also a maternal half-sister of Alfred Aetheling and Edward the Confessor.
In 1036, Gunhilda married Henry III, King of Germany. He was the son and heir of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor and Gisela of Swabia. Upon her wedding, she took the name Kunigunde. They only had one daughter, Beatrix I (1037 – 13 July 1061), Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim Abbeys.
Her marriage was part of a pact between her father Canute and Conrad II over peaceful borders in the area of Kiel. The agreement had occurred prior to the death of Canute in 1035. She had by the time of her marriage lived at the German court since 1025.
According to the chronicles of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines and William of Malmesbury, Gunhilda was accused of adultery and defended in trial by combat, but after her champion's victory she disdained the
Louise of Great Britain (Danish: Louise af Storbritannien; 7 December 1724 – 19 December 1751) was the youngest surviving daughter of George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach. In 1743, she married Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark-Norway, later King Frederik V and became queen consort of Denmark and Norway from 1746 until her death in 1751.
Princess Louise was born as the fifth daughter and youngest child of the then Prince and Princess of Wales, on 7 December 1724, at Leicester House, London. She was baptised "Louisa" there on 22 December. Her godparents were her elder sister and two cousins: Princess Amelia of Great Britain, Princess Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (for whom Sarah Lennox, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox, stood proxy), and Frederick, Prince Royal of Prussia, later Frederick the Great (for whom Henry de Nassau d'Auverquerque, 1st Earl of Grantham, stood proxy).
On 11 June 1727, when Louise was two years old, her grandfather, George I, died, and her father ascended the throne as George II.
In a dynastic marriage, Louise wed Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway on 11 December 1743 at Altona, Holstein. Frederick's father, King Christian VI, hoped the marriage would
The Princess Beatrice (Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore; later Princess Henry of Battenberg; 14 April 1857 – 26 October 1944) was a member of the British Royal Family. She was the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Juan Carlos, King of Spain, is her great-grandson. Beatrice has the distinction of being the last of Victoria's children to die, 66 years after the first, Beatrice's sister, Princess Alice.
Beatrice's childhood coincided with Victoria's grief following the death of her husband, Albert, Prince Consort, on 14 December 1861. As Beatrice's elder sisters married and left their royal mother, Victoria came to rely on the company of her youngest daughter, whom she called Baby for most of her childhood. Beatrice, who was brought up to stay with her mother always, soon resigned herself to her fate.
Victoria was set against her youngest daughter marrying and refused to discuss the possibility. Nevertheless, many suitors were put forward, including Louis Napoléon, Prince Imperial, the son of the exiled Emperor Napoleon III of France, and Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, the widower of Beatrice's older sister Alice. She was attracted to the Prince
Princess Frederica of Hanover, (9 January 1848 – 16 October 1926) was a member of the House of Hanover. After her marriage, she lived mostly in England, where she was a prominent member of Society.
Frederica was born 9 January 1848 in Hanover, the elder daughter of the Hereditary Prince of Hanover (later King George V of Hanover) and of his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. She held the title of Princess with the style Her Royal Highness in Hanover. In the United Kingdom, she held the title of Princess with the style Her Highness as a male-line great-granddaughter of King George III.
In January 1866, the Prime Minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck began negotiations with Hanover, represented by Count Platen-Hallermund, regarding the possible marriage of Frederica to Prince Albrecht of Prussia. These plans came to nothing as tensions grew between Hanover and Prussia final resulting in the Austro-Prussian War (14 June – 23 August 1866).
In 1866, Frederica's father was deposed as King of Hanover. Eventually the family settled at Gmunden in Austria, where they owned Schloss Cumberland (named for the British Ducal title held by Frederica's father). Frederica visited England with
Princess Thyra of Denmark, Danish pronunciation: [ˈtuːʁə], (29 September 1853 – Gmunden, 26 February 1933) was the youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. In 1878 she married Ernest Augustus, the exiled heir to the Kingdom of Hanover. As the Kingdom of Hanover had been annexed by Prussia in 1866, she spent most of her life in exile with her husband in Austria.
Thyra was the sister of Frederik VIII of Denmark, Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom, George I of Greece and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia.
Princess Thyra was born on 29 September 1853 at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen as the third daughter and fifth child of Prince Christian and Princess Louise of Denmark. Her family had been relatively obscure until her father, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was chosen with the consent of the great powers to succeed his distant childless cousin, Frederick VII, to the Danish throne. Just two months before Thyra's birth, the new Act of Succession had been passed and Prince Christian given the title Prince of Denmark.
In 1863, when Thyra was 10 years old, King Frederick VII died, and her father succeeded to the throne of
Hester Maria Elphinstone, Viscountess Keith born Hester Maria Thrale (17 September 1764 – 31 March 1857) was a British literary correspondent and intellectual. She was the eldest child of Hester Thrale, diarist, author and confidante of Samuel Johnson, and Henry, a wealthy brewer and patron of the arts. She became the second wife of George Elphinstone, 1st Viscount Keith.
Johnson gave Hester Maria her lifelong nickname "Queeney" (after Queen Esther) early in her childhood, and was a regular correspondent of the little girl as well as of her mother. Queeney Thrale was born in Southwark, where her father's brewery was situated, and grew up mainly at the family home, Streatham Park in South London, which was the focus of an important coterie of political, artistic and literary figures known as the Streatham Worthies. She showed early signs of a good memory and sharp intellect, and by age six she was regarded as a greater prodigy than her intelligent and accomplished mother. She studied Latin with Dr Johnson, working alongside the novelist Fanny Burney, another family protegée, and also Italian and Hebrew. She was painted by Zoffany at 20 months, and she and her mother were the joint
Maria Feodorovna (Russian: Мари́я Фёдоровна) (25 October 1759 – 5 November 1828) was the second wife of Tsar Paul I of Russia and mother of Tsar Alexander I and Tsar Nicholas I of Russia.
Maria Feodorovna was born in Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia, on 25 October 1759 as Duchess Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise of Württemberg. She was a daughter of Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg and his wife, Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. Named after her mother, Sophia Dorothea, as she was known in her family, was the eldest daughter of eight children: five boys and three girls. In 1769, when she was ten years old, her family took up residence in the ancestral castle at Montbéliard, then an exclave of the Duchy of Württemberg, today part of Franche-Comté. Her younger brother, Alexander of Württemberg, was born there. Montbéliard was the seat of the junior branch of the House of Württemberg, to which she belonged; it was also a cultural center and many intellectual and political figures frequented her parents' palace. The family's summer residence was situated at Étupes.
Princess Sophie’s education was better than average in the culture-oriented paternal home, and she would
Marie of Romania (Marie Alexandra Victoria, previously Princess Marie of Edinburgh; 29 October 1875 – 18 July 1938) was Queen consort of Romania from 1914 to 1927, as the wife of Ferdinand of Romania.
She was born on 29 October 1875 at Eastwell Park in Kent, the eldest daughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. Her father was the second-eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Her mother was the only surviving daughter of Alexander II of Russia and Maria Alexandrovna of Hesse. She was baptised in the Private Chapel of Windsor Castle on 15 December 1875 and her godparents were the Empress and Tsarevitch of Russia (her maternal grandmother and uncle), the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (her paternal grandaunt), the Princess of Wales (her paternal aunt) and the Duke of Connaught (her paternal uncle). As her father was in the Royal Navy, she spent much of her early childhood abroad, particularly in Malta. She was a bridesmaid at the 1885 wedding of Queen Victoria’s youngest daughter Princess Beatrice, to Prince Henry of Battenberg.
In her youth, Princess Marie was considered a suitable match for marriage to the Royalty of
Charles, Prince of Wales, KG, KT, GCB, OM, AK, QSO (Charles Philip Arthur George, born 14 November 1948) is the eldest child and, since 1952, heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. He is known as The Duke of Rothesay in Scotland and as The Duke of Cornwall in Cornwall. He is the longest-serving heir apparent in British history.
His interests encompass a range of humanitarian and social issues: he founded The Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors The Prince's Charities, and is patron of many other charitable and arts organisations. For many years, he has championed organic farming and sought to raise world awareness of the dangers facing the natural environment, such as climate change. He has been outspoken on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings, and produced a book on the subject called A Vision of Britain in 1989. He has also promoted herbal and other alternative medical treatment.
Charles was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun Schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in
Galyani Vadhana, the Princess of Naradhiwas (Thai: กัลยาณิวัฒนา, RTGS: Kanlayaniwatthana; 6 May 1923 – 2 January 2008) was a princess of Thailand and the elder sister of King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) and King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX). She was also a direct granddaughter of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V).
Princess Galyani Vadhana was born on 6 May 1923 in London, England, the only daughter of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej of Songkla, the sixty-ninth son of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) and seventh son by Queen Savang Vadhana, and Miss Sangwan Talapat (later known as Princess Srinagarindra, The Princess Mother). She was initially named May Songkla on her birth certificate and was later named Mom Chao Galyani Vadhana Mahidol by King Vajiravudh (Rama VI). The word "Vadhana" in her name came from her paternal grandmother, Savang Vadhana. In 1927, she was subsequently promoted to the royal rank, a Princess of Thailand (Phra Vorawongse Ther Phra Ong Chao) by King Prajadhipok (Rama VII).
In 1935, Princess Galyani Vadhana attended a secondary school for girls named Ecole Superieure des Jeunes Filles de la Ville de Lausanne.
In 1938, she attended the International School of Geneva, a boarding
Isaac Davis (c. 1758–1810) was a Welsh advisor to Kamehameha I and helped form the Kingdom of Hawaii. He arrived in Hawaii in 1790 as the sole survivor of the massacre of the crew of The Fair American. He along with John Young became friends and advisors to Kamehameha. He brought western military knowledge to Hawaii and played a big role during Hawaii's first contacts with the European powers. He spent the rest of his life in Hawaiʻi and was known to the Hawaiian as ʻAikake.
Isaac Davis was born about 1758 in Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, Wales. He was a seaman on the American schooner Fair American, engaged with a larger companion ship, the Eleanora, in the maritime fur trade between the Pacific Northwest and China.
In 1790, the Eleanora was under the Captain Simon Metcalfe, when one of his skiffs was stolen by the chief Kaʻōpūiki at Honuaula on Maui. He punished the Hawaiians severely, killing more than 100 Hawaiians at Olowalu.
Metcalfe also once mistreated Kameʻeiamoku, a high chief on the island of Hawaii, and one of the sacred pio twins, by whipping him. The humiliated Kameʻeiamoku swore vengeance on the next ship to arrive. He attacked The Fair American at Kaʻūpūlehu, which
Princess Augusta Frederica of Wales (31 August 1737 – 23 March 1813) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George II and only elder sibling of George III. She later married into the Ducal House of Brunswick, of which she was already a member. Her daughter Caroline of Brunswick was the Queen consort of George IV.
Princess Augusta Frederica of Wales was born at St. James's Palace, London. Her father was Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King George II and Queen Caroline of Ansbach and her mother was the Princess of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
Fifty days later, she was christened at St. James's Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were her paternal grandfather, the King (represented by his Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Grafton), and her grandmothers, Queen Caroline and the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Gotha (both represented by proxies).
Her third birthday was celebrated by the first public performance of Rule, Britannia! at Cliveden in Buckinghamshire.
She was born second in the line of succession. Augusta was given a careful education and the negotiations about her marriage begun in 1761.
On 16 January 1764, Augusta married Charles
Richard II (6 January 1367 – ca. 14 February 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black Prince, was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III. Richard was the younger brother of Edward of Angoulême; upon the death of this older brother, Richard—at four years of age—became second in line to the throne after his father. Upon the death of Richard's father prior to the death of Edward III, Richard, by agnatic succession, became the first in line for the throne. With Edward III's death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.
During Richard's first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of councils. The political community preferred this to a regency led by the king's uncle, John of Gaunt, yet Gaunt remained highly influential. The first major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, which the young king played a major part in suppressing. In the following years, however, the king's dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent in the political community, and in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of noblemen known as the
Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (christened Victoria Eugenie Julia Ena; 24 October 1887 – 15 April 1969) was queen consort of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. She was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom; and the first cousin of King George V of the United Kingdom, Queen Maud of Norway, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia, Queen Marie of Romania, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, Queen Louise of Sweden, and Queen Sophia of the Hellenes. Juan Carlos I of Spain is her grandson.
Victoria Eugenie was born on 24 October 1887 at Balmoral Castle, in Scotland in the United Kingdom. Her father was Prince Henry of Battenberg, the fourth child and third son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine by his morganatic wife Countess Julia von Hauke, and her mother was Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
As Prince Henry was the product of a morganatic marriage, he took his style of Prince of Battenberg from his mother, who had been created Princess of Battenberg. As such Henry's daughter would normally have been born with the title Her Serene Highness
Edward V (2 November 1470 – 29 July 1483?) was King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. His reign was dominated by the influence of his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who succeeded him as Richard III. Along with his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, Edward was one of the Princes in the Tower, who disappeared after being sent (ostensibly for their own safety) to the Tower of London. Responsibility for their deaths is widely attributed to Richard III, but the actual events have remained controversial for centuries.
The mysterious disappearance of a boy claimant to the English throne, possibly at the hands of his uncle, mirrors the presumed death of Arthur, Duke of Brittany in 1203.
Along with Edward VIII, and the disputed Matilda and Jane, Edward V is one of only four English monarchs since the Norman Conquest never to have been crowned. If, as seems likely, he died before his fifteenth birthday, he is the shortest-lived monarch in English history (his great-nephew Edward VI died in his sixteenth year).
Edward was born on 2 November 1470 in Westminster Abbey. His mother, Elizabeth Woodville, had sought sanctuary there from
Grace Elvina, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston (1879–1958) was born as Grace Elvina Hinds in Alabama, a daughter of J. Monroe Hinds, former United States Minister to Brazil. Her first husband was Alfred Hubert Duggan of Buenos Aires, Argentina, with whom she had three children, including two sons – Alfred Duggan, an author of historical fiction, and Hubert Duggan, later a British Member of Parliament. Her daughter (Grace Lucille) Marcella Rice (1907–1995) was mother of Caroline Margaret Rice (b. 1931), wife of the 7th Earl of Plymouth.
She was a wealthy woman after her husband's death. In 1916, Philip Alexius de László painted her as a widow. In 1917 (aged 38) she became the second wife of George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston. In later years some joked that despite his political disappointments, Curzon still enjoyed "the means of Grace".
Curzon had three daughters from his first marriage to Mary Victoria Leiter, Baroness Curzon of Kedleston: Mary Irene, Lady Ravensdale in 1896; Cynthia Blanche (first wife of Sir Oswald Mosley), on 23 August 1898; and Alexandra Naldera, on April 20, 1904 (wife of Edward Dudley Metcalfe, the best friend, best man and equerry of Edward
Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood (Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary; 25 April 1897 – 28 March 1965) was a member of the British Royal Family; she was the third child and only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary. She was the sixth holder of the title of Princess Royal. Mary held the title of princess with the style Highness from birth as the then great-granddaughter of the British Sovereign, and later Her Royal Highness, as the granddaughter and finally daughter of the Sovereign. After her marriage she held the title of Countess of Harewood.
Princess Mary was born at York Cottage on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, England. Her father was Prince George, Duke of York (later George V), the eldest surviving son of The Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) and The Princess of Wales (later Queen Alexandra). Her mother was The Duchess of York (later Queen Mary), the eldest daughter of The Duke and Duchess of Teck.
Mary was named after her paternal great-grandmother, her paternal grandmother, the Princess of Wales, and her maternal grandmother, Princess Mary Adelaide. Since she was born on the same day as her late great aunt, The Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Mataio Kekūanāoʻa (1793–1868) was descended from the high chiefs of the island of Oʻahu. His name Mataio was the Hawaiian form of Matthew, although the former remain the most common form used to referred to him.
He was born in 1791 or 1793. His mother was Inaina, daughter of Pupuka, an Oʻahu chief who perished with Elani of Ewa in their revolt against Kahekili II. His father was either Nāhiʻōleʻa, an Oʻahu chief descended from Kalehunapaikua, or Kiʻilaweau, the grandson of the Hawaii Island Chief Alapaʻinuiakauaua, the king that had sought to kill the infant Kamehameha at his birth. He was the punahele, or intimate companion of King Kamehameha II in his youth, and followed him to England where the King and Queen Kamāmalu died of measles in 1824. He was able to escape the sickness and return to Hawaii, stabilizing himself in the court by marrying two wives of his late sovereign.
His first marriage to Kalehua lasted from 1822 to 1825, and the product of this marriage was a son named Paʻaula. He married again to the widow of Kamehameha II, Kalanipauahi. Their marriage lasted from 1825 to her death in 1826, and he was probably the father of her daughter Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani. He
Queen Saovabha Phongsri (Thai: เสาวภาผ่องศรี; RTGS: Saowapha Phongsi) was a half-sister and queen of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) of Thailand, and mother of both King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) and King Prajadhipok (Rama VII). As in accordance with Thai royal tradition, King Vajiravudh later bestowed on his mother the tile of "Queen Mother Sri Bajrindra" (Thai: ศรีพัชรินทรา; RTGS: Si Phatcharinthra).
Saovabha was born as a Princess of Siam to King Mongkut (or Rama IV) and Princess Consort Piyamavadi (Piam Sucharitakul). She was the youngest sister of the future Queen Sunandha Kumariratana and Queen Savang Vadhana. Saovabha became the consort of her half brother King Chulalongkorn sometime in 1878. She gave him 9 children, 5 would survive to adulthood (one died in infancy), two would eventually become King of Siam.
In 1897, Queen Saovabha became the first female Regent of Siam, when her husband went on a tour of Europe. When he returned he bestowed upon her the title of Somdet Phra Nang Chao Saovabha Bongsi Praborommarachininat (Thai: สมเด็จพระนางเจ้าเสาวภาผ่องศรี พระบรมราชินีนาถ) (roughly equivalent to H.M. the Queen Regent). During her time as queen she took many interests especially in
Constantine Pavlovich (Russian: Константи́н Па́влович) (27 April 1779 – 27 June 1831) was a grand duke of Russia and the second son of Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. He was the Tsesarevich of Russia throughout the reign of his elder brother Alexander I, but had secretly renounced his claim to the throne in 1823. For 25 days after the death of Alexander I, from November 19 (O.S.)/December 1 to December 14 (O.S.)/December 26, 1825 he was known as His Imperial Majesty Constantine I Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, although he never reigned and never acceded to the throne. The succession controversy became the immediate cause of the Decembrist revolt. Constantine was known to eschew court etiquette and to take frequent stands against the wishes of his brother Alexander I, for which he is remembered fondly in Russia, but in his capacity as the commander-in-chief and de facto viceroy of Congress Poland he is remembered as a ruthless ruler.
Constantine was born at Tsarskoye Selo on 27 April 1779, the second son of the Tsesarevich Paul Petrovich and his wife Maria Feodorovna, daughter of Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg. Of all Paul's children,
John Adams Kiiapalaoku Kuakini (1789–1844) was an important adviser to Kamehameha I in the early stages of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was responsible for much building and other changes in the Kona District during this era.
He was born about 1789 with the name Kaluaikonahale. His father was Keʻeaumoku Papaiahiahi, an aliʻi (noble) from the island of Hawaiʻi, and his mother was NamahanaʻiʻKaleleokalani, the widow queen of the late king of Maui, Kamehameha Nui.
His father became a fugitive from King Kahekili II of Maui. Escaping to Hana, the family moved back to Hawaiʻi island and lived on Kahaluʻu Bay. He was the youngest of four important siblings: sisters Queen Kaʻahumanu, Kamehameha's favorite wife and later became the powerful Kuhina nui, Kalākua Kaheiheimālie and Namahana-o-Piʻia, also queens of Kamehameha, and brother George Cox Kahekili Keʻeaumoku, who later became the Governor of Maui. His father helped Kamehameha I come to power in the battle of Mokuʻōhai in 1782.
With the introduction of Christianity, Hawaiians were encouraged to take British or American names. As an example of his royal manner, he chose the name John Adams after John Quincy Adams, the U.S. president in
Kamehameha II (c. 1797 – July 14, 1824) was the second king of the Kingdom of Hawaii. His birth name was Liholiho and full name was Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu ʻIolani. It was lengthened to Kalani Kaleiʻaimoku o Kaiwikapu o Laʻamea i Kauikawekiu Ahilapalapa Kealiʻi Kauinamoku o Kahekili Kalaninui i Mamao ʻIolani i Ka Liholiho when he took the throne.
He was born circa 1797 in Hilo, on the island of Hawaiʻi, the eldest son of Kamehameha I and his highest-ranking consort Queen Keōpuolani. He was groomed to be heir to the throne from age five. It was originally planned that he would be born at the Kūkaniloko birth site on the island of Oʻahu but the Queen's sickness prevented travel.
Given in care to his father's trusted servant Hanapi, who took the child to rear him in the lands of Kalaoa in Hilo Paliku, he was taken back, after five or six months, by his maternal grandmother Kekuiapoiwa Liliha because she felt he was not getting the right diet. Kamehameha I, then, put him in the care of Queen Kaʻahumanu (another wife of Kamehameha I), who was appointed as Liholiho's official guardian.
Jean Baptiste Rives, a Frenchman about his age, arrived on the islands in the early 19th
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour, also known as Madame de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764, French pronunciation: [pɔ̃.pa.duːʁ]) was a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to her death.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, otherwise known as Reinette ('little queen') to her friends, was born on 29 December 1721 in Paris to François Poisson (1684-1754) and his wife Madeleine de La Motte (1699-1745). However, it is suspected that her biological father was either the rich financier Pâris de Montmartel or the tax collector (fermier général) Le Normant de Tournehem, who became her legal guardian when François Poisson was forced to leave the country in 1725 after a scandal over a series of unpaid debts, a crime at that time punishable by death. (He was cleared eight years later and allowed to return to France.) Her younger brother was Abel-François Poisson de Vandières, who would later become the marquis de Marigny.
Jeanne Antoinette was intelligent, beautiful and refined. She spent her younger childhood at the Ursuline convent in Poissy where she received a good education. At adolescence, her mother took personal charge of
Princess Marie Louise of Hanover and Cumberland (German: Marie Louise Victoria Caroline Amalie Alexandra Augusta Friederike Prinzessin von Hannover und Cumberland), Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg (born 11 October 1879 in Gmunden, Upper Austria, Austria-Hungary; died 31 January 1948 at Schloss Salem in Salem, Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Marie Louise was the eldest daughter of Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover (1845–1923) and Princess Thyra of Denmark (1853–1933), the youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark (1818–1906) and Louise of Hesse-Kassel (1817–1898). Marie Louise was a great-great-granddaughter of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820) and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818).
Marie Louise married on 10 July 1900 in Gmunden, Austria-Hungary to Prince Maximilian of Baden (1867–1929), son of Prince Wilhelm of Baden and his wife Princess Maria Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg, thus making him a first cousin twice removed of Napoleon III of France. Marie Louise and Maximilian had one daughter and one son:
Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances; née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997), was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and member of the British Royal Family. She was also well known for her fund-raising work for international charities, and an eminent celebrity of the late 20th century. Her wedding to Charles, heir to the British throne and those of the then 18 Commonwealth realms, was held at St Paul's Cathedral and seen by a global television audience of over 750 million. While married she bore the courtesy titles Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester and Baroness of Renfrew. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, currently second and third in line to the throne, respectively.
Diana was born into an aristocratic English family with royal ancestry and became a public figure with the announcement of her engagement to Prince Charles. Diana also received recognition for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. From 1989, she was the president of the Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, in addition to dozens of other
Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, 6 September [O.S. 27 August] 1666 — 8 February [O.S. 29 January] 1696) was a joint Tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. He was the youngest son of Alexis I of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya. His reign was only formal, since he had serious physical and mental disabilities. He sat still for hours at a time and needed assistance in order to walk.
Ivan V was the 11th child of Tsar Alexis. As he was an eye-sore and infirm, his capacity for supreme power was challenged by the party of the Naryshkin family, who aspired to bring Natalia Naryshkina's son, Peter I, to the throne. Upon the death of Feodor III of Russia in April 1682, their enemies insinuated that the Naryshkins had Ivan strangled, thus fomenting the Moscow Uprising of 1682, which was put to an end only after Ivan was demonstrated by his relatives to the furious crowd.
Ivan had a very close relationship with his stepmother and half-brother/co-Tsar Peter. He did not really want to become Tsar but was persuaded to.
On 25 June the same year, Ivan and Peter were crowned in the Cathedral of the Dormition as "dvoetsarstvenniki"
Alexander II of Russia (Russian: Александр II Николаевич, Aleksandr II Nikolaevich) (29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1818, Moscow – 13 March [O.S. 1 March] 1881, Saint Petersburg), also known as Alexander the Liberator (Russian: Александр Освободитель, Aleksandr Osvoboditel') was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland.
Born in Moscow, he was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. His early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential; until the time of his accession in 1855, aged 37, few imagined that he would be known to posterity as a leader able to implement the most challenging reforms undertaken in Russia since the reign of Peter the Great.
In the period of his life as heir apparent, the intellectual atmosphere of Saint Petersburg was unfavourable to any kind of change: freedom of thought and all forms of private initiative were being suppressed vigorously. Personal and official censorship was rife; criticism of the authorities was regarded as a serious offence. Some 26
Aleksey Mikhailovich (Russian: Алексей Михайлович) (19 March [O.S. 9 March] 1629 – 8 February [O.S. 29 January] 1676) was the Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. On the eve of his death in 1676, the Tsardom of Russia spanned almost 2,000,000,000 acres (8,100,000 km).
Born in Moscow on 8 March 1629, the son of Tsar Michael and Eudoxia Streshneva, Alexei acceded to the throne at the age of sixteen after his father's death on 12 July 1645. He was committed to the care of the boyar Boris Morozov, a shrewd and sensible guardian sufficiently enlightened to recognize the needs of his country, and by no means inaccessible to Western ideas.
Morozov's foreign policy was pacificatory. He secured a truce with Poland and carefully avoided complications with the Ottoman Empire. His domestic policy was scrupulously fair and aimed at relieving the public burdens by limiting the privileges of foreign traders and abolishing a great many useless and expensive court offices. On 17 January 1648 Morozov procured the marriage of the tsar with Maria Miloslavskaya, himself marrying her sister, Anna, ten days later, both daughters of Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; the Chevalier de St George or "The Old Pretender" or "The Old Chevalier"; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II of England (James VII of Scotland). As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland) from the death of his father in 1701, when he was recognized as king of England, Scotland and Ireland by his cousin Louis XIV of France. Following his death in 1766 he was succeeded by his son Charles Edward Stuart in the Jacobite Succession. Had his father not been deposed, there would have been only two monarchs during his lifetime; his father and himself. In reality there were six; the last three Stuarts and the first three Hanoverians. Although the ruling, Protestant, Stuarts died out with his half-sister, Queen Anne, the very last remaining Stuarts were James and his sons, and their endeavours to regain their (putatively) rightful throne whilst remaining devoted to their Catholic faith is remembered in history as Jacobitism.
From the moment of his birth, on 10 June 1688, at St. James's Palace, the prince was the
Joan of England (5 July 1321 – 7 September 1362), known as Joan of The Tower, was the first wife and Queen consort of king David II of Scotland.
She was born in the Tower of London and was the youngest daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France. Her siblings included Edward III of England, John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall and Eleanor of Woodstock.
In accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Northampton, she was married on 17 July 1328 (at seven years of age) to David II of Scotland at Berwick-upon-Tweed. Despite their marriage lasting thirty-four years, it was childless and apparently loveless. On 7 June 1329, her father-in-law Robert I of Scotland died and David II became King. He was crowned at Scone in November 1331.
Owing to the victory of Edward III of England and his protégé Edward Balliol at Halidon Hill in July 1333, David and his Queen were sent for safety into France, reaching Boulogne in May 1334, where they were received by the French King, her relative Philip VI. Little is known about the life of the Scottish King and Queen in France, except that Château Gaillard was given to them as their residence and Philip treated them with regard. David was present
Paul I (Russian: Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (1 October [O.S. 20 September] 1754 – 23 March [O.S. 11 March] 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. He also was the 71st Grand Master of the Order of Malta (de facto).
Paul was born in the Palace of Empress Elisabeth in St Petersburg. He was the son of Elizabeth's heir, her nephew, the Grand Duke Peter, later Emperor Peter III, and his wife, the Grand Duchess Catherine, later Empress Catherine II. In her memoirs, Catherine strongly implies that Paul's father was not Peter, but her favorite at the time, Sergei Saltykov. Peter's behavior was infantile and immature and he chose other favorites among Catherine's ladies in waiting but he was not sterile as many believed; he later sired an illegitimate child with one lover. However, it was no secret that Peter and Catherine were estranged through much of their marriage. Paul does in fact seem to have physically resembled the Grand Duke (Peter III) so one might doubt any claims of illegitimacy.
During his infancy, Paul was taken immediately from his mother by the Empress Elisabeth, whose overwhelming attention may have done him more harm than good. As a boy, he was
Princess Louisa (Louise Anne; 19 March 1749 – 13 May 1768) was a member of the British Royal Family, a grandchild of George II and sister of George III
HRH Princess Louisa was born on 19 March 1749, at Leicester House, Westminster, London, and was christened there on 11 April. Her father was Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of George II and Caroline of Ansbach. Her mother was The Princess of Wales (née Augusta of Saxe-Gotha). Her godparents were Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) (her paternal uncle by marriage) and her paternal aunts The Queen of Denmark and The Princess of Orange, all of whom were represented by proxies.
Her health was delicate throughout her life. Princess Louisa died, at Carlton House, London, on 13 May 1768, unmarried, and without issue, at the age of 19.
Princess Marie Louise (Franziska Josepha Louise Augusta Marie Christina Helena; formerly Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein; 12 August 1872 – 8 December 1956) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
Princess Marie Louise was born at Cumberland Lodge, in Windsor Great Park. Her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, the third son of Duke Christian of Schleswig-Holstein and Countess Louise of Danneskjold-Samsøe. Her mother was The Princess Helena, the fifth child and third daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Her parents resided in the United Kingdom, and the Princess was considered a member of the British Royal Family. Under letters patent of 1866, she was styled Her Highness Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein. She was christened on 18 September 1872. Her godparents were The Emperor of Austria and The Queen of Hanover.
On 6 July 1891, Princess Marie Louise married Prince Aribert of Anhalt (18 June 1866 – 24 December 1933) at St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle. Prince Aribert was the third son of Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt, and his wife, Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg. The
Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife, GCStJ (Alexandra Victoria Alberta Edwina Louise; née Duff; later Princess Arthur of Connaught; 17 May 1891 – 26 February 1959) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King Edward VII. Alexandra and her younger sister Maud had the distinction of being two of only five female-line granddaughters of a British Sovereign to receive the style Highness. (Three of Queen Victoria’s female-line granddaughters had previously been styled as Highness, albeit holding the style from birth: Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein and Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg.) Alexandra and her sister also received the title of Princess of Great Britain and Ireland.
Alexandra's father was Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife (1840–1912), the son of the 5th Earl of Fife (1814–1879) and his wife, the former Lady Agnes Hay. Having succeeded his father as the 6th Earl of Fife, he was elevated to Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff in the Peerage of the United Kingdom two days after his marriage in 1889 to Princess Louise of Wales, the eldest daughter of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later
Bernice Pauahi Bishop (December 19, 1831–October 16, 1884), born Bernice Pauahi Pākī, was a Hawaiian princess, philanthropist, aliʻi, and direct descendant of the royal House of Kamehameha. She was the great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I and last surviving heir. Her estate is the largest private landowner in the state of Hawaiʻi, comprising approximately 9% of Hawaii's total area. The revenues from these lands are used to operate the Kamehameha Schools, which were established in 1887 according to Pauahi's will. Pauahi was married to businessman and philanthropist Charles Reed Bishop.
Pauahi was born in Honolulu on December 19, 1831 in ʻAikupika, the grass hut compound of her father. Her father, High Chief Abner Kuhoʻoheiheipahu Pākī (c. 1808-1855), was a noble from the island of Molokaʻi, and son of Aliʻi Kawao and Kalani-hele-maiiluna Pākī, who descended from Aliʻi Aimoku of the island of Maui. Her mother was Princess Laura Kōnia (c 1808-1857), granddaughter of Kamehameha I. She was the younger daughter of Aliʻi Pauli Kaʻōleiokū (1767–1818), by his second wife, Aliʻi Kahailiopua Luahine, was an illegitimate but legitimated natural (eldest) son of King Kamehameha I. She was
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II King of Great Britain and Ireland in Edinburgh on 6 February 1649, the English Parliament instead passed a statute that made any such proclamation unlawful. England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands.
A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if Charles had succeeded his father as king in
George II (George Augustus; German: Georg II. August; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death.
George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain: he was born and brought up in Northern Germany. In 1701, his grandmother, Sophia of Hanover, became second-in-line to the British throne after about fifty Catholics higher in line were excluded by the Act of Settlement, which restricted the succession to Protestants. After the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his father's reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, until they re-joined the governing party in 1720.
As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by Great Britain's parliament. As elector, he spent 12 summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son,
Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (1399–1413). He was the ninth King of England of the House of Plantagenet and also asserted his grandfather's claim to the title King of France. He was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence his other name, Henry (of) Bolingbroke ( /ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/). His father, John of Gaunt, was the third son of Edward III, and enjoyed a position of considerable influence during much of the reign of Henry's cousin Richard II, whom Henry eventually deposed. Henry's mother was Blanche, heiress to the considerable Lancaster estates, thus he became the first King of England from the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets, one of the two family branches that were belligerents in the War of the Roses. The other one was the York branch, initiated by his uncle Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (see section "Seniority in line from Edward III" below).
One of Henry's elder sisters, Philippa of Lancaster, married John I of Portugal, and his younger sister Elizabeth was the mother of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter. His younger half-sister Catherine, the daughter of his father's second wife, Constance of Castile, was queen
Kamehameha IV, born Alexander ʻIolani Liholiho Keawenui (1834–1863), reigned as the fourth king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from January 11, 1855 to November 30, 1863.
Alexander was born on February 9, 1834 in Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. His father was High Chief Mataio Kekūanāoʻa, Royal Governor of Oʻahu. His mother was Princess Elizabeth Kīnaʻu the Kuhina Nui or Prime Minister of the Kingdom. He was the grandson of Kamehameha I, first monarch of all the islands. As a toddler, Alexander was adopted by his uncle, King Kamehameha III who decreed Alexander heir to the throne and raised him as the crown prince.
Alexander Liholiho was educated by Calvinist missionaries Amos and Juliette Cooke at the Chiefs' Children's School (later known as Royal School) in Honolulu. He was accompanied by 30 attendants (kahu) when he arrived, but they were sent home and for the first time Liholiho was on his own. Alexander Liholiho played the flute and the piano, and enjoyed singing, acting, and cricket. When he was 14 he left the Royal School and went to law school. When he was 15, he went on a government trip to England, the United States, and Panama. Liholiho was able to record the events of his
Keaoua Kekua-o-kalani (sometimes known as Kaiwi-kuamoʻo Kekua-o-kalani) was a nephew of the king Kamehameha I, the chief from the Big Island of Hawaiʻi who had unified the Hawaiian islands.
He was the son of Kamehameha's brother Keliʻimaikaʻi and Kamehameha's half-sister Kiʻilaweau. After Kamehameha died in 1819, Keaoua rebelled against Kamehameha's successor, his son Kamehameha II. Keaoua's rebellion was brief; he was killed in battle about 21 December 1819.
His grandmother was Manono I, and his wife was Manono II.
After Kamehameha died, on 8 May 1819, power was officially assumed by Kamehameha's son Liholiho. Liholiho, at the urging of powerful female chiefs such as Kaʻahumanu, abolished the kapu system that had governed life in Hawaiʻi for centuries. Henceforth, men and women could eat together, women could eat formerly forbidden foods, and official worship at the stone platform temples, or heiaus, was discontinued. This event is called the ʻAi Noa, or free eating.
As the historian Gavan Daws points out (Daws, 1967, pp. 54–59), this was a decision taken by the chiefs, and it primarily affected the state religion. Commoners could still worship their family protective deities,
The Princess Augusta Sophia (8 November 1768 – 22 September 1840) was a member of the British Royal Family, second daughter of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was a Princess of the United Kingdom and a Princess of Hanover.
Princess Augusta Sophia was born at Buckingham House, St. James's Park, London, the sixth child and second daughter of George III (1738–1820) and his wife Queen Charlotte. Her father so much wanted the new baby to be a girl that the doctor presiding over the labor thought fit to protest that "whoever sees those lovely Princes above stairs must be glad to have another." The King was so upset by this view he replied that "whoever sees that lovely child the Princess Royal above stairs must not wish to have the fellow to her." To the King's delight, and the Queen's relief, the baby was a small and pretty girl.
The young princess was christened on 6 December 1768, by Frederick Cornwallis, The Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Great Council Chamber at St. James's Palace. Her godparents were Prince Charles of Mecklenburg (her maternal uncle, who was visiting England), The Queen-consort of Denmark (her paternal aunt, for whom The Duchess of Ancaster
Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (Helena Frederica Augusta; later Duchess of Albany; 17 February 1861 – 1 September 1922), who became a member of the British Royal Family by marriage, was the daughter of George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (regions now in Germany) and his wife Princess Helena of Nassau (also in Germany).
She was born in Arolsen, capital of Waldeck principality, in Germany. She was the sister of Friedrich, last reigning Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont; Marie, the first wife of William II of Württemberg; and of Emma, Queen consort of William III of the Netherlands (and mother of Queen Wilhelmina).
Her maternal grandparents were William, Duke of Nassau and his second wife Princess Pauline of Württemberg. Pauline was a daughter of Prince Paul of Württemberg and his wife Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Paul was a son Frederick I of Württemberg and his wife Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Augusta was the eldest daughter of Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg and Princess Augusta of Great Britain, elder sister of George III of the United Kingdom.
Along with Emma and a third sister, Pauline, Helena was considered as a
Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault as well as father to King Richard II of England.
He was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and has more recently been popularly known as the Black Prince. He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime. In 1348 he became the first Knight of the Garter, of whose Order he was one of the founders.
Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.
Richard Barber comments that Edward "has attracted relatively little attention from serious historians, but figures largely in popular history."
Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 through the First World War (1914–1918) until his death in 1936.
George was a grandson of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and the first cousin of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. From 1877 to 1891, he served in the Royal Navy. On the death of Victoria in 1901, George's father became King Edward VII, and George was made Prince of Wales. On his father's death in 1910, he succeeded as King-Emperor of the British Empire. He was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar.
As a result of the First World War, other empires in Europe fell while his expanded to its greatest extent. In 1917, he became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. His reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, Irish republicanism, and the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected
Princess Ruth Luka Keanolani Kauanahoahoa Keʻelikōlani (1826–1883), was a member of the Kamehameha family, the founding dynasty of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. She served as Royal Governor of the Island of Hawaiʻi. As primary heir to the Kamehameha family, Ruth became a landholder of what would become the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate funding the Kamehameha Schools. Unlike most of the rest of the royal family, Princess Keʻelikōlani retained traditional Hawaiian cultural practices.
Keʻelikolani's mother was high Chiefess Kalani Pauahi (1804–1826), daughter of High Chief Pauli Kaʻōleiokū (eldest illegitimate but natural son of Kamehameha I) and his first wife High Chiefess Keoua-wahine. Her mother died giving birth to her. She was considered to have two fathers, called a poʻolua ancestry (meaning roughly "two heads of the family"). One father was High Chief Kahalaiʻa Luanuʻu (died 1826), Governor of Kauaʻi island, a nephew of King Kamehameha I, the son of the king's half-brother Kalaʻimamahu and High Chiefess Kahakuhaʻakoi Wahinepio from Maui. Keʻelikolani was born February 9, 1826, after her mother had already married on November 28, 1825 her next husband, Mataio Kekūanāoʻa (1793–1868).
Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn (Thai: มหาจักรีสิรินธร, Thai pronunciation: [má.hǎː ʨàk.rīː sì.rīn.tʰɔːn]; RTGS: Maha Chakkri Sirinthon; April 2, 1955 — ) is the second daughter of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
Her full ceremonial title is “Somdet Phra Theppharatratsuda Chao Fa Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Ratthasimakhunakonpiyachat Sayamborommaratchakumari” (สมเด็จพระเทพรัตนราชสุดา เจ้าฟ้ามหาจักรีสิรินธร รัฐสีมาคุณากรปิยชาติ สยามบรมราชกุมารี), which was bestowned upon her on December 5, 1977. Thais commonly refer to her by reducing such title to “Phra Thep”, meaning “princess angel”.
Because her title in Thai is the female equivalent of the title held by her brother, Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn, she is informally referred to as "crown princess".
The Thai constitution was altered in 1974 to allow for female succession, thus making her eligible for the throne. As the eldest female child of the royal family (excluding Ubol Ratana, who married a foreign commoner), her position is equivalent to a princess royal.
Sirindhorn, born April 2, 1955, is the third child of King Bhumibol and Queen Sirikit. Because the royal couple has only one son, the Thai constitution was altered in 1974 to allow
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her opponents gave her the sobriquet "Bloody Mary".
She was the only surviving child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded Henry in 1547. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because of religious differences. On his death, their cousin Lady Jane Grey was at first proclaimed queen. Mary assembled a force in East Anglia and successfully deposed Jane, who was ultimately beheaded. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556.
As the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after the short-lived Protestant reign of her half-brother. During her five-year reign, she had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian Persecutions. Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed after her death in 1558 by her younger half-sister and successor, Elizabeth I.
Mary was born on 18
Mikhail I Fyodorovich (Russian: Михаил Фёдорович) Mikhail Fedorovich (12 July 1596 – 12 July 1645) was the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov (later known as Patriarch Filaret) and Xenia (later known as "the great nun" Martha). His reign marked the end of the Time of Troubles.
Michael's father, Nikita, was brother to the earlier Tsarina Anastasia and a central adviser to Ivan the Terrible. As a young boy, Michael and his mother had been exiled to Beloozero in 1600. This was a result of the recently elected Tsar Boris Godunov, in 1598, falsely accusing his father of treason. This may have been partly because Nikita had married Ksenia Shestova against Boris' wishes. Michael was unanimously elected Tsar of Russia by a national assembly on 21 February 1613, but the delegates of the council did not discover the young Tsar and his mother at the Ipatiev Monastery near Kostroma until 24 March. He had been chosen after several other options had been removed, including royalty of Poland and Sweden. Michael was partly chosen for his connection by distant relation to the earlier Tsarina Anastasia, the wife of Ivan IV. Initially, Martha
Princess and Landgravine Augusta of Hesse-Kassel (German: Auguste Wilhelmine Luise von Hessen-Kassel; 25 July 1797 – 6 April 1889) was the consort of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the tenth-born child, and seventh son, of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The longest-lived daughter-in-law of George III, she was the maternal grandmother of Mary of Teck, queen consort to George V.
Her Serene Highness Princess and Landgravine Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, third daughter of HSH Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel, and his wife, Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen, was born at Rumpenheim Castle, Kassel, Hesse. Through her father, she was a great-granddaughter of George II of Great Britain. Her father's older brother was the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. In 1803, her uncle's title was raised to Elector of Hesse — whereby the entire Kassel branch of the Hesse dynasty gained an upward notch in hierarchy.
On 7 May, in Kassel, and then, again, on 1 June 1818 at Buckingham Palace, Princess Augusta married her second cousin, the Duke of Cambridge, when she was 20 and he 44. Upon their marriage, Augusta gained the style HRH The Duchess of Cambridge. The Duke and Duchess of
Princess Sibylla of Sweden, Duchess of Västerbotten (born Princess Sibylle Calma Maria Alice Bathildis Feodora of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; (18 January 1908 – 28 November 1972), was the wife of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten and mother of the current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf.
Sibylla (then Sibylle) was born at Schloss Friedenstein on 18 January 1908 as the daughter of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein, a daughter of Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg and Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, and descended from an older Scandinavian royal house. Through her father, she was a great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Her grandfather was Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, the youngest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
In November of 1931, Sibylla was in London to attend the wedding of Lady May Abel Smith as a bridesmaid. One of the other bridesmaids was Ingrid of Sweden, who introduced Sibylla to her brother, Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, Duke of Västerbotten. Their engagement was announced at Callenberg Palace in Coburg 16 June 1932.
On 19 October in
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the queen consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952, after which she was known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, to avoid confusion with her daughter, Queen Elizabeth II. She was the last queen consort of Ireland and empress consort of India.
Born into a family of British nobility as The Honourable Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, she became Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon when her father inherited the Scottish Earldom of Strathmore and Kinghorne in 1904. She came to prominence in 1923 when she married Albert, Duke of York, the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. As Duchess of York, she – along with her husband and their two daughters Elizabeth and Margaret – embodied traditional ideas of family and public service. She undertook a variety of public engagements, and became known as the "Smiling Duchess" because of her consistent public expression.
In 1936, her husband unexpectedly became King when his brother, Edward VIII, abdicated in order to marry the American divorcée Wallis Simpson. Queen Elizabeth accompanied her husband on diplomatic tours to France and North America before the start of
Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary; born 8 August 1988) is the elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. She is fifth, and the first female, in the line of succession to the thrones of the sixteen Commonwealth realms.
While studying at Goldsmiths, University of London, Princess Beatrice was not expected to undertake regular Royal duties, although she did make appearances at some Royal events; for instance, she and her sister, Princess Eugenie, represented their father at a service of thanksgiving for her late aunt Diana, Princess of Wales, in 2007.
Beatrice was born on 8 August 1988 at 8:18 pm at the Portland Hospital, the first child of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York, and fifth grandchild of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh. She is also a distant cousin of her late aunt Diana, Princess of Wales, whose father was John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer for Beatrice's mother Sarah, Duchess of York is a direct descendant of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, daughter of John Spencer, 1st Earl Spencer, (via Georgiana's illegitimate daughter Eliza Courtney). She was baptised in the Chapel Royal at St.
The Princess Louise (born Louise Caroline Alberta, also known as Marchioness of Lorne and Duchess of Argyll by marriage; 18 March 1848 – 3 December 1939) was a member of the British Royal Family, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and her husband, Albert, Prince Consort.
Louise's early life was spent moving among the various royal residences in the company of her family. When her father, the Prince Consort, died on 14 December 1861, the court went into a period of intense mourning, to which Louise was unsympathetic. Louise was an able sculptor and artist, and several of her sculptures remain today. She was also a supporter of the feminist movement, and corresponded with Josephine Butler and visited Elizabeth Garrett. She held that "the subject of Domestic Economy lies at the root of the – highest life of every true woman."
As an unmarried daughter of Victoria, Louise served as an unofficial secretary to her mother between 1866 and 1871. The question of Louise's marriage was discussed in the late 1860s. Suitors from the royal houses of Prussia and Denmark were suggested, but Victoria wanted new blood in the family, and therefore suggested a high-ranking member of
Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark (Greek: Πριγκίπισσα Σοφία της Ελλάδας και Δανίας) (26 June 1914 – 3 November 2001) was the fourth child and youngest daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg, making her the elder sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Sophie was born at Villa Mon Repos on the island of Corfu in Greece.
Through her father, Sophie was a grandchild of George I of Greece and Olga Konstantinova of Russia. Through Queen Olga of Greece, she was a great-great-granddaughter of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. Through her mother she was a great-great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Albert, Prince Consort. Her mother was a granddaughter of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
Sophie was the sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the husband and consort of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. She also had three sisters, Princess Theodora, Princess Cecilie, and Princess Margarita.
Sophie was first married to Prince Christoph of Hesse (1901–1943) on 15 December 1930 in Kronberg, Berlin, Germany; she was 16. The son of Prince Frederick Charles of
Sybil Margaret Thomas, Viscountess Rhondda DBE (25 February 1857–11 March 1941), née Sybil Margaret Haig, was a British suffragette, feminist and philanthropist.
She was born in Brighton, the daughter of George Augustus Haig, a merchant and landowner from Pen Ithon, Radnorshire, Wales, and his wife, Anne Eliza Fell. Her father was of Scottish descent and was a cousin of Douglas Haig.
On 27 June 1882 she married David Alfred Thomas, a wealthy Welsh industrialist who later became Liberal Member of Parliament for Merthyr Boroughs. Their principal residence was Llanwern, Monmouthshire.
In the 1890s Sybil Thomas became president of the Welsh Union of Women's Liberal Associations, which was strongly feminist and pro-female suffrage. She was also a prominent moderate in the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies. Her sisters Janetta and Lotty were also prominent suffragettes and both went to prison for acts of violence in the name of the cause. Her daughter, Margaret Haig Thomas, became one of the most prominent British feminists of the inter-war years. Under their influence, Sybil joined the more militant Women's Social and Political Union. In 1914 she was sentenced to one day's
William Pitt Kalanimoku (c. 1768–1827) was a High Chief who functioned similar to a prime minister of the Hawaiian Kingdom during the reigns of Kamehameha I, Kamehameha II and the beginning of the reign of Kamehameha III. He was called The Iron Cable of Hawaiʻi because of his abilities.
Kalanimoku was born at Kauiki, Maui, circa 1768. His father was Kekuamanoha and his mother was Kamakahukilani, the niece of his father. Through his father he was a grandson of Kekaulike, the King or Moʻi of Maui. Through his mother he was great-grandson of Kekaulike. He was cousin of Kaʻahumanu, Kaheiheimālie, and Namahana Piʻia, Kamehameha's three wives; Kuakini, later served as Governor of Hawaii; and Keʻeaumoku II, later served as Governor of Maui. His siblings included Boki, later served as Governor of Oʻahu; Kahakuhaʻakoi Wahinepio, later served as Governor of Maui, and Manono II, the wife of Keaoua Kekuaokalani. Both his sisters were at one time wives of Kamehameha I which may explain how he gained his power.
At the time, his name was often spelled Karaimoku by Hawaiians and comtemporaries alike, and even Kalanimoku, himself, signed his name as such. Other spellings were Kalaimoku, Crymoku or
Anne Horton (née Anne Luttrell, later the Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn) (24 January 1743 – 28 December 1808) was a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn.
Anne was born in Marylebone, London. She was the only daughter of Simon Luttrell, later first Earl of Carhampton, and his wife, Judith Maria Lawes.
Her father was a Member of the House of Commons before being created Baron Irnham in 1768, Viscount Carhampton in 1781 and Earl of Carhampton in 1785.
Anne was first married to a commoner, Christopher Horton (sometimes spelled Houghton) of Catton Hall, on 4 August 1765.
She later married Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, the sixth child of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and a younger brother of George III. Their marriage took place at Hertford Street in Mayfair, London on 2 October 1771.
George III did not approve of the marriage as Anne was a commoner and previously married. He later had the Royal Marriages Act 1772 passed to prevent any descendant of George II marrying without the consent of the sovereign, a law which is still in force today.
Some sources describe Anne as being
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Borommarajabongjet Mahesvarasundorn Phra Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระบรมราชพงศ์เชษมเหศวรสุนทร พระพุทธเลิศหล้านภาลัย; RTGS: —Mahesuansunthorn Phra Phuttha Loet La Naphalai), or Rama II (24 February 1767 – 21 July 1824), was the second monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1809–1824. In 1809, Isarasundhorn succeeded his father Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the founder of Chakri dynasty, as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai the King of Siam. His reign was largely peaceful, devoid of major conflicts. His reign was known as the "Golden Age of Rattanakosin Literature" as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai was patron to a number of poets in his court and the King himself was a renowned poet and artist. The most notable poet in his employ was the illustrious Sunthorn Phu, the author of Phra Aphai Mani.
Chim was born in 1767 during the (Ayutthaya period) in Amphoe Amphawa, Samut Songkram. Chim was a son of Luang Yokbat of Ratchaburi and Nak of Samut Sakorn, as his father and mother was then known. They would later become King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke and Queen Amarindra, respectively. In 1767, Ayutthaya fell to Burmese invaders. His father, Phraya Ratchaburi, joined
Catherine I (Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна; Yekaterina I Alekseyevna, born Polish: Marta Helena Skowrońska, Latvian: Marta Elena Skavronska, later Marfa Samuilovna Skavronskaya) (15 April [O.S. 5 April] 1684 – 17 May [O.S. 6 May] 1727), the second wife of Peter I of Russia, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death.
The life of Catherine I was said by Voltaire to be nearly as extraordinary as that of Peter the Great himself. There are no documents that confirm her origins. Said to have been born on 15 April 1684 (o.s. 5 April), she was originally named Marta Helena Skowrońska. Marta was the daughter of Samuel Skowroński, later spelt Samuil Skavronsky, a Lithuanian peasant of Polish origin, a Roman Catholic, who in 1680 married Dorothea Hahn at Jekabpils in Latvia. Her mother is named in at least one source as Elisabeth Moritz, and there is debate as to whether her father was a Swedish officer. It is likely that two stories were conflated, and Swedish sources suggest that the Elizabeth Moritz story is probably incorrect. Some biographies state that Marta's father was a gravedigger and handyman, while others speculate that he was a runaway landless serf. Marta's
John Owen Dominis (March 10, 1832–August 27, 1891) was an American-born statesman. He became Prince Consort of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi upon his marriage to the last reigning monarch, Queen Liliʻuokalani. The Queen was overthrown by the Committee of Safety, a group organized by American and European businessmen who sought to promote western interests in the region.
His father was a sea captain named John Dominis (1796–1846) who came to America in 1819 from Trieste during the Napoleonic Wars. Although he was often called "Italian", there is evidence he was probably descended from a noble Croatian family, although he might be both, since the Croatian region of Dalmatia was Italianized for being ruled by Venice, existing a Venetian family of Conti Palatini de Dominis de Arba. Working for Josiah Marshall of Boston, Massachusetts, captain Dominis sailed from North America across the Pacific, often stopping in Hawaii. One of his ships used on the trading voyages was called "Owhyhee" (an older transcription of 'O Hawai'i). The captain married Mary Lambert Jones (1803–1889), daughter of Owen Jones and Elizabeth Lambert, on October 9, 1821, and had two daughters, Mary Elizabeth (1825–1838)
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart (28 June 1692 – 18 April 1712), known to Jacobites as The Princess Royal, was the last child of James II and VII (1633–1701), the deposed king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and of his queen, Mary of Modena. In English, she was called Louisa Maria and Louise Marie in French.
A Royal Stuart Society paper calls Louisa Maria the Princess over the Water, an allusion to the informal title King over the Water of the Jacobite pretenders, none of whom had any other legitimate daughters.
Louisa Maria was born in 1692, at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, during her parents' exile. Due to the huge controversy which had surrounded the birth of her brother, James Francis Edward, with accusations of the substitution of another baby in a warming pan following a still-birth, James II had sent letters inviting not only his daughter, Queen Mary II, to attend the birth in person, but also a large number of other Protestant ladies. Of all her siblings and half-siblings, only her brother James Francis Edward and her half-sisters, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne, survived infancy. Mary died while Louisa Maria was still a small child, but she was on friendly terms with her half-sister
Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine (December 12, 1712 in Lunéville – July 4, 1780 in Tervuren) was a Lorraine-born Austrian soldier.
Charles was the son of Leopold Joseph, Duke of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans. When his elder brother Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, married the Archduchess Maria Theresa, daughter of Emperor Charles VI, Charles Alexander entered the Imperial service in 1737.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, he was one of the principal Austrian military commanders. He was most notable for his defeat by Frederick the Great at the Battle of Chotusitz in 1742 and the Battle of Hohenfriedberg in 1745. He was also defeated by Maurice de Saxe at the Battle of Rocoux in 1746.
On January 7, 1744, he married Maria Theresa's only sister, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, thus making him doubly Maria Theresa's brother-in-law, and the pair were jointly made Governors of the Austrian Netherlands. His sister, Anne Charlotte, whom he was very close to, acted as de facto co sovereign.
Although Maria Anna died later that year, Charles himself continued as governor until his own death in 1780. He was very popular. He also became Grand Master of the Teutonic
Ulumāheihei Hoapili (c. 1775–1840) was a member of the nobility during the formation of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was a trusted military and political advisor to King Kamehameha I, known as "Kamehameha the Great". Although trusted with one of the last symbolic rites of the Hawaiian religion, he later became a supporter of Christian missionaries.
Ulumāheihei (his original name) was born around 1775, during the reign of King Kalaniʻōpuʻu. His father was High Chief Kameʻeiamoku, known as one of the "royal twins" who helped Kamehameha I come to power. After his father's death, he inherited his father's counselor position in Kamehameha's court. In his youth he was athletic, standing about 6.5 feet (2.0 m) tall. A story was told of how he once wrestled down an attacking bull by its horns. A few years after the 1795 battle of Nuʻuanu when Kamehameha conquered Oʻahu and Maui, Hoapili was left in charge of the island of Oʻahu and the royal court settled at Kamakahonu in present-day Kailua-Kona. His first marriage was to Chiefess Kalilikauoha (daughter of King Kahekili II of Maui island). From her his daughter Kuini Liliha was born in 1802 or 1803, about the same time his father Kameʻeiamoku
John William Pitt Kīnaʻu (1842–1859) was a prince of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
He was born December 21, 1842. His father was High Chief William Pitt Leleiohoku I (1821–1848). His mother was Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani (1826–1883). Through his mother he was Kamehameha I's only known great-great grandchild. His mother's parentage had been disputed, but she was a member of the House of Kamehameha through her mother Kalanipauahi. Through his father, he descended from King Kekaulike of Maui. He was grandson Prime Minister Kalanimoku, also known as The Iron Cable of Hawaii. His name "William Pitt" was from his father and grandfather, originally chosen by his grandfather Kalanimoku after Prime Minister William Pitt of England. His Hawaiian name Kīnaʻu was in honor of the Queen Regent, Kīnaʻu, Ruth’s stepmother and childhood guardian. He had a younger brother who died in infancy.
He entered the Chiefs' Children's School on February 26, 1844 at the age of 2, as its sixteenth and last pupil. He was the youngest with Victoria Kamāmalu and Lydia Kamakaʻeha four year older. He was chosen by Kamehameha III to be eligible for the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was taught in English by American
Princess Bejaratana Rajasuda Sirisobhabannavadi of Thailand (RTGS: Phetcharat Ratchasuda Sirisophaphannawadi; Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าภคินีเธอ เจ้าฟ้าเพชรรัตนราชสุดา สิริโสภาพัณณวดี, 24 November 1925 – 27 July 2011) was the only child of the King Vajiravudh of Thailand. She was a first cousin of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and third cousin of King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia.
Her funeral was held on April 9, 2012 at Sanam Luang ceremonial ground in Bangkok.
Princess Bejaratana was born on 24 November 1925 in the Royal Grand Palace, Bangkok, the only child of King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) and Princess Suvadhana. After having seen his daughter one time, the King died the following day. Her uncle, who became King Prajadhipok (Rama VII), performed the naming ceremony for the princess on 30 December.
Princess Bejaratana and her mother moved to Suan Hongsa Villa in Dusit Palace, where she received her education from a private tutor. They moved in with Queen Sri Savarindira (the Queen Dowager) during World War II, and the princess attended Rajani School until she was 12. She and her mother then moved to England, where she continued her education and took medication for her poor health. She first
Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; German: Katharina die Große), Empress of Russia (2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796), was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 9 July [O.S. 28 June] 1762 until her death at the age of 67. She was born in Stettin, Pomerania, Prussia as Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, and came to power following a coup d'état and the assassination of her husband, Peter III, at the end of the Seven Years' War. Russia was revitalised under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognised as one of the great powers of Europe.
In both her accession to power and in rule of her empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin. Assisted by highly successful generals such as Pyotr Rumyantsev and Alexander Suvorov, and admirals such as Fyodor Ushakov, she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding rapidly by conquest and diplomacy. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Ottoman Empire in
Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales, KG and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, 1st Earl of Salisbury (December 1473 – 9 April [O.S. 31 March] 1484), was the only child of King Richard III of England and his queen consort, Anne Neville. He was Richard's only legitimate child and died aged 10. Edward's father was killed during the Wars of the Roses, thus ending that conflict and the throne of England reverted to Richard III's successor, Henry Tudor, a descendent of Edward III of England through his mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort.
Edward was born in December 1473 at Middleham Castle (a stronghold close to York that became Richard and Anne's principal base in northern England). The date of 1473 is not universally accepted; Professor Charles Ross wrote that the date 1473 "lacks authority. In fact, he was probably not born until 1476." He was mostly kept in the castle as he was known to be a sickly child. On 26 June 1483, his father became King of England, following a sermon that was preached outside St Paul's Cathedral which declared the late King Edward IV's children illegitimate and his brother Richard the rightful king. After the citizens of London, nobles and commons convened, a
Mary of Waltham (10 October 1344 – December 1362) was the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
Mary was betrothed in childhood to John V of Brittany, who grew up with her. The betrothal was held c. 1355.
In 1348 Mary met her mother and sister-in-law Joanna. Then in 1360 she went to stay with her sister-in-law Blanche of Lancaster.
On 3 July 1361 she and John were married at Woodstock Palace and acknowledged as Duke and Duchess of Brittany.
Within thirty weeks of marriage (March 1362) Mary became lethargic and died, she was buried in Abingdon Abbey with her sister Margaret, Countess of Pembroke, who died weeks before her. John would marry again, firstly to Joan Holland (1366) (a cousin of Richard II of England) and secondly to Joanna of Navarre (1386).
Mary's statue can still be seen on south side of the tomb of Edward III of England in Westminster Abbey. She never visited Brittany.
Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent, née Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark (Greek: Πριγκίπισσα Μαρίνα της Ελλάδος και της Δανίας; 13 December [O.S. 30 November] 1906 – 27 August 1968) was a member of the British Royal Family; the wife of Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck.
Princess Marina was the most recent foreign-born princess to marry into the British royal family.
Princess Marina was born in Athens, Greece, on 13 December 1906. Her father was Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, the third son of George I of Greece. Her mother was Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia, a granddaughter of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. One of her paternal uncles was Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, the father of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
She was baptised near the end of 1906, and her godparents were: the King of Greece (her paternal grandfather); the King of the United Kingdom (her granduncle); the Princess of Wales; Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark (her paternal uncle); Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich of Russia (her maternal uncle); and Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (her maternal aunt).
Archibald Scott Cleghorn (November, 15, 1835 – November 1, 1910) was a Scottish businessman who married into the royal family of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
He was born on November, 15, 1835 in Scotland, to Thomas Cleghorn in Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1851, at the age of 16, Cleghorn traveled with his parents to Honolulu, where his father established a dry goods store. His father died within the year, and his mother left for New Zealand, but Archibald remained in Hawaii and continued running the store. His business prospered and he expanded to other islands. With a Hawaiian woman, Elizabeth Pauahi Lapeka, Cleghorn had three daughters: Rose Kaipuala, who married James William Robertson; Helen Maniʻiailehua, who married James Harbottle Boyd; and Annie Pauai, who married James Hay Wodehouse. Cleghorn and Lapeka later separated.
Cleghorn became a citizen of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1870. He married Princess Miriam K. Likelike, sister of David Kalākaua, on September 21, 1870. In 1874 Kalākaua became King, and Cleghorn's daughter Princess Victoria Kaiʻulani was the heir to the throne of the House of Kalākaua. In 1877, Cleghorn and Princess Likelike arranged to donate the land surrounding the
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Ива́н Четвёртый Васи́льевич, Ivan Chetvyorty Vasilyevich; 25 August 1530 – 28 March [O.S. 18 March] 1584), known in English as Ivan the Terrible (Russian: Ива́н Гро́зный (help·info), Ivan Grozny; lit. Fearsome), was Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 until his death. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres, approximately 4,046,856 km (1,562,500 sq mi). Ivan managed countless changes in the progression from a medieval state to an empire and emerging regional power, and became the first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of all Russia.
Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, yet given to rages and prone to episodic outbreaks of mental illness. On one such outburst Tsar beat and unpremeditatedly killed his groomed and chosen heir Ivan Ivanovich. This left the Tsardom to be passed to Ivan's's younger son, the weak and intellectually disabled Feodor I. Ivan's legacy is complex: he was an able diplomat, a patron of arts and trade, founder of the
Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg (Alexandrina Mary Wilhelmina Catherine Charlotte Theresa Henrietta Louise Pauline Elizabeth Frederica Georgina; German: Alexandrine Marie Wilhelmine Katharine Charlotte Theresia Henriette Luise Pauline Elisabeth Friederike Georgine; 14 April 1818 – 9 January 1907) was Queen of Hanover and the consort of George V, a grandson of George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte.
Marie was born at Hildburghausen, as Princess Marie of Saxe-Hildburghausen, the eldest daughter of Joseph, the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Hildburghausen and Duchess Amelia of Württemberg. In 1826, the family moved to Altenburg as a result of a transfer of territories among the various branches of the Ernestine Wettins, and Marie took the title Princess of Saxe-Altenburg in place of the previous.
Marie married, on 18 February 1843, at Hanover, George, The Crown Prince of Hanover. They had three children - Prince Ernest Augustus, Princess Frederica, and Princess Marie.
The Crown Prince and Princess became King and Queen of Hanover upon the death of his father, Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, on 18 November 1851. Her husband was expelled from his kingdom in 1866 as a result of
His Royal Highness Prince Chitcharoen, the Prince Narisara Nuvativongse (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ เจ้าฟ้ากรมพระยานริศรานุวัดติวงศ์, born as "พระเจ้าลูกยาเธอ พระองค์เจ้าจิตรเจริญ") (Born: 28 April 1863, Died 10 March 1947) was the son of Mongkut, King Rama IV of Siam and Princess Consort Pannarai. He was the member of the Siamese Royal Family (later Thailand). He created The House of Chitrabhongse (ราชสกุลจิตรพงศ์), which is the descent family from the Chakri Dynasty. He was given the rank The Prince Narisara Nuvativongse by his elder brother, King Chulalongkorn of Siam (originally as "Krom Khun").
Prince Chithcaroen was called the Divine Guru, Siam's Great Artist. Among his artistic creations is Wat Benchamabophit, the Marble Temple. The image of Indra riding Erawan on the seal of Bangkok is also his work. His centennial in 1963 was associated by UNESCO.
Princess Helena Victoria (formerly Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein; Victoria Louise Sophia Augusta Amelia Helena; 3 May 1870 – 13 March 1948) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
Princess Helena Victoria was born at Frogmore House, near Windsor Castle. Her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, the third son of Christian, Duke of Augustenburg and Countess Louise of Danneskjold-Samsøe. Her mother was The Princess Helena, the fifth child and third daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Her parents resided in the United Kingdom, at Cumberland Lodge, and the Princess was considered a member of the British Royal Family. She was a bridesmaid at the 1885 wedding of Queen Victoria’s youngest daughter Princess Beatrice, to Prince Henry of Battenberg. She was a bridesmaid at the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of York (future George V and Queen Mary) on 6 July 1893.
Under letters patent of 1866, she was styled Her Highness Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
She spent most of her childhood at Cumberland Lodge, her father's residence as Ranger of Windsor Great Park. Known to her
Harold Godwinson, or Harold II; Old English: Harold Godƿinson (c. 1022 – 14 October 1066) was the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. Harold reigned from 6 January 1066 until his death at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October of that same year, fighting the Norman invaders led by William the Conqueror during the Norman conquest of England. Harold is the first of only three kings of England to have died in warfare; the other two were Richard I and Richard III.
Harold was a son of Godwin, the powerful Earl of Wessex, and his wife Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, whose supposed brother Ulf Jarl was the son-in-law of Sweyn I and the father of Sweyn II of Denmark.
Godwin and Gytha had several children, notably sons Sweyn, Harold, Tostig, Gyrth and Leofwine and a daughter, Edith of Wessex (1029–1075), who became Queen consort of Edward the Confessor.
As a result of his sister's marriage to the king, Godwin's second son, Harold, became Earl of East Anglia in 1045. Harold accompanied his father into exile in 1051, but helped him to regain his position a year later. When Godwin died in 1053, Harold succeeded him as Earl of Wessex (the southernmost third of England). This arguably made him the most
Frederica of Hanover (Frederica Louise Thyra Victoria Margaret Sophie Olga Cecily Isabelle Christina; Greek: Φρειδερίκη; 18 April 1917 – 6 February 1981) was Queen consort of the Hellenes as the wife of King Paul of Greece.
Frederica was born on 18 April 1917 in Blankenburg am Harz, Duchy of Brunswick, German Empire. She was the daughter of Ernest Augustus III, Duke of Brunswick and Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia, the only daughter of German Emperor William II and Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein. As daughter of a Hanoverian Prince, she was Princess Frederica of Hanover, Great Britain and Ireland, and also Duchess Frederica of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Through her maternal grandfather, Frederica was a great-granddaughter of German Emperor Frederick III and Victoria, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
Through this relationship, Frederica was a distant cousin of the United Kingdom's Elizabeth II and also of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. As a descendant of George III of the United Kingdom, she was, at birth, 34th in the line of succession to the British throne, although she had no British rank or title.
Prince Paul, Crown Prince of Greece
Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (later Duchess of Edinburgh and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; 17 October 1853 – 24 October 1920) was a daughter of Alexander II of Russia and Empress Maria Alexandrovna. Maria became the wife of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
From 1893 until her death, she had the distinction of being a Russian grand duchess (by birth), a British princess and royal duchess (by marriage), and the consort (and later widow) of a German sovereign duke.
The Duchess was born at Tsarskoye Selo, Russia, the second and only surviving daughter of Alexander II, Emperor of Russia (who was assassinated in 1881) and his wife Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine, daughter of Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. She was the aunt of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia who was murdered in 1918. Her brother, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia was assassinated in Moscow in 1905, and another brother, Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia was shot in Saint Petersburg in 1919.
Grand Duchess Marie was introduced to Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second son of Queen Victoria, by the Princess of Wales and the
Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 35 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster.
After military experience fighting various lords who rebelled against his father, Henry IV, Henry came into political conflict with the increasingly ill king. After his father's death, Henry rapidly assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France. From an unassuming start, his military successes in the Hundred Years' War, culminating with his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt, saw him come close to conquering France. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir-apparent to the French throne, and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following Henry V's sudden and unexpected death in France, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI.
Henry features in three plays by William Shakespeare. He is shown as a young scapegrace who redeems himself in battle in the two Henry IV plays and as a decisive leader in Henry V.
Henry was born in the tower above the
Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
Henry won the throne when he defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. He was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the Wars of the Roses. He founded a long-lasting dynasty and, after a reign of nearly 24 years, was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.
Although Henry can be credited with the restoration of political stability in England, and a number of commendable administrative, economic and diplomatic initiatives, the latter part of his reign was characterised by a financial rapacity which stretched the bounds of legality. The capriciousness and lack of due process which indebted many in England were soon ended upon Henry VII's death after a commission revealed widespread abuses. According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" in large part underscored the means by which
Kamehameha I (Hawaiian pronunciation: [kəmehəˈmɛhə]; ca. 1758 – May 8, 1819), also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaiʻi's independence under his rule. Kamehameha is remembered for the Kanawai Mamalahoe, the "Law of the Splintered Paddle", which protects human rights of non-combatants in times of battle. Kamehameha's full Hawaiian name is Kalani Paiʻea Wohi o Kaleikini Kealiʻikui Kamehameha o ʻIolani i Kaiwikapu kaui Ka Liholiho Kūnuiākea.
Although there is some debate as to the precise year of his birth, Hawaiian legends claimed that a great king would one day unite the islands, and that the sign of his birth would be a comet. Halley's comet was visible from Hawaiʻi in 1758 and it is likely Kamehameha was born shortly after its appearance. Traditional chants indicate he was born in the month of ikuwa (winter) or around November. According to Hawaiian historians Samuel Kamakau and later Abraham Fornander, Kamehameha was born in 1736, but this date has been widely contested by earlier Hawaiian historians such as
The Lady Louise Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 November 2003) is the elder child and only daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex. She is the youngest granddaughter and second-youngest grandchild of Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh. Lady Louise is currently ninth in line of succession to the thrones of the 16 Commonwealth realms (having been eighth in line at the time of her birth).
Lady Louise was delivered, prematurely, on 8 November 2003 (at 23:32 GMT), by the Royal Surgeon/Gynaecologist Marcus Setchell at Frimley Park Hospital in Surrey, after her mother was rushed there by ambulance from the couple's home at Bagshot Park, Surrey. She was delivered by emergency Caesarean section, necessitated by a placental abruption, causing severe blood loss to both child and mother, before her December due-date. The Countess of Wessex had previously suffered an ectopic pregnancy. Prince Edward was not present for the birth because it came so suddenly. Lady Louise was transferred to a neo-natal unit in St George's Hospital, Tooting, London as a precaution. Meanwhile, the Countess remained at Frimley Park Hospital until
Victoria Louise of Prussia (Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte; 13 September 1892 – 11 December 1980) was the only daughter and the last child of William II, German Emperor and Empress Augusta Victoria. She was their last surviving child. Princess Victoria Louise is the maternal grandmother of Queen Sophie of Spain and the former King Constantine II of the Hellenes. She was the Duchess of Brunswick by marriage.
Ernest Augustus, heir to the title of Duke of Cumberland, and grandson of Christian IX of Denmark through the latter's daughter, Princess Thyra of Denmark, came to the court and fell in love with Princess Victoria Louise. Their marriage, on 24 May 1913 in Berlin, put an end to the rift between the House of Hanover and House of Hohenzollern that had begun after the 1866 annexation of the Kingdom of Hanover into the Kingdom of Prussia following the Austro-Prussian War. Their wedding was one of the last great social events of European royalty before World War I. It was celebrated in the presence of George V of the United Kingdom and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, as well as other important royals. Empress Augusta Victoria took the separation from her youngest child and
Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович, Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777 – 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825), also known as Alexander the Blessed(Russian: Александр Благословенный, Aleksandr Blagoslovennyi), served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and the first Russian King of Poland from 1815 to 1825. He was also the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland and Lithuania.
He was born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, later Emperor Paul I, and Maria Feodorovna, daughter of the Duke of Württemberg. Alexander was the eldest of four brothers. He succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered, and ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. In the first half of his reign Alexander tried to introduce liberal reforms, while in the second half his conduct became much more arbitrary, which led to the revocation of many earlier reforms. In foreign policy Alexander gained some successes, mainly by his diplomatic skills and by winning several military campaigns. In particular, Russia acquired Finland and part of Poland under his rule. His sudden death in Taganrog, under allegedly
Eleanor of Woodstock (18 June 1318 – 22 April 1355) was an English princess.
She was born at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire to King Edward II of England and his queen consort Isabella of France. She was a younger sister of Edward III of England, and the second wife of Reginald II of Guelders, "the Black".
The princess was named after her paternal grandmother, Eleanor of Castile. £333 was given for her churching by father. In 1324 she was taken into care by her cousin Eleanor de Clare then sent to the care of Ralph de Mothermer and Isabella Hastings with her younger sister Joan of the Tower at Pleshey. In 1325, there were negotiations between England and Castile for Eleanor to be betrothed to Alphonso XI of Castile, but this fell through due to the dowry.
Eleanor was reunited with her mother and in 1330 negotiations were made by her mother for her and her brother John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall to marry a son and daughter of Philip VI of France, however they fell through also.
In May 1332 Eleanor married the reigning Count of Guelders, Reinoud II "the black" (English: Reginald), of the House of Wassenberg (born c. 1287), a marriage arranged by her mother's cousin Joan of Valois.
Princess Michael of Kent (Baroness Marie Christine Anna Agnes Hedwig Ida; née von Reibnitz; born 15 January 1945) is an Austrian-Hungarian member of the British Royal Family. She is married to Prince Michael of Kent, who is a grandson of King George V.
Princess Michael is an interior designer and author, having published several books on the royal families of Europe. She also undertakes lecture tours, and supports her husband in his public work. The Kents do not officially carry out royal duties, although they have on occasion represented Queen Elizabeth II at functions abroad.
Princess Michael of Kent was born on 15 January 1945, in Karlsbad, in the then-German-populated Sudetenland, now known as Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic, near the family estates of her Austrian maternal grandmother, Princess Hedwig von Windisch-Graetz, just prior to the defeat and the end of Nazi Germany and of World War II in Europe, and the following expulsion of the German population later that year. Princess Michael is the only daughter of Baron Günther Hubertus von Reibnitz (of German descent) and his Hungarian wife, Countess Maria Anna Carolina Franziska Walpurga Bernadette Szapáry von Muraszombath,
Alexander Alexandrovich (Russian: Александр Александрович) (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894), known historically as Alexander III or Alexander the Peacemaker reigned as Emperor of Russia from 13 March [O.S. 1 March] 1881 until his death on 1 November [O.S. 20 October] 1894. He reversed some of the liberal measures of his predecessor, his father, Alexander II.
Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov was born on 10 March 1845 in Saint Petersburg, Russia, the second son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his wife Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse).
In disposition Alexander bore little resemblance to his soft-hearted, liberal father, and still less to his refined, philosophic, sentimental, chivalrous, yet cunning granduncle, emperor Alexander I of Russia, who could have been given the title of "the first gentleman of Europe". Although an enthusiastic amateur musician and patron of the ballet, Alexander was seen as lacking refinement and elegance. Indeed, he rather relished the idea of being of the same rough texture as some of his subjects. His straightforward, abrupt manner savoured sometimes of gruffness, while his direct, unadorned method of expressing himself harmonized well with his
Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was the wife and queen-empress consort of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India.
Her family had been relatively obscure until, when she was a child, her father, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was chosen with the consent of the great powers to succeed his distant cousin, Frederick VII, to the Danish throne. At the age of sixteen, she was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the heir apparent of Queen Victoria. They married eighteen months later in 1863, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. Although largely excluded from wielding any political power, she unsuccessfully attempted to sway the opinion of British ministers and her husband's family to favour Greek and Danish interests. Her public duties were restricted to
Charles Reed Bishop (1822–1915) was a businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii. Born in Glens Falls, New York, he sailed to Hawaii in 1846 at the age of 24, and made his home there. Bishop was one of the first trustees of and a major donor to the Kamehameha Schools in Hawaii. He also founded the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, and founded Hawaii's first successful bank, which is now known as First Hawaiian Bank.
On January 25, 1822, Charles Reed Bishop was born to Maria Reed Bishop and Samuel Bishop. His father was a toll collector who worked on a toll booth in the middle of the Hudson River near Glens Falls, New York. Charles' mother died two weeks after giving birth to her next son, Henry. His father died when he was four, and Charles went to live with his grandfather on his 125-acre (0.51 km) farm in Warrensburg. He worked on his grandfather's farm, learning how to care for sheep, cattle, and horses. While at his grandfather's house, he was baptized in a Methodist church.
Bishop spent his early years of education at a village school, and his 7th and 8th grade years completed his formal schooling. Bishop was then able to get a job as a clerk, and was soon hired by Nelson J. Warren,
Constance of Normandy (Between 1057 and 1061 Normandy - 13 August 1090) was a daughter of William I of England and Matilda of Flanders. It was said she was the most highly gifted of all of the Conqueror's daughters. As she was the favourite of her mother, she was offered later in marriage, in 1086, to Alan IV of Brittany, and the two were married at Caen, Normandy. Constance died childless, perhaps poisoned, on 13 August 1090, and was buried in the Church of St. Melaine, in St Melans, Redon. In 1672, her tomb was discovered and opened. Inside were some fragments of woolen stuff, which at the time the body had been wrapped and a leaden cross with her epitaph engraved with the name of her father, husband, and date of death. Her husband later married Ermengarde of Anjou.
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 until 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to this throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death. Before becoming king he was 4th Duke of York, 7th Earl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster. He was also the 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Edward of York was born at Rouen in France, the second child of Richard, 3rd Duke of York (who had a strong genealogical claim to the throne of England), and Cecily Neville. He was the eldest of the four sons who survived to adulthood. His younger brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, died along with his father fighting for the Yorkist cause. The Duke of York's assertion of his claim to the crown in 1460 was the key escalation of the conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. When his father was killed at the Battle of Wakefield, Edward inherited his claim.
With the support of his cousin Richard Neville, 16th Earl of
Elizabeth Alexeievna (Russian: Елизавета Алексеевна; 13/24 January 1779 – 4 May/16 May 1826) was the wife of Emperor Alexander I of Russia.
Elizabeth Alexeievna was born in Karlsruhe, on 24 January 1779 as Princess Louise Maria Auguste of Baden of the House of Zähringen. She was the third of the seven children of Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden and his wife Amelia Frederica of Hesse-Darmstadt. Her grandfathers were Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden and Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Princess Louise of Baden grew up in a close, warm family environment. She would remain particularly attached to her mother, with whom she maintained an intimate correspondence until her death. (The Margravine of Baden outlived her daughter). Princess Louise was only twelve years old when her fate was determined. Empress Catherine II "the Great" of Russia was looking for a bride for her eldest grandson, the future Alexander I, and set her eyes on the Princesses of Baden. After receiving favorable impressions, Catherine invited Princess Louise and her younger sister Frederica, to Russia. In the autumn of 1792, the two sisters arrived in St. Petersburg.
The Empress Catherine was
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He was the last Emperor of India, and the first Head of the Commonwealth.
As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during World War I, and after the war took on the usual round of public engagements. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923, and they had two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret.
George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII on the death of their father in 1936. However, later that year Edward revealed his desire to marry the divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry Mrs Simpson and remain king. Edward abdicated in order to marry, and George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor.
On the day of his accession, the parliament of the Irish Free State removed the monarch from
Princess Henrietta of England (Henrietta; 16 June 1644 (26 June n.s.) – 30 June 1670) was born a Princess of England and Scotland as the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and his consort Henrietta Maria of France. Fleeing England with her governess at the age of three, she moved to the court of her first cousin Louis XIV of France, where she was known as Minette. After she married Philippe of France, brother of King Louis XIV, known as Monsieur at court, she became known as Madame. Very popular with the court in no small part due to her flirtatious nature, her marriage was marked by frequent tensions. Henrietta was instrumental in negotiating the Secret Treaty of Dover prior to her unexpected death in June 1670. Jacobite claims to the throne of Great Britain following the death of Henry Benedict Stuart descend from her through her daughter Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia.
Princess Henrietta was born at Bedford House in Exeter on 16 June 1644, on the eve of the Second Battle of Newbury during the English Civil War. Her father was King Charles I of England, her mother the youngest daughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici. All her life, Henrietta would enjoy a
Sarah, Duchess of York (Sarah Margaret; née Ferguson; born 15 October 1959) is a British charity patron, spokesperson, writer, film producer, television personality and member of the British Royal Family. She is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, to whom she was married from 1986 until their divorce in 1996. She is often popularly referred to as "Fergie", a common nickname for people named Ferguson.
The Duchess is the younger daughter of Major Ronald Ferguson and Susan Barrantes (née Wright). Her children, Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie of York, are respectively fifth and sixth in the line of succession to the thrones of 16 independent Commonwealth realms.
Sarah Margaret Ferguson is the second daughter of Major Ronald Ferguson and his first wife, Susan Mary Wright. Sarah's older sister is Jane Ferguson Luedecke, a public relations executive now living and working in Australia. After Sarah's parents divorced in 1974, her mother married polo player Hector Barrantes and moved to Trenque Lauquen in the Argentine pampas. Sarah stayed at the 480-acre (1.9 km) Dummer Down Farm at Dummer, Hampshire, her father's home since age 8. Major Ferguson remarried and had three more
Princess Ubolratana Rajakanya of Thailand (Thai: อุบลรัตนราชกัญญา; RTGS: Ubonrat Ratchakanya; Literally: "Princess Ubonratana Rajakanya, daughter to the Queen Regent"), or Ubolratana Sirivadhana Barnavadi in brief (born April 5, 1951 in Lausanne, Switzerland), is a princess of Thailand and the eldest child of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and Queen Consort Sirikit. She relinquished her royal title and settled in the United States with her husband, Peter Ladd Jensen, but came back to Thailand after divorcing in 1998.
Since her return to Thailand, she has increasingly taken part in royal ceremonies, though not to the extent of her royal siblings. In 2008, she began a film career, playing the main role in the Thai film Where The Miracle Happens.
Princess Ubolratana Rajakanya is the eldest daughter and the eldest child of King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX of Thailand) and Queen Sirikit, the Queen Regent of Thailand. She was born on April 5, 1951, at Mont Suisse Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. She returned to Thailand and stayed at Ambhornsathan Throne Hall, Dusit Palace. She was styled Her Royal Highness by her father at the Royal Celebration of the first month birthday ceremony (Phra
Marie I or Mary (1136 – 25 July 1182 in St Austrebert, Montreuil, France) was the suo jure Countess of Boulogne from 1159 to 1170. She also held the post of Abbess of Romsey for five years until her abduction by Matthew of Alsace, who forced her to marry him.
Marie was the youngest daughter of King Stephen of England and his wife Matilda I, Countess of Boulogne. She was born in 1136, one year after her father had succeeded to the English throne. His reign was to be marked by the civil war known as "The Anarchy" during which he fought a series of battles to retain the crown which was claimed by his cousin Empress Matilda.
She had three brothers, Eustace, William, Baldwin, and one sister, Matilda. She also had three illegitimate half-siblings by her father's relationship with a Norman lady known only as Dameta. She became a novice at the Priory of Lillechurch in Kent, but later transferred to Romsey Abbey in Hampshire. The abbey had been rebuilt by her uncle Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester. It was at Romsey that she became a nun sometime between 1148 and 1155. She was elected Abbess of Romsey in 1155, the year following her father's death and the subsequent ascension to the
Elizabeth Stuart (28 December 1635–8 September 1650) was the second daughter of King Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France. From the age of six until her early death at the age of fourteen she was a prisoner of Parliament during the English Civil War. Her emotional written account of her final meeting with her father on the eve of his execution and his final words to his children have been published in numerous histories about the war and King Charles I.
Elizabeth was born on 28 December 1635 at St James's Palace and was baptized there on 2 January the next year by William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1636, Maria de' Medici, Elizabeth's maternal grandmother, attempted to have the infant princess betrothed to the son of the Prince of Orange, the future William II of Orange. Despite the fact that Charles I thought the marriage of an English princess to a Prince of Orange beneath her rank, the king's financial and political troubles forced him to send Elizabeth's sister, Mary, Princess Royal, to marry him instead.
On the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, Elizabeth, along with her brother the Duke of Gloucester, were placed under the care of Parliament.
The Princess Sophia (Sophia Matilda; 3 November 1777 – 27 May 1848) was a member of the British Royal Family, the twelfth child and fifth daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte. Sophia is perhaps best known for the rumours surrounding a supposed illegitimate child to which she gave birth as a young woman.
In her youth, Sophia was closest to her father, who preferred his daughters over his sons; however, she and her sisters lived in fear of their mother. The princesses were well-educated but raised in a rigidly strict household. Though he disliked the idea of matrimony for his daughters, King George had intended to find them suitable husbands when they came of age. However, the King's reoccurring bouts of madness, as well as the Queen's desire to have her daughters live their lives as her companions, stopped would-be suitors from offering for the most of the princesses. As a result, Sophia and all but one of her sisters grew up in their mother's cloistered household, which they frequently referred to as a "Nunnery".
Though she never wed, rumours spread that Sophia became pregnant by Thomas Garth, an equerry of her father's, and gave birth to an illegitimate son in the
Princess Marie Luise Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Princess of Leiningen, Duchess of Kent (Marie Luise Viktoria; 17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861) was the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
Marie Luise Viktoria, born 17 August 1786, was the fourth daughter and seventh child of Franz Frederick Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf.
On 21 December 1803 at Coburg, she married (as his second wife) Charles, Prince of Leiningen (1763–1814), whose first wife, Henrietta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, was her aunt. Charles and Victoria had two children:
On 29 May 1818 at Amorbach (and again on 11 July 1818 at Kew Palace) she married Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820). Edward and Victoria had one daughter:
The Duke of Kent died suddenly of pneumonia in January 1820, a few days before his father, King George III. The widowed Duchess had little cause to remain in the United Kingdom, not speaking the language and having a palace at home in Coburg, where she could live cheaply on the incomes of her first husband, the late Prince of Leiningen. However, the British succession at this time was far from assured – of the three brothers
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramentharamaha Vajiravudh Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหาวชิราวุธฯ พระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Phra Bat Somdet Phra Ramathibodi Si Sintharamaha Vajiravudh Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระรามาธิบดีศรีสินทรมหาวชิราวุธฯ พระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama VI (1 January 1881 – 25 November 1925) was the sixth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1910 until his death. King Vajiravudh is known for his efforts to create and promote Siamese nationalism. His reign was characterized by Siam's movement further towards democracy and minimal participation in World War I.
Prince Vajiravudh was born on 1 January 1881 to Chulalongkorn and one of his four queens, Saovabha. In 1888, upon coming of age, Vajiravudh received the title Krom Khun Thep Dvaravati. He was firstly educated in the Royal Palace in Siamese and English language. He continued his education in Britain, at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1891 and became part of Durham Light Infantry Regiment upon graduation. In 1894, his half-brother Crown Prince Vajirunhis died. Vajiravudh was then appointed the new Crown Prince of Siam. He studied
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed by his wife Isabella in January 1327. He was the sixth Plantagenet king, in a line that began with the reign of Henry II. Between the strong reigns of his father Edward I and son Edward III, the reign of Edward II was considered by some to be disastrous for England, marked by alleged incompetence, political squabbling and military defeats.
Widely rumoured to have been either homosexual or bisexual, Edward also fathered at least five children by two women. His inability to deny even the most grandiose favours to his male favourites (first a Gascon knight named Piers Gaveston, later a young English lord named Hugh Despenser) led to constant political unrest and his eventual deposition.
Edward I had pacified Gwynedd and some other parts of Wales and the Scottish lowlands, but never exerted a comprehensive conquest. However, the army of Edward II was devastatingly defeated at Bannockburn, freeing Scotland from English control and allowing Scottish forces to raid unchecked throughout the north of England.
In addition to these disasters, Edward II is
Princess Maud of Wales (Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria; 26 November 1869 – 20 November 1938) was Queen of Norway as spouse of King Haakon VII. She was a member of the British Royal Family as the youngest daughter of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark and granddaughter of Queen Victoria and also of Christian IX of Denmark. She was the younger sister of George V. Queen Maud was the first queen consort of Norway since 1380 who was not also queen consort of Denmark or Sweden.
Princess Maud of Wales was born at Marlborough House, London as the daughter of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Victoria and at that time heir apparent to the British throne. Her mother was Princess Alexandra of Denmark.
Princess Maud was christened at Marlborough House by John Jackson, Bishop of London, on 24 December 1869. Her godparents were her paternal uncle The Prince Leopold (for whom The Duke of Cambridge stood proxy); Prince Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel (represented by Prince Francis of Teck); Count Gleichen; the Duchess of Nassau (for whom Princess Francis of Teck); the King of Sweden and Norway (who was represented by Baron Hochschild, the Swedish minister); the Princess of
Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Alexandra Louise Olga Victoria; 1 September 1878 – 16 April 1942), was the fourth child and third daughter of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. She was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom as well as of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Alexandra was born on 1 September 1878 at Rosenau Castle, Coburg. Her father was Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Her mother was Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia, a daughter of Alexander II of Russia and Marie of Hesse and by Rhine.
The young princess was baptised on 2 October 1878 at Edinburgh Palace, Coburg, presumably by her mother's chaplain. Her godparents included her maternal uncle Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia.
Nicknamed 'Sandra' by her family, Alexandra spent her childhood first in England and between 1886 and 1889 in Malta, where her father was serving with the Royal Navy. In 1889 the family moved to Coburg, Germany since her father, Alfred, was the heir apparent to the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
In 1893, her great-uncle, Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (26 March [O.S. 16 March] 1687 – 28 June 1757) was a Queen consort in Prussia as wife of Frederick William I. She was the sister of George II of Great Britain and the mother of Frederick II of Prussia.
Sophia Dorothea was born on 16 March 1687 (O.S.), in Brunswick-Lüneburg. She was the only daughter of George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg, later King George I of Great Britain, and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. She was detested by her elder brother, King George II of Great Britain.
Sophia Dorothea married her cousin, Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia, heir apparent to the Prussian throne, on 28 November 1706. They had met as children under the care of their grandmother, Sophia of Hanover, and had disliked each other ever since. Sophia Dorothea differed from her husband in every aspect and the marriage suffered as a result. One of the most important differences between them was that Sophia Dorothea, unlike her husband, loved entertainment. Frederick William contemplated to divorce her the same year they married, and judging by the letters of Sophia Dorothea, he accused her of not wanting to be married to him.
Her husband ascended the throne in 1713 and
Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (2 November 1709 – 12 January 1759) was the second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort, Caroline of Ansbach. She was the spouse of William IV, Prince of Orange, the first hereditary stadtholder of the Netherlands. Princess Anne was the second daughter of a British sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal. She was Regent of the Netherlands from 1751 until her death in 1759, exercising extensive powers on behalf of her son William V. Because of her English upbringing and family connections, she was known as an Anglophile - despite being unable to convince the Dutch Republic to enter the Seven Years' War on the side of the British.
Duchess Anne of Brunswick-Lunenburg was born at Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, five years before her paternal grandfather, Elector George Louis, succeeded to the British throne as George I. She was christened shortly after birth at Herrenhausen Palace. She was named after her paternal grandfather's second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain.
She learned German, French and English, and was taught music (including singing, harpsichord, and composition) by Georg Friedrich
Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales (19/20 September 1486 – 2 April 1502) was the first son of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York. He predeceased his father. When Henry VII died, Arthur's younger brother, Henry, became king as King Henry VIII.
Arthur's parents Elizabeth of York and Henry VII married on 18 January 1486. In order to strengthen his claim to the English throne, Henry set his personal genealogists to trace back his heritage to Cadwaladr and ancient British kings. The royal historians proclaimed that Henry was related to King Arthur, identifying Winchester in Hampshire as Camelot. Henry insisted that Elizabeth, now pregnant, would give birth to a son who would bring a golden age back into England, and Henry would name the boy Arthur in honour of his 'ancestor'.
Henry moved the court to Winchester for the birth of his unborn child, no doubt taking a huge gamble that the baby was in fact a boy. It was there that the first Tudor Prince of Wales, Arthur, was born. His christening took place at Winchester Cathedral, his godfathers were Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby and John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford who was late for the ceremony. Elizabeth Woodville, his
Cecilia of Normandy (c. 1056 – 30 July 1126) was thought to be the eldest daughter of William I of England and Matilda of Flanders. She was entered into the Abbey of Caen at a young age by her parents. She became Abbess of Holy Trinity in 1112. Cecilia died on 30 July 1126 and was buried within the abbey walls. Her tomb is walled up without any opening being left through which it can be discovered.
The Princess Caroline (Caroline Elizabeth; 10 June 1713 – 28 December 1757) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth child and third daughter of George II.
Princess Caroline was born at Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover, Germany, on 10 June 1713 (New Style Gregorian calendar). Her father was The Hereditary Prince of Hanover, the eldest son of The Elector of Hanover. Her mother was Caroline of Ansbach, daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. As a granddaughter of the Elector of Hanover, she was styled Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline of Hanover at birth, rather than of Cambridge, the designation available to her through her father's British Royal Dukedom. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, she was seventh in the line of succession to the British throne. She was baptised the day after her birth at Herrenhausen Palace.
In 1714, Queen Anne died, and Caroline's grandfather became George I and her father Prince of Wales. At one year old, Caroline accompanied her mother and elder sisters, the Princesses Anne and Amelia, to Great Britain, and the family resided at St James's Palace, London. She was then styled as a Princess of Great Britain, and was
Princess Helena (Helena Augusta Victoria; Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein by marriage; 25 May 1846 – 9 June 1923) was a member of the British Royal Family, the third daughter and fifth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
Helena was educated by private tutors chosen by her father and his close friend and adviser, Baron Stockmar. Her childhood was spent with her parents, travelling between the variety of royal residences in Britain. The intimate atmosphere of the royal court came to an end on 14 December 1861, when her father died and her mother entered a period of intense mourning. In the early 1860s, Helena began a flirtation with Prince Albert's German librarian, Carl Ruland. Although the nature of the relationship is largely unknown, Helena's romantic letters to Ruland survive. After the Queen found out in 1863, she dismissed Ruland, who returned to his native Germany. Three years later, on 5 July 1866, Helena married the impoverished German Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. The couple remained in Britain, in calling distance of the Queen, who liked to have her daughters nearby, and Helena along with her youngest sister, Princess Beatrice, became the Queen's
Sophie, Countess of Wessex GCVO (Sophie Helen; née Rhys-Jones; born 20 January 1965), is the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and member of the British Royal Family. Her husband is the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Married in 1999, she worked in public relations until 2002 and now supports her husband in his Royal duties. The Earl and Countess have two children, Lady Louise Windsor and James, Viscount Severn.
Sophie Helen Rhys-Jones was born at Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, on 20 January 1965, the second child and first daughter of Christopher Bournes Rhys-Jones (born 1931), a retired tyre salesman, and his wife, Mary (née O'Sullivan; 1934–2005), a secretary, who already had a son, David. Sophie was named after her father's sister, Helen, who died in a riding accident more than a decade before Sophie was born. Her godfather, actor Thane Bettany, is her father's stepbrother; both men spent their early life in Sarawak, North Borneo, then a British Protectorate ruled by the White Rajahs.
While she was still young, the Rhys-Jones family moved from Wales to Brenchley, Kent. She began her education at Dulwich Preparatory School, before
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 6th Earl of March, 4th Earl of Cambridge, and 7th Earl of Ulster, conventionally called Richard of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a leading English magnate, great-grandson of King Edward III. He inherited great estates, and served in various offices of state in France at the end of the Hundred Years' War, and in England, ultimately governing the country as Lord Protector during Henry VI's madness. His conflicts with Henry's queen, Margaret of Anjou, and other members of Henry's court were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard eventually attempted to claim the throne but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become King on Henry's death. Within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle.
Although Richard never became king, he was the father of Edward IV and Richard III.
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, the son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge and Anne Mortimer, was born 21 September 1411. His mother Anne was the great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, the second surviving son of Edward III, which arguably
Edith Vane-Tempest-Stewart, Marchioness of Londonderry DBE (3 December 1878 – 23 April 1959) was a noted and influential society hostess in the United Kingdom between World War I and World War II.
Born as Edith Helen Chaplin in Blankney, Lincolnshire, she was the daughter of Henry Chaplin (later the 1st Viscount Chaplin). After the death of her mother in 1881, Edith was raised largely at Dunrobin Castle, Sutherland, the estate of her maternal grandfather, the third Duke of Sutherland.
On 28 November 1899, she married Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, who later inherited his father's title in 1915, whereupon Edith became Marchioness of Londonderry. They had five children, the firstborn of whom, their only son, Robin, became the 8th Marquess in 1949, at which point Lady Londonderry became Dowager Marchioness of Londonderry. One of Lady Londonderry's grandchildren, Annabel Goldsmith, is also a noted London socialite.
In 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, she was appointed the Colonel-in-Chief of the Women's Volunteer Reserve (WRV), a volunteer force formed of women replacing the men who had left work and gone up to the Front. The WRV was renamed in July 1914 as
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 1102 – 10 September 1167), also known as Matilda of England or Maude, was the daughter and heir of King Henry I of England. Matilda and her younger brother, William Adelin, were the only legitimate children of King Henry to survive to adulthood. However, her brother's death in the White Ship disaster in 1120 resulted in Matilda being her father's sole heir.
As a child, Matilda was betrothed to and later married Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, acquiring the title Empress. The couple had no known children and after eleven years of marriage Henry died, leaving Matilda widowed. However, she was then married to Geoffrey, Count of Anjou in a union which her father hoped would produce a male heir and continue the dynasty. She had three sons by Geoffrey of Anjou, the eldest of whom eventually became King Henry II of England. Upon the death of her father in 1135, Matilda was usurped to the throne by her rival and cousin Stephen of Blois, who moved quickly and became crowned King of England whilst Matilda was in Normandy, pregnant with her third child.
Their rivalry for the throne led to years of unrest and civil war in England that have been called The Anarchy.
Nicholas I (Николай I Павлович, r Nikolai I Pavlovich; 6 July [O.S. 25 June] 1796 – 2 March [O.S. 18 February] 1855) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its historical zenith spanning over 20 million square kilometers (7.7 million square miles). He was also the nominal King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland.
Nicholas was born in Gatchina to Emperor Paul I and Empress Maria Feodorovna. He was a younger brother to Alexander I of Russia and Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia.
Nicholas was not brought up to be the Emperor of Russia; he had two elder brothers. In 1825, when Alexander I suddenly died of typhus, Nicholas was caught between swearing allegiance to his second-eldest brother Constantine Pavlovich and accepting the throne for himself. The interregnum lasted until Constantine Pavlovich, who was in Warsaw at that time, confirmed his refusal. Additionally, on 25 December (13 Old Style) Nicholas issued the manifesto claiming his accession to the throne. That manifesto retroactively named 1 December (19 November Old Style), the date of Alexander
Miriam Kapili Kekāuluohi Likelike (1851–1887) was a Princess of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, sister of the last two ruling monarchs, mother of Princess Kaʻiulani, last heir to the throne, and mistress of the ʻĀinahau estate.
She was born January 13, 1851 in Honolulu, Oʻahu. Her mother was High Chiefess Analea Keohokālole and father was High Chief Caesar Kaluaiku Kapaʻakea. She was the youngest sister of Moses Kapaʻakea, James Kaliokalani, David Kalākaua, Lydia Liliʻuokalani, Kaiminaʻauao and Anna Kaʻiulani, and the older sister of William Pitt Leleiohoku II. Because Likelike was not in the best of health as a child, she was sent to live in the dry climate of Kona on the island of Hawaii where she was hānai to a chiefly couple there. Like many of her siblings, she was most likely given in hānai to a family in Kona. At the age of 6, she returned to Honolulu and remained there until her marriage. Originally betrothed to Albert K. Kunuiakea, an illegitimate son of Kamehameha III, she broke off the engagement to marry someone else.
On September 22, 1870 she married Archibald Scott Cleghorn, a businessman from Scotland almost twice her age. The wedding was at her sister's house, Washington
Prince Aditya Dibabha Abhakara (24 July 1900 – 19 May 1946) was a member of the Thai Royal Family and a Siamese political figure. He served as Chairman of the Regency Council between the years 1935 and 1944, as King Ananda Mahidol was still a minor.
Prince Albert Kamehameha, formally Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa a Kamehameha (May 20, 1858 –August 27, 1862), was the only son of Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma, who during his short life was the Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. He was the godson of Queen Victoria.
He was born May 20, 1858, in the residence of Ihikapukalani that his father had build for his mother. The residence, oddly, had two names; the makai side was known as Kauluhinano, and the mauka side was known as Ihikapukalani. Created Crown prince and heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi on May 24, 1858, he was styled "His Royal Highness the Prince of Hawaii" by the Privy Council. Adored by the native Hawaiian public, he was affectionately known as Ka Haku O Hawaiʻi ("the Lord of Hawaiʻi") and was believed to be last hope of the Kamehameha Dynasty. His birth was celebrated for many days not only in Honolulu, but throughout the islands. He was the first child to be born to a reigning Hawaiian monarch since Prince Keawe Aweʻula-o-Kalani in 1839, son of Kamehameha III, and the last ever to be born from any reigning Hawaiian monarch.
He was given the Hawaiian name Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa after
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles believed was divinely ordained. Many of his English subjects opposed his actions, in particular his interference in the English and Scottish churches and the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, because they saw them as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch.
Charles's reign was also characterised by religious conflicts. His failure to successfully aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War, coupled with the fact that he married a Roman Catholic princess, generated deep mistrust concerning the king's dogma. Charles further allied himself with controversial ecclesiastic figures, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, whom Charles appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Many of Charles's subjects felt this brought the Church of England too close to the Roman Catholic Church. Charles's later attempts to force religious reforms upon Scotland
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first monarch who was raised as a Protestant. During Edward's reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council, because he never reached maturity. The Council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, (1547–1549), and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, from 1551 Duke of Northumberland (1550–1553).
Edward's reign was marked by economic problems and social unrest that, in 1549, erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from there and Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace. The transformation of the Anglican Church into a recognisably Protestant body also occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. Although Henry VIII had severed the link between the Church of England and Rome, he never permitted the renunciation of Catholic doctrine or ceremony. It was during Edward's reign that Protestantism
Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was, as the wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, Electress Palatine and briefly Queen of Bohemia. Due to her husband's short reign in Bohemia, Elizabeth is often referred to as the Winter Queen. She was the eldest daughter of King James VI and I, King of Scotland, England and Ireland, and Anne of Denmark.
With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her descendants, the Hanoverian rulers, succeeded to the British throne.
Elizabeth was born at Falkland Palace, Fife. At the time of her birth, her father had yet to succeed to his later realms and was King of Scots only. She was named in honour of Queen Elizabeth I of England. During her early life in Scotland, Elizabeth was brought up at Linlithgow Palace. When Elizabeth was six years old, in 1603, Elizabeth I of England died, and her father James succeeded to the thrones of England and Ireland. When she came to England, her governess was the Countess of Kildare, until she was consigned to the care of Lord Harington, with whom she spent the years of her happy childhood at Combe Abbey in Warwickshire.
Part of the intent of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was to kidnap the
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. Until 1437, his realm was governed by regents. Contemporaneous accounts described him as peaceful and pious, not suited for the dynastic wars, known as the Wars of the Roses, which were to commence during his reign. His periods of insanity and his inherent benevolence eventually required his wife, Margaret of Anjou, to assume control of his kingdom, which contributed to his own downfall, the collapse of the House of Lancaster, and the rise of the House of York.
Henry was the only child and heir of King Henry V. He was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor Castle, and succeeded to the throne at the age of nine months as King of England on 31 August 1422 when his father died, thus making him the youngest person ever to succeed to the English throne. Two months later, on 21 October 1422, he became King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in agreement with the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. His mother, Catherine of Valois, was then 20 years old and, as Charles VI's daughter, was viewed with considerable suspicion by English
John Kalaipaihala Young II sometimes called Keoni Ana ʻOpio (1810–1857) was a politician in the Kingdom of Hawaii, serving as Kuhina Nui of the Hawaiian Islands and Minister of Interior.
Keoni Ana was born on March 12, 1810 in Kawaihae, Hawaii. He was the only son of John Young, the English sailor who became a trusted adviser to King Kamehameha I, by his second wife Kaʻōanaʻeha, the niece of Kamehameha I. He was the elder brother of Jane Lahilahi, younger brother of Fanny Kekelaokalani and Grace Kamaikui, and younger half-brother of James Kānehoa and Robert Young.
He, his siblings, and Isaac Davis' children, grew up on their father's homestead granted to them by the king, overlooking the Kawaihae Bay. It is now part of the Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site.
He grew up as the favorite companion of Prince Kauikeaouli, who took the throne as King Kamehameha III. The two friends relationship were severely damaged when Keoni Ana was caught in the bedroom of Queen Kalama, the King's wife, shortly after the birth of Prince Keaweaweulaokalani in 1839. The sentence of death was only avoided through the interjecture of Queen Dowager Kalākua Kaheiheimālie. It seem after the incident,
Somdet Phra Bawornrajchao Maha Sura Singhanat (Thai: สมเด็จพระบวรราชเจ้ามหาสุรสิงหนาท) (1744–1803) was the younger brother of Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty of Siam. As an Ayutthayan general, he fought alongside his brother in various campaigns against Burmese invaders and the local warlords. When his brother crowned himself as the king of Siam at Bangkok in 1781, he was appointed the Front Palace or Maha Uparaj, the title of the heir. During the reign of his brother, he was known for his important role in the campaigns against Bodawpaya of Burma.
Bunma was born in 1744 to Thongdee and Daoreung. His father Thongdee was the Royal Secretary of Northern Siam and Keeper of Royal Seal. As a son of aristrocrat, he entered the palace and began his aristocratic life as a royal page. Thongdee was a descendant of Kosa Pan, the leader of Siamese mission to France in the seventeenth century. Bunma had four other siblings and two other half-siblings. Bunma himself was the youngest born to Daoreung.
In 1767, Ayutthaya was about to fall. Bunma fled the city with a small carrack to join the rest of his family at Amphawa, Samut Songkram. His brother the Luang Yokbat
Mary Tudor (18 March 1496 – 25 June 1533) was the younger sister of King Henry VIII of England and queen consort of France through her marriage to Louis XII. The latter was more than 30 years her senior. Following his death, which occurred less than two months after her coronation as his third wife, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. The marriage, which was performed secretly in France, took place without her brother Henry's consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey and the couple were eventually pardoned by King Henry, although they were forced to pay a large fine.
Mary's second marriage produced four children; and through her eldest daughter Frances, Mary was the maternal grandmother of Lady Jane Grey, who was the de facto monarch of England for a little over a week in July 1553.
Mary was the fifth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the youngest to survive infancy. She was born at Richmond Palace. She and her brother, Henry, were close as children—he named his daughter, the future Queen Mary I, after her.
Known in her youth as one of the most beautiful princesses in Europe, Mary was betrothed in December 1507 to Charles of
Peter Young Kaʻeo Kekuaokalani (1836–1880) was a Hawaiian noble and politician of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Peter was born March 4, 1836 at Paloha, Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. His mother was Jane Lahilahi, the youngest daughter of John Young Olohana, the advisor to Kamehameha I, and Chiefess Kaʻōanaʻeha. His father was Joshua Kaʻeo, judge of the Supreme Court of Hawaii, and great-great grandson or great grandson of King Kalaniopuu. He was adopted, according to Hawaiian tradition of hānai by his maternal uncle John Kalaipaihala Young at birth. His uncle was the fourth Kuhina Nui and the Minister of the Interior. He was declared eligible to succeed to the Hawaiian throne by Kamehameha III and attended Chiefs' Children's School because of his descent from Keliʻimaikaʻi, Kamehameha III's uncle. The school was run by Amos Starr Cooke and Julliette Montague Cooke, an American missionary couple.
He served as a member of the House of Nobles 1863–1880, and on the Privy Council of King Kamehameha IV 1863–1864. He contracted leprosy, now known as the Hansen's disease, which was uncurable at the time. He was exiled to the leper colony at Kalaupapa on the island of Molokaʻi. He arrived on the
Princess Beatrice of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Beatrice Leopoldine Victoria; 20 April 1884 – 13 July 1966) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. She later married into the Spanish Royal Family, and was the wife of Alfonso de Orleans y Borbón, Infante of Spain. She was called Bea by her family.
Princess Beatrice was born on 20 April 1884 at Eastwell Park, Kent. Her father was Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Her mother was the Duchess of Edinburgh (née Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia), the only daughter of Alexander II of Russia and Marie of Hesse and by Rhine.
As a granddaughter of the British monarch in the male line, Beatrice held the title of Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the style Her Royal Highness. The young princess was baptised at Eastwell House on 17 May 1884 by Revd William Lloyd (her father's chaplain); among her godparents were her paternal aunt The Princess Beatrice.
Beatrice spent much of her early years in Malta, where her father was serving in the Royal Navy. She was a bridesmaid at the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of York
Roberte de Neuflize Ponsonby, Countess of Bessborough, GCSt.J, JP (1892 – 1979), was the daughter of the Parisian Baron Jean de Neuflize, CVO.
On 25 June 1912, she married Vere Ponsonby, Viscount Duncannon (b. 27 October 1880 — d. 10 March 1956), son of Edward Ponsonby, 8th Earl of Bessborough and Blanche Vere Guest; she held the courtesy title of Viscountess Duncannon. The Viscount inherited the title of Earl of Bessborough upon the death of his father on 1 December 1920, whereupon Roberte became known as the Countess of Bessborough.
She and her husband were predeceased by two of their three sons. Their third son died in 1993. Only their daughter, Moyra Browne (DBE), is still alive (as of June 2009).
She was invested as a Dame Grand Cross, Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (GC.St.J). She was decorated with the Chevalier, Legion of Honour. She held the office of Justice of the Peace for West Sussex between 1943 and 1956.
Srinagarindra (Thai: ศรีนครินทรา; RTGS: —Si Nakharinthra—, née Sangwan Talapat; 21 October 1900 – 18 July 1995) was a member of the Thai Royal Family and was a member of House of Mahidol, which is descended from Chakri Dynasty, originated by Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, the Prince of Songkla, son of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V). She was the mother of Princess Galyani Vadhana, the Princess of Naradhiwas, King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII), and King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX).
Her given name was Sangwan (Thai: สังวาลย์), while her formal name and title were Somdech Phra Srinagarindra Boromarajajonani (Thai: สมเด็จพระศรีนครินทราบรมราชชนนี). In Thailand, she was affectionately called Somdech Ya (Thai: สมเด็จย่า), "the Royal Grandmother". By the various hill tribe people, to whom she was a special patron, she was called Mae Fah Luang (Thai: แม่ฟ้าหลวง), "Royal Mother from the Sky", or "The Heavenly Royal Mother".
Princess Srinagarindra was born on 21 October 1900, in Nonthaburi Province. Her given name was Sangwan Chukramol. She was the third child in a family of four children. Her elder brother and sister died while they were still young, and by the time she was 9 years old, she had also
Kamehameha V (1830–1872), born as Lot Kapuāiwa, reigned as monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from 1863 to 1872. His motto was "Onipa`a": immovable, firm, steadfast or determined; he worked diligently for his people and kingdom and was described as the last great traditional chief. His full Hawaiian name prior to his succession was Lota Liholiho Kapuāiwa Kalanimakua Kalanikupuapaikalaninui Aliʻiolani Kalani-a-Kekūanaōʻa.
He was born and given the name Lot Kapuāiwa December 11, 1830. His mother was Elizabeth Kīnaʻu and father was Mataio Kekūanāoʻa. His siblings included David Kamehameha, Moses Kekūāiwa, Alexander Liholiho, and Victoria Kamāmalu. Kapu āiwa means mysterious kapu or sacred one protected by supernatural powers. He was adopted using the ancient Hawaiian tradition called hānai by Princess Nāhiʻenaʻena, but she died in 1836. He was then adopted by his grandmother Queen Kalākua Kaheiheimālie and step-grandfather High Chief Ulumāheihei Hoapili. His childhood was pretty rough. He felt that his hānai parents treated him as a stranger in their house and he felt the adoption had deprived him the love of his mother. Throughout his life he would have a deep dislike for this
Queen Sirikit of Thailand (Thai pronunciation: [sìríkìt], Thai: สิริกิติ์; Literally: "Her Majesty Queen Regent Sirikit"; listen (help·info); born Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara on 12 August 1932), is the queen consort of Bhumibol Adulyadej, King (Rama IX) of Thailand. She is the second Queen Regent of Thailand (the first Queen Regent was Queen Saovabha Bongsri of Siam, later Queen Sri Patcharindra, the queen mother). As the consort of the king who is the world's longest-reigning head of state, she is also the world's longest-serving consort of a monarch, though Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, more than eleven years her senior, is the oldest currently-serving consort.
Queen Sirikit was born on 12 August 1932, at the home of Lord Vongsanuprabhand, her maternal grandfather. She is the eldest daughter and the third child of Prince Nakkhatra Mangkala Kitiyakara, the son of Prince Kitiyakara Voralaksana, and Mom Luang Bua Sanidvongs. Her name, which was given by King Prajadhipok, means "the Greatness of Kitiyakara".
She had three siblings; two elder brothers and a younger sister:
Sirikit was raised by her maternal grandparents for a year after her birth, as her father went to
The Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (25 April 1776 – 30 April 1857) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eleventh child and fourth daughter of George III.
She married her cousin, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, when both were 40, and was his widow in later life. In her last years, her niece, Victoria, was on the throne as the fourth monarch during Mary's life, after her father and two of her brothers. Princess Mary was the longest-lived (at 81 years) and last survivor of George III's fifteen children; of those fifteen issue, thirteen lived to adulthood. She was also the only one of George III's children to be photographed. She died on 30 April 1857 at Gloucester House, London.
Princess Mary was born, on 25 April 1776, at Buckingham Palace, London. Her father was the reigning British monarch, George III. Her mother was Queen Charlotte, the daughter of Charles, reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Mary was christened on 19 May 1776, in the Great Council Chamber at St. James's Palace, by Frederick Cornwallis, The Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were:
Mary danced a minuet for the first time in public at the age of
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states (known as the Commonwealth realms) and their territories and dependencies, as well as head of the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations. She is Supreme Governor of the Church of England and, in some of her realms, carries the title of Defender of the Faith as part of her full title.
On her accession on 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth became Head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. From 1956 to 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and some realms became republics. At present, in addition to the first four aforementioned countries, Elizabeth is Queen of Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Her reign of 60 years is currently the second longest for a British monarch; only Queen Victoria has reigned longer at 63 years.
Elizabeth was born in London and educated
June Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair, CBE, DL, FRCM, FRSAMD, FRSE (29 December 1913 – 22 June 2009), known as "Lady Aberdeen", was a professional musician and patron of the Aberdeen International Youth Festival and founder and Musical Director of Haddo House Choral & Operatic Society.
Trained as a pianist and conductor, she married David Gordon, 4th Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair and lived at Haddo House, Ellon, Aberdeenshire, home of the Gordon family.
Beatrice Mary June Boissier was born in 1913 on the Isle of Wight, and died in June 2009 aged 95. She met her husband, David Gordon, at Harrow School where her father, Arthur Boissier, was Headmaster and David was a pupil. They married on 29 April 1939. They adopted four children who were, until 2004, not entitled either to have courtesy titles or for the elder son to inherit the peerage:
Until 2004 adopted children of peers had no right to any courtesy title. However as a result of a Royal Warrant dated 30 April 2004 adopted children are now automatically entitled to such styles and courtesy titles as their siblings. However, as with illegitimate children where legitimated, such children have no rights to inheritance of
Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, VA, GCStJ, GCVO, GBE (Alice Mary Victoria Augusta Pauline; née Princess Alice of Albany; 25 February 1883 – 3 January 1981) was a member of the British Royal Family. She was the longest-lived Princess of the Blood Royal of the British Royal Family and the last surviving grandchild of Queen Victoria. She also held the titles of Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duchess in Saxony from birth, as well as a Princess of Teck by marriage, until 1917 when she was commanded to relinquish them by the Letters Patent of George V. She was godmother to Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, who was the granddaughter of her first cousin, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands.
Princess Alice was born 25 February 1883 at Windsor Castle. Her father was Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, the youngest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Her mother was Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont. She had one brother, Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany (1884–1954) and later reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1900–1918). As the granddaughter of the Sovereign through the male line, she was a Princess of the United Kingdom and a Royal
Princess Augusta of Cambridge (19 July 1822 – 5 December 1916) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She married into the Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and became the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Augusta was born on 19 July 1822 at the Palace of Montbrillant, Hanover. Her father was Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the seventh son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Her mother was Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel. The young princess was christened at the same palace on 16 August 1822, by Rev Edward Curtis Kemp (Chaplain to the British Ambassador to the Court of Berlin, The Rt. Hon. Sir George Rose). Three of her godparents were present at the christening:
The rest were not present, possibly being represented by proxies:
The Princess spent her earlier years in Hanover, where her father was the viceroy on behalf of his brother, George IV.
Princess Augusta had one brother, Prince George, later 2nd Duke of Cambridge; and one sister, Princess Mary Adelaide, later Duchess of Teck. As such, Princess Augusta was a first cousin of Queen Victoria and aunt to Mary of Teck, later consort of George V.
Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, 2nd Earl of Cambridge, Earl of Rutland, Earl of Cork, Duke of Aumale KG (1373 – 25 October 1415) was a member of the English royal family who died at the Battle of Agincourt.
The son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and his first wife Isabella of Castile. He was grandson of two kings, Edward III of England and Pedro of Castile.
Edward is thought to have been born in Norwich. He was close to his cousin King Richard II, and was created Earl of Rutland (for the term of his father's life) by him in 1390, Earl of Cork (Ireland) in about 1394, and then Duke of Aumale in 1397. This association put him out of favour after the accession of King Henry IV, and he was deprived of his Dukedom. In 1400 he participated in a conspiracy against Henry IV, but betrayed the conspirators to the king. In 1402 he succeeded his father as Duke of York; the Earldom of Rutland, by its charter, then became extinct, although he continued to sign himself as Earl of Rutland. He married a widow, Philippa de Mohun, but there were no children from their marriage.
Edward wrote “The Master of Game”, a translation of the most famous of the hunting treatises of the Middle
Henry I (c. 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I of England. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. A later tradition called him Beauclerc for his scholarly interests— he could read Latin and put his learning to effective use— and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the royal administration, which he rendered the most effective in Europe, rationalising the itinerant court, and his public espousal of the Anglo-Saxon legal tradition.
Henry's reign established deep roots for the Anglo-Norman realm, in part through his dynastic (and personal) choice of a Scottish princess who represented the lineage of Edmund Ironside for queen. His succession was hurriedly confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade, and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which linked his rule of law to the
Lunalilo, born William Charles Lunalilo (January 31, 1835 – February 3, 1874), was king of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from January 8, 1873 until February 3, 1874. He was the most liberal king in Hawaiian history, but was the shortest-reigning monarch.
William Charles Lunalilo was born on January 31, 1835 in an area known as Pohukaina, now part of Honolulu. His mother was High Chiefess Miriam Auhea Kekāuluohi (later styled Kaʻahumanu III) and his father was High Chief Charles Kanaʻina. He was grandnephew of Kamehameha I. He was second cousin to King Kamehameha V, King Kamehameha IV, and Princess Victoria Kamāmalu through his mother, who was the cousin of Elizabeth Kīnaʻu (later called Kaʻahumanu II). His name translates as Luna (high) lilo (lost) or "so high up as to be lost to sight" in the Hawaiian language. He was also named after King William IV of Great Britain, a great friend of Hawaiian royalty.
He was declared eligible to succeed by the royal decree of King Kamehameha III and sent to the Chief's Children's School (later called the Royal School) when it was founded by missionaries Amos Starr Cooke and Juliette Montague Cooke. He learned to speak both Hawaiian and English, and is
Maria Walpole (10 July 1736 – 22 August 1807), the Countess Waldegrave and Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, was a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh. Her marriage to the Duke without the knowledge of King George III led to the passing of the Royal Marriages Act 1772.
Maria Walpole was the daughter of Edward Walpole and Dorothy Clement. Her grandfather was Robert Walpole, considered to be the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1721–41). She grew up at Frogmore House in Windsor, but her parents were not married, and her illegitimate status hindered her social standing despite her family connections.
On 15 May 1759, she married James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave, the son of James Waldegrave, 1st Earl Waldegrave and Mary Webbe. After her marriage Maria was styled Countess Waldegrave. The Earl Waldegrave died on 28 April 1763, leaving Maria a widow. They had three children.
There is a portrait of Maria in 1764-65, shortly after she was widowed, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the Dunedin Public Art Gallery.
On 6 September 1766 she married Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester (14 November 1743 – 25
Maud Evelyn Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marchioness of Lansdowne, GBE, CH, VA, CI (17 December 1850 – 21 October 1932), née Lady Maud Evelyn Hamilton, was a British courtier. She vice-regal spouce of Canada while her husband was Governor General of Canada from 1883-1888. She was then Vicereine of India from 1888-1894 while her husband was Viceroy
Lady Lansdowne was a daughter of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn and Lady Louisa Jane Russell. On 8 November 1869, she married the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne at Westminster Abbey and they had four children:
From 1905 to 1909 she was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra; she was Extra Lady from 1910 to 1925. During the First World War she set up the Officers' Families Fund and served as its president, and she and her husband gave their house, Lansdowne House in Berkeley Square, London, as its headquarters. For this and other charitable services, she was appointed Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) in the 1920 civilian war honours.
She died in 1932 and was buried at Derry Hill Church, Chippenham, Wiltshire.
Nicholas II (Russian: Николай II, Николай Александрович Романов, tr. Nikolay II, Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov [nʲɪkɐˈlaj ftɐˈroj, nʲɪkɐˈlaj əlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪtɕ rɐˈmanəf]) (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church. He has often been referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.
Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 2 March 1917. His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. Critics nicknamed him Bloody Nicholas because of the Khodynka Tragedy, Bloody Sunday, the anti-Semitic pogroms, his execution of political opponents, and his pursuit of military campaigns on a hitherto unprecedented scale.
Under his rule, Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War, including the almost total annihilation of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. As head of state, he approved the Russian mobilization of August 1914, which marked the beginning of Russia's
Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (Louise Margaret Alexandra Victoria Agnes; later Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn; 25 July 1860 – 14 March 1917) was a German princess, and later a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. She also served as the Viceregal Consort of Canada, when her husband served as the Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916.
Princess Luise Margarete was born at Marmorpalais (Marble Palace) near Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia. Her father was Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia (1828–1885), the son of Karl of Prussia (1801–1883) and his wife Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1808–1877). Her mother was Princess Maria Anna of Anhalt (1837–1906), daughter of Leopold IV of Anhalt-Dessau. Her father, a nephew of the German Emperor Wilhelm I, distinguished himself as a field commander during the Battle of Metz and the campaigns west of Paris in the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War. Her father was a double cousin of the German Emperor Friedrich III, the husband of her sister-in-law, Victoria, Princess Royal.
See also: Wedding dress of Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia
On 13 March 1879, Princess Luise
Wallis, Duchess of Windsor (previously Wallis Simpson and Wallis Spencer, born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1896 – 24 April 1986), was an American socialite whose third husband, Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom and the Dominions, abdicated his throne to marry her.
Wallis's father died shortly after her birth, and she and her widowed mother were partly supported by their wealthier relatives. Her first marriage, to U.S. naval officer Win Spencer, was punctuated with periods of separation and eventually ended in divorce. In 1934, during her second marriage to Ernest Simpson, she allegedly became the mistress of Edward, Prince of Wales. Two years later, after Edward's accession as King, Wallis divorced her second husband and Edward proposed to her.
The King's desire to marry a woman with two living ex-husbands threatened to cause a constitutional crisis in the United Kingdom and the Dominions, and ultimately led to the King's abdication in December 1936 to marry "the woman I love". After the abdication, the former king was created Duke of Windsor by his brother George VI. Edward married Wallis six months later, after which she was
William II (Old Norman: Williame II; c. 1056 – 2 August 1100), the third son of William I of England, was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. William is commonly known as William Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance.
Although William was an effective soldier, he was a ruthless ruler and, it seems, was little liked by those he governed: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he was "hateful to almost all his people and odious to God." However, chroniclers tended to take a dim view of William's reign, arguably on account of his long and difficult struggles with the Church: these chroniclers were themselves generally products of the Church, and so might be expected to report him somewhat negatively. His chief minister was Ranulf Flambard, whom he appointed Bishop of Durham in 1099: this was a political appointment, to a see that was also a great fiefdom. The particulars of the king's relationship with the people of England are not credibly documented. William was roundly denounced in his time and after his death for presiding over what was held to be a
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and also of Hanover from the death of his father, George III, on 29 January 1820 until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's relapse into mental illness.
George IV led an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the British Regency. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style, and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, and Sir Jeffry Wyatville to rebuild Windsor Castle. He was instrumental in the foundation of the National Gallery, London and King's College London.
He had a poor relationship with both his father and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, whom he even forbade to attend his coronation. He introduced the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful, attempt to divorce his wife.
For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister. George's governments, with little help from the King, presided over victory in the Napoleonic
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) ascended the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Act of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, were united as a single sovereign state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Anne's Catholic father, James II and VII, was deposed during the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688. Her Protestant brother-in-law and cousin William III became joint monarch with his wife, Anne's sister Mary II. After Mary's death in 1694, William continued as sole monarch until he was succeeded by Anne upon his own death in 1702.
Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs. The Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until in 1710 Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences.
Despite seventeen pregnancies, Anne died without surviving children and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. She was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover, who was a
Blanche of England, LG (Spring 1392 – 22 May 1409), also known as Blanche of Lancaster and Blanche Plantagenet, was an English princess of the House of Lancaster.
She was the daughter of King Henry IV of England by his first wife Mary de Bohun.
Born at Peterborough Castle in Northamptonshire, Blanche was the sixth of the seven children born during the marriage of Prince Henry of Lancaster and his wife Mary of Bohun. At the time of her birth, Henry was only Earl of Derby and, thanks to his marriage, Earl of Northampton and Earl of Hereford; as the only surviving son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster, he was the heir of the Duchy of Lancaster. Blanche was named after her paternal grandmother.
Of her six siblings, five brothers and one sister, only the eldest brother, Edward, died in infancy. The other four brothers were, in order: Henry of Monmouth (later King Henry V of England), Thomas, Duke of Clarence, John, Duke of Bedford and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. Blanche's sister was Philippa, who married Eric of Pomerania, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Mary of Bohun died on 4 June 1394 in Peterborough Castle after giving birth to her last child Philippa. Five years
Catherine or Katherine of York (14 August 1479 – 15 November 1527) was the ninth child and sixth daughter of King Edward IV by his wife Elizabeth Woodville. From birth to death, she was daughter to Edward IV, sister to Edward V, niece to Richard III, sister-in-law to Henry VII and aunt to Henry VIII.
She was born in Eltham Palace. Edward IV hastened to seek a marriage contract for his youngest daughter. On 28 August 1479, a marriage contract was concluded. The contract promised Catherine to John, Prince of Asturias, eldest son of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. The alliance was still being negotiated when her father died on 9 April 1483. This marriage was never concluded.
Her brother-in-law Henry VII, husband of her sister Elizabeth, later negotiated with James III of Scotland to obtain a possible husband for her. According to an agreement drawn up in November of 1487, Catherine would marry James Stewart, Duke of Ross, second son of James III. The same agreement promised the hand of her mother Elizabeth Woodville to James III and the hand of one of her sisters to the future James IV of Scotland. James III was killed in the Battle of Sauchieburn (11 June 1488). His
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French : Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, who was the daughter of King Henry I and took the title of Empress from her first marriage. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England, and was made the Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to the French king Louis VII had recently been annulled. King Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, and he inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. Still quite young, he now controlled what would later be called the Angevin empire, stretching across much of western Europe.
Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather,
Margaret of England (15 March 1275 – after 1333) was the tenth child and seventh daughter of King Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile. Her husband was John II, Duke of Brabant, whom she married in 1290; the year of her mother's death. Margaret and John had one child, John III, Duke of Brabant.
Margaret was born on 15 March 1275, at Windsor Castle, the tenth child of King Edward I of England and his first queen consort, Eleanor of Castile. Margaret's maternal grandparents were Ferdinand III of Castile and his second wife Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu, and her paternal grandparents were Henry III of England and his wife Eleanor of Provence. Henry III was son of John of England and his second wife Isabella of Angoulême. John was son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Margaret's fifteen siblings included: Henry of England, Joan of Acre, Eleanor, Countess of Bar, Elizabeth of Rhuddlan and her father's suceesor, Edward II of England.
When Margaret's mother died in 1290, her father remarried to Margaret of France. She was daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant. They were parents to three children: Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Edmund of
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy LG GCVO (Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel; born 25 December 1936) is the youngest granddaughter of King George V and Mary of Teck. She is the widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy. Prior to her marriage she was known as Princess Alexandra of Kent, being the first princess to use the territorial designation of Kent since Queen Victoria, who was, prior to her accession, known as Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent.
Princess Alexandra carries out royal duties on behalf of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth II. As of the birth of Lady Davina Lewis' son in 2012, she is 41st in the line of succession to the thrones of 16 states; at the time of her birth in 1936, she was 6th.
Princess Alexandra was born on 25 December 1936 at 3 Belgrave Square, London. Her father was The Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of George V and Queen Mary. Her mother was Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, a daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. As a male-line granddaughter of the British monarch, she was styled as a British princess with the prefix Her Royal Highness. At the time of her birth, she was
The Princess Mary (5 March 1723 – 14 January 1772) was a member of the British Royal Family, a daughter of George II and Caroline of Ansbach.
Princess Mary was born at Leicester House, Westminster, London. Her father was the Prince of Wales, later King George II. Her mother was Caroline of Ansbach, daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Her father succeeded, as George II, on 11 June 1727, and she became HRH The Princess Mary.
A marriage was negotiated with Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel, the only son and heir of William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. For the marriage, Parliament voted Mary £40,000.
They married by proxy at the Chapel Royal of St. James's Palace in London on 8 May, then in person on 28 June 1740 at Kassel. The marriage was unhappy, and Frederick was said to be "brutal" and "a boor". In late 1746, Mary made an extended trip to Britain to escape his maltreatment. The couple separated in 1754 on Frederick's conversion to Roman Catholicism. They had four sons, three of whom survived to adulthood. In 1756, Mary moved to Denmark, to take care of the children of her sister, Louise of Great Britain, who had died in 1751. She took her children
Princess Patricia of Connaught (Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth; later Lady Patricia Ramsay; 17 March 1886 – 12 January 1974) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. She relinquished her title of a British princess and the style of Her Royal Highness upon her marriage to the commoner Alexander Ramsay.
A Canadian Forces infantry regiment, the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, was named in her honour.
Princess Patricia — "Patsy" to family and friends — was born on 17 March 1886, St Patrick's Day, at Buckingham Palace in London. Her father was Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Her mother was Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia. She had two elder siblings, Prince Arthur of Connaught and Princess Margaret of Connaught, later Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden.
She was christened Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth at Bagshot Park on 1 May 1886 and her godparents were: Queen Victoria (her paternal grandmother); the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (her paternal granduncle, who was represented by her paternal uncle Prince Christian of
Theresa Owana Kaʻohelelani Laʻanui (1860–1944) was a member of the royal family during the last years of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and into the territorial period.
She was born May 1, 1860, in Honolulu. Her father was Prince Gideon Kailipalaki Laʻanui, a brother of Princess Elizabeth Kekaʻaniau. Her mother was Kamaikaopa. She was a member of the House of Laʻanui, a collateral branch of the House of Kamehameha. Her children (except her two daughters by Cartwright) and male-line descendants belong paternally to the Wilcox family.
As a child, she would often go to the palace of King Kamehameha V to make leis for him. She was married four times, although she only had children from her first and second marriages. She was one-eighth French (via her great-grandfather Jean Baptiste Rives) and the rest Hawaiian descent. After her parents died in 1871, she was adopted by her aunt Elizabeth Kekaʻaniau Pratt.
She married Alexander Joy Cartwright III, son of Honolulu businessman and baseball pioneer Alexander Cartwright II on April 23, 1878. By this marriage she had two daughters, Daisy Emmalani Cartwright (1879–?) and Eva Kuwailanimamao Cartwright (1881–1948). They divorced, and he eventually
Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Amelia Louise Theresa Caroline; 13 August 1792 – 2 December 1849) was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and of Hanover as spouse of William IV of the United Kingdom. Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, is named after her.
Adelaide was born on 13 August 1792 at Meiningen, Thuringia, Germany. Her father was George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen; and her mother was Luise Eleonore, daughter of Prince Christian of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. She was titled Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony with the style Serene Highness from her birth until the Congress of Vienna (1814-15), when the entire House of Wettin was raised to the style of Highness.
Saxe-Meiningen was a small state, covering about 423 square miles (1,100 km). It was the most liberal German state and, unlike its neighbours, permitted a free press and criticism of the ruler.
By the end of 1811, King George III was mad and, although still King in name, his heir-apparent and eldest son George was Prince Regent. On 6 November 1817 the Prince Regent's only daughter, Princess Charlotte, wife of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (later King Leopold I of the
Alix of Hesse and by Rhine later Alexandra Feodorovna Romanova (Russian: Императрица Александра Фёдоровна Романова Imperatritsa Aleksandra Fyodorovna Romanova) (6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918), was Empress consort of Russia as spouse of Nicholas II, the last Emperor of the Russian Empire. Born a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, she was given the name Alexandra Feodorovna upon being received into the Russian Orthodox Church, which canonized her as Saint Alexandra the Passion Bearer in 2000.
Alexandra is best remembered as the last Tsarina of Russia, as one of the most famous royal carriers of the haemophilia disease, and for her support of autocratic control over the country. Her notorious friendship with the Russian mystic, Grigori Rasputin, was also an important factor in her life.
Alexandra was born on 6 June 1872 at the New Palace in Darmstadt as Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Viktoria Alix Helena Louise Beatrice of Hesse and by Rhine, a Grand Duchy that was then part of the German Empire. She was the sixth child among the seven children of Grand Duke Louis IV of Hesse and by Rhine, and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, the second daughter of Queen
The Princess Alice (Alice Maud Mary: Princess Louis and Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine by marriage; 25 April 1843 – 14 December 1878) was a member of the British royal family, the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Alice's education was devised by Albert's close friend and adviser, Baron Stockmar. Like her other siblings, Alice spent her early childhood in the company of her parents and siblings, travelling between the British royal residences. In 1861, when Prince Albert became ill with typhoid fever, Alice nursed him through his final illness; he died on 14 December. Following his death, Queen Victoria entered a period of intense mourning; and Alice spent the next six months acting as her mother's unofficial secretary. On 1 July 1862, while the court was still at the height of mourning, Alice married the minor German Prince Louis of Hesse, heir to the Grand Duchy of Hesse. The ceremony—conducted privately and with unrelieved gloom at Osborne House—was described by the Queen as "more of a funeral than a wedding". The Princess' life in Darmstadt was unhappy as a result of impoverishment, family tragedy, and worsening
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737), commonly referred to as Caroline of Ansbach, was the queen consort of King George II of Great Britain.
Her father, John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, was the ruler of a small German state, the Principality of Ansbach, and she belonged to a branch of the House of Hohenzollern. Caroline was orphaned at a young age and moved to the enlightened court of her guardian, Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, consort of Frederick I of Prussia. At the Prussian court, her previously limited education was widened, and she adopted the liberal outlook possessed by her guardian. They became good friends, and Sophia Charlotte's views influenced Caroline all her life.
As a young woman, Caroline was much sought-after as a bride. After rejecting the suit of the nominal King of Spain, Archduke Charles of Austria, she married George Augustus, the third-in-line to the British throne and heir apparent to the Electorate of Hanover. They had eight children, seven of whom grew to adulthood. Caroline moved permanently to Britain in 1714 when her husband became Prince of Wales. As Princess of Wales, she
Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth; later Queen Caroline; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was the Queen consort of King George IV of the United Kingdom from 29 January 1820 until her death. Between 1795 and 1820, she was Princess of Wales.
Her father was the ruler of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in modern-day Germany, and her mother, Princess Augusta, was the sister of George III. In 1794, she was engaged to George III's eldest son and heir apparent, George, Prince of Wales, although they had never met and George was already married illegally to Maria Fitzherbert. George and Caroline married the following year, and nine months later Caroline had a child, Princess Charlotte of Wales.
Shortly after Charlotte's birth, George and Caroline separated. By 1806, rumours that Caroline had taken lovers and had an illegitimate child led to an investigation into her private life. The dignitaries who led the investigation concluded that there was "no foundation" to the rumours, but Caroline's access to her daughter was restricted.
In 1814, Caroline left England and moved to Italy, where she employed Bartolomeo Pergami as a servant. Pergami soon became Caroline's closest
Cecily of York, Viscountess Welles (20 March 1469 – 24 August 1507) was an English Princess and the third, but eventual second surviving, daughter of Edward IV, King of England and his queen consort, née Lady Elizabeth Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers.
Cecily was born in Westminster Palace. She was a younger sister of Elizabeth of York and Mary of York, and an older sister of Edward V of England; Margaret of York; Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York; Anne of York; George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford; Catherine of York; and Bridget of York. She was a niece of Richard III of England, senior sister-in-law of Henry VII of England, an aunt of Henry VIII of England, and a great-aunt of Edward VI of England, Mary I of England, and Elizabeth I of England.
In 1474, Edward IV contacted a marriage alliance with James III of Scotland, whereby Cecily was betrothed to the future James IV of Scotland. Because of this she was for a time styled Princess of Scots. This agreement was, however, unpopular in the Kingdom of Scotland, and later military conflicts between Edward IV and James III negated the marriage arrangement.
With her older sisters, Cecily was present at
Princess Chulabhorn Walailak of Thailand or Chulabhorn (Thai: จุฬาภรณวลัยลักษณ์; RTGS: —Chulaphon Walailak—), born 4 July 1957 in Bangkok, is a Princess of Thailand, the youngest daughter of HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej and HM Queen Sirikit of Thailand. As royal princess, she is styled Her Royal Highness.
HRH Princess Chulabhorn studied Chemistry and graduated in 1979 from the Faculty of Science at Kasetsart University, with a Bachelor of Science, First Class Honours. She continued to study Science at Mahidol University, where she received her Doctorate in 1985.
She is heavily involved in the promotion of scientific research, and regularly gives awards and prizes. She held the position of a guest lecturer in Chemistry at the Mahidol University. She also serves as the President of the Chulabhorn Research Institute. She was awarded the UNESCO Einstein Medal for her efforts in promoting scientific collaboration in 1986 and was the first Asian to be invited to join the Royal Society of Chemistry in England as an Honorary Fellow.
She married Royal Thai Air Force Air Vice Marshal Virayudh Tishyasarin (Thai: วีระยุทธ ดิษยะศริน; RTGS: Wirayut Dityasarin), a commoner, in 1982. According to
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge, Order of the Garter, (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons who lived to adulthood, of this Royal couple. Like so many medieval princes, Edmund gained his identifying nickname from his birthplace of Langley, now Kings Langley in Hertfordshire. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard, that the Yorkist faction in the Wars of the Roses made its claim on the throne (the other party in the Wars of the Roses, the Lancasters, being the male descendants of his elder brother, John of Gaunt).
On the death of his godfather, the Earl of Surrey, Edmund was granted the Earl's lands north of the Trent, primarily in Yorkshire. In 1359 he joined his father King Edward III on an unsuccessful military expedition to France and in 1361 was made a knight of the Garter. In 1362, at the age of twenty-one, he was created Earl of Cambridge by King Edward.
Some argue that Edmund had little aptitude for war, but he took part in several military expeditions to France in the 1370s, and when his tomb
Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (from Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward left on a crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and he was crowned king at Westminster on 19 August.
He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Through
Edward Abnel Keliʻiahonui Piʻikoi (1869–1887) was a prince of the Kingdom of Hawaii. His second name was probably based on "Abner", but sounds for "r" and "l" are used interchangeably in some dialects of the Hawaiian language.
Keliʻiahonui was born May 13, 1869 as an aliʻi or Hawaiian nobleman. His genealogy centered mainly on his ancestry as an heir of his great-grandfather Kaumualiʻi, the last ruling King of Kauaʻi. He was named after his great-uncle Abner (or Abnel) Kealiʻiahonui who was sometimes called the last prince of Kauaʻi. His mother was Princess Victoria Kinoiki Kekaulike was sister of Queen Kapiʻolani. His father was High Chief David Kahalepouli Piʻikoi, first cousin of King Kalākaua. His brothers were David Kawānanakoa and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole. He was sent abroad along with his two brothers to Saint Matthew's School, a private Episcopal military school in San Mateo, California. His two brothers would also attend.
In 1874 the Kalākaua Dynasty ascended to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, ending the Kamehameha Dynasty. Keliʻiahonui was styled His Highness and given the title of Prince in 1883 along with his brothers. He was fifth-in-line of succession to the
Feodor (Theodore) III Alexeyevich of Russia (in Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (9 June 1661 – 7 May 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia between 1676 and 1682.
Fyodor was born in Moscow, the eldest surviving son of Tsar Alexis and Maria Miloslavskaya. In 1676, at the age of fifteen, he succeeded his father on the throne. He was endowed with a fine intellect and a noble disposition; he had received an excellent education at the hands of Simeon Polotsky, the most learned Slavonic monk of the day, knew Polish, and even possessed the unusual accomplishment of Latin; but, horribly disfigured and half paralyzed by a mysterious disease, supposed to be scurvy, he had been disabled from his birth. He spent most of the time with young nobles, Yazykov and Likhachov, who would later introduce the Russian court to Polish ceremonies, dress, and language.
On 28 July 1680 he married a Ukranian noblewoman Agaphia Simeonovna Grushevskaya (1663 – after 14 Jul 1681), daughter of Simeon Feodorovich Grushevsky and wife Maria Ivanovna Zaborovskaya, and assumed the sceptre. His native energy, though crippled, was not crushed by his terrible disabilities; and he soon showed that he was as thorough and devoted
Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612) was the elder son of King James I & VI and Anne of Denmark. His name derives from his grandfathers: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Frederick II of Denmark. Prince Henry was widely seen as a bright and promising heir to his father's thrones. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever. The heirship to the English and Scottish thrones passed to his younger brother Charles.
Henry was born at Stirling Castle and became Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland automatically on his birth. His father placed him in the care of Alexander Erskine, Earl of Mar, and out of the care of the boy's mother, because James worried that the mother's tendency toward Catholicism might affect the son. Although the child's removal caused enormous tension between Anne and James, Henry remained under the care of Mar's family until 1603, when James became King of England and his family moved south.
One of his tutors until he went to England was Sir George Lauder of The Bass, a Privy Counsellor — described as the King's
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII.
Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Catholic Church. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542.
Henry was considered an attractive, educated and accomplished king in his prime and has a reputation as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". Besides ruling with absolute power, he also engaged himself as an author and composer. His desire to provide England with a male heir—which stemmed partly from
Joan, Countess of Kent (29 September 1328 – 7 August 1385), known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, was the first post-conquest Princess of Wales. The French chronicler Jean Froissart called her "the most beautiful woman in all the realm of England, and the most loving." The appellation "Fair Maid of Kent" does not appear to be contemporary.
Joan was the daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell, and a granddaughter of King Edward I of England.
Her father Edmund was a younger half-brother of Edward II of England. Edmund's support of the king placed him in conflict with the queen, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Edmund was executed after Edward II's deposition, and Joan's mother, along with her children, was placed under house arrest in Arundel Castle when Joan was only two years old.
The Earl’s widow, Margaret Wake, was left with four children to care for. Joan's first cousin, the new King Edward III, took on the responsibility for the family, and looked after them well. His wife, Queen Philippa (who was also Joan's second cousin), was well known for her tender-heartedness, and Joan
Victoria Kamāmalu Kaʻahumanu IV (1838–1866), was Kuhina Nui of Hawaii and its crown princess. Although not agreed upon by most, she was the first female to become the monarch of Hawaii, reigning for a day in November 30, 1863. Named Wikolia Kamehamalu Keawenui Kaʻahumanu-a-Kekūanaō‘a and also named Kalehelani Kiheahealani, she was mainly referred to as Victoria Kamāmalu or Kaʻahumanu IV, when addressing her as the kuhina nui.
Born at the Honolulu Fort, on November 1, 1838, she was the only daughter of Elizabeth Kīnaʻu, Kaʻahumanu II and her third husband Mataio Kekūanāoʻa. Through her mother she was granddaughter of King Kamehameha I, founder of the kingdom. Her two brothers would later become kings of Hawaii as Kamehameha IV and Kamehameha V. She was named after her maternal aunt Queen Kamāmalu, the consort of Kamehameha II, who died in London from the measles. The Christian name Victoria signified the close friendship of the British monarchs and the Hawaiian monarchs for it was Queen Victoria who returned the sovereignty of the Hawaiian Islands to her uncle, Kamehameha III, after the Paulet Affair. Having given away her previous four sons, Kaʻahumanu II refused to give her only
Kamehameha III (born Kauikeaouli) (1813–1854) was the King of Hawaii from 1825 to 1854. His full Hawaiian name was Keaweaweʻula Kīwalaʻō Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa and then lengthened to Keaweaweʻula Kīwalaʻō Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa Kalani Waiakua Kalanikau Iokikilo Kīwalaʻō i ke kapu Kamehameha when he ascended the throne.
Under his reign Hawaii evolved from an absolute monarchy to a Christian constitutional monarchy with the signing of both the 1840 Constitution and 1852 Constitution. He was the longest reigning monarch in the history of the Kingdom, ruling for 29 years and 192 days, although in the early part of his reign he was under a regency by Queen Kaʻahumanu and later by Kaʻahumanu II. His goal was the careful balancing of modernization by adopting Western ways, while keeping his nation intact.
Kauikeaouli was born at Keauhou Bay, on Hawaiʻi island, the largest island in the Hawaiian Islands archipelago. He was the second son of King Kamehameha I and his highest ranking wife, Queen Keōpūolani of Maui. The precise date is not known. Early historians suggested June or July 1814, but the generally accepted date is August 11, 1813. He was of the highest kapu lineage. Kauikeaouli
Lady Diana Cooper, Viscountess Norwich (29 August 1892 – 16 June 1986) was a prominent social figure in London and Paris, widely acknowledged as the beauty of the century.
The young Diana moved in a celebrated group of intellectuals, most of them killed in World War I. She married one of the only survivors, Duff Cooper, later Ambassador to France. After his death, she wrote three volumes of memoirs which reveal much about 20th-century upper-class life.
Born Lady Diana Olivia Winifred Maud Manners, she was officially the youngest daughter of the 8th Duke of Rutland and his wife, the former Violet Lindsay, but Lady Diana's real father was widely supposed to be the writer Henry Cust. In her prime, she had the widespread reputation as the most beautiful young woman in England, and appeared in countless profiles, photographs and articles in newspapers and magazines.
She became active in The Coterie, an influential group of young English aristocrats and intellectuals of the 1910s whose prominence and numbers were cut short by the First World War. Some see them as people ahead of their time, precursors of the Jazz Age.
Lady Diana was the most famous of the group, which included Raymond
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was joint Sovereign of England, Scotland, and Ireland with her husband (who was also her first cousin), William III and II, from 1689 until her death. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant, respectively, following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694. Popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of "William and Mary".
Mary wielded less power than William when he was in England, ceding most of her authority to him, though he heavily relied on her. She did, however, act alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful, firm, and effective ruler.
Mary, born at St. James's Palace in London on 30 April 1662, was the eldest daughter of James, Duke of York (the future James II & VII), and his first wife, Lady Anne Hyde. Mary's uncle was King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland; her maternal grandfather, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, served for a lengthy period as Charles's chief advisor. She was
Peter the Great, Peter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич Рома́нов, Пётр I, Pyotr I, or Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velikiy) (9 June [O.S. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. 28 January] 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother. In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a huge empire that became a major European power. According to historian James Cracraft, he led a cultural revolution that replaced the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.
From an early age, Peter's education (commissioned by Tsar Alexis I) was put in the hands of several tutors, most notably Nikita Zotov, Patrick Gordon, and Paul Menesius. On 29 January 1676, Tsar Alexis died, leaving the sovereignty to Peter's elder half-brother, the weak and sickly Feodor III. Throughout this period, the government was largely run by Artamon Matveev, an enlightened friend of Alexis, the political head of the Naryshkin family and one of Peter's greatest childhood benefactors. This position changed
Prince Charles, Count of Flanders, Prince of Belgium (10 October 1903 – 1 June 1983) was the second son of Albert I, King of the Belgians and Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria. Born in Brussels, he served in lieu of his older brother King Leopold III from 1944 until 1950 as Prince Regent until Leopold could return to Belgium and resume his monarchial duties. Shortly after however, Leopold abdicated in favour of his heir apparent, his son Baudouin.
Charles was known as General Du Boc during World War II in order to hide his identity for security reasons. He had an association with RAF Hullavington where many top officers from allied nations were based or transported to and from.
During World War I the Belgian royal family was living in England. In 1915 Prince Charles began attending the Public School of Wixenford in Wokingham, Berkshire and in 1917 the Royal Naval College in Osbourne, and later in Dartmouth. In 1926 he received the rank of under-lieutenant in the British navy. Later that year he returned to Belgium and began attending the Royal Military School in Brussels.
Prince Charles was appointed Regent when the German occupation ended in 1944. The role of his brother Leopold III
Princess Margaret of Connaught (Margaret Victoria Charlotte Augusta Norah; later Crown Princess of Sweden; 15 January 1882 – 1 May 1920) was the daughter of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, third son of Queen Victoria, and his wife, Princess Luise Margarete of Prussia. A Princess of the United Kingdom, she was nicknamed Daisy and in Sweden was known as Margareta.
The Princess was born at Bagshot Park and baptised in the Private Chapel of Windsor Castle on 11 March 1882 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Archibald Tait, and her godparents were: Queen Victoria (her paternal grandmother); Wilhelm I, German Emperor (her maternal great-granduncle, who was represented by the German Ambassador Count Münster); the German Crown Princess (her paternal aunt, who was represented by her own sister Princess Christian); Prince and Princess Friedrich Karl of Prussia (her maternal grandparents, for whom her paternal uncle the Duke of Edinburgh and aunt Princess Beatrice stood proxy) and the Prince of Wales (her paternal uncle).
She was confirmed in the same chapel in March 1898, aged 16. Confirmation traditionally marked the end of childhood, after which a girl would 'come out' and be considered for
Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk (Maud Alexandra Victoria Georgina Bertha Carnegie; née Duff; 3 April 1893 – 14 December 1945) was a member of the British Royal Family, a female line granddaughter of King Edward VII. Maud, and her elder sister, Alexandra, had the distinction of being the only female-line descendants of a British sovereign granted the title of Princess of Great Britain and Ireland.
Although Princess Maud did not normally carry out royal engagements, she served as a Counsellor of State between 1942 and 1945.
Maud was born at East Sheen Lodge, Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey on 3 April 1893. Her father was the Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife (1840–1912), the son of the James Duff, 5th Earl Fife and his wife, Lady Agnes Hay. He was created Duke of Fife following marriage to Maud's mother, then Princess Louise of Wales, the eldest daughter of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) and Alexandra of Denmark.
As a female line great-granddaughter of a British monarch (Queen Victoria), Maud was not entitled to the title of a Princess of Great Britain nor to the style Royal Highness. Instead she was styled Lady Maud Duff, as the daughter of a duke. She was
The Princess Victoria (Victoria Alexandra Olga Mary; 6 July 1868 – 3 December 1935), also called "Toria", was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth child and second daughter of Edward VII; the younger sister of George V.
Princess Victoria was born on the 6 July 1868 at Marlborough House, London. Her father was Prince Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII), the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Her mother was Alexandra, Princess of Wales (née Princess Alexandra of Denmark), the daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark and Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel. As the granddaughter of the British monarch, in the male line, she was styled Her Royal Highness Princess Victoria of Wales. She was known to her family as Toria.
She was christened at Marlborough House on 6 August 1868 by Archibald Campbell Tait, Bishop of London, and her godparents were: her paternal grandmother Queen Victoria (for whom The Duchess of Cambridge stood proxy), The Emperor of Russia (for whom the Russian ambassador Philipp, Graf de Brunnow, stood proxy), The Tsarevitch of Russia, The Prince Arthur (her paternal uncle), Prince Ludwig of Hesse and by Rhine (her father's
Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Earl Marshal (17 August 1473 – ?1483) was the sixth child and second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville, born in Shrewsbury.
He was created Duke of York in May 1474 and made a Knight of the Garter the following year. From this time on, it became a tradition for the second son of the English sovereign to be Duke of York. On 15 January 1478, in St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, when he was about 4 years old, he married the 5-year-old Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk, who had inherited the vast Mowbray estates in 1476. Because York's father-in-law's dukedom had become extinct when Anne could not inherit it, he was created Duke of Norfolk and Earl Warennne on 7 February 1477. He was created Earl of Nottingham on 12 June 1476. When Anne de Mowbray died in November 1481 her estates should have passed to William, Viscount Berkeley and to John, Lord Howard. In January 1483 Parliament passed an act that gave the Mowbray estates to Richard, Duke of York and Norfolk, for his lifetime, and at his death to his heirs, if he had any. The rights of the two co-heirs at law were
Valaya Alongkorn, the Princess of Phetchaburi (RTGS: Walai Alongkorn; Thai: สมเด็จพระราชปิตุจฉา เจ้าฟ้าวไลยอลงกรณ์ กรมหลวงเพชรบุรีราชสิรินธร) (16 April 1884 – 15 February 1938), was the Princess of Siam (later Thailand. She was a member of the Siamese Royal Family. Her father was Chulalongkorn, King Rama V of Siam and Crown Prince Maha Vajirunhis was her older brother. She was the elder sister of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, the Prince of Songkla. So she was an aunt of the then current King Bhumibol Adulyadej
Princess Valaya Alongkorn was born in 16 April 1884 at Grand Palace. She was the 43rd daughter of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V the Great), and the 5th child of Queen Savang Vadhana, queen consort and cousin of King Chulalongkorn, (later Queen Sri Savarindira). Her full given name was Valaya Alongkorn Narindorn Debyakumari (Thai: วไลยอลงกรณ์ นรินทรเทพยกุมารี), from her father. She had 6 siblings, 3 elder brothers, 1 elder sister, 1 younger sister, and 1 younger brother:
When she was 3, her mother gave her to her mother's sister, Queen Saovabha Bongsri to be her adopted daughter because Queen Saovabha had lost her own 2 daughters: Princess Bahurada Manimaya, and the princess who died
Victoria Kūhiō Kinoiki Kekaulike II (1843–1884) was a Princess of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. Her name also sometimes spelled as Kinoike Kekaulike has been given as Mary Kinoiki Kekaulike in many sources.
She was born on May 12, 1843, the youngest daughter of her father High Chief Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole of Hilo, and her mother Princess Kinoiki Kekaulike from Kauaʻi island. From her father she was cousin of the Kamehameha Dynasty being in the line of Keawe and she was a cousin of Kalākaua through their common ancestor the High Chiefess ʻUlulani of Hilo. Her mother was the stepdaughter of the Queen Regent Kaʻahumanu and the daughter of Kaumualiʻi, the last king of Kauaʻi before he agreed to be a vassal to Kamehameha I in 1810. She was the youngest sister of Kapiʻolani (later Queen Consort of Kalākaua) and Princess Poʻomaikelani. She took the name Kekaulike from her mother and great-great grandfather, King Kekaulike of Maui.
On February 25, 1861 she married High Chief David Kahalepouli Piʻikoi of Kauaʻi and they had three sons. David Kahalepouli Kawānanakoa was born February 19, 1868; Edward Abnel Keliʻiahonui, born May 13, 1869; Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole, the youngest born on March 26,