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Best Nerve of All Time

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    1
    Lumbar plexus

    Lumbar plexus

    The lumbar plexus is a nervous plexus in the lumbar region of the body which forms part of the lumbosacral plexus. It is formed by the ventral divisions of the first four lumbar nerves (L1-L4) and from contributions of the subcostal nerve (T12), which is the last thoracic nerve. Additionally, the ventral rami of the fourth lumbar nerve pass communicating branches, the lumbosacral trunk, to the sacral plexus. The nerves of the lumbar plexus pass in front of the hip joint and mainly support the anterior part of the thigh. The plexus is formed lateral to the intervertebral foramina and pass through psoas major. Its smaller motor branches are distributed directly to psoas major, while the larger branches leave the muscle at various sites to run obliquely downward through the pelvic area to leave the pelvis under the inguinal ligament, with the exception of the obturator nerve which exits the pelvis through the obturator foramen. The iliohypogastric nerve runs anterior to the psoas major on its proximal lateral border to run laterally and obliquely on the anterior side of quadratus lumborum. Lateral to this muscle, it pierces the transversus abdominis to run above the iliac crest
    7.33
    9 votes
    2
    Perineal nerve

    Perineal nerve

    The perineal nerve is a nerve arising from the pudendal nerve that supplies the perineum. The perineal nerve is the inferior and larger of the two terminal branches of the pudendal nerve, is situated below the internal pudendal artery. It accompanies the perineal artery and divides into two branches: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
    6.63
    8 votes
    3
    Infraorbital plexus

    Infraorbital plexus

    The superior labial branches descend behind the Quadratus labii superioris, and are distributed to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands. They are joined, immediately beneath the orbit, by filaments from the facial nerve, forming with them the infraorbital plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
    8.17
    6 votes
    4
    Thoracic splanchnic nerves

    Thoracic splanchnic nerves

    Thoracic splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that arise from the sympathetic trunk in the thorax and travel inferiorly to provide sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The nerves contain preganglionic sympathetic and visceral afferent fibers. There are three main thoracic splanchnic nerves: The nerve's origins can be remembered by the "4-3-2 rule", accounting for the number of ganglia giving rise to each nerve. However, different sources define the nerves in different ways, so this rule may not always be reliable.
    8.17
    6 votes
    5
    Submandibular ganglion

    Submandibular ganglion

    The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is part of the human autonomic nervous system. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. (The others are the otic ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and ciliary ganglion). The submandibular ganglion is responsible for innervation of two salivary glands: the submandibular gland and sublingual gland. The submandibular ganglion is small and fusiform in shape. It is situated above the deep portion of the submandibular gland, on the hyoglossus muscle, near the posterior border of the mylohyoid muscle. The ganglion 'hangs' by two nerve filaments from the lower border of the lingual nerve (itself a branch of the mandibular nerve, CN V3). It is suspended from the lingual nerve by two filaments, one anterior and one posterior. Through the posterior of these it receives a branch from the chorda tympani nerve which runs in the sheath of the lingual nerve. Like other parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the submandibular ganglion is the site of synapse for parasympathetic fibers and carries other types of nerve fiber that do not synapse in the ganglion. In summary, the fibers carried in the
    7.17
    6 votes
    6
    Nerve to quadratus femoris

    Nerve to quadratus femoris

    The nerve to quadratus femoris is a nerve that provides innervation to the quadratus femoris and gemellus inferior muscles. The nerve to quadratus femoris is a sacral plexus nerve. It arises from the ventral divisions of the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves: it leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, below the piriformis muscle, and runs down in front of the sciatic nerve, the superior and inferior gemellus muscles, and the tendon of the obturator internus, and enters the anterior surfaces of the muscles; it gives an articular branch to the hip-joint. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    5 votes
    7
    Vesical plexus

    Vesical plexus

    The Vesical Plexus arises from the forepart of the pelvic plexus. The nerves composing it are numerous, and contain a large proportion of spinal nerve fibers. They accompany the vesicle arteries, and are distributed to the sides and fundus of the bladder. Numerous filaments also pass to the vesiculæ seminales and ductus deferentes; those accompanying the ductus deferens join, on the spermatic cord, with branches from the spermatic plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.
    9.00
    4 votes
    8
    Diagonal band of Broca

    Diagonal band of Broca

    The diagonal band of Broca forms the medial margin of the anterior perforated substance. It consists of fibers that are said to arise in the parolfactory area, the gyrus subcallosus and the anterior perforated substance, and course backward in the longitudinal striae to the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal region. This is a cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the paraterminal gyrus in the septal area with the hippocampus and lateral olfactory area. Along with the septum pellucidum and medial septal nucleus, the diagonal band of Broca is believed to be involved in the generation of theta waves in the hippocampus. Its behavior can be altered by nerve growth factor. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.50
    6 votes
    9
    Nervus spinosus

    Nervus spinosus

    The meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve (recurrent branch, nervus spinosus) is a branch of the mandibular nerve that supplies the dura mater. It enters the skull through the foramen spinosum with the middle meningeal artery. It divides into two branches, anterior and posterior, which accompany the main divisions of the artery and supply the dura mater: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.50
    6 votes
    10
    External pterygoid nerve

    External pterygoid nerve

    External Pterygoid Nerve (or lateral pterygoid nerve): The nerve to the Pterygoideus externus frequently arises in conjunction with the buccinator nerve, but it may be given off separately from the anterior division of the mandibular nerve. It enters the deep surface of the muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.75
    4 votes
    11
    Sciatic nerve

    Sciatic nerve

    The sciatic nerve (also known as the ischiadic nerve and the ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb. It is the longest and widest single nerve in the human body going from the top of the leg to the foot on the posterior aspect. The sciatic supplies nearly the whole of the skin of the leg, the muscles of the back of the thigh, and those of the leg and foot. It is derived from spinal nerves L4 through S3. It contains fibres from both the anterior and posterior divisions of the lumbosacral plexus. The nerve gives off articular and muscular branches. The muscular branch eventually gives off the tibial nerve and common fibular nerve, which innervates the muscles of the (lower) leg. The tibial nerve goes on to innervate all muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis (which is innervated by the common fibular nerve). The sciatic nerve innervates the skin on the posterior aspect of the thigh and gluteal regions, as well as the entire lower leg (except for its medial aspect). Pain caused by a compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve by a problem in the lower back is
    8.75
    4 votes
    12
    Suprascapular nerve

    Suprascapular nerve

    The suprascapular nerve arises from the upper trunk (formed by the union of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves). It innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. It runs lateral beneath the trapezius and the omohyoideus, and enters the supraspinatous fossa through the suprascapular notch, below the superior transverse scapular ligament; it then passes beneath the supraspinatus, and curves around the lateral border of the spine of the scapula to the infraspinatous fossa. In the supraspinatous fossa it gives off two branches to the Supraspinatus muscle, and an articular filament to the shoulder-joint; and in the infraspinatous fossa it gives off two branches to the Infraspinatous muscle, besides some filaments to the shoulder-joint and scapula. Hard to start shoulder abduction This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.40
    5 votes
    13
    Transverse cervical nerve

    Transverse cervical nerve

    The transverse cervical nerve (superficial cervical or cutaneous cervical) arises from the second and third cervical nerves, turns around the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus about its middle, and, passing obliquely forward beneath the external jugular vein to the anterior border of the muscle, it perforates the deep cervical fascia, and divides beneath the Platysma into ascending and descending branches, which are distributed to the antero-lateral parts of the neck. It provides cutaneous innervation to this area. During dissection, the SCM is the landmark. The transverse cervical nerves will pass horizontally directly over the SCM from Erb's point. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.33
    6 votes
    14
    Intercostal nerves

    Intercostal nerves

    The intercostal nerves are the anterior divisions (rami anteriores; ventral divisions) of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. Each nerve is connected with the adjoining ganglion of the sympathetic trunk by a gray and a white ramus communicans. The intercostal nerves are distributed chiefly to the thoracic pleura and abdominal peritoneum and differ from the anterior divisions of the other spinal nerves in that each pursues an independent course without plexus formation. The first two nerves supply fibers to the upper limb in addition to their thoracic branches; the next four are limited in their distribution to the parietes of the thorax; the lower five supply the parietes of the thorax and abdomen. The 7th intercostal nerve terminates at the xyphoid process, at the lower end of the sternum. The 10th intercostal nerve terminates at the umbilicus. The twelfth (subcostal) thoracic is distributed to the abdominal wall and groin. The anterior division of the first thoracic nerve divides into two branches: one, the larger, leaves the thorax in front of the neck of the first rib, and enters the brachial plexus; the other and smaller branch, the first intercostal nerve, runs along
    8.50
    4 votes
    15
    Lateral pectoral nerve

    Lateral pectoral nerve

    The lateral pectoral nerve (lateral anterior thoracic) arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and through it from the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical nerves. It passes across the axillary artery and vein, pierces the coracoclavicular fascia, and is distributed to the deep surface of the Pectoralis major. It sends a filament to join the medial anterior thoracic and form with it a loop in front of the first part of the axillary artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.50
    4 votes
    16
    Sphenopalatine nerves

    Sphenopalatine nerves

    The pterygopalatine nerves (or sphenopalatine branches), two in number, descend to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Although it is closely related to the pterygopalatine ganglion, it is still considered a branch of the maxillary nerve and does not synapse in the ganglion. It is found in the pterygopalatine fossa. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.50
    4 votes
    17
    Middle superior alveolar nerve

    Middle superior alveolar nerve

    The middle superior alveolar nerve is a nerve that drops from the infraorbital portion of the maxillary nerve to supply the sinus mucosa, the roots of the maxillary premolars, and the mesiobuccal root of the first maxillary molar. It is not always present; and in the majority of cases it is non existent with the posterior superior alveolar nerve innervating the premolars and molars alone.
    8.25
    4 votes
    18
    Maxillary nerve

    Maxillary nerve

    The maxillary nerve (CN V2) is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve. It comprises the principal functions of sensation from the maxillary, nasal cavity, sinuses, the palate and subsequently that of the mid-face, and is intermediate, both in position and size, between the ophthalmic nerve and the mandibular nerve. Its function is the transmission of sensory fibers from the maxillary teeth, the skin between the palpebral fissure and the mouth, and from the nasal cavity and sinuses. Anterior to the trigeminal ganglion, the maxillary nerve passes through the cavernous sinus and exits the skull through the foramen rotundum. It begins at the middle of the trigeminal ganglion as a flattened plexiform band, and, passing horizontally forward, it leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, where it becomes more cylindrical in form, and firmer in texture. It then crosses the pterygopalatine fossa, inclines lateralward on the back of the maxilla, and enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure; it traverses the infraorbital groove and canal in the floor of the orbit, and appears upon the face at the infraorbital foramen. Here is it referred
    7.00
    5 votes
    19
    Renal plexus

    Renal plexus

    The renal plexus is formed by filaments from the celiac ganglia and plexus, aorticorenal ganglia, lower thoracic splanchnic nerves and first lumbar splanchnic nerve and aortic plexus. The nerves from these sources, fifteen or twenty in number, have a few ganglia developed upon them. It enters the kidneys on arterial branches to supply the vessels, Renal glomerulus, and tubules with branches to the ureteric plexus. Some filaments are distributed to the spermatic plexus and, on the right side, to the inferior vena cava. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    5 votes
    20
    Nerve of pterygoid canal

    Nerve of pterygoid canal

    The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve) is formed by the junction of the great petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve within the pterygoid canal containing the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum. It passes forward through the pterygoid canal with its corresponding artery (artery of the pterygoid canal) and is joined by a small ascending sphenoidal branch from the otic ganglion. It then enters the pterygopalatine fossa and joins the posterior angle of the pterygopalatine ganglion. The postganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the greater petrosal nerve, upon synapsing in the pterygopalatine ganglion, will distribute to the nose, palate, and lacrimal gland through various nerves leaving the pterygopalatine fossa. The vidian nerve does not fill the foramen lacerum. The deep and great petrosal nerves join together to form the vidian nerve, which passes over the foramen lacerum. It is commonly stated that nothing passes through the foramen lacerum, but a more detailed look shows that emissary veins enter here. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it
    8.00
    4 votes
    21
    Ulnar nerve

    Ulnar nerve

    In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve which runs near the ulna bone. The ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint is in relation with the ulnar nerve. The nerve is the largest unprotected nerve in the human body (meaning unprotected by muscle or bone), so injury is common. This nerve is directly connected to the little finger, and the adjacent half of the ring finger, supplying the palmar side of these fingers, including both front and back of the tips, perhaps as far back as the fingernail beds. One method of injuring the nerve is to strike the medial epicondyle of the humerus from posteriorly, or inferiorly with the elbow flexed. The ulnar nerve is trapped between the bone and the overlying skin at this point. This is commonly referred to as bumping one's "funny bone". This name is thought to be a pun, based on the sound resemblance between the name of the bone of the upper arm, the "humerus" and the word "humorous". Alternatively, according to the Oxford English Dictionary it may refer to "the peculiar sensation experienced when it is struck". The ulnar nerve originates from the C8-T1 nerve roots which form part of the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and descends on
    8.00
    4 votes
    22
    Superior laryngeal nerve

    Superior laryngeal nerve

    The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the ganglion nodosum and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic. It descends, by the side of the pharynx, behind the internal carotid artery, and divides into two branches: A superior laryngeal nerve palsy changes the pitch of the voice and causes an inability to make explosive sounds. If no recovery is evident three months after the palsy initially presents, the damage is most likely to be permanent. A bilateral palsy presents as a tiring and hoarse voice. It can be injured in surgery involving the removal of the Thyroid gland (Thyroidectomy) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.33
    3 votes
    23
    Vestibulocochlear nerve

    Vestibulocochlear nerve

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. The acoustic nerve is derived from the embryonic otic placode. This is the nerve along which the sensory cells (the hair cells) of the inner ear transmit information to the brain. It consists of the cochlear nerve, carrying information about hearing, and the vestibular nerve, carrying information about balance. It emerges from the pons and exits the inner skull via the internal acoustic meatus (or internal auditory meatus) in the temporal bone. The vestibulocochlear nerve consists mostly of bipolar neurons and splits into two large divisions: the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve. The cochlear nerve travels away from the cochlea of the inner ear where it starts as the spiral ganglia. Processes from the organ of Corti conduct afferent transmission to the spiral ganglia. It is the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti that are responsible for activation of afferent receptors in response to pressure waves reaching the basilar membrane through the transduction of sound. The
    9.33
    3 votes
    24
    Celiac ganglia

    Celiac ganglia

    The celiac ganglia or coeliac ganglia are two large irregularly shaped masses of nerve tissue in the upper abdomen. Part of the sympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the two celiac ganglia are the largest ganglia in the ANS, and they innervate most of the digestive tract. They have the appearance of lymph glands and are placed on either side of the midline in front of the crura of the diaphragm, close to the suprarenal glands (also called adrenal glands). The ganglion on the right side is placed behind the inferior vena cava. They are sometimes referred to as the semilunar ganglia or the solar ganglia. The celiac ganglion is part of the sympathetic prevertebral chain possessing a great variety of specific receptors and neurotransmitters such as catecholamines, neuropeptides, and nitric oxide and constitutes a modulation center in the pathway of the afferent and efferent fibers between the central nervous system and the ovary. The main preganglion neurotransmitter of the celiac ganglion is acetylcholine, yet the celiac ganglion-mesenteric complex also contain α and β adrenergic receptors and is innervated by fibers of adrenergic nature that come from other
    6.80
    5 votes
    25
    Temporal branches of the facial nerve

    Temporal branches of the facial nerve

    The temporal branches of the facial nerve, also known as the frontal branch of the facial nerve, crosses the zygomatic arch to the temporal region, supplying the auriculares anterior and superior, and joining with the zygomaticotemporal branch of the maxillary, and with the auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular. The more anterior branches supply the frontalis, the orbicularis oculi, and corrugator supercilii, and join the supraorbital and lacrimal branches of the ophthalmic. The temporal branch acts as the efferent limb of the corneal reflex. To test the function of the temporal branches of the facial nerve, a patient is asked to frown and wrinkle his or her forehead. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    3 votes
    26
    Mandibular nerve

    Mandibular nerve

    The mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve. It is made up of two roots: The two roots (sensory and motor) exit the middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale. The two roots then combine. Immediately in the infratemporal fossa beneath the base of the skull, the nerve gives off two branches from its medial side: a recurrent branch (nervus spinosus) and the nerve to the medial pterygoid muscle. The mandibular nerve then divides into two trunks, an anterior and a posterior. The mandibular nerve gives off the following branches: The mandibular nerve also gives off branches to the otic ganglion The mandibular nerve innervates:
    6.60
    5 votes
    27
    Muscular branches of the radial nerve

    Muscular branches of the radial nerve

    The muscular branches of the radial nerve supply the Triceps brachii, Anconæus, Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis longus, and Brachialis, and are grouped as medial, posterior, and lateral. The medial muscular branches supply the medial head of the Triceps brachii. That to the medial head is a long, slender filament, which lies close to the ulnar nerve as far as the lower third of the arm, and is therefore frequently spoken of as the ulnar collateral nerve. The posterior muscular branch, of large size, arises from the nerve in the groove between the Triceps brachii and the humerus. It divides into filaments, which supply the medial and lateral heads of the Triceps brachii and the Anconæus muscles. The branch for the latter muscle is a long, slender filament, which descends in the substance of the medial head of the Triceps brachii. The lateral muscular branches supply the Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis longus, and the lateral part of the Brachialis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.60
    5 votes
    28
    Suprarenal plexus

    Suprarenal plexus

    The suprarenal plexus is formed by branches from the celiac plexus, from the celiac ganglion, and from the phrenic and greater splanchnic nerves, a ganglion being formed at the point of junction with the latter nerve. The plexus supplies the suprarenal gland, being distributed chiefly to its medullary portion; its branches are remarkable for their large size in comparison with that of the organ they supply. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
    6.60
    5 votes
    29
    Perforating cutaneous nerve

    Perforating cutaneous nerve

    The perforating cutaneous nerve is a cutaneous nerve that supplies skin over the gluteus maximus muscle. The perforating cutaneous nerve arises from the sacral plexus. It pierces the lower part of the sacrotuberous ligament, and winds around the inferior border of the gluteus maximus. It is an inferior clunial (buttocks) nerve; it supplies the skin covering the medial and lower parts of gluteus maximus. The perforating cutaneous nerve may arise from the pudendal nerve. It is absent in approximately one third of people; its place may be taken by a branch from the posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh or by a branch from the third and fourth, or fourth and fifth, sacral nerves. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
    7.50
    4 votes
    30
    Phrenic plexus

    Phrenic plexus

    The phrenic plexus accompanies the inferior phrenic artery to the diaphragm, some filaments passing to the suprarenal gland. It arises from the upper part of the celiac ganglion, and is larger on the right than on the left side. It receives one or two branches from the phrenic nerve. At the point of junction of the right phrenic plexus with the phrenic nerve is a small ganglion (ganglion phrenicum). This plexus distributes branches to the inferior vena cava, and to the suprarenal and hepatic plexuses. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.
    7.50
    4 votes
    31
    Nasociliary nerve

    Nasociliary nerve

    The nasociliary nerve is a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. It is intermediate in size between the two other main branches of the ophthalmic nerve, the frontal nerve and the lacrimal nerve, and is more deeply placed. The nasociliary nerve enters the orbit between the two heads of the lateral rectus muscles and between the superior and inferior rami of the oculomotor nerve (CN III). It passes across the optic nerve (CN II) and runs obliquely beneath the superior rectus muscle and superior oblique muscle to the medial wall of the orbital cavity. It passes through the anterior ethmoidal opening as the anterior ethmoidal nerve and enters the cranial cavity just above the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. It supplies branches to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and finally emerges between the inferior border of the nasal bone and the side nasal cartilages as the external nasal branch. Since both the short and long ciliary nerves carry the afferent limb of the corneal blink reflex, one can test the integrity of the nasociliary nerve (and, ultimately, the trigeminal nerve) by examining this reflex in the patient. Normally both eyes should blink when either cornea (not the
    6.40
    5 votes
    32
    Supraorbital nerve

    Supraorbital nerve

    The supraorbital nerve is a terminal branch of the frontal nerve. It passes through the supraorbital foramen, and gives off, in this situation, palpebral filaments to the upper eyelid. Additionally it supplies the conjunctiva of the eye, the frontal sinus and the skin from the forehead extending back to the middle of the scalp. It then ascends upon the forehead, and ends in two branches, a medial and a lateral, which supply the integument of the scalp, reaching nearly as far back as the lambdoidal suture; they are at first situated beneath the Frontalis: Both branches supply small twigs to the pericranium. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.67
    3 votes
    33
    Lumbosacral trunk

    Lumbosacral trunk

    The lumbosacral trunk is nervous tissue that connects the lumbar plexus with the sacral plexus. The lumbosacral trunk comprises the whole of the anterior division of the fifth and a part of that of the fourth lumbar nerve; it appears at the medial margin of the psoas major and runs downward over the pelvic brim to join the first sacral nerve. The anterior division of the third sacral nerve divides into an upper and a lower branch, the former entering the sacral plexus and the latter the pudendal plexus.
    7.25
    4 votes
    34
    Oculomotor nerve

    Oculomotor nerve

    The oculomotor nerve is the 3rd of 12 paired cranial nerves. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and controls most of the eye's movements, including constriction of the pupil and maintaining an open eyelid by innervating the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. The oculomotor nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve (CN III) arises from the anterior aspect of mesencephalon (midbrain). There are two nuclei for the oculomotor nerve: Sympathetic postganglionic fibres also join the nerve from the plexus on the internal carotid artery in the wall of the cavernous sinus and are distributed through the nerve, e.g., to the smooth muscle of levator palpebrae superioris. On emerging from the brain, the nerve is invested with a sheath of pia mater, and enclosed in a prolongation from the arachnoid. It passes between the superior cerebellar (below) and posterior cerebral arteries (above), and then pierces the dura mater anterior and lateral to the posterior clinoid process, passing between the free and attached borders of the tentorium cerebelli. It runs along the
    7.25
    4 votes
    35
    Axillary nerve

    Axillary nerve

    The axillary nerve or the circumflex nerve is a nerve of the human body, that comes off the of the brachial plexus (upper trunk, posterior division, posterior cord) at the level of the axilla (armpit) and carries nerve fibers from C5 and C6. The axillary nerve travels through the quadrangular space with the posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein. The axillary nerve supplies three muscles; deltoid (a muscle of the shoulder), teres minor (one of the rotator cuff muscles) and the long head of the triceps brachii (an elbow extensor). The axillary nerve also carries sensory information from the shoulder joint, as well as the skin covering the inferior region of the deltoid muscle - the "regimental badge" area (which is innervated by the Superior Lateral Cutaneous Nerve branch of the Axillary nerve). The posterior cord splits inferiorly to the glenohumeral joint giving rise to the axillary nerve which wraps around the anatomical neck of the humerus, and the radial nerve which wraps around the humerus anteriorly and descends along its lateral border. It lies at first behind the axillary artery, and in front of the subscapularis, and passes downward to the lower border of that
    8.33
    3 votes
    36
    Chorda tympani

    Chorda tympani

    The chorda tympani is a nerve that branches from the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) inside the facial canal, just before the facial nerve exits the skull via the Stylomastoid foramen. It serves the taste buds in the front of the tongue, runs through the middle ear, and carries taste messages to the brain. The chorda tympani is part of one of three cranial nerves that are involved in taste. The taste system involves a complicated feedback loop, with each nerve acting to inhibit the signals of other nerves. The chorda tympani appears to exert a particularly strong inhibitory influence on other taste nerves, as well as on pain fibers in the tongue. When the chorda tympani is damaged, its inhibitory function is disrupted, leading to less inhibited activity in the other nerves. The chorda tympani carries two types of nerve fibers from their origin with the facial nerve to the lingual nerve that carries them to their destinations: Exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus as part of the facial nerve, then it travels through the middle ear, where it runs from posterior to anterior across the tympanic membrane. It passes between the malleus and the incus, on the medial surface
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    Gastric plexuses

    Gastric plexuses

    The superior gastric plexus (gastric or coronary plexus) accompanies the left gastric artery along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and joins with branches from the left vagus. The term "inferior gastric plexus" is sometimes used to describe a continuation of the hepatic plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Anococcygeal nerve

    Anococcygeal nerve

    The anococcygeal nerve is a nerve in the pelvis which provides sensory innervation to the skin over the coccyx. The anococcygeal nerve arises from a small plexus known as the coccygeal plexus. It pierces the sacrotuberous ligament to supply the skin in the region of the coccyx as well as the sacrococcygeal joint. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Aortic plexus

    Aortic plexus

    The abdominal aortic plexus (aortic plexus) is formed by branches derived, on either side, from the celiac plexus and ganglia, and receives filaments from some of the lumbar ganglia. It is situated upon the sides and front of the aorta, between the origins of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. From this plexus arise part of the spermatic, the inferior mesenteric, and the hypogastric plexuses; it also distributes filaments to the inferior vena cava. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Vagus nerve

    Vagus nerve

    The vagus nerve ( /ˈveɪɡəs/ VAY-gəs), also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X, is the tenth of twelve (excluding CN0) paired cranial nerves. Upon leaving the medulla between the medullary pyramid and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, it extends through the jugular foramen, then passing into the carotid sheath between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein down below the head, to the neck, chest and abdomen, where it contributes to the innervation of the viscera. Besides output to the various organs in the body, the vagus nerve conveys sensory information about the state of the body's organs to the central nervous system. 80-90% of the nerve fibers in the vagus nerve are afferent (sensory) nerves communicating the state of the viscera to the brain. The medieval Latin word vagus means literally "wandering" (the words vagrant, vagabond, and vague come from the same root). Sometimes the branches are spoken of in the plural and are thus called vagi (/ˈveɪdʒaɪ/, US dict: vā′·jī). The vagus is also called the pneumogastric nerve since it innervates both the lungs and the stomach. The motor division of the vagus nerve is derived from the basal plate of the
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    Alderman's nerve

    Alderman's nerve

    The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is often termed the Alderman's nerve or Arnold's nerve. The latter name is an eponym for Friedrich Arnold. It supplies sensory innervation to the skin of the ear canal. It arises from the jugular ganglion, and is joined soon after its origin by a filament from the petrous ganglion of the glossopharyngeal; it passes behind the internal jugular vein, and enters the mastoid canaliculus on the lateral wall of the jugular fossa. Traversing the substance of the temporal bone, it crosses the facial canal about 4 mm (0.16 in) above the stylomastoid foramen, and here it gives off an ascending branch which joins the facial nerve. The nerve reaches the surface by passing through the tympanomastoid fissure between the mastoid process and the tympanic part of the temporal bone, and divides into two branches: This nerve may be involved by the glomus jugulare tumour. Laryngeal cancer can present with pain behind the ear and in the ear - this is a referred pain through the vagus nerve to the nerve of Arnold. In a small portion of individuals, the auricular nerve is the afferent limb of the Ear-Cough or Arnold Reflex. Physical stimulation of the external
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    Facial nerve

    Facial nerve

    The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla, and controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity. It also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia. The motor part of the facial nerve arises from the facial nerve nucleus in the pons while the sensory part of the facial nerve arises from the nervus intermedius. The motor part and sensory part of the facial nerve enters the petrous temporal bone via the internal auditory meatus (intimately close to the inner ear) then runs a tortuous course (including two tight turns) through the facial canal, emerges from the stylomastoid foramen and passes through the parotid gland, where it divides into five major branches. Though it passes through the parotid gland, it does not innervate the gland (This is the responsibility of cranial nerve IX, the glossopharyngeal nerve). The facial nerve forms the geniculate ganglion prior to entering the facial canal. Distal to stylomastoid foramen, the following nerves branch off
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    Lumbar nerves

    Lumbar nerves

    The lumbar nerves are the five spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. They are divided into posterior and anterior divisions. The medial branches of the posterior divisions of the lumbar nerves run close to the articular processes of the vertebræ and end in the Multifidus. The lateral branches supply the Sacrospinalis. The upper three give off cutaneous nerves which pierce the aponeurosis of the Latissimus dorsi at the lateral border of the Sacrospinalis and descend across the posterior part of the iliac crest to the skin of the buttock, some of their twigs running as far as the level of the greater trochanter. The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves (rami anteriores) increase in size from above downward. They are joined, near their origins, by gray rami communicantes from the lumbar ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. These rami consist of long, slender branches which accompany the lumbar arteries around the sides of the vertebral bodies, beneath the Psoas major. Their arrangement is somewhat irregular: one ganglion may give rami to two lumbar nerves, or one lumbar nerve may receive rami from two ganglia. The first and second, and sometimes the third and fourth lumbar
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    Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    The Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve (internal cutaneous nerve, medial cutaneous nerve of forearm) arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. It derives its fibers from the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and at its commencement is placed medial to the axillary artery. It gives off, near the axilla, a filament, which pierces the fascia and supplies the integument covering the Biceps brachii, nearly as far as the elbow. The nerve then runs down the ulnar side of the arm medial to the brachial artery, pierces the deep fascia with the basilic vein, about the middle of the arm, and divides into a volar and an ulnar branch. The volar branch (ramus volaris; anterior branch), the larger, passes usually in front of, but occasionally behind, the vena mediana cubiti (median basilic vein). It then descends on the front of the ulnar side of the forearm, distributing filaments to the skin as far as the wrist, and communicating with the palmar cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve. The ulnar branch (ramus ulnaris; posterior branch) passes obliquely downward on the medial side of the basilic vein, in front of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, to the back of the forearm,
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    Short ciliary nerves

    Short ciliary nerves

    The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves. These are delicate filaments, from six to ten in number, which arise from the forepart of the ganglion in two bundles connected with its superior and inferior angles; the lower bundle is the larger. They run forward with the ciliary arteries in a wavy course, one set above and the other below the optic nerve, and are accompanied by the long ciliary nerves from the nasociliary. They pierce the sclera at the back part of the bulb of the eye, pass forward in delicate grooves on the inner surface of the sclera, and are distributed to the Ciliaris muscle, iris, and cornea. The short ciliary nerve contains parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibers. The parasympathetics arise from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and synapse in the ciliary ganglion via the oculomotor nerve, the postganglionic parasympathetics leave the ciliary ganglion in the short ciliary nerve and supply the ciliary body and iris. Sympathetics are provided by the superior cervical ganglion and they reach the ganglion either as branches of the nasociliary nerve or directly from the extension of the plexus on the ophthalmic artery (sympathetic branch to
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    Upper subscapular nerve

    Upper subscapular nerve

    The upper subscapular (short subscapular, superior subscapular) enters the upper part of the Subscapularis, and is frequently represented by two branches. It is derived from C5, C6 nerve fibers, and branches from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Deep branch of the radial nerve

    Deep branch of the radial nerve

    The deep branch of the radial nerve winds to the back of the forearm around the lateral side of the radius between the two planes of fibers of the Supinator, and is prolonged downward between the superficial and deep layers of muscles, to the middle of the forearm. Considerably diminished in size, it descends, as the posterior interosseous nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Intercostobrachial nerve

    Intercostobrachial nerve

    The intercostobrachial nerves are cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. The lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve does not divide, like the others, into an anterior and a posterior branch; it is named the intercostobrachial nerve. It pierces the Intercostalis externus and the Serratus anterior, crosses the axilla to the medial side of the arm, and joins with a filament from the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. It then pierces the fascia, and supplies the skin of the upper half of the medial and posterior part of the arm, communicating with the posterior brachial cutaneous branch of the radial nerve. It is often the source of referred cardiac pain. The intercostabrachial nerve is also sometimes divided in axialliary node clearance (ANC), such as that done for breast cancer surgery which requires the removal of the axilliary nodes. Sensation to the cutaneous region supplied by the nerve is affected. The size of the intercostobrachial nerve is in inverse relationship to that of the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. A second intercostobrachial nerve is frequently given off from the lateral cutaneous branch of the third intercostal; it supplies filaments to the
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    Jugular ganglion

    Jugular ganglion

    The vagus presents a well-marked ganglionic enlargement, which is called the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve. It contains afferent somatosensory neuronal cell bodies that provide sensory information from the external auditory meatus (auricular branch), cranial meninges (meningeal branch), and the external surface of the tympanic membrane. Their central fibers synapse in the sensory trigeminal nucleus. It is of a grayish color, spherical in form, and about 4 mm. in diameter. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Zygomatic nerve

    Zygomatic nerve

    The zygomatic nerve (temporomalar nerve; orbital nerve) is a branch of the maxillary nerve (a trigeminal nerve branch) that enters the orbit and helps to supply the skin over the zygomatic and temporal bones. The zygomatic nerve is not to be confused with the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve. The zygomatic nerve arises in the pterygopalatine fossa. It enters the orbit by the inferior orbital fissure, and divides at the back of that cavity into two branches, the zygomaticotemporal nerve and zygomaticofacial nerve. The zygomatic nerve carries sensory fibers from the skin. It also carries post-synaptic parasympathetic fibers (originating in the pterygopalatine ganglion) to the lacrimal nerve via a communication. These fibers will eventually provide innervation to the lacrimal gland.These parasympathetic fibers come from the facial cranial nerve which is the seventh CN. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Recurrent laryngeal nerve

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve

    The recurrent (inferior) laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). It travels within the endoneurium. It is the nerve of the 6th Pharyngeal arch. It is referred to as "recurrent" because the branches of the nerve innervate the laryngeal muscles in the neck through a rather circuitous route: it descends into the thorax before rising up between the trachea and esophagus to reach the neck. The left laryngeal nerve, which is longer, branches from the vagus nerve to loop under the arch of the aorta, posterior to the ligamentum arteriosum before ascending. On the other hand, the right branch loops around the right subclavian artery. As the recurrent nerve hooks around the subclavian artery or aorta, it gives off several cardiac filaments to the deep part of the cardiac plexus. As it ascends in the neck it gives off branches, more numerous on the left than on the right side, to the mucous membrane and muscular coat of the esophagus; branches to the mucous membrane and muscular fibers of the trachea; and some pharyngeal filaments to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. The nerve splits
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    Deep fibular nerve

    Deep fibular nerve

    The deep fibular nerve (deep peroneal nerve) begins at the bifurcation of the common fibular nerve, between the fibula and upper part of the fibularis (peronæus) longus, passes infero-medially, deep to extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the anterior tibial artery above the middle of the leg; it then descends with the artery to the front of the ankle-joint, where it divides into a lateral and a medial terminal branch. It lies at first on the lateral side of the anterior tibial artery, then in front of it, and again on its lateral side at the ankle-joint. In the leg, the deep fibular nerve supplies muscular branches to the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis (peronæus) tertius, and extensor hallucis longus (propius), and an articular branch to the ankle-joint. After its bifurcation past the ankle joint, the lateral branch of the deep fibular nerve innervates the extensor digitorum brevis and the extensor hallucis brevis, while the medial branch goes on to provide cutaneous innervation to the webbing between the first and second digits. Damage to the deep fibular nerve, as is possible with
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    Accessory nerve

    Accessory nerve

    In anatomy, the accessory nerve is a nerve that controls specific muscles of the shoulder and neck. As part of it was formerly believed to originate in the brain, it is considered a cranial nerve. Based on its location relative to other such nerves, it is designated the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves, and is thus abbreviated CN XI. Traditional descriptions of the accessory nerve divide it into two parts: a spinal part and a cranial part. But because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve and serves the same function as other vagal nerve fibers, modern descriptions often consider the cranial component part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper. Thus in contemporary discussions of the accessory nerve, the common practice is to dismiss the cranial part altogether, referring to the accessory nerve specifically as the spinal accessory nerve. The spinal accessory nerve provides motor innervation from the central nervous system to two muscles of the neck: the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle. The sternocleidomastoid muscle tilts and rotates the head, while the trapezius muscle has several actions on the scapula, including shoulder
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    Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve

    Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve

    The dorsal branch of ulnar nerve arises about 5 cm. proximal to the wrist; it passes backward beneath the Flexor carpi ulnaris, perforates the deep fascia, and, running along the ulnar side of the back of the wrist and hand, divides into two dorsal digital branches; one supplies the ulnar side of the little finger; the other, the adjacent sides of the little and ring fingers. It also sends a twig to join that given by the superficial branch of the radial nerve for the adjoining sides of the middle and ring fingers, and assists in supplying them. A branch is distributed to the metacarpal region of the hand, communicating with a twig of the superficial branch of the radial nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal carotid plexus

    Internal carotid plexus

    The internal carotid plexus (carotid plexus) is situated on the lateral side of the internal carotid artery, and in the plexus there occasionally exists a small gangliform swelling, the carotid ganglion, on the under surface of the artery. Postganglionic sympathetic fibres ascend from the superior cervical ganglion, along the walls of the internal carotid artery, to enter the internal carotid plexus. These fibres then distribute to deep structures, which include the Superior Tarsal Muscle and pupillary dilator muscles. Some of the fibres from the internal carotid plexus converge to form the deep petrosal nerve. The internal carotid plexus communicates with the trigeminal ganglion, the abducent nerve, and the sphenopalatine ganglion (also named pterygopalatine); it distributes filaments to the wall of the carotid artery, and also communicates with the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Medial cord

    Medial cord

    The Medial cord is a division of the brachial plexus. The medial cord gives rise to the following nerves:
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    Petrous ganglion

    Petrous ganglion

    The inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve (petrous ganglion) is larger than the superior ganglion and is situated in a depression in the lower border of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. It contains the bodies of general somatic sensory neurons for innervation of the pharynx, tonsils, tongue, middle ear, auditory tube and the ear canal. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Proper palmar digital nerves of median nerve

    Proper palmar digital nerves of median nerve

    In the palm of the hand the median nerve is covered by the skin and the palmar aponeurosis, and rests on the tendons of the Flexor muscles. Immediately after emerging from under the transverse carpal ligament the median nerve becomes enlarged and flattened and splits into a smaller, lateral, and a larger, medial portion. The lateral portion supplies a short, stout branch to certain of the muscles of the ball of the thumb, viz., the Abductor brevis, the Opponens, and the superficial head of the Flexor brevis, and then divides into three proper palmar digital nerves of median nerve (proper volar digital nerves): It also divides into two common palmar digital nerves: Each proper digital nerve, opposite the base of the first phalanx, gives off a dorsal branch which joins the dorsal digital nerve from the superficial branch of the radial nerve, and supplies the integument on the dorsal aspect of the last phalanx. At the end of the digit, the proper digital nerve divides into two branches, The proper digital nerves, as they run along the fingers, are placed superficial to the corresponding arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's
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    Long thoracic nerve

    Long thoracic nerve

    The long thoracic nerve (external respiratory nerve of Bell; posterior thoracic nerve) supplies the Serratus anterior. This nerve characteristically arises by three roots from the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical nerves (C5-C7) but the root from C7 may be absent. The roots from C5 and C6 pierce the Scalenus medius, while the C7 root passes in front of the muscle. The nerve descends behind the brachial plexus and the axillary vessels, resting on the outer surface of the Serratus anterior. It extends along the side of the thorax to the lower border of that muscle, supplying filaments to each of its digitations (finger-like projections). Due to its long, relatively superficial course, it is susceptible to injury either through direct trauma or stretch. Injury has been reported in almost all sports, typically occurring from a blow to the ribs underneath an outstretched arm. The long thoracic nerve can also be damaged during surgery for breast cancer, specifically radical mastectomies that involve removal of axillary lymph nodes. Injuries to the nerve can result from carrying heavy bags over the shoulder for a prolonged time. There are also reports of isolated damage to this nerve as
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    Mylohyoid nerve

    Mylohyoid nerve

    The mylohyoid nerve (or nerve to mylohyoid) is a nerve that innervates the mylohyoid muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. The mylohyoid nerve branches from the inferior alveolar nerve (a branch of the mandibular nerve, the third part of the trigeminal nerve) just before it enters the mandibular foramen. It descends in a groove on the deep surface of the ramus of the mandible, and reaching the under surface of the mylohyoid muscle, it supplies both the mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Cardiac plexus

    Cardiac plexus

    The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervates the heart. The cardiac plexus is divided into a superficial part, which lies in the concavity of the aortic arch, and a deep part, between the aortic arch and the trachea. The two parts are, however, closely connected. The superficial part of the cardiac plexus lies beneath the arch of the aorta, in front of the right pulmonary artery. It is formed by the superior cardiac branch of the left sympathetic trunk and the lower superior cervical cardiac branch of the left vagus nerve. A small ganglion, the cardiac ganglion of Wrisberg, is occasionally found connected with these nerves at their point of junction. This ganglion, when present, is situated immediately beneath the arch of the aorta, on the right side of the ligamentum arteriosum. The superficial part of the cardiac plexus gives branches The deep part of the cardiac plexus is situated in front of the bifurcation of the trachea, above the point of division of the pulmonary artery, and behind the aortic arch. It is formed by the cardiac nerves derived from the cervical ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, and the cardiac branches of the vagus
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    Dorsal scapular nerve

    Dorsal scapular nerve

    The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, usually from the plexus root (anterior/ventral ramus) of C5. It provides motor innervation to the rhomboid muscles, which pull the scapula towards the spine and levator scapulae muscle, which elevates the scapula. Injury to this nerve is usually apparent when the scapula on one side is located farther from the midline. Once the nerve leaves C5 it commonly pierces the middle scalene muscle, and continues deep to levator scapulae and the rhomboids. It is accompanied by the one of two arteries. Either the dorsal scapular artery (the only artery that comes off of the third part of subclavian when present, although its origin is highly variable in different people) or when the dorsal scapular artery is absent, it is accompanied by the deep branch of the transverse cervical artery (an artery coming off of the thyrocervical trunk, a branch of the first part of the subclavian artery, the other two branches being vertebral artery and internal thoracic artery).
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    Hypoglossal nerve

    Hypoglossal nerve

    The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII), leading to the tongue. The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus and emerges from the medulla oblongata in the preolivary sulcus separating the olive and the pyramid. It then passes through the hypoglossal canal. On emerging from the hypoglossal canal, it gives off a small meningeal branch and picks up a branch from the anterior ramus of C1. It spirals behind the vagus nerve and passes between the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein lying on the carotid sheath. After passing deep to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, it passes to the submandibular region, passes lateral to the Hyoglossus muscle, and inferior to the lingual nerve to reach and efferently innervate the tongue. It supplies motor fibres to all of the muscles of the tongue, except the palatoglossus muscle, which is innervated by the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) or, according to some classifications, by fibres from the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX) that "hitchhike" within the vagus. It controls tongue movements of speech, food manipulation, and swallowing. The hypoglossal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the
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    Inferior hypogastric plexus

    Inferior hypogastric plexus

    The inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus in some texts) is a plexus of nerves that supplies the viscera of the pelvic cavity. The inferior hypogastric plexus is a paired structure, with each situated on the side of the rectum in the male, and at the sides of the rectum and vagina in the female. Contributions to the plexus include: At the points of junction of these nerves small ganglia are found. From these plexuses numerous branches are distributed to the viscera of the pelvis. They accompany the branches of the internal iliac artery. It is the source for the middle rectal plexus, vesical plexus, prostatic plexus, and uterovaginal plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Olfactory nerve

    Olfactory nerve

    The olfactory nerve, or cranial nerve I, is the first of twelve cranial nerves. It is instrumental in the sense of smell. Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is capable of regeneration. The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the nasal cavity. The olfactory nerves do not form two trunks as do the remaining cranial nerves. Rather, they consist of a collection of many sensory nerve fibers that extend from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb, passing through the many openings of the Cribriform plate of the Ethmoid bone, a sieve-like structure. Olfactory receptor neurons continue to be born throughout life and extend new axons to the olfactory bulb. Olfactory ensheathing glia wrap bundles of these axons and are thought to facilitate their passage into the central nervous system. The sense of smell (olfaction) arises from the stimulation of olfactory (or odorant) receptors by small molecules of different spatial, chemical, and electrical properties that pass over the nasal epithelium in the nasal cavity during inhalation. These interactions are transduced into
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    Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm

    Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm

    The superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm (or superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve) is the continuation of the posterior cord of the axillary nerve, after it pierces the deep fascia. It sweeps around the posterior border of the deltoideus and supplies the skin over the lower two-thirds of the posterior part of this muscle, as well as that covering the long head of the triceps brachii. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Sympathetic trunk

    Sympathetic trunk

    The sympathetic trunks (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) are a paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx. The sympathetic trunk travels in a downward direction from the skull, just lateral to the vertebral bodies. It interacts with the spinal nerves or their ventral rami by way of rami communicantes. The superior end of it is continued upward through the carotid canal into the skull, and forms a plexus on the internal carotid artery; the inferior part travels in front of the coccyx, where it converges with the other trunk at a structure known as the ganglion impar. Along the length of the sympathetic trunk are ganglia known as paravertebral ganglia. The sympathetic trunk is a fundamental part of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. It allows nerve fibers to travel to spinal nerves that are superior and inferior to the one in which they originated. Also, a number of nerves, such as most of the splanchnic nerves, arise directly from the trunks. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Zygomaticotemporal nerve

    Zygomaticotemporal nerve

    The zygomaticotemporal nerve or zygomaticotemporal branch (temporal branch) is derived from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve (Cranial nerve V). It runs along the lateral wall of the orbit in a groove in the zygomatic bone, receives a branch of communication from the lacrimal, and passes through zygomaticotemporal foramen in the zygomatic bone to enter the temporal fossa. It ascends between the bone, and substance of the Temporalis muscle, pierces the temporal fascia about 2.5 cm. above the zygomatic arch, and is distributed to the skin of the side of the forehead, and communicates with the facial nerve and with the auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular nerve. As it pierces the temporal fascia, it gives off a slender twig, which runs between the two layers of the fascia to the lateral angle of the orbit. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Cervical branch of the facial nerve

    Cervical branch of the facial nerve

    The cervical branch of the facial nerve runs forward beneath the Platysma, and forms a series of arches across the side of the neck over the suprahyoid region. One branch descends to join the cervical cutaneous nerve from the cervical plexus; others supply the Platysma. Also supplies the depressor anguli oris. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ovarian plexus

    In the female, the ovarian plexus arises from the renal plexus, and is distributed to the ovary, and fundus of the uterus. It is carried in the suspensory ligament of the ovary. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.
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    Infraorbital nerve

    Infraorbital nerve

    After the maxillary nerve enters the infraorbital canal, the nerve is frequently called the infraorbital nerve. This nerve innervates the lower eyelid, upper lip, and part of the nasal vestibule and exits the infraorbital foramen of the maxilla. There is a cross innervation of this nerve on the other side of jaw This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lateral plantar nerve

    Lateral plantar nerve

    The lateral plantar nerve (external plantar nerve) is a branch of the tibial nerve, in turn a branch of the sciatic nerve and supplies the skin of the fifth toe and lateral half of the fourth, as well as most of the deep muscles, its distribution being similar to that of the ulnar nerve in the hand. It passes obliquely forward with the lateral plantar artery to the lateral side of the foot, lying between the Flexor digitorum brevis and Quadratus plantæ and, in the interval between the former muscle and the abductor digiti minimi, divides into a superficial and a deep branch. Before its division, it supplies the Quadratus plantæ and abductor digiti minimi. It divides into deep and superficial branches. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Nodose ganglion

    Nodose ganglion

    The nodose ganglion (ganglion of the trunk; inferior ganglion of vagus nerve) is cylindrical in form, of a reddish color, and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in length. It is located in the height of the transverse process of the first cervical vertebra (atlas). Passing through it is the cranial portion of the accessory nerve, which blends with the vagus below the ganglion. As opposed to the jugular ganglion of the vagus nerve, the inferior or nodose ganglion is larger. It is chiefly visceral afferent in function concerning sensation of heart, larynx, lungs and alimentary tract from the pharynx to the transverse colon. These visceral afferents synapse centrally in the nucleus solitarius. Both ganglia are traversed by parasympathetic, and perhaps some sympathetic fibres. Preganglionic motor fibres (ganglionic branches) from the dorsal vagal nucleus and the special visceral efferents from the nucleus ambiguus, which descend to the inferior vagal ganglion form a band skirting the ganglion. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Genitofemoral nerve

    Genitofemoral nerve

    In human anatomy, the genitofemoral nerve (sometimes called the genitocrural) originates from the upper part of the lumbar plexus of spinal nerves. Its roots are L1 and L2 (lumbar). The genitofemoral nerve is responsible for both the efferent and afferent limbs of the cremasteric reflex. The ilioinguinal nerve (L1) is also involved in the afferent limb of the reflex. It emerges on the anterior surface of the psoas major muscle and divides into two branches:
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    Glossopharyngeal nerve

    Glossopharyngeal nerve

    The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth (IX) of twelve pairs of cranial nerves (24 nerves total). It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve. The motor division of the glossopharyngeal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic medulla oblongata, while the sensory division originates from the cranial neural crest. There are a number of functions of the glossopharyngeal nerve: (From: inferior salivary nucleus - through jugular foramen - tympanic n.(of Jacobson)- lesser petrosal n. - through foramen ovale - Otic ganglion (Pre-Ganglionic Parasympathetic fibers synapse, to start Post-Ganglionic Parasympathetic fibers) - Auriculotemporal n.(Parasympathetics hitchhikes to reach Parotid gland) The glossopharyngeal nerve consists of five components with distinct functions: Branchial motor (special visceral efferent) - supplies the stylopharyngeus muscle. Visceral motor (general visceral efferent) provides parasympathetic innervation of the parotid gland. Visceral sensory (general visceral afferent) carries visceral sensory information from the carotid sinus and body. General sensory (general somatic
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    Nasopalatine nerve

    Nasopalatine nerve

    One branch of the posterior superior nasal branches (Trigeminal nerve, Maxillary branch), longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve (sometimes called the long sphenopalatine nerve). It enters the nasal cavity through the sphenopalatine foramen, passes across the roof of the nasal cavity below the orifice of the sphenoidal sinus to reach the septum, and then runs obliquely downward and forward between the periosteum and mucous membrane of the lower part of the septum. It descends to the roof of the mouth through the incisive canal and communicates with the corresponding nerve of the opposite side and with the greater palatine nerve. It supplies the palatal structures around the upper central and lateral incisors and the canines (the upper front six teeth). It also furnishes a few filaments to the mucous membrane of the nasal septum. The medial superior posterior nasal branches of maxillary nerve usually branches from the nasopalatine nerve. It was first discovered by Domenico Cotugno. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior ganglion

    Superior ganglion

    The superior ganglion (jugular ganglion) is situated in the upper part of the groove in which the glossopharyngeal nerve is lodged during its passage through the jugular foramen. It is very small, and is usually regarded as a detached portion of the petrous ganglion. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Cochlear nerve

    Cochlear nerve

    The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic nerve) is a nerve in the head that carries signals from the cochlea of the inner ear to the brain. It is part of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the 8th cranial nerve which is found in higher vertebrates; the other portion of the 8th cranial nerve is the vestibular nerve which carries spatial orientation information from the semicircular canals. The cochlear nerve is a sensory nerve, one which conducts to the brain information about the environment, in this case acoustic energy impinging on the tympanic membrane (sound waves reaching the ear drum). The cochlear nerve arises from within the cochlea and extends to the brainstem, where its fibers make contact with the cochlear nucleus, the next stage of neural processing in the auditory system. In terms of their anatomy, auditory nerve fibers are bipolar, with the most distal portion being called the peripheral process and the central projection being called the axon; these two projections are also known as the "peripheral axon" and the "central axon". The peripheral process is sometimes referred to as a dendrite, although that term is somewhat inaccurate. Unlike the typical dendrite, the
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    Ansa cervicalis

    Ansa cervicalis

    The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi in older literature) is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. It lies superficial to the internal jugular vein in the carotid sheath. Branches from the ansa cervicalis innervate three of the four infrahyoid muscles: the sternohyoid muscle, the sternothyroid muscle, and the omohyoid muscle. It does not innervate the thyrohyoid muscle, which receives its innervation from the ventral root of C1. Two roots make up the ansa cervicalis.
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    Lateral cord

    Lateral cord

    The Lateral cord is a division of the brachial plexus. The lateral cord gives rise to the following nerves:
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    Posterior cord

    Posterior cord

    The posterior cord is a part of the brachial plexus. It consists of contributions from all of the roots of the brachial plexus. The posterior cord gives rise to the following nerves: MBBS resources http://mbbsbasic.googlepages.com/
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    Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm

    Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm

    The posterior cutaneous nerve of arm (internal cutaneous branch of musculospiral, posterior brachial cutaneous nerve) is a branch of the radial nerve that provides sensory innervation for much of the skin on the back of the arm. It arises in the axilla. It is of small size, and passes through the axilla to the medial side of the area supplying the skin on its dorsal surface nearly as far as the olecranon. In its course it crosses behind and communicates with the intercostobrachial. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Subcostal nerve

    Subcostal nerve

    The anterior division of the twelfth thoracic nerve (subcostal nerve) is larger than the others; it runs along the lower border of the twelfth rib, often gives a communicating branch to the first lumbar nerve, and passes under the lateral lumbocostal arch. It then runs in front of the Quadratus lumborum, perforates the Transversus, and passes forward between it and the Obliquus internus to be distributed in the same manner as the lower intercostal nerves. It communicates with the iliohypogastric nerve of the lumbar plexus, and gives a branch to the Pyramidalis. It also gives off a lateral cutaneous branch that supplies sensory innervation to the skin over the hip. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Sural nerve

    Sural nerve

    The sural nerve (short saphenous nerve), formed by the junction of the medial sural cutaneous with the peroneal anastomotic branch of the lateral sural cutaneous nerve, passes downward near the lateral margin of the tendo calcaneus, lying close to the small saphenous vein, to the interval between the lateral malleolus and the calcaneus. It runs forward below the lateral malleolus, and is continued as the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve along the lateral side of the foot and little toe (via a dorsal digital nerve), communicating on the dorsum of the foot with the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve, a branch of the superficial peroneal. In the leg, its branches communicate with those of the collateral branches off of the common tibial, and common fibular nerve. The sural nerve subserves a purely sensory function, and therefore its removal results in only a relatively trivial deficit. For this reason, it is often used for nerve biopsy, as well as the donor nerve when a nerve graft is performed. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Cranial nerves

    Cranial nerves

    Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. In humans, there are traditionally twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Only the first and the second pair emerge from the cerebrum; the remaining ten pairs emerge from the brainstem. Human cranial nerves are nerves similar to those found in many other vertebrates. Cranial nerves XI and XII evolved in other species to amniotes (non-amphibian tetrapods), thus totaling twelve pairs. In some primitive cartilaginous fishes, such as the spiny dogfish or mud shark (Squalus acanthias), there is a terminal nerve numbered zero, since it exits the brain before the traditionally designated first cranial nerve. Because they exit from the brainstem as opposed to the spinal column, these are part of the central nervous system. As the list is important to keep in mind during the examination of the nervous system, there are many mnemonic devices in circulation to help remember the names and order of the cranial nerves. Because the mind recalls rhymes well, the best mnemonics often use rhyming schemes. An example mnemonic sentence for the initial letters
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    Deep temporal nerves

    Deep temporal nerves

    The deep temporal nerves, branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, are two in number, anterior and posterior. They pass above the upper border of the pterygoideus externus and enter the deep surface of the temporalis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lumboinguinal nerve

    Lumboinguinal nerve

    The lumboinguinal nerve (femoral or crural branch of genitofemoral) descends on the external iliac artery, sending a few filaments around it, and, passing beneath the inguinal ligament, enters the sheath of the femoral vessels, lying superficial and lateral to the femoral artery. It pierces the anterior layer of the sheath of the vessels and the fascia lata, and supplies the skin of the anterior surface of the upper part of the thigh. On the front of the thigh it communicates with the anterior cutaneous branches of the femoral nerve. A few filaments from the lumboinguinal nerve may be traced to the femoral artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Optic nerve

    Optic nerve

    The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve 2, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. Derived from the embryonic retinal ganglion cell, a diverticulum located in the diencephalon, the optic nerve does not regenerate after transection. The optic nerve is the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but is considered to be part of the central nervous system, as it is derived from an outpouching of the diencephalon during embryonic development. As a consequence, the fibres are covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes, rather than Schwann cells, which are found in the peripheral nervous system, and are encased within the meninges. Peripheral neuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome do not affect the optic nerve. The optic nerve is ensheathed in all three meningeal layers (dura, arachnoid, and pia mater) rather than the epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium found in peripheral nerves. Fibre tracks of the mammalian central nervous system (as opposed to the peripheral nervous system) are incapable of regeneration, and, hence, optic nerve damage produces irreversible blindness. The fibres from the retina run along the optic nerve to nine primary visual nuclei
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    Radial nerve

    Radial nerve

    The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body that supplies the upper limb. It supplies the medial and lateral heads of the triceps brachii muscle of the arm, as well as all 12 muscles in the posterior osteofascial compartment of the forearm and the associated joints and overlying skin. It originates from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, carrying fibers from the ventral roots of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1. The radial nerve and its branches provide motor innervation to the dorsal arm muscles (the triceps brachii and the anconeus) and the extrinsic extensors of the wrists and hands; it also provides cutaneous sensory innervation to most of the back of the hand. The ulnar nerve provides cutaneous sensory innervation to the back of the little finger and adjacent half of the ring finger. The radial nerve divides into a deep branch, which becomes the posterior interosseous nerve, and a superficial branch, which goes on to innervate the dorsum (back) of the hand. The radial nerve originates as a terminal branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It goes through the arm, first in the posterior compartment of the arm, and later in the anterior compartment of the
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    Trochlear nerve

    Trochlear nerve

    The trochlear nerve (the fourth cranial nerve, also called the fourth nerve, IV) is a motor nerve (a “somatic efferent” nerve) that innervates a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye. The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects. It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of axons it contains. It has the greatest intracranial length. Other than the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), it is the only cranial nerve that decussates (crosses to the other side) before innervating its target. Finally, it is the only cranial nerve that exits from the dorsal aspect of the brainstem. Homologous trochlear nerves are found in all jawed vertebrates. The unique features of the trochlear nerve, including its dorsal exit from the brainstem and its contralateral innervation, are seen in the primitive brains of sharks. The human trochlear nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. The trochlear nerve emerges from the dorsal aspect of the brainstem at the level of the caudal mesencephalon, just below the inferior colliculus. It circles anteriorly around the brainstem and runs forward toward the eye in the subarachnoid space. It
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    Brachial plexus

    Brachial plexus

    The brachial plexus is a network of nerve fibers, running from the spine, formed by the ventral rami of the lower four cervical and first thoracic nerve roots (C5-C8, T1). It proceeds through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. It is a bunch of nerves passing through the cervico-axillary canal to reach axilla and supplies brachium, antebrachium and hand. The brachial plexus is responsible for cutaneous and muscular innervation of the entire upper limb, with two exceptions: the trapezius muscle innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) and an area of skin near the axilla innervated by the intercostobrachial nerve. Lesions can lead to severe functional impairment. The brachial plexus is divided into Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, and Branches. There are five "terminal" branches and numerous other "pre-terminal" or "collateral" branches that leave the plexus at various points along its length. Bold indicates primary spinal root component of nerve. Italics indicate spinal roots that frequently, but not always, contribute to the nerve. Some mnemonics for remembering the branches:
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    Posterior branch of spinal nerve

    Posterior branch of spinal nerve

    The posterior (or dorsal) branches (or divisions) of the spinal nerves are as a rule smaller than the anterior divisions. They are also referred to as the dorsal rami. They are directed backward, and, with the exceptions of those of the first cervical, the fourth and fifth sacral, and the coccygeal, divide into medial and lateral branches for the supply of the muscles and skin of the posterior part of the trunk. Shortly after a spinal nerve exits the intervertebral foramen, it branches into the dorsal ramus, ventral ramus, and rami communicantes. Each of these latter three structures carries both sensory and motor information. Because each spinal nerve carries both sensory and motor information, spinal nerves are referred to as “mixed nerves.” Dorsal rami carry visceral motor, somatic motor, and sensory information to and from the skin and deep muscles of the back. Dorsal rami remain distinct from each other, and each innervates a narrow strip of skin and muscle along the back, more or less at the level from which the ramus leaves the spinal nerve. The smaller, posteriorly-directed major terminal branch (with the ventral primary ramus) of all 31 pairs of mixed spinal nerves, formed
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    Esophageal plexus

    Esophageal plexus

    The esophageal plexus is formed by nerve fibers from two sources: 1.branches of the vagus nerve 2.visceral branches of the sympathetic trunk. The esophageal plexus and the cardiac plexus contain the same types of fibers and are both considered thoracic autonomic plexus(es). 1. The Vagus nerve delivers two fiber types to the esophageal plexus: "Note": These vagal fibers in the esophageal plexus reform to make the anterior vagal trunk (left vagus) and the posterior vagal trunk (right vagus). Anterior and posterior being terms in relation to the esophagus. a mneumonic for which is 'LARP': Left becomes Anterior, Right becomes Posterior. 2. The visceral branches of the sympathetic trunk also deliver two fiber types to the esophageal plexus This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lumbar splanchnic nerves

    The lumbar splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that arise from the lumbar part of the sympathetic trunk and travel to an adjacent plexus near the aorta. They are originated from L1 and L2. These nerves contain preganglionic sympathetic and visceral afferent fibers. The site of synapse is found in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and the postsynaptic fibers innervate the smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera and hindgut.
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    Ophthalmic nerve

    Ophthalmic nerve

    The ophthalmic nerve (V1) is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries only sensory fibers. The ophthalmic nerve supplies branches to the cornea, ciliary body, and iris; to the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva; to the part of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity; and to the skin of the eyelids, eyebrow, forehead and nose. It is the smallest of the three divisions of the trigeminal, and arises from the upper part of the trigeminal ganglion as a short, flattened band, about 2.5 cm. long, which passes forward along the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, below the oculomotor and trochlear nerves; just before entering the orbit, through the superior orbital fissure, it divides into three branches, lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary. The frontal branch passes through the orbit superiorly, then reenters the frontal bone briefly before exiting above the orbit through the supraorbital foramen and the supratrochlear notch to provide sensory innervation for the skin of the forehead and scalp. The lacrimal nerve passes through the orbit superiorly to innervate the lacrimal gland. The nasociliary branch gives off several sensory
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    Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

    Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

    The pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve, the principal motor nerve of the pharynx, arises from the upper part of the ganglion nodosum, and consists principally of filaments from the cranial portion of the accessory nerve. It passes across the internal carotid artery to the upper border of the Constrictor pharyngis medius, where it divides into numerous filaments, which join with branches from the glossopharyngeal, sympathetic, and external laryngeal to form the pharyngeal plexus. From the plexus, branches are distributed to the muscles and mucous membrane of the pharynx (except the stylopharyngeus) and the muscles of the soft palate, except the Tensor veli palatini. A minute filament descends and joins the hypoglossal nerve as it winds around the occipital artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pudendal nerve

    Pudendal nerve

    The pudendal nerve is a sensory and somatic nerve in the pelvic region that innervates the external genitalia of both sexes, as well as sphincters for the bladder and the rectum. It originates in Onuf's nucleus in the sacral region of the spinal cord, and travels in the S2-S4 nerves of the sacral plexus. The pudendal nerve originates in the sacral plexus; it derives its fibers from the ventral rami of the second, third, and fourth sacral nerves (S2, S3, S4). It passes between the piriformis and coccygeus muscles and leaves the pelvis through the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen. It crosses the spine of the ischium, and reenters the pelvis through the lesser sciatic foramen. It accompanies the internal pudendal vessels upward and forward along the lateral wall of the ischiorectal fossa, being contained in a sheath of the obturator fascia termed the pudendal canal. The pudendal nerve gives off the inferior rectal nerves. It soon divides into two terminal branches: the perineal nerve, and the dorsal nerve of the penis (in males) or the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (in females). Research shows that variations in pudendal nerve origin are possible. For example, the pudendal
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    Accessory obturator nerve

    Accessory obturator nerve

    In human anatomy, the accessory obturator nerve is an accessory nerve in the lumbar region present in about 29% of cases. It is of small size, and arises from the ventral divisions of the third and fourth lumbar nerves. Recent evidence support that this muscle arises from Dorsal divisions. It descends along the medial border of the psoas major, crosses the superior ramus of the pubis, and passes under the pectineus, where it divides into numerous branches. One of these supplies the pectineus, penetrating its deep surface, another is distributed to the hip-joint; while a third communicates with the anterior branch of the obturator nerve. Occasionally the accessory obturator nerve is very small and is lost in the capsule of the hip-joint. When it is absent, the hip-joint receives two branches from the obturator nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ilioinguinal nerve

    Ilioinguinal nerve

    The ilioinguinal nerve is a branch of the first lumbar nerve (L1). It separates from the first lumbar nerve along with the larger iliohypogastric nerve. It emerges from the lateral border of the psoas major just inferior to the iliohypogastric, and passes obliquely across the quadratus lumborum and iliacus. The ilioinguinal nerve then perforates the transversus abdominis near the anterior part of the iliac crest, and communicates with the iliohypogastric nerve between the transversus and the obliquus internus. It then pierces the obliquus internus, distributing filaments to it, and then accompanies the spermatic cord through the superficial inguinal ring. Its fibers are then distributed to the skin of the upper and medial part of the thigh, and to the following locations in the male and female: Note that the ilioinguinal nerve does not pass through the deep inguinal ring, and therefore it only travels through part of the inguinal canal. The size of this nerve is in inverse proportion to that of the iliohypogastric. Occasionally it is very small, and ends by joining the iliohypogastric; in such cases, a branch from the iliohypogastric takes the place of the ilioinguinal, or the
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    Long ciliary nerves

    Long ciliary nerves

    The long ciliary nerves, two or three in number, are given off from the nasociliary, as it crosses the optic nerve. They accompany the short ciliary nerves from the ciliary ganglion, pierce the posterior part of the sclera, and running forward between it and the choroid, are distributed to the iris and cornea. The long ciliary nerves provide sensory innervation to the eyeball, including the cornea. In addition, they contain sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion to the dilator pupillæ muscle. The sympathetic fibers to the dilator pupillae muscle mainly travel in the nasociliary nerve but there are also sympathetic fibers in the short ciliary nerves that pass through the ciliary ganglion without forming synapses. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Mental nerve

    Mental nerve

    Mental nerve is a general somatic afferent (sensory) nerve which provides sensation to the anterior aspects of the chin and lower lip as well as the buccal gingivae of the mandibular anterior teeth and the premolars. It is a branch of the posterior trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve, which is itself a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The nerve emerges at the mental foramen in the mandibula, and divides beneath the Depressor anguli oris muscle into three branches: These branches communicate freely with the facial nerve. The mental nerve can be blocked with local anesthesia, a procedure used in surgery of the chin, lower lip and buccal mucosa from midline to the second premolar. In this technique, local anesthetic is infiltrated in the soft tissue surrounding the mental foramen. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Palmar branch of ulnar nerve

    Palmar branch of ulnar nerve

    The palmar branch of the ulnar nerve arises about five cm above the wrist from where the ulnar nerve splits into palmar and dorsal branches. The palmar branch represents the continuation of the ulnar nerve as it crosses the flexor retinaculum of the hand on the lateral side of the pisiform bone, medial to and a little behind the ulnar artery. Some sources state that it ends by dividing into a superficial and a deep branch. (Other sources state that the superficial branch of ulnar nerve and deep branch of ulnar nerve are the terminal branches of the ulnar nerve itself.) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior labial nerve

    Superior labial nerve

    The superior labial branches (labial branches), the largest and most numerous, descend behind the Quadratus labii superioris, and are distributed to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands. They are joined, immediately beneath the orbit, by filaments from the facial nerve, forming with them the infraorbital plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior mesenteric plexus

    Superior mesenteric plexus

    The superior mesenteric plexus is a continuation of the lower part of the celiac plexus, receiving a branch from the junction of the right vagus nerve with the plexus. It surrounds the superior mesenteric artery, accompanies it into the mesentery, and divides into a number of secondary plexuses, which are distributed to all the parts supplied by the artery, viz., pancreatic branches to the pancreas; intestinal branches to the small intestine; and ileocolic, right colic, and middle colic branches, which supply the corresponding parts of the great intestine. The nerves composing this plexus are white in color and firm in texture; in the upper part of the plexus close to the origin of the superior mesenteric artery is the superior mesenteric ganglion. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Zygomaticofacial nerve

    Zygomaticofacial nerve

    The zygomaticofacial nerve or zygomaticofacial branch of zygomatic nerve (malar branch) passes along the infero-lateral angle of the orbit, emerges upon the face through the zygomaticofacial foramen in the zygomatic bone, and, perforating the Orbicularis oculi to reach the skin of the malar area. It joins with the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and with the inferior palpebral branches of the maxillary nerve. The area of skin supplied by this nerve is over the prominence of the cheek. This was recently confirmed in a study using microdissection of cadavers. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Geniculate ganglion

    Geniculate ganglion

    The geniculate ganglion (from Latin genu, for "knee") is an L-shaped collection of fibers and sensory neurons of the facial nerve located in the facial canal of the head. It receives fibers from the motor, sensory, and parasympathetic components of the facial nerve and sends fibers that will innervate the lacrimal glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands, tongue, palate, pharynx, external auditory meatus, stapedius, posterior belly of the digastric muscle, stylohyoid muscle, and muscles of facial expression. The geniculate ganglion contains special sensory neuronal cell bodies for taste, from fibers coming up from the tongue through the chorda tympani and from fibres coming up from the roof of the palate through the greater petrosal nerve (MJ Fitzgerald et al. Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience). Sensory and parasympathetic inputs are carried into the geniculate ganglion via the nervus intermedius. Motor fibers are carried via the facial nerve proper. The greater petrosal nerve, which carries sensory fibers as well as preganglionic parasympathetic fibers, emerges from the anterior aspect of the ganglion. The geniculate ganglion is one of several ganglia of the head and
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    Infratrochlear nerve

    Infratrochlear nerve

    The infratrochlear nerve is given off from the nasociliary just before it enters the anterior ethmoidal foramen. It runs forward along the upper border of the medial rectus, and is joined, near the pulley of the superior oblique, by a filament from the supratrochlear nerve. It then passes to the medial commissure of the eye, and supplies the skin of the eyelids and side of the nose, the conjunctiva, lacrimal sac and caruncle. Infratrochlear means "below the trochlea". The term trochlea means "pulley" in Latin. Specifically, the trochlea referred to is a bony loop at the inner and upper corner of the eye socket (trochlea of superior oblique), through which the tendon of the superior oblique muscle passes. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm

    The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (or lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm) (branch of musculocutaneous nerve, also sometimes spelled "antebrachial") passes behind the cephalic vein, and divides, opposite the elbow-joint, into a volar and a dorsal branch. The volar branch (ramus volaris; anterior branch) descends along the radial border of the forearm to the wrist, and supplies the skin over the lateral half of its volar surface. At the wrist-joint it is placed in front of the radial artery, and some filaments, piercing the deep fascia, accompany that vessel to the dorsal surface of the carpus. The nerve then passes downward to the ball of the thumb, where it ends in cutaneous filaments. It communicates with the superficial branch of the radial nerve, and with the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve. The dorsal branch (ramus dorsalis; posterior branch) descends, along the dorsal surface of the radial side of the forearm to the wrist. It supplies the skin of the lower two-thirds of the dorso-lateral surface of the forearm, communicating with the superficial branch of the radial nerve and the dorsal antebrachial cutaneous branch of the radial. This article was originally
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    Nerve to the Piriformis

    Nerve to the Piriformis

    The nerve to piriformis is a nerve that innervates the piriformis muscle. The nerve to piriformis originates in the sacral plexus. It arises from the dorsal division of the second sacral nerve, or the dorsal divisions of the first and second sacral nerves (S1 & S2), and enters the anterior surface of the piriformis muscle; this nerve may be double. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior scrotal nerves

    Posterior scrotal nerves

    The posterior scrotal branches (in men) or ""posterior labial branches"" (in women) are two in number, medial and lateral. They are branches of the perineal nerve, which is itself is a branch of the pudendal nerve. The pudendal nerve arises from spinal roots S2 through S4, travels through the pudendal canal on the fascia of the obturator internus muscle, and gives off the perineal nerve in the perineum. The major branch of the perineal nerve is the posterior scrotal/posterior labial. They pierce the fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, and run forward along the lateral part of the urethral triangle in company with the posterior scrotal branches of the perineal artery; they are distributed to the skin of the scrotum or labia and communicate with the perineal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior gluteal nerve

    Superior gluteal nerve

    The superior gluteal nerve is a nerve that originates in the pelvis and supplies the gluteus medius, the gluteus minimus, and the tensor fasciae latae muscles. The superior gluteal nerve originates in the sacral plexus. It arises from the dorsal divisions of the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves. It leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis, accompanied by the superior gluteal artery and the superior gluteal vein. It then accompanies the upper branch of the deep division of the superior gluteal artery and ends in the gluteus minimus and tensor fasciae latae muscle. In normal gait, the small gluteal muscles on the stance side can stabilize the pelvis in the coronal plane. Weakness or paralysis of these muscles caused by a damaged superior gluteal nerve can result in a weak abduction in the affected hip joint. This gait disturbance is known as Trendelenburg gait. In a positive Trendelenburg's sign the pelvis sags toward the normal unsupported side (the swing leg). The opposite, when the pelvis is elevated on the swing side, is known as Duchenne limp. Bilateral loss of the small gluteal muscles results in a waddling gait. This article
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    Saphenous nerve

    Saphenous nerve

    The saphenous nerve (long or internal saphenous nerve) is the largest cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve. It approaches the femoral artery where this vessel passes beneath the sartorius, and lies in front of the artery, behind the aponeurotic covering of the adductor canal, as far as the opening in the lower part of the Adductor magnus. Here it quits the artery, and emerges from behind the lower edge of the aponeurotic covering of the canal; it descends vertically along the medial side of the knee behind the sartorius, pierces the fascia lata, between the tendons of the Sartorius and Gracilis, and becomes subcutaneous. The nerve then passes along the tibial side of the leg, accompanied by the great saphenous vein, descends behind the medial border of the tibia, and, at the lower third of the leg, divides into two branches: The saphenous nerve, about the middle of the thigh, gives off a branch which joins the subsartorial plexus. At the medial side of the knee it gives off a large infrapatellar branch, which pierces the sartorius and fascia lata, and is distributed to the skin in front of the patella. Below the knee, the branches of the saphenous nerve (medial crural cutaneous
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    Frontal nerve

    Frontal nerve

    The frontal nerve is the largest branch of the ophthalmic nerve(V1), and may be regarded, both from its size and direction, as the continuation of the nerve. It enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure, not running within the tendinous ring, and runs forward between the Levator palpebræ superioris and the periosteum. Midway between the apex and base of the orbit it divides into two branches, supratrochlear nerve and supraorbital nerve. It provides the sensory innervations for the skin of the forehead, mucosa of frontal sinus, and the skin of the upper eyelid via General Somatic Afferent (GSA) fibers. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior mesenteric plexus

    Inferior mesenteric plexus

    The inferior mesenteric plexus is derived chiefly from the aortic plexus. It surrounds the inferior mesenteric artery, and divides into a number of secondary plexuses, which are distributed to all the parts supplied by the artery, viz., the left colic and sigmoid plexuses, which supply the descending and sigmoid parts of the colon; and the superior hemorrhoidal plexus, which supplies the rectum and joins in the pelvis with branches from the pelvic plexuses. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Nerve to obturator internus

    Nerve to obturator internus

    The nerve to obturator internus is a nerve that innervates the obturator internus and gemellus superior muscles. The nerve to obturator internus originates in the sacral plexus. It arises from the ventral divisions of the fifth lumbar and first and second sacral nerves. It leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis muscle, and gives off the branch to the gemellus superior, which enters the upper part of the posterior surface of the muscle. It then crosses the ischial spine, reenters the pelvis through the lesser sciatic foramen, and pierces the pelvic surface of the obturator internus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pancreatic plexus

    In human neuroanatomy, the pancreatic plexus is a division of the celiac plexus (coeliac plexus) in the abdomen.
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    Anterior interosseous nerve

    Anterior interosseous nerve

    The anterior interosseous nerve (volar interosseous nerve) is a branch of the median nerve that supplies the deep muscles on the front of the forearm, except the ulnar half of the flexor digitorum profundus. It accompanies the anterior interosseous artery along the anterior of the interosseous membrane of the forearm, in the interval between the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus, supplying the whole of the former and (most commonly) the radial half of the latter, and ending below in the pronator quadratus and wrist joint. Many texts, for simplicity's sake, consider this nerve part of the median nerve. The anterior interosseous nerve classically innervates 2.5 muscles: These muscles are in the deep level of the anterior compartment of the forearm. A branch of the median nerve, the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) can be affected by either direct penetrating injury or compression in a fashion similar to carpal tunnel syndrome. The compression neuropathy is referred to an Anterior Interosseous Syndrome. As might be expected, the symptoms involve weakness in the muscle innervated by the AIN including the flexor digitorum profundus muscle to the index (and sometimes
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    Cervical plexus

    Cervical plexus

    The cervical plexus is a plexus of the ventral rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves which are located from C1 to C4 cervical segment in the neck. They are located laterally to the transverse processes between prevertebral muscles from the medial side and vertebral (m.scalenus, m.levator scapulae, m.splenius cervicis) from lateral side. There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk. It is located in the neck, deep to sternocleidomastoid. Nerves formed from the cervical plexus innervate the back of the head, as well as some neck muscles. The branches of the cervical plexus emerge from the posterior triangle at the nerve point, a point which lies midway on the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid. The cervical plexus has two types of branches: cutaneous and muscular.
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    Inferior palpebral nerve

    Inferior palpebral nerve

    The Inferior Palpebral Branches (palpebral branches) ascend behind the Orbicularis oculi. They supply the skin and conjunctiva of the lower eyelid, joining at the lateral angle of the orbit with the facial and zygomaticofacial nerves. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lumbosacral plexus

    Lumbosacral plexus

    The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves, sacral nerves, and coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar nerve being frequently joined by a branch from the twelfth thoracic. For descriptive purposes this plexus is usually divided into three parts: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated. Template:Infobox:lumbosacral plexus 2.png
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    Semilunar ganglion

    The Semilunar Ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or trigeminal ganglion) occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone. It is somewhat crescentic in shape, with its convexity directed forward: medially, it is in relation with the internal carotid artery and the posterior part of the cavernous sinus. The motor root runs in front of and medial to the sensory root, and passes beneath the ganglion; it leaves the skull through the foramen ovale, and, immediately below this foramen, joins the mandibular nerve. The greater superficial petrosal nerve lies also underneath the ganglion. The ganglion receives, on its medial side, filaments from the carotid plexus of the sympathetic. It give off minute branches to the tentorium cerebelli, and to the dura mater in the middle fossa of the cranium. From its convex border, which is directed forward and lateralward, three large nerves proceed, viz., the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular. The ophthalmic and maxillary consist exclusively of sensory fibers; the mandibular is joined outside the cranium by the motor root.
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    Suboccipital nerve

    Suboccipital nerve

    The suboccipital nerve is the dorsal primary ramus of the first cervical nerve (C1). It exits the spinal cord between the skull and the first cervical vertebra, the atlas. It lies within the suboccipital triangle along with the vertebral artery, where the artery enters the foramen magnum. It supplies muscles of the suboccipital triangle, the rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis superior, and obliquus capitis inferior. The suboccipital nerve also innervates rectus capitis posterior minor.
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    Superior cardiac nerve

    Superior cardiac nerve

    The superior cardiac nerve arises by two or more branches from the superior cervical ganglion, and occasionally receives a filament from the trunk between the first and second cervical ganglia. It runs down the neck behind the common carotid artery, and in front of the Longus colli muscle; and crosses in front of the inferior thyroid artery, and recurrent nerve. The course of the nerves on the two sides then differ. The right nerve, at the root of the neck, passes either in front of or behind the subclavian artery, and along the innominate artery to the back of the arch of the aorta, where it joins the deep part of the cardiac plexus. It is connected with other branches of the sympathetic; about the middle of the neck it receives filaments from the external laryngeal nerve; lower down, one or two twigs from the vagus; and as it enters the thorax it is joined by a filament from the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Filaments from the nerve communicate with the thyroid branches from the middle cervical ganglion. The left nerve, in the thorax, runs in front of the left common carotid artery and across the left side of the arch of the aorta, to the superficial part of the cardiac plexus. This
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    Supraclavicular nerves

    Supraclavicular nerves

    The supraclavicular nerves (descending branches) arise from the third and fourth cervical nerves; they emerge beneath the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, and descend in the posterior triangle of the neck beneath the platysma and deep cervical fascia. Near the clavicle they perforate the fascia and Platysma to become cutaneous, and are arranged, according to their position, into three groups—anterior, middle and posterior. The medial supraclavicular nerves or anterior supraclavicular nerves (nn. supraclaviculares anteriores; suprasternal nerves) cross obliquely over the external jugular vein and the clavicular and sternal heads of the sternocleidomastoideus, and supply the skin as far as the middle line. They furnish one or two filaments to the sternoclavicular joint. The intermedial supraclavicular nerve middle supraclavicular nerves (nn. supraclaviculares medii; supraclavicular nerves) cross the clavicle, and supply the skin over the pectoralis major and deltoideus, communicating with the cutaneous branches of the upper intercostal nerves. The lateral supraclavicular nerve or posterior supraclavicular nerves(nn. supraclaviculares posteriores; supra-acromial nerves)
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    Uterovaginal plexus

    The Uterovaginal plexus is a division of the inferior hypogastric plexus. In older texts, it is referred to as two structures, the "vaginal plexus" and "uterine plexus". This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Anterior superior alveolar nerve

    Anterior superior alveolar nerve

    The anterior superior alveolar branch (anterior superior dental branch), of considerable size, is given off from the maxillary nerve just before its exit from the infraorbital foramen; it descends in a canal in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and divides into branches which supply the incisor and canine teeth. It communicates with the middle superior alveolar branch, and gives off a nasal branch, which passes through a minute canal in the lateral wall of the inferior meatus, and supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior part of the inferior meatus and the floor of the nasal cavity, communicating with the nasal branches from the sphenopalatine ganglion. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Auerbach's plexus

    Auerbach's plexus

    Auerbach's plexus (or myenteric plexus) provides motor innervation to both layers of the tunica muscularis, having both parasympathetic and sympathetic input, whereas Meissner's plexus has only parasympathetic fibers and provides secretomotor innervation to the mucosa nearest the lumen of the gut. It arises from cells in the nucleus ala cinerea, the parasympathetic nucleus of origin for the tenth cranial nerve (vagus), located in the medulla oblongata. The fibers are carried by both the anterior and posterior vagal nerves. The myenteric plexus is the major nerve supply to the gastrointestinal tract and controls GI tract motility. A part of the enteric nervous system, Auerbach's plexus (or myenteric plexus), exists between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscularis externa in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the muscles of the esophagus, stomach, and intestine. The ganglia have properties similar to the CNS. These properties include presence of glia, interneurons, a small extracellular space, dense synaptic neurophil, isolation from blood vessels, multiple synaptic mechanisms and multiple neurotransmitters. Auerbach's plexus originates in the medulla oblongata, a
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    Cavernous plexus

    Cavernous plexus

    The cavernous nerve plexus is situated below and medial to that part of the internal carotid artery which is placed by the side of the sella turcica in the cavernous sinus, and is formed chiefly by the medial division of the internal carotid nerve. It communicates with the oculomotor, the trochlear, the ophthalmic and the abducent nerves, and with the ciliary ganglion, and distributes filaments to the wall of the internal carotid artery. The branch of communication with the oculomotor nerve joins that nerve at its point of division; the branch to the trochlear nerve joins it as it lies on the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus; other filaments are connected with the under surface of the ophthalmic nerve; and a second filament joins the abducent nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ethmoidal nerves

    Ethmoidal nerves

    The ethmoidal nerves, which arise from the nasociliary nerve, supply the ethmoidal cells; the posterior branch leaves the orbital cavity through the posterior ethmoidal foramen and gives some filaments to the sphenoidal sinus. There are two ethmoidal nerves on each side of the face: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    External nasal nerve

    External nasal nerve

    The external nasal branches (or external nasal nerve) are terminal branches of the anterior ethmoidal nerves (from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, CN V), and provide sensory innervation to the skin of the side of the nose and of the septum mobile nasi. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Hepatic plexus

    Hepatic plexus

    The hepatic plexus, the largest offset from the celiac plexus, receives filaments from the left vagus and right phrenic nerves. It accompanies the hepatic artery, ramifying upon its branches, and upon those of the portal vein in the substance of the liver. Branches from this plexus accompany all the divisions of the hepatic artery. A considerable plexus accompanies the gastroduodenal artery and is continued as the inferior gastric plexus on the right gastroepiploic artery along the greater curvature of the stomach, where it unites with offshoots from the lienal plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior cardiac nerve

    Inferior cardiac nerve

    The inferior cardiac nerve arises from either the inferior cervical or the first thoracic ganglion. It descends behind the subclavian artery and along the front of the trachea, to join the deep part of the cardiac plexus. It communicates freely behind the subclavian artery with the recurrent nerve and the middle cardiac nerve.
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    Lacrimal nerve

    Lacrimal nerve

    The lacrimal nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. It sometimes receives a filament from the trochlear nerve, but this is possibly derived from the branch that goes from the ophthalmic to the trochlear nerve. It passes forward in a separate tube of dura mater, and enters the orbit through the narrowest part of the superior orbital fissure. In the orbit it runs along the upper border of the lateral rectus, with the lacrimal artery, and communicates with the zygomatic branch of the maxillary nerve. It enters the lacrimal gland and gives off several filaments, which supply sensory innervation to the gland and the conjunctiva. Then, it pierces the orbital septum, and ends in the skin of the upper eyelid, joining with filaments of the facial nerve. The lacrimal nerve is occasionally absent, and its place is then taken by the zygomaticotemporal branch of the maxillary nerve. Sometimes the latter branch is absent, and a continuation of the lacrimal nerve is substituted for it. It provides sensory innervations for the lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, and the lateral upper eyelids. The zygomatic nerve carries sensory fibers from the skin
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    Lower subscapular nerve

    Lower subscapular nerve

    The lower subscapular nerve (alternatively, inferior subscapular nerve) is a nerve that supplies the lower part of the subscapularis muscle, and also supplies the teres major muscle. It consists of fibres from C5-6 spinal nerves. It branches from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. Teres major is sometimes supplied by a separate branch. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

    Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

    The posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh (also called the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve) provides innervation to the skin of the posterior surface of the thigh and leg, as well as to the skin of the perineum. The posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh is a nerve from the sacral plexus. It arises partly from the dorsal divisions of the first and second, and from the ventral divisions of the second and third sacral nerves, and issues from the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis muscle. It then descends beneath the gluteus maximus with the inferior gluteal artery, and runs down the back of the thigh beneath the fascia lata, and over the long head of the biceps femoris to the back of the knee; here it pierces the deep fascia and accompanies the small saphenous vein to about the middle of the back of the leg, its terminal twigs communicating with the sural nerve. Its branches are all cutaneous, and are distributed to the gluteal region, the perineum, and the back of the thigh and leg. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pterygopalatine ganglion

    Pterygopalatine ganglion

    The pterygopalatine ganglion (Synonym: ganglion pterygopalatinum, meckel's ganglion, nasal ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the others being the submandibular ganglion, otic ganglion, and ciliary ganglion. The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa, in particular the venous plexus of the conchae, is regulated by the pterygopalatine ganglion and heats or cools the air in the nose. The pterygopalatine ganglion (of Meckel), the largest of the parasympathetic ganglia associated with the branches of the Maxillary Nerve, is deeply placed in the pterygopalatine fossa, close to the sphenopalatine foramen. It is triangular or heart-shaped, of a reddish-gray color, and is situated just below the maxillary nerve as it crosses the fossa. The pterygopalatine ganglion supplies the lacrimal gland, paranasal sinuses, glands of the mucosa of the nasal cavity and pharynx, the gingiva, and the mucous membrane and glands of the hard palate. It communicates anteriorly with the nasopalatine nerve. It receives a sensory, a parasympathetic, and a sympathetic root. Its sensory root
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    Ciliary ganglion

    Ciliary ganglion

    The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located in the posterior orbit. It measures 1–2 millimeters in diameter and contains approximately 2,500 neurons. Preganglionic axons from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus travel along the oculomotor nerve and form synapses with these cells. The postganglionic axons run in the short ciliary nerves and innervate two eye muscles: Both of these muscles are involuntary – they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. (The others are the submandibular ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and otic ganglion). Three types of nerve fibers run through the ciliary ganglion: parasympathetic fibers, sympathetic fibers and sensory fibers. Only parasympathetic fibers form synapses in the ganglion. The other two types of nerve fibers simply pass through. In classical anatomy, the ciliary ganglion is said to have three “roots:” Diseases of the ciliary ganglion produce a tonic pupil. This is a pupil that does not react to light (it is “fixed”) and has an abnormally slow and prolonged response to attempted near vision (accommodation). When a patient with an Adie pupil attempts to focus
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    Common palmar digital nerves of median nerve

    Common palmar digital nerves of median nerve

    In the palm of the hand the median nerve is covered by the skin and the palmar aponeurosis, and rests on the tendons of the Flexor muscles. Immediately after emerging from under the transverse carpal ligament the median nerve becomes enlarged and flattened and splits into a smaller, lateral, and a larger, medial portion. The medial portion of the nerve divides into two Common palmar digital nerves (common volar digital nerves). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Femoral nerve

    Femoral nerve

    The femoral nerve, the largest branch of the lumbar plexus, arises from the dorsal divisions of the ventral rami of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves. It descends through the fibers of the psoas major muscle, emerging from the muscle at the lower part of its lateral border, and passes down between it and the iliacus muscle, behind the iliac fascia; it then runs beneath the inguinal ligament, into the thigh, and splits into an anterior and a posterior division. Under the inguinal ligament, it is separated from the femoral artery by a portion of the psoas major. Within the abdomen the femoral nerve gives off small branches to the iliacus muscle, and a branch which is distributed upon the upper part of the femoral artery (a continuation of the external iliac artery); the latter branch may arise in the thigh. In the thigh the anterior division of the femoral nerve gives off anterior cutaneous and muscular branches. The posterior division- muscular branches supply the four parts of the Quadriceps femoris. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Masseteric nerve

    Masseteric nerve

    The masseteric nerve passes laterally, above the Pterygoideus externus, in front of the temporomandibular articulation, and behind the tendon of the Temporalis; it crosses the mandibular notch with the masseteric artery, to the deep surface of the Masseter, in which it ramifies nearly as far as its anterior border. It is a branch of the mandibular nerve (V3). It gives a filament to the temporomandibular joint. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior superior alveolar nerve

    Posterior superior alveolar nerve

    The posterior superior alveolar branches (posterior superior dental branches) arise from the trunk of the maxillary nerve just before it enters the infraorbital groove; they are generally two in number, but sometimes arise by a single trunk. They descend on the tuberosity of the maxilla and give off several twigs to the gums and neighboring parts of the mucous membrane of the cheek. They then enter the alveolar canals on the infratemporal surface of the maxilla, and, passing from behind forward in the substance of the bone, communicate with the middle superior alveolar nerve, and give off branches to the lining membrane of the maxillary sinus and gingival and dental branches to each molar tooth from a superior dental plexus; these branches enter the apical foramina at the roots of the teeth. The posterior superior alveolar nerve innervates the second and third maxillary molars, and two of the three roots of the maxillary first molar (all but the mesiobuccal root). When giving a Posterior Superior Alveolar nerve block, it will anesthetize the mesialbuccal root of the maxillary first molar approximately 72% of the time. This article was originally based on an entry from a public
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    Thoracodorsal nerve

    Thoracodorsal nerve

    The thoracodorsal nerve is a nerve present in humans and other animals. It is also known as the middle subscapular nerve or the long subscapular nerve. It supplies the latissimus dorsi muscle. It arises from the brachial plexus. It derives its fibers from the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves. It is derived from their ventral rami, in spite of the fact that the latissimus dorsi is found in the back. The thoracodorsal nerve is a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and is made up of fibres from the posterior divisions of all three trunks of the brachial plexus. It follows the course of the subscapular artery, along the posterior wall of the axilla to the Latissimus dorsi, in which it may be traced as far as the lower border of the muscle. It supplies latissimus dorsi on its deep surface. The latissimus dorsi is occasionally used for transplantation, and for augmentation of systole in cardiac failure. In these cases, the nerve supply is preserved. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Coccygeal nerve

    Coccygeal nerve

    The coccygeal nerve is the spinal nerve that corresponds to the coccyx bone. The coccygeal nerve is the 31st spinal nerve. It arises from the sacral plexus, and its ventral ramus helps form the coccygeal plexus. It does not divide into a medial and lateral branch. It is distributed to the skin over the back of the coccyx. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Digastric branch of facial nerve

    Digastric branch of facial nerve

    The digastric branch of facial nerve arises close to the stylomastoid foramen, and divides into several filaments, which supply the posterior belly of the Digastricus; one of these filaments joins the glossopharyngeal nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.
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    Inferior anal nerves

    Inferior anal nerves

    The Inferior rectal nerves (inferior anal nerves, inferior hemorrhoidal nerve) usually branch from the pudendal nerve but occasionally arises directly from the sacral plexus; they cross the ischiorectal fossa along with the inferior hemorrhoidal vessels, toward the anal canal and the lower end of the rectum, and is distributed to the Sphincter ani externus and to the integument around the anus. Branches of this nerve communicate with the perineal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous and with the posterior scrotal nerves at the forepart of the perineum. Skin and external anal sphincter but doesn't supply the actual rectum This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal pterygoid nerve

    Internal pterygoid nerve

    The medial pterygoid nerve (or internal pterygoid nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve that innervates the medial pterygoid muscle, tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani. The nerve to the medial pterygoid muscle is a slender branch of the mandibular nerve which enters the deep surface of the muscle; it gives off one or two filaments to the otic ganglion. The nerve provides physical support for the otic ganglion, but is neurologically distinct. Additionally, the tensor veli palatini is innervated by the nerve to tensor veli palatini, a branch of the nerve to the medial pterygoid. Of the five paired skeletal muscles to the soft palate, tensor veli palati is the only muscle not innervated by the pharyngeal plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
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    Middle cervical ganglion

    Middle cervical ganglion

    The middle cervical ganglion is the smallest of the three cervical ganglia, and is occasionally absent. It is placed opposite the sixth cervical vertebra, usually in front of, or close to, the inferior thyroid artery. It is probably formed by the coalescence of two ganglia corresponding to the fifth and sixth cervical nerves. It sends gray rami communicantes to the fifth and sixth cervical nerves, and gives off the middle cardiac nerve.
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    Musculocutaneous nerve

    Musculocutaneous nerve

    The musculocutaneous nerve arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, opposite the lower border of the pectoralis major, its fibers being derived from C5, C6 and C7. It penetrates the coracobrachialis muscle and passes obliquely between the biceps brachii and the brachialis, to the lateral side of the arm; a little above the elbow it pierces the deep fascia lateral to the tendon of the biceps brachii and is continued into the forearm as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. In its course through the arm it innervates the coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and the greater part of the brachialis. The musculocutaneous nerve presents frequent variations. 1. It may adhere for some distance to the median and then pass outward, beneath the biceps brachii, instead of through the coracobrachialis. 2. Some of the fibers of the median may run for some distance in the musculocutaneous and then leave it to join their proper trunk; less frequently the reverse is the case, and the median sends a branch to join the musculocutaneous. 3. The nerve may pass under the coracobrachialis or through the biceps brachii. 4. Occasionally it gives a filament to the pronator teres, and it
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    Tibial nerve

    Tibial nerve

    The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. In the popliteal fossa the nerve gives off branches to gastrocnemius, popliteus, soleus and plantaris muscles, an articular branch to the knee joint, and a cutaneous branch that will become the sural nerve. The sural nerve is joined by fibres from the common fibular nerve and runs down the calf to supply the lateral side of the foot. Below the soleus muscle the nerve lies close to the tibia and supplies the tibialis posterior, the flexor digitorum longus and the flexor hallucis longus. The nerve passes into the foot running posterior to the medial malleolus. Here it is bound down by the flexor retinaculum in company with the posterior tibial artery. In the foot, the nerve divides into medial and lateral plantar branches. The medial plantar nerve supplies: the abductor hallucis, the flexor digitorum brevis, the flexor hallucis brevis and the first lumbrical. Cutaneous distribution of the medial plantar nerve is to the medial sole and medial three and one half toes, including the nail beds on the dorsum (like the median nerve in the hand). Mnemonic
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    Tympanic nerve

    Tympanic nerve

    The tympanic nerve (nerve of Jacobson) is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve found near the ear. It arises from the petrous ganglion, and ascends to the tympanic cavity through a small canal, the fossula petrosa/tympanic canaliculus, on the under surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone on the ridge which separates the carotid canal from the jugular fossa. In the tympanic cavity it divides into branches which form the tympanic plexus and are contained in grooves upon the surface of the promontory. Jacobson's nerve contains both sensory and secretory fibers. The postganglionic parasympathetic fibers are then distributed via the auriculotemporal nerve (branch of the trigeminal nerve) to the parotid gland. This nerve may be involved by paraganglioma, in this location referred to as glomus jugulare or glomus tympanicum tumours. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Zygomatic branches of facial nerve

    Zygomatic branches of facial nerve

    The Zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (malar branches) run across the zygomatic bone to the lateral angle of the orbit, where they supply the Orbicularis oculi, and join with filaments from the lacrimal nerve and the zygomaticofacial branch of the maxillary nerve. To test the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve, a patient is asked to close their eyes tightly. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pulmonary branches of vagus nerve

    Pulmonary branches of vagus nerve

    The pulmonary branches of the vagus nerve can be divided into two groups: anterior and posterior. The Anterior Bronchial Branches (rami bronchiales anteriores; anterior or ventral pulmonary branches), two or three in number, and of small size, are distributed on the anterior surface of the root of the lung. They join with filaments from the sympathetic, and form the anterior pulmonary plexus. The Posterior Bronchial Branches (rami bronchiales posteriores; posterior or dorsal pulmonary branches), more numerous and larger than the anterior, are distributed on the posterior surface of the root of the lung; they are joined by filaments from the third and fourth (sometimes also from the first and second) thoracic ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, and form the posterior pulmonary plexus. Branches from this plexus accompany the ramifications of the bronchi through the substance of the lung. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superficial fibular nerve

    Superficial fibular nerve

    The superficial fibular nerve innervates the fibularis longus (also known as peroneus longus) and fibularis brevis (peroneus brevis) muscles and the skin over the greater part of the dorsum of the foot (with the exception of the first web space, which is innervated by the deep peroneal nerve). It passes forward between the fibularis muscles and the extensor digitorum longus, pierces the deep fascia at the lower third of the leg, and finally divides into a medial dorsal cutaneous nerve and an intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve. In its course between the muscles, the nerve gives off muscular branches to fibularis longus and fibularis brevis muscles, and cutaneous filaments from the integument of the lower part of the leg. Injury to the nerve can result in an inability to evert the foot and loss of sensation over the dorsum of the foot (with the exception of the first web space between the great toe and the second toe).
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    Trigeminal nerve

    Trigeminal nerve

    The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, also called the fifth nerve, or simply CNV or CN5) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and certain motor functions such as biting, chewing, and swallowing. It is the largest of the cranial nerves. Its name ("trigeminal" = tri- or three, and -geminus or twin, or thrice twinned) derives from the fact that each trigeminal nerve, one on each side of the pons, has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory. The mandibular nerve has both sensory and motor functions. Sensory information from the face and body is processed by parallel pathways in the central nervous system. The motor division of the trigeminal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons, while the sensory division originates from the cranial neural crest. The sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is to provide the tactile, proprioceptive, and nociceptive afference of the face and mouth. The motor function activates the muscles of mastication, the tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid, and anterior belly of the
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    Inferior cervical ganglion

    Inferior cervical ganglion

    The inferior cervical ganglion is situated between the base of the transverse process of the last cervical vertebra and the neck of the first rib, on the medial side of the costocervical artery. Its form is irregular; it is larger in size than the middle cervical ganglion, and is frequently fused with the first thoracic ganglion, under which circumstances it is then called the "stellate ganglion." It is probably formed by the coalescence of two ganglia which correspond to the seventh and eighth cervical nerves. It is connected to the middle cervical ganglion by two or more cords, one of which forms a loop around the subclavian artery and supplies offsets to it. This loop is named the ansa subclavia (Vieussenii). The ganglion sends gray rami communicantes to the seventh and eighth cervical nerves. It gives off the inferior cardiac nerve, and offsets to bloodvessels. The offsets to bloodvessels form plexuses on the subclavian artery and its branches. The plexus on the vertebral artery is continued on to the basilar, posterior cerebral, and cerebellar arteries. The plexus on the inferior thyroid artery accompanies the artery to the thyroid gland, and communicates with the recurrent
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    Nerve to the stapedius

    The Nerve to the Stapedius (tympanic branch) arises opposite the pyramidal eminence. It passes through a small canal in this eminence to reach the muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Nerve to the subclavius

    Nerve to the subclavius

    The nerve to the Subclavius (or subclavian nerve) is a small filament, which arises from the point of junction of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves. It descends to the subclavius muscle in front of the third part of the subclavian artery and the lower trunk of the plexus, and is usually connected by a filament with the phrenic nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Palmar branch of the median nerve

    Palmar branch of the median nerve

    The palmar branch of the median nerve is a branch of the median nerve which arises at the lower part of the forearm. It pierces the palmar carpal ligament, and divides into a lateral and a medial branch; Unlike most of the median nerve innervation of the hand, the palmar branch travels superficial to the Flexor retinaculum of the hand. Therefore, this portion of the median nerve usually remains functioning during carpal tunnel syndrome. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Prostatic plexus

    Prostatic plexus

    The Prostatic Plexus is continued from the lower part of the pelvic plexus. It lies within the fascial shell of the prostate. The nerves composing it are of large size. They are distributed to the prostate vesiculæ seminales and the corpora cavernosa of the penis and urethra. The nerves supplying the corpora cavernosa consist of two sets, the lesser and greater cavernous nerves, which arise from the forepart of the prostatic plexus, and, after joining with branches from the pudendal nerve, pass forward beneath the pubic arch. Injury to the prostatic plexus (during prostatic resection for example) is highly likely to cause erectile dysfunction. It is because of this relationship that surgeons are careful to maintain the integrity of the prostatic fascial shell so as to not interrupt the subsequent neuropathways to the pudendal nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.
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    Third occipital nerve

    Third occipital nerve

    While under the Trapezius, the medial branch of the posterior division of the third cervical nerve gives off a branch called the third occipital nerve (also known as the least occipital nerve), which pierces the Trapezius and ends in the skin of the lower part of the back of the head. It lies medial to the greater occipital and communicates with it.
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    Patellar plexus

    Patellar plexus

    The terminal filaments of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve frequently communicate with the anterior cutaneous branches of the femoral nerve, and with the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve, forming with them the patellar plexus (also called the peripatellar plexus). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Deep petrosal nerve

    Deep petrosal nerve

    The deep petrosal nerve (large deep petrosal nerve) is given off from the carotid plexus, and runs through the carotid canal lateral to the internal carotid artery. It then enters the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum, and joins with the greater superficial petrosal nerve to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal, also known as the Vidian nerve. It carries postsynaptic sympathetic nerve fibers to the pterygopalatine ganglion, also known as the sphenopalatine ganglion. These fibers innervate blood vessels and mucous glands of the head and neck. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Medial cutaneous nerve of arm

    Medial cutaneous nerve of arm

    The medial brachial cutaneous nerve (lesser internal cutaneous nerve; medial cutaneous nerve of arm) is distributed to the skin on the medial brachial side of the arm. It is the smallest branch of the brachial plexus, and arising from the medial cord receives its fibers from the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves. It passes through the axilla, at first lying behind, and then medial to the axillary vein, and communicates with the intercostobrachial nerve. It descends along the medial side of the brachial artery to the middle of the arm, where it pierces the deep fascia, and is distributed to the skin of the back of the lower third of the arm, extending as far as the elbow, where some filaments are lost in the skin in front of the medial epicondyle, and others over the olecranon. It communicates with the ulnar branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. The term "nerve of Wrisberg" (after Heinrich August Wrisberg) has been used to describe this nerve. However, the term "nerve of Wrisberg" can also refer to the nervus intermedius branch of the facial nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the
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    Stylohyoid branch of facial nerve

    Stylohyoid branch of facial nerve

    In human neuroanatomy of the face, the stylohyoid branch of facial nerve frequently arises in conjunction with the digastric branch; it is long and slender, and enters the Stylohyoideus about its middle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Great petrosal nerve

    Great petrosal nerve

    The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve is a nerve in the skull that branches from the facial nerve; it forms part of a chain of nerves that innervates the lacrimal gland. The fibres have synapses in the pterygopalatine ganglion. The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve is a branch of the facial nerve that arises from the geniculate ganglion, a part of the facial nerve inside the facial canal. It enters the middle cranial fossa through the greater (superficial) petrosal foramen (on the anterior surface of the petrous temporal bone). It proceeds towards the foramen lacerum, where it joins the deep petrosal nerve (sympathetic) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal. The nerve of the pterygoid canal passes through the pterygoid canal to reach the pterygopalatine ganglion. The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve carries gustatory (taste) and parasympathetic fibres. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibres from pterygopalatine ganglion supply lacrimal gland and the mucosal glands of the nose, palate, and pharynx. The gustatory fibres do not relay in the ganglion and are distributed to the palate.
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    Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve

    Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve

    The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve passes forward beneath the platysma and triangularis, supplying the muscles of the lower lip and chin, and communicating with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The marginal mandibular branch innervates the following muscles: The marginal mandibular nerve may be injured during surgery in the neck region, especially during excision of the submandibular salivary gland or during neck dissections. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Medial plantar nerve

    Medial plantar nerve

    The medial plantar nerve (internal plantar nerve), the larger of the two terminal divisions of the tibial nerve, accompanies the medial plantar artery. From its origin under the laciniate ligament it passes under cover of the Abductor hallucis, and, appearing between this muscle and the Flexor digitorum brevis, gives off a proper digital plantar nerve and finally divides opposite the bases of the metatarsal bones into three common digital plantar nerves. The branches of the medial plantar nerve are: (1) cutaneous, (2) muscular, (3) articular, (4) a proper digital nerve to the medial side of the great toe, and (5) three common digital nerves. The cutaneous branches pierce the plantar aponeurosis between the Abductor hallucis and the Flexor digitorum brevis and are distributed to the skin of the sole of the foot. The muscular branches supply the Abductor hallucis, the Flexor digitorum brevis, the Flexor hallucis brevis, and the first Lumbrical; those for the Abductor hallucis and Flexor digitorum brevis arise from the trunk of the nerve near its origin and enter the deep surfaces of the muscles; the branch of the Flexor hallucis brevis springs from the proper digital nerve to the
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    Median nerve

    Median nerve

    The median nerve is a nerve in humans and other animals. It is in the upper limb. It is one of the five main nerves originating from the brachial plexus. The median nerve is formed from parts of the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus, and continues down the arm to enter the forearm with the brachial artery. It is formed from contributions from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus, originating from ventral roots of C5 & C6 (lateral cord) and C8 & T1 (medial cord). The median nerve is the only nerve that passes through the carpal tunnel. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the disability that results from the median nerve being pressed in the carpal tunnel. After receiving inputs from both the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus, the median nerve enters the arm from axilla at the inferior margin of the teres major muscle. it then passes vertically down and courses with brachial artery on medial side of arm between biceps brachii and brachialis. At first lateral to the artery and lies anterior to the elbow joint, it then crosses anteriorly to run medial to the artery in the distal arm and into the cubital fossa. Inside the cubital fossa the median nerve
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    Phrenic nerve

    Phrenic nerve

    The phrenic nerve is a nerve that originates in the neck and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm. It is important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm and receives sensory information from it. There are two phrenic nerves, a left and a right one. The phrenic nerve originates mainly from the 4th cervical nerve, but also receives contributions from the 5th and 3rd cervical nerves (C3-C5) in humans. The phrenic nerves contain motor, sensory, and sympathetic nerve fibers. These nerves provide the only motor supply to the diaphragm as well as sensation to the central tendon. In the thorax, each phrenic nerve supplies the mediastinal pleura and pericardium. The phrenic nerve descends obliquely with the Internal Jugular Vein across the anterior scalene, deep to the prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia and the transverse cervical and suprascapular arteries. On the left, the phrenic nerve crosses anterior to the first part of the subclavian artery. On the right, it lies on the anterior scalene muscle and crosses anterior to the 2nd part of the subclavian artery. On both sides, the phrenic nerve runs posterior to the subclavian vein
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    Dorsal nerve of the penis

    Dorsal nerve of the penis

    The dorsal nerve of the penis is the deepest division of the pudendal nerve; it accompanies the internal pudendal artery along the ramus of the ischium; it then runs forward along the margin of the inferior ramus of the pubis, between the superior and inferior layers of the fascia of the urogenital diaphragm. Piercing the inferior layer it gives a branch to the corpus cavernosum penis, and passes forward, in company with the dorsal artery of the penis, between the layers of the suspensory ligament, on to the dorsum of the penis, and ends on the glans penis. It innervates the skin of the penis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm

    The posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm is a nerve found in humans and other animals. It is also known as the dorsal antebrachial cutaneous nerve, the external cutaneous branch of the musculospiral nerve, and the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve. It is a cutaneous nerve (a nerve that supplies skin) of the forearm. It arises from the radial nerve in the posterior compartment of the arm, often along with the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm. It perforates the lateral head of the triceps brachii muscle at the triceps' attachment to the humerus. The upper and smaller branch of the nerve passes to the front of the elbow, lying close to the cephalic vein, and supplies the skin of the lower half of the arm. The lower branch pierces the deep fascia below the insertion of the Deltoideus, and descends along the lateral side of the arm and elbow, and then along the back of the forearm to the wrist, supplying the skin in its course, and joining, near its termination, with the dorsal branch of the lateral antibrachial cutaneous nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may
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    Submucous plexus

    Submucous plexus

    The nerves of the small intestines are derived from the plexuses of parasympathetic nerves around the superior mesenteric artery. From this source, they run to the myenteric plexus (Auerbach's plexus) of nerves and ganglia situated between the circular muscular fibers and the longitudinal muscle fibers of the muscularis externa. From this a secondary plexus, the plexus of the submucosa (Meissner's plexus, submucous plexus, submucosal plexus, plexus submucosus) is derived, and it is formed by branches that have perforated the circular muscular fibers. This plexus lies in the submucous coat of the intestine; it also contains ganglia from which nerve fibers pass to the muscularis mucosae and to the mucous membrane. The nerve bundles of the submucous plexus are finer than those of the myenteric plexus. Its function is to innervate cells in the epithelial layer and the smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superficial branch of the radial nerve

    Superficial branch of the radial nerve

    The superficial branch of the radial nerve passes along the front of the radial side of the forearm to the commencement of its lower third. It lies at first slightly lateral to the radial artery, concealed beneath the Brachioradialis. In the middle third of the forearm, it lies behind the same muscle, close to the lateral side of the artery. It quits the artery about 7 cm. above the wrist, passes beneath the tendon of the Brachioradialis, and, piercing the deep fascia, divides into two branches: lateral and medial. The lateral branch, the smaller, supplies the radial side of the thumb (by a digital nerve), the skin of the radial side and ball of the thumb, joining with the volar branch of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. The medial branch communicates, above the wrist, with the dorsal branch of the lateral antibrachial cutaneous, and, on the back of the hand, with the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve. It then divides into four digital nerves, which are distributed as follows: the first supplies the ulnar side of the thumb; the second, the radial side of the index finger; the third, the adjoining sides of the index and middle fingers; the fourth communicates with a filament
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    Superior cervical ganglion

    Superior cervical ganglion

    The superior cervical ganglion (SCG), the largest of the cervical ganglia, is placed opposite the second and third cervical vertebræ. It contains neurons that supply sympathetic innervation to the face. It is of a reddish-gray color, and usually fusiform in shape; sometimes broad and flattened, and occasionally constricted at intervals; it is believed to be formed by the coalescence of four ganglia, corresponding to the upper four cervical nerves. However, note that these fibers are postganglionic fibers that have already synapsed with preganglionic sympathetic fibers derived from the T1 to T4 levels of the spinal cord. The bodies of these preganglionic sympathetic neurons are specifically located in the lateral horn of the spinal cord. The superior cervical ganglion lies posterior to the sheath of the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein, and anterior to the Longus capitis muscle. It receives input from the ciliospinal center. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ventral ramus

    The ventral ramus (anterior ramus, anterior branch, anterior divisions of the spinal nerves) supply the antero-lateral parts of the trunk, and the limbs; they are for the most part larger than the posterior divisions. In the thoracic region they remain distinct from each other and each innervates a narrow strip of muscle and skin along the sides, chest, ribs, and abdominal wall. These rami are called the intercostal nerves. In regions other than the thoracic, ventral rami converge with each other to form networks of nerves called nerve plexuses. Within each plexus, fibers from the various ventral rami branch and become redistributed so that each nerve exiting the plexus has fibers from several different spinal nerves. One advantage to having plexuses is that damage to a single spinal nerve will not completely paralyze a limb. There are four main plexuses formed by the ventral rami: The cervical plexus contains ventral rami from spinal nerves C1-C4. Branches of the cervical plexus, which include the phrenic nerve, innervate muscles of the neck, the diaphragm, and the skin of the neck and upper chest. The brachial plexus contains ventral rami from spinal nerves C5-T1. This plexus
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    Iliohypogastric nerve

    Iliohypogastric nerve

    The iliohypogastric nerve is the superior branch of the anterior ramus of spinal nerve L1 (one of the lumbar nerves) after this nerve receives fibers from T12 (subcostal nerve). The inferior branch is the ilioinguinal nerve. It emerges from the upper part of the lateral border of the psoas major, and crosses obliquely in front of the quadratus lumborum to the iliac crest. Running posterior to the kidneys. It then perforates the posterior part of the transversus abdominis, near the crest of the ilium, and divides between that muscle and the obliquus internus abdominis into a lateral and an anterior cutaneous branch. Branches include: The iliohypogastric nerve communicates with the subcostal nerve and ilioinguinal nerves. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Common fibular nerve

    Common fibular nerve

    The common fibular nerve (common peroneal nerve; external popliteal nerve; peroneal nerve; lateral popliteal nerve), about one-half the size of the tibial nerve, is derived from the dorsal branches of the fourth and fifth lumbar and the first and second sacral nerves. It descends obliquely along the lateral side of the popliteal fossa to the head of the fibula, close to the medial margin of the biceps femoris muscle. Where the common peroneal nerve winds round the head of the fibula, it is palpable. It lies between the tendon of the biceps femoris and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle, winds around the neck of the fibula, between the peronæus longus and the bone, and divides beneath the muscle into the superficial fibular nerve (superficial peroneal nerve) and deep fibular nerve (deep peroneal nerve). It innervates the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the short head of the biceps femoris muscles. Previous to its division it gives off articular and lateral sural cutaneous nerves. Chronic peroneal neuropathy can result from, among other conditions, bed rest of long duration, hyperflexion of the knee, peripheral neuropathy, pressure in obstetric stirrups, and conditioning
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    Sacral plexus

    Sacral plexus

    In human anatomy, the sacral plexus is a nerve plexus which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg, the entire foot, and part of the pelvis. It is part of the lumbosacral plexus and emerges from the sacral vertebrae (S2-S4). A sacral plexopathy is a disorder affecting the nerves of the sacral plexus, usually caused by trauma, nerve compression, vascular disease, or infection. Symptoms may include pain, loss of motor control, and sensory deficits. The sacral plexus is formed by:: The nerves forming the sacral plexus converge toward the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, and unite to form a flattened band, from the anterior and posterior surfaces of which several branches arise. The band itself is continued as the sciatic nerve, which splits on the back of the thigh into the tibial nerve and common fibular nerve; these two nerves sometimes arise separately from the plexus, and in all cases their independence can be shown by dissection. Often, the sacral plexus and the lumbar plexus are considered to be one large nerve plexus, the lumbosacral plexus. The lumbosacral trunk connects the two plexuses. The sacral plexus lies on the back of
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    Buccal nerve

    Buccal nerve

    The buccal nerve (also called the long buccal nerve,) is a nerve in the face. It is a branch of the mandibular nerve (which is itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve) and transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane (in general, the cheek) and from the second and third molar teeth. It courses between the two heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle, underneath the tendon of the temporalis muscle, and then under the masseter muscle to connect with the buccal branches of the facial nerve on the surface of the buccinator muscle. Small branches of the buccal nerve innervate the lateral pterygoid muscle. It also gives sensory branches to the cheek. The facial nerve (CN VII) also has buccal branches, which carry motor innervation to the buccinator muscle, a muscle of facial expression. This should not be confused with the buccal branch of the trigeminal nerve, which supplies motor innervation to the lateral pterygoid, a muscle of mastication. This follows from the trigeminal (V3) supplying all muscles of mastication and the facial (VII) supplying all muscles of facial expression.
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    Palatine nerves

    Palatine nerves

    The palatine nerves (descending branches) are distributed to the roof of the mouth, soft palate, tonsil, and lining membrane of the nasal cavity. Most of their fibers are derived from the sphenopalatine branches of the maxillary nerve. In older texts, they are usually categorized as three in number: anterior, middle, and posterior. (In newer texts, and in Terminologia anatomica, they are broken down into "greater palatine nerve" and "lesser palatine nerve".) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pharyngeal nerve

    Pharyngeal nerve

    The pharyngeal nerve (pterygopalatine nerve) is a small branch arising from the posterior part of the pterygopalatine ganglion. It passes through the palatovaginal canal with the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary nerve, and is distributed to the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx, behind the auditory tube. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Sacral splanchnic nerves

    Sacral splanchnic nerves

    Sacral splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that connect the inferior hypogastric plexus to the sympathetic trunk in the pelvis. The sacral sympathetic nerves arise from the sacral part of the sympathetic trunk, emerging anteriorly from the ganglia. They travel to their corresponding side's inferior hypogastric plexus. From this plexus, they help innervate pelvic organs and vessels. The sacral sympathetic nerves contain a mix of preganglionic and postganglionic sympathetic fibers, but mostly postganglionic. They also contain visceral afferent fibers. They are found in the same region as the pelvic splanchnic nerves, which arise from the sacral spinal nerves to provide parasympathetic fibers to the inferior hypogastric plexus.
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    Superior hypogastric plexus

    Superior hypogastric plexus

    The superior hypogastric plexus (in older texts, hypogastric plexus or presacral nerve) is a plexus of nerves situated on the vertebral bodies below the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. The superior hypogastric plexus is situated around the abdominal aorta between the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery and the splitting of the abdominal aorta into the two common iliac arteries. It receives contributions from the two lower lumbar splanchnic nerves, which are branches of the ganglionated trunk (chain ganglia). This plexus continues down into the pelvis as the two pelvic nerves, which continue to form the inferior hypogastric plexus located within the pelvic basin. The inferior hypogastric plexus receives additional contributions from the sacral splanchnic branches of the ganglionated trunk and the pelvic splanchnic nerves from the anterior primary rami of S2-4. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Greater occipital nerve

    Greater occipital nerve

    The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve, specifically the medial branch of the dorsal primary ramus of cervical spinal nerve 2. This nerve arises from between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the lesser occipital nerve. It ascends after emerging from the suboccipital triangle obliquely between the inferior oblique and semispinalis capitis muscle. It then passes through the trapezius muscle and ascends to innervate the skin along the posterior part of the scalp to the vertex. It innervates the scalp at the top of the head, over the ear and over the parotid glands. Disorder of this nerve is one of the causes of cervicogenic headaches, referred to as occipital neuralgias. A common site, and usually misdiagnosed area of entrapment for the greater occipital nerve is at the obliquus capitis inferior muscle.
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    Pudendal plexus

    Pudendal plexus

    The pudendal plexus is a term used for a compound structure consisting of sacral spinal nerves. Some sources describe it as S2-S4 of the lumbosacral plexus. In some older texts, it is a rough approximation of the coccygeal plexus.
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    Supratrochlear nerve

    Supratrochlear nerve

    In human cranial neuroanatomy, the supratrochlear nerve is a branch of the frontal nerve, which itself comes from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal (or fifth) cranial nerve. It is smaller than the nearby supraorbital nerve. It passes above the pulley of the Superior oblique muscle, and gives off a descending filament that joins the infratrochlear branch of the nasociliary nerve. The supratrochlear nerve then exits the orbit between the pulley of the superior oblique and the supraorbital foramen, curves up on to the forehead close to the bone, and ascends beneath the Corrugator supercilii and Frontalis muscles. It then divides into branches which pierce these muscles and supplies the following areas: Supratrochlear means "above the trochlea". The term trochlea means "pulley" in Latin. Specifically, the trochlea referred to is a loop inside the orbit of the eye, through which the tendon of the superior oblique muscle passes. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior alveolar nerve

    Inferior alveolar nerve

    The inferior alveolar nerve (sometimes called the inferior dental nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). Before traversing the mandibular foramen, it first gives off the nerve to the mylohyoid, a motor nerve supplying the mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric. It then enters the mandible via the mandibular foramen. While in the mandibular canal within the mandible, it supplies the mandibular (lower) teeth (molars and second premolar) with sensory branches that form into the inferior dental plexus and give off small gingival and dental nerves to the teeth. Anteriorly, the nerve gives off the mental nerve at about the level of the mandibular 2nd premolars, which exits the mandible via the mental foramen (supplying sensory branches to the chin and lower lip). The inferior alveolar nerve continues anteriorly as the mandibular incisive nerve to innervate the mandibular canines and incisors. Administration of anesthesia near the mandibular foramen causes blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve and the nearby lingual nerve (supplying the tongue). This is why the numbing of the lower jaw
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    Middle meningeal nerve

    Middle meningeal nerve

    The middle meningeal nerve (meningeal or dural branch) is given off from the maxillary nerve directly after its origin from the semilunar ganglion It accompanies the middle meningeal artery and supplies the dura mater. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Abducent nerve

    Abducent nerve

    The abducens nerve or abducent nerve (the sixth cranial nerve, also called the sixth nerve or simply VI) is a somatic efferent nerve that controls the movement of a single muscle, the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, in humans. In most other mammals it also innervates the musculus retractor bulbi, which can retract the eye for protection. Homologous abducens nerves are found in all vertebrates except lampreys and hagfishes. The human CN VI is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The Latin name for the sixth cranial nerve is nervus abducens. The Terminologia Anatomica officially recognizes two different English translations: abducent nerve and abducens nerve. Either term is correct. “Abducens” is more common in recent literature, while “abducent” predominates in the older literature. The United States National Library of Medicine uses “abducens nerve” in its Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) vocabulary to index the vast MEDLINE and PubMed biomedical databases. The 39th edition of Gray’s Anatomy (2005) also prefers “abducens nerve.” The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem at the junction of the pons and the medulla, medial to the facial nerve. In order to reach the eye,
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    Auriculotemporal nerve

    Auriculotemporal nerve

    The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve that runs with the superficial temporal artery and vein, and provides sensory innervation to various regions on the side of the head. The auriculotemporal nerve arises as two roots from the posterior division of the mandibular nerve (The mandibular nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve). These roots encircle the middle meningeal artery (a branch of the mandibular part of the maxillary artery, which is in turn a terminal branch of the external carotid artery). The roots then converge to form a single nerve. The auriculotemporal nerve passes medially to the neck of the mandible, gives off parotid branches and then turns superiorly, posterior to its head and moving anteriorly, gives off anterior branches to the auricle. It then crosses over the root of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, deep to the superficial temporal artery. The somatosensory root (superior) originates from branches of the mandibular nerve, which pass through the otic ganglion without synapsing. Then they form the somatosensory (superior) root of the auriculotemporal nerve. The two roots re-unite and shortly after the branching of
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    Buccal branch of the facial nerve

    Buccal branch of the facial nerve

    The Buccal Branches of the facial nerve (infraorbital branches), of larger size than the rest of the branches, pass horizontally forward to be distributed below the orbit and around the mouth. The superficial branches run beneath the skin and above the superficial muscles of the face, which they supply: some are distributed to the Procerus, joining at the medial angle of the orbit with the infratrochlear and nasociliary branches of the ophthalmic. The deep branches pass beneath the Zygomaticus and the Quadratus labii superioris, supplying them and forming an infraorbital plexus with the infraorbital branch of the maxillary nerve. These branches also supply the small muscles of the nose. The lower deep branches supply the Buccinator and Orbicularis oris, and join with filaments of the buccinator branch of the mandibular nerve. The facial nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression. The buccal branch supplies these muscles This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Greater auricular nerve

    Greater auricular nerve

    The great auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. It provides sensory innervation for the skin over parotid gland and mastoid process, and both surfaces of the outer ear. Although this nerve is frequently referred to as the "greater" auricular nerve, this is not the proper nomenclature since there is no "lesser" auricular nerve. Great refers to the distinction between it and the Auriculotemporal nerve, which is the less influential of the two. It is the largest of the ascending branches. It arises from the second and third cervical nerves, winds around the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, and, after perforating the deep fascia, ascends upon that muscle beneath the Platysma to the parotid gland, where it divides into an anterior and a posterior branch. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior gluteal nerve

    Inferior gluteal nerve

    The inferior gluteal nerve is a nerve in the pelvis that innervates the gluteus maximus muscle. The inferior gluteal nerve originates in the sacral plexus. It arises from the dorsal divisions of the fifth lumbar and first and second sacral nerves: it leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, below the piriformis, and divides into branches which enter the deep surface of the gluteus maximus, the principal extensor of the thigh, and supply it. it also gives off small branches to supply the deep gluteal muscles This nerve is responsible for hip extension. When non-functional, it leads to difficulty in jumping, climbing stairs, and rising from a seated position. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh

    Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh

    The lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh (also called the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve) is a cutaneous nerve that innervates the skin on the lateral part of the thigh. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh is a nerve of the lumbar plexus. It arises from the dorsal divisions of the second and third lumbar nerves. It emerges from the lateral border of the psoas major at about its middle, and crosses the iliacus muscle obliquely, toward the anterior superior iliac spine. It then passes under the inguinal ligament and over the sartorius muscle into the thigh, where it divides into an anterior and a posterior branch. The anterior branch becomes superficial about 10 cm below the inguinal ligament, and divides into branches which are distributed to the skin of the anterior and lateral parts of the thigh, as far as the knee. The terminal filaments of this nerve frequently communicate with the anterior cutaneous branches of the femoral nerve, and with the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve, forming with them the peripatellar plexus. The posterior branch pierces the fascia lata, and subdivides into filaments which pass backward across the lateral and posterior surfaces of the
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    Lesser occipital nerve

    Lesser occipital nerve

    The lesser occipital nerve or small occipital nerve is a cutaneous spinal nerve arising between the second and third cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve. It innervates the scalp in the lateral area of the head posterior to the ear. It arises from the lateral branch of the ventral ramus of the second cervical nerve, sometimes also from the third; it curves around and ascends along the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus. Near the cranium it perforates the deep fascia, and is continued upward along the side of the head behind the auricula, supplying the skin and communicating with the greater occipital, the great auricular, and the posterior auricular branch of the facial. The smaller occipital varies in size, and is sometimes duplicated. It gives off an auricular branch, which supplies the skin of the upper and back part of the auricula, communicating with the mastoid branch of the great auricular. This branch is occasionally derived from the greater occipital nerve. Disorder in this nerve causes occipital neuralgia. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information
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    Lingual nerve

    Lingual nerve

    The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3), itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve, which supplies sensory innervation to the tongue. It also carries fibers from the facial nerve, which return taste information from the anterior two thirds of the tongue. The lingual nerve supplies general somatic afferent innervation from the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. It also carries nerve fibers that are not part of the trigeminal nerve, including the chorda tympani nerve of the facial nerve, which provides special sensation (taste) to the anterior 2/3 part of the tongue as well as parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers. The submandibular ganglion is suspended by two nerve filaments from the lingual nerve. The lingual nerve lies at first beneath the lateral pterygoid muscle, medial to and in front of the inferior alveolar nerve, and is occasionally joined to this nerve by a branch which may cross the internal maxillary artery. The chorda tympani (a branch of the facial nerve, CN VII) joins it at an acute angle here, carrying taste fibers from the anterior two thirds of the tongue and parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular ganglion. The nerve
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    Long root of the ciliary ganglion

    Long root of the ciliary ganglion

    The long root of the ciliary ganglion usually arises from the nasociliary between the two heads of the lateral rectus muscle. It is also called the nasociliary nerve's communicating branch to the ciliary ganglion. It passes forward on the lateral side of the optic nerve, and enters the posterosuperior angle of the ciliary ganglion; it is sometimes joined by a filament from the cavernous plexus of the sympathetic, or from the superior ramus of the trochlear nerve.
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    Medial pectoral nerve

    Medial pectoral nerve

    The medial pectoral nerve (medial anterior thoracic) arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and through it from the eighth cervical and first thoracic. It passes behind the first part of the axillary artery, curves forward between the axillary artery and vein, and unites in front of the artery with a filament from the lateral nerve. It then enters the deep surface of the Pectoralis minor, where it divides into a number of branches, which supply the muscle. Two or three branches pierce the muscle and end in the Pectoralis major. A mnemonic to differentiate the medial pectoral nerve, which pierces both pectorals, from the lateral pectoral nerve, which pierces only Pectoralis major, is "Lateral Less, Medial More". This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Middle cardiac nerve

    Middle cardiac nerve

    The middle cardiac nerve (great cardiac nerve), the largest of the three cardiac nerves, arises from the middle cervical ganglion, or from the trunk between the middle and inferior ganglia. On the right side it descends behind the common carotid artery, and at the root of the neck runs either in front of or behind the subclavian artery; it then descends on the trachea, receives a few filaments from the recurrent nerve, and joins the right half of the deep part of the cardiac plexus. In the neck, it communicates with the superior cardiac and recurrent nerves. On the left side, the middle cardiac nerve enters the chest between the left carotid and subclavian arteries, and joins the left half of the deep part of the cardiac plexus.
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    Obturator nerve

    Obturator nerve

    The obturator nerve in human anatomy arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves; the branch from the third is the largest, while that from the second is often very small. It descends through the fibers of the Psoas major, and emerges from its medial border near the brim of the pelvis; it then passes behind the common iliac arteries, and on the lateral side of the internal iliac artery and ureter, and runs along the lateral wall of the lesser pelvis, above and in front of the obturator vessels, to the upper part of the obturator foramen. Here it enters the thigh, through the obturator canal, and divides into an anterior and a posterior branch, which are separated at first by some of the fibers of the Obturator externus, and lower down by the Adductor brevis. The Obturator nerve is responsible for the sensory innervation of the skin of the medial aspect of the thigh. It is also responsible for the motor innervation of the adductor muscles of the lower extremity (external obturator., adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis) and the pectineus (inconstant). It is, notably, not responsible for the innervation of the obturator
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    Otic ganglion

    Otic ganglion

    The otic ganglion is a small, oval shaped, flattened parasympathetic ganglion of a reddish-gray color, located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa. It gives innervation to the parotid gland for salivation. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. (The others are the submandibular ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and ciliary ganglion). It is occasionally absent. Filaments that pass through the ganglion without synapsing: Its sympathetic postganglionic fibers consists of a filament from the plexus surrounding the middle meningeal artery. Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate from the glossopharyngeal nerve via the lesser petrosal nerve. The lesser petrosal nerve is a continuation of the glossopharyngeal nerve after it exits the skull via the jugular foramen and innervates the tympanic plexus. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers travel with the sympathetic fibers of the auriculotemporal nerve (a branch of CN V3) to supply the parotid gland. All postsynaptic parasympathetics will use some branch of the Trigeminal Nerve to get from one of four parasympatheic ganglia (Otic, Ciliary, Submandibular, and Pteryopalatine) to
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    Pelvic splanchnic nerves

    Pelvic splanchnic nerves or nervi erigentes are splanchnic nerves that arise from sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4 to provide parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut. The pelvic splanchnic nerves arise from the ventral rami of the S2-S4 and enter the sacral plexus. They travel to their side's corresponding inferior hypogastric plexus, located bilaterally on the walls of the rectum. From there, they contribute to the innervation of the pelvic and genital organs. The nerves regulate the emptying of the urinary bladder and the rectum as well as sexual functions like erection. They contain both preganglionic parasympathetic fibers as well as visceral afferent fibers. The parasympathetic nervous system is referred to as the craniosacral outflow; the pelvic splanchnic nerves are the sacral component. They are in the same region as the sacral splanchnic nerves, which arise from the sympathetic trunk and provide sympathetic efferent fibers. The proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon, and the rest of the proximal gastrointestinal tract is supplied its parasympathetic fibers by the vagus nerve. In the distal 1/3 of the transverse colon, and through the sigmoid and rectum, the pelvic
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    Posterior auricular nerve

    Posterior auricular nerve

    The posterior auricular nerve arises from the facial nerve close to the stylomastoid foramen and runs upward in front of the mastoid process; here it is joined by a filament from the auricular branch of the vagus and communicates with the posterior branch of the great auricular as well as with the lesser occipital. As it ascends between the external acoustic meatus and mastoid process it divides into auricular and occipital branches. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Splenic plexus

    Splenic plexus

    The splenic plexus (lienal plexus in older texts) is formed by branches from the celiac plexus, the left celiac ganglion, and from the right vagus nerve. It accompanies the lienal artery to the spleen, giving off, in its course, subsidiary plexi along the various branches of the artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
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    Vestibular nerve

    Vestibular nerve

    The vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve being the other). In humans the vestibular nerve transmits sensory information transmitted by vestibular hair cells located in the two otolith organs (the utricle and the saccule) and the three semicircular canals via the vestibular ganglion. Information from the otolith organs reflects gravity and linear accelerations of the head. Information from the semicircular canals reflects rotational movement of the head. Both are necessary for the sensation of body position and gaze stability in relation to a moving environment. Axons of the vestibular nerve synapse in the vestibular nucleus on the lateral floor and wall of the fourth ventricle in the pons and medulla. It arises from bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion, ganglion of Scarpa, which is situated in the upper part of the outer end of the internal auditory meatus. The peripheral fibers divide into three branches (some sources list two): This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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