Top List Curated by Listnerd
  • Public list
  • Nov 27th 2012
  • 1.741 views
  • 411 votes
  • 411 voters
  • 5%
Best Muscle of All Time

More about Best Muscle of All Time:

Best Muscle of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on Rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Muscle of All Time top list are added by the Rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Muscle of All Time has gotten 1.741 views and has gathered 411 votes from 411 voters. Only owner can add items. Just members can vote.

Best Muscle of All Time is a top list in the Health & Fitness category on Rankly.com. Are you a fan of Health & Fitness or Best Muscle of All Time? Explore more top 100 lists about Health & Fitness on Rankly.com or participate in ranking the stuff already on the all time Best Muscle of All Time top list below.

If you're not a member of Rankly.com, you should consider becoming one. Registration is fast, free and easy. At Rankly.com, we aim to give you the best of everything - including stuff like the Best Muscle of All Time list.

Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:

Items just added

    1
    Biceps femoris muscle

    Biceps femoris muscle

    The biceps femoris is a muscle of the posterior (the back) thigh. As its name implies, it has two parts, one of which (the long head) forms part of the hamstrings muscle group. It has two heads of origin; The fibers of the long head form a fusiform belly, which passes obliquely downward and lateralward across the sciatic nerve to end in an aponeurosis which covers the posterior surface of the muscle, and receives the fibers of the short head; this aponeurosis becomes gradually contracted into a tendon, which is inserted into the lateral side of the head of the fibula, and by a small slip into the lateral condyle of the tibia. At its insertion the tendon divides into two portions, which embrace the fibular collateral ligament of the knee-joint. From the posterior border of the tendon a thin expansion is given off to the fascia of the leg. The tendon of insertion of this muscle forms the lateral hamstring; the common fibular (peroneal) nerve descends along its medial border. The short head may be absent; additional heads may arise from the ischial tuberosity, the linea aspera, the medial supracondylar ridge of the femur, or from various other parts. A slip may pass to the
    8.17
    6 votes
    2
    Brachioradialis

    Brachioradialis

    Brachioradialis is a muscle of the forearm that acts to flex the forearm at the elbow. It is also capable of both pronation and supination, depending on the position of the forearm. It is attached to the distal styloid process of the radius by way of the brachioradialis tendon, and to the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus. Brachioradialis flexes the forearm at the elbow. When the forearm is pronated, the brachioradialis tends to supinate as it flexes. In a supinated position, it tends to pronate as it flexes. The brachioradialis is a stronger elbow flexor when the forearm is in a midposition between supination and pronation at the radioulnar joint. When pronated, the brachioradialis is more active during elbow flexion since the biceps brachii is in a mechanical disadvantage. With the insertion of the muscle so far from the fulcrum of the elbow, the brachioradialis does not generate as much force as the brachialis or the biceps. It is effective mainly when those muscles have already partially flexed at the elbow. The brachioradialis flexes the forearm at the elbow, especially when quick movement is required and when a weight is lifted during slow flexion of the forearm. The
    8.20
    5 votes
    3
    Serratus anterior muscle

    Serratus anterior muscle

    The serratus anterior is a muscle that originates on the surface of the upper eight or nine ribs at the side of the chest and inserts along the entire anterior length of the medial border of the scapula. Serratus anterior normally originates by nine or ten slips from either the first to ninth ribs or the first to eighth ribs. Because two slips usually arise from the second rib, the number of slips is greater than the number of ribs from which they originate. The muscle is inserted along the medial border of the scapula between the superior and inferior angles. The muscle is divided into three named parts depending on their points of insertions: All three parts described above pull the scapula forward around the thorax, which is essential for anteversion of the arm. As such, the muscle is an antagonist to the rhomboids. However, when the inferior and superior parts act together, they keep the scapula pressed against the thorax together with the rhomboids and therefore these parts also act as synergists to the rhomboids. The inferior part can pull the lower end of the scapula laterally and forward and thus rotates the scapula to make elevation of the arm possible. Additionally, all
    7.00
    6 votes
    4
    Thyroarytenoid muscle

    Thyroarytenoid muscle

    The thyroarytenoid is a broad, thin muscle that lies parallel with and lateral to the vocal fold and that supports the wall of the ventricle and its appendix. It functions in fine tonal control of the vocal cords. It arises in front from the lower half of the angle of the thyroid cartilage, and from the middle cricothyroid ligament. Its fibers pass backward and laterally, to be inserted into the base and anterior surface of the arytenoid cartilage. The lower and deeper fibers of the muscle can be differentiated as a triangular band which is inserted into the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage, and into the adjacent portion of its anterior surface; it is termed the Vocalis, and lies parallel with the vocal ligament, to which it is adherent. A considerable number of the fibers of the Thyreoarytænoideus are prolonged into the aryepiglottic fold, where some of them become lost, while others are continued to the margin of the epiglottis. They have received a distinctive name, Thyreoepiglotticus or Thyroepiglottic, and are sometimes described as a separate muscle. A few fibers extend along the wall of the ventricle from the lateral wall of the arytenoid cartilage to the side of
    8.50
    4 votes
    5
    Lateral pterygoid muscle

    Lateral pterygoid muscle

    The lateral pterygoid (or external pterygoid) is a muscle of mastication with two heads. It lies superiorly to the medial pterygoid. The upper/superior head originates on the infratemporal surface and infratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, and the lower/inferior head on the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate. Inferior head inserts onto the neck of condyle of the mandible; upper/superior head inserts onto the articular disc and fibrous capsule of the TMJ. The mandibular branch of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, specifically the V3 branch, innervates the lateral pterygoid muscle. The primary function of the lateral pterygoid muscle is to pull the head of the condyle out of the mandibular fossa along the articular eminence to protrude the mandible. A concerted effort of the lateral pterygoid muscles acts in helping lower the mandible and open the jaw whereas unilateral action of a lateral pterygoid produces contralateral excursion (a form of mastication), usually performed in concert with the medial pterygoids. Unlike the other three muscles of mastication, the lateral pterygoid is the only muscle of mastication that assists in
    8.25
    4 votes
    6
    Verticalis muscle

    Verticalis muscle

    The Verticalis linguæ (Vertical lingualis) is found only at the borders of the forepart of the tongue. Its fibers extend from the upper to the under surface of the organ. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.25
    4 votes
    7
    Rectus capitis anterior muscle

    Rectus capitis anterior muscle

    The rectus capitis anterior (rectus capitis anticus minor) is a short, flat muscle, situated immediately behind the upper part of the Longus capitis. It arises from the anterior surface of the lateral mass of the atlas, and from the root of its transverse process, and passing obliquely upward and medialward, is inserted into the inferior surface of the basilar part of the occipital bone immediately in front of the foramen magnum. origin: anterior surface of the lateral mass of the atlas and the root of its transverse process; insertion: the inferior surface of the occipital bone anterior to the foreamen magnum; action: aids in flexion of the head and the neck; nerve supply: C1, C2. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    4 votes
    8
    Teres minor muscle

    Teres minor muscle

    The teres minor (Latin teres meaning 'rounded') is a narrow, elongated muscle of the rotator cuff. It arises from the dorsal surface of the axillary border of the scapula for the upper two-thirds of its extent, and from two aponeurotic laminæ, one of which separates it from the infraspinatus muscle, the other from the teres major muscle. Its fibers run obliquely upward and laterally; the upper ones end in a tendon which is inserted into the lowest of the three impressions on the greater tubercle of the humerus; the lowest fibers are inserted directly into the humerus immediately below this impression. The tendon of this muscle passes across, and is united with, the posterior part of the capsule of the shoulder-joint. The muscle is innervated by the posterior branch of axillary nerve where it forms pseudoganglion. Pseudoganglion has no nerve cells but only nerve fibres are present. Damage to the fibers innervating the teres minor is clinically significant. The infraspinatus and teres minor attach to head of the humerus; as part of the rotator cuff they help hold the humeral head in the glenoid cavity of the scapula. They work in tandem with the posterior deltoid to externally
    8.00
    4 votes
    9
    Trapezius muscle

    Trapezius muscle

    In human anatomy, the trapezius is a large superficial muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae and laterally to the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade). Its functions are to move the scapulae and support the arm. The trapezius has three functional regions: the superior region (descending part), which supports the weight of the arm; the intermediate region (transverse part), which retracts the scapulae; and the inferior region (ascending part), which medially rotates and depresses the scapulae. The trapezius muscle resembles a trapezium (trapezoid in American English), or diamond-shaped quadrilateral. The word "spinotrapezius" refers to the human trapezius, although it is not commonly used in modern texts. In other mammals, it refers to a portion of the analogous muscle. The superior or upper fibers of the trapezius arise from the external occipital protuberance, the medial third of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone (both in the back of the head), and the ligamentum nuchae. From this origin they proceed downward and laterally to be inserted into the posterior border of the lateral third of the clavicle. The middle
    8.00
    4 votes
    10
    Stylohyoid muscle

    Stylohyoid muscle

    The stylohyoid muscle is a slender muscle, lying anterior, and superior of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. It shares this muscle's innervation by the facial nerve, and functions to draw the hyoid bone backwards and elevate the tongue. It arises from the posterior and lateral surface of the styloid process of the temporal bone, near the base; and, passing inferior and anterior, is inserted into the body of the hyoid bone, at its junction with the greater cornu, and just superior the omohyoid muscle. It thus belongs to the group of suprahyoid muscles. When contracted, it elevates the hyoid, this action is primarily brought about during swallowing. It is perforated, near its insertion, by the intermediate tendon of the digastric muscle. It may be absent or doubled, lie beneath the carotid artery, or be inserted into the omohyoid, or mylohyoid muscles. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.75
    4 votes
    11
    Salpingopharyngeus muscle

    Salpingopharyngeus muscle

    The salpingopharyngeus muscle arises from the superior border of the medial cartilage of the pharyngotympanic tube (Eustachian tube), in the nasal cavity, making the posterior welt of the torus tubarius; it passes downward and blends with the posterior fasciculus of the palatopharyngeus muscle. The salpingopharyngeus is known to raise the pharynx and larynx during deglutition (swallowing) and laterally draws the pharyngeal walls up. In addition, it opens the pharyngeal orifice of the pharyngotympanic tube during swallowing. This allows for the equalization of pressure between the auditory canal and the pharynx. The salpingopharyngeus is innervated by the vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated. The salpingopharyngeus is known to raise the nasopharynx and laterally draws the pharyngeal walls up.
    7.50
    4 votes
    12
    Cricothyroid muscle

    Cricothyroid muscle

    The cricothyroid muscle is the only tensor muscle of the larynx, aiding with phonation. It attaches to the anterolateral aspect of the cricoid and the inferior cornu and lower lamina of the thyroid cartilage, and its action tilts the thyroid forward to help tense the vocal cords. Not to be confused with the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles, which are the only muscles directly responsible for opening (abducting) the space between the vocal cords to allow for sound production. The Cricothyroid muscle produces tension and elongation of the vocal folds by drawing up the arch of the cricoid cartilage and tilting back the upper border of the thyroid cartilage lamina; the distance between the vocal processes and the angle of the thyroid is thus increased, and the folds are consequently elongated, resulting in higher pitch phonation. This muscle is the only laryngeal muscle supplied by the branch of the vagus nerve known as the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (rather than the recurrent laryngeal nerve).
    8.67
    3 votes
    13
    Longus colli muscle

    Longus colli muscle

    The Longus colli muscle is a muscle of the human body. The Longus colli is situated on the anterior surface of the vertebral column, between the atlas and the third thoracic vertebra. It is broad in the middle, narrow and pointed at either end, and consists of three portions, a superior oblique, an inferior oblique, and a vertical. It is commonly injured in rear end whiplash injuries, usually resulting from a car crash. This muscle is in front of the spine and is thought by some scientists that it may cause some whiplash patients to have an unnatural lack of curvature in the patients' neck. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.67
    3 votes
    14
    Quadratus plantae muscle

    Quadratus plantae muscle

    The quadratus plantæ (flexor accessorius) is separated from the muscles of the first layer by the lateral plantar vessels and nerve. It acts to aid in flexing the 2nd to 5th toes (offsetting the oblique pull of the flexor digitorum longus) and is one of the few muscles in the foot with no homolog in the hand. It arises by two heads, which are separated from each other by the long plantar ligament: the medial or larger head is muscular, and is attached to the medial concave surface of the calcaneus, below the groove which lodges the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus; the lateral head, flat and tendinous, arises from the lateral border of the inferior surface of the calcaneus, in front of the lateral process of its tuberosity, and from the long plantar ligament. The two portions join at an acute angle, and end in a flattened band which is inserted into the lateral margin and upper and under surfaces of the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus, forming a kind of groove, in which the tendon is lodged. It usually sends slips to those tendons of the Flexor digitorum longus which pass to the second, third, and fourth toes. Lateral head often wanting; entire muscle absent. Variation in
    8.67
    3 votes
    15
    Semispinalis dorsi

    Semispinalis dorsi

    The Semispinalis dorsi (or semispinalis thoracis) consists of thin, narrow, fleshy fasciculi, interposed between tendons of considerable length. It arises by a series of small tendons from the transverse processes of the sixth to the tenth thoracic vertebræ, and is inserted, by tendons, into the spinous processes of the upper four thoracic and lower two cervical vertebrae. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.25
    4 votes
    16
    Transversospinales muscles

    Transversospinales muscles

    The transversospinal muscles are a group of muscles of the human back. Their combined action is rotation and extension of the vertebral column. They include:
    7.25
    4 votes
    17
    Digastric muscle

    Digastric muscle

    The digastric muscle (also digastricus) (named digastric as it has two bellies) is a small muscle located under the jaw. The term "digastric muscle" refers to this specific muscle. However, other muscles that have two separate muscle bellies include the ligament of treitz, omohyoid, occipitofrontalis. It lies below the body of the mandible, and extends, in a curved form, from the mastoid process to the symphysis menti. It belongs to the suprahyoid muscles group. A broad aponeurotic layer is given off from the tendon of the digastricus on either side, to be attached to the body and greater cornu of the hyoid bone; this is termed the suprahyoid aponeurosis. The digastricus (digastric muscle) consists of two fleshy bellies united by an intermediate rounded tendon. The two bellies of the digastric muscle have different embryological origins, and are supplied by different cranial nerves. The posterior belly, longer than the anterior belly, arises on the inferior surface of the skull, from the mastoid notch on the medial surface of the mastoid process of the temporal bone and a deep groove between the mastoid process and the styloid process called the digastric groove. The posterior
    10.00
    2 votes
    18
    Intertransversarii muscle

    Intertransversarii muscle

    The Intertransversarii are small muscles placed between the transverse processes of the vertebræ. In the cervical region they are best developed, consisting of rounded muscular and tendinous fasciculi, and are placed in pairs, passing between the anterior and the posterior tubercles respectively of the transverse processes of two contiguous vertebræ, and separated from one another by an anterior primary division of the cervical nerve, which lies in the groove between them. Both sets are supplied by the anterior divisions of the spinal nerves. There are seven pairs of these muscles, the first pair being between the atlas and axis, and the last pair between the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebræ. In the thoracic region they are present between the transverse processes of the lower three thoracic vertebræ, and between the transverse processes of the last thoracic and the first lumbar. In the lumbar region they are arranged in pairs, on either side of the vertebral column, The Intertransversarii laterales are supplied by the anterior divisions, and the Intertransversarii mediales by the posterior divisions of the spinal nerves. The intertransversarii muscle is primarily
    8.33
    3 votes
    19
    Rectus abdominis muscle

    Rectus abdominis muscle

    The rectus abdominis muscle, also known as "abs" or a "six pack", is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen (and in some other animals). There are two parallel muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba (white line). It extends from the pubic symphysis, pubic crest and pubic tubercle inferiorly to the xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs V to VII superiorly. It is contained in the rectus sheath, consisting of the aponeuroses of the lateral abdominal muscles. The rectus is crossed by three (rarely four) fibrous bands called the tendinous intersections. This causes the formation of six muscle bellies, giving rise to its common name as the "six-pack." The rectus abdominis is an important postural muscle. It is responsible for flexing the lumbar spine, as when doing a "crunch". The rib cage is brought up to where the pelvis is when the pelvis is fixed, or the pelvis can be brought towards the rib cage (posterior pelvic tilt) when the rib cage is fixed, such as in a leg-hip raise. The two can also be brought together simultaneously when neither is fixed in space. The rectus abdominis assists
    8.33
    3 votes
    20
    Oblique arytenoid

    Oblique arytenoid

    The oblique arytenoid, the more superficial Arytenoid muscle, forms two fasciculi, which pass from the base of one cartilage to the apex of the opposite one, and therefore cross each other like the limbs of the letter X; a few fibers are continued around the lateral margin of the cartilage, and are prolonged into the aryepiglottic fold; they are sometimes described as a separate muscle, the Aryepiglotticus. The aryepiglottic muscle together with the transverse arytenoid and the thyroarytenoid work as a sphincter and close the larynx as we swallow or cough. Its innervation is by the recurrent laryngeal nerve (from vagus) just like all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    4 votes
    21
    Sphincter urethrae membranaceae muscle

    Sphincter urethrae membranaceae muscle

    The external sphincter muscle of urethra (or sphincter urethrae membranaceae) surrounds the whole length of the membranous portion of the urethra, and is enclosed in the fasciæ of the urogenital diaphragm. Its external fibers arise from the junction of the inferior rami of the pubis and ischium to the extent of 1.25 to 2 cm., and from the neighboring fasciæ. They arch across the front of the urethra and bulbourethral glands, pass around the urethra, and behind it unite with the muscle of the opposite side, by means of a tendinous raphé. Its innermost fibers form a continuous circular investment for the membranous urethra. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    4 votes
    22
    Adductor hallucis muscle

    Adductor hallucis muscle

    The Adductor hallucis (Adductor obliquus hallucis) arises by two heads—oblique and transverse and is responsible for adducting the big toe. It is innervated by the lateral plantar nerve. It evolved from the contrahens I muscle as Man's ancestors' thumbs and big toes became opposable. The oblique head is a large, thick, fleshy mass, crossing the foot obliquely and occupying the hollow space under the first, second, third and fourth metatarsal bones. It arises from the bases of the second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones, and from the sheath of the tendon of the Peronæus longus, and is inserted, together with the lateral portion of the Flexor hallucis brevis, into the lateral side of the base of the first phalanx of the great toe. The transverse head (Transversus pedis) is a narrow, flat fasciculus which arises from the plantar metatarsophalangeal ligaments of the third, fourth, and fifth toes (sometimes only from the third and fourth), and from the transverse ligament of the metatarsus. It is inserted into the lateral side of the base of the first phalanx of the great toe, its fibers blending with the tendon of insertion of the oblique head. Slips to the base of the first phalanx
    9.50
    2 votes
    23
    Dilatator naris posterior muscle

    Dilatator naris posterior muscle

    The Dilator naris muscle is a part of the nasalis muscle. It is divided into posterior and anterior parts. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.50
    2 votes
    24
    Tibialis posterior muscle

    Tibialis posterior muscle

    The tibialis posterior is the most central of all the leg muscles, and is located in the posterior compartment of the leg. It is the key stabilizing muscle of the lower leg. Blood is supplied to the muscle by the posterior tibial artery, and innervation is via the tibial nerve. The tibialis posterior muscle originates on the inner posterior borders of the tibia and fibula. It is also attached to the interosseous membrane, which attaches to the tibia and fibula. The tendon of tibialis posterior muscle descends posterior to the medial malleolus and terminates by dividing into plantar, main, and recurrent components. The plantar portion inserts into the bases of the second, third and fourth metatarsals, the second and third cuneiforms and the cuboid. The main portion inserts into the tuberosity of the navicular and the plantar surface of the first cuneiform. The recurrent portion inserts into the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus. As well as being a key muscle and tendon for stabilization, the tibialis posterior also contracts to produce inversion and assists in the plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle. The tibialis posterior has a major role in supporting the medial arch of the
    9.50
    2 votes
    25
    Transversus perinei superficialis muscle

    Transversus perinei superficialis muscle

    The Transversus perinei superficialis (Transversus perinei; Superficial transverse perineal muscle) is a narrow muscular slip, which passes more or less transversely across the perineal space anterior to the anus. It arises by tendinous fibers from the inner and forepart of the tuberosity of the ischium, and, running medially, is inserted into the central tendinous point of the perineum (perineal body), joining in this situation with the muscle of the opposite side, with the Sphincter ani externus muscle behind, and with the Bulbospongiosus muscle in front. In some cases, the fibers of the deeper layer of the Sphincter ani externus decussate in front of the anus and are continued into this muscle. Occasionally it gives off fibers, which join with the Bulbocavernosus of the same side. Variations are numerous. It may be absent or double, or insert into Bulbocavernosus or External sphincter. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.75
    4 votes
    26
    Articularis genu muscle

    Articularis genu muscle

    The articularis genu (subcrureus) is a small skeletal muscle located anteriorly on the thigh just above the knee. It arises from the anterior surface of the lower part of the body of the femur, deep to the vastus intermedius, close to the knee and from the deep fibers of the vastus intermedius. Its insertion is on the synovial membrane of the knee-joint. Articularis genu pulls the suprapatellar bursa superiorly during extension of the knee, and prevents impingement of the synovial membrane between the patella and the femur. It is supplied by the lateral femoral circumflex artery. It is innervated by branches of the femoral nerve (L2-L4). Flat, wispy and highly variable, sometimes consisting of several separate muscular bundles, this muscle is without a distinct investing fascia and ranges 1.5–3 cm in width. It is usually distinct from the vastus intermedius, but occasionally blended with it. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.50
    4 votes
    27
    Supinator muscle

    Supinator muscle

    In human anatomy, the supinator is a broad muscle in the posterior compartment of the forearm, curved around the upper third of the radius. Its function is to supinate the forearm. The term "supinator" can also refer more generally to a muscle that causes supination of a part of the body. In older texts, the term "supinator longus" was used to refer to the brachioradialis, and "supinator brevis" was used to the muscle now known as the supinator. Supinator consists of two planes of fibers, between which the deep branch of the radial nerve lies. The two planes arise in common — the superficial one by tendinous (the initial portion of the muscle is actually just tendon) and the deeper by muscular fibers — from the supinator crest of ulna, the lateral epicondyle of humerus, the radial collateral ligament, and the annular radial ligament. The superficial fibers (pars superficialis) surround the upper part of the radius, and are inserted into the lateral edge of the radial tuberosity and the oblique line of the radius, as low down as the insertion of the pronator teres. The upper fibers (pars profunda) of the deeper plane form a sling-like fasciculus, which encircles the neck of the
    6.50
    4 votes
    28
    Abdominal external oblique muscle

    Abdominal external oblique muscle

    The external oblique muscle (of the abdomen) (also external abdominal oblique muscle) is the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen. The external oblique is situated on the lateral and anterior parts of the abdomen. It is broad, thin, and irregularly quadrilateral, its muscular portion occupying the side, its aponeurosis the anterior wall of the abdomen. In most humans (especially females), the oblique is not visible, due to subcutaneous fat deposits and the small size of the muscle. It arises from eight fleshy digitations, each from the external surfaces and inferior borders of the fifth to twelfth ribs. These digitations are arranged in an oblique line which runs inferiorly and anteriorly, with the upper digitations being attached close to the cartilages of the corresponding ribs, the lowest to the apex of the cartilage of the last rib, the intermediate ones to the ribs at some distance from their cartilages. The five superior serrations increase in size from above downward, and are received between corresponding processes of the serratus anterior muscle; the three lower ones diminish in size from above downward and
    7.67
    3 votes
    29
    Abductor minimi digiti muscle

    Abductor minimi digiti muscle

    In human anatomy, the abductor digiti minimi (abductor minimi digiti, abductor digiti quinti, ADM) is a skeletal muscle situated on the ulnar border of the palm of the hand. It forms the ulnar border of the palm and its spindle-like shape defines the hypothenar eminence of the palm together with the skin, connective tissue, and fat surrounding it. Its main function is to pull the little finger away from the other fingers (i.e. abduction). From Latin ab, "away from"; ducere "to draw"; digitus, "digit"; and minimum, smallest; or quintus, "fifth", meaning "abductor of the smallest/fifth finger". The abductor digiti minimi arises from the pisiform bone, the pisohamate ligament, and the flexor retinaculum. Its distal tendon ends in three slips that are inserted into the ulnopalmar margin of the proximal phalanx, the palmar plate of the metacarpophalangeal joint, and the sesamoid bone when present. Some fibers insert into the finger's dorsal aponeurosis, why the muscle acts similar to a dorsal interosseus in the middle finger. Additionally, the ulnar-most portion of the tendon inserts into the little finger's digital cord, and the muscle thus forms part of a structure that flexes the
    7.67
    3 votes
    30
    Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle

    Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle

    In human anatomy, the extensor carpi ulnaris is a skeletal muscle located on the ulnar side of the forearm. It acts to extend and adduct at the carpus/wrist. Being an extensor muscle, extensor carpi ulnaris is on the posterior side of the forearm. It originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the posterior border of the ulna, and crosses the forearm to the ulnar (medial) side to insert at the base of the 5th metacarpal. The extensor carpi ulnaris extends the wrist, but when acting alone inclines the hand toward the ulnar side; by its continued action it extends the elbow-joint. The muscle is a minor extensor of the carpus in carnivores, but has become a flexor in ungulates. In this case it is described as ulnaris lateralis. Despite its name, the extensor carpi ulnaris is innervated by the deep branch of the radial nerve . It would therefore be paralyzed in an injury to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.
    7.67
    3 votes
    31
    Lateral rectus muscle

    Lateral rectus muscle

    The lateral rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. It is one of six extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye (abduction in this case) and the only muscle innervated by the abducens nerve, cranial nerve VI. Its function is to bring the pupil away from the midline of the body. It is tested clinically by asking the patient to look laterally. credit: Patrick J. Lynch
    7.67
    3 votes
    32
    Transverse arytenoid

    Transverse arytenoid

    The tranverse arytenoid crosses transversely between the two cartilages. It is an unpaired muscle running from one arytenoid to another to pull the arytenoids together. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.67
    3 votes
    33
    Brachialis muscle

    Brachialis muscle

    The brachialis (brachialis anticus) is a muscle in the upper arm that flexes the elbow joint. It lies deeper than the biceps brachii, and is a synergist that assists the biceps brachii in flexing at the elbow. It makes up part of the floor of the region known as the cubital fossa. The brachialis originates from the lower half of the front of the humerus, near the insertion of the deltoid muscle, which it embraces by two angular processes. Its origin extends below to within 2.5 cm of the margin of the articular surface of the humerus at the elbow joint. It also arises from the intermuscular septa of the arm, but more extensively from the medial than the lateral; it is separated from the lateral below by the brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus muscles. Its fibers converge to a thick tendon, which is inserted into the tuberosity of the ulna and the rough depression on the anterior surface of the coronoid process of the ulna. The brachialis muscle is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve, which runs on its superficial surface, between it and the biceps brachii. Part of it is also innervated by the radial nerve (proprioceptive branch) which allows it to be split during
    9.00
    2 votes
    34
    Coracobrachialis muscle

    Coracobrachialis muscle

    The coracobrachialis is the smallest of the three muscles that attach to the coracoid process of the scapula. (The other two muscles are pectoralis minor and biceps brachii.) It is situated at the upper and medial part of the arm. It is perforated by and innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve. It arises from the apex of the coracoid process, in common with the short head of the biceps brachii, and from the intermuscular septum between the two muscles. It is inserted by means of a flat tendon into an impression at the middle of the medial surface and border of the body of the humerus (shaft of the humerus) between the origins of the triceps brachii and brachialis. The coracobrachialis draws the humerus forward (shoulder flexion) and towards the torso (shoulder adduction). The coracobrachialis muscle is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve which arises from the anterior division of the upper (C5, C6) & middle trunks (C7) of the brachial plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    2 votes
    35
    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle

    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle

    In human anatomy, the extensor pollicis brevis is a skeletal muscle on the dorsal side of the forearm. It lies on the medial side of, and is closely connected with, the abductor pollicis longus. The extensor pollicis brevis arises from the radius distal to the abductor pollicis longus, from the interosseous membrane, and from the dorsal surface of the radius. Its direction is similar to that of the abductor pollicis longus, its tendon passing the same groove on the lateral side of the lower end of the radius, to be inserted into the base of the first phalanx of the thumb. In a close relationship to the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis brevis both extends and abducts the thumb at the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints. Absence; fusion of tendon with that of the extensor pollicis longus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    2 votes
    36
    Lumbricals of the hand

    Lumbricals of the hand

    The lumbricals are intrinsic muscles of the hand that flex the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints. There are four of these small, worm-like muscles on each hand. These muscles are unusual in that they do not attach to bone. Instead they attach proximally to the tendons of flexor digitorum profundus and distally to the extensor expansions. The first and second lumbricals (the most radial two) are innervated by the median nerve. The third and fourth lumbricals (most ulnar two) are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. This is the usual innervation of the lumbricals (occurring in 60% of individuals). However 1:3 (median:ulnar - 20% of individuals) and 3:1 (median:ulnar - 20% of individuals) also exist. The lumbrical innervation always follows the innervation pattern of the associated muscle unit of flexor digitorum profundus (i.e. if the muscle units supplying the tendon to the middle finger are innervated by the median nerve, the second lumbrical will also be innervated by the median nerve). There are four separate sources of blood supply for these muscles: the superficial palmar arch, the common palmar digital artery, the deep palmar arch,
    9.00
    2 votes
    37
    Psoas major muscle

    Psoas major muscle

    The psoas major (/ˈsoʊ.əz/) is a long fusiform muscle located on the side of the lumbar region of the vertebral column and brim of the lesser pelvis. It joins the iliacus muscle to form the iliopsoas. In less than 50 percent of human subjects the psoas major is accompanied by the psoas minor. In mice, it is mostly a fast-twitching, type II muscle, while in human it combines slow and fast-twitching fibers. The psoas major is divided into a superficial and deep part. The deep part originates from the transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae I-V. The superficial part originates from the lateral surfaces of the last thoracic vertebra, lumbar vertebrae I-IV, and from neighboring invertebral discs. The lumbar plexus lies between the two layers. Joined by the iliacus, psoas major forms the iliopsoas which is surrounded by the iliac fascia. The iliopsoas runs across the iliopubic eminence through the muscular lacuna to its insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur. The iliopectineal bursa separates the bone from the muscle at the level of the iliopubic eminence. The iliac subtendinous bursa lies between the lesser trochanter and the attachment of the iliopsoas. Innervation of the
    9.00
    2 votes
    38
    Vastus medialis

    Vastus medialis

    The vastus medialis (aka vastus internus), often called the 'teardrop' muscle, is a medially located muscle of the quadriceps. The Vastus Medialis is one of four muscles which resides in the front of the thigh. The vasti appear to act largely in a co-ordinated manner throughout the control of knee extension. Much has been made of the ability of the Vastus Medialis to translate the patella medially, however since approximately 70% of the contractile fibres attach directly to the common extensor tendon (which then inserts centrally to the superior patella) the functional ability to achieve this goal may be overstated, and is likely dwarfed by the bony congruence of the patella in the trochlea notch. However, this does not apply to persons with trochlear aplasia or hypoplasia, which refer to an absence or extreme shallowness of the trochlear groove. Some authorities maintain there is a separate aspect to the Vastus Medialis muscle - the "Vastus Medialis Obliquus" or more commonly the "VMO" which is reported to have a more oblique or horizontal orientation to the bulk of the remainder of the muscle thereby disposing it to be better able to 'pull' the patella medially. Unfortunately
    9.00
    2 votes
    39
    Flexor hallucis longus muscle

    Flexor hallucis longus muscle

    The Flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) is a muscle of the leg. It is one of the deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg. The other deep muscles of the leg are flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior. Tibialis posterior is most powerful of these deep muscles. The Flexor hallucis longus is situated on the fibular side of the leg. It arises from the inferior two-thirds of the posterior surface of the body of the fibula, with the exception of 2.5 cm. at its lowest part; from the lower part of the interosseous membrane; from an intermuscular septum between it and the Peronæi, laterally, and from the fascia covering the Tibialis posterior, medially. The fibers pass obliquely downward and backward, and end in a tendon which occupies nearly the whole length of the posterior surface of the muscle. This tendon lies in a groove which crosses the posterior surface of the lower end of the tibia, the posterior surface of the talus, and the under surface of the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus; in the sole of the foot it runs forward between the two heads of the Flexor hallucis brevis, and is inserted into the base of the last phalanx of the great toe. The grooves on the
    6.25
    4 votes
    40
    Helicis minor

    Helicis minor

    The Helicis minor is an oblique fasciculus, covering the crus helicis. Helicis minor muscle is a band of oblique fibers covering the crus of the helix of the auricle. Syn: Musculus helicis minor [NA] and smaller muscle of helix. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.25
    4 votes
    41
    Orbicularis oculi muscle

    Orbicularis oculi muscle

    The orbicularis oculi is a muscle in the face that closes the eyelids. It arises from the nasal part of the frontal bone, from the frontal process of the maxilla in front of the lacrimal groove, and from the anterior surface and borders of a short fibrous band, the medial palpebral ligament. From this origin, the fibers are directed lateralward, forming a broad and thin layer, which occupies the eyelids or palpebræ, surrounds the circumference of the orbit, and spreads over the temple, and downward on the cheek. The palpebral portion of the muscle is thin and pale; it arises from the bifurcation of the medial palpebral ligament, forms a series of concentric curves, and is inserted into the lateral palpebral raphé at the outer canthus (corner) of eye. The orbital portion is thicker and of a reddish color; its fibers form a complete ellipse without interruption at the lateral palpebral commissure; the upper fibers of this portion blend with the Frontalis and Corrugator. The lacrimal part (Tensor tarsi) is a small, thin muscle, about 6 mm in breadth and 12 mm in length, situated behind the medial palpebral ligament and lacrimal sac. It arises from the posterior crest and adjacent part
    6.25
    4 votes
    42
    Flexor digitorum longus muscle

    Flexor digitorum longus muscle

    The flexor digitorum longus is situated on the tibial side of the leg. At its origin it is thin and pointed, but it gradually increases in size as it descends. This muscle serves to curl the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes (flexion of phalanges II-V). It arises from the posterior surface of the body of the tibia, from immediately below the popliteal line to within 7 or 8 cm. of its lower extremity, medial to the tibial origin of the Tibialis posterior; it also arises from the fascia covering the Tibialis posterior. The fibers end in a tendon, which runs nearly the whole length of the posterior surface of the muscle. This tendon passes behind the medial malleolus, in a groove, common to it and the tibialis posterior, but separated from the latter by a fibrous septum, each tendon being contained in a special compartment lined by a separate mucous sheath. The tendon of the tibialis posteriorm and the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus cross each other, in a spot above the medial malleolus, the crural tendinous chiasm. It passes obliquely forward and lateralward, superficial to the deltoid ligament of the ankle-joint, into the sole of the foot, where it crosses below the
    7.33
    3 votes
    43
    Geniohyoid muscle

    Geniohyoid muscle

    The Geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. It is named for its passage from the chin ("genio-" is a standard prefix for "chin") to the hyoid bone. It arises from the inferior mental spine, on the back of the symphysis menti, and runs backward and slightly downward, to be inserted into the anterior surface of the body of the hyoid bone; it lies in contact with its fellow of the opposite side. It thus belongs to the suprahyoid muscles. The nerve supply to geniohyoid is from C1 running with the hypoglossal nerve. During the first act of deglutition, when the mass of food is being driven from the mouth into the pharynx, the hyoid bone, and with it the tongue, is carried upward and forward by the anterior bellies of the Digastrici, the Mylohyoidei, and Geniohyoidei. It also assists in depressing the mandible It is innervated by fibers from C1 via Cranial Nerve XII. It may be blended with the one on opposite side or double; slips to greater cornu of hyoid bone and Genioglossus occur. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within
    7.33
    3 votes
    44
    Infraspinatus muscle

    Infraspinatus muscle

    In human anatomy, the infraspinatus muscle is a thick triangular muscle, which occupies the chief part of the infraspinatous fossa. As one of the four muscles of the rotator cuff, the main function of the infraspinatus is to externally rotate the arm and stabilize the shoulder joint. It attaches medially to the infraspinous fossa of the scapula and laterally to the middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus. The muscle arises by fleshy fibers from the medial two-thirds of the infraspinatous fossa, and by tendinous fibers from the ridges on its surface; it also arises from the infraspinatous fascia which covers it, and separates it from the teres major and teres minor. The fibers converge to a tendon, which glides over the lateral border of the spine of the scapula, and, passing across the posterior part of the capsule of the shoulder-joint, is inserted into the middle impression on the greater tubercle of the humerus. The trapezoidal insertion of the infraspinatus onto the humerus is much larger than the equivalent insertion of the supraspinatus, the reason why the infraspinatus is involved in rotarcuff tears about as frequently as the supraspinatus. The tendon of this
    7.33
    3 votes
    45
    Chondroglossus

    Chondroglossus

    The Chondroglossus is sometimes described as a part of the Hyoglossus, but is separated from it by fibers of the Genioglossus, which pass to the side of the pharynx. It is about 2 cm. long, and arises from the medial side and base of the lesser cornu and contiguous portion of the body of the hyoid bone, and passes directly upward to blend with the intrinsic muscular fibers of the tongue, between the Hyoglossus and Genioglossus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    46
    Fibularis longus

    Fibularis longus

    In human anatomy, the peroneus longus (also known as fibularis longus) is a superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg, and acts to evert and plantar flex the ankle. The muscle, the longest and most superficial of the three peroneus muscles, is attached proximally to the head of the fibula and its 'belly' runs down most of this bone. It becomes a tendon that goes posteriorly around the lateral malleolus of the ankle, then continues under the foot to attach to the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal. The terms Peroneus (i.e., Longus and Brevis) and Peroneal (i.e., Artery, Retinaculum) are derived from the Greek word Perone (pronounced Pair-uh-knee) meaning pin of a brooch or a buckle. In medical terminology, both terms refer to being of or relating to the fibula or to the outer portion of the leg. It arises from the head and upper two-thirds of the lateral surface of the body of the fibula, from the deep surface of the fascia, and from the intermuscular septa between it and the muscles on the front and back of the leg; occasionally also by a few fibers from the lateral condyle of the tibia. Between its attachments to the head and to the body of the fibula there is a
    10.00
    1 votes
    47
    Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle

    Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle

    The Flexor digiti minimi brevis (Flexor brevis minimi digiti, Flexor digiti quinti brevis) lies under the metatarsal bone of the little toe, and resembles one of the Interossei. It arises from the base of the fifth metatarsal bone, and from the sheath of the Peronæus longus; its tendon is inserted into the lateral side of the base of the first phalanx of the fifth toe. Occasionally a few of the deeper fibers are inserted into the lateral part of the distal half of the fifth metatarsal bone; these are described by some as a distinct muscle, the Opponens digiti quinti. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    48
    Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

    Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

    In human anatomy, the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP, Latin for "deep bender of the fingers") is a muscle in the forearm that flexes the fingers (also known as digits). It is considered an extrinsic hand muscle because it acts on the hand while its muscle belly is located in the forearm. Together the flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus, and flexor digitorum profundus form the deep layer of ventral forearm muscles. Flexor digitorum profundus originates upper 3/4 of anterior & medial surfaces of ulna, interosseous membrane and deep fascia of the forearm. The muscle fans out into four tendons (one to each of the second to fifth fingers) to the palmer base of distal phalanx. Along with flexor digitorum superficialis, it has long tendons that run down the arm and through the carpal tunnel and attach to the palmar side of the phalanges of the fingers. Flexor digitorum profundus lies deep to superficialis, but it attaches more distally. Therefore, profundus's tendons go through the tendons of superficialis, and end up attaching to the distal phalanx. For this reason profundus is also called the perforating muscle. The lumbricals of the hand arise from the radial side of its
    10.00
    1 votes
    49
    Gastrocnemius muscle

    Gastrocnemius muscle

    In humans, the gastrocnemius muscle ( /ˌɡæstrɒkˈniːmiəs/ or /ˌɡæstrəˈniːmiəs/; Latin, from Greek γαστήρ "stomach" and knēmē "leg"; meaning "stomach of leg", referring to the bulging shape of the calf) is a very powerful superficial pennate muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg. It runs from its two heads just above the knee to the heel, and is involved in standing, walking, running and jumping. Along with the soleus muscle it forms the calf muscle. Its function is plantar flexing the foot at the ankle joint and flexing the leg at the knee joint. In a 1967 EMG study, Herman and Bragin concluded that its most important role was plantar flexing in large contractions and in rapid development of tension. The gastrocnemius is located with the soleus in the posterior (back) compartment of the leg. The lateral head originates from the lateral condyle of the femur, while the medial head originates from the medial condyle of the femur. Its other end forms a common tendon with the soleus muscle; this tendon is known as the calcaneal tendon or Achilles Tendon and inserts onto the posterior surface of the calcaneus, or heel bone. Deep to the gastrocnemius (farther from the skin) is
    10.00
    1 votes
    50
    Intrinsic muscles of external ear

    Intrinsic muscles of external ear

    The intrinsic muscles of the external ear are the: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    51
    Obliquus capitis inferior muscle

    Obliquus capitis inferior muscle

    The obliquus capitis inferior muscle is the larger of the two oblique muscles of the neck. It arises from the apex of the spinous process of the axis and passes laterally and slightly upward, to be inserted into the lower and back part of the transverse process of the atlas. It lies deep to the semispinalis capitis and trapezius muscles. The muscle is responsible for rotation of the head and first cervical vertebra (atlanto-axial joint). It forms the lower boundary of the suboccipital triangle of the neck. The naming of this muscle may be confusing, as it is the only capitis (L. "head") muscle that does NOT attach to the cranium. The obliquus capitis inferior muscle, like the other suboccipital muscles, has an important role in proprioception. This muscle has a very high density of Golgi organs and muscle spindles which accounts for this. It is believed that proprioception may be the primary role of the inferior oblique (and indeed the other suboccipital muscles) allowing accurate positioning of the head on the neck. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    52
    Occipitalis muscle

    Occipitalis muscle

    The Occipitalis, thin and quadrilateral in form, arises by tendinous fibers from the lateral two-thirds of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone, and from the mastoid part of the temporal. It ends in the galea aponeurotica. It is the posterior belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle, and functions to move the scalp. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    53
    Semimembranosus muscle

    Semimembranosus muscle

    The semimembranosus is a muscle in the back of the thigh. It is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles. The semimembranosus, so called from its membranous tendon of origin, is situated at the back and medial side of the thigh. Its origin is the ischial tuberosity and it inserts on the medial condyle and nearby margin of tibia; intercondylar line and lateral condyle of femur; and the ligament of popliteal region. It arises by a thick tendon from the upper and outer impression on the tuberosity of the ischium, above and medial to the biceps femoris and semitendinosus. The tendon of origin expands into an aponeurosis, which covers the upper part of the anterior surface of the muscle; from this aponeurosis muscular fibers arise, and converge to another aponeurosis which covers the lower part of the posterior surface of the muscle and contracts into the tendon of insertion. It is inserted mainly into the horizontal groove on the posterior medial aspect of the medial condyle of the tibia. The tendon of insertion gives off certain fibrous expansions: one, of considerable size, passes upward and laterally to be inserted into the posterior lateral condyle of the femur, forming part
    10.00
    1 votes
    54

    Subcostales muscle

    The Subcostales (singular: subcostalis) (Infracostales) consist of muscular and aponeurotic fasciculi, which are usually well-developed only in the lower part of the thorax; each originates from the inner surface of one rib, and is inserted into the inner surface of the second or third rib below, near its angle. Their fibers run in the same direction as those of the Intercostales interni. The function of this muscle is unknown, but it is part of the innermost intercostal muscle group along with the transversus thoracis muscle which is known to be a synergist in aiding the internal intercostal muscles with forced exhalation. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    55
    Superior rectus muscle

    Superior rectus muscle

    The superior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. It is one of the extraocular muscles. It is innervated by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III). In the primary position (looking straight ahead), the superior rectus muscle's primary function is elevation, although it also contributes to intorsion and adduction. The superior rectus muscle is the only muscle that is capable of elevating the pupil when it is in a fully abducted position. credit: Patrick J. Lynch
    10.00
    1 votes
    56
    Thyrohyoid muscle

    Thyrohyoid muscle

    The thyrohyoid muscle is a small, quadrilateral muscle appearing like an upward continuation of the sternothyreoideus. It belongs to the infrahyoid muscles group. It arises from the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage, and is inserted into the lower border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. It is innervated by a branch of cervical nerve 1 (C1), which joins the hypoglossal nerve for a short distance, and depresses the hyoid and elevates the larynx. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    57
    Transversus abdominis muscle

    Transversus abdominis muscle

    The transversus abdominis muscle, also known as the transverse abdominus, transversalis muscle and transverse abdominal muscle, is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall which is deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle. It is thought to be a significant component of the core. The transversus abdominis, so called for the direction of its fibers, is the innermost of the flat muscles of the abdomen, being placed immediately beneath the internal oblique muscle. It arises, as fleshy fibers, from the lateral third of the inguinal ligament, from the anterior three-fourths of the inner lip of the iliac crest, from the inner surfaces of the cartilages of the lower six ribs, interdigitating with the diaphragm, and from the lumbodorsal fascia. The muscle ends anteriorly in a broad aponeurosis, the lower fibers of which curve inferomedially (medially and downward), and are inserted, together with those of the internal oblique muscle, into the crest of the pubis and pectineal line, forming the inguinal aponeurotic falx, also called the conjoint tendon. In layperson's terminology, the muscle ends in the middle line of a person's abdomen. Throughout the rest of its
    10.00
    1 votes
    58
    Aryepiglottic muscle

    Aryepiglottic muscle

    The aryepiglotticus is a muscle of the larynx running in the aryepiglottic fold from the arytenoid cartilage to the epiglottis.
    8.50
    2 votes
    59
    Superior oblique muscle

    Superior oblique muscle

    For the abdominal muscle see: Abdominal external oblique muscle The superior oblique muscle, or obliquus oculi superior, is a fusiform muscle originating in the upper, medial side of the orbit (i.e. from beside the nose) which abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye. It is the only extraocular muscle innervated by the trochlear nerve (the fourth cranial nerve). The extraocular muscles rotate the eyeball around vertical, horizontal and antero-posterior axes. Extraocular muscles other than the medial rectus and lateral rectus have more than one action due to the angle they make with the optical axis of the eye while inserting into the eyeball. The superior and inferior oblique muscles make an angle of 51 degrees with the optical axis. The primary (main) action of the superior oblique muscle is intorsion (internal rotation), the secondary action is depression (primarily in the adducted position) and the tertiary action is abduction (lateral rotation). The actions are remembered by the mnemonic 'SO-LID' The depressing action of superior oblique (making the eye look down towards the mouth) is most effective when the eye is in an adducted position. This is because as the eye
    8.50
    2 votes
    60
    Transversus thoracis muscle

    Transversus thoracis muscle

    The transversus thoracis lies internal to the thoracic cage, anteriorly. It is a thin plane of muscular and tendinous fibers, situated upon the inner surface of the front wall of the chest. It is in the same layer as the subcostal muscles and the innermost intercostal muscles. It arises on either side from the lower third of the posterior surface of the body of the sternum, from the posterior surface of the xiphoid process, and from the sternal ends of the costal cartilages of the lower three or four true ribs. Its fibers diverge upward and lateralward, to be inserted by slips into the lower borders and inner surfaces of the costal cartilages of the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs. The lowest fibers of this muscle are horizontal in their direction, and are continuous with those of the Transversus abdominis; the intermediate fibers are oblique, while the highest are almost vertical. This muscle varies in its attachments, not only in different subjects, but on opposite sides of the same subject. The muscle is supplied by the anterior rami of the Thoracic spinal nerves (intercostal nerves). It is almost completely without function, but it separates the thoracic cage from
    8.50
    2 votes
    61
    Triceps surae

    Triceps surae

    The triceps surae (from Latin caput and sura. "three-headed calf [muscle]") is a pair of muscles located at the calf - the gastrocnemius and the soleus. These muscles both insert into the calcaneus, the bone of the heel of the human foot, and form the major part of the muscle of the posterior leg, commonly known as the calf muscle. The triceps surae is connected to the foot through the Achilles tendon, and has 3 heads deriving from the 2 major masses of muscle. The triceps surae is innervated by the tibial nerve, specifically, nerve roots L5–S2. Contraction of the triceps surae induce plantar flexion and stabilization of the ankle complex in the transverse plane. Functional activities include primarily movement in the sagittal plane, stabilization during locomotion (walking, running) and power jumping. A torn calf muscle happens when the calf muscle is pulled apart from the Achilles tendon. Severe pain is felt by the victim and is often but not always accompanied by a "pop." This injury happens during acceleration or changes in direction. The torn calf muscle may spasm, and contract forcefully. The toes may also point down (Foot drop). Bruises can show up in the leg, foot and ankle
    8.50
    2 votes
    62
    Nasalis muscle

    Nasalis muscle

    The nasalis (compressor naris) is a sphincter-like muscle of the nose whose function is to compress the nasal cartilage. It consists of two parts, transverse and alar: Other sources divide it into "Compressor nasalis" and "Dilator nasalis".
    6.00
    4 votes
    63
    Depressor septi nasi muscle

    Depressor septi nasi muscle

    The depressor septi (Depressor alœ nasi) arises from the incisive fossa of the maxilla. Its fibers ascend to be inserted into the nasal septum and back part of the alar part of nasalis muscle. It lies between the mucous membrane and muscular structure of the lip. The depressor septi is a direct antagonist of the other muscles of the nose, drawing the ala of the nose downward, and thereby constricting the aperture of the nares. Works like the alar part of the nasalis muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    3 votes
    64
    Frontalis muscle

    Frontalis muscle

    The frontalis muscle, also known as the occipitofrontalis or epicranius, is thin, of a quadrilateral form, and intimately adherent to the superficial fascia. It is broader than the Occipitalis and its fibers are longer and paler in color. It is located on the front of the head. It has no bony attachments. Its medial fibers are continuous with those of the Procerus; its immediate fibers blend with the Corrugator and Orbicularis oculi, thus attached to the skin of the eyebrows; and its lateral fibers are also blended with the latter muscle over the zygomatic process of the frontal bone. In the eyebrows, its primary function is to lift them (thus opposing the orbital portion of the orbicularis), especially when looking up. It also acts when a view is too distant or dim. From these attachments the fibers are directed upward, and join the galea aponeurotica below the coronal suture. The medial margins of the Frontales are joined together for some distance above the root of the nose; but between the Occipitales there is a considerable, though variable, interval, occupied by the galea aponeurotica. It could be part of occipitofrontalis muscle. This article was originally based on an entry
    7.00
    3 votes
    65
    Iliacus muscle

    Iliacus muscle

    The iliacus is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa. The iliacus arises from the iliac fossa on the interior side of the hip bone, and also from the region of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS). It joins the psoas major to form the Iliopsoas as which it proceeds across the iliopubic eminence through the muscular lacuna to its insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur. Its fibers are often inserted in front of those of the psoas major and extends distally over the lesser trochanter. In open-chain movements, as part of the iliopsoas, the iliacus is important for lifting (flexing) the leg forward. In closed-chain movements, the iliopsoas bends the trunk forward and can lift the trunk from a lying posture (i.e. sit-ups) because the psoas major crosses several vertebral joints and the sacroiliac joint. From its origin in the lesser pelvis the iliacus acts exclusively on the hip joint. The iliopsoas is innervated by the femoral nerve and direct branches from the lumbar plexus.
    7.00
    3 votes
    66
    Risorius

    Risorius

    The risorius is a muscle of facial expression which arises in the fascia over the parotid gland and, passing horizontally forward, superficial to the platysma, inserts onto the skin at the angle of the mouth. It is a narrow bundle of fibers, broadest at its origin, but varies much in its size and form. The risorius retracts the angle of the mouth to produce a smile, albeit an insincere-looking one that does not involve the skin around the eyes. Compare with a real smile, which raises the lips with the action of zygomaticus major and zygomaticus minor muscles and causes "crow's feet" around the eyes using the orbicularis oculi muscles. Like all muscles of facial expression, the risorius is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII). The specific nerve being the mandibular branch. It has been suggested that the risorius is only found in humans: "Among the hominoids dissected for the present study, only modern humans had a well-defined, separate, risorius" and in chimpanzees potentially similar fibers "did not form a distinct, well defined muscle risorius such as that found in most humans". This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As
    7.00
    3 votes
    67
    Adductor brevis muscle

    Adductor brevis muscle

    The adductor brevis is a muscle in the thigh situated immediately behind the pectineus and adductor longus. It is somewhat triangular in form, and arises by a narrow origin from the outer surfaces of the superior and inferior rami of the pubis, between the gracilis and obturator externus. Its fibers, passing backward, lateralward, and downward, are inserted, by an aponeurosis, into the line leading from the lesser trochanter to the linea aspera and into the upper part of the linea aspera, immediately behind the pectineus and upper part of the adductor longus. The muscle is primarily known as a hip adductor. It also functions as a hip flexor. Whether it acts to rotate the femur laterally or medially is dependent on position. By its anterior surface, the adductor brevis is in relation with the pectineus, adductor longus, and anterior branches of the obturator artery, the obturator vein, and the obturator nerve. By its posterior surface with the adductor magnus and the posterior branches of the obturator artery, the obturator vein, and the obturator nerve. By its outer border with the obturator externus, and the iliopsoas. By its inner border with the gracilis and adductor magnus. It
    8.00
    2 votes
    68
    Deltoid muscle

    Deltoid muscle

    In human anatomy, the deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder. Anatomically, it appears to be made up of three distinct sets of fibers though electromyography suggests that it consists of at least seven groups that can be independently coordinated by the central nervous system. It was previously called the Deltoideus and the name is still used by some anatomists. It is called so because it is in the shape of the Greek letter Delta (triangle). It is also known as the common shoulder muscle, particularly in lower animals (e.g., in domestic cats). Deltoid is also further shortened in slang as "delt". The plural forms of all three incarnations are deltoidei, deltoids and delts. A study of 30 shoulders revealed an average weight of 191.9 grams (6.77 oz) (range 84 grams (3.0 oz)–366 grams (12.9 oz)) in humans. The deltoid originates in three distinct sets of fibers, often referred to as "heads": Fick divided these three groups of fibers, often referred to as parts (Latin: pars) or bands, into seven functional components: the anterior part has two components (I and II); the lateral one (III); and the posterior four (IV, V, VI, and VII) components. In
    8.00
    2 votes
    69
    Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle

    Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle

    The levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle is, translated from Latin, the "lifter of both the upper lip and of the wing of the nose". It has the longest name of any muscle in an animal. The muscle is sometimes documented as Otto's muscle as the anatomist was frustrated with the name being so long and tedious to write. The muscle is attached to the upper frontal process of the maxilla and inserts into the skin of the lateral part of the nostril and upper lip. It dilates the nostril and elevates the upper lip, enabling one to snarl. Elvis Presley is famous for his use of this facial expression, earning the muscle this nickname "The Elvis muscle". The long name of muscle can make it hard to remember. A mnemonic to remember its name is, "Little Ladies Snore All Night." Snore- because it is the labial elevator closest to the nose.
    8.00
    2 votes
    70
    Medial pterygoid muscle

    Medial pterygoid muscle

    The medial pterygoid (or internal pterygoid muscle), is a thick, quadrilateral muscle of mastication. The mandibular branch of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, innervates the medial pterygoid muscle. It consists of two heads. Its fibers pass downward, lateral, and posterior, and are inserted, by a strong tendinous lamina, into the lower and back part of the medial surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible, as high as the mandibular foramen. The insertion joins the masseter muscle to form a common tendinous sling which allows the medial pterygoid and masseter to be powerful elevators of the jaw. Like the lateral pterygoid, and all other muscles of mastication (apart from buccinator which is innervated by the facial nerve (VII)) the medial pterygoid is innervated by the anterior root (motor root) of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (V). Note: the buccinator muscle is not a muscle of mastication; instead it is classified as a facial muscle. Given that the origin is on the medial side of the lateral pterygoid plate and the insertion is from the internal surface of the ramus of the mandible down to the angle of the mandible, its functions include: This
    8.00
    2 votes
    71
    Pronator teres muscle

    Pronator teres muscle

    The pronator teres is a muscle of the human body (located mainly in the forearm) that, along with the pronator quadratus muscle, serves to pronate the forearm (turning it so that the palm faces posteriorly (when the body is in the anatomical position)). The pronator teres has two heads--humeral and ulnar. The humeral head, the larger and more superficial, arises from the medial supracondylar ridge immediately superior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and from the common flexor tendon (which arises from the medial epicondyle). The ulnar head is a thin fasciculus, which arises from the medial side of the coronoid process of the ulna, and joins the preceding at an acute angle. The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar head. The muscle passes obliquely across the forearm, and ends in a flat tendon, which is inserted into a rough impression at the middle of the lateral surface of the body of the radius, just distal to the insertion of the supinator. The lateral border of the muscle forms the medial boundary of the triangular hollow known as the cubital fossa, which is situated anterior to the
    8.00
    2 votes
    72
    Semitendinosus muscle

    Semitendinosus muscle

    The semitendinosus is a muscle in the back of the thigh; it is one of the hamstrings. The semitendinosus, remarkable for the great length of its tendon of insertion, is situated at the posterior and medial aspect of the thigh . It arises from the lower and medial impression on the tuberosity of the ischium, by a tendon common to it and the long head of the biceps femoris; it also arises from an aponeurosis which connects the adjacent surfaces of the two muscles to the extent of about 7.5 cm. from their origin. The muscle is fusiform and ends a little below the middle of the thigh in a long round tendon which lies along the medial side of the popliteal fossa; it then curves around the medial condyle of the tibia and passes over the tibial collateral ligament of the knee-joint, from which it is separated by a bursa, and is inserted into the upper part of the medial surface of the body of the tibia, nearly as far forward as its anterior crest. At its insertion it gives off from its lower border a prolongation to the deep fascia of the leg and lies behind the tendon of the sartorius, and below that of the gracilis, to which it is united. These three tendons form what is known as the
    8.00
    2 votes
    73
    Spinalis

    Spinalis

    The spinalis is the portion of the erector spinae, a bundle of muscles and tendons, located nearest to the spine. It is divided into three parts. The Spinalis dorsi, the medial continuation of the Sacrospinalis, is scarcely separable as a distinct muscle. It is situated at the medial side of the Longissimus dorsi, and is intimately blended with it; it arises by three or four tendons from the spinous processes of the first two lumbar and the last two thoracic vertebrae: these, uniting, form a small muscle which is inserted by separate tendons into the spinous processes of the upper thoracic vertebræ, the number varying from four to eight. It is intimately united with the Semispinalis dorsi, situated beneath it. The Spinalis cervicis (Spinalis colli) is an inconstant muscle, which arises from the lower part of the ligamentum nuchæ, the spinous process of the seventh cervical, and sometimes from the spinous processes of the first and second thoracic vertebrae, and is inserted into the spinosus process of the axis, and occasionally into the spinous processes of the two vertebrae below it. The Spinalis capitis (Biventer cervicis) is usually inseparably connected with the Semispinalis
    8.00
    2 votes
    74
    Tensor fasciae latae

    Tensor fasciae latae

    The tensor fasciae latae or tensor fasciæ latæ is a muscle of the thigh. The Latin name for this muscle roughly translates to English as "the muscle that stretches the band on the side." The word tensor comes from the Latin verb tendere meaning “to stretch." Fascia is the Latin term for “band.” The word latae is the genitive form of the Latin word lata meaning “side.” It arises from the anterior part of the outer lip of the iliac crest; from the outer surface of the anterior superior iliac spine, and part of the outer border of the notch below it, between the gluteus medius and sartorius; and from the deep surface of the fascia lata. It is inserted between the two layers of the iliotibial band of the fascia lata about the junction of the middle and upper thirds of the thigh. The tensor fasciæ latæ is a tensor of the fascia lata; continuing its action, the oblique direction of its fibers enables it to stabilizes the knee in extension (assists Gluteus Maximus during knee extension). In the erect posture, acting from below, it will serve to steady the pelvis upon the head of the femur; and by means of the iliotibial band it steadies the condyles of the femur on the articular surfaces
    8.00
    2 votes
    75
    Adductor pollicis muscle

    Adductor pollicis muscle

    In human anatomy, the adductor pollicis muscle is a muscle in the hand that functions to adduct the thumb. It has two heads: transverse and oblique. It is a fleshy, flat, triangular, and fan-shaped muscle deep in the thenar compartment beneath the long flexor tendons and the lumbrical muscles at the center of the palm. It overlies the metacarpal bones and the interosseous muscles. The oblique head (Latin: adductor obliquus pollicis) arises by several slips from the capitate bone, the bases of the second and third metacarpals, the intercarpal ligaments, and the sheath of the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis. From this origin the greater number of fibers pass obliquely downward and converge to a tendon, which, uniting with the tendons of the medial portion of the flexor pollicis brevis and the transverse head of the adductor pollicis, is inserted into the ulnar side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb, a sesamoid bone being present in the tendon. A considerable fasciculus, however, passes more obliquely beneath the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus to join the lateral portion of the flexor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis brevis. The transverse head
    6.67
    3 votes
    76
    Ciliary muscle

    Ciliary muscle

    The ciliary muscle ( /ˈsɪli.ɛəri/) is a ring of striated smooth muscle in the eye's middle layer (vascular layer) that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye, not the size of the pupil which is carried out by the sphincter pupillae muscle. The muscle has parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. The word ciliary had its origins around 1685–1695. The term cilia originated a few years later in 1705–1715, and is the Neo-Latin plural of cilium meaning eyelash. In Latin, cilia means upper eyelid and is perhaps a back formation from supercilium, meaning eyebrow. The suffix -ary originally occurred in loanwords from Middle English (-arie), Old French (-er, -eer, -ier, -aire, -er), and Latin (-ārius); it can generally mean "pertaining to, connected with," "contributing to," and "for the purpose of." Taken together, cili(a)-ary pertains to various anatomical structures in and around the eye, namely the ciliary body and annular suspension of the lens of the eye. Forms from the mesoderm within the choroid and considered a cranial neural crest
    6.67
    3 votes
    77
    Stylopharyngeus muscle

    Stylopharyngeus muscle

    The stylopharyngeus is a muscle in the head that stretches between the styloid process and the pharynx. The stylopharyngeus is a long, slender muscle, cylindrical above, flattened below. It arises from the medial side of the base of the styloid process, passes downward along the side of the pharynx between the superior pharyngeal constrictor and the middle pharyngeal constrictor, and spreads out beneath the mucous membrane. Some of its fibers are lost in the constrictor muscles while others, joining the palatopharyngeus muscle, are inserted into the posterior border of the thyroid cartilage. The glossopharyngeal nerve runs on the lateral side of this muscle, and crosses over it to reach the tongue. Stylopharyngeus is the only muscle in the pharynx innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and is done by its motor branch, which supplies special visceral efferent (SVE) fibers to it. The stylopharyngeus: Third pharyngeal arch This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.67
    3 votes
    78
    Flexor pollicis brevis muscle

    Flexor pollicis brevis muscle

    The flexor pollicis brevis is a muscle in the hand that flexes the thumb. It is one of three thenar muscles. It has both a superficial part and a deep part. The muscle's superficial part arises from the distal edge of the flexor retinaculum and the tubercle of the trapezium, a bone in the wrist. It passes along the radial side of the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus, and, becoming tendonous, is inserted into the radial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb; in its tendon of insertion there is a sesamoid bone. The deeper (and medial) portion of the muscle is very small, and arises from the ulnar side of the first metacarpal bone between the oblique part of the adductor pollicis and the lateral head of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, and is inserted into the ulnar side of the base of the first phalanx with the adductor pollicis. The deep (medial) part of the flexor brevis pollicis is sometimes described as the first palmar interosseous muscle. When this muscle is included, the total number of palmar interossei is four. Otherwise, there are only three palmar interossei. The flexor pollicis brevis is mostly innervated by the recurrent branch of the median
    9.00
    1 votes
    79

    Innermost intercostal muscle

    The innermost intercostal muscle is a layer of intercostal muscles deep to the plane that contains the intercostal nerves and intercostal vessels and the internal intercostal muscles. These are divided into:
    9.00
    1 votes
    80
    Intercostales externi muscles

    Intercostales externi muscles

    The Intercostales externi (External intercostals) are eleven in number on either side. They extend from the tubercles of the ribs behind, to the cartilages of the ribs in front, where they end in thin membranes, the anterior intercostal membranes, which are continued forward to the sternum. These muscles work in unison when inspiration (inhalation) occurs. The intercostal muscles relax while external muscles contract causing the expansion of the chest cavity and an influx of air into the lungs. Each arises from the lower border of a rib, and is inserted into the upper border of the rib below. In the two lower spaces they extend to the ends of the cartilages, and in the upper two or three spaces they do not quite reach the ends of the ribs. They are thicker than the Intercostales interni, and their fibers are directed obliquely downward and laterally on the back of the thorax, and downward, forward, and medially on the front (the example is often used of sticking one's hands in their pocket and noting the direction of the fingers pointing downward and medially). Continuation with the Obliquus externus or Serratus anterior: A Supracostalis muscle, from the anterior end of the first
    9.00
    1 votes
    81
    Multifidus muscle

    Multifidus muscle

    The multifidus (multifidus spinae : pl. multifidi ) muscle consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis. The multifidus is a very thin muscle. Deep in the spine, it spans three joint segments, and works to stabilize the joints at each segmental level. The stiffness and stability makes each vertebra work more effectively, and reduces the degeneration of the joint structures. These fasciculi arise: Each fasciculus, passing obliquely upward and medialward, is inserted into the whole length of the spinous process of one of the vertebræ above. These fasciculi vary in length: the most superficial, the longest, pass from one vertebra to the third or fourth above; those next in order run from one vertebra to the second or third above; while the deepest connect two contiguous vertebrae. Multifidus lies deep to the Spinal Erectors, Transverse Abdominus, and Abdominal external oblique muscle/Abdominal external oblique muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it
    9.00
    1 votes
    82
    Oblique muscle of auricle

    Oblique muscle of auricle

    For the abdominal oblique muscle, see Abdominal external oblique muscle. The oblique muscle of auricle, on the cranial surface, consists of a few fibers extending from the upper and back part of the concha to the convexity immediately above it. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    1 votes
    83
    Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

    Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

    The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles are extremely small, paired muscles that extend from the posterior cricoid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx. By rotating the arytenoid cartilages laterally, these muscles abduct the vocal cords and thereby open the rima glottidis. Their action opposes the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles. The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles receive innervation from the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X). Paralysis of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles may lead to asphyxiation as they are the only laryngeal muscles to open the true vocal folds, allowing inspiration and expiration.
    9.00
    1 votes
    84
    Pronator quadratus

    Pronator quadratus

    Pronator quadratus is a square shaped muscle on the distal forearm that acts to pronate (turn so the palm faces downwards) the hand. As it is on the anterior side of the arm, it is innervated by a branch of the median nerve, the anterior interosseous nerve (roots C8 and T1 with T1 being primary). Arterial blood comes via the interosseous artery. Its fibers run perpendicular to the direction of the arm, running from the most distal quarter of the anterior ulna to the distal quarter of the anterior radius. It is the only muscle that attaches only to the ulna at one end and the radius at the other end. When pronator quadratus contracts, it pulls the lateral side of the radius towards the ulna, thus pronating the hand. Its deep fibers serve to keep the two bones in the forearm bound together. It also aids in wrist extension.
    9.00
    1 votes
    85
    Transversus perinei profundus muscle

    Transversus perinei profundus muscle

    The Transversus perinei profundus (or deep transverse perineal) arises from the inferior rami of the ischium and runs to the median line, where it interlaces in a tendinous raphé with its fellow of the opposite side. It lies in the same plane as the Sphincter urethrae membranaceae; formerly the two muscles were described together as the Constrictor urethrae. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    1 votes
    86
    Extensor digitorum muscle

    Extensor digitorum muscle

    The extensor digitorum muscle (also known as extensor digitorum communis) is a muscle of the posterior forearm present in humans and other animals. It extends the medial four digits of the hand. It arises from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, by the common tendon; from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles, and from the antebrachial fascia. It divides below into four tendons, which pass, together with that of the extensor indicis proprius, through a separate compartment of the dorsal carpal ligament, within a mucous sheath. The tendons then diverge on the back of the hand, and are inserted into the middle and distal phalanges of the fingers in the following manner. Opposite the metacarpophalangeal articulation each tendon is bound by fasciculi to the collateral ligaments and serves as the dorsal ligament of this joint; after having crossed the joint, it spreads out into a broad aponeurosis, which covers the dorsal surface of the first phalanx and is reinforced, in this situation, by the tendons of the interossei and lumbricalis. Opposite the first interphalangeal joint this aponeurosis divides into three slips; an intermediate and two collateral: the
    7.50
    2 votes
    87
    Flexor hallucis brevis muscle

    Flexor hallucis brevis muscle

    The Flexor hallucis brevis arises, by a pointed tendinous process, from the medial part of the under surface of the cuboid bone, from the contiguous portion of the third cuneiform, and from the prolongation of the tendon of the Tibialis posterior which is attached to that bone. It divides in front into two portions, which are inserted into the medial and lateral sides of the base of the first phalanx of the great toe, a sesamoid bone being present in each tendon at its insertion. The medial portion is blended with the Abductor hallucis previous to its insertion; the lateral portion with the Adductor hallucis; the tendon of the Flexor hallucis longus lies in a groove between them; the lateral portion is sometimes described as the first Interosseous plantaris. Flexor hallucis brevis is innervated by the medial plantar nerve. Origin subject to considerable variation; it often receives fibers from the calcaneus or long plantar ligament. Attachment to the cuboid sometimes wanting. Slip to first phalanx of the second toe. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    2 votes
    88
    Gluteus maximus muscle

    Gluteus maximus muscle

    The gluteus maximus (also known as glutæus maximus or, collectively with the gluteus medius and minimus, the glutes) is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles. It makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of the (buttocks) It is a narrow and thick fleshy mass of a quadrilateral shape, and forms the prominence of the nates. Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates have much flatter buttocks. The muscle is remarkably coarse in structure, being made up of fasciculi lying parallel with one another and collected together into large bundles separated by fibrous septa. It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, and the rough portion of bone including the crest, immediately above and behind it; from the posterior surface of the lower part of the sacrum and the side of the coccyx; from the aponeurosis of the erector spinae (lumbodorsal fascia), the sacrotuberous ligament, and the fascia covering the gluteus medius (gluteal aponeurosis). The fibers are directed obliquely downward and
    7.50
    2 votes
    89
    Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

    Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

    The Inferior pharyngeal constrictor, the thickest of the three constrictors, arises from the sides of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage. Similarly to the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscles, it is innervated by the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), specifically, by branches from the pharyngeal plexus and by neuronal branches from the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The muscle is composed of two parts. The first (and more superior) arising from the thyroid cartilage (thyropharyngeal part) and the second arising from the cricoid cartilage (cricopharyngeal part). From these origins the fibers spread backward and medialward to be inserted with the muscle of the opposite side into the fibrous pharyngeal raphe in the posterior median line of the pharynx. The inferior fibers are horizontal and continuous with the circular fibers of the esophagus; the rest ascend, increasing in obliquity, and overlap the Constrictor medius. As soon as the bolus of food is received in the pharynx, the elevator muscles relax, the pharynx descends, and the constrictors contract upon the bolus, and convey it downward into the esophagus. Uncoordinated contraction, and/or Cricopharyngeal Spasm and/or
    7.50
    2 votes
    90
    Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle

    Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle

    The Rectus capitis posterior minor (Rectus capitis posticus minor) arises by a narrow pointed tendon from the tubercle on the posterior arch of the atlas, and, widening as it ascends, is inserted into the medial part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface between it and the foramen magnum, and also takes some attachment to the spinal dura. The synergists are the rectus capitus posterior major and Obliquus capitis. Connective tissue bridges were noted at the atlanto-occipital junction between the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and the dorsal spinal dura. Similar connective tissue connections of the rectus capitis posterior major have been discovered recently as well. The perpendicular arrangement of these fibers appears to restrict dural movement toward the spinal cord. The ligamentum nuchae was found to be continuous with the posterior cervical spinal dura and the lateral portion of the occipital bone. Anatomic structures innervated by cervical nerves C1-C3 have the potential to cause headache pain. Included are the joint complexes of the upper 3 cervical segments, the dura mater, and spinal cord. The dura-muscular, dura-ligamentous connections in
    7.50
    2 votes
    91
    Superior longitudinal muscle

    Superior longitudinal muscle

    The Longitudinalis linguæ superior (Superior lingualis) is a thin stratum of oblique and longitudinal fibers immediately underlying the mucous membrane on the dorsum of the tongue. It arises from the submucous fibrous layer close to the epiglottis and from the median fibrous septum, and runs forward to the edges of the tongue. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    2 votes
    92
    Vastus lateralis muscle

    Vastus lateralis muscle

    The Vastus lateralis (Vastus externus) is the largest part of the Quadriceps femoris. It arises by a broad aponeurosis, which is attached to the upper part of the intertrochanteric line, to the anterior and inferior borders of the greater trochanter, to the lateral lip of the gluteal tuberosity, and to the upper half of the lateral lip of the linea aspera; this aponeurosis covers the upper three-quarters of the muscle, and from its deep surface many fibers take origin. A few additional fibres arise from the tendon of the Glutæus maximus, and from the lateral intermuscular septum between the Vastus lateralis and short head of the Biceps femoris. The fibers form a large fleshy mass, which is attached to a strong aponeurosis, placed on the deep surface of the lower part of the muscle: this aponeurosis becomes contracted and thickened into a flat tendon inserted into the lateral border of the patella, blending with the Quadriceps femoris tendon, and giving an expansion to the capsule of the knee-joint. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    2 votes
    93
    Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

    Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

    The flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and adduct the hand. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle arises by two heads - humeral and ulnar, connected by a tendinous arch beneath which the ulnar nerve and ulnar artery pass. Its insertion is into the pisiform bone and then via ligaments into the hamate bone and 5th metacarpal bone, acting to flex and adduct the wrist joint. The tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris can be seen on the anterior of the distal forearm. On a person's distal forearm, right before the wrist, there will be either two or three tendons. Flexor carpi ulnaris is the most medial (closest to the little finger) of these. (The most lateral one is flexor carpi radialis muscle, and the middle one, if it exists, is palmaris longus.) The muscle, like all flexors of the forearm, can be strengthened by exercises that resist its flexion. A wrist roller can be used and wrist curls with dumbbells can also be performed. These exercises are used to prevent injury to the ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint. Ulnar entrapment by the aponeurosis of the 2 heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle may cause cubital tunnel syndrome.
    6.33
    3 votes
    94
    Obturator internus muscle

    Obturator internus muscle

    The obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, and the rim of the pubis. It exits the pelvic cavity through the lesser sciatic foramen. The obturator internus is situated partly within the lesser pelvis, and partly at the back of the hip-joint. It functions to help laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh, as well as to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum. It arises from the inner surface of the antero-lateral wall of the pelvis, where it surrounds the greater part of the obturator foramen, being attached to the inferior rami of the pubis and ischium, and at the side to the inner surface of the hip bone below and behind the pelvic brim, reaching from the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen above and behind to the obturator foramen below and in front. It also arises from the pelvic surface of the obturator membrane except in the posterior part, from the tendinous arch which completes the canal for the passage of the obturator vessels and nerve, and to a slight extent from the obturator fascia, which covers the muscle. The fibers converge rapidly toward the lesser sciatic foramen, and
    6.33
    3 votes
    95
    Pectineus muscle

    Pectineus muscle

    The pectineus muscle (from the Latin word pecten, meaning comb) is a flat, quadrangular muscle, situated at the anterior part of the upper and medial aspect of the thigh. It can be classified in the medial compartment of thigh (when the function is emphasized) or the anterior compartment of thigh (when the nerve is emphasized). It arises from the pectineal line of the pubis and to a slight extent from the surface of bone in front of it, between the iliopectineal eminence and tubercle of the pubis, and from the fascia covering the anterior surface of the muscle; the fibers pass downward, backward, and lateralward, to be inserted into the pectineal line of the femur which leads from the lesser trochanter to the linea aspera. The pectineus is in relation by its anterior surface with the pubic portion of the fascia lata, which separates it from the femoral artery and vein and internal saphenous vein, and lower down with the profunda artery. By its posterior surface with the capsule of the hip-joint, and with the obturator externus and adductor brevis, the obturator artery and vein being interposed. By its external border with the psoas, the femoral artery resting upon the line of
    6.33
    3 votes
    96
    Rhomboid major muscle

    Rhomboid major muscle

    The rhomboid major is a skeletal muscle on the back that connects the scapula with the vertebrae of the spinal column. In human anatomy, it acts together with the rhomboid minor to keep the scapula pressed against thoracic wall and to retract the scapula toward the vertebral column. The rhomboid major arises from the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae T2 to T5 as well as the supraspinous ligament. It inserts on the medial border of the scapula, from about the level of the scapular spine to the scapula's inferior angle. The rhomboid major is considered a superficial back muscle. It is deep to the trapezius, and is located directly inferior to the rhomboid minor. As the word rhomboid suggests, the rhomboid major is diamond-shaped. The major in its name indicates that it is the larger of the two rhomboids. The two rhomboids are sometimes fused into a single muscle. The rhomboid major helps to hold the scapula (and thus the upper limb) onto the ribcage. Other muscles that perform this function include the serratus anterior and pectoralis minor. The rhomboids also acts to retract the scapula, pulling it towards the vertebral column. The rhomboids work collectively with the
    6.33
    3 votes
    97
    Sternocleidomastoid muscle

    Sternocleidomastoid muscle

    In human anatomy, the sternocleidomastoid muscle ( /ˌstɜrnɵˌkliːdɵˈmæstɔɪd/), also known as sternomastoid and commonly abbreviated as SCM, is a paired muscle in the superficial layers of the anterior portion of the neck. When acting together it flexes the neck and extends the head. When acting alone it rotates to the opposite side (contralaterally) and slightly (laterally) flexes to the same side. It also acts as an accessory muscle of inspiration, along with the scalene muscles of the neck. It is given the name sternocleidomastoid because it originates at the manubrium of the sternum (sterno-) and the clavicle (cleido-), and has an insertion at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull. The sternocleidomastoid passes obliquely across the side of the neck. It is thick and narrow at its central part, but broader and thinner at either end. The two heads are separated from one another at their origins by a triangular interval (supraclavicular fossa) but gradually blend, below the middle of the neck, into a thick, rounded muscle which is inserted, by a strong tendon, into the lateral surface of the mastoid process, from its apex to its superior border, and by a thin
    6.33
    3 votes
    98
    Temporalis muscle

    Temporalis muscle

    The temporal muscle, also known as the temporalis, is one of the muscles of mastication. It covers much of the temporal bone. It arises from the temporal fossa and the deep part of temporal fascia. It passes medial to the zygomatic arch and inserts onto the coronoid process of the mandible. The temporal muscle is covered by the temporal fascia, also known as the temporal aponeurosis. The muscle is accessible on the temples, and can be seen and felt contracting while the jaw is clenching and unclenching. As with the other muscles of mastication, control of the temporal muscle comes from the third (mandibular) branch of the trigeminal nerve. Specifically, the muscle is innervated by the deep temporal nerves. The muscle receives its blood supply from the deep temporal arteries which anastomose with the middle temporal artery. Contraction of the temporal muscle retrudes and elevates the mandible. The posterior horizontal fibers retract the mandible while the anterior vertical fibers elevate the mandible. The temporalis is derived from the first pharyngeal arch in development.
    6.33
    3 votes
    99
    Levator veli palatini

    Levator veli palatini

    The levator veli palatini is the elevator muscle of the soft palate in the human body. During swallowing, it contracts, elevating the soft palate to help prevent food from entering the nasopharynx. It is innervated via the pharyngeal plexus, primarily by the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X). The levator veli palatini (Levator palati) is a thick, rounded muscle situated lateral to the choanæ. It arises from the under surface of the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone and from the medial lamina of the cartilage of the auditory tube. After passing above the upper concave margin of the Constrictor pharyngis superior muscle it spreads out in the palatine velum, its fibers extending obliquely downward and medially to the middle line, where they blend with those of the opposite side. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.00
    3 votes
    100
    Vastus intermedius muscle

    Vastus intermedius muscle

    The Vastus intermedius (Cruraeus) arises from the front and lateral surfaces of the body of the femur in its upper two-thirds, sitting under Rectus Femoris and from the lower part of the lateral intermuscular septum. Its fibers end in a superficial aponeurosis, which forms the deep part of the Quadriceps femoris tendon. The Vastus medialis and Vastus intermedius appear to be inseparably united, but when the Rectus femoris has been reflected a narrow interval will be observed extending upward from the medial border of the patella between the two muscles, and the separation may be continued as far as the lower part of the intertrochanteric line, where, however, the two muscles are frequently continuous. Due to being the deeper middle-most of the quadriceps muscle group, the intermedius is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained. It cannot be further stretched by hip extension as the rectus femoris can, nor is it accessible to manipulate with massage therapy to stretch the fibres sideways as the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the
    6.00
    3 votes
    101
    Abdominal internal oblique muscle

    Abdominal internal oblique muscle

    The internal oblique muscle (of the abdomen) is the intermediate muscle of the abdomen, lying just underneath the external oblique and just above (superficial to) the transverse abdominal muscle. Its fibers run perpendicular to the external oblique muscle, beginning in the thoracolumbar fascia of the lower back, the anterior 2/3 of the iliac crest (upper part of hip bone) and the lateral half of the inguinal ligament. The muscle fibers run from these point superiomedially (up and towards midline) to the muscle's insertions on the inferior borders of the 10th through 12th ribs and the linea alba (abdominal midline seam). In males, the cremaster muscle is also attached to the internal oblique. The internal oblique is innervated by the lower intercostal nerves, as well as the iliohypogastric nerve and the ilioinguinal nerve. The internal oblique performs two major functions. First, it acts as an antagonist (opponent) to the diaphragm, helping to reduce the volume of the thoracic (chest) cavity during exhalation. When the diaphragm contracts, it pulls the lower wall of the chest cavity down, increasing the volume of the lungs which then fill with air. Conversely, when the internal
    7.00
    2 votes
    102
    Abductor pollicis brevis muscle

    Abductor pollicis brevis muscle

    The abductor pollicis brevis is a muscle in the hand that functions as an abductor of the thumb. The abductor pollicis brevis is a flat, thin muscle located just under the skin. It is a thenar muscle, and therefore contributes to the bulk of the palm's thenar eminence. It originates from the flexor retinaculum of the hand, the tubercle of the scaphoid bone, and additionally sometimes from the tubercle of the trapezium. Running lateralward and downward, it is inserted by a thin, flat tendon into the lateral side of the base of the first phalanx of the thumb and the capsule of the metacarpophalangeal joint. The abductor pollicis brevis is innervated by the recurrent branch of the median nerve. C8/T1 Abduction of the thumb is defined as the movement of the thumb anteriorly, a direction perpendicular to the palm. The abductor pollicis brevis does this by acting across both the carpometacarpal joint and the metacarpophalangeal joint. It also assists in opposition and extension of the thumb. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    2 votes
    103
    Arytenoid muscle

    Arytenoid muscle

    The arytenoid /ærɨˈtiːnɔɪd/ is a single muscle, filling up the posterior concave surfaces of the arytenoid cartilages. It arises from the posterior surface and lateral border of one arytenoid cartilage, and is inserted into the corresponding parts of the opposite cartilage. It consists of oblique and transverse parts. The Arytœnoideus approximates the arytenoid cartilages, and thus closes the opening of the glottis, especially at its back part to eliminate the posterior commissure of the vocal folds. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    2 votes
    104
    Extensor hallucis longus muscle

    Extensor hallucis longus muscle

    The Extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle, situated between the Tibialis anterior and the Extensor digitorum longus that functions to extend the big toe, dorsiflex the foot, and assists with foot inversion. It arises from the anterior surface of the fibula for about the middle two-fourths of its extent, medial to the origin of the Extensor digitorum longus; it also arises from the interosseous membrane to a similar extent. The anterior tibial vessels and deep peroneal nerve lie between it and the Tibialis anterior. The fibers pass downward, and end in a tendon, which occupies the anterior border of the muscle, passes through a distinct compartment in the cruciate crural ligament, crosses from the lateral to the medial side of the anterior tibial vessels near the bend of the ankle, and is inserted into the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe. Opposite the metatarsophalangeal articulation, the tendon gives off a thin prolongation on either side, to cover the surface of the joint. An expansion from the medial side of the tendon is usually inserted into the base of the proximal phalanx. Occasionally united at its origin with the Extensor digitorum longus. Extensor ossis
    7.00
    2 votes
    105
    Flexor pollicis longus muscle

    Flexor pollicis longus muscle

    The flexor pollicis longus (FPL, Latin flexor, bender; pollicis, thumb; longus, long) is a muscle in the forearm and hand that flexes the thumb. It lies in the same plane as the flexor digitorum profundus. This muscle is unique to humans, being "either rudimentary or absent" in other primates. It arises from the grooved anterior (side of palm) surface of the body of the radius, extending from immediately below the radial tuberosity and oblique line to within a short distance of the pronator quadratus muscle. An occasionally present accessory long head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle is called 'Ganzer's muscle'. It may cause compression of the anterior interosseous nerve. It arises also from the adjacent part of the interosseous membrane of the forearm, and generally by a fleshy slip from the medial border of the coronoid process of the ulna. In 40 per cent of cases, it is also inserted from the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and in those cases a tendinous connection with the humeral head of the flexor digitorum superficialis is present. The fibers end in a flattened tendon, which passes beneath the flexor retinaculum of the hand through the carpal tunnel. It is then lodged
    7.00
    2 votes
    106
    Gracilis muscle

    Gracilis muscle

    The gracilis (Latin for "slender") is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the thigh. It is thin and flattened, broad above, narrow and tapering below. It arises by a thin aponeurosis from the anterior margins of the lower half of the symphysis pubis and the upper half of the pubic arch. The muscle's fibers run vertically downward, ending in a rounded tendon. This tendon passes behind the medial condyle of the femur, curves around the medial condyle of the tibia where it becomes flattened, and inserts into the upper part of the medial surface of the body of the tibia, below the condyle. For this reason, the muscle is a lower limb adductor. At its insertion the tendon is situated immediately above that of the semitendinosus muscle, and its upper edge is overlapped by the tendon of the sartorius muscle, which it joins to form the pes anserinus. The pes anserinus is separated from the medial collateral ligament of the knee-joint by a bursa. A few of the fibers of the lower part of the tendon are prolonged into the deep fascia of the leg. The muscle adducts and flexes the hip as above, and also aids in flexion of the knee. By its inner or superficial surface gracilis is in
    7.00
    2 votes
    107
    Levator ani

    Levator ani

    The levator ani is a broad, thin muscle, situated on the side of the pelvis. It is attached to the inner surface of the side of the lesser pelvis, and unites with its fellow of the opposite side to form the greater part of the floor of the pelvic cavity. It supports the viscera in pelvic cavity, and surrounds the various structures which pass through it. In combination with the coccygeus muscle, it forms the pelvic diaphragm. The levator ani is divided into three parts: The levator ani arises, in front, from the posterior surface of the superior ramus of the pubis lateral to the symphysis; behind, from the inner surface of the spine of the ischium; and between these two points, from the obturator fascia. Posteriorly, this fascial origin corresponds, more or less closely, with the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia, but in front, the muscle arises from the fascia at a varying distance above the arch, in some cases reaching nearly as high as the canal for the obturator vessels and nerve. The fibers pass downward and backward to the middle line of the floor of the pelvis; the most posterior are inserted into the side of the last two segments of the coccyx; those placed more
    7.00
    2 votes
    108
    Longus capitis muscle

    Longus capitis muscle

    The longus capitis muscle (rectus capitis anticus major), broad and thick above, narrow below, arises by four tendinous slips, from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebræ, and ascends, converging toward its fellow of the opposite side, to be inserted into the inferior surface of the basilar part of the occipital bone. It is innervated by a branch of cervical plexus. Longus capitis has several actions: acting unilaterally, to: acting bilaterally: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    2 votes
    109
    Obliquus capitis superior muscle

    Obliquus capitis superior muscle

    The Obliquus capitis superior muscle arises from the lateral mass of the atlas bone. It passes superiorly and posteriorly to insert into the lateral half of the inferior nuchal line. It is innervated by the suboccipital nerve, the dorsal ramus of the first spinal nerve. It acts at the atlanto-occipital joint to extend the head and flex the head to the ipsilateral side. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    2 votes
    110
    Pectoralis minor muscle

    Pectoralis minor muscle

    The pectoralis minor is a thin, triangular muscle, situated at the upper part of the chest, beneath the pectoralis major in the human body. It arises from the upper margins and outer surfaces of the third, fourth, and fifth ribs, near their cartilages and from the aponeuroses covering the intercostalis. The fibers pass superior and lateral and converge to form a flat tendon, which is inserted into the medial border and upper surface of the coracoid process of the scapula. Axillary nodes are classified according to their positions relative to the pectoralis minor muscle. Level 1 are lateral, Level 2 are deep, Level 3 are medial. The pectoralis minor muscle is covered anteriorly (superficially) by the clavipectoral fascia. The medial pectoral nerve pierces the pectoralis minor and the clavipectoral fascia. The pectoralis minor depresses the point of the shoulder, drawing the scapula inferior and medial, towards the thorax, and throwing its inferior angle posteriorly. The origin is from the second, third and fourth or fifth ribs. The tendon of insertion may extend over the coracoid process to the greater tubercle. It may be split into several parts. Absence of this muscle is
    7.00
    2 votes
    111
    Popliteus muscle

    Popliteus muscle

    The popliteus muscle in the leg is used to unlock the knee during walking/running by laterally rotating the femur on the tibia (or medially rotating the tibia) during a closed chain movement (such as one with the foot in contact with the ground). It originates from lateral surface of lateral condyle of femur, origin is intracapsular outer margin of lateral meniscus of knee joint. Insertion-posterior surface of shaft of tibia above soleal line. Nerve supply is via the tibial nerve from spinal roots L5 and S1. The Popliteus assists in flexing the leg upon the thigh; when the leg is flexed, it will rotate the tibia inward. It is especially called into action at the beginning of the act of bending the knee, in as much as it produces the slight inward rotation of the tibia, which is essential in the early stage of this movement. When the knee is in full extension; the femur slightly medially rotates on the tibia to lock the knee joint in place. Popliteus is often referred to as the "Key" to unlocking the knee since it begins knee flexion by laterally rotating the femur on the tibia. Popliteus is also attached to the lateral meniscus in the knee; and draws it posteriorly during knee
    7.00
    2 votes
    112
    Pubococcygeus muscle

    Pubococcygeus muscle

    The pubococcygeus muscle or PC muscle is a hammock-like muscle, found in both sexes, that stretches from the pubic bone to the coccyx (tail bone) forming the floor of the pelvic cavity and supporting the pelvic organs. It is part of the levator ani group of muscles. The Pubococcygeus muscle controls urine flow and contracts during orgasm. It also aids in childbirth as well as core stability. A strong pubococcygeus muscle has also been linked to a reduction in urinary incontinence and proper positioning of the baby's head during childbirth. The Kegel exercises are a series of voluntary contractions of all the perineal muscles. Such movement is done in an effort to strengthen all the striated muscles in the perineum's area. They are often referred to simply as "kegels", named after their founder, Dr. Arnold Kegel. These exercises also serve to contract, among others, the ischiocavernosus, bulbocavernosus, and cremaster muscle in men, as voluntary contraction of the pubococcygeus muscle also engages the cremasteric reflex, which lifts the testicles up, although this does not occur in all men. Kegel exercises have been prescribed to ameliorate erectile dysfunction due to venous leakage
    7.00
    2 votes
    113
    Anconeus muscle

    Anconeus muscle

    The anconeus muscle (or anconaus/anconæus) is a small muscle on the posterior aspect of the elbow joint. Some consider anconeus to be a continuation of the triceps brachii muscle. Some sources consider it to be part of the posterior compartment of the arm, while others consider it part of the posterior compartment of the forearm. The Anconeus muscle can easily be palpated just lateral to the olecranon process of the ulna. Anconeus originates on the posterior surface of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and is inserted on the ulna lateral to the olecranon from where it extends down on the dorsal side of the bone. Its function is trivial in humans. It assists in extension of the elbow, where the triceps brachii is the principal agonist, and supports the elbow in full extension. It also prevents the elbow joint capsule being pinched in the olecranon fossa during extension of the elbow. Anconeus also abducts the ulna and stabilizes the elbow joint. Anconeus is innervated by the radial nerve (cervical roots 7 and 8) from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The somatomotor portion of radial nerve innervating anconeus bifurcates from the main branch in the radial groove of the
    8.00
    1 votes
    114
    Articularis cubiti muscle

    Articularis cubiti muscle

    The Articularis cubiti muscle is a muscle of the elbow. It is considered by some sources to be a part of the triceps brachii muscle. It is also known as the "Subanconeus muscle", for its relationship to the Anconeus muscle. It is classified as a muscle of the posterior brachium.
    8.00
    1 votes
    115
    Buccinator muscle

    Buccinator muscle

    The buccinator (/ˈbʌksɪneɪtər/ ) is a thin quadrilateral muscle, occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face. Its purpose is to pull back the angle of the mouth and to flatten the cheek area, which aids in holding the cheek to the teeth during chewing. It aids whistling and smiling, and in neonates it is used to suckle. It arises from the outer surfaces of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible, corresponding to the three pairs of molar teeth; and behind, from the anterior border of the pterygomandibular raphé which separates it from the constrictor pharyngis superior. The fibers converge toward the angle of the mouth, where the central fibers intersect each other, those from below being continuous with the upper segment of the orbicularis oris, and those from above with the lower segment; the upper and lower fibers are continued forward into the corresponding lip without decussation. Motor innervation is from the buccal branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    1 votes
    116
    Erector spinae

    Erector spinae

    The Erector spinæ is a muscle group of the back in humans and animals. It is also known as sacrospinalis in older texts. A more modern term is extensor spinae, though this is not in widespread use. The name of the muscle is pronounced e-rec-tor speen-aye, or e-rec-tor spinae-ee. It is not just one muscle, but a bundle of muscles and tendons. It is paired and runs more or less vertically. It extends throughout the lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions, and lies in the groove to the side of the vertebral column. Erector spinae is covered in the lumbar and thoracic regions by the Thoracolumbar fascia, and in the cervical region by the nuchal ligament. This large muscular and tendinous mass varies in size and structure at different parts of the vertebral column. In the sacral region it is narrow and pointed, and at its origin chiefly tendinous in structure. In the lumbar region it is larger, and forms a thick fleshy mass which, on being followed upward, is subdivided into three columns; these gradually diminish in size as they ascend to be inserted into the vertebræ and ribs. The erector spinae arises from the anterior surface of a broad and thick tendon, which is attached to the
    8.00
    1 votes
    117
    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

    Extensor carpi radialis longus is one of the five main muscles that control movements at the wrist. This muscle is quite long, starting on the lateral side of the humerus, and attaching to the base of the second metacarpal bone (metacarpal of the index finger). As the name suggests, this muscle is an extensor at the wrist joint and travels along the radial side of the arm, so will also abduct (radial abduction) the hand at the wrist. That is, it manipulates the wrist so as to move the hand towards the thumb (i.e., abduction—away from the mid-position of the hand) and away from the palmar side (i.e., extension—increased angle between the palm and the front of the forearm). It originates from the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus, from the lateral intermuscular septum, and by a few fibers from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The fibres end at the upper third of the forearm in a flat tendon, which runs along the lateral border of the radius, beneath the Abductor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis; it then passes beneath the dorsal carpal ligament, where it lies in a groove on the back of the radius common to it and the Extensor carpi radialis brevis,
    8.00
    1 votes
    118
    Extensor hallucis brevis muscle

    Extensor hallucis brevis muscle

    The extensor hallucis brevis is a muscle on the top of the foot that helps to extend the big toe. The extensor hallucis brevis is essentially the medial part of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle. Some anatomists have debated whether these two muscles are distinct entities. The extensor hallucis brevis arises from the calcaneus and inserts on the proximal phalanx of the digit 1 (the big toe). Nerve supply: lateral terminal branch of Deep Peroneal Nerve (deep fibular nerve) (proximal sciatic branches S1,S2). Same innervation of Extensor Digitorum Brevis The extensor hallucis brevis helps to extend the big toe.
    8.00
    1 votes
    119
    Extensor pollicis longus muscle

    Extensor pollicis longus muscle

    In human anatomy , the extensor pollicis longus is a skeletal muscle located dorsally on the forearm. It is much larger than the extensor pollicis brevis, the origin of which it partly covers, and acts to stretch the thumb together with this muscle. It arises from the dorsal surface of the ulna and from the interosseous membrane. Passing through the third tendon compartment, lying in a narrow, oblique groove on the back of the lower end of the radius, its tendon is inserted on the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb. It uses the dorsal tubercle on the radius as fulcrum. It crosses obliquely the tendons of the extensores carpi radialis longus and brevis, and is separated from the extensor pollicis brevis by a triangular interval, the anatomical snuff box in which the radial artery is found. Together with the tendons of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus, its tendon crosses the radial artery. Extensor pollicis longus extends the terminal phalanx of the thumb; in combination with the extensor pollicis brevis, it helps to extend and abduct the wrist. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such,
    8.00
    1 votes
    120
    Flexor digiti minimi brevis

    Flexor digiti minimi brevis

    For the muscle of the foot, see Flexor digiti quinti brevis muscle (foot) The flexor digiti minimi brevis is a muscle in the hand that flexes the little finger. It lies in the same plane as the abductor digiti minimi, on its radial side. It arises from the convex surface of the hamulus of the hamate bone, and the palmar surface of the flexor retinaculum of the hand, and is inserted into the ulnar side of the base of the first phalanx of the little finger. It is separated from the abductor digiti minimi, at its origin, by the deep branches of the ulnar artery and the ulnar nerve. This muscle is sometimes not present; in these cases, the abductor digiti minimi is usually larger than normal. It is a hypothenar muscle. The flexor digiti minimi brevis, like other hypothenar muscles, is innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The flexor digiti minimi flexes the little finger. The name of this muscle is Latin for the 'short flexor of the little finger'. Note that brevis is usually included to differentiate it from a longus muscle of the same name. The flexor digiti minimi longus, however, is not found in the typical human, but instead is a rare anatomical variation. This article
    8.00
    1 votes
    121
    Inferior rectus muscle

    Inferior rectus muscle

    The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. It depresses, adducts, and helps extort (rotate laterally) the eye. The inferior rectus muscle is the only muscle that is capable of depressing the pupil when it is in a fully abducted position. As with most of the muscles of the orbit, it is innervated by the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III). credit: Patrick J. Lynch
    8.00
    1 votes
    122
    Iris sphincter muscle

    Iris sphincter muscle

    The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris. It encircles the pupil of the iris, appropriate to its function as a constrictor of the pupil. It is found in vertebrates and some cephalopods. Initially, all the myocytes are of the smooth muscle type but, later in life, most cells are of the striated muscle type. Its dimensions are about 0.75 mm wide by 0.15 mm thick. In humans, it functions to constrict the pupil in bright light (pupillary reflex) or during accommodation. It is controlled by parasympathetic fibers that originate from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, travel along the oculomotor nerve (CN III), synapse in the ciliary ganglion, and then enter the eye via the short ciliary nerves.
    8.00
    1 votes
    123
    Levatores costarum muscle

    Levatores costarum muscle

    The Levatores costarum, twelve in number on either side, are small tendinous and fleshy bundles, which arise from the ends of the transverse processes of the seventh cervical and upper eleven thoracic vertebrae They pass obliquely downward and laterally, like the fibers of the Intercostales externi, and each is inserted into the outer surface of the rib immediately below the vertebra from which it takes origin, between the tubercle and the angle (Levatores costarum breves). Each of the four lower muscles divides into two fasciculi, one of which is inserted as above described; the other passes down to the second rib below its origin (Levatores costarum longi). Their role in normal inspiration, if any, is uncertain. They have been suggested to have a proprioceptive function. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    1 votes
    124
    Musculus uvulae

    Musculus uvulae

    The musculus uvulae (azygos uvulae) is a muscle of the soft palate. It arises from the posterior nasal spine of the palatine bones and from the palatine aponeurosis. It descends to be inserted into the uvula and functions to move and shape it. It is innervated by the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve via the pharyngeal plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    1 votes
    125
    Pyramidalis muscle

    Pyramidalis muscle

    The pyramidalis is a small and triangular muscle, anterior to the Rectus abdominis, and contained in the rectus sheath. Inferiorly, it attaches to the pelvis in two places: the pubic symphysis and pubic crest, arising by tendinous fibers from the anterior part of the pubis and the anterior pubic ligament. Superiorly, the fleshy portion of the muscle passes upward, diminishing in size as it ascends, and ends by a pointed extremity which is inserted into the linea alba, midway between the umbilicus and pubis. Therefore, when contracting, it has the function of tensing the linea alba. It is absent in 20% of normal humans. This muscle may be absent on one or both sides; the lower end of the rectus then becomes proportionately increased in size. Occasionally it is double on one side, and the muscles of the two sides are sometimes of unequal size. It may extend higher than the usual level. The muscle is innervated by the ventral portion of T12. While making the longitudinal inscision for a classical caesarean section the pyramidalis is used to determine midline and location of the linea alba.
    8.00
    1 votes
    126
    Serratus posterior inferior muscle

    Serratus posterior inferior muscle

    The Serratus posterior inferior muscle (or posterior serratus) is a muscle of the human body. The muscle lies at the junction of the thoracic and lumbar regions. The origin arises from the vertebrae T11 through L2. The muscle's insertion is the lower border of the 9th through 12th ribs. It is situated at the junction of the thoracic and lumbar regions: it is of an irregularly quadrilateral form, broader than the serratus posterior superior muscle, and separated from it by a wide interval. It arises by a thin aponeurosis from the spinous processes of the lower two thoracic and upper two or three lumbar vertebræ, and from the supraspinal ligament. Passing obliquely upward and lateralward, it becomes fleshy, and divides into four flat digitations, which are inserted into the inferior borders of the lower four ribs, a little beyond their angles. The thin aponeurosis of origin is intimately blended with the lumbodorsal fascia, and aponeurosis of the Latissimus dorsi. Serratus Posterior Inferior draws the lower ribs backward and downward to assist in rotation and extension of the trunk. This movement of the ribs also contributes to forced expiration of air from the lungs. This article
    8.00
    1 votes
    127
    Thenar eminence

    Thenar eminence

    The thenar eminence (from the Greek "θέναρ" - thenar, "palm of the hand" and the Latin word "eminentia", meaning projection,) refers to the group of muscles on the palm of the human hand at the base of the thumb. The skin overlying this region is the area stimulated when trying to elicit a palmomental reflex. The following three muscles are considered part of the thenar eminence: Another muscle that controls movement of the thumb is adductor pollicis. It lies deeper and more distal to flexor pollicis brevis. Despite its name, its main action is mainly rotation and opposition. It is not in the thenar group of muscles, so is supplied by the ulnar nerve. The Opponens pollicis and Abductor pollicis brevis are normally innervated by the median nerve. The Flexor pollicis brevis can be innervated by the median or ulnar nerve. The adductor pollicis is typically innervated by the ulnar nerve. There are normal variations. In a Cannieu-Riche anastomasis, fibers from the deep palmar branch of the ulnar nerve innervate the opponens pollicis and/or abductor pollicis brevis. Regardless of their final innervation, the nerves that reach the thenar muscles arise from the C8 and T1 roots, pass
    8.00
    1 votes
    128
    Tragicus

    Tragicus

    The Tragicus is a short, flattened vertical band on the lateral surface of the tragus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    1 votes
    129
    Supraspinatus muscle

    Supraspinatus muscle

    The supraspinatus (plural supraspinati, from Latin supraspinatus) is a relatively small muscle of the upper arm that runs from the supraspinatous fossa superior of the scapula (shoulder blade) to the greater tubercle of the humerus. It is one of the four rotator cuff muscles and also abducts the arm at the shoulder. The spine of the scapula separates the supraspinatus muscle from the infraspinatus muscle, which originates below the spine. The supraspinatus muscle arises from the supraspinous fossa, a shallow depression in the body of the scapular above its spine. The supraspinatus muscle tendon passes laterally beneath the cover of the acromion. Research in 1996 showed that the postero-lateral origin was more lateral than classically described. The supraspinatus tendon is inserted into the most superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus. The distal attachments of the three rotator cuff muscles that insert into the greater tubercle of the humerus can be abbreviated as SIT when viewed from superior to inferior (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor). The acronym SITS regarding the rotator cuff muscles is completed by including the subscapularis muscle, which unlike
    5.67
    3 votes
    130
    Transversus muscle

    Transversus muscle

    The Transversus linguæ (transverse lingualis) is a muscle of the tongue. It consists of fibers which arise from the median fibrous septum and pass lateralward to be inserted into the submucous fibrous tissue at the sides of the tongue. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.67
    3 votes
    131
    Cremaster muscle

    Cremaster muscle

    The cremaster muscle is a muscle that covers the testis. Its function is to raise and lower the testes in order to regulate the temperature of the testes and promote spermatogenesis. Contraction may also occur during arousal which can prevent injury to the testicles during sex. In a cool environment the cremaster draws the testis closer to the body and reduces surface area thereby reducing heat loss, while when it is warmer the cremaster relaxes allowing the testis to cool by increasing exposed surface area. Contraction can also occur during moments of extreme fear, possibly to help avoid injuring the testes while dealing with a fight or flight situation. Clinically, a reflex arc termed the cremasteric reflex can be demonstrated by lightly stroking the skin of the inner thigh downwards from the hip towards the knee. This causes the cremaster muscle on the same side to rapidly contract, raising that testicle. The cremaster can also be contracted voluntarily, by contracting the pubococcygeus muscle (using Kegels), or by sucking in the abdomen. The cremaster develops to its full extent only in males; in females it is represented by only a few muscle loops. In human females, the
    6.50
    2 votes
    132
    Depressor anguli oris muscle

    Depressor anguli oris muscle

    The Depressor anguli oris (Triangularis) arises from the oblique line of the mandible, whence its fibres converge, to be inserted, by a narrow fasciculus, into the angle of the mouth. At its origin it is continuous with the Platysma, and at its insertion with the Orbicularis oris and Risorius; some of its fibers are directly continuous with those of the Caninus, and others are occasionally found crossing from the muscle of one side to that of the other; these latter fibers constitute the Transversus menti. It is a muscle of facial expression associated with frowning. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.50
    2 votes
    133
    Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

    Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

    The levator palpebrae superioris (Latin for: elevating muscle of upper eyelid) is the muscle in the orbit that elevates the superior (upper) eyelid. The levator palpebrae superioris originates on the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, just above the optic foramen. It broadens and becomes the levator aponeurosis. This portion inserts on the skin of the upper eyelid, as well as the superior tarsal plate. It is a skeletal muscle. The superior tarsal muscle, a smooth muscle, is attached to the levator palpebrae superioris, and inserts on the superior tarsal plate as well. As with most of the muscles of the orbit, it is innervated by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III). This is why, when one turns one's eye upward, the eyelid tends to rise with it. An adjoining smooth muscle, the superior tarsal muscle, is sympathetically innervated and is occasionally considered to be part of the levator palpebrae superioris. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle elevates and retracts the upper eyelid. Damage to this muscle, or its innervation, can cause ptosis, the drooping of the eyelid. Ptosis can also be caused by damage to the adjoining superior tarsal muscle, or its
    6.50
    2 votes
    134
    Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle

    Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle

    The middle pharyngeal constrictor is a fanshaped muscle, smaller than the Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. It arises from the whole length of the upper border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, from the lesser cornu, and from the stylohyoid ligament. The fibers diverge from their origin: the lower ones descend beneath the Constrictor inferior, the middle fibers pass transversely, and the upper fibers ascend and overlap the Constrictor superior. It is inserted into the posterior median fibrous raphé, blending in the middle line with the muscle of the opposite side. As soon as the bolus of food is received in the pharynx, the elevator muscles relax, the pharynx descends, and the constrictors contract upon the bolus, and convey it downward into the esophagus. They also have respiratory mechanical effects. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.50
    2 votes
    135
    Mylohyoid muscle

    Mylohyoid muscle

    The mylohyoid muscle is a muscle running from the mandible to the hyoid bone, forming the floor of the oral cavity. It is named for its two attachments, with the prefix "mylo" coming from the Greek word for "molar". These muscles are mesodermal in origin. The mylohyoid muscle is derived from the first pharyngeal arch. The mylohyoid muscle is flat and triangular, and is situated immediately above the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. It forms, with its fellow of the opposite side, a muscular floor for the cavity of the mouth. Each submandibular gland is divided into superficial and deep lobes, which are separated by the mylohyoid muscle. It arises from the whole length of the mylohyoid line of the mandible, extending from the symphysis in front to the last molar tooth behind. The posterior fibers pass inferomedially to insert into the body of the hyoid bone. It thus belongs to the suprahyoid muscles. The middle and anterior fibers are inserted into a median fibrous raphé extending from the symphysis menti to the hyoid bone, where they joint at an angle with the fibers of the opposite muscle. This median raphé is sometimes absent; the fibers of the two muscles are then
    6.50
    2 votes
    136
    Opponens digiti minimi muscle

    Opponens digiti minimi muscle

    The opponens digiti minimi (opponens digiti quinti in older texts) is a muscle in the hand. It is of a triangular form, and placed immediately beneath the palmaris brevis, abductor minimi digiti, and flexor brevis minimi digiti. It is one of the three hypothenar muscles that controls the little finger. It arises from the convexity of the hamulus of the hamate bone, and contiguous portion of the transverse carpal ligament; it is inserted into the whole length of the metacarpal bone of the little finger, along its ulnar margin. Opponens minimi digiti serves to flex and laterally rotate the 5th metacarpal about the 5th carpometacarpal joint, as when bringing little finger and thumb into opposition. It is innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.50
    2 votes
    137
    Quadratus femoris muscle

    Quadratus femoris muscle

    The quadratus femoris is a flat, quadrilateral skeletal muscle. Located on the posterior side of the hip joint, it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh, but also acts to stabilize the femoral head in the Acetabulum. It originates on the lateral border of the ischial tuberosity of the ischium of the pelvis. From there, it passes laterally to its insertion on the posterior side of the head of the femur: the quadrate tubercle on the intertrochanteric crest and along the quadrate line, the vertical line which runs downward to bisect the lesser trochanter on the medial side of the femur. Along its course, quadratus is aligned edge to edge with the inferior gemellus above and the adductor magnus below, so that its upper and lower borders run horizontal and parallel. At its origin, the upper margin of the adductor magnus is separated from it by the terminal branches of the medial femoral circumflex vessels. A bursa is often found between the front of this muscle and the lesser trochanter. Sometimes absent. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.50
    2 votes
    138
    Styloglossus

    Styloglossus

    The Styloglossus, the shortest and smallest of the three styloid muscles, arises from the anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process, near its apex, and from the stylomandibular ligament. Passing downward and forward between the internal and external carotid arteries, it divides upon the side of the tongue near its dorsal surface, blending with the fibers of the Longitudinalis inferior in front of the Hyoglossus; the other, oblique, overlaps the Hyoglossus and decussates with its fibers. The styloglossus is innervated by the Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) like all muscles of the tongue except palatoglossus which is innervated by the Pharyngeal plexus of vagus nerve (CN X). The styloglossus draws up the sides of the tongue to create a trough for swallowing. As a pair they also aid in retracting the tongue. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.50
    2 votes
    139
    Iliocostalis

    Iliocostalis

    The iliocostalis is the muscle immediately lateral to the longissimus that is the nearest to the furrow that separates the epaxial muscles from the hypaxial. It lies very deep to the fleshy portion of the serratus ventralis (serratus anterior). The iliocostalis lumborum (iliocostalis muscle; sacrolumbalis muscle) is inserted, by six or seven flattened tendons, into the inferior borders of the angles of the lower six or seven ribs. The iliocostalis dorsi (musculus accessorius; iliocostalis thoracis) arises by flattened tendons from the upper borders of the angles of the lower six ribs medial to the tendons of insertion of the iliocostalis lumborum; these become muscular, and are inserted into the upper borders of the angles of the upper six ribs and into the back of the transverse process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The iliocostalis cervicis (cervicalis ascendens) arises from the angles of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs, and is inserted into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the
    5.33
    3 votes
    140
    Omohyoid muscle

    Omohyoid muscle

    The omohyoid muscle is a muscle at the front of the neck that consists of two bellies separated by an intermediate tendon. It belongs to the group of infrahyoid muscles. Its name derives from the Greek "omos" meaning shoulder, giving one of its attachments, and "hyoid", giving the other attachment - the hyoid bone. It arises from the upper border of the scapula, and occasionally from the superior transverse scapular ligament which crosses the scapular notch, its extent of attachment to the scapula varying from a few millimetres to 2.5 cm. From this origin, the inferior belly forms a flat, narrow fasciculus, which inclines forward and slightly upward across the lower part of the neck, being bound down to the clavicle by a fibrous expansion; it then passes behind the sternocleidomastoid, becomes tendinous and changes its direction, forming an obtuse angle. It ends in the superior belly, which passes almost vertically upward, close to the lateral border of the sternohyoid, to be inserted into the lower border of the body of the hyoid bone, lateral to the insertion of the sternohyoid. The central tendon of this muscle varies much in length and form, and is held in position by a process
    5.33
    3 votes
    141
    Abductor pollicis longus muscle

    Abductor pollicis longus muscle

    In human anatomy, the abductor pollicis longus (APL) is one of the extrinsic muscles of the hand. As the name implies, its major function is to abduct the thumb at the wrist. Its tendon forms the anterior border of the anatomical snuffbox. It lies immediately below the supinator and is sometimes united with it. It arises from the lateral part of the dorsal surface of the body of the ulna below the insertion of the anconeus, from the interosseous membrane, and from the middle third of the dorsal surface of the body of the radius. Passing obliquely downward and lateralward, it ends in a tendon, which runs through a groove on the lateral side of the lower end of the radius, accompanied by the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis. The insertion is divided into a distal, superficial part and a proximal, deep part. The superficial part is inserted with one or more tendons into the radial side of the base of the first metacarpal bone, and the deep part is variably inserted into the trapezium, the joint capsule and its ligaments, and into the belly of abductor pollicis brevis (APB) or opponens pollicis. The chief action of abductor pollicis longus is to abduct the thumb at the
    7.00
    1 votes
    142
    Biceps brachii muscle

    Biceps brachii muscle

    In human anatomy, the biceps brachii, or simply biceps in common parlance, is, as the name implies, a two-headed muscle. The biceps lie on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow. Both heads arise on the scapula and join to form a single muscle belly which is attached to the upper forearm. While the biceps crosses both the shoulder and elbow joints, its main function is at the latter where it flexes the elbow and supinates the forearm. Both these movements are used when opening a bottle with a corkscrew: first biceps unscrews the cork (supination), then it pulls the cork out (flexion). The term biceps brachii is a Latin phrase meaning "two-headed [muscle] of the arm", in reference to the fact that the muscle consists of two bundles of muscle, each with its own origin, sharing a common insertion point near the elbow joint. The proper plural form of the Latin adjective biceps is bicipites, a form not in general English use. Instead, biceps is used in both singular and plural (i.e., when referring to both arms). The English form bicep [sic], attested from 1939, is a back formation derived from interpreting the s of biceps as the English plural marker -s. While common even in
    7.00
    1 votes
    143
    Coccygeus muscle

    Coccygeus muscle

    The Coccygeus is a muscle of the pelvic wall (i.e. peripheral to the pelvic floor), located posterior to levator ani and anterior to the sacrospinous ligament. It is a triangular plane of muscular and tendinous fibers, arising by its apex from the spine of the ischium and sacrospinous ligament, and inserted by its base into the margin of the coccyx and into the side of the lowest piece of the sacrum. In combination with the levator ani, it forms the pelvic diaphragm. It assists the levator ani and piriformis in closing in the back part of the outlet of the pelvis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    1 votes
    144

    Corrugator cutis ani muscle

    The Corrugator Cutis Ani.—Around the anus is a thin stratum of involuntary muscular fiber, which radiates from the orifice. Medially the fibers fade off into the submucous tissue, while laterally they blend with the true skin. By its contraction it raises the skin into ridges around the margin of the anus. The name of this muscle is primarily limited to older texts. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    1 votes
    145
    Inferior longitudinal muscle

    Inferior longitudinal muscle

    The Longitudinalis linguæ inferior is a narrow band situated on the under surface of the tongue between the Genioglossus and Hyoglossus. It extends from the root to the apex of the tongue: behind, some of its fibers are connected with the body of the hyoid bone; in front it blends with the fibers of the Styloglossus. Movement of material through the GI tract is dependent upon the coordinated activity of the longitudinal and smooth muscle of the gut. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    1 votes
    146
    Palmar interossei muscles

    Palmar interossei muscles

    The palmar interossei (interossei volares) are small muscles in the hand that lie on the anterior aspect of the metacarpals. They are smaller than the dorsal interossei of the hand, which lie between the metacarpals. Each palmar interosseous muscle arises from the entire length of the metacarpal bone of one finger, and is inserted into the side of the base of the proximal phalanx and extensor expansion of the extensor digitorum tendon to the same finger. There are three palmar interossei: The palmar interossei are unipennate. From this account it may be seen that each finger is provided with two interossei, with the exception of the little finger, in which the abductor digiti minimi muscle takes the place of one of the dorsla interossei (abduction). Some texts consider the medial head of the flexor pollicis brevis to be a palmar interosseous muscle. This muscle would then be considered the first palmar interosseous muscle, and the total number of palmar interosseous muscles in the hand would be four. All of the interosseous muscles of the hand are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The palmar interosseous muscles adduct the fingers towards the middle finger. This is
    7.00
    1 votes
    147
    Quadriceps muscle

    Quadriceps muscle

    The quadriceps femoris (Latin for "four-headed muscle of the femur"), also called simply the quadriceps, quadriceps extensor, quads, is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh. It is the great extensor muscle of the knee, forming a large fleshy mass which covers the front and sides of the femur. The proper Latin plural form of the adjective quadriceps would be quadricipites. In modern English usage, quadriceps is used in both singular and plural. The singular form quadricep, produced by hypercorrection, is frequently used. It is subdivided into four separate portions or 'heads', which have received distinctive names: All four parts of the quadriceps muscle ultimately insert into the tibial tuberosity of the tibia. This is via the patella, where the quadriceps tendon becomes the patellar ligament, which then attaches to the tibia. There is a fifth muscle of the quadriceps complex that is oft forgotten and rarely taught called articularis genu. All four quadriceps are powerful extensors of the knee joint. They are crucial in walking, running, jumping and squatting. Because rectus femoris attaches to the ilium, it is also a flexor of
    7.00
    1 votes
    148
    Sternohyoid muscle

    Sternohyoid muscle

    The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone. It is innervated by the ansa cervicalis. The muscle arises from the posterior border of the medial end of the clavicle, the posterior sternoclavicular ligament, and the upper and posterior part of the manubrium sterni. Passing upward and medially, it is inserted by short tendinous fibers into the lower border of the body of the hyoid bone. Doubling; accessory slips (Cleidohyoideus); absence. It sometimes presents, immediately above its origin, a transverse tendinous inscription. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    1 votes
    149
    Transverse muscle of auricle

    Transverse muscle of auricle

    The transverse muscle of auricle is placed on the cranial surface of the pinna. It consists of scattered fibers, partly tendinous and partly muscular, extending from the eminentia conchae to the prominence corresponding with the scapha. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    1 votes
    150
    Dartos

    Dartos

    The dartos fascia is a fat-free layer of smooth muscular fiber outside the external spermatic fascia but below the skin. It is a continuation of Scarpa's fascia, which is a membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue in the abdominal wall. The wrinkled (rugose) appearance of the scrotum is due to this layer of fascia. The tunica dartos acts to regulate the temperature of the testicles, which promotes spermatogenesis. It does this by expanding or contracting to wrinkle the scrotal skin. The dartos muscle works in conjunction with the cremaster muscle to elevate the testis but should not be confused with the cremasteric reflex. Some dartos-related terms:
    6.00
    2 votes
    151

    Dilatator naris anterior muscle

    The Dilatator naris anterior is a delicate fasciculus, passing from the greater alar cartilage to the integument near the margin of the nostril; it is situated in front of the Dilatator naris posterior muscle.
    6.00
    2 votes
    152
    Extensor digitorum brevis muscle

    Extensor digitorum brevis muscle

    The extensor digitorum brevis muscle (sometimes EDB) is a muscle on the upper surface of the foot that helps extend digits 2 through 4. Origin: forepart of upper and lateral surface of calcaneus, in front of grove for peroneus brevis, from interosseous talocalcaneal ligament, stem of inferior extensor retinaculum. Course: fibres passes obliquely forwards and medially crosses dosum of foot and ends in four tendons. the medial part of muscle ends in tendon which crosses the dorsalis pedis artery and inserted into dorsal surface base of PPX of great toe, it is termed as extensor hallucis brevis. the other three tendons inserted into lateral sides of tendon of extensor digitorum longus which inserted into 2nd 3rd 4th toes. Nerve supply: lateral terminal branch of Deep Peroneal Nerve (deep fibular nerve) (proximal sciatic branches S1,S2). Same innervation of Extensor Hallucis Brevis Action: extends MTP of 1st to 4th digits and assists in extending the IP joints of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th digits. Note: without EDL there is no extension of 5th digit.
    6.00
    2 votes
    153
    Inferior oblique muscle

    Inferior oblique muscle

    The Obliquus oculi inferior (inferior oblique) is a thin, narrow muscle placed near the anterior margin of the floor of the orbit. Its actions are extorsion, elevation and abduction of the eye. Primary action is extorsion; secondary action is elevation; tertiary action is abduction (i.e. it extorts the eye and moves it upward and outwards). The field of maximal inferior oblique elevation is in the adducted position. The inferior oblique muscle is the only muscle that is capable of elevating the eye when it is in a fully adducted position. The inferior oblique arises from the orbital surface of the maxilla, lateral to the lacrimal groove. Passing lateralward, backward, and upward, between the inferior rectus and the floor of the orbit, the inferior oblique inserts onto the scleral surface between the inferior rectus and lateral rectus. The origin of the inferior oblique muscle is not on the common tendinous ring (annulus of Zinn). The inferior oblique is innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III). While commonly affected by palsies of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve, isolated palsies of the inferior oblique (without affecting other
    6.00
    2 votes
    154
    Iris dilator muscle

    Iris dilator muscle

    The iris dilator muscle (pupil dilator muscle, pupillary dilator, radial muscle of iris, radiating fibers), is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator. It has its origin from the anterior epithelium. It is innervated by the sympathetic system, which acts by releasing noradrenaline, which acts on α1-receptors. Thus, when presented with a threatening stimuli that activates the fight-or-flight response, this innervation contracts the muscle and dilates the iris, thus temporarily letting more light reach the retina. The dilator muscle is innervated more specifically by postganglionic sympathetic nerves arising from the superior cervical ganglion as the Sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion. They will follow both short ciliary and long ciliary nerves to reach the dilator muscle.
    6.00
    2 votes
    155
    Orbicularis oris muscle

    Orbicularis oris muscle

    In human anatomy, the orbicularis oris muscle is the sphincter muscle around the mouth. "Orbicularis Oris is a complex of muscles in the lips that encircle the mouth; until recently it was misinterpreted as a sphincter, or circular muscle, but it is actually composed of four independent quadrants that interlace and give only an appearance of circularity." It is also one of the muscles used in the playing of all brass instruments and some woodwind instruments. This muscle closes the mouth and puckers the lips when it contracts. The Orbicularis oris is not a simple sphincter muscle like the Orbicularis oculi; it consists of numerous strata of muscular fibers surrounding the orifice of the mouth but having different direction. It consists partly of fibers derived from the other facial muscles which are inserted into the lips, and partly of fibers proper to the lips. Of the former, a considerable number are derived from the Buccinator and form the deeper stratum of the Orbicularis. Some of the Buccinator fibers—namely, those near the middle of the muscle—decussate at the angle of the mouth, those arising from the maxilla passing to the lower lip, and those from the mandible to the
    6.00
    2 votes
    156
    Rectus capitis posterior major muscle

    Rectus capitis posterior major muscle

    The Rectus capitis posterior major (Rectus capitis posticus major) arises by a pointed tendon from the spinous process of the axis, and, becoming broader as it ascends, is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately below the line. In 2011, Scali et al., reported a soft tissue connection bridging from the rectus capitis posterior major to the cervical dura mater. Various clinical manifestations may be linked to this anatomical relationship (Spine 2011). It has also been postulated that this connection serves as a monitor of dural tension along with the rectus capitis posterior minor. As the muscles of the two sides pass upward and lateralward, they leave between them a triangular space, in which the Recti capitis posteriores minores are seen. Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint. Action: Extends and rotates head Blood supply: Vertebral and occipital arteries Nerve: Suboccipital This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.00
    2 votes
    157
    Rhomboid minor muscle

    Rhomboid minor muscle

    In human anatomy, the rhomboid minor is a small skeletal muscle on the back that connects the scapula with the vertebrae of the spinal column. Located inferior to levator scapulae and superior to rhomboid major, it acts together with the latter to keep the scapula pressed against the thoracic wall. It lies deep to trapezius but superficial to the long spinal muscles. The rhomboid minor arises from the inferior border of the nuchal ligament, from the spinous processes of the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae, and from the intervening supraspinous ligaments. It is inserted into a small area of the medial border of the scapula at the level of the scapular spine. Together with the rhomboid major, the rhomboid minor retracts the scapula when trapezius is contracted. Acting as an antagonist to the trapezius, both rhomboids elevate the medial border of the scapula medially and upward, working in tandem with the levator scapulae muscle to rotate the scapulae downward. While other shoulder muscles are active, the rhomboids stabilize the scapula. The nerve supply comes from the dorsal scapular nerve, with most of its fibers derived from the C5 nerve root and only minor
    6.00
    2 votes
    158
    Tensor veli palatini muscle

    Tensor veli palatini muscle

    The tensor veli palatini (tensor palati or tensor muscle of the velum palatinum) is a broad, thin, ribbon-like muscle in the head that tenses the soft palate. The tensor veli palatini is found anterior-lateral to the levator veli palatini muscle. It arises by a flat lamella from the scaphoid fossa at the base of the medial pterygoid plate, from the spina angularis of the sphenoid and from the lateral wall of the cartilage of the auditory tube. Descending vertically between the medial pterygoid plate and the medial pterygoid muscle, it ends in a tendon which winds around the pterygoid hamulus, being retained in this situation by some of the fibers of origin of the medial pterygoid muscle. Between the tendon and the hamulus is a small bursa. The tendon then passes medially and is inserted into the palatine aponeurosis and into the surface behind the transverse ridge on the horizontal part of the palatine bone. The tensor veli palatini is innervated by the medial pterygoid nerve, a branch of mandibular nerve, the third branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) - the only muscle of the palate not innervated by the vagus nerve. The tensor veli palatini tenses the soft palate and by doing
    6.00
    2 votes
    159
    Platysma muscle

    Platysma muscle

    The platysma is a superficial muscle that overlaps the sternocleidomastoid. It is a broad sheet arising from the fascia covering the upper parts of the pectoralis major and deltoid; its fibers cross the clavicle, and proceed obliquely upward and medially along the side of the neck. The anterior fibers interlace, below and behind the symphysis menti, with the fibers of the muscle of the opposite side; the posterior fibers cross the mandible, some being inserted into the bone below the oblique line, others into the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the lower part of the face. Many of these fibers blend with the muscles about the angle and lower part of the mouth. Sometimes fibers can be traced to the zygomaticus, or to the margin of the orbicularis oris. Beneath the platysma, the external jugular vein descends from the angle of the mandible to the clavicle. Variations occur in the extension over the face and over the clavicle and shoulder; it may be absent or interdigitate with the muscle of the opposite side in front of the neck; attachment to clavicle, mastoid process or occipital bone occurs. A more or less independent fasciculus, the occipitalis minor, may extend from the fascia
    5.00
    3 votes
    160
    Extensor digiti minimi muscle

    Extensor digiti minimi muscle

    The extensor minimi digiti (extensor digiti quinti proprius) is a slender muscle of the forearm, placed on the ulnar side of the Extensor digitorum communis, with which it is generally connected. It arises from the common Extensor tendon by a thin tendinous slip, from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles. Its tendon runs through a compartment of the dorsal carpal ligament behind the distal radio-ulnar joint, then divides into two as it crosses the hand, and finally joins the expansion of the Extensor digitorum communis tendon on the dorsum of the first phalanx of the little finger. An additional fibrous slip from the lateral epicondyle; the tendon of insertion may not divide or may send a slip to the ring finger. Absence of muscle rare; fusion of the belly with the Extensor digitorum communis not uncommon. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.50
    2 votes
    161
    Intercostales interni muscles

    Intercostales interni muscles

    The Intercostales interni (Internal intercostals) are eleven in number on either side. They commence anteriorly at the sternum, in the interspaces between the cartilages of the true ribs, and at the anterior extremities of the cartilages of the false ribs, and extend backward as far as the angles of the ribs, whence they are continued to the vertebral column by thin aponeuroses, the posterior intercostal membranes. Each arises from the ridge on the inner surface of a rib, as well as from the corresponding costal cartilage, and is inserted into the inferior border of the rib above. The internal intercostals are innervated by the intercostal nerve. Their fibers are also directed obliquely, but pass in a direction opposite to those of the Intercostales externi. The internal intercostals are used in inspiration, the intercartilaginous part, the part of the muscle that lays between the cartilage portion of the superior and inferior ribs, aids in elevating the ribs and expanding the thoracic cavity. In expiration, the interosseous part, the part of the muscle that is between the bone portion of the superior and inferior ribs, depresses and retracts the ribs, compressing the thoracic
    5.50
    2 votes
    162
    Longissimus

    Longissimus

    The longissimus is the muscle lateral to the semispinalis. It is the longest subdivision of the sacrospinalis that extends forward into the transverse processes of the posterior cervical vertebrae. The longissimus thoracis is the intermediate and largest of the continuations of the sacrospinalis. In the lumbar region, where it is as yet blended with the iliocostalis lumborum, some of its fibers are attached to the whole length of the posterior surfaces of the transverse processes and the accessory processes of the lumbar vertebræ, and to the anterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia. In the thoracic region, it is inserted, by rounded tendons, into the tips of the transverse processes of all the thoracic vertebræ, and by fleshy processes into the lower nine or ten ribs between their tubercles and angles. The longissimus cervicis (transversalis cervicis), situated medial to the longissimus dorsi, arises by long, thin tendons from the summits of the transverse processes of the upper four or five thoracic vertebræ, and is inserted by similar tendons into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae from the second to the sixth inclusive. The longissimus
    5.50
    2 votes
    163
    Obturator externus muscle

    Obturator externus muscle

    The obturator externus muscle (OE) is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis. It is sometimes considered part of the medial compartment of thigh, and sometimes considered part of the gluteal region. It arises from the margin of bone immediately around the medial side of the obturator foramen, viz., from the rami of the pubis, and the inferior ramus of the ischium; it also arises from the medial two-thirds of the outer surface of the obturator membrane, and from the tendinous arch which completes the canal for the passage of the obturator vessels and nerves. The fibers springing from the pubic arch extend on to the inner surface of the bone, where they obtain a narrow origin between the margin of the foramen and the attachment of the obturator membrane. The fibers converge and pass posterolateral and upward, and end in a tendon which runs across the back of the neck of the femur and lower part of the capsule of the hip joint and is inserted into the trochanteric fossa of the femur. The obturator vessels lie between the muscle and the obturator membrane; the anterior branch of the obturator nerve reaches the thigh by passing in
    5.50
    2 votes
    164
    Palatoglossus muscle

    Palatoglossus muscle

    The palatoglossus, glossopalatinus, or palatoglossal muscle is a small fleshy fasciculus, narrower in the middle than at either end, forming, with the mucous membrane covering its surface, the glossopalatine arch. It arises from the anterior surface of the soft palate, where it is continuous with the muscle of the opposite side, and passing downward, forward, and lateralward in front of the palatine tonsil, is inserted into the side of the tongue, some of its fibers spreading over the dorsum, and others passing deeply into the substance of the organ to intermingle with the Transversus linguæ. Elevates posterior tongue, closes the oropharyngeal isthmus, and aids initiation of swallowing. The palatoglossus is the only muscle of the tongue that is not innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). It is innervated by the Vagus nerve (CN X) But some sources state that the palatoglossus is innervated by fibres from the cranial part of the accessory nerve (CN XI) that travel via the pharyngeal plexus. Other sources state that the palatoglossus is not innervated by XI hitchhiking on X, but rather it is innervated by X via the pharyngeal plexus formed from IX and X. This article was
    5.50
    2 votes
    165
    Semispinalis cervicis

    Semispinalis cervicis

    The semispinalis cervicis (semispinalis colli), thicker than the semispinalis dorsi, arises by a series of tendinous and fleshy fibers from the transverse processes of the upper five or six thoracic vertebræ, and is inserted into the cervical spinous processes, from the axis to the fifth inclusive. The fasciculus connected with the axis is the largest, and is chiefly muscular in structure. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.50
    2 votes
    166
    Splenius capitis muscle

    Splenius capitis muscle

    The splenius capitis is a broad, straplike muscle in the back of the neck. It pulls on the base of the skull from vertebrae in the neck and upper thorax. It arises from the lower half of the ligamentum nuchæ, from the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra, and from the spinous processes of the upper three or four thoracic vertebræ. The fibers of the muscle are directed upward and laterally and are inserted, under cover of the Sternocleidomastoideus, into the mastoid process of the temporal bone, and into the rough surface on the occipital bone just below the lateral third of the superior nuchal line. The splenius is deep to sternocleidomastoideus at the mastoid process, and to the trapezius for its lower portion. The Splenius Capitis muscle is innervated by the dorsal rami of spinal nerves C3-C4. The splenius muscle is a prime mover for head extension. The splenius capitis can also allow lateral flexion and rotation of the cervical spine. The name derives from the Greek word "spléníon," which means bandage and the Latin word "caput," which means head. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the
    5.50
    2 votes
    167
    Fibularis tertius

    Fibularis tertius

    The peroneus tertius (also known as fibularis tertius) is a muscle of the human body located in the lower limb. The muscle arises from the lower third of the anterior surface of the fibula; from the lower part of the interosseous membrane; and from an intermuscular septum between it and the peroneus brevis muscle. The septum is sometimes called the intermuscular septum of Otto, after the anatomist who first described it. The tendon, after passing under the superior extensor retinaculum of foot and inferior extensor retinaculum of foot in the same canal as the extensor digitorum longus, is inserted into the dorsal surface of the base of the metatarsal bone of the fifth digit. It is innervated by the deep fibular nerve, unlike the other peroneal muscles which are innervated by the superficial fibular nerve, since the peroneus tertius is a member of the anterior compartment. Its action is that of weak dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and to evert the foot at the ankle joint. This muscle is seldom found in other primates, a fact that has linked its function to efficient terrestrial bipedalism. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.
    6.00
    1 votes
    168
    Flexor digitorum brevis muscle

    Flexor digitorum brevis muscle

    The flexor digitorum brevis lies in the middle of the sole of the foot, immediately above the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, with which it is firmly united. Its deep surface is separated from the lateral plantar vessels and nerves by a thin layer of fascia. It arises by a narrow tendon, from the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, from the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, and from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles. It passes forward, and divides into four tendons, one for each of the four lesser toes. Opposite the bases of the first phalanges, each tendon divides into two slips, to allow of the passage of the corresponding tendon of the flexor digitorum longus; the two portions of the tendon then unite and form a grooved channel for the reception of the accompanying long Flexor tendon. Finally, it divides a second time, and is inserted into the sides of the second phalanx about its middle. The mode of division of the tendons of the flexor digitorum brevis, and of their insertion into the phalanges, is analogous to that of the tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis in the hand. Innervation is by the medial plantar
    6.00
    1 votes
    169
    Hamstring

    Hamstring

    In human anatomy, the hamstring is any one of the three posterior thigh muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris) that make up the borders of the space behind the knee, or to their corresponding tendons. In quadrupeds, it is the single large tendon found behind the knee or comparable area. The word ham originally referred to the fat and muscle behind the knee. String refers to tendons, and thus, the hamstrings are the string-like tendons felt on either side of the back of the knee. The three muscles of the posterior thigh (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris long & short head) flex (bend) the knee, while all but the short head of biceps femoris extend (straighten) the hip. The three 'true' hamstrings cross both the hip and the knee joint and are therefore involved in knee flexion and hip extension. The short head of the biceps femoris crosses only one joint (knee) and is therefore not involved in hip extension. With its divergent origin and innervation it is sometimes excluded from the 'hamstring' characterization. A portion of the adductor magnus is sometimes considered a part of the hamstrings. The hamstrings cross and act upon two joints - the hip
    6.00
    1 votes
    170
    Levator anguli oris

    Levator anguli oris

    The levator anguli oris (caninus) is a facial muscle of the mouth arising from the canine fossa, immediately below the infraorbital foramen. Its fibers are inserted into the angle of the mouth, intermingling with those of the Zygomaticus, Triangularis, and Orbicularis oris. Specifically, the levator anguli oris is innervated by the buccal branches of the facial nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.00
    1 votes
    171
    Levator scapulae muscle

    Levator scapulae muscle

    In human anatomy, the levator scapulae is a skeletal muscle situated at the back and side of the neck. As the name suggests, its main function is to lift the scapula. Levator scapulae originates from the dorsal tubercles of the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae one to four. The muscle is inserted on the superior angle and adjacent medial border of the scapula. The levator scapulae may lie deep to the sternocleidomastoideus at its origin, deep or adjacent to the splenius capitis at its origin and mid-portion, and deep to the trapezius in its lower portion. When the spine is fixed, levator scapulae elevates the scapula and rotates its inferior angle medially. It often works in combination with other muscles like the rhomboids and pectoralis minor to rotate down like this. Elevating or rotating one shoulder at a time would require muscles to stabilize the cervical spine and keep it immobile so it does not flex or rotate. Elevating both at once with equal amounts of pull on both side of cervical spinal origins would counteract these forces. Downward rotation would be prevented by co-contraction of other muscles that elevate the spine, the upper fibers of the trapezius, which
    6.00
    1 votes
    172
    Zygomaticus major muscle

    Zygomaticus major muscle

    The zygomatic major is a muscle of the human body. It is a muscle of facial expression which draws the angle of the mouth superiorly and posteriorly (smile). Like all muscles of facial expression, the zygomatic major is innervated by the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve), more specifically, the buccal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve. The zygomaticus extends from each zygomatic arch (cheekbone) to the corners of the mouth. It raises the corners of the mouth when a person smiles. Dimples may be caused by variations in the structure of this muscle.
    6.00
    1 votes
    173
    Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

    Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

    The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a quadrilateral muscle, thinner and paler than the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle. The four parts of this muscle arise from: - the lower third of the posterior margin of the medial pterygoid plate and its hamulus (Pterygopharyngeal part) - from the pterygomandibular raphe (Buccopharyngeal part) - from the alveolar process of the mandible above the posterior end of the mylohyoid line (Myolopharyngeal part) - and by a few fibers from the side of the tongue (Glossopharyngeal part) The fibers curve backward to be inserted into the median raphe, being also prolonged by means of an aponeurosis to the pharyngeal spine on the basilar part of the occipital bone. The superior fibers arch beneath the levator veli palatini muscle and the Eustachian tube. The interval between the upper border of the muscle and the base of the skull is closed by the pharyngeal aponeurosis, and is known as the sinus of Morgagni. As soon as the bolus of food is received in the pharynx, the elevator muscles relax, the pharynx descends, and the constrictors contract upon the bolus, and convey it downward into the
    5.00
    2 votes
    174
    Adductor magnus muscle

    Adductor magnus muscle

    The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh. It consists of two parts. The portion which arises from the ischiopubic ramus (a small part of the inferior ramus of the pubis, and the inferior ramus of the ischium) is called the "adductor portion", and the portion arising from the tuberosity of the ischium is called the "hamstring portion". Due to its common embryonic origin, innervation, and action the hamstring portion is often considered part of the hamstring group of muscles. Those fibers which arise from the ramus of the pubis are short, horizontal in direction, and are inserted into the rough line of the femur leading from the greater trochanter to the linea aspera, medial to the gluteus maximus. Those fibers from the ramus of the ischium are directed downward and laterally with different degrees of obliquity, to be inserted, by means of a broad aponeurosis, into the linea aspera and the upper part of its medial prolongation below. The medial portion of the muscle, composed principally of the fibers arising from the tuberosity of the ischium, forms a thick fleshy mass consisting of coarse bundles which descend almost vertically, and
    4.50
    2 votes
    175
    Levator labii superioris

    Levator labii superioris

    The levator labii superioris (or quadratus labii superioris) is a muscle of the human body used in facial expression. It is a broad sheet, the origin of which extends from the side of the nose to the zygomatic bone. Its medial fibers form the angular head, which arises by a pointed extremity from the upper part of the frontal process of the maxilla and passing obliquely downward and lateralward divides into two slips. One of these is inserted into the greater alar cartilage and skin of the nose; the other is prolonged into the lateral part of the upper lip, blending with the infraorbital head and with the Orbicularis oris. The intermediate portion or infraorbital head arises from the lower margin of the orbit immediately above the infraorbital foramen, some of its fibers being attached to the maxilla, others to the zygomatic bone. Its fibers converge, to be inserted into the muscular substance of the upper lip between the angular head and the Caninus. The lateral fibers, forming the zygomatic head, arise from the malar surface of the zygomatic bone immediately behind the zygomaticomaxillary suture and pass downward and medialward to the upper lip. This article was originally based
    4.50
    2 votes
    176
    Plantaris muscle

    Plantaris muscle

    Plantaris is a vestigial structure and one of the superficial muscles of the posterior crural compartment of the leg. It is innervated by the tibial nerve (S1, S2) . It is composed of a thin muscle belly and a long thin tendon. It is approximately 2-4 inches long, and is absent in 7-10% of the human population. It is one of the plantar flexors in the superior compartment of the leg along with the gastrocnemius, and soleus. The plantaris is considered an unimportant muscle and mainly acts with gastrocnemius. It arises from the inferior part of the lateral supracondylar line of the femur at a position slightly superior to the origin of the lateral head of gastrocnemius. Also, it may arise from the oblique popliteal ligament. Passing inferomedially posterior to the knee joint, it becomes tendinous while passing distally to insert into the tendo calcaneus, or occasionally separately inserting into the medial side of the calcaneus. Plantaris acts to weakly: Plantaris may also provide proprioceptive feedback information to the central nervous system regarding the position of the foot. The unusually high density of proprioceptive receptor end organs supports this notion. Its motor
    4.50
    2 votes
    177
    Soleus muscle

    Soleus muscle

    In humans and some other mammals, the soleus is a powerful muscle in the back part of the lower leg (the calf). It runs from just below the knee to the heel, and is involved in standing and walking. It is closely connected to the gastrocnemius muscle and some anatomists consider them to be a single muscle, the triceps surae. Its name is derived from the Latin word, "solea," meaning "sandal." The soleus is located in the superficial posterior compartment of the leg. Not all mammals have a soleus muscle; one familiar species that lacks the soleus is the dog. Soleus is vestigial in the horse. The soleus exhibits significant morphological differences across species. It is unipennate in many species. In some animals, such as the rabbit, it is fused for much of its length with the gastrocnemius muscle. In the human, soleus is a complex multi-pennate muscle, usually having a separate (posterior) aponeurosis from the gastrocnemius muscle. A majority of soleus muscle fibers originate from each side of the anterior aponeurosis, attached to the tibia and fibula.[2][3] Other fibers originate from the posterior (back) surfaces of the head of the fibula and its upper quarter, as well as the
    4.50
    2 votes
    178
    Teres major muscle

    Teres major muscle

    The teres major muscle is a muscle of the upper limb and one of six scapulohumeral muscles. It is a thick but somewhat flattened muscle, innervated by the lower subscapular nerve (c5,c6). It arises from the oval area on the dorsal surface of the inferior angle of the scapula, and from the fibrous septa interposed between this muscle and the rotator cuff lateral rotator pair of the teres minor and infraspinatus. The fibers of teres major insert into the medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus. The tendon, at its insertion, lies behind that of the latissimus dorsi, from which it is separated by a bursa, the two tendons being, however, united along their lower borders for a short distance. Together with teres minor muscle, teres major muscle forms the axillary space, through which several important arteries and veins pass. Teres major is not part of the rotator cuff of the shoulder, but it does combine with the deltoideus to make the six scapulohumeral muscles. The teres major muscle is innervated by the lower subscapular nerve of the brachial plexus. The teres major is a medial rotator and adductor of the humerus and assists the latissimus dorsi in drawing the
    4.50
    2 votes
    179
    Zygomaticus minor muscle

    Zygomaticus minor muscle

    The zygomaticus minor is a muscle of facial expression. It originates from malar bone and continues with orbicularis oculi on the lateral face of the Levator labii superioris and then inserts into the outer part of the upper lip. Do not confuse this with the Zygomaticus major, which insets into the angle of the mouth. It draws the upper lip backward, upward, and outward (used in making sad facial expressions). Like all muscles of facial expression, it is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII).
    4.50
    2 votes
    180
    Abductor hallucis muscle

    Abductor hallucis muscle

    The Abductor hallucis lies along the medial border of the foot and covers the origins of the plantar vessels and nerves. It arises from the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, from the laciniate ligament, from the plantar aponeurosis, and from the intermuscular septum between it and the Flexor digitorum brevis. The fibers end in a tendon, which is inserted, together with the medial tendon of the Flexor hallucis brevis, into the tibial side of the base of the first phalanx of the great toe. Abductor hallucis is innervated by the medial plantar nerve. Slip to the base of the first phalanx of the second toe This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.00
    1 votes
    181
    Depressor supercilii muscle

    Depressor supercilii muscle

    The Depressor Supercilii is an eye muscle of the human body. The nature of this muscle is in some dispute. Few printed anatomies include it (Netter, et al.) and many authorities consider it to be part of the orbicularis oculi muscle . On the other hand, many dermatologists, ophthalmologists and plastic surgeons hold that the depressor supercilii is a distinct muscle and has a definite, individual effect on the movement of the eybrow and skin of the glabella. The depressor supercilii originates on the medial orbital rim, near the lacrimal bone, and inserts on the medial aspect of the bony orbit, inferior to the corrugator supercilii. In some specimens it exhibits two heads and in others, only one.
    5.00
    1 votes
    182
    Inferior gemellus muscle

    Inferior gemellus muscle

    The inferior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body. The Gemelli are two small muscular fasciculi, accessories to the tendon of the Obturator internus which is received into a groove between them. The Gemellus inferior arises from the upper part of the tuberosity of the ischium, immediately below the groove for the Obturator internus tendon. It blends with the lower part of the tendon of the Obturator internus, and is inserted with it into the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Rarely absent. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.00
    1 votes
    183
    Medial rectus muscle

    Medial rectus muscle

    The medial rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. As with most of the muscles of the orbit, it is innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III). This muscle shares an origin with several other extrinsic eye muscles, the anulus tendineus, or common tendon. It is the largest of the extraocular muscles and its only action is adduction of the eyeball. Its function is to bring the pupil closer to the midline of the body. It is tested clinically by asking the patient to look medially. credit: Patrick J. Lynch
    5.00
    1 votes
    184
    Scalenus medius

    Scalenus medius

    The Scalenus medius, also known as the middle scalene, is the largest and longest of the three scalene muscles in the human neck. The middle scalene arises from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the lower six cervical vertebræ. It descendes along the side of the vertebral column to insert by a broad attachment into the upper surface of the first rib, between the tubercle and the subclavian groove. The brachial plexus and the subclavian artery pass anterior to it. Because it elevates the upper ribs, the middle scalene muscle is also one of the accessory muscles of respiration. It is involved in thoracic outlet syndrome, which is compression of the subclavian vessels and nerves of the brachial plexus in the region of the thoracic inlet. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.00
    1 votes
    185
    Sphincter ani internus muscle

    Sphincter ani internus muscle

    The Sphincter ani internus (or internal anal sphincter) is a muscular ring that surrounds about 2.5 cm of the anal canal; its inferior border is in contact with, but quite separate from, the Sphincter ani externus. It is about 5 mm thick, and is formed by an aggregation of the involuntary circular fibers of the intestine. Its lower border is about 6 mm from the orifice of the anus. Its action is entirely involuntary. It helps the Sphincter ani externus to occlude the anal aperture and aids in the expulsion of the feces. Parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic segments of the spinal cord supply the internal sphincter. It is not innervated by the pudendal nerve, which carries somatic (motor and sensory) fibers that provide the innervation to the external anal sphincter. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.00
    1 votes
    186
    Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle

    Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle

    Flexor digitorum superficialis (flexor digitorum sublimis) is an extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers at the proximal interphalangeal joints. It is in the anterior compartment of the forearm. It is sometimes considered to be the deepest part of the superficial layer of this compartment, and sometimes considered to be a distinct, "intermediate layer" of this compartment. It is relatively common for the Flexor digitorum superficialis to be missing from the little finger, bilaterally and unilaterally, which can cause problems when diagnosing a little finger injury. The muscle has two classically described heads - the humeroulnar and radial - and it is between these heads that the median nerve and ulnar artery pass. The ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint gives its origin to part of this muscle. Four long tendons come off this muscle near the wrist and travel through the carpal tunnel formed by the flexor retinaculum. These tendons, along with those of flexor digitorum profundus, are enclosed by a common flexor sheath. The tendons attach to the anterior margins on the bases of the middle phalanges of the four fingers. These tendons have a split (Camper's Chiasm) at the end of
    4.00
    2 votes
    187
    Pectoralis major muscle

    Pectoralis major muscle

    The pectoralis major is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body. It makes up the bulk of the chest muscles in the male and lies under the breast in the female. Underneath the pectoralis major is the pectoralis minor, a thin, triangular muscle. It arises from the anterior surface of the sternal half of the clavicle; from breadth of the half of the anterior surface of the sternum, as low down as the attachment of the cartilage of the sixth or seventh rib; from the cartilages of all the true ribs, with the exception, frequently, of the first or seventh and from the aponeurosis of the abdominal external oblique muscle. From this extensive origin the fibers converge toward their insertion; those arising from the clavicle pass obliquely downward and outwards (laterally), and are usually separated from the rest by a slight interval; those from the lower part of the sternum, and the cartilages of the lower true ribs, run upward and laterally, while the middle fibers pass horizontally. They all end in a flat tendon, about 5 cm in breadth, which is inserted into the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus. Electromyography suggests that it
    4.00
    2 votes
    188
    Adductor longus muscle

    Adductor longus muscle

    In the human body, the adductor longus is a skeletal muscle located in the thigh. One of the adductor muscles of the hip, its main function is to adduct the thigh and it is innervated by the obturator nerve. It forms the medial wall of the femoral triangle. The adductor longus arises from the superior ramus of the pubis. It lies ventrally on the adductor magnus, and near the femur, the adductor brevis is interposed between these two muscles. Distally, the fibers of the adductor longus extend into the adductor canal. It is inserted into the middle third of the medial lip of the linea aspera. The adductor longus is in relation by its anterior surface with the pubic portion of the fascia lata, and near its insertion with the femoral artery and vein. By its posterior surface with the adductor brevis and magnus, the anterior branches of the obturator artery, vein, and nerves, and near its insertion with the profunda artery and vein. By its outer border with the pectineus, and by the inner border with the gracilis. Its main actions is to adduct and laterally rotate the femur; it can also produce some degree of flexion/anteversion. As part of the medial compartment of the thigh, the
    4.00
    1 votes
    189
    Bulbospongiosus muscle

    Bulbospongiosus muscle

    Bulbospongiosus (bulbocavernosus in older texts) is one of the superficial muscles of the perineum. It has a slightly different origin, insertion and function in males and females. In males, it covers the bulb of the penis. In females, it covers the vestibular bulb. In both sexes, it is innervated by the deep/muscular branch of the perineal nerve, which is a branch of the pudendal nerve. In males it contributes to erection, ejaculation, and the feelings of orgasm. In females it contributes to clitoral erection and the feelings of orgasm, and closes the vagina. This muscle serves to empty the canal of the urethra, after the bladder has expelled its contents; during the greater part of the act of micturition its fibers are relaxed, and it only comes into action at the end of the process. The middle fibers are supposed by Krause to assist in the erection of the corpus cavernosum urethræ, by compressing the erectile tissue of the bulb. The anterior fibers also contribute to the erection of the penis by compressing the deep dorsal vein of the penis as they are inserted into, and continuous with, the fascia of the penis. The bulbospongiosus is located in the middle line of the perineum,
    4.00
    1 votes
    190
    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle

    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle

    The Extensor carpi radialis brevis is shorter and thicker than the extensor carpi radialis longus. The longus muscle can be found above the distal end of the Extensor carpi radialis brevis. It arises from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, by the common extensor tendon; from the radial collateral ligament of the elbow-joint; from a strong aponeurosis which covers its surface; and from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles. The fibres end approximately at the middle of the forearm in the form of a flat tendon, which is closely connected with that of the extensor carpi radialis longus, and accompanies it to the wrist; it passes beneath the Abductor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis, beneath the extensor retinaculum, beneath the dorsal carpal ligament, and inserts into the lateral dorsal surface of the base of the third metacarpal bone, with a few fibres inserting into the medial dorsal surface of the second metacarpal bone. Under the dorsal carpal ligament the tendon lies on the back of the radius in a shallow groove called Lister's tubercle, to the ulnar side of that which lodges the tendon of the Extensor carpi radialis longus, and separated
    4.00
    1 votes
    191
    Genioglossus

    Genioglossus

    The genioglossus is a muscle of the human body which runs from the chin to the tongue. The genioglossus is the major muscle responsible for protruding (or sticking out) the tongue. Genioglossus is the fan-shaped extrinsic tongue muscle that forms the majority of the body of the tongue. Its origin is the mental spine of the mandible and its insertions are the hyoid bone and the dorsum of the tongue. Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII), it depresses and protrudes the tongue. Contraction of the genioglossus stabilizes and enlarges the portion of the upper airway that is most vulnerable to collapse. A relaxation of the genioglossus and geniohyoideus muscles, especially during REM sleep, is implicated in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA.) Peripheral damage to the hypoglossal nerve can result in deviation of the tongue to the damaged side. The name derives from Greek roots: "Geneion" for chin, and "glossa" for tongue.
    4.00
    1 votes
    192
    Hypothenar eminence

    Hypothenar eminence

    The hypothenar muscles are a group of three muscles of the palm that control the motion of the little finger. The three muscles are: The muscles of hypothenar eminence are from lateral to medial: The intrinsic muscles of hand can be remembered using the mnemonic, "A OF A OF A" for, Abductor pollicis brevis, Opponens pollicis, Flexor pollicis brevis, (thenar muscles) Adductor pollicis, Opponens digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi, Abductor digiti minimi (Hypothenar muscles). "Hypothenar atrophy" is associated with the lesion of the ulnar nerve, which supplies the three hypothenar muscles. Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a vascular occlusion of this region.
    4.00
    1 votes
    193
    Levator muscle of thyroid gland

    Levator muscle of thyroid gland

    A fibrous or muscular band is sometimes found attached, above, to the body of the hyoid bone, and below to the thyroid isthmus, or its pyramidal lobe. When muscular, it is termed the Levator muscle of thyroid gland. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    4.00
    1 votes
    194
    Occipitofrontalis muscle

    Occipitofrontalis muscle

    The occipitofrontalis or epicranius is a muscle which covers parts of the skull. It consists of two parts or bellies: The occipital belly, near the occipital bone, and the frontal belly, near the frontal bone. Some sources consider the occipitofrontalis to be a structure consisting of two distinct muscles, the Frontalis and the occipitalis. However, Terminologia Anatomica currently classifies it as a single muscle, and also includes the temporoparietalis muscle as part of the epicranius. The occipital belly originates on the lateral two-thirds of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone, and on the mastoid process of the temporal bone. Inserted into the galea aponeurotica, or epicranial aponeurosis, the occipital belly communicates with the frontal belly by an intermediate tendon. From the aponeurosis, the frontal belly is inserted in the fascia of the facial muscles and in the skin above the eyes and nose. Assisted by the occipital belly, the frontal belly draws the scalp back which raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead. In humans, the occipitofrontalis only serves for facial expressions. In apes, however, the head is not balanced on the vertebral column, and apes
    4.00
    1 votes
    195
    Plantar interossei muscles

    Plantar interossei muscles

    The plantar interossei, three in number, lie beneath rather than between the metatarsal bones, and each is connected with but one metatarsal bone. They arise from the bases and medial sides of the bodies of the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsal bones, and are inserted into the medial sides of the bases of the first phalanges of the same toes, and into the aponeuroses of the tendons of the Extensor digitorum longus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    4.00
    1 votes
    196
    Rectus capitis lateralis muscle

    Rectus capitis lateralis muscle

    The Rectus capitis lateralis, a short, flat muscle, arises from the upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas, and is inserted into the under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    4.00
    1 votes
    197
    Rectus femoris muscle

    Rectus femoris muscle

    The rectus femoris muscle is one of the four quadriceps muscles of the human body. The others are the vastus medialis, the vastus intermedius (deep to the rectus femoris), and the vastus lateralis. All four parts of the quadriceps muscle attach to the patella (knee cap) via the quadriceps tendon. The rectus femoris is situated in the middle of the front of the thigh; it is fusiform in shape, and its superficial fibers are arranged in a bipenniform manner, the deep fibers running straight down to the deep aponeurosis. It arises by two tendons: one, the anterior or straight, from the anterior inferior iliac spine; the other, the posterior or reflected, from a groove above the rim of the acetabulum. The two unite at an acute angle, and spread into an aponeurosis which is prolonged downward on the anterior surface of the muscle, and from this the muscular fibers arise. The muscle ends in a broad and thick aponeurosis which occupies the lower two-thirds of its posterior surface, and, gradually becoming narrowed into a flattened tendon, is inserted into the base of the patella. The rectus femoris, sartorius and iliopsoas are the only muscles that are involved in flexion of the hip, since
    4.00
    1 votes
    198
    Sartorius muscle

    Sartorius muscle

    The Sartorius muscle – the longest muscle in the human body – is a long thin muscle that runs down the length of the thigh. Its upper portion forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle. The sartorius muscle arises by tendinous fibres from the anterior superior iliac spine, running obliquely across the upper and anterior part of the thigh in an inferomedial direction. It descends as far as the medial side of the knee, passing behind the medial condyle of the femur to end in a tendon. This tendon curves anteriorly to join the tendons of the gracilis and semitendinous muscles which together form the pes anserinus, finally inserting into the proximal part of the tibia on the medial surface of its body. Sartorius comes from the Latin word sartor, meaning tailor, and it is sometimes called the tailor's muscle. There are four hypotheses as to the genesis of the name: One is that this name was chosen in reference to the cross-legged position in which tailors once sat. Another is that it refers to the location of the inferior portion of the muscle being the "inseam" or area of the inner thigh tailors commonly measure when fitting a pant. A third is that the muscle closely resembles a
    4.00
    1 votes
    199

    Serratus posterior superior muscle

    The Serratus posterior superior is a thin, quadrilateral muscle, situated at the upper and back part of the thorax. It arises by a thin and broad aponeurosis from the lower part of the ligamentum nuchae, from the spinous processes of the seventh cervical and upper two or three thoracic vertebræ and from the supraspinal ligament. Inclining downward and lateralward it becomes muscular, and is inserted, by four fleshy digitations, into the upper borders of the second, third, fourth, and fifth ribs, a little beyond their angles. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated. http://www.webmanmed.com/bu/buf/mg/upback/13692373_files/13692373001.html http://dmmassage.com/?p=495
    4.00
    1 votes
    200
    Sternothyroid muscle

    Sternothyroid muscle

    The Sternothyreoideus (or Sternothyroid muscle) is shorter and wider than the Sternohyoideus, beneath which it is situated. It arises from the posterior surface of the manubrium sterni, below the origin of the Sternohyoideus, and from the edge of the cartilage of the first rib, and sometimes that of the second rib, it is inserted into the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage. This muscle is in close contact with its fellow at the lower part of the neck, but diverges somewhat as it ascends; it is occasionally traversed by a transverse or oblique tendinous inscription. Doubling; absence; accessory slips to Thyreohyoideus, Inferior constrictor, or carotid sheath. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    4.00
    1 votes
    201
    Abductor digiti minimi muscle

    Abductor digiti minimi muscle

    The Abductor digiti minimi (Abductor minimi digiti, Abductor digiti quinti) is a muscle which lies along the lateral border of the foot, and is in relation by its medial margin with the lateral plantar vessels and nerves. It arises, by a broad origin, from the lateral process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, from the under surface of the calcaneus between the two processes of the tuberosity, from the forepart of the medial process, from the plantar aponeurosis, and from the intermuscular septum between it and the Flexor digitorum brevis. Its tendon, after gliding over a smooth facet on the under surface of the base of the fifth metatarsal bone, is inserted, with the Flexor digiti quinti brevis, into the fibular side of the base of the first phalanx of the fifth toe. Its function is to flex and abduct the fifth (little) toe. Due to its role in posture during all physical activity whlie in an upright position, the abductor digiti minimi is often the target of injury. The most common of such injuries occurs mainly in women and is referred to as orteil de belette, commonly known as Weasel Toe. In case of polydactyly it may insert to the sixth toe instead, if there is one. This
    0.00
    0 votes
    202
    Anterior auricular muscle

    Anterior auricular muscle

    The anterior auricular muscle, the smallest of the three auriculares muscles, is thin and fan-shaped, and its fibers are pale and indistinct. It arises from the lateral edge of the galea aponeurotica, and its fibers converge to be inserted into a projection on the front of the helix. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    203
    Antitragicus

    Antitragicus

    In the human musculoskeletal system of the ear, the Antitragicus arises from the outer part of the antitragus, and is inserted into the cauda helicis and antihelix. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    204
    Auriculares muscles

    Auriculares muscles

    The auricular muscles are the three muscles surrounding the auricula or outer ear: In other animals these muscles serve to swivel the auricula to point in the direction of interesting sounds; in most humans all they can manage is a feeble wiggle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    205
    Corrugator supercilii muscle

    Corrugator supercilii muscle

    The Corrugator supercilii is a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle, placed at the medial end of the eyebrow, beneath the Frontalis and just above Orbicularis oculi. It arises from the medial end of the superciliary arch; and its fibers pass upward and laterally, between the palpebral and orbital portions of the Orbicularis oculi, and are inserted into the deep surface of the skin, above the middle of the orbital arch. The Corrugator draws the eyebrow downward and medially, producing the vertical wrinkles of the forehead. It is the “frowning” muscle, and may be regarded as the principal muscle in the expression of suffering. It also contracts in order to prevent high sun glare, pulling the eyebrows toward the bridge of the nose, making a roof over the area above the middle corner of the eye and typical forehead furrows. The muscle is sometimes surgically severed or paralysed with botulinum toxin as a preventive treatment for some types of migraine or for aesthetic reasons. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    206
    Depressor labii inferioris muscle

    Depressor labii inferioris muscle

    The depressor labii inferioris (or quadratus labii inferioris) is a facial muscle that helps lower the bottom lip. This muscle arises from the oblique line of the mandible, and inserts on the skin of the lower lip, blending in with the orbicularis oris muscle. At its origin, depressor labii is continuous with the fibers of the platysma muscle. Much yellow fat is intermingled with the fibers of this muscle. The depressor labii inferioris is innervated by the mandibular division of the facial nerve. This muscle helps to depress the lower lip. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    207
    Dorsal interossei of the foot

    Dorsal interossei of the foot

    In human anatomy, the dorsal interossei of the foot are four muscles situated between the metatarsal bones. The four interossei muscles are bipenniform muscles each originating by two heads from the proximal half of the of the sides of adjacent metatarsal bones. The two heads of each muscle form a central tendon which passes forwards deep to the deep transverse metatarsal ligament. The tendons are inserted on the bases of the second, third, and fourth proximal phalanges and into the aponeurosis of the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus without attaching to the extensor hoods of the toes. Thus, the first is inserted into the medial side of the second toe; the other three are inserted into the lateral sides of the second, third, and fourth toes. The dorsal interossei abducts at the metatarsophalangeal joints of the third and fourth toes. Because there is a pair of dorsal interossei muscles attached on both sides of the second toe, contraction of these muscles results in no movement (i.e. the midline of the hand is in the third finger, but the midline of the foot is in the second toe). Abduction is of little importance in the foot, but, together with the plantar interossei,
    0.00
    0 votes
    208
    Dorsal interossei of the hand

    Dorsal interossei of the hand

    The dorsal interossei of the hand are muscles that occupy the space between the metacarpals. There are four dorsal interossei in each hand. They are specified as 'dorsal' to contrast them with the palmar interossei, which are located on the anterior side of the metacarpals. The dorsal interosseous muscles are bipennate, with each muscle arising by two heads from the adjacent sides of the metacarpal bones, but more extensively from the metacarpal bone of the finger into which the muscle is inserted. They are inserted into the bases of the proximal phalanges and into the extensor expansion of the corresponding extensor digitorum tendon. The middle digit has two dorsal interossei insert onto it while the first digit (thumb) and the fifth digit (little finger) have none. The first dorsal interosseous muscle is larger than the others. Between its two heads, the radial artery passes from the back of the hand into the palm. Between the heads of dorsal interossei two, three, and four, a perforating branch from the deep palmar arch is transmitted. All interosseous muscles of the hand are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The primary action of the dorsal interossei is to:
    0.00
    0 votes
    209
    Extensor digitorum longus muscle

    Extensor digitorum longus muscle

    The Extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg. It arises from the lateral condyle of the tibia; from the upper three-fourths of the anterior surface of the body of the fibula; from the upper part of the interosseous membrane; from the deep surface of the fascia; and from the intermuscular septa between it and the Tibialis anterior on the medial, and the Peronæi on the lateral side. Between it and the Tibialis anterior are the upper portions of the anterior tibial vessels and deep peroneal nerve. The muscle passes under the transverse and cruciate crural ligaments in company with the Peronæus tertius, and divides into four slips, which run forward on the dorsum of the foot, and are inserted into the second and third phalanges of the four lesser toes. The tendons to the second, third, and fourth toes are each joined, opposite the metatarsophalangeal articulation, on the lateral side by a tendon of the Extensor digitorum brevis. The tendons are inserted in the following manner: each receives a fibrous expansion from the Interossei and Lumbricalis, and then spreads out into a broad aponeurosis, which covers the dorsal surface of
    0.00
    0 votes
    210
    Extensor indicis proprius

    Extensor indicis proprius

    In human anatomy, the extensor indicis [proprius] is a narrow, elongated skeletal muscle in the deep layer of the dorsal forearm, placed medial to, and parallel with, the extensor pollicis longus. Its tendon goes to the index finger, which it extends. It arises from the distal third of the dorsal part of the body of ulna and from the interosseous membrane. It runs through the fourth tendon compartment together with the extensor digitorum, from where it projects into the dorsal aponeurosis of the index finger. Opposite the head of the second metacarpal bone, it joins the ulnar side of the tendon of the extensor digitorum which belongs to the index finger. Like the extensor digiti minimi (i.e. the extensor of the little finger), the tendon of the extensor indicis always runs on the ulnar side of the tendon of the common extensor digitorum. Both these extensors lack the oblique bands (connexus intertendinei) interlinking the tendons of the extensor digitorum on the dorsal side of the hand. The extensor indicis extends the index finger, and by its continued action assists in extending (dorsiflexion) the wrist and the midcarpal joints. Because the index finger and little finger have
    0.00
    0 votes
    211
    Fibularis brevis

    Fibularis brevis

    The peroneus brevis muscle (or fibularis brevis) lies under cover of the peroneus longus, and is a shorter and smaller muscle. It is also innervated by the superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve. The muscle acts in plantarflexion and eversion of the foot. It arises from the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the body of the fibula; medial to the Peronæus longus; and from the intermuscular septa separating it from the adjacent muscles on the front and back of the leg. The fibers pass vertically downward, and end in a tendon which runs behind the lateral malleolus along with but in front of that of the preceding muscle, the two tendons being enclosed in the same compartment, and lubricated by a common mucous sheath. It then runs forward on the lateral side of the calcaneus, above the trochlear process and the tendon of the Peronæus longus, and is inserted into the tuberosity at the base of the fifth metatarsal bone, on its lateral side. The terms "Peroneal" (i.e., Artery, Retinaculum) and "Peroneus" (i.e., Longus and Brevis) are derived from the Greek word Perone (pronounced Pair-uh-knee) meaning pin of a brooch or a buckle. In medical terminology, both terms refer to being of
    0.00
    0 votes
    212
    Flexor carpi radialis muscle

    Flexor carpi radialis muscle

    In anatomy, flexor carpi radialis is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and (radial) abduct the hand. This muscle originates on the medial epicondyle of the humerus. It runs just laterally of flexor digitorum superficialis and inserts on the anterior aspect of the base of the second metacarpal, and has small slips to both the third metacarpal and trapezial tuberosity. On the anterior aspect of a person's forearm, proximal to the wrist, flexor carpi radialis is the most lateral (closest to the thumb) tendon visible when the wrist is brought into flexion. As are most of the flexors of the hand, FCR is innervated by the median nerve. It gets its blood from the ulnar artery. The muscle, like all flexors of the forearm, can be strengthened by exercises that resist its flexion. A wrist roller can be used and wrist curls with dumbbells can also be performed.
    0.00
    0 votes
    213
    Gluteus medius muscle

    Gluteus medius muscle

    The gluteus medius (or glutæus medius), one of the three gluteal muscles, is a broad, thick, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis. Its posterior third is covered by the gluteus maximus, its anterior two-thirds by the gluteal aponeurosis, which separates it from the superficial fascia and integument. A bursa separates the tendon of the muscle from the surface of the trochanter over which it glides. The gluteus medius muscle starts, or "originates," on the outer surface of the ilium between the iliac crest and the posterior gluteal line above, and the anterior gluteal line below; the gluteus medius also originates from the gluteal aponeurosis that covers its outer surface. The fibers of the muscle converge into a strong flattened tendon that inserts on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter. More specifically, the muscle's tendon inserts into an oblique ridge that runs downward and forward on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter. With the leg in neutral (straightened), the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus function together to pull the thigh away from midline, or "abduct" the thigh. During gait, these two muscles function principally in
    0.00
    0 votes
    214
    Gluteus minimus muscle

    Gluteus minimus muscle

    The gluteus minimus (or glutæus minimus), the smallest of the three gluteal muscles, is situated immediately beneath the gluteus medius. It is fan-shaped, arising from the outer surface of the ilium, between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines, and behind, from the margin of the greater sciatic notch. The fibers converge to the deep surface of a radiated aponeurosis, and this ends in a tendon which is inserted into an impression on the anterior border of the greater trochanter, and gives an expansion to the capsule of the hip joint. It is also a local stabilizer for the hip. A bursa is interposed between the tendon and the greater trochanter. Between the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus are the deep branches of the superior gluteal vessels and the superior gluteal nerve. The deep surface of the gluteus minimus is in relation with the reflected tendon of the rectus femoris and the capsule of the hip joint. The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus abduct the thigh, when the limb is extended, and are principally called into action in supporting the body on one limb, in conjunction with the Tensor fasciæ latæ. Their anterior fibers, by drawing the greater trochanter forward, rotate
    0.00
    0 votes
    215
    Helicis major

    Helicis major

    The Helicis major is a narrow vertical band situated upon the anterior margin of the helix. It arises below, from the spina helicis, and is inserted into the anterior border of the helix, just where it is about to curve backward. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    216
    Hyoglossus

    Hyoglossus

    The Hyoglossus, thin and quadrilateral, arises from the side of the body and from the whole length of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, and passes almost vertically upward to enter the side of the tongue, between the Styloglossus and Longitudinalis inferior. The hyoglossus depresses and retracts the tongue makes the dorsum more convex The fibers arising from the body of the hyoid bone overlap those from the greater cornu. It is important in singing. Structures passing medially to the hyoglossus muscle are the lingual vein and lingual artery. Laterally, in between the hyoglossus muscle and the mylohyoid muscle lay several important structures (from superior in inferior): sublingual gland, submandibular duct, lingual nerve, vena comitans of hypoglossal nerve, and the hypoglossal nerve. Note, posteriorly, the lingual nerve is superior to the submandibular duct and a portion of the submandibular salivary gland protrudes into the space between the hyoglossus and mylohyoid muscles. Structures that are medial/superficial to the hyoglossus are the glossopharyngeal nerve (9th Cranial nerve), the stylohyoid ligament and the lingual artery & vein. Since these structures are most
    0.00
    0 votes
    217
    Iliococcygeus muscle

    Iliococcygeus muscle

    The Iliococcygeus arises from the inner side of the ischium and from the posterior part of the tendinous arch of the obturator fascia, and is attached to the coccyx and anococcygeal raphé; it is usually thin, and may fail entirely, or be largely replaced by fibrous tissue. It is part of the levator ani group of muscles. An accessory slip at its posterior part is sometimes named the Iliosacralis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    218

    Interspinales muscle

    The Interspinales are short muscular fasciculi, placed in pairs between the spinous processes of the contiguous vertebræ, one on either side of the interspinal ligament. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    219
    Ischiocavernosus muscle

    Ischiocavernosus muscle

    The ischiocavernosus muscle is a muscle just below the surface of the perineum, present in both men and women. It helps flex the anus, and (in males) stabilize the erect penis or (in females) tense the vagina during orgasm. Kegel exercises (also known as pelvic floor exercises) can help tone the ischiocavernosus muscle. Ischiocavernosus compresses the crus penis, and retards the return of the blood through the veins, and thus serves to maintain the organ erect. It arises by tendinous and fleshy fibers from the inner surface of the tuberosity of the ischium, behind the crus penis; and from the rami of the pubis and ischium on either side of the crus. From these points fleshy fibers succeed, and end in an aponeurosis which is inserted into the sides and under surface of the crus penis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    220
    Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle

    Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle

    The lateral cricoarytenoid (also anterior cricoarytenoid) muscles extend from the lateral cricoid cartilage to the ipsilateral arytenoid cartilage. By rotating the arytenoid cartilages medially, these muscles adduct the vocal cords and thereby close the rima glottidis, protecting the airway. (Their action is antagonistic to that of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles.) The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles receive innervation from the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X).
    0.00
    0 votes
    221
    Latissimus dorsi muscle

    Latissimus dorsi muscle

    The latissimus dorsi (plural: latissimi dorsi), meaning 'broadest [muscle] of the back' (Latin latus meaning 'broad', latissimus meaning 'broadest' and dorsum meaning the back), is the larger, flat, dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the trapezius on its median dorsal region. The latissimus dorsi is responsible for extension, adduction, transverse extension also known as horizontal abduction, flexion from an extended position, and (medial) internal rotation of the shoulder joint. It also has a synergistic role in extension and lateral flexion of the lumbar spine. Due to bypassing the scapulothoracic joint and attaching directly to the spine, the actions the lat has on moving the arm can also influence the movement of the scapula, such as their downward rotation during a pull up. The number of dorsal vertebra to which it is attached vary from four to eight; the number of costal attachments varies; muscle fibers may or may not reach the crest of the ilium. A muscular slip, the axillary arch, varying from 7 to 10 cm in length, and from 5 to 15 mm in breadth, occasionally springs from the upper edge of the latissimus dorsi about the middle of
    0.00
    0 votes
    222
    Lumbrical muscle

    Lumbrical muscle

    The lumbricals are four small skeletal muscles, accessory to the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus and numbered from the medial side of the foot; they arise from these tendons, as far back as their angles of division, each springing from two tendons, except the first. The muscles end in tendons, which pass forward on the medial sides of the four lesser toes, and are inserted into the expansions of the tendons of the Extensor digitorum longus on the dorsal surfaces of the first phalanges. All four lumbricals insert into extensor hoods of the phalanges, thus creating extension at the inter-phalangeal joints. However as the tendons also pass inferior to the metatarsal phalangeal joints it creates flexion at this joint. Absence of one or more; doubling of the third or fourth even the fifth. Insertion partly or wholly into the first phalanges. The most medial lumbrical is innervated by the medial plantar nerve while the remaining three lumbricals are supplied by the lateral plantar nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    223
    Masseter muscle

    Masseter muscle

    In human anatomy, the masseter is one of the muscles of mastication. In the animal kingdom, it is particularly powerful in herbivores to facilitate chewing of plant matter. The masseter is a thick, somewhat quadrilateral muscle, consisting of two parts, superficial and deep. The fibers of the two portions are continuous at their insertion. The masseter muscle is sometimes the target of plastic jaw reduction surgery. The superficial portion, the larger, arises by a thick, tendinous aponeurosis from the zygomatic process of the maxilla, and from the anterior two-thirds of the lower border of the zygomatic arch. Its fibers pass downward and backward, to be inserted into the angle and lower half of the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible. The deep portion is much smaller, and more muscular in texture. It arises from the posterior 3rd of the lower border and from the whole of the medial surface of the zygomatic arch. Its fibers pass downward and forward, to be inserted into the upper half of the ramus and the lateral surface of the coronoid process of the mandible. The deep portion of the muscle is partly concealed, in front, by the superficial portion; behind, it is covered by
    0.00
    0 votes
    224
    Mentalis

    Mentalis

    The Mentalis is a paired central muscle of the lower lip, situated at the tip of the chin. It raises and pushes up the lower lip, causing wrinkling of the chin, as in doubt or displeasure. It is sometimes referred to as the "pouting muscle." Its fibers arise from the incisive fossa of the mandible, then course vertically downward to insert in the skin of the chin. A movement disorder of the mentalis muscle is Geniospasm which is a benign but socially excluding genetic disorder.
    0.00
    0 votes
    225
    Opponens pollicis muscle

    Opponens pollicis muscle

    The opponens pollicis is a small, triangular muscle in the hand, which functions to oppose the thumb. It is one of the three thenar muscles, lying deep to the abductor pollicis brevis and lateral to the flexor pollicis brevis. The opponens pollicis originates from the flexor retinaculum of the hand and the tubercle of the trapezium. It passes downward and laterally, and is inserted into the whole length of the metacarpal bone of the thumb on its radial side. Like the other thenar muscles, the opponens pollicis is innervated by the recurrent branch of the median nerve. Opposition of the thumb is a combination of actions that allows the tip of the thumb to touch the tips of other fingers. The part of opposition that this muscle is responsible for is the flexion of the thumb's metacarpal at the first carpometacarpal joint. This specific action cups the palm. Many texts, for simplicity, use the term opposition to represent this component of true opposition. In order to truly oppose the thumb, the actions of a number of other muscles are needed at the thumb's metacarpophalangeal joint. The opponens pollicis receives its blood supply from the Superficial palmar arch. This article was
    0.00
    0 votes
    226

    Orbitalis muscle

    Orbitalis muscle is a vestigial or rudimentary nonstriated muscle (smooth muscle) that crosses from the infraorbital groove and sphenomaxillary fissure and intimately united with the periosteum of the orbit. It was described by Johannes Peter Müller and is often called Muller's muscle. One characteristic of Horner's Syndrome is enophthalmos (retraction of the eyeball into the orbit due to paralysis of the orbitalis muscle that spans the inferior orbital fissure). Its function is presumed to be eyeball protrusion. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    227
    Palatopharyngeus muscle

    Palatopharyngeus muscle

    The palatopharyngeus or palatopharyngeal or pharyngopalatinus muscle is a long, fleshy fasciculus, narrower in the middle than at either end, forming, with the mucous membrane covering its surface, the palatopharyngeal arch. It is separated from the palatoglossus muscle by an angular interval, in which the palatine tonsil is lodged. It arises from the soft palate, where it is divided into two fasciculi by the levator veli palatini and musculus uvulae. Passing lateralward and downward behind the palatine tonsil, the palatopharyngeus joins the stylopharyngeus and is inserted with that muscle into the posterior border of the thyroid cartilage, some of its fibers being lost on the side of the pharynx and others passing across the middle line posteriorly to decussate with the muscle of the opposite side. The palatine velum is slightly raised by the levator veli palatini and made tense by the tensor veli palatini; the palatopharyngeus muscles, by their contraction, pull the pharynx upward over the bolus of food and nearly come together, the uvula filling up the slight interval between them. By these means the bolus is prevented from passing into the nasopharynx; at the same time, the
    0.00
    0 votes
    228
    Palmaris brevis muscle

    Palmaris brevis muscle

    Palmaris brevis is a thin, quadrilateral muscle, placed beneath the integument of the ulnar side of the hand. It acts to fold the skin of the hypothenar eminence transversally. It arises by tendinous fasciculi from the transverse carpal ligament and palmar aponeurosis; the fleshy fibers are inserted into the skin on the ulnar border of the palm of the hand, and occasionally on the pisiform. It tenses the skin of the palm on the ulnar side during a grip action, and deepens the hollow of the palm. It is the only muscle innervated by the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve (C8, T1). It is supplied by the palmar metacarpal artery of the deep palmar arch. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    229
    Palmaris longus muscle

    Palmaris longus muscle

    The palmaris longus is seen as a small tendon between the flexor carpi radialis and the flexor carpi ulnaris, although it is not always present. The muscle is absent in about 14 percent of the population, however this varies greatly with ethnicity. Absence of palmaris does not have any known effect on grip strength. However, lack of said muscle is disadvantageous in that its tendon can not be harvested as a graft if necessary. Palmaris longus can be palpated by touching the pads of the fifth and first fingers and flexing the wrist. The tendon, if present, will be very visible. It is a slender, fusiform muscle, lying on the medial side of the flexor carpi radialis. It arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus by the common flexor tendon, from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles, and from the antebrachial fascia. It ends in a slender, flattened tendon, which passes over the upper part of the flexor retinaculum, and is inserted into the central part of the flexor retinaculum and lower part of the palmar aponeurosis, frequently sending a tendinous slip to the short muscles of the thumb. The palmaris longus tendon is responsible for exposing the claws in
    0.00
    0 votes
    230
    Piriformis muscle

    Piriformis muscle

    The piriformis (from Latin piriformis = "pear shaped") is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limb. It was first named by Spigelius, a professor from the University of Padua in the 16th century. It originates from the anterior (front) part of the sacrum, the part of the spine in the gluteal region, and from the superior margin of the greater sciatic notch (as well as the sacroiliac joint capsule and the sacrotuberous ligament). It exits the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen to insert on the greater trochanter of the femur. Its tendon often joins with the tendons of the superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, and obturator internus muscles prior to insertion. The piriformis is a flat muscle, pyramidal in shape, lying almost parallel with the posterior margin of the gluteus medius. It is situated partly within the pelvis against its posterior wall, and partly at the back of the hip-joint. It arises from the front of the sacrum by three fleshy digitations, attached to the portions of bone between the first, second, third, and fourth anterior sacral foramina, and to the grooves leading from the foramina: a few fibers also arise from the margin of the greater sciatic
    0.00
    0 votes
    231
    Posterior auricular muscle

    Posterior auricular muscle

    The posterior auricular muscle consists of two or three fleshy fasciculi, which arise from the mastoid portion of the temporal bone by short aponeurotic fibers. They are inserted into the lower part of the cranial surface of the concha.
    0.00
    0 votes
    232
    Procerus muscle

    Procerus muscle

    The Procerus is a small pyramidal slip of muscle deep to the superior orbital nerve, artery and vein. It arises by tendinous fibers from the fascia covering the lower part of the nasal bone and upper part of the lateral nasal cartilage. It is inserted into the skin over the lower part of the forehead between the two eyebrows on either side of the midline, its fibers merging with those of the Frontalis. It helps to pull that part of the skin between the eyebrows downwards, which assists in flaring the nostrils. It can also contribute to an expression of anger. Procerus is supplied by temporal and lower zygomatic branches from the facial nerve (a supply from the buccal branch has been described) . Its contraction can produce transverse wrinkles. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    233
    Psoas minor muscle

    Psoas minor muscle

    The psoas minor is a long, slender skeletal muscle which, when present, is located in front of the psoas major muscle. This muscle does not exist in about 40 to 50 percent of the human population. The psoas minor is a weak flexor of the lumbar vertebral column. Psoas minor originates from the vertical fascicles inserted on the last thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae. From there, it passes down onto the medial border of the psoas major, and is inserted to the innominate line and the iliopectineal eminence. Additionally, it attaches to and stretches the deep surface of the iliac fascia and, occasionally, its lowermost fibers reach the inguinal ligament. Variations occur, however, and the insertion on the iliopubic eminence sometimes radiates into the iliopectineal arch.
    0.00
    0 votes
    234
    Quadratus lumborum muscle

    Quadratus lumborum muscle

    The Quadratus lumborum is irregular and quadrilateral in shape, and broader below than above. It arises by aponeurotic fibers from the iliolumbar ligament and the adjacent portion of the iliac crest for about 5 cm., and is inserted into the lower border of the last rib for about half its length, and by four small tendons into the apices of the transverse processes of the upper four lumbar vertebrae. Occasionally a second portion of this muscle is found in front of the preceding. It arises from the upper borders of the transverse processes of the lower three or four lumbar vertebræ, and is inserted into the lower margin of the last rib. Anterior to the Quadratus lumborum are the colon, the kidney, the Psoas major and (if present) psoas minor, and the diaphragm; between the fascia and the muscle are the twelfth thoracic, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves. The number of attachments to the vertebræ and the extent of its attachment to the last rib vary. The quadratus lumborum can perform four actions: The quadratus lumborum, or QL, is a common source of lower back pain. Because the QL connects the pelvis to the spine and is therefore capable of extending the lower back when
    0.00
    0 votes
    235

    Rotatores muscle

    The Rotatores (Rotatores spinae) lie beneath the Multifidus and is present in all spinal regions but most prominent in the thoracic region; they are eleven in number on either side. Each muscle is small and somewhat quadrilateral in form; it arises from the superior and posterior part of the transverse process, and is inserted into the lower border and lateral surface of the lamina of the vertebra above, the fibers extending as far as the root of the spinous process. The first is found between the first and second thoracic vertebræ; the last, between the eleventh and twelfth. Sometimes the number of these muscles is diminished by the absence of one or more from the upper or lower end. The Rotatores muscles have a high density of proprioceptors and have been implicated in postural control. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    236
    Scalenus anterior

    Scalenus anterior

    The Scalenus anterior (Scalenus anticus), also known as anterior scalene muscle, lies deeply at the side of the neck, behind the Sternocleidomastoideus. It arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebræ, and descending, almost vertically, is inserted by a narrow, flat tendon into the scalene tubercle on the inner border of the first rib, and into the ridge on the upper surface of the rib in front of the subclavian groove. It can be involved in certain forms of Thoracic outlet syndrome. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    237
    Scalenus posterior

    Scalenus posterior

    The Scalenus posterior (Scalenus posticus), the smallest and most deeply seated of the three Scaleni, arises, by two or three separate tendons, from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the lower two or three cervical vertebræ, and is inserted by a thin tendon into the outer surface of the second rib, behind the attachment of the Scalenus anterior. It is occasionally blended with the Scalenus medius. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    238
    Semispinalis capitis

    Semispinalis capitis

    The Semispinalis capitis (Complexus) is situated at the upper and back part of the neck, deep to the Splenius, and medial to the Longissimus cervicis and capitis. It arises by a series of tendons from the tips of the transverse processes of the upper six or seven thoracic and the seventh cervical vertebrae, and from the articular processes of the three cervical vertebrae above this (C4-C6). The tendons, uniting, form a broad muscle, which passes upward, and is inserted between the superior and inferior nuchal lines of the occipital bone. The medial part, usually more or less distinct from the remainder of the muscle, is frequently termed the Spinalis capitis; it is also named the Biventer cervicis since it is traversed by an imperfect tendinous inscription. It lies deep to the trapezius muscle. The semispinalis muscles are innervated by the dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nerves. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    239
    Sphincter ani externus muscle

    Sphincter ani externus muscle

    The Sphincter ani externus (external anal sphincter) is a flat plane of muscular fibers, elliptical in shape and intimately adherent to the integument surrounding the margin of the anus. It measures about 8 to 10 cm in length, from its anterior to its posterior extremity, and is about 2.5 cm opposite the anus, when defecation occurs the sphincter muscle retracts. It consists of two strata, superficial and deep. In a considerable proportion of cases the fibers decussate in front of the anus, and are continuous with the Transversi perinæi superficiales. Posteriorly, they are not attached to the coccyx, but are continuous with those of the opposite side behind the anal canal. The upper edge of the muscle is ill-defined, since fibers are given off from it to join the Levator ani. The action of this muscle is peculiar. (1) It is, like other muscles, always in a state of tonic contraction, and having no antagonistic muscle it keeps the anal canal and orifice closed. (2) It can be put into a condition of greater contraction under the influence of the will, so as more firmly to occlude the anal aperture, in expiratory efforts unconnected with defecation. (3) Taking its fixed point at the
    0.00
    0 votes
    240
    Splenius cervicis muscle

    Splenius cervicis muscle

    The splenius cervicis (also known as the splenius colli) is a muscle in the back of the neck. It arises by a narrow tendinous band from the spinous processes of the third to the sixth thoracic vertebrae; it is inserted, by tendinous fasciculi, into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the upper two or three cervical vertebrae. Its name is based on the Greek word "splenion" (meaning a bandage) and the Latin words "cervix" (meaning a neck). The word "collum" also refers to the neck in Latin. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    241
    Stapedius

    Stapedius

    The stapedius is the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body. At just over one millimeter in length, its purpose is to stabilize the smallest bone in the body, the stapes. The stapedius emerges from a pinpoint foramen in the apex of the pyramidal eminence (a hollow, cone-shaped prominence in the posterior wall of the tympanic cavity), and inserts into the neck of the stapes. It reflexively dampens the vibrations of the stapes by pulling on the neck of that bone. It prevents excess movement by the stapes, helping to control the amplitude of sound waves from the general external environment to the inner ear. The stapedius muscle dampens the ability of the stapes vibration and protects the inner ear from high noise levels, primarily the volume of your own voice. Compare also the role of the tensor tympani muscle, which primarily dampens those sounds associated with chewing. The stapedius is innervated by the nerve to stapedius, a branch of cranial nerve VII, the facial nerve. This is the first branch of the facial nerve after it exits the facial canal; the second branch is the chorda tympani which carries special sense (taste) and parasympathetic fibres of cranial nerve VII. Chorda
    0.00
    0 votes
    242

    Sternalis

    Sternalis, in front of the sternal end of the Pectoralis major parallel to the margin of the sternum. It is supplied by the anterior thoracic nerves and is probably a misplaced part of the pectoralis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    243
    Subclavius muscle

    Subclavius muscle

    The subclavius is a small triangular muscle, placed between the clavicle and the first rib. Along with the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, the subclavius muscle makes up the anterior wall of the axilla. It arises by a short, thick tendon from the first rib and its cartilage at their junction, in front of the costoclavicular ligament. The fleshy fibers proceed obliquely superolaterally, to be inserted into the groove on the under surface of the clavicle between the trapezoid ligament and conoid ligaments, which collectively form the coracoclavicular ligament. The subclavius depresses the shoulder, carrying it downward and forward. It draws the clavicle inferiorly as well as anteriorly. The subclavius protects the underlying brachial plexus and subclavian vessels from a broken clavicle - the most frequently broken long bone. Insertion into coracoid process instead of clavicle or into both clavicle and coracoid process. Sternoscapular fasciculus to the upper border of scapula. Sternoclavicularis from manubrium to clavicle between pectoralis major and coracoclavicular fascia. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.
    0.00
    0 votes
    244
    Subscapularis muscle

    Subscapularis muscle

    The subscapularis is a large triangular muscle which fills the subscapular fossa and inserts into the lesser tubercle of the humerus and the front of the capsule of the shoulder-joint. It arises from its medial two-thirds and from the lower two-thirds of the groove on the axillary border (subscapular fossa) of the scapula. Some fibers arise from tendinous laminae which intersect the muscle and are attached to ridges on the bone; others from an aponeurosis, which separates the muscle from the teres major and the long head of the triceps brachii. The fibers pass laterally and coalesce into a tendon which inserts into the lesser tubercle of the humerus and the anterior part of the shoulder joint capsule. The tendon of the muscle is separated from the neck of the scapula by a large bursa, which communicates with the cavity of the shoulder-joint through an aperture in the capsule. Innervation to subscapularis is supplied by the upper and lower subscapular nerves, branches of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The subscapularis rotates the head of the humerus medially (internal rotation); when the arm is raised, it draws the humerus forward and downward. It is a powerful defense
    0.00
    0 votes
    245
    Superior auricular muscle

    Superior auricular muscle

    The superior auricular muscle, the largest of the three auriculares muscles, is also thin and fan-shaped. Its fibers arise from the galea aponeurotica, and converge to be inserted by a thin, flattened tendon into the upper part of the cranial surface of the auricula. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    246
    Superior gemellus muscle

    Superior gemellus muscle

    The superior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body. The Gemelli are two small muscular fasciculi, accessories to the tendon of the Obturator internus which is received into a groove between them. The Gemellus superior, the smaller of the two, arises from the outer surface of the spine of the ischium, blends with the upper part of the tendon of the Obturator internus, and is inserted with it into the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Etymology: Gemellus is the diminutive of 'geminus" meaning twin, doubled or duplicated. The superior and inferior Gemellus muscles are paired and perform the same action This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    0.00
    0 votes
    247
    0.00
    0 votes
    248
    Tensor tympani

    Tensor tympani

    The tensor tympani, the larger of the two muscles of the tympanic cavity (the other being the stapedius), is contained in the bony canal above the osseous portion of the auditory tube. Its role is to dampen sounds, such as those produced from chewing. It arises from the cartilaginous portion of the auditory tube and the adjoining part of the great wing of the sphenoid, as well as from the osseous canal in which it is contained. Passing backward through the canal, it ends in a slender tendon which enters the tympanic cavity, makes a sharp bend around the extremity of the septum, known as the processus cochleariformis, and is inserted into the handle (manubrium) of the malleus, near its root. When tensed, the action of the muscle is to pull the malleus medially, tensing the tympanic membrane, damping vibration in the ear ossicles and thereby reducing the amplitude of sounds. This muscle is contracted primarily to dampen the noise produced by chewing. (Compare to the more general dampening function of the stapedius muscle.) In many people with hyperacusis, an increased activity develops in the tensor tympani muscle in the middle ear as part of the startle response to some sounds. This
    0.00
    0 votes
    249
    Tibialis anterior muscle

    Tibialis anterior muscle

    In human anatomy, the tibialis anterior is a muscle that originates in the upper two-thirds of the lateral surface of the tibia and inserts into the first cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot. Its acts to dorsiflex and invert the foot. This muscle is mostly located near the shin. It is situated on the lateral side of the tibia; it is thick and fleshy above, tendinous below. The tibialis anterior overlaps the anterior tibial vessels and deep peroneal nerve in the upper part of the leg. The tibialis anterior muscle is the most medial muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg. The tibialis anterior is responsible for dorsiflexing and inverting the foot. The muscle has two origins, one being the lateral tibial condyle and the other being the upper lateral surface of the tibia, and inserts on the medial surface of the medial cuneiform and adjoining part of base of the first metatarsal of the foot allowing the toe to be pulled up and held in a locked position. It also allows for the ankle to be inverted giving the ankle horizontal movement allowing for some cushion if the ankle were to be rolled. It is innervated by the deep fibular nerve and acts as both an antagonist
    0.00
    0 votes
    250
    Triceps brachii muscle

    Triceps brachii muscle

    The triceps brachii muscle (Latin for "three-headed arm muscle") is the large muscle on the back of the upper limb of many vertebrates. It is the muscle principally responsible for extension of the elbow joint (straightening of the arm). It is sometimes called a three-headed muscle because there are three bundles of muscles, each of different origins, joining together at the elbow. Though a similarly named muscle, the triceps surae, is found on the lower leg, the triceps brachii is commonly called the triceps. Historically, the plural form of triceps was tricipites, a form not in general use today; instead, triceps is both singular and plural (i.e., when referring to both arms). The triceps also make up approximately 2/3 of the muscle mass in the arm. The long head arises from the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula. It extends distally anterior to the teres minor and posterior to the teres major. The medial head arises distally from the groove of the radial nerve; from the dorsal (back) surface of the humerus; from the medial intermuscular septum; and its distal part also arises from the lateral intermuscular septum. The medial head is mostly covered by the lateral and long
    0.00
    0 votes
    Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:
    Tags: best, all, time, muscle

    Discuss Best Muscle of All Time

    Top List Voters