A mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers.
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The Saint Elias Mountains are a subgroup of the Pacific Coast Ranges, located in southeastern Alaska in the United States, southwestern Yukon and the very far northwestern part of British Columbia in Canada. The range spans Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in the USA and Kluane National Park and Reserve in Canada and includes all of Glacier Bay National Park in Alaska. In Alaska, the range includes parts of the city/borough of Yakutat and the Hoonah-Angoon and Valdez-Cordova census areas.
Although most of the range is non-volcanic, portions at the western end near the Wrangell Mountains are volcanic. This region includes two major stratovolcanoes, Mount Churchill and Mount Bona, the latter being the highest volcano in the United States. West of the Saint Elias Mountains is the still-active Fairweather Fault, which is the northward extension of the Queen Charlotte Fault. The St. Elias range is a result of 10 million years of the North American tectonic plate pushing material up as it overrides the Pacific plate, then the material being worn down by glaciers.
The highest mountains of the range include:
The Sierra Nevada (/siˈɛrə nɨˈvɑːdə/ or /nɨˈvædə/, Spanish: [ˈsjera neˈβaða], snowy mountain range) is a mountain range in the U.S. states of California and Nevada, between the California Central Valley and the Basin and Range Province. The Sierra runs 400 miles (640 km) north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles (110 km) across east-to-west. Notable Sierra features include Lake Tahoe, the largest alpine lake in North America; Mount Whitney at 14,505 ft (4,421 m), the highest point in the contiguous United States; and Yosemite Valley sculpted by glaciers out of 100-million-year-old granite. The Sierra is home to three national parks, 20 wilderness areas, and two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite, Sequoia, Kings Canyon National Parks, and Devils Postpile National Monument.
The character of the range is shaped by its geology and ecology. More than 100 Ma (million years ago), granite formed deep underground. The range started to uplift 4 Ma, and erosion by glaciers exposed the granite and formed the light-colored mountains and cliffs that make up the range. The uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the
The Zagros Mountains (Persian: رشته كوه زاگرس, Aramaic: ܛܘܪ ܙܪܓܣ, Kurdish: زنجیرهچیاکانی زاگرۆس, Lurish: کو یه لی زاگروس,Arabic: جبال زغروس ) are the largest mountain range in Iran and Iraq. With a total length of 1,500 km (932 mi), from northwestern Iran, and roughly correlating with Iran's western border, the Zagros range spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau and ends at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest points in the Zagros Mountains are Zard Kuh-bakhtiari and Dena. The Hazaran massif in the Kerman province of Iran forms an eastern outlier of the range, the Jebal Barez reaching into Sistan.
The Zagros fold and thrust belt was formed by collision of two tectonic plates — the Eurasian and Arabian Plates. Recent GPS measurements in Iran have shown that this collision is still active and the resulting deformation is distributed non-uniformly in the country, mainly taken up in the major mountain belts like Alborz and Zagros. A relatively dense GPS network which covered the Zagros in the Iranian part also proves a high rate of deformation within the Zagros. The GPS results show that the current rate of shortening in SE Zagros is ~10 mm/yr and
The Karakoram, or Karakorum (simplified Chinese: 喀喇昆仑山脉; traditional Chinese: 喀喇崑崙山脈; pinyin: Kālǎkūnlún Shānmài; Hindi: काराकोरम, Kārākōrama; Urdu: سلسلہ کوہ قراقرم), is a large mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, India and China, located in the regions of Gilgit–Baltistan (Pakistan), Ladakh (India), and Xinjiang region, (China). It is one of the Greater Ranges of Asia, a part of the greater Himalaya while north of the actual Himalaya Range.
The Karakoram is home to the highest concentration of peaks over 8000m in height to be found anywhere on earth, including K2, the second highest peak of the world (8,611 m/28,251 ft). K2 is just 237 m (778 ft) lower than the 8,848 m (29,029 ft) tall Mount Everest.
The range is about 500 km (311 mi) in length, and is the most heavily glaciated part of the world outside the polar regions. The Siachen Glacier at 70 km and the Biafo Glacier at 63 km rank as the world's second and third longest glaciers outside the polar regions.
The Karakoram is bounded on the northeast by the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and on the north by the Pamir Mountains. The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed, west to east, by the Gilgit, Indus,
The Mosquito Range (elevation approximately 14,000 ft) is a high mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado in the United States. The peaks of the range form a ridge running north-south for approximately 40 miles (64 km) from southern Summit County on the north end, then along the boundary between Lake and Park counties. The ranges forms a high barrier separating the headwaters of the Arkansas River near Leadville from South Park and the headwaters of the South Platte River near Fairplay. The highest peak in the range in Mount Lincoln at an elevation of 14,286 ft. Other fourteeners in the range are Mount Bross (14,172 ft), Mount Democrat (14,148 ft), and Mount Sherman (14,036 ft).
The mountains are faulted anticlines formed as part of the Sawatch Uplift during the Laramide orogeny approximately 65 MYA. The mountains were originally contiguous with the higher Sawatch Range to the west but were separated during the formation of the rift valley at the headwaters of the Arkansas River approximately 35 MYA. The range is primarily of granite. The eastern flank of the range along the rim of South Park overlain by Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The northern end of
Crowsnest Range is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Alberta and southeastern British Columbia, Canada.
The range is located south of the Crowsnest Pass, which separates it from the High Rock Range. It is part of the Southern Continental Ranges of the Canadian Rockies. Sub-ranges include, from north to south, Lizard Range, Taylor Range, Flathead Range and Blairmore Range.
The Crowsnest Range covers a surface of 2,694 km² (1,040 mi²), has a length of 64 km (from north to south) and a width of 104 km (65 mi). The highest peak is Mount Ptolemy, with an elevation of 2,812 m (9,226 ft).
The Southern Carpathians or the Transylvanian Alps (Romanian: Carpații Meridionali, Serbian: Južni Karpati, German: Transsilvanischen Alpen, Hungarian: Déli-Kárpátok) are a group of mountain ranges which divide central and southern Romania, on one side, and Serbia, on the other side. They cover part of the Carpathian Mountains that is located between the Prahova River in the east and the Timiș and Cerna Rivers in the west. To the south they are bounded by the Balkan mountain range in Serbia.
The Southern Carpathian group are the second highest group of mountains in the Carpathian Mountain range (after Tatra), reaching heights of over 2,500m. Although considerably smaller than the Alps, they are classified as having an alpine landscape. Their high mountain character, combined with great accessibility, makes them popular with tourist and scientists.
The highest peaks are:
In spite of the heights, some of the most accessible passings in the Carpathians in Romania are along the rivers who cross the mountain range (the Olt River) or who form wide valleys (along the Prahova River Valley or along the Jiu River Valley).
The South Carpathians represent an intricate pile of tectonic nappes,
The Uinta Mountains ( /juːˈɪntə/) are an east-west trending chain of mountains in northeastern Utah extendly slightly into southern Wyoming in the United States. As a subrange of the Rocky Mountains, they are unusual for being the highest range in the contiguous United States running east to west, and lie approximately 100 miles (160 km) east of Salt Lake City. The range has peaks ranging from 11,000–13,528 feet (3,400–4,123 m), with the highest point being Kings Peak, also the highest point in Utah. The Mirror Lake Highway crosses the western half of the Uintas on its way to Wyoming.
The Uinta Mountains are Laramide uplifted metasedimentary rocks deposited in an intracratonic basin in southwest Laurentia during the time of the break up of the supercontinent Rodinia. The marine and fluvial metasedimentary rocks in the core of the Uinta Mountains are of Neoproterozoic age (between about 700 million and 800 million years old) and consist primarily of quartzite, slate, and shale. These rocks comprise the Uinta Mountain Group, and reach thicknesses of 4 to 7.3 kilometres (13,000 to 24,000 ft). Most of the high peaks are outcrops of the Uinta Mountain Group. Many of the peaks are ringed
The Cairngorms are a mountain range in the eastern Highlands of Scotland closely associated with the mountain of the same name - Cairn Gorm.
Usually referred to as The Cairngorms - this 'modern' use of Cairn Gorm to represent the whole range is potentially misleading - Watson (1975) refers to it as a nickname explaining that the range's former name is Am Monadh Ruadh - the red hills distinguishing them from Am Monadh Liath - the grey hills to the west of the River Spey.
Ironically - naming the range after Cairn Gorm creates a contradiction since Cairn Gorm means Blue Cairn - taking that literally would make the red hills the blue hills changing the old name entirely. This irony appears to have been missed by many for both names were used in the naming of the National Park that incorporates the range. Its official English name, Cairngorms National Park, translates into Gaelic as the Blue Hills National Park, with its Gaelic strap-line, Pairc Naiseanta a Mhonaidh Ruaidh, translating into English as the Red Hills National Park.
In Alexander (1928) the author refers to Colonel T. Thornton visiting the area about 1786, and his book Sporting Tour published in 1804 in which he refers to
The Selkirk Mountains are a mountain range spanning the northern portion of the Idaho Panhandle, eastern Washington, and southeastern British Columbia. They begin at Mica Peak near Coeur d'Alene, Idaho and extend approximately 320 km north (200 miles) from the border. The range is bounded on its west, northeast and at its northern extremity by the Columbia River. From the Columbia's confluence with the Beaver River, they are bounded on their east by the Purcell Trench, which contains the Beaver River, Duncan River, Duncan Lake, Kootenay Lake and the Kootenay River. The Selkirks are distinct from, and geologically older than, the Rocky Mountains. Together with the neighbouring Monashee and Purcell Mountains, and sometimes including the Cariboo Mountains to the northwest, the Selkirks are part of a larger grouping known as the Columbia Mountains. A scenic highway loop, the International Selkirk Loop, encircles the southern portions of the mountain range.
The Selkirks were named after Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk.
In 1857 gold was discovered in the Selkirks. Coal, Copper, marble, Mercury, Silver, and Zinc were also found in the mountains. During the development of Western
The Queen Maud Mountains are a major group of mountains, ranges and subordinate features of the Transantarctic Mountains, lying between the Beardmore and Reedy Glaciers and including the area from the head of the Ross Ice Shelf to the polar plateau in Antarctica. Captain Roald Amundsen and his South Pole party ascended Axel Heiberg Glacier near the central part of this group in November 1911, naming these mountains for Queen Maud of Norway.
Elevations bordering the Beardmore Glacier, at the western extremity of these mountains, were observed by the British expeditions led by Ernest Shackleton (1907-09) and Robert Falcon Scott (1910-13), but the mountains as a whole were mapped by several American expeditions led by Richard Evelyn Byrd (1930s and 1940s), and United States Antarctic Program (USARP) and New Zealand Antarctic Research Program (NZARP) expeditions from the 1950s through the 1970s.
The Queen Maud Mountains is divided into the following ranges:
The Arrochar Alps are a group of mountains located around the head of Loch Long, Loch Fyne,and Loch Goil, near the villages of Arrochar and Lochgoilhead in Argyll, Scotland. The mountains are especially popular with hillwalkers, due to their proximity and accessibility from Glasgow. They are largely within the Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park and in part also extend into the Argyll Forest Park. Glens which go into the heart of the range include: Glen Croe, Hells Glen and Glen Kinglass.
The list below includes the Munros, Munro Tops, Corbetts, Corbett Tops and Grahams.
The Low Tatras or Low Tatra (Slovak: Nízke Tatry; Hungarian: Alacsony Tátra) is a mountain range of the Inner Western Carpathians in central Slovakia.
It is located south of the Tatras proper, from which it is separated by the valleys of the Váh and Poprad rivers (the Liptov-Spiš abasement). The valley formed by the Hron River is situated south of the Low Tatras range. The ridge runs west-eastwards and is about 80 km long.
The Čertovica pass divides the range into two parts. The highest peaks of the Low Tatras are located in its western part. Ďumbier is the highest mountain at 2,042 m AMSL. Its neighbour Chopok (2,024 m) is accessible by a chairlift, and it is the most visited place in the Low Tatras. Other peaks in the western part include Dereše (2,004 m) and Chabenec (1,955 m). The highest peak in the eastern part is Kráľova hoľa (1,946 m). The best viewpoints in western part are Veľká Chochuľa, Salatín, Chabenec, Skalka, Chopok, Ďumbier, Siná, Poludnica and Baba.
Several karst areas are situated in limestone and dolomite formations at the southern and northern edges of the main ridge, which is composed of granite and gneiss. Among many discovered caves, Bystrianska Cave
The St. Francois Mountains in southeast Missouri are a range of Precambrian igneous mountains rising over the Ozark Plateau. This range is one of the oldest exposures of igneous rock in North America. The name of the range is spelled out as Saint Francois Mountains in official GNIS sources, but it is sometimes misspelled in use as St. Francis Mountains to match the anglicized pronunciation of both the range and St. Francois County.
The name of the range derives from the St. Francis River, which originates in the St. Francois Mountains. The origin of the river's name, which also was originally spelled "Francois" in the French manner, is unclear. The area, as part of the Louisiana district of New France, is near some of the earliest French settlements in Missouri where many French place names survive. Some source conjecture that the name honors St. Francis of Assisi, the patron saint of the Franciscan order, but none of the region's early explorers were Franciscans. Others propose that Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit, named the river when he explored its mouth in present-day Arkansas in 1673. Before his voyage down the Mississippi Marquette had spent some time at the mission of
The Tenmile Range is a mountain range in U.S. state of Colorado. The range is an extension of the Mosquito Range which is part of the Rocky Mountains. The two ranges are effectively the same range. They are split only by the Continental Divide and name. The Tenmile Range is on the west side of the divide, and the Mosquito on the east. The range is often referred to as the Tenmile-Mosquito Range.
There are more than a dozen peaks in the range. Tenmile Peak is the northernmost peak followed by the numbered peaks, Peak 1 through Peak 10. Quandary Peak is the southernmost peak and highest point in the Range, elevation 14,265 feet.
The range is famous for its skiing, both backcountry and resort areas. Breckenridge Ski Resort is in the range.
The Tenmile Range includes Pacific Tarn, believed to be the highest named lake in the United States.
Krkonoše [ˈkr̩konoʃɛ] ( listen) (Polish: Karkonosze [karkɔˈnɔʂɛ]; German: Riesengebirge; English, sometimes: Giant Mountains, Silesian German: Riesageberge) is a mountain range located in the north of the Czech Republic and the south-west of Poland, part of the Sudetes mountain system (part of the Bohemian Massif). The Czech-Polish border, which divides the historic regions of Bohemia and Silesia, runs along the main ridge. The highest peak, Sněžka (Polish: Śnieżka, German: Schneekoppe), is the Czech Republic's highest point with an elevation of 1,602 metres (5,256 ft).
On both sides of the border, large areas of the mountains are designated national parks (the Krkonoše National Park in the Czech Republic and the Karkonosze National Park in Poland), and these together constitute a cross-border biosphere reserve under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The River Elbe rises within the Krkonoše. The range has a number of major ski resorts, and is a popular destination for tourists engaging in downhill and cross-country skiing, hiking, cycling and other activities.
The Czech writer Bohuslav Balbín recorded in 1679, that the mountains are known under various names: Krkonoše
The Garibaldi Ranges are the next-to-southwesternmost subdivision of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains; only the North Shore Mountains are farther south. They lie between the valley formed by the pass between the Cheakamus River and Green River on the west and the valley of the Lillooet River on the east, and extend south into the eastern suburbs of Vancouver. To their south are the North Shore Mountains overlooking Vancouver while to their southeast are the Douglas Ranges.
They take their name indirectly from Mount Garibaldi on the western side of the range, which is the namesake of Garibaldi Provincial Park. Their southern end between the upper Stave River and Pitt Lake is north of the municipality of Maple Ridge, and forms Golden Ears Provincial Park (which was originally part of Garibaldi Park).
Their most famous mountain, the Black Tusk is not among the highest in the range; it is a volcanic plug on the meadow-ridge between Garibaldi and Cheakamus Lakes, just south of the resort of Whistler, British Columbia. The highest peak in the range is just north of the resort, Wedge Mountain 2892 m (9488 ft) aka Wedgemont and "The Wedge".
The northern part of the range,
Akademiya Nauk Range (Russian: Хребет Академии Наук, Tajik: Qatorkuhi Akademiyai Fanho) is a mountain range in the Western Pamirs of Tajikistan. It is stretched in the meridianal direction and considered to be the core of the Pamir mountain system.
The highest peak of the range is the Ismoil Somoni Peak. It was also the highest peak in the former Soviet Union. The length of the Akademiya Nauk Range is about 110 km. The crest of the range has an Alpine-like relief with 24 summits more than 6,000 m in height. The lowest saddle point, Kamaloyak (Камалояк), is at the altitude of 4,340 m (14,240 ft).
The range is formed with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the Paleozoic Era and partially granites. It is covered with permanent snow, which feeds a large number of big glaciers. The total area of the glacial ice is around 1,500 km².
The Akademiya Nauk Range was discovered by Russian geographer and Pamir explorer Nikolai Korzhenevskiy and named after the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1927.
The Chisos Mountains are a mountain range located in the Big Bend area of West Texas, USA. The mountain range is contained entirely within the boundaries of Big Bend National Park. This is the only mountain range in the United States to be fully contained within the boundary of a National Park. It is also the southernmost mountain range in the United States.
The highest point in the Chisos Mountain range is Emory Peak at 7825' (2,385 m) above sea level.
The Chisos Mountains are located in Big Bend National Park. The range of mountains extends twenty miles from Punta de la Sierra in the southwest to Panther Junction in the northeast. There are two routes to access the Chisos Basin Visitor Center, campground, general store, and the Chisos Mountain Lodge. (1)Take US HWY 385 S to Panther Junction turn right on Texas State Rt. 118; travel on TX SR 118 for about 3 miles then turn left on Green Gulch. (2) Take Texas State Rt 118 S to Green Gulch and turn right. An extensive trail system and permit required backcountry campsites are maintained by Big Bend National Park for its visitors. Some trails and campsites are closed from January through April to protect nesting sites of indigenous
The Ramapo Mountains are a forested chain of the Appalachian mountains in northeastern New Jersey and southeastern New York in the United States. They range in height from 900 ft to 1,200 feet (270–370 meters).
A number of parks and forest preserves encompass parts of the Ramapos, including Harriman State Park, the Ramapo Valley County Reservation, Ramapo Mountain State Forest, and Bear Mountain State Park. There are many hiking trails, including sections of the Appalachian Trail.
The Hindu Kush (Pashto/Persian/Urdu: ھندوکُش), also known as Pāriyātra Parvata (Sanskrit: पारियात्र पर्वत) or Paropamisadae (Greek: Παροπαμισάδαι), is an 800 km (500 mi) long mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir (7,708 m or 25,289 ft) in Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The origins of the name "Hindu Kush" are uncertain, with multiple theories being propounded by different scholars and writers. Hindu Kūh (ھندوکوه) and Kūh-e Hind (کوهِ ھند) are usually applied to the entire range separating the basins of the Kabul and Helmand rivers from that of the Amu River (ancient Oxus) or more specifically to that part of the range, northwest of the Afghan capital Kabul. Sanskrit documents refer to the Hindu Kush as Pāriyātra Parvata (पारियात्र पर्वत).
The mountain range was called "Paropamisadae" by Greeks in the late first millennium BC. In the time of Alexander the Great, they were further referred to as the Caucasus Indicus or "Indian Caucasus" (as opposed to the Iberian Caucasus range), which past authors have additionally considered as a possible derivation of the name "Hindu
The Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Spanish for "Blood of Christ") are the southernmost subrange of the Rocky Mountains. They are located in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico in the United States. The mountains run from Poncha Pass in South-Central Colorado, trending southeast and south, ending at Glorieta Pass, southeast of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The mountains contain a number of fourteen thousand foot peaks in the Colorado portion, as well as all the peaks in New Mexico which are over thirteen thousand feet.
The name, Spanish for "blood of Christ", is said to come from the red color of the range at some sunrises and sunsets, especially when the mountains are covered with snow, alpenglow. However the particular origin of the name is unclear, and the name in fact only dates back to the early 19th century. Before that time the terms "La Sierra Nevada", "La Sierra Madre", "La Sierra", and "The Snowies" (used by English speakers) were used. Sometimes the archaic Spanish spelling "Christo" is used.
Much of the mountains are within various National Forests: the Rio Grande and San Isabel in Colorado, and the Carson and Santa Fe in New Mexico. These publicly accessible areas are
The Tux Alps (German: Tuxer Alpen) or Tux Prealps (Tuxer Voralpen) are a sub-group of the Austrian Central Alps, which in turn form part of the Eastern Alps within Central Europe. They are located entirely within the Austrian federal state of Tyrol. The Tux Alps are one of three mountain ranges that form an Alpine backdrop to the city of Innsbruck. Their highest peak is the Lizumer Reckner, 2,886 m AA, which rises between the glen of Wattentaler Lizum and the valley of the Navisbach. Their name is derived from the village of Tux which is tucked away in a side valley of the Zillertal.
The Alpine Club classification of the Eastern Alps (AVE) calls this range the Tux Alps. The name Tux Prealps was declared in the 1984 edition of the AVE as outdated and not longer applicable. The reality is that the mountain range can hardly be described as "prealps" in view of their sheer extent and height. The description only makes any sense when the range is seen in the context of the Zillertal Alps to the south, which are considerably higher than the Tux Alps and permanently covered in glaciers.
The Tux Alps are surrounded by the following other ranges in the Alps:
To the north the lower Inn
The White Pine Range is a group of mountains in southern White Pine County, in eastern Nevada. The range runs for approximately 51 miles (82 km) from Beck Pass in the north to Currant Pass in the south. To the west of the range are the Duckwater (Shoshone) tribal lands and the northern arm of large Railroad Valley. To the east are Jakes Valley and the northern part of the long White River Valley. To the south are the Horse and Grant Ranges.
U.S. Route 50, the "Loneliest Highway in America", crosses the range near its northern end at Little Antelope Summit (7433 ft, 2265 m). At the southern edge of the range Highway 6, which may be even lonelier, crosses at Currant Summit (6999 ft, 2133 m). The southern edge of the range extends into northeastern Nye County.
The historic mining area of Hamilton lies just south of Highway 50, and includes Mt. Hamilton (10,745 ft, 3275 m). The southern portion of the range rises to a thin limestone ridge, including Currant Mountain (11,513 ft, 3509 m), the high point of the range. Nearby are Duckwater Peak (11,188 ft, 3410 m) and White Pine Peak (10,182 ft, 3103 m). This high section of the range is protected as the Currant Mountain Wilderness Area,
The Glarus Alps are a mountain range in central Switzerland. They extend from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass, and are bordered by the Urner Alps to the west, the Lepontine Alps to the south and the Appenzell Alps to the northeast. The eastern part of the Glarus Alps contains a major thrust fault which was declared a geologic UNESCO world heritage site (the Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona).
The main chain of the Glarus Alps can be divided into six minor groups, separated from each other by passes, the lowest of which exceeds 7,500 ft. The westernmost of these is the Crispalt, a rugged range including many peaks of nearly equal height. The highest of these are the Piz Giuv (3,096 m) and Piz Nair. The name Crispalt is given to a southern, but secondary, peak of Piz Giuv, measuring 3,070 m. West of the main group is the Rienzenstock, while a northern outlyer culminates in the Bristen. East of the Crispalt, the Kreuzli or Chrüxli Pass separates this from the rather higher mass of the Oberalpstock (3,328 m).
Here occurs a partial break in the continuity of the chain. The crest of the snowy range connecting the Oberalpstock with the Tödi nowhere sinks to 9,000 feet, but makes a sweep
This article focuses on the part of the Alps and Pré-Alps that is located in North-Eastern Switzerland. This region is bordered by: Lake Lucerne in the south-west; the Klausen Pass, upper Linth valley and Lake Walen in the south; the Rhine valley in the east; Lake Constance in the north.
The chief peaks of the Swiss (Pre-)Alps, north of the Klausen Pass, are:
The chief passes of the Swiss Alps, north of the Klausen Pass, are:
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
The North Cascades are a section of the Cascade Range of western North America. They span the border between the Canadian province of British Columbia and the U.S. state of Washington and are officially named in Canada as the Cascade Mountains. They are predominantly non-volcanic, but include the stratovolcanoes Mount Baker, Glacier Peak and Coquihalla Mountain, which are part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. The portion in Canada is known as the Canadian Cascades, a designation that also includes the mountains above the east bank of the Fraser Canyon as far north as the town of Lytton, at the confluence of the Thompson and Fraser Rivers.
The US portion of the North Cascades and the adjoining Skagit Range in British Columbia are most notable for their dramatic scenery and challenging mountaineering, both resulting from their steep, rugged topography. While most of the peaks are under 10,000 feet (3,000 m) in elevation, the low valleys provide great local relief, often over 6,000 feet (1,800 m). The summits of the rest of the Canadian Cascades are not glaciated in the same way and feature rock "horns" rising from plateau-like uplands, with the Manning Park and Cathedral Park areas known
The Grampian Mountains or Grampians (Am Monadh in Gaelic) are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland, occupying a considerable portion of the Scottish Highlands in northeast Scotland.
There is probably more confusion about the extent of The Grampians than any other mountain range in Scotland. The reasons for this can be partially explained by the fact that the name Grampian was used by the local independent television station Grampian Television, as well as being used to designate a large area of the north-east of Scotland following the Regionalisation of Scotland in 1975. Largely for those reasons – at least in the minds of people from outside the area – the name of the mountain-range has become synonymous with the area served by Grampian Television, and that administered by the former Grampian Region.
Map makers too - being outsiders - have often added to this confusion by stretching the name across large sections of eastern Scotland. Local writers however, such as Wyness (1968) and Watson (1975) – for example, suffer no such confusion. In the introduction of Wyness (1968) the author, writing about Deeside, puts the northern-edge of the Grampians at the River Dee when
Sierra Maestra is a mountain range that runs westward across the south of the old Oriente Province from what is now Guantánamo Province to Niquero in southeast Cuba, rising abruptly from the coast. Some view it as a series of connecting ranges (Vela, Santa Catalina, Quemado Grande, Daña Mariana), which joins with others extending to the west. The Sierra Maestra is the highest system of Cuba. It is rich in minerals, especially copper, manganese, chromium, and iron. At 6,650 ft (1,999 m), Pico Turquino is the range's highest point.
Cuba rides on a separate tectonic plate, which originally was in the Pacific Ocean but (after crossing between the then separated Americas) crashed into Florida. This along with several other violent events (including volcanic activity, the crash of the comet Chicxulub, and earthquakes the Sierra Maestra is immediately north of the Bartlett Deep, or Cayman Trench on the main Caribbean Plate) fractured huge slabs of rocks. Enormous tsunamis presumably from the volcanoes on the Canary Islands carved great steps on the coast. All this caused emergence of these mountains in a complex process that included lifting up of now cave-ridden calcareous deposits,
The Wasatch Range ( /ˈwɑːsætʃ/) is a mountain range that stretches approximately 160 miles (260 km) from the Utah-Idaho border, south through central Utah in the western United States. It is generally considered the western edge of the greater Rocky Mountains, and the eastern edge of the Great Basin region. The northern extension of the Wasatch Range, the Bear River Mountains, extends just into Idaho, constituting all of the Wasatch Range in that state.
According to the Utah History Encyclopedia, Wasatch in Ute means "mountain pass" or "low pass over high range."
Since the earliest days of settlement, the majority of Utah's population has chosen to settle along the range's western front, where numerous river drainages exit the mountains. The mountains were a vital source of water, timber, and granite for early settlers. Today, 85% of Utah's population lives within 15 miles (24 km) of the Wasatch Range, mainly in the valleys just to the west. This concentration is known as the Wasatch Front and has a population of just over 2,000,000 residents. Salt Lake City lies between the Wasatch Range and the Great Salt Lake.
At 11,928 feet (3,636 m), Mount Nebo, a triple peak rising above
The Adirondack Mountains are an unusual geological formation located in the northeastern lobe of Upstate New York in the United States. The mountains rise in Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Saratoga, Warren, and Washington counties.
Unlike other mountain ranges that run along fault lines, the Adirondack mountains resemble a dome. They were formed by an uplift deep under the Earth's crust,about a billion years ago. They bear a geologic similarity to the Laurentian Mountains of Canada. They are bordered on the east by Lake Champlain and Lake George, which separate them from the Green Mountains in Vermont. They are bordered to the south by the Mohawk Valley, and to the west by the Tug Hill Plateau, separated by the Black River. This region is south of the Saint Lawrence River.
The Adirondack Mountains are contained within the 6.1 million acres (2.5×10^ ha) of the Adirondack Park, which includes a constitutionally protected Forest Preserve of approximately 2,300,000 acres (930,000 ha). About 43% of the land is owned by the state, with 57% private inholdings, heavily regulated by the Adirondack Park Agency. The Adirondack Park contains
The Hamersley Ranges is a mountainous region of the Pilbara, Western Australia. The range runs from the Fortescue River in the northeast, 460 km south. The range contains Western Australia's highest point, Mount Meharry, which reaches approximately 1,249 metres (4,098 ft) AHD. There are many extensively-eroded gorges, such as Wittenoom Gorge. The twenty highest peaks in Western Australia are in the Hamersley Range. Geologically, they are some of the most ancient regions of the earth's crust known as the Pilbara craton.
Some of the Peaks found in the range include Mount Bruce (1,234 metres (4,049 ft)), Mount Nameless (1,115 metres (3,658 ft)), Mount Reeder Nichols (1,109 metres (3,638 ft)), Mount Samson (1,107 metres (3,632 ft)), Mount Truchanas (1,148 metres (3,766 ft)) and Mount Tom Price (775 metres (2,543 ft)).
Karijini National Park (formerly Hamersley National Park), one of Australia's largest National Parks, is centred in the range.
The range contains large deposits of iron ore, the source of a large proportion of Australia's iron ore. It is predominately in the Banded Iron Formation (BIF) - also known as the Brockman iron formation
Western Australia's major iron producers
The Sentinel Range is a major mountain range situated northward of Minnesota Glacier and forming the northern half of the Ellsworth Mountains in Antarctica. The range trends NNW-SSE for about 185 km (115 mi) and is 24 to 48 km (15 to 30 mi) wide. Many peaks rise over 4,000 m (13,100 ft) and Vinson Massif (4892 m) in the southern part of the range is the highest elevation on the continent.
The range was first sighted and photographed from the air on November 23, 1935, by Lincoln Ellsworth who in naming it recognised its prominent position as a landmark on an otherwise featureless ice surface. The range was first visited and partially surveyed in January 1958 by the Marie Byrd Land Traverse party, led by Charles R. Bentley. The entire range was mapped by USGS from aerial photography taken by U.S. Navy, 1958-61.
Mount Alf is a mountain rising over 3,200 m between Mount Sharp and Mount Dalrymple in the north part of the Sentinel Range. Mapped by the Marie Byrd Land Traverse party, 1957-58. Named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Edward A. Alf, meteorologist, member of the 1957 wintering party at Byrd Station.
Mount Atkinson is a prominent mountain 3.5 miles
The Sir Winston Churchill Range is a mountain range in the Park Ranges of the Canadian Rockies located in Jasper National Park. The range was named after Sir Winston Churchill, former British prime minister.
The eastern boundary of the range begins on the western side of Sunwapta River from the Jasper and Banff boundary and extends north to Sunwapta Falls. The western boundary of the range is defined by the Athabasca River valley to the east of Warwick Mountain. The valley narrows as it approaches the Continental Divide, and separates Mt. Columbia from Mt. King Edward, the latter of which is not part of the range.
This range includes the following mountains and peaks:
The Brecon Beacons (Welsh: Bannau Brycheiniog) is a mountain range in South Wales. In a narrow sense, the name refers to the range of Old Red Sandstone peaks popular with walkers which lie to the south of Brecon. Sometimes referred to as the 'central Beacons' they include South Wales' highest mountain, Pen y Fan. The range forms the central section of the Brecon Beacons National Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Bannau Brycheiniog), a designation which also encompasses ranges both to the east and the west of the central Beacons. This much wider area is also commonly referred to as 'the Brecon Beacons'.
The Brecon Beacons range, in its narrower sense comprises six main peaks: from west to east these are: Corn Du (873 m or 2864 feet), Pen y Fan, the highest peak (886 m or 2907 feet), Cribyn (795 m or 2608 feet), Fan y Big (719 m or 2359 feet), Bwlch y Ddwyallt (754 m or 2474 ft) and Waun Rydd (769 m or 2523 ft). These summits form a long ridge, and the sections joining the first four form a horseshoe shape around the head of the Taf Fechan river, which flows away to the south-east. To the northeast of the ridge, interspersed with long parallel spurs, are four round-headed valleys or cwms; from
The Central Eastern Alps (German: Österreichische Zentralalpen, Austrian Central Alps) comprise the main chain of the Eastern Alps with its highest peaks, located between the Northern Limestone Alps and the Southern Limestone Alps, from which they differ in geological composition.
Mainly located in Austria, they extend from the foot of the Bergamo Alps at Lake Como and the Bernina Range in the Graubünden canton of eastern Switzerland along the Liechtenstein shore of the Rhine in the west as far as to the lower promontories east of the Mur river including the Hochwechsel in Austrian Styria. The valleys of the rivers Inn, Salzach and Enns mark the northern, the Drava (roughly corresponding with the Periadriatic Seam) the southern border.
Ranges according to the Alpine Club classification of the Eastern Alps (from east to west):
The southwestern Albula, Plessur, Oberhalbstein, Livigno, Bernina and Bergamo ranges (17-22) are also subsumed under the Western Limestone Alps division.
Ranges according to the International Standardized Mountain Subdivision of the Alps (from west to east):
The West Coast Range (42°05′S 145°36′E / 42.083°S 145.6°E / -42.083; 145.6) of Tasmania is a group of mountains in the West Coast area of Tasmania in Australia that lies to the west of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park
The range has had a significant number of mines utilising the geologically rich zone of Mount Read Volcanics. A number of adjacent ranges lie to the east: the Engineer Range, the Raglan Range, the Eldon Range, and the Sticht Range but in most cases these are on a west–east alignment, while the West Coast Range runs in a north–south direction, following the Mount Read volcanic arc.
The range has encompassed multiple land uses including the catchment area for Hydro Tasmania dams, mines, transport routes and historical sites. Of the communities that have existed actually in the range itself, Gormanston, is probably the last to remain.
These are determined by a number of factors - the southerly direction of glaciation in the King River Valley and around the Tyndalls As well as the general north -south orientation of the West Coast Range itself.
Including 'Ranges' within the West Coast Range with no specifically named peak - also including subsidiary
The Mourne Mountains /ˈmɔərn/MOHRN, also called the Mournes or Mountains of Mourne, are a granite mountain range in County Down in the south-east of Northern Ireland. It includes the highest mountains in Northern Ireland and the province of Ulster. The highest of these is Slieve Donard at 850 metres (2,790 ft). The Mournes is an area of outstanding natural beauty and has been proposed as the first national park in Northern Ireland. The area is partly owned by the National Trust and sees a large number of visitors every year. The name Mourne (historically spelt Morne) is derived from the name of a Gaelic clann or sept called the Múghdhorna.
The Mournes are visited by many tourists, hillwalkers, cyclists and rock climbers. Following a fundraising drive in 1993, the National Trust purchased nearly 1,300 acres (5.3 km) of land in the Mournes. This included a part of Slieve Donard and nearby Slieve Commedagh, at 767 metres (2,516 ft) the second-highest mountain in the area.
The Mourne Wall is among the more famous features in the Mournes. It is a 35 kilometres (22 mi) dry-stone wall that crosses fifteen summits, constructed to define the boundaries of the 36 square kilometres (8,900
The Admiralty Mountains (alternatively Admiralty Range) is a large group of high mountains and individually-named ranges and ridges in northeastern Victoria Land of Antarctica. This mountain group is bounded by the Ross Sea, the Southern Ocean, and by the Dennistoun, Ebbe, and Tucker glaciers.
Discovered in January 1841 by Captain James Ross who named them for the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty under whose orders he served.
The Admiralty Mountains is divided into the Dunedin Range, Homerun Range, and Lyttelton Range.
This range includes the following mountains and peaks:
Mount Achilles is a prominent pyramidal mountain rising from the divide between Fitch Glacier and Man-o-War Glacier. Named by New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (NZGSAE), 1957–58, after the former New Zealand cruiser HMNZS Achilles.
Mount Adam is situated 4 km (2.5 mi) WNW of Mount Minto. Discovered in January 1841 by Captain Ross who named this feature for Vice Admiral Sir Charles Adam, a senior naval lord of the Admiralty.
Mount Ajax rises 1.5 km (1 mi) WSW of Mount Royalist. Named by the New Zealand GSAE, 1957–58, after HMNZS Ajax. The mountain is one of several in this area named for New
The Central America Volcanic Arc (often abbreviated to CAVA) is a chain of volcanoes which extends parallel to the Pacific coast line of the Central American Isthmus, from Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and down to northern Panama. This volcanic arc, which has a length of 1500 km, is formed by an active subduction zone along the western boundary of the Caribbean Plate.
The Central America Volcanic Arc includes hundreds of volcanic formations, ranging from major stratovolcanoes, to lava domes and cinder cones. Some of these have produced large explosive eruptions, like the colossal VEI 6 eruption of the Santa Maria volcano in 1902. Central America's highest volcanoes are found in Guatemala and include the Tajumulco and Tacaná, both above 4,000 meters. Several volcanoes in Central America are currently active, including Arenal, Turrialba, Irazú, Poás in Costa Rica; Cerro Negro, San Cristóbal, Concepción in Nicaragua; San Miguel, Santa Ana, Izalco in El Salvador; Santa Maria/Santiaguito, Pacaya, Fuego in Guatemala.
The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides form a mountain chain in Southern Europe, spanning areas of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Albania and Montenegro.
They extend for 645 kilometres (401 mi) along the coast of the Adriatic Sea (northwest-southeast), from the Julian Alps in the northwest down to the Šar-Korab massif, where the mountain direction changes to north-south. The highest mountain of the Dinaric Alps is Mount Prokletije, located on the border of eastern Montenegro and northern Albania, with the peak called "Lake Crest" at 2,692 metres (8,832 ft).
The Dinaric Alps are the fifth most rugged and extensively mountainous area of Europe after the Caucasus Mountains, Alps, Pyrenees and Scandinavian Mountains. They are formed largely of secondary and tertiary sedimentary rocks of dolomite, limestone, sand and conglomerates formed by seas and lakes that had once covered the area.
During the Alpine earth movements that occurred 50–100 million years ago, immense lateral pressures folded and overthrust the rocks in a great arc around the old rigid block of the northeast. The Dinaric Alps were thrown up in more or less parallel ranges, stretching like necklaces from the
High Tatras or High Tatra (Slovak and Czech: Vysoké Tatry, Polish: Tatry Wysokie) are a mountain range on the borders between Slovakia and Poland. They are a part of the Tatra Mountains. The High Tatras, with their 17 peaks over 2500 m AMSL, are, together with the Southern Carpathians, the only mountain ranges with an alpine character in the whole 1200 km length of the Carpathian Mountains.
The mountain range borders Belianske Tatras to the east, Podtatranská kotlina to the south and Western Tatras to the west. The major part and all the highest peaks of the mountains are situated in Slovakia. The highest peak is Gerlachovský štít at 2,655 m. Many rare and endemic animals and plant species are native to the High Tatras. Large predators, such as the bear, Eurasian lynx, marten, wolf and fox live there.
The area is well known for winter sports. Ski resorts include Štrbské pleso, Starý Smokovec and Tatranská Lomnica in Slovakia and Zakopane in Poland. The town of Poprad is the gateway to the Slovak Tatra resorts.
The first European cross-border national park was founded here—Tatra National Park—Tatranský národný park in Slovakia in 1948 and Tatrzański Park Narodowy in Poland in 1954.
The Jura Mountains (French pronunciation: [ʒyʁa]) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the western Alps, separating the Rhine and Rhone rivers and forming part of the watershed of each. The range is predominantly located in France and Switzerland, extending into Germany.
The name "Jura" is derived from juria, a Latinized form of a Celtic stem jor- "forest". The mountain range gives its name to the French department of Jura, the Swiss Canton of Jura, and the Jurassic period of the geologic timescale.
The Jura Mountains are a distinct physiographic province of the larger Central European uplands.
In France, the Jura covers most of the Franche-Comté region, stretching south into in the Rhône-Alpes region. The range reaches its highest point at Le Crêt de la Neige in the departments of Ain and finds its southern terminus in the northwestern part of the department of Savoie. The north end of the Jura extends into the southern tip of the Alsace region. Roughly 1,600 square kilometers of the mountain range in France is protected by the Jura Mountains Regional Natural Park.
In Switzerland, the range covers the western border with France in the Cantons of Basel, Solothurn, Jura,
The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central California, United States. They form a ridge along the San Francisco Peninsula, south of San Francisco, separating the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco Bay and the Santa Clara Valley, and continuing south, bordering Monterey Bay and ending at the Salinas Valley. The range passes through San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz, with San Francisco at the northern end and the Pajaro River at the southern end.
The northernmost portion of the Santa Cruz Mountains is known as Montara Mountain, north of Half Moon Bay Road (California State Route 92) the middle portion is known as the Sierra Morena, which includes a summit called Sierra Morena, and extends south to a gap at Lexington Reservoir, south of the gap the mountain range is known as the Sierra Azul.
The highest point in the range is Loma Prieta Peak 3,786 feet (1,154 m), near which is the epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Other major peaks include Mount Umunhum 3,486 feet (1,063 m), Mount Bielawski 3,231 feet (985 m), El Sombroso 2,999 feet (914 m), Eagle Rock 2,488 feet (758 m), Black Mountain 2,800 feet (850 m),
The Sudirman Range or Dugunduguoo or Nassau Range is a mountain range in Papua province, Indonesia.
Located at 4°12′S 137°00′E / 4.2°S 137°E / -4.2; 137, it comprises a western portion of the Maoke Mountains. The highest peak in Oceania and Australasia, Puncak Jaya (4,884 m), is located here, as well as the large Grasberg copper and gold mine, operated by the Freeport company based out of the United States.
The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian and Serbian: Стара планина, Stara planina, "Old Mountain"; Bulgarian pronunciation: [ˈstarɐ pɫɐniˈna]; Serbian pronunciation: [stâːraː planǐna]) is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The Balkan range runs 560 km from the Vrashka Chuka / Vrška Čuka Peak on the border between Bulgaria and eastern Serbia eastward through central Bulgaria to Cape Emine on the Black Sea. The highest peaks of the Stara planina are in central Bulgaria. The highest peak is Botev (2,376 m), located in the Central Balkan National Park (established 1991). The mountain gives the name of the Balkan Peninsula. Stara planina played an enormous role in the history of Bulgaria and the development of the Bulgarian nation and people.
In earlier times the mountains were known as the Haemus Mons. Scholars consider that Haemus (Greek Haimos) is derived from an unattested Thracian word *saimon, meaning 'mountain range'. Other names used to refer to the mountains in different time periods include Aemon, Haemimons, Hem, Emus, the Slavonic Matorni gori, the Turkish Kodzhabalkan and Balkan. "Balkan" comes from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded
The Australian Alps is the highest mountain range of Australia. This range is located in southeastern Australia, and it straddles southeastern New South Wales, eastern Victoria, and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The Australian Alps contain Australia's only peaks exceeding 2,000 metres (6,500 feet) in elevation above sea level, and this is the only region on the mainland on which deep snow falls annually. (Note: Significant snow also falls on the highlands of central Tasmania, which is farther south and hence colder in the wintertime.)
The Australian Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range, the series of mountains, hills, and highlands that runs about 3,000 kilometres from northern Queensland, through New South Wales, and into the northern part of the State of Victoria. This chain of highlands divides the drainage of the rivers that flow to the east into the Pacific Ocean from those that flow west into the drainage of the Murray River (and thence to the Southern Ocean) or into inland waters, such as Lake Eyre, which lie below sea level, or else evaporate rapidly. The Great Dividing Range reaches its greatest heights in the Australian Alps.
The Snowy Mountains in New
The Cordillera Central, or La Cordillera Central (The Central Mountain range), is the main mountain range in Puerto Rico. Generally speaking, the range crosses the island from west to east with an average elevation of 915m (about 3000 ft) and divides the territory's northern and southern coastal plains.
La Cordillera Central runs east to west from Aibonito to the outskirts of the Sierra de Cayey, which is an extension of La Cordillera Central beginning at the city of Cayey and which runs east to the city of Humacao with elevations approaching only 400 ft. (122m). It ends in a fork with two lower ranges, the Sierra Guardarraya and Cuchillas de Panduras which runs between the towns of Yabucoa and Patillas.
La Sierra De Luquillo branches northeastward from Gurabo to Fajardo and includes several high peaks - Toro Hill, at 1,074 m (3524 ft), El Yunque at 1,065m (3,494 ft) and El Pico Oeste at 1056 m (3446 ft).
The Great Smoky Mountains are a mountain range rising along the Tennessee–North Carolina border in the southeastern United States. They are a subrange of the Appalachian Mountains, and form part of the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province. The range is sometimes called the Smoky or Smokey Mountains, and the name is commonly shortened to the Smokies. The Great Smokies are best known as the home of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which protects most of the range. The park was established in 1934, and, with over 9 million visits per year, it is the most-visited national park in the United States.
The Great Smokies are part of an International Biosphere Reserve. The range is home to an estimated 187,000 acres (760 km) of old growth forest, constituting the largest such stand east of the Mississippi River. The cove hardwood forests in the range's lower elevations are among the most diverse ecosystems in North America, and the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest that coats the range's upper elevations is the largest of its kind. The Great Smokies are also home to the densest black bear population in the Eastern United States and the most diverse salamander population outside of
The Masherbrum Mountains are a subrange of the Karakoram mountain range, in Baltistan region of the Gilgit-Baltistan province in northern Pakistan.
The Masherbrum Mountains are located on the south side of the Baltoro Glacier. The southern side of the range, in the Indus River basin, is drained by the Hushe River.
While not as famous as the Baltoro Muztagh mountains, which lies across the Baltoro Glacier, the Masherbrum Mountains contain some of the highest peaks in the world (highest 7,821 metres (25,659 ft)). They attract climbers from around the planet.
The following is a table of the peaks in the Masherbrum Mountains which are over 7,200 metres (23,620 ft) in elevation and have over 500 metres (1,640 ft) of topographic prominence. (This is a common criterion for peaks of this stature to be independent.)
Other notable peaks include the following ones in the Hushe Valley region:
The Black Hills (Pahá Sápa in Lakota, Moʼȯhta-voʼhonáaeva in Cheyenne, awaxaawi shiibisha in Hidatsa) are a small, isolated mountain range rising from the Great Plains of North America in western South Dakota and extending into Wyoming, USA. Harney Peak, which rises to 7,244 feet (2,208 m), is the range's highest summit. The Black Hills encompass the Black Hills National Forest and are home to the tallest peaks of continental North America east of the Rockies. The name "Black Hills" is a translation of the Lakota Pahá Sápa. The hills were so-called because of their dark appearance from a distance, as they were covered in trees.
Native Americans have a long history in the Black Hills. After conquering the Cheyenne in 1776, the Lakota took over the territory of the Black Hills, which became central to their culture. In 1868, the U.S. government signed the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, exempting the Black Hills from all white settlement forever. However, when European Americans discovered gold there in 1874, as a result of George Armstrong Custer's Black Hills Expedition, erstwhile miners swept into the area in a gold rush. The US government re-assigned the Lakota, against their
The Chugach Mountains of southern Alaska are the northernmost of the several mountain ranges that make up the Pacific Coast Ranges of the western edge of North America. The range is about 250 miles (402 km) long and 60 miles (97 km) wide, and extends from the Knik and Turnagain Arms of the Cook Inlet on the west to Bering Glacier, Tana Glacier, and the Tana River on the east. It is bounded on the north by the Matanuska, Copper, and Chitina rivers. The highest point of the Chugach Mountains is Mount Marcus Baker, at 12,884 feet (3,927 m), but with an average elevation of 4,006 feet (1,221 m), most of its summits are not especially high. Even so its position along the Gulf of Alaska ensures more snowfall in the Chugach than anywhere else in the world; an annual average of over 1500 cm (600 in).
The mountains are protected in the Chugach State Park and the Chugach National Forest. Near to Anchorage, they are a popular destination for outdoor activities. Weather permitting, the World Extreme Skiing Championship is held annually in the Chugach Mountains near Valdez.
The Richardson Highway, Seward Highway, Portage Glacier Highway, and the Glenn Highway run through the Chugach Mountains.
The Dauphiné Alps (French: Alpes du Dauphiné) are a group of mountain ranges in southeastern France, west of the main chain of the Alps. Mountain ranges within the Dauphiné Alps include the Massif des Écrins (in the Parc national des Écrins), Belledonne, the Taillefer range and the mountains of Matheysine.
The Dauphiné (pronounced: [dofine]) is a former French province whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, and Hautes-Alpes.
They are separated from the Cottian Alps in the east by the Col du Galibier and the upper Durance valley; from the western Graian Alps (Vanoise Massif) in the north-east by the river Arc; from the lower ranges Vercors Plateau and Chartreuse Mountains in the west by the rivers Drac and Isère. Many peaks rise to more than 10,000 feet (3,050 m), with Barre des Écrins (4,102 m) the highest.
Administratively the French part of the range belongs to the French departments of Isère, Hautes-Alpes and Savoie.
The whole range is drained by the Rhone river through its tributaries.
According to SOIUSA (International Standardized Mountain Subdivision of the Alps) the mountain range is an Alpine section, classified in the following
The Hohe Tauern or High Tauern (pl.) are a mountain range on the main chain of the Central Eastern Alps, comprising the highest peaks east of the Brenner Pass. The crest forms the southern border of the Austrian state of Salzburg with Carinthia and East Tyrol, while a small part in the southwest belongs to the Italian province of South Tyrol. The range includes Austria's highest mountain, the Grossglockner.
The stratum term "Tauern" originally meant "high mountain passes", but came to be applied to the mountains themselves during the peak of mining operations during the Middle Ages. An affiliation with the Celtic Taurisci people or the Roman city of Teurnia is uncertain.
According to the Alpine Club classification of the Eastern Alps, the range is bounded by the Salzach valley to the north (separating it from the Kitzbühel Alps), the Mur valley and the Murtörl Pass to the east (separating it from the Niedere Tauern), the Drava valley to the south (separating it from the Southern Limestone Alps), and the Birnlücke Pass to the west (separating it from the Zillertal Alps).
Its most important parts are (from West to East):
The eastern end of the Hohe Tauern is formed by the Hafner
The Mackenzie Mountains are a mountain range forming part of the Yukon-Northwest Territories boundary between the Liard and Peel rivers. The range is named in honour of Canada's second Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie. Nahanni National Park Reserve is in the Mackenzie Mountains.
The Mackenzie Mountains hold about 55% of the world's known reserves of tungsten. The mining town of Tungsten, site of the Cantung Mine is in the Mackenzie Mountains. Only two roads lead into the Mackenzie Mountains, both in the Yukon: the Nahanni Range Road leading to the townsite of Tungsten and the Canol Road leading to the Macmillan Pass.
The highest mountain in this range is Keele Peak at 2,972 m (9,751 ft). The second highest mountain is Mount Nirvana. It is, at 2,773 m (9,098 ft), the highest mountain in the Northwest Territories.
The Presidential Range is a mountain range located in the White Mountains of the U.S. state of New Hampshire. Containing the highest peaks of the Whites, its most notable summits are named for American Presidents, followed by prominent public figures of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Mt. Washington, long home of the highest winds recorded on the surface of the Earth at 231 mph (372 km/h), is the tallest at 6,288 ft (1,917 m). The range is almost entirely in Coos County.
The highest mountains in the Presidential Range are named principally for U.S. presidents, with the tallest mountain (Mt. Washington) named for the first president, the second tallest (Mt. Adams) for the second president, and so on. However due to a surveying error, Mt. Monroe is actually 22 feet (6.7 m) taller than Mt. Madison, which is not the correct order of presidents.
Among the range's most notable summits, in sequence from southwest to northeast, are:
Mt. Adams has, besides its main summit, four subsidiary peaks that are also commonly recognized by name; two, Sam Adams and John Quincy Adams, are listed above. The third and fourth are:
The summits marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the peak bagging list
The Rhinogydd (a Welsh plural form, often anglicised as Rhinogs and also known by the alternative Welsh plural Rhinogau) are a range of mountains located east of Harlech in North Wales. The name Rhinogydd derives from the names of two of the more famous peaks, Rhinog Fawr and Rhinog Fach, although the greatest elevation in the range is reached by Y Llethr, 756 m.
The Rhinogydd are notably rocky and heather-clad towards the northern end of the range, especially around Rhinog Fawr, Rhinog Fach and towards Moel Ysgyfarnogod. The southern end of the range around Y Llethr, Diffwys and the Ysgethin Valley has a softer, grassy character.
A healthy population of wild goats can also be found in the range. Over 30 km² of the range are protected as a Special Area of Conservation and a National Nature Reserve.
The Rhinogydd are formed of hard sedimentary rocks of Cambrian age which occur as a major anticlinal structure known to geologists as the Harlech Dome. This structure which originated during the Caledonian Orogeny (mountain-building period) extends from Cadair Idris in the south to Blaenau Ffestiniog in the north. Its erosion by successive ice ages has left the valleys and peaks of the
The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico.
Spanning 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) the Sierra Madre Oriental runs from Coahuila south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, and Hidalgo to northern Puebla, where it joins with the east-west running Eje Volcánico Transversal of central Mexico.
Mexico's Gulf Coastal Plain lies to the east of the range, between the mountains and the Gulf of Mexico coast. The Mexican Plateau, which averages 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) in elevation, lies between the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental further west.
The climate of the Sierra Madre Oriental is drier than the rainforest areas further south in Mexico.
The highest point is Cerro San Rafael, at 3,700 metres (12,100 ft) above sea level, is the highest point of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the state of Coahuila and the second in Mexico in isolation.
This long range of tall mountains is noted for its abundant biodiversity and large number of endemic species of plants and wildlife, from the dry north to the wetter south. The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests are found at high elevations in the range (1,000–3,500 m/3,300–11,500
The Kittatinny Mountains (Lenape: Kitahtëne ) are a long ridge traversing across northwestern New Jersey running in a northeast-southwest axis. It is the first major ridge in the far northeastern extension of the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian Mountains. The second ridge is Walpack Ridge which is lower in elevation of six hundred to eight hundred feet.
The name comes from a Lenape Native American word meaning "endless hill" or "great mountain". The highest peak in the range is High Point at 1,803 feet (550 m), which is also the highest point in the state of New Jersey. This peak is located in High Point state park and has a road leading to the top. The second highest mountain is Sunrise Mountain, located within Stokes State Forest. The elevation here is 1,653 feet (504 m) and has a road leading almost to the top. At the top there is a shelter with a roof with no sides.
The Kittatinny Mountain is of the Silurian Shawangunk Conglomerate which is mainly composed of quartz. Due to the hardness of the quartz, the mountain is extremely resistant to weathering.
Around four hundred fifty million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands shaped like an arch collided with proto
The Berwyn range (Welsh: Y Berwyn or Mynydd y Berwyn) is an isolated and sparsely populated area of moorland located in the north-east of Wales, roughly bounded by Llangollen in the north-east, Corwen in the north-west, Bala in the south-west, and Oswestry in the south-east.
The Berwyn range also played its part in causing King Henry II of England to turn back during his invasion of Gwynedd in 1165. Rather than taking the usual route along the northern coastal plain, his army invaded from Oswestry and took a route over the Berwyns. The English invasion faced an alliance of Welsh princes led by King Owain Gwynedd, but there was little fighting – endless days of heavy rain forced the army to retreat.
The area is wild and largely vegetated by heather about one metre thick, with some acidic grassland and bracken. It is not very popular for hill-walking or scrambling since the peaks are lower than those in nearby Snowdonia. However, the topmost peaks are rugged and have a distinctive character well worth exploring. Nearby towns include Llangollen and Corwen, which are popular tourist destinations.
The main summits are Cadair Berwyn at 830 metres (2,723 ft) above sea level, Moel Sych at
The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, extending from the Interior Plains of Alberta to the Rocky Mountain Trench of British Columbia. The southern end borders Idaho and Montana of the USA. The northern end is at the Liard River in northern British Columbia.
The Canadian Rockies have numerous high peaks and ranges, such as Mount Robson (3,954 metres (12,972 ft)) and Mount Columbia (3,747 metres (12,293 ft)). The Canadian Rockies are composed of shale and limestone. Much of the range is protected by parks and a World Heritage Site.
The Canadian Rockies are the easternmost part of the Canadian Cordillera, the collective name for the mountains of Western Canada. They form part of the American Cordillera, an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that runs all the way from Alaska to the very tip of South America. The Cordillera in turn are the eastern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire that runs all the way around the Pacific Ocean.
The Canadian Rockies are bounded on the east by the Canadian Prairies, on the west by the Rocky Mountain Trench, and on the north by the
The Sherwin Range is a mountain range that is a part of the Sierra Nevada, in California, USA. The range is immediately to the south of the Long Valley Caldera, stretching from just south of the town of Mammoth Lakes, California (at 37°37′N 119°0′W / 37.617°N 119°W / 37.617; -119) to the Wheeler Crest (at 37°30′N 118°40′W / 37.5°N 118.667°W / 37.5; -118.667). The Sherwin Range is also known locally as The Sherwins.
The range largely consists of reddish metamorphic rock, which are the roof pendant for the Sierra Nevada. That is, this rock was formed in the Paleozoic, and then was subsequently recrystallized and warped by the intrusion of the Sierra Nevada batholith underneath it.
The Sherwin Range is well known for opportunities for hiking (in the summer) and backcountry skiing (in the winter).
The range is named after Jim Sherwin, who operated the first toll road across the Sierra. The toll road started from Mammoth Lakes.
Other notable landmarks:
The Atlas Mountains (Berber: idurar n Watlas, Arabic: جبال الأطلس) is a mountain range across a north-western stretch of Africa extending about 2,500 km (1,600 mi) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The highest peak is Toubkal, with an elevation of 4,167 metres (13,671 ft) in southwestern Morocco. The Atlas ranges separate the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert. The population of the Atlas Mountains are mainly Berbers. The terms for 'mountain' in some Berber languages are adrar and adras, believed to be cognate with the toponym.
The mountains have been home to a number of plant and animal species unique in Africa, often more like those of Europe; many of them are endangered and some have already gone extinct. Examples include the Barbary Macaque, the Atlas Bear (Africa's only species of bear; now extinct), the Barbary Leopard, the Barbary stag, Barbary Sheep, the Barbary Lion (extinct in the wild), the Atlas Mountain Badger, the North African Elephant (extinct), the African Aurochs (extinct), Cuvier's Gazelle, the Northern Bald Ibis, Dippers, the Atlas mountain viper, the Atlas Cedar, the European Black Pine, and the Algerian Oak.
The basement rock of
The Needle Mountains are a subrange of the San Juan Mountains of the Rocky Mountains located in the southwestern part of the U.S. State of Colorado. Much of the range is protected in the Weminuche Wilderness of the San Juan National Forest. The range is notable for having some of the most rugged mountains in the state, and includes many technical climbs and scrambles. A small but dramatic east-west subrange in the northern section is known as the Grenadier Range.
Notable peaks include:
The Alaska Range is a relatively narrow, 650-km-long (400 mi) mountain range in the southcentral region of the U.S. state of Alaska, from Lake Clark at its southwest end to the White River in Canada's Yukon Territory in the southeast. The highest mountain in North America, Denali, (or Mount McKinley), is in the Alaska Range.
The range forms a generally east-west arc with its northernmost part in the center, and from there trending southwest towards the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutians, and trending southeast into the Pacific Coast Ranges. The mountains act as a high barrier to the flow of moist air from the Gulf of Alaska northwards, and thus has some of the harshest weather in the world. The heavy snowfall also contributes to a number of large glaciers, including the Canwell, Castner, Black Rapids, Susitna, Yanert, Muldrow, Eldridge, Ruth, Tokositna, and Kahiltna Glaciers. Four major rivers cross the Range, including the Delta River, and Nenana River in the center of the range and the Nabesna and Chisana Rivers to the east.
The range is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, and the Denali Fault that runs along the southern edge of the range is responsible for a number of
MacGillycuddy's Reeks (Irish: Na Cruacha Dubha, meaning "the black stacks") is a mountain range in County Kerry, Republic of Ireland. Stretching slightly over 19 km (12 mi), it includes the highest peaks in Ireland and the only peaks on the island that are over 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). The highest of these is Corrán Tuathail or Carrauntoohil (1,038 m), followed by Binn Chaorach (1,010 m) and Cathair na Féinne (1,001 m). The range also includes many other Hewitts (peaks of over 2,000 ft). The mountains, part of the Armorican Highlands, are of glacial-carved sandstone and are on the Iveragh Peninsula near the Lakes of Killarney.
The name of the range dates to the 18th century. It is derived from the family or clan name Mac Giolla Mochuda (anglicised MacGillycuddy) who are a sept of the O'Sullivan's. The clan chief, McGillycuddy of the Reeks, owned land in this part of Munster for a long time prior, and continued to do so until the end of the 20th century. The word reek is a Hiberno-English version of the English word rick, meaning a stack.
"MacGillycuddy's Reeks" is also the name of a song on Warren Zevon's album My Ride's Here. The song is set on the Iveragh Peninsula and also
The Mayacamas Mountains are located in northwestern California in the United States. The mountains, part of the Inner Coast Ranges among the California Coast Ranges, are found south of the Mendocino Range, west of Clear Lake, and east of Ukiah, and extend south into Napa and Sonoma counties. The range stretches for 52 mi (80 km) in a northwest-southeasterly direction, and reaches an elevation of 4,724 ft (1,440 m) above sea level at Cobb Mountain in the central part of the chain. There are several other peaks over 2,500 feet (750 m), including Mount Saint Helena and Hood Mountain. These peaks are sufficiently high to retain some snow cover in winter. Several streams rise in the Mayacmas Mountains including Mark West Creek, Sonoma Creek, Calabazas Creek, Arroyo Seco Creek, Putah Creek, and Santa Rosa Creek. In prehistoric times of about ten million years ago, these mountains are thought to have been densely forested in Mendocino Cypress.
According to Gudde: "The mountain chain, forming the divide of the headwaters of Russian River and Clear Lake, was named for the Native American tribes on the west slope, probably a division of the Yuki. According to Barrett (Pomo, p. 269), there
The Spantik-Sosbun Mountains are a subrange of the Karakoram range in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. The highest peak is Spantik, 7,027 m (23,054 ft). The other namesake peak is Sosbun Brakk, 6,413 m (21,040 ft).
The Spantik-Sosbun Mountains are a narrow range, about 120 km (80 mi) long, trending roughly east-west. On the north, the range is bounded by the important Hispar and Biafo Glaciers, across which lie the Hispar Muztagh and Panmah Muztagh respectively. On the southwest, the Barpu Glacier and the longer Chogo Lungma Glacier separate the range from the Rakaposhi-Haramosh Mountains; the pass known as the Polan La (5840 m/19,160 ft) separates the Barpu from the Chogo Lungma, and links the two ranges. On the southeast, the Braldu River separates the range from the somewhat lower Mango Gusor Mountains.
The Stubai Alps (Ger. Stubaier Alpen) is a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps of Europe. It is named after the Stubaital valley to its east. It is located southwest of Innsbruck, Austria, and several summits of the range form part of Austria's border with Italy. The range is bounded by the Inn River valley to the north; the Sill River valley (Wipptal) and the Brenner Pass to the east (separating it from the Zillertal Alps); the Ötztal and Timmelsjoch to the west (separating it from the Ötztal Alps), and to the south by tributaries of the Passer River and Eisack.
The main mountain peaks of the Stubai Alps are:
The main mountain passes of the Stubai Alps are:
Media related to Stubai Alps at Wikimedia Commons
The East Humboldt Range is a line of mountains in northeastern Nevada in the Great Basin region of the western United States. It is located in central Elko County in the upper watershed of the Humboldt River, which flows to the southwest from its source just north of the range.
The East Humboldts run north-to-south for approximately 30 miles (48 km). To the north are Interstate 80 and the community of Wells, while to the south are Secret Pass, the larger Ruby Range, and Ruby Valley. To the east are Clover Valley and U.S. Route 93, and to the west are Starr Valley and Dennis Flats. Most of the range is included in the Humboldt National Forest. In 1989, the United States Congress passed the Nevada Wilderness Protection Act establishing over 36,000 acres (150 km) as the East Humboldt Wilderness. The range was named by the explorer John C. Frémont for the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt.
These mountains were formed by a tilted fault-block process, with gradual slopes and valleys to the west and a steep escarpment to the east. Both sides of the range show extensive evidence of glaciation during recent ice ages, including U-shaped canyons, moraines, and steeply carved granite
The Chuska Mountains are an elongate range on the Colorado Plateau and within the Navajo Nation whose highest elevations approach 10,000 feet. The range is about 80 by 15 km (50 by 10 miles), and it trends north-northwest and is crossed by the state line between Arizona and New Mexico. The highlands are a dissected plateau, with an average elevation of about 2,740 m (8,990 ft), and subdued topography. The highest point is Roof Butte (36.4601° N, 109.0929° W) at 2,994 m (9,823 ft), near the northern end of the range in Arizona. Other high points include the satellite Beautiful Mountain at 2,861 m (9,386 ft) and Lukachukai Mountains at 2,885 m (9,465 ft), both also near the northern end, and Matthews Peak at 2,911 m (9,551 ft). The San Juan Basin borders the Chuskas on the east, and typical elevations in nearby parts of that basin are near 1,800 m (5,900 ft). The eastern escarpment of the mountains is marked by slumps and landslides that extend out onto the western margin of the San Juan Basin. To the north, the Chuskas are separated from the Carrizo Mountains by Red Rock Valley, which is today commonly referred to as Red Valley.
Major peaks of the Chuskas include:
Much of the range
The Misty Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies located east of the Bighorn Highway within Kananaskis Country, Canada.
It is a sub-range of the High Rock Range in the Southern Continental Ranges.
This range includes the following mountains and peaks:
The Salt Range is a hill system in the Punjab province of Pakistan, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock salt. The range extends from the Jhelum River to the Indus, across the northern portion of the Punjab province. The Salt Range contains the great mines of Mayo, Khewra, Warcha and Kalabagh, which yield vast supplies of salt. Coal of a medium quality is also found.
Two interesting sites are close to Kathwai, Kutte Mar and Tulaja fort. At Kuttee Mar to the Northeast of Kathwai are Muslim graves made of Kangar and the purported grave of a dog that is said to have died defending the wedding procession of its owner from an attack by bandits. Kutte Mar may have been the place where the Khura inscription of Toramana was found (Buhler 1891-92, 238-41; Sircar 1965: 422-4). If this assessment is correct, a Buddhist monastery was established here around 500. A.D. This inscription and another fragmentary inscription found at Sakaser (Pakistan Archaeology 5, 1968: 284-70) confirm that this area was a flourishing, centre for Buddhism, which is borne out by the extensive archaeological remains.
The Tulaja fort is located on a huge rock outcropping with sheer cliffs overlooking
Shenandoah Mountain is a mountain ridge approximately 73 miles (117 km) long in Virginia and West Virginia. The steep, narrow, sandstone-capped ridge extends from northern Bath County, Virginia to southern Hardy County, West Virginia. Along the way, its crest defines the borders between Highland and Augusta counties, Virginia, and between Pendleton County, West Virginia, and Rockingham County, Virginia.
Located in the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains, Shenandoah Mountain forms part of the western margin of the Shenandoah Valley, and is part of the easternmost Allegheny Mountains. It lies almost entirely within the George Washington National Forest. U.S. Route 33 crosses the mountain between Franklin, West Virginia, and Harrisonburg, Virginia.
Shenandoah Mountain's highest peaks are Reddish Knob (Virginia/West Virginia; 4397’/1340 m ), Flagpole Knob (Virginia; 4383’/1336 m ), and Bald Knob (Virginia; 3680’/1122 m ).
The Bow Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. The range is named in associated with the Bow River and was officially adopted on March 31, 1917 by the Geographic Board of Canada.
It is a part of the Banff-Lake Louise Core Area of the Southern Continental Ranges, located on the Continental Divide, west of the Bow River valley, in Banff National Park and Kootenay National Park.
The Bow Range covers a surface area of 717 km² (277 mi²), has a length of 34 km (from north to south) and a maximum width of 43 km. The highest peak is Mount Temple, with an elevation of 3,543 m (11,624 ft). The range also covers the Valley of the Ten Peaks, with the tallest of the ten being Deltaform mountain with an elevation of 3424 metres and the second highest being Mount Hungabee at 3493 metres. The range also has hiking areas such as the Consolation Lakes, Sentinel Pass-Larch Valley, Wenkchenma Pass-Eiffel Lake, the beehive plain of the Six Glaciers system and Saddle Back Pass.
Cordillera de Maribios (or Cordillera de Marrabios) is a mountain range in León and Chinandega departments, western Nicaragua, at 12°34′N 86°47′W / 12.56°N 86.78°W / 12.56; -86.78 and about 64.4 km (40 mi) long. It is a volcanic range comprised most notably by San Cristóbal 1745 m, Pilas 983 m, Telica 1060 m, Cerro Negro 450 m, and Momotombo 1258 m.
The Knockmealdown Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Chnoc Mhaoldomhnaigh) are a mountain range located on the border of counties South Tipperary and Waterford in Ireland, running east and west between the two counties. The highest peak of the range is Knockmealdown, situated in County Waterford. On the western side of the summit, the range is crossed by a high pass through which runs the old mail coach road from Lismore to Clogheen.
Knockmealdown has two interpretations of the Irish origins of its name, either Cnoc Mhaoldomhnaigh: Muldowneys' Hill or Cnoc Maol Donn: bald brown hill.
List of peaks in the Knockmealdown Mountains ordered by height:
This mountain range is an important breeding ground for two endangered species, the red grouse and the hen harrier; Cuckoo, Nightjar, Crossbill, Buzzard and Grasshopper Warbler can also be seen.
This mountain range was celebrated in the folk song, "Kitty Bawn O'Brien" by Allister MacGillvary of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The song is a lover's lament for a young woman who emigrates from Ireland to Canada. Knockmealdown is mentioned in the first and the final stanzas, as follows:
Kitty Bawn O'Brien by Allister MacGillvary
A soft wind
The Pennines /ˈpɛnaɪnz/ are a low-rising mountain range, separating the North West of England from Yorkshire and the North East.
Often described as the "backbone of England", they form a more or less continuous range stretching from the Peak District in Derbyshire, around the northern and eastern edges of Lancashire which includes the administrative district of Greater Manchester, through the Yorkshire Dales past the Cumbrian Fells to the Cheviot Hills on the Anglo-Scottish border. North of the Aire Gap, the Pennines give out a western spur into North Lancashire, the Bowland Fells, and south of the gap is a similar spur into East Lancashire, comprising the Rossendale Fells and West Pennine Moors.
Although the above is a common definition, the Cheviot Hills are not, strictly speaking, part of the Pennines, being separated by the Tyne Gap and the Whin Sill, along which run the A69 and Hadrian's Wall, but because the Pennine Way crosses them they are often treated as such. Conversely, although the southern end of the Pennines is commonly said to be somewhere in the High Peak district of Derbyshire, often Edale (the start of the Pennine Way), they extend south into Staffordshire and
The Baltoro Muztagh (simplified Chinese: 巴尔托洛慕士塔格山; traditional Chinese: 巴爾托洛慕士塔格山; pinyin: Bā'ěrtuōluò Mùshìtǎgé Shān) is a subrange of the Karakoram mountain range, in Baltistan region of the Gilgit-Baltistan province in northern Pakistan; and in Xinjiang, China. The crest of the range forms part of the Pakistan-China border.
The range is home to K2 (8,611 metres (28,251 ft)), the second highest mountain in the world, and to three other Eight-thousander peaks. They are located on the north and east sides of the Baltoro Glacier.
The following is a table of the peaks in the Baltoro Muztagh which are over 7,200 metres (23,620 ft) in elevation and have over 500 metres (1,640 ft) of topographic prominence. (This is a common criterion for peaks of this stature to be independent.)
There are a number of lower summits near the tongue of the Baltoro Glacier which are striking rock towers, and are famous for their aesthetic, difficult climbing. These include:
Jerzy Wala, Orographical Sketch Map of the Karakoram, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990.
Crary Mountains (76°48′S 117°40′W / 76.8°S 117.667°W / -76.8; -117.667) is a group of ice-covered Antarctic mountains, 56 km (35 mi) long, rising to 3,655 m at Mount Frakes and including Mount Rees, Mount Steere and Boyd Ridge. The mountains are located 80 km (50 mi) SW of Toney Mountain in Marie Byrd Land.
The mountains were probably among those viewed by Admiral Byrd and other members of the USAS in plane flights from the ship Bear on Feb. 24 and 25, 1940. They were mapped in the course of the 1957-58 oversnow traverse from Byrd Station to the Sentinel Range led by C.R. Bentley, and named after Albert P. Crary, who was then Deputy Chief Scientist for the US-IGY Antarctic Program.
The Harz is the highest mountain range in northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. The name Harz derives from the Middle High German word Hardt or Hart (mountain forest), Latinized as Hercynia. The legendary Brocken is the highest summit in the Harz with a height of 1,141.1 metres (3,744 ft) above sea level. The Wurmberg (971 metres (3,186 ft)) is the highest peak located entirely within Lower Saxony.
The Harz has a length of 110 kilometres (68 mi), stretching from the town of Seesen in the northwest to Eisleben in the east, and a width of 35 kilometres (22 mi). It occupies an area of 2,226 square kilometres (859 sq mi), and is divided into the Upper Harz (Oberharz) in the northwest, which is up to 800 m high, apart from the 1,100 m high Brocken massif, and the Lower Harz (Unterharz) in the east which is up to around 400 m high and whose plateaus are capable of supporting arable farming.
The following districts (Kreise) fall wholly or partly within the Harz: Goslar and Osterode am Harz in the west, Harz and Mansfeld-Südharz in the north and east, and Nordhausen in the south.The districts of the Upper Harz are Goslar
The Albula Alps are a mountain range in the Alps of eastern Switzerland. They are considered to be part of the Central Eastern Alps. They are named after the River Albula. The Albula Alps are separated from the Oberhalbstein Alps in the west by the Septimer Pass and the Julia valley; from the Plessur Alps in the north-west by the Landwasser valley; from the Silvretta group in the north-east by the Flüela Pass; from the Bernina Alps in the south-east by the Maloja Pass and the Inn valley (upper Engadin).
The Albula Alps are drained by the Albula, Julia, Landwasser and Inn rivers.
The main peaks of the Albula Alps are:
The Albula Alps are crossed by one railway tunnel, under the Albula Pass. The main mountain passes of the Albula Alps are:
The Bukit Barisan or the Barisan Mountains are a mountain range on the western side of Sumatra, Indonesia, covering nearly 1,700 km (1,050 mi) from the north to the south of the island. The Bukit Barisan range consists primarily of volcanoes shrouded in dense jungle cover, including Sumatran tropical pine forests on the higher slopes. The highest peak of the range is Mount Kerinci at 3,800 metres (12,467 ft). The Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is situated towards the southern end of the range.
The name Bukit Barisan actually means "row of hills" or "hills that make a row" in Indonesian and Malay, for the range stretches end to end along the island of Sumatra.
There are 35 active volcanoes in Bukit Barisan. The largest volcano is the supervolcano Toba within the 100 km (62 miles) × 30 km (19 miles) Lake Toba, which was created after a caldera collapse (est. in 74,000 Before Present). The eruption is estimated to have been at level eight on the VEI scale, the largest possible for a volcanic eruption. The highest peak of the mountain range is Mount Kerinci with an elevation of 3,800 m (12,467 ft).
The following list is sourced from the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism
The Blue Mountains is a mountainous region in New South Wales, Australia. It borders on Sydney's metropolitan area, its foothills starting approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of the state capital. The area begins on the west side of the Nepean River and extends westward as far as Coxs River. Geologically, it is situated in the central parts of the Sydney basin.
Consisting mainly of a sandstone plateau, the area is dissected by gorges up to 760 metres (2,490 ft) deep. The highest point of the range is Mount Werong at 1,215 metres (3,986 ft) above sea level. A large part of the Blue Mountains is incorporated into the Greater Blue Mountains Area World Heritage Site, consisting of seven national park areas and a conservation reserve.
The Blue Mountains area includes the local government areas of the City of Blue Mountains, the City of Hawkesbury, the City of Lithgow and Oberon.
When Europeans arrived in Australia, the Blue Mountains had already been inhabited for several millennia by the Gundungurra people, now represented by the Gundungurra Tribal Council Aboriginal Corporation based in Katoomba, and, in the lower Blue Mountains, by the Darug people, now represented by the Darug
The Cordillera Oriental (English: Eastern range) is one of three mountain ranges into which the Andes split in Colombia. It extends from southwest to northeast; from the "Colombian Massif" in Huila Department to Norte de Santander Department, where it splits in two: a north branch reaches the Serranía del Perijá and the other runs northeast into Venezuela, where it is called Cordillera de Mérida.
The western part of the Cordillera Oriental belongs to the Magdalena River basin, while the eastern part includes the river basins of the Amazon River, Orinoco River, and Catatumbo River. Within it, the Altiplano Cundiboyacense and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy (with the only snowy peaks in this particular mountain range) stand out .
The Cordillera Oriental is the main feature in the relief of Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Santander, and Norte de Santander. It forms the eastern and southeastern limits of Huila, Tolima, Cesar, and La Guajira, with its southern piedmont reaching to the western regions of Caquetá, Meta, Casanare, and Arauca.
The following are the rivers that originate or are tributaries as well as some major water bodies:
The Cordillera Oriental is home to more than 10 natural
The Diablo Range (Devil Range) is a mountain range in the California Coast Ranges subdivision of the Pacific Coast Ranges. It is located in the eastern San Francisco Bay area south to the Salinas Valley area of northern California, the United States.
The Diablo Range extends from the Carquinez Strait in the north to Orchard Peak in the south, near the point where State Route 46 crosses over the Coast Ranges at Cholame, as described by the USGS. It is bordered on the northeast by the San Joaquin River, on the southeast by the San Joaquin Valley, on the southwest by the Salinas River, and on the northwest by the Santa Clara Valley. The USGS designation is somewhat ambiguous north of the Santa Clara Valley, but on their maps, the range is shown as the ridgeline which runs between its namesake Mount Diablo southeastward past Mount Hamilton. Geologically, the range corresponds to the Coast Ranges east of the Calaveras Fault in this northern section.
The range passes through Contra Costa, Alameda, San Joaquin, Santa Clara, Stanislaus, Merced, San Benito, Fresno, Monterey, and Kings counties, and ends in the northwesternmost extremity of Kern County.
Though the average elevation is about
The Dolomites (Ladin: Dolomites; Italian: Dolomiti; German: Dolomiten; Venetian: Dołomiti: Friulian: Dolomitis) are a mountain range located in north-eastern Italy. It is a part of Southern Limestone Alps and extends from the River Adige in the west to the Piave Valley (Pieve di Cadore) in the east. The northern and southern borders are defined by the Puster Valley and the Sugana Valley (Val Sugana). The Dolomites are nearly equally shared between the provinces of Belluno, South Tyrol and Trentino.
There are also mountain groups of similar geological structure that spread over the River Piave to the east – Dolomiti d'Oltrepiave; and far away over the Adige River to the west – Dolomiti di Brenta (Western Dolomites). There is also another smaller group called Piccole Dolomiti (Little Dolomites) located between the provinces of Trentino, Verona and Vicenza (see the map).
One national park and many other regional parks are located in the Dolomites. In August 2009, the Dolomites were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The name "Dolomites" is derived from the famous French mineralogist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu who was the first to describe the rock, dolomite, a type of carbonate
The White Mountains are a mountain range covering about a quarter of the state of New Hampshire and a small portion of western Maine in the United States. Part of the Appalachian Mountains, they are considered the most rugged mountains in New England. The range is heavily visited due to its proximity to Boston and (to a lesser extent) New York City.
Most of the area is public land, including the White Mountain National Forest as well as a number of state parks. Its most famous peak is Mount Washington, which at 6,288 feet (1,917 m) is the highest mountain in the Northeastern U.S. and home to the fastest surface wind gust (231 miles per hour (372 km/h), over 100 m/s, in 1934) measured in the Northern Hemisphere. Mount Washington is one of a line of summits called the Presidential Range, many of which are named after U.S. presidents and other prominent Americans.
In addition, the White Mountains include several smaller groups including the Franconia Range, Sandwich Range, Carter-Moriah Range, Kinsman Range and Pilot Range. In all, there are forty-eight peaks over 4,000', known as a group as the Four-thousand footers.
The Whites are known for their system of alpine huts for hikers,
The Wind River Range (or "Winds" for short), is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in western Wyoming in the United States. The range runs roughly NW-SE for approximately 100 miles (161 km). The Continental Divide follows the crest of the range and includes Gannett Peak, which at 13,804 feet (4,207 m), is the highest peak in Wyoming. There are more than 40 other named peaks in excess of 13,000 feet (3,962 m). Two large National Forests including three wilderness areas encompass most of the mountain range. Shoshone National Forest is on the eastern side of the continental divide while Bridger-Teton National Forest is on the west. Both National Forests and the entire mountain range are an integral part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Portions of the range are also inside the Wind River Indian Reservation.
The Winds are composed primarily of a granitic batholith which is granite rock formed deep under the surface of the Earth, over one billion years ago. Over hundreds of millions of years, rocks that were once covering this batholith eroded away. As the land continued to rise during the Laramide orogeny, further erosion occurred until all that remained were the granitic
The Cambrian Mountains (Welsh: Mynyddoedd Cambria, in a narrower sense: Elenydd) are a series of mountain ranges in Wales.
Originally the term "Cambrian Mountains" was applied in a general sense to most of upland Wales. Since the 1950s, its application has become increasingly localised to the geographically homogeneous Mid Wales uplands, known in Welsh as the Elenydd, which extend from Pumlumon to Mynydd Mallaen. This barren and sparsely populated 'wilderness' is often referred to as the Desert of Wales. The area includes the sources of the River Severn and River Wye, and was unsuccessfully proposed as a National Park in the 1960s and 1970s. The highest point of the range is Pumlumon (or Plynlimon), at 2,467 feet (752 m).
The wider, more historic, use of the term also includes Snowdonia in North Wales, and the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains in South Wales. They range in height up to 3,560 feet (1,090 m) in Snowdonia.
While Snowdonia contains a mix of volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age, the mountains of South Wales are mainly Devonian age Old Red Sandstone and Carboniferous Limestone and similarly aged sandstones. The ranges of mid Wales on the
Gasherbrum is a remote group of peaks located at the northeastern end of the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram range of the Himalaya on the border of the Chinese Shaksgam Valley and the Gilgit-Baltistan territory of Pakistan. The massif contains three of the world's 8,000 metre peaks (if one includes Broad Peak). Gasherbrum is often claimed to mean "Shining Wall", presumably a reference to the highly visible face of Gasherbrum IV; but in fact it comes from "rgasha" (beautiful) + "brum" (mountain) in Balti, hence it actually means "beautiful mountain".
In 1856, Thomas George Montgomerie, a British Royal Engineers lieutenant and a member of the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, sighted a group of high peaks in the Karakoram from more than 200 km away. He named five of these peaks K1, K2, K3, K4 and K5 where the K denotes Karakoram. Today, K1 is known as Masherbrum, K3 as Broad Peak, K4 as Gasherbrum II and K5 as Gasherbrum I. Only K2, the second highest mountain in the world, has kept Montgomerie's name.
On March 9, 2012 two Polish mountaineers made the first winter ascent of Gasherbrum I. The climbers - Adam Bielecki (aged 28) and Janusz Gołąb (aged 43) - summited the peak
The Lewis Range is a mountain range located in the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana, U.S. and extreme southern Alberta, Canada. Formed by the Lewis Overthrust beginning 170 million years ago, an enormous slab of Precambrian rocks 3 miles (4.8 km) thick, 50 miles (80 km) wide and 160 miles (260 km) long faulted and slid over newer rocks of the Cretaceous period. In this relatively rare occurrence, older rocks are now positioned above newer ones.
The Lewis Range is within Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada, and in Glacier National Park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex located in Flathead and Lewis and Clark National Forests in Montana. The Continental Divide spans much of the uppermost sections of the range. Major peaks in the range include Mount Cleveland (10,466 ft/3,185 m), which is the highest peak in the range and in Glacier National Park. Other prominent peaks include Mount Stimson (10,142 ft/3,091 m), Mount Jackson (10,052 ft/3,064 m), Mount Siyeh (10,014 ft/3,052 m), Going to the Sun Mountain, (9,642 ft/2,939 m) and the isolated Chief Mountain (9,080 ft/2,768 m). The Chinese wall in the Bob Marshall Wilderness is a 1,000 foot (304 m) high feature that runs for
The Santa Rita Mountains, located about 65 km (40 mi) southeast of Tucson, Arizona, extend 42 km (26 mi) from north to south, then trending southeast. They merge again southeastwards into the Patagonia Mountains, trending northwest by southeast. The highest point in the range, and the highest point in the Tucson area, is Mount Wrightson, with an elevation of 9,453 feet (2,881 m), The range contains Madera Canyon, one of the world's premier birding areas. The Smithsonian Institution's Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory is located on Mount Hopkins. The range is one of the Madrean sky islands.
The Santa Rita Mountains are mostly within the Coronado National Forest. Prior to 1908 they were the principal component of Santa Rita National Forest, which was combined with other small forest tracts to form Coronado. Much of the range is protected by the Mount Wrightson Wilderness. The Santa Rita Mountains were severely burned in July 2005 in the Florida Fire.
A large porphyry copper deposit has been identified near the old Helvetia mining district on the north flank of the range. The proposed Rosemont mine would be an open pit operation located about two miles west of mile marker 44 on
The Sawatch Range ( /səˈwætʃ/) is a high and extensive mountain range in central Colorado which includes eight of the twenty highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains, including Mount Elbert, at 14,440 feet (4,401 m) elevation, the highest peak in the Rockies.
The range is oriented along a northwest-southeast axis, extending approximately 70 miles (110 km) from 39°37′36″N 106°32′13″W / 39.62667°N 106.53694°W / 39.62667; -106.53694 in the north to 38°33′19″N 106°17′32″W / 38.55528°N 106.29222°W / 38.55528; -106.29222 in the south. The range contains 15 peaks topping 14,000 feet (4,000 m). The range forms a portion of the Continental Divide, and its eastern flanks are drained by the headwaters of the Arkansas River. The western side of the range feeds the headwaters of the Roaring Fork River, the Eagle River, and the Gunnison River, tributaries of the Colorado River.
The Sawatch mountains in general are high, massive, and relatively gentle in contour. While some peaks are rugged enough to require technical climbing, most can be climbed by a simple, yet arduous, hike. Notable summits include Mount Elbert, Mount Massive, La Plata Peak, Mount of the Holy Cross, and the Collegiate
The Spring Mountains are a mountain range of southern Nevada in the United States, running generally northwest-southeast along the west side of Las Vegas and down to the border with California. Most land in the mountains is owned by the United States Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management and managed as the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area and Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area within the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest.
The Spring Mountains range is named for the number of springs to be found, many of them in the recesses of Red Rock, which is on the eastern side of the mountains. The Spring Mountains divide the Pahrump Valley and Amargosa River basins from the Las Vegas Valley watershed, which drains into the Colorado River watershed, by way of Las Vegas Wash into Lake Mead, thus the mountains define part of the boundary of the Great Basin. The Great Basin Divide, (one of the Great Basin region borders) continues north through the Indian Springs Pass region then turns due east at the perimeter mountain ranges north of Las Vegas.
The highest point is Mount Charleston, at 11,918 ft (3,633 m). The area around Mt. Charleston is protected in the Mount
The Torngat Mountains are a mountain range on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador and eastern Quebec. They are part of the Arctic Cordillera. This is the peninsula that separates Ungava Bay from the Atlantic Ocean.
The Torngat Mountains have a substantial geographical extent. About 56% of the range is located in Quebec, 44% is in Labrador, and the remainder, less than 1%, is located on Killiniq Island in Nunavut. At least 2% of the mountain chain is under water, and poorly surveyed. The Torngat Mountains cover 30,067 square kilometres (11,609 sq mi), including lowland areas and extend over 300 km (186 mi) from Cape Chidley in the north to Hebron Fjord in the south. The Torngat Mountains have the highest peaks of eastern continental Canada.
The highest point is Mount Caubvick (also known as Mont D'Iberville) at 1,652 m (5,420 ft). There are no trees in the Torngat Mountains because the mountains are north of the Arctic tree line.
Permafrost is continuous on the Quebec side of the border, and it is extensive but discontinuous on the eastern Atlantic side. The terrain is over 300 m (984 ft) above sea level and is predominantly rocky
The Totes Gebirge is a group of mountains in Austria, part of the Northern Limestone Alps, lying between the Salzkammergut and the Ennstaler Alpen. The name Totes Gebirge is derived from the German words tot meaning "dead", referring to the apparent lack of vegetation, and Gebirge meaning "mountain range". The area is a large karstic plateau with steep sides, and several mountain peaks above 2000 m. The highest point is the summit of Großer Priel, at 2,515 metres (8,251 ft)
The Catskill Mountains are a large area in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of New York. They are located approximately 100 miles north-northwest of New York City and forty miles southwest of Albany, starting just west of the Hudson River. The Catskills occupy much or all of five counties (Delaware, Greene, Schoharie, Sullivan, and Ulster). As a cultural and geographic region, the Catskills are generally defined as those areas close to or within the borders of the Catskill Park, a vast forest preserve protected from many forms of development under New York state law.
Geologically, the Catskills are a mature dissected plateau, a once-flat region subsequently uplifted and eroded into sharp relief by watercourses. The Catskills form the northeastern end of, and highest-elevation portion of, the Allegheny Plateau (also known as the Appalachian Plateau). Although the Catskills are sometimes compared with the Adirondack Mountains further north, the two mountain ranges are not geologically related, as the Adirondacks are a continuation of the Canadian Shield. Similarly, the Shawangunk Ridge, which forms the southeastern edge of the Catskills, is part of the geologically distinct
The Clwydian Range (Welsh: Bryniau Clwyd) is a series of hills and mountains in north east Wales that runs from Llandegla in the south to Prestatyn in the north, with the highest point being the popular Moel Famau. The range is designated as an area of outstanding natural beauty.
The summits of these hills provide extensive views across north Wales, to the high peaks of Snowdonia, eastwards across the Cheshire Plain, Peak District and towards Manchester and Liverpool to the northeast. The AONB is to be extended to include the Dee Valley around Llangollen and Horseshoe Pass, which will result in an area approximately 390 square km.
The Clwydian Hills are formed from an upstanding block of Silurian age sandstones, mudstones and siltstones. The range's rocks are intensely faulted; the major Vale of Clwyd Fault is responsible for the impressive west-facing scarp of the Clwydian Range. It downthrows the rocks to the west and separates the younger Carboniferous and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Vale of Clwyd from those of the hills.
The range includes a number of hills possessing Iron Age hill forts, including (from the north) Y Foel (Moel Hiraddug), Moel-y-gaer, Penycloddiau, Moel Arthur,
The Olympic Mountains is a mountain range on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington in the United States. The mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are not especially high - Mount Olympus is the highest at 7,962 ft (2,427 m) - but the western slopes of the Olympics rise directly out of the Pacific Ocean and are the wettest place in the 48 contiguous states. On the wetter end of the spectrum, 140 and 170 inches (3,600 and 4,300 mm) of rain falls on the Hoh Rainforest annually. Conversely, areas to the northeast of the mountains are located in a rain shadow and receive as little as 16 in (410 mm) of precipitation. Most of the mountains are protected within the bounds of the Olympic National Park.
Physiographically, they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which is in turn a part of the larger Pacific Mountain System.
The Olympics have the form of a cluster of steep-sided peaks surrounded by heavily-forested foothills and incised by deep valleys.
The climax forests consist of Sitka spruce and western hemlock. Douglas fir occurs in groves. Other types of firs may be seen also. Due to high precipitation, clearings in the forest quickly become covered with
The Cuillin (Scottish Gaelic: An Cuilthionn or An Cuiltheann) are properly and locally known as The Cuillins in the plural, and are a range of rocky mountains located on the Isle of Skye in Scotland. The true Cuillin are also known as the Black Cuillin to distinguish them from the Red Hills (Am Binnean Dearg) across Glen Sligachan. The Red Hills are lower and, being less rocky, have fewer scrambles or climbs.
The highest point of the Cuillins, and of the Isle of Skye, is Sgùrr Alasdair in the Black Cuillins at 992 m (3,255 ft). The Cuillin Hills is one of 40 National Scenic Areas in Scotland.
The Black Cuillins are mainly composed of basalt and gabbro, the latter being a very rough rock which makes for superb grip for mountaineers. It is from the dark colour of the gabbro that the Black Cuillin receives its name. The summits of the Cuillins are bare rock, jagged in outline and with steep cliffs and deep cut corries and gullies. All twelve Munros on Skye are Black Cuillin peaks, though one of them, Blaven, is part of a group of outliers separated from the main ridge by Glen Sligachan.
The scrambler can access most of the individual peaks by their easiest routes. Only the
The Daisetsuzan Volcanic Group (大雪山系, Daisetsu-zankei, also called Taisetsu-zan) is a volcanic group of peaks arranged around the 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) wide Ohachi-Daira (御鉢平, Ohachi-daira) caldera in Hokkaidō, Japan. In the Ainu language it is known as Nutapukaushipe or Nutaku Kamushupe. These peaks are the highest in Hokkaidō. The group lends its name to the Daisetsuzan National Park in which the volcanic group is located.
The volcanic group lies at the north end of the Daisetsu-Tokachi graben on the Kurile arc of the Pacific ring of fire. The volcanic zone makes itself known through a number of fumaroles and natural hot springs.
The following peaks make up the volcanic group:
The Northwest Highlands are the northern third of Scotland that is separated from the Grampian Mountains by the Great Glen (Glen More). The region comprises Wester Ross, Assynt, Caithness and Sutherland. The Caledonian Canal, which extends from Loch Linnhe in the west, via Loch Ness to the Moray Firth in the north splits this area from the rest of the country. The city of Inverness and the town of Fort William, by far the two largest settlements in the area, both straddle the boundary between the Northwest Highlands and the Grampian Mountains.
The Highlands are formed on Lewisian gneiss, the oldest layers of rock in Scotland. Liathach, Beinn Alligin, Suilven, Cùl Mòr, Cùl Beag, and Quinag are just some of the impressive rock islands of dark red Torridonian sandstone which rests on the gneiss, being the younger rock. Some of the peaks, such as Beinn Eighe and Canisp, are topped with later light gray or white Cambrian quartzite. The gneiss, sandstones and quartzite are among the oldest rocks in the world.
The city of Inverness, known as the "Capital of the Highlands", is by far the largest settlement in the region. It is the administrative centre for the Highland Council area.
The San Andres Mountains are a mountain range in the southwestern U.S. state of New Mexico, in the counties of Socorro, Sierra, and Doña Ana. The range extends about 75 miles (120 km) north to south, but are only about 12 miles (19 km) wide at their widest. The highest peak in the San Andres Mountains is Salinas Peak, at 8,965 feet (2,733 m).
Though nearly contiguous with the Organ Mountains to the south, the two are very distinct geologically and botanically. The Oscura Mountains to the north are separated from the San Andres Mountains by Mockingbird Gap and the much lower Little Burro Mountains. The San Andres Mountains are comparatively dry and do not support any extensive woodlands. They are mostly closed to the public, lying almost entirely within the restricted White Sands Missile Range.
The San Andres Mountains form part of the eastern edge of the rift valley of the Rio Grande, and are made up of west-dipping fault blocks made primarily of San Andres Formation limestone, but also with extensive exposures of reddish Abo Formation sandstone on the western side, and quartz monzonite on the eastern side. Gypsum deposits washed from these mountains are the main source of the
The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south, from Santa Clara River Valley to the north, and Santa Clarita Valley to the northeast. The Oxnard Plain is to the west of Santa Susana Mountains.
The Newhall Pass separates the Santa Susana Mountains from the San Gabriel Mountains to the east. Newhall Pass is the major north-south connection between the San Fernando Valley and the Santa Clarita Valley, and Interstate 5 and a railroad line share Newhall Pass. The Santa Susana Pass (containing SR 118) connects the Simi and San Fernando valleys, and separates the Santa Susana Mountains from Simi Hills to the south. Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park, is located in the Simi Hills, just south of the Santa Susana Pass, at the northwestern edge of the San Fernando Valley. The Santa Susana Mountains are not as steep or high as the San Gabriel Mountains.
The western half of the range lies in Ventura County, and the eastern half lies in Los Angeles County. The southeastern slopes of the Santa Susana Mountains
The Trans-Alay Range (also Trans Alai) is the northernmost range of the Pamir Mountains, where the Pamirs and the Tian Shan come together. They form the border between Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan and Gorno-Badakshan province, Tajikistan. To the north is the Alay Valley and to the south, the Muksu River. The highest peak in the range is Lenin Peak.
The Pacific Ranges are the southernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains portion of the Pacific Cordillera. Located entirely within British Columbia, Canada, they run northwest from the lower stretches of the Fraser River to Bella Coola, north of which are the Kitimat Ranges.
The Pacific Ranges include four of the five major coastal icecaps in the southern Coast Mountains. These are the largest temperate-latitude icecaps in the world and fuel a number of very major rivers (by volume, not length). One of these contains Mount Waddington, the highest summit entirely within British Columbia. Also within this region is Hunlen Falls, among the highest in Canada, located in Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park.
Other than logging and a large ski resort at Whistler most of the land in the range is completely undeveloped. Historically, in the southern part of the range, mining was important at various times in the Lillooet, Bridge River and Squamish areas, and large pulp and paper mills at Powell River, Port Mellon and Woodfibre. The largest hydroelectric development in the Pacific Ranges is the Bridge River Power Project, though smaller hydro plants are on the Stave River-Alouette Lake
The Sacramento Mountains are a mountain range in the south-central part of the U.S. state of New Mexico, lying just east of Alamogordo in Otero County (small portions of the range lie in Lincoln County and Chaves County). From north to south, the Sacramento Mountains extend for 85 miles (137 km), and from east to west they encompass 42 miles (68 km).
The Sacramentos can be divided into two sections: a main, northern section, encompassing most of the land area and all of the terrain above 7,500 feet (2,290 m), and a smaller southeastern section, contiguous with the Guadalupe Mountains. Neighboring ranges and landforms include the Tularosa Basin, immediately to the west of the main section of the range; Sierra Blanca and the Capitan Mountains to the northwest and northeast; the Border Hills and the western edge of the broad Pecos River valley to the east; the Guadalupe Mountains to the southeast; and Otero Mesa, which lies south of the main section and southwest of the southeastern section. The Rio Tularosa and the Rio Ruidoso (and hence U.S. Route 70) separate the Sacramentos from Sierra Blanca and the Capitan Mountains.
The western edge of the main section of the Sacramento
The Aleutian Range is a major mountain range of southwest Alaska, extending from Chakachamna Lake (80 miles/130 km southwest of Anchorage) to Unimak Island, at the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. It includes all of the mountains of the Peninsula. It is especially notable for its large number of active volcanoes, which are also part of the larger Aleutian Arc. The mainland part of the range is about 600 miles (1000 km) long; the Aleutian Islands are (geologically) a partially submerged western extension of the range that stretches for another 1,600 km (1000 mi). However the official designation "Aleutian Range" includes only the mainland peaks and the peaks on Unimak Island.
The range is almost entirely roadless wilderness, and Katmai National Park and Preserve, a large national park within the range, must be reached by boat or plane.
The core Aleutian Range can be divided into three mountain groups. Listed from southwest to northeast, they are:
See Aleutian Islands for the continuation of the range to the west of Unimak Island. Also, just to the north of the Aleutian Range, and sometimes considered part of it, are the Tordrillo Mountains.
The Alps, one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretch approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries from Austria and Slovenia in the east, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Germany, France to the west and Italy and Monaco to the south. The Alps were formed over hundreds of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided; the extreme compression caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentation rising and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810.45 m (15,782 ft) is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains many peaks higher than 4,000 m (13,123 ft), known as the "four-thousanders".
The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m (11,155 ft), and plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Paleolithic era. A mummified
The Kananaskis Range is a mountain range west of the Kananaskis River in the Canadian Rockies. Many of the peaks are named after ships and people involved in the Battle of Jutland.
Peaks of this range include:
The Preseli Hills or Preseli Mountains (Welsh: Mynydd Y Preseli / Y Preselau - also spelt Presely) (and also recorded as Mynydd Prescelly) are a range of hills in north Pembrokeshire, West Wales. They form part of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park.
The hills rise to 536 metres above sea level at Foel Cwmcerwyn and are dotted with prehistoric remains, including evidence of Neolithic settlement. In 1923 the petrologist Herbert Henry Thomas identified that bluestone from the hills corresponded to that used to build the inner circle of Stonehenge , and more recent geologists have identified Carn Menyn, sometimes called Carn Meini, as one of the bluestone sources. Others theorise that bluestone from the area was deposited close to Stonehenge by glaciation.
Slate quarrying was once an important industry in the Preseli Hills, and remnants of the quarries can still be seen in Rosebush, Pembrokeshire. There is a workshop at Llangolman where slate is used to make a variety of craft items.
During the Second World War, the UK War Office used the Preseli Hills for training exercises. Its continued use after the war was the subject of protest by Plaid Cymru.
Sacred and historic sites of the
The Stuart Range is a mountain range in central Washington, USA. The range lies within the eastern extent of the Cascade Range immediately southwest of Leavenworth and runs east-west. The western peaks make up a single sharp ridge. The eastern half of the range splits into two parallel ridges, the northern of which is known as the Enchantment Peaks. Between these ridges lies the Enchantment Basin, which holds the dozens of tarns known as the Enchantment Lakes. Collectively, the basin and the encircling eastern peaks of the Stuart Range make up The Enchantments, a well-known backpacking destination. The south face of the Stuart Range falls off steeply to Ingalls Creek, beyond which rise the roughly parallel Wenatchee Mountains.
A list of notable peaks is below. Within each subsection, peaks are ordered as nearly as possible from west to east.
The Mount Stuart batholith underlies the Stuart Range and the nearby Wenatchee Mountains. The batholith is about 13 by 16 miles in extent. Two plutonic masses are separated by a thin screen of Chiwaukum Schist and rocks of the Ingalls Complex. The more-eastern pluton is 93 million years old, while the more-western rock mass is between 83 and 86
The Wrangell Mountains are a high mountain range of eastern Alaska in the United States. Much of the range is included in Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve. The Wrangell Mountains are almost entirely volcanic in origin, and they include the second and third highest volcanoes in the United States, Mount Blackburn and Mount Sanford. The range takes its name from Mount Wrangell, which is one of the largest andesite shield volcanoes in the world, and also the only presently active volcano in the range. The Wrangell Mountains comprise most of the Wrangell Volcanic Field, which also extends into the neighboring Saint Elias Mountains and the Yukon Territory in Canada.
The Wrangell Mountains are just to the northwest of the Saint Elias Mountains and northeast of the Chugach Mountains, which are along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These ranges have the combined effect of blocking the inland areas from warmer moist air over the Pacific Ocean. The inland areas to the north of the Wrangell Mountains are therefore among the coldest areas of North America during the winter.
The Wrangell Mountains include 12 of the 40+ Alaskan peaks over 13,000 ft (see fourteeners and
The British Empire Range is a mountain range on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada. The range is one of the most northern ranges in the world and the Arctic Cordillera, surpassed only by the Challenger Mountains which lies immediately to the northwest and the United States Range slightly further east. The highest mountain in the range is Barbeau Peak.
The range was named by Gordon Noel Humphreys during the Oxford University Ellesmere Land Expedition. Edward Shackleton, also a member of the party, claimed, in 1937, that Humphreys had done so because he was "a great imperialist".
Peaks of the range include:
The Camelsfoot Range is a sub-range of the Chilcotin Ranges subdivision of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.* The range is c. 90 km at its maximum length and less than 30 km wide at its widest.
The far southeast end of the Yalakom is extremely rugged, and dropping to one last point at 7000'-plus before plunging into the gorge of the Fraser Canyon at Fountain, near Lillooet. For 45 km NW from there, the range is rocky and lightly forested with lodgepole pine, breaking into high benchlands and large creek basins draining through benchland country via small canyons.
Beyond that the range's terrain is much more gentle, with high, meadowed ridges running east towards the Fraser Canyon between treed plateaus and small canyons, and a few large, barren domes running further north along the Fraser. The range is bounded on the north and west by a large and impressive benchland-and-hoodoo sand canyon similar to those along the range's east flank - that of Churn Creek, which is a provincial protected area. The historic Empire Valley Ranch is near the mouth of Churn Creek and is provincially protected for heritage and environmental reasons. It is on a high
The Mamores are a group of mountains in the Lochaber area of the Grampian Mountains in the Scottish Highlands. They form an east-west ridge approximately fifteen kilometres in length lying between Glen Nevis to the north and Loch Leven to the south.
Ten of the ranges are classified as Munros; from west to east these are:
The main backbone of the Mamores stretches from Meall a' Chaorainn, a subsidiary top of Mullach nan Coirean, at the western end of the ridge, to Sgòr Eilde Beag, a top of Binnein Mòr some 10 km to the east. Three narrow arêtes run north from the main ridge connecting to the summits of Sgurr a' Mhàim, An Gearanach and Binnein Mòr. Beyond the eastern end of the ridge are two steep outlying peaks: Binnein Beag and Sgurr Eilde Mòr. Sandwiched between the remote upper section of Glen Nevis, and Lochs Eilde Mòr and Eilde Beag, these two peaks are the remotest in the Mamores.
For hillwalkers the Mamores are accessible from either side - the village of Kinlochleven lies on the southern side, whilst upper Glen Nevis gives access from the north. The full traverse is challenging, either as a long day for fit walkers or as a multi-day trip. Given the relative ease of access,
The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the Ruwenzori Range (the spelling having been changed in about 1980 to conform more closely with the local name), and sometimes the Mountains of the Moon, is a mountain range of central Africa, often referred to as Mt. Rwenzori, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with heights of up to 5,109 m (16,761 ft) at 0°23′09″N 29°52′18″E / 0.38583°N 29.87167°E / 0.38583; 29.87167. The highest Rwenzoris are permanently snow-capped, and they, along with Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya are the only such in Equatorial Africa.
The mountains formed about three million years ago in the late Pliocene as a result of an uplifted block of crystalline rocks such as: gneiss, amphibolite granite and quartzite, "pushed up by tremendous forces originating deep within the earth’s crust". This uplift divided the paleolake Obweruka and created two of the present-day African Great Lakes: Albert and Edward and George on the flanks of the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift.
The range is about 120 km (75 mi) long and 65 km (40 mi) wide. It consists of six massifs separated by deep gorges: Mount Stanley
The Siskiyou Mountains are a coastal mountain range in the northern Klamath Mountains in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon in the United States. They extend in an arc for approximately 100 miles (160 km) from east of Crescent City, California northeast along the north side of the Klamath River into Josephine and Jackson counties in Oregon. The mountain range forms a barrier between the watersheds of the Klamath River to the south and the Rogue River to the north.
These mountains are not the highest or most dramatic in the Klamath Mountains but are subtly beautiful, botanically diverse, and the wildest the region has to offer. Due to the relief so close to the Pacific Ocean, the peaks receive more precipitation than the surrounding land. This leads to forests that grow with heavy vegetation. Diversity abounds because western canyons can receive over 100 inches (2,500 mm) of rain in some winters while eastern areas are slightly more arid. Because the Siskiyous trend both north and south and then east and west, it holds species that range from coastal, like coast redwood, to Cascadian, like Alaska yellow-cedar and Pacific silver fir.
Much of the range is within the Rogue
The Cordillera Blanca (Spanish for "White Range") is a mountain range in the Ancash Region of Peru. Part of the larger Andes range, it includes 33 major peaks over 5,500 metres (18,040 ft) high in an area 21 kilometres (13 mi) wide and 180 kilometres (112 mi) long.
The highest mountain in Peru, Huascarán (6,768 m), is located here. Huascarán National Park, established in 1975, encompasses almost the entire range of the Cordillera Blanca.
The 5,947 m (19,511 ft) Alpamayo mountain was declared "World's Most Beautiful Mountain" by an international survey led by former climber Tonni Hiebler in May 1966 in Münich.
Snow melt from the Cordillera Blanca has provided Peru with its year-round water supplies, while 80% of Peru's power comes from hydroelectricity. The area of permanent ice pack shrank by about a third between the 1970s and 2006.
There are sixteen 6000m peaks in the Cordillera Blanca with a 400m topographic prominence, and a further seventeen peaks over 5500m. Huascaran Sur, the highest peak, has two commonly quoted heights - 6746m from the Peruvian IGM map, and 6768 from the OEAV survey map.
A selection of the Cordillera Blanca's more famous peaks are listed below.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (/ˈæpənaɪn/; Greek: Ἀπέννινα Ὄρη, Latin: Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural; Italian: Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare. In the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. Since about 2000 the Ministry of the Environment of Italy, following the recommendations of the Apennines Park of Europe Project, has been defining the Apennines System to include the mountains of north Sicily, for a total distance of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas.
The etymology most frequently repeated, because of its semantic appropriateness, is that it derives from the Celtic Penn, "mountain, summit": A-penn-inus, which could have been assigned during the Celtic domination of north Italy in the 4th century BC or before. The name originally applied to the north Apennines. However, historical linguists have never found a derivation with which they are universally
Gennargentu (IPA: [dʒennarˈdʒɛntu]) is a large massif in central-southern Sardinia, Italy, encompassing the provinces of Nuoro and Ogliastra. It includes the highest peaks in the island, such as Punta La Marmora (1,834 m), Monte Spada (1,595 m), Punta Erba Irdes (1,676 m), Bruncu Spina (1,829 m) and Punta Paulinu (1,792 m).
The range forms part of the Gennargentu National Park. Geologically, its rocks are amongst the oldest in Europe, and have therefore a mild shape: rock types include schist, limestone and granite.
The etymology of toponymy Gennargentu isn't attested, it could mean Door of Silver (Sardinian language: jenna de argentu), Door of the Winds (Sardinian language: Jenna de bentu ) or Door of absinthium.
On the massif are located the only ski resorts of the island: on Monte Spada, Bruncu Spina, Separadorgiu and S'Arena.
The San Bernardino Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in Southern California in the United States. Situated north and northeast of San Bernardino and spanning two California counties, the range tops out at 11,489 feet (3,502 m) at San Gorgonio Mountain – the tallest peak in all of Southern California. The San Bernardinos form a significant region of wilderness and are popular for hiking and skiing.
The mountains were formed about eleven million years ago by tectonic activity along the San Andreas Fault, and are still actively rising. Many local rivers originate in the range, which receives significantly more precipitation than the surrounding desert. The range's unique and varying environment allows it to maintain some of the greatest biodiversity in the state. For over 10,000 years, the San Bernardinos and their surrounds have been inhabited by indigenous peoples, who used the mountains as a summer hunting ground.
Spanish explorers first encountered the San Bernardinos in the late 1700s, naming the eponymous San Bernardino Valley at its base. European settlement of the region progressed slowly until 1860, when the mountains became the focus of the largest gold rush
The Virunga Mountains are a chain of volcanoes in East Africa, along the northern border of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Uganda. The mountain range is a branch of the Albertine Rift Mountains, which border the western branch of the East African Rift. They are located between Lake Edward and Lake Kivu. The name "Virunga" is an English version of the Kinyarwanda word ibirunga, which means "mountains".
The mountain range consists of eight major volcanoes. Most of them are dormant, except Mount Nyiragongo 3,462 metres (11,358 ft) and Mount Nyamuragira 3,063 metres (10,049 ft), both in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Recent eruptions occurred in 2006, and in January, 2010. Mount Karisimbi at 4,507 metres (14,787 ft), is the highest volcano. The oldest mountain is Mount Sabyinyo which rises 3,634 metres (11,923 ft), above sea level.
The Virunga Mountains are home of the critically endangered mountain gorilla, listed on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species due to habitat loss, poaching, disease, and war (Butynski et al. 2003). The Karisoke Research Center, founded by Dian Fossey to observe gorillas in their native habitat, is located between Mount
The Ouachita Mountains (/ˈwɒʃɨtɔː/WOSH-i-taw) are a mountain range in west central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. The range's subterranean roots may extend as far as central Texas, or beyond it to the current location of the Marathon Uplift. Along with the Ozark Mountains, the Ouachita Mountains form the U.S. Interior Highlands, one of the few major mountainous regions between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains. The highest peak in the Ouachitas is Mount Magazine in west-central Arkansas which rises to 2,753 feet (839 m).
The word Ouachita is composed of two Choctaw words: ouac, a buffalo, and chito, large. It means the country of large buffaloes, numerous herds of those animals having formerly covered the prairies of Ouachita.
The Ouachita Mountains are a physiographic section of the larger Ouachita province (which includes both the Ouachita Mountains and the Arkansas Valley), which in turn is part of the larger Interior Highlands physiographic division.
The Ouachita Mountains are fold mountains like the Appalachian Mountains to the east, and were originally part of that range. During the Pennsylvanian part of the Carboniferous period, about 300 million years
Alborz ( listen (help·info) Persian: البرز), also written as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran stretching from the borders of Azerbaijan and Armenia in the northwest to the southern end of the Caspian Sea, and ending in the east at the borders of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. The highest mountain in West Asia, Mount Damavand, Amol, Mazandaran is located in the range.
The Alborz mountain range forms a barrier between the south Caspian and the Qazvin-Tehran plateau. It is only 60–130 km wide and consists of sedimentary series dating from Upper Devonian to Oligocene, prevalently Jurassic limestone over a granite core. Its higher elevations, in the Elburz Range forest steppe ecoregion, are arid with few trees, but its northern slopes, in the Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests ecoregion, are lush and forested.
Zoroastrians may identify the range with the dwelling place of the Peshyotan, and the Zoroastrian Ilm-e-Kshnoom sect identify Mount Davamand as the home of the Saheb-e-Dilan ('Masters of the Heart'). In his epic Shahnameh, the poet Ferdowsi speaks of the mountains "as though they lay in India." This could reflect older usage, for numerous high peaks were
The Cathedral Range is a mountain range immediately to the South of Tuolumne Meadows in Yosemite National Park, USA. It is a beautiful range, sculpted by glaciers out of granite. The tops of the peaks in the range were above the level of the highest glaciation, and are therefore uneroded and spire-like. The range is named after Cathedral Peak, which is shaped like a cathedral, because of this differential erosion.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
The Caucasus Mountains include:
The Greater Caucasus Range extends from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, generally trending east-southeast and reaching nearly to Baku on the Caspian Sea, while the Lesser Caucasus runs parallel to the greater range, at a distance averaging about 100 km (62 mi) south. The Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. The Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges are connected by the Likhi Range, which separates the Kolkhida Lowland from the Kura-Aras Lowland. In the southeast are the Talysh Mountains. The Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland constitute the Transcaucasian Highland. The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of 5,642 metres (18,510 ft) above sea level. Mountains near Sochi will host part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.
The Caucasus Mountains formed largely as the result of a tectonic plate collision between the Arabian plate moving northward with respect to the Eurasian plate. The
The Cottian Alps (French: Alpes Cottiennes; Italian: Alpi Cozie) are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps. They form the border between France (Hautes-Alpes and Savoie) and Italy (Piedmont). The Fréjus Road Tunnel and Fréjus Rail Tunnel between Modane and Susa are important transportation arteries between France (Lyon, Grenoble) and Italy (Turin).
The name Cottian comes from Marcus Julius Cottius, a king of the tribes inhabiting that mountainous region in the 1st century BC. These tribes had previously opposed but later made peace with Julius Caesar. Cottius was succeeded by his son, also named Marcus Julius Cottius, who was granted the title of king by the emperor Claudius.
On his death, Nero annexed his kingdom as the province of Alpes Cottiae.
For a long part of the middle ages Cottian Alps have been divided between Duchy of Savoy, which controlled their northern part and the easternmost slopes, and the Dauphiné, at the time independent from France kingdom. The Dauphins held, in addition to the south-western slopes of the range (Briançon and Queyras, nowadays on the French side), also the upper part of some valleys tributaries of the Po River (Valle di Susa,
The Guadalupe Mountains (Spanish: Sierra de Guadalupe) are a mountain range located in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The range includes the highest summit in Texas, Guadalupe Peak, 8,749 ft (2,667 m), and the "signature peak" of West Texas, El Capitan, both located within Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, and Lincoln National Forest. The Guadalupe Mountains are surrounded by the South Plains to the east and north, Delaware Mountains to the south, and Sacramento Mountains to the west.
Archaeological evidence has shown that people lived over 10,000 years ago in and among the many caves and alcoves. The first humans to live here were hunter-gathers that followed large game and collected edible vegetation. Artifacts that support this include projectile points, baskets, pottery, and rock art.
The first Europeans to arrive in the area were the Spanish in the 16th century, but they did not make serious attempts to settle in the Guadalupe Mountains. The Spanish introduced horses into the area; and nomadic indigenous tribes of the area like the Apaches soon found horses to be an asset for hunting and migrating. Mescalero Apaches were nomadic and
Hispar Muztagh is a sub-range of the Karakoram mountain range. It is located in the Gojal region of the Northern Areas of Pakistan, north of Hispar Glacier, south of Shimshal Valley, and east of the Hunza Valley. It is the second highest sub-range of the Karakoram, the highest being the Baltoro Muztagh. The highest mountain in the range is Distaghil Sar (7,885m/25,869ft).
Jerzy Wala, Orographical Sketch Map of the Karakoram, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990.
The South Jasper Ranges are mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.
It is a part of the Central Main Ranges of the Canadian Rockies, located on the continental divide, in Jasper National Park and Mount Robson Provincial Park. It contains the Meadow-Clairvaux, Fraser-Rampart, Trident Range and, most prominently, the Cavell Group of mountains and the headwaters of the Athabasca and Fraser River.
The South Jasper Ranges covers a surface of 1,196 km² (462 mi²), has a length of 39 km (from north to south) and a width of 49 km.
The Wicklow Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Chill Mhantáin, archaic: Cualu) form the largest continuous upland area in Ireland. They occupy the whole centre of County Wicklow and stretch outside its borders into Counties Carlow, Wexford and Dublin. Where the mountains extend into County Dublin, they are known locally as the Dublin Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Bhaile Átha Cliath). The highest peak is Lugnaquilla at 925 metres (3,035 feet).
The mountains are primarily composed of granite surrounded by an envelope of mica-schist and much older rocks such as quartzite. They were pushed up during the Caledonian orogeny at the start of the Devonian period and form part of the Leinster Chain, the largest continuous area of granite in Ireland and Britain. The mountains owe much of their present topography to the effects of the last ice age, which deepened the valleys and created corrie and ribbon lakes. Copper and lead have been the main metals mined in the mountains and a brief gold rush occurred in the 18th century.
Several major river systems have their source in the mountains, such as the Liffey, Dargle, Slaney and Avoca rivers. Powerscourt Waterfall is the tallest in Ireland at 121 metres
The Snake Range is a mountain range in the Great Basin region of the Western United States. The range is located in eastern White Pine County of central-eastern Nevada.
Typical of other ranges in the Basin and Range Province, the Snake Range runs in a north-south direction, for approximately 60 miles (97 km).
To the west are Spring Valley and the Schell Creek Range, and to the east across the Utah border are Snake Valley and the Confusion Range. Sacramento Pass (7,154 feet (2,181 m) is where U.S. Route 6—U.S. Route 50, the "Loneliest Highway in America", crosses the range. It is the principal means of eastbound access to this part of eastern Nevada.
Great Basin National Park is located in the southern section of the Snake Range. Established in 1986, it protects the unique geologic and habitat features of the mountain range and Great Basin Desert, and their representations of the Central Basin and Range ecoregion. The southern section also includes the natural rock Lexington Arch (83 feet (25 m) span), and the Lehman Caves, both formed from the range's limestone.
Several large groves of ancient Great Basin Bristlecone Pine (Pinus longaeva) trees thrive in the Great Basin montane
The Boundary Ranges, also known in the singular and as the Alaska Boundary Range, are the largest and most northerly subrange of the Coast Mountains. They begin at the Nass River, near the southern end of the Alaska Panhandle in the Canadian province of British Columbia and run to the Kelsall River, near the Chilkoot Pass, beyond which is the Alsek Ranges of the Saint Elias Mountains, and northwards into the Yukon Territory flanking the west side of the Yukon River drainage as far as Champagne Pass, north of which being the Yukon Ranges. To their east are the Skeena Mountains and Stikine Plateau of the Interior Mountains complex that lies northwest of the Interior Plateau; the immediately adjoining subregion of the Stikine Plateau is the Tahltan Highland. To their northeast is the Tagish Highland, which is a subregion of the Yukon Plateau. Both highlands are considered in some descriptions as included in the Coast Mountains. The Alexander Archipelago lies offshore and is entirely within Alaska.
The Boundary Ranges include several large icefields, including the Juneau Icefield, between the Alaska city of the same name and Atlin Lake in B.C.; and the Stikine Icecap, which lies
The Cordillera Real is a mountain range in the South American Altiplano of Bolivia. This range of fold mountains, largely composed of granite, is located southeast of Lake Titicaca, and east of the Bolivian capital of La Paz, measuring 125 km in length and 20 km in width. Despite the fact that it is only 17° south of the Equator, the Cordillera Real is relatively densely glaciated. This is due to its proximity to the Amazon lowlands with its associated moist air masses.
There are six summits higher than 6,000 m in the mountain range which are, from north to south:
Other notable peaks include Mururata (5871 m), Chacaltaya (5421 m), and the Condoriri Massif. The Condoriri Massif is a complex of 13 peaks, all above the 5000 meter mark, including Cabeza de Condor (5540 m) and Pequeño Alpamayo (5370 m). Other peaks of the Condoriri Massif include Pyramida Blanca (5250 m) and Tarija (5320 m).
The Lost River Range is a group of high mountains located in central Idaho, in the northwestern United States. It runs southeast for approximately 75 miles (120 km) from the Salmon River near the community of Challis to the Snake River Valley near Arco. To the west are the valleys of the Salmon and the Big Lost Rivers, while to the east are the Little Lost River and Pashimeroi Valleys.
The range starts at the east bank of the Salmon River, at an elevation of about 5000 feet (1525 m). It quickly rises to Grouse Creek Mountain (11,085 ft, 3378 m) and Dickey Peak (11,141 ft, 3395 m), and then descends to Double Springs Pass, location of one of just two roads to cross the range. Nearby is an interpretive site explaining the effects of the magnitude 6.9 Borah Peak Earthquake that hit the range on October 28, 1983. The Big Lost River Valley fell and the Lost River Range rose, leaving a fault scarp of up to 14 feet (5 m) along the base of the mountains.
The range then rises into its high central section, which includes many of the state's highest peaks. Borah Peak, the highest, climbs to 12,662 feet (3859 m). Further south are Mount Idaho (12,065 ft, 3677 m), Leatherman Peak (12,228 ft,
The Sierra Nevada (meaning "snowy range" in Spanish) is a mountain range in the region of Andalusia, provinces of Granada and Almería in Spain. It contains the highest point of continental Spain, Mulhacén at 3478 m (11,411 ft.) above sea level.
It is a popular tourist destination, as its high peaks make skiing possible in one of Europe's most southerly ski resorts, in an area along the Mediterranean Sea predominantly known for its warm temperatures and abundant sunshine. At its foothills is found the city of Granada and, a little further, Almería and Málaga.
Parts of the range have been included in the Sierra Nevada National Park. The range has also been declared a biosphere reserve. The Sierra Nevada Observatory is located on the northern slopes at an elevation of 2800 m (9186 ft.).
The Sierra Nevada was formed during the Alpine Orogeny, a mountain-building event that also formed the European Alps to the east and the Atlas Mountains of northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Sierra as observed today formed during the Tertiary Period (65 to 1.8 million years ago) from the collision of the African and Eurasian continental plates.
Central to the mountain range
The Silvretta Alps are a mountain range of the Central Eastern Alps shared by Tirol, Vorarlberg (both in Austria) and Graubünden (Switzerland). The Austrian states of Tirol and Vorarlberg are connected by a pass road (Silvretta Hochalpenstraße at 2032 m). The majority of the peaks are elevated above three thousand metres and are surrounded by glaciers. Thus, the area is also known as the "Blue Silvretta".
According to the Alpine Clubs, the Silvretta Alps are outlined from other groups by the following borders: St. Gallenkirch - Ill river as far as Partenen - Zeinisjoch - Zeinisbach - Paznauntal as far as Ischgl - Fimbertal - Fimber Pass - Val Chöglias - Val Sinestra - Inn River from the mouth of the Branclabach to the mouth of the Susasca - Val Susasca - Flüela Pass - Davos - Wolfgang - Laretbach - Klosters - Schlappinbach - Schlappiner Joch - Valzifensbach - Gargellental - St. Gallenkirch
The Silvretta Alps are surrounded by the Rätikon, Verwall and Samnaun ranges.
The Piz Buin is not the highest, but the most popular peak of the range. It can relatively easily be ascended from north or south through glaciers and stretches of easily climbing.
The Silvretta is famous for its
The Carson Range is a spur of the Sierra Nevada in eastern California and western Nevada that starts at Luther Pass and West Carson Canyon and goes to the Truckee River. The Tahoe Rim Trail is in the range.
Dovrefjell is a mountain range in central Norway that forms a natural barrier between Eastern Norway and Trøndelag, the area around Trondheim. As a result, it has been heavily trafficked during and probably preceding historical times. Several mountain inns were established in the Middle Ages to house pilgrims traveling to Trondheim, and there are even ruins of an old leper colony in the northern area of it.
The main south-north highway (E6) and railway Dovrebanen in Norway runs over Dovrefjell. The highway is a year-round highway but is at rare occasions closed for short periods during heavy winter weather conditions.
The natural habitat for many rare plants and animals, it became a national park in several stages starting in 1911, when some plants were put under protection. When the railroad was built from Oslo to Trondheim in 1921, one of the marshes was preserved. In 1974, parts of the range became a national park and the park was extensively enlarged in 2002. Together with Rondane, it has Norway and Europe's last stock of wild reindeer of Beringian origin. Dovrefjell (west of E6/Dovrebanen) also has a stock of musk oxen, imported from East-Greenland in 1932.
The Dovrefjell area
The Executive Committee Range is a mountain range consisting of five major volcanoes, which trends north-south for 80 km (50 mi) along the 126th meridian west, in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica.
Discovered by the United States Antarctic Service expedition on a flight, December 15, 1940, and named for the Antarctic Service Executive Committee. Individual mountains (e.g. Hampton, Waesche) are named in honor of members of the committee, except for Mount Sidley, the most imposing mountain in the range, which was discovered and named by Rear Admiral Byrd in 1934. The entire range was mapped in detail by USGS from surveys and U.S. Navy trimetrogon photography, 1958-60.
Mountains of this range include Mount Sidley, Mount Waesche and Mount Hampton.
Mount Cumming (76°40′S 125°48′W / 76.667°S 125.8°W / -76.667; -125.8) is a low, mostly snow-covered mountain, volcanic in origin, located midway between Mount Hampton and Mount Hartigan. A circular snow-covered crater occupies the summit area. Discovered by the U.S. Antarctic Service (USAS) (1939–41) on a flight, Dec. 15, 1940, and named for Hugh S. Cumming, Jr., State Department member of the U.S. Antarctic Service (USAS) Executive Committee.
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest in the world. The range stretches more than 3,500 kilometres (2,175 mi) from Dauan Island off the northeastern tip of Queensland, running the entire length of the eastern coastline through New South Wales, then into Victoria and turning west, before finally fading into the central plain at the Grampians in western Victoria. The width of the range varies from about 160 km (100 mi) to over 300 km (190 mi).
The sharp rise between the coastal lowlands and the eastern uplands has affected Australia's climate, mainly due to orographic precipitation, and these areas of highest relief have revealed an impressive gorge country.
The Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range. It consists of a complex of mountain ranges, plateaus, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient and complex geological history. The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera. In some places the terrain is relatively flat, consisting of very low hills.
The crest of the range is defined by the watershed or boundary between the drainage
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world. It separates the Eurasian Plate and North American Plate in the North Atlantic, and the African Plate from the South American Plate in the South Atlantic. The Ridge extends from a junction with the Gakkel Ridge (Mid-Arctic Ridge) northeast of Greenland southward to the Bouvet Triple Junction in the South Atlantic. Although the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is mostly an underwater feature, portions of it have enough elevation to extend above sea level. The section of the ridge which includes the island of Iceland is also known as the Reykjanes Ridge. The average spreading rate for the ridge is about 2.5 cm per year.
A ridge under the Atlantic Ocean was first inferred by Matthew Fontaine Maury in 1850. The ridge was discovered during the expedition of HMS Challenger in 1872. A team of scientists on board, led by Charles Wyville Thomson, discovered a large rise in the middle of the Atlantic while investigating the future location for a transatlantic telegraph cable. The existence of such a ridge was confirmed by
The Northern Limestone Alps (German: Nördliche Kalkalpen) are the ranges of the Eastern Alps north of the Central Eastern Alps located in Austria and the adjacent Bavarian lands of southeastern Germany. The distinction from the latter group, where the higher peaks are located, is based on differences in geological composition.
If viewed on a west-east axis, the Northern Limestone Alps extend from the Rhine valley and the Bregenz Forest in Vorarlberg, Austria in the west extending along the border between the German federal-state of Bavaria and Austrian Tyrol, through Salzburg, Upper Austria, Styria and Lower Austria and finally ending at the Wienerwald at the city-limits of Vienna in the east.
The highest peaks in the Northern Limestone Alps are the Parseierspitze (3,036 m/9,961 ft) in the Lechtal Alps, and the Hoher Dachstein (2,996 m/9,826 ft). Other notable peaks in this range include the Zugspitze, (2,962 m/9,717 ft), located on the German-Austrian frontier and listed as the highest peak in Germany.
Ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps according to the Alpine Club classification of the Eastern Alps (from east to west):
Ranges according to the International Standardized
The Panmah Muztagh is a subrange of the Karakoram range, in Baltistan, a district of the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Its highest peaks are not particularly high by Karakoram standards, but they are exceedingly steep rock spires, unlike many of the peaks in the surrounding subranges. In particular, the highest of the Panmah peaks, Baintha Brakk (The Ogre) (7,285 m/23,901 feet), is a very difficult climb; it has seen only two ascents. The nearby Latok group is of similar difficulty. Both groups lie on the north side of the long Biafo Glacier.
The Panmah Muztagh lies in the heart of the Karakoram, northwest of the Baltoro Muztagh (home of the eight thousand meter peaks of the Karakoram), and southeast of the Hispar Muztagh. On the southwest, it is separated from the Spantik-Sosbun Mountains by the Biafo Glacier. The Skamri Glacier and the Braldu Glacier separate it from the Wesm Mountains to the north. The Panmah, Nobande Sobande, Choktoi, and Chiring Glaciers lie within the range.
The Picket Range is a small, extremely rugged subrange of the North Cascades in the northwestern part of the American state of Washington. It is entirely contained within North Cascades National Park. It is about 6 miles (9.7 km) long, running northwest-southeast, and lies north of the Skagit River, west of Ross Lake, and east of Mounts Baker and Shuksan. There are at least 21 peaks in the range over 7,500 ft (2,300 m) high .
Swedish American Lage Wernstedt of the U.S. Forest Service mapped the Picket Range in the 1920s and named it for its resemblance to a picket fence (and not for George Pickett). Wernstedt was also apparently responsible for the names of the main peaks, including Mt. Challenger, Fury, Terror, and Phantom. These names first appeared on maps in 1931.
There are few trails in the Picket Range, and any excursion there has a strong wilderness character. Many of the peaks are challenging rock climbs. The rock is biotite gneiss, "formed by metamorphism of sedimentary and volcanic rocks c. 100 m.y. ago."
The Pyrenees ( /ˈpɪərɨniːz/; Spanish: Pirineos or Pirineo, French: Pyrénées, Catalan: Pirineus, Occitan: Pirenèus, Aragonese: Perinés, Basque: Pirinioak or Auñamendiak), also spelled Pyrénées, is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain. It separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean (Cap de Creus).
For the most part, the main crest forms a massive divider between France and Spain, with the tiny country of Andorra sandwiched in between. Catalonia and Navarre have historically extended on both sides of the mountain range, with small northern portions now in France and much larger southern parts now in Spain.
The adjective related to the noun "Pyrenees" in English is Pyrenean.
In classical mythology, Pyrene is a princess who gave her name to the Pyrenees. The Greek historian Herodotus says Pyrene is the name of a town in Celtic Europe. According to Silius Italicus, she was the virginal daughter of Bebryx, a king in Mediterranean Gaul by whom the hero Hercules was given hospitality during his quest to steal the
The Rocky Mountains (or the Rockies) are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 3,000 miles (4,830 km) from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada which all lie farther to the west.
The Rocky Mountains were formed from 80 million to 55 million years ago by the Laramide orogeny. Since then, erosion by water and glaciers have sculpted the mountain range into dramatic valleys and peaks. At the end of the last ice age, humans started to inhabit the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander MacKenzie and the Lewis and Clark expedition, started to explore the range, minerals and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never became densely populated.
Currently, much of the mountain range is protected by public parks and forest lands, and is a popular tourist destination, especially for hiking, camping, mountaineering, fishing, hunting, mountain biking, skiing, and
The Sandia Mountains (Tiwa Pueblo name posu gai hoo-oo, "where water slides down arroyo") are a mountain range located in Bernalillo and Sandoval counties, immediately to the east of the city of Albuquerque in New Mexico in the southwestern United States. The range is largely within the Cibola National Forest, and part of the range is protected as the Sandia Mountain Wilderness. It is home to the Sandia Peak Ski Area. Its highest point is Sandia Crest, 10,678 feet (3,255 m).
Sandía means watermelon in Spanish, and is popularly believed to be a reference to the reddish color of the mountains at sunset. Also, when viewed from the west, the profile of the mountains is a long ridge, with a thin zone of green conifers near the top, suggesting the "rind" of the watermelon. However, as Robert Julyan notes, "the most likely explanation is the one believed by the Sandia Indians: the Spaniards, when they encountered the Pueblo in 1540, called it Sandia, because they thought the squash growing there were watermelons, and the name Sandia soon was transferred to the mountains east of the pueblo." He also notes that the Sandia Pueblo Indians call the mountain Bien Mur, "big mountain".
The Santa Catalina Mountains, commonly referred to as the Catalina Mountains or the Catalinas, are located north, and northeast of Tucson, Arizona, United States, on Tucson's north perimeter. The mountain range is the most prominent in the Tucson area, with the highest average elevation. The highest point in the Catalinas is Mount Lemmon at an elevation of 9,157 feet above sea level and receives 180 inches of snow annually.
Originally known by the Tohono O'odham nation as Babad Do'ag, the Catalinas were later named by Italian Jesuit priest Eusebio Francisco Kino in honor of St. Catherine in 1697.
The Catalinas are part of the Santa Catalina Ranger District located in the Coronado National Forest, and also include the Pusch Ridge Wilderness Area. The mountain range is considered a prominent range in the Madrean sky islands, and partially delimits the mountain ranges in the northwest of the sky island region; lower elevation bajadas associated with the Santa Cruz River Valley spread northwestwards towards Phoenix.
The Catalinas are a significant focus of recreational activity, with areas such as Sabino Canyon providing streams and perennial pools for visitors, by road access; Sabino
The Abajo Mountains, also called the Blue Mountains, is a small mountain range west of Monticello, Utah, south of Canyonlands National Park and north of Blanding, Utah. The mountain range is located within the Manti-La Sal National Forest. The highest peak within the range is Abajo Peak at 11,360 feet (3,463 m).
This mountain range, like both the La Sal Range and Henry Mountains in the same part of the Colorado Plateau, is formed about igneous intrusions that are relatively resistant to erosion. Some of these intrusions form laccoliths emplaced at depths of a few kilometers. The predominant igneous rock is porphyritic hornblende diorite. Ages of intrusion in the Abajo Mountains fall in the interval from 22 to 29 million years. These mountain ranges are part of the Colorado Plateau province west of the greater ranges of the Rocky Mountains. The laccolith ranges are much younger and have a very different geologic origin.
The name "Abajo" comes from a Spanish word meaning "low".
The Big Horn Mountains are a mountain range in northern Wyoming and southern Montana in the United States, forming a northwest-trending spur from the Rocky Mountains extending approximately 200 miles (320 km) northward on the Great Plains. They are separated from the Absaroka Range, which lie on the main branch of the Rockies in western Wyoming, by the Bighorn Basin.
The Big Horns were uplifted during the Laramide orogeny beginning approximately 70 million years ago. They consist of over 9,000 feet (2,700 m) of sedimentary rock strata laid down before mountain-building began: the predominantly marine and near-shore sedimentary layers range from the Cambrian through the Lower Cretaceous, and are often rich in fossils. There is an unconformity where Silurian strata were exposed to erosion and are missing. Following the uplift, large volumes of sediments, rich in early Tertiary paleontological resources, were deposited in the adjoining basins. Though many cirques, U-shaped valleys and glacial lakes can be found in the mountain range, the only remaining active glacier is the Cloud Peak Glacier, which is on the east slope of Cloud Peak.
The highest peaks within the Big Horns are located
The Darling Scarp, also referred to as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges, is a low escarpment running north-south to the east of the Swan Coastal Plain and Perth, Western Australia. It extends generally north of Bindoon, to the south of Pemberton, and easterly to include Mount Bakewell near York and Mount Saddleback near Boddington.
The feature was first recorded as General Darling Range by Charles Fraser, Government Botanist with Captain James Stirling aboard HMS Success in March 1827.
Maps from the 1830s show the scarp labelled "General Darlings Range"; this later became Darling Range, a name by which the formation was still commonly known in the late 20th century, despite common understanding of it being an escarpment. There is also a tendency to identify the locations on or to the east of the scarp as being in the "Perth Hills" (or simply "The Hills").
The earliest traverses by British settlers in the Swan River Colony occurred in the 1830s. The best known of these is the expedition of Ensign Robert Dale, who appears to have gone from a point near Guildford, to the south side of Greenmount Hill and up through the Helena Valley.
The Darling Scarp originated as the local
The Elk Mountains are a high, rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of west-central Colorado in the United States. The mountains sit on the western side of the Continental Divide, largely in southern Pitkin and northern Gunnison counties, in the area southwest of Aspen, south of the Roaring Fork River valley, and east of the Crystal River. The range sits west of the Sawatch Range and northeast of the West Elk Mountains. Much of the range is located within the White River National Forest and the Gunnison National Forest, as well as the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and Raggeds Wilderness.
The highest peaks in the range are its fourteeners, Castle Peak (14,265 ft), Maroon Peak (14,156 ft), Capitol Peak (14,130 ft), Snowmass Mountain (14,092 ft), Pyramid Peak (14,018 ft), and North Maroon Peak (14,014 ft). Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak are collectively known as the Maroon Bells, a popular destination for recreation alpinism. Mount Sopris (12,953 ft) sits at the northwest end of the range and dominates the skyline of the lower Roaring Fork Valley and the town of Carbondale, serving as an unofficial symbol of the area.
Additional notable peaks in the range include:
The Graian Alps (Italian: Alpi Graie; French: Alpes Grées) are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps.
The name Graie comes from the Graioceli Celtic tribe, which dwelled in the area surrounding the Mont Cenis pass and the Viù valley.
The Graian Alps are located in France (Rhône-Alpes), Italy (Piedmont and the Aosta Valley), and Switzerland (western Valais).
Their French side of the Graian Alps is drained by the river Isère (Tarentaise valley) and its tributary Arc (Maurienne valley), and by the Arve. The Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea, Orco and Stura di Lanzo, tributaries of the Po.
According to SOIUSA (International Standardized Mountain Subdivision of the Alps) the mountain range is an Alpine section, classified in the following way:
The Isère, Arly, Arve valleys and the Col des Montets separate them from the Savoy Prealps; the Col Ferret and the Dora Baltea valley separate them from the Pennine Alps; the Dora Ripariavalley and the Col du Mont Cenis separates them from the Cottian Alps; the Arc valley separates them from the Dauphiné Alps.
The SOIUSA divides the range into six subsections:
The Graian Alps can also be divided into the following four
The Himalayas, also Himalaya, ( /ˌhɪməˈleɪ.ə/ or /hɪˈmɑːləjə/; Sanskrit, hima (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), literally, "abode of the snow") is a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
The Himalayan range is home to some the planet's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. The Himalayas include over a hundred mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in height. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia—Aconcagua, in the Andes— is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall.
The Himalayan range, which consists of three parallel sub-ranges, abuts or crosses five countries: Bhutan, India, Nepal, People's Republic of China, and Pakistan, with the first three countries having sovereignty over most of the range. The Himalayas are bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Some of the world's major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges, and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, rise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin is home to some 600 million people. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia; many Himalayan
The Livingston Range is a mountain range located primarily in Glacier National Park in the U.S. state of Montana, and in the extreme southeastern section of the Canadian province of British Columbia. The range is 36 miles (58 km) long and 28 miles (45 km) wide. Over 15 summits exceed 9,000 ft (2,700 m) above sea level, and the highest point is Kintla Peak at 10,101 feet (3,079 m). (While these elevations are not particularly high for North American mountains, they are high compared to the roughly 4,000 foot (1,200 m) elevation of the nearby valleys, making for particularly dramatic peaks.)
The Livingston Range was initially uplifted beginning 170 million years ago when the Lewis Overthrust fault pushed an enormous slap of precambrian rocks 3 mi (4.8 km) thick, 50 miles (80 km) wide and 160 miles (260 km) long over newer rocks of the cretaceous period.
The Organ Mountains are a rugged mountain range in southern New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. They lie 10 miles (16 km) east of the city of Las Cruces, in Doña Ana County.
The Organ Mountains are near the southern end of a long line of mountains on the east side of the Rio Grande's rift valley. The range is nearly contiguous with the San Andres Mountains to the north and the Franklin Mountains to the south, but is very different geologically. Whereas the San Andres and Franklin Mountains are both formed from west-dipping fault blocks of mostly sedimentary strata (with limestone most prominent), the Organ Mountains are made primarily of igneous rock (intrusive granite and extrusive rhyolite). Their name reflects their similarity in appearance (particularly the granite "needles" in the highest part of the range) with pipes that would be part of a pipe organ.
The San Andres Mountains-(southern subrange of San Augustin Mountains), are separated from the Organ Mountains by San Augustin Pass, through which U.S. Highway 70 passes on its way to White Sands Missile Range, White Sands National Monument and Alamogordo. The Franklin Mountains are separated from the Organ Mountains
The Sangre de Cristo Range, called the East Range locally in the San Luis Valley, is a high, rugged and narrow mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in southern Colorado in the United States, running north and south along the east side of the Rio Grande Rift . The mountains extend southeast from Poncha Pass for about 75 miles (120 km) through south-central Colorado to La Veta Pass, approximately 20 miles (32 km) west of Walsenburg, and form a high ridge separating the San Luis Valley on the west from the watershed of the Arkansas River on the east. The Sangre De Cristo Range rises up to 8,000 feet above the valleys and plains to the west and northeast.
According to the USGS, the range is the northern part of the larger Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which extend through northern New Mexico. Usage of the terms "Sangre de Cristo Range" and "Sangre de Cristo Mountains" is varied; however this article discusses only the mountains between Poncha Pass and La Veta Pass.
Most of the range is shared by two National Forests, which abut along the range divide. Most of the northeast (Arkansas River) side is located within the San Isabel National Forest, while most of the southwest (San Luis
The Santa Rosa Mountains are a short mountain range in the Peninsular Ranges system, located east of the Los Angeles Basin and northeast of the San Diego metropolitan area of southern California, in the Southwestern United States.
The Santa Rosa Mountains extend for approximately 30 miles (48 km) along the western side of the Coachella Valley within Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties in Southern California. The range connects to the San Jacinto Mountains on its northern end, where the Pines to Palms Highway—California State Route 74, crosses them.
The highest peak in the range is Toro Peak (elevation 8,716 feet (2,657 m)), located approximately 22 miles (35 km) south of Palm Springs, just south of Route 74, and on the northeast side of Anza-Borrego's Upper Coyote Canyon. The Santa Rosa Mountains are also a Great Basin Divide landform for the Salton Sink Watershed on the east.
The southeastern reaches of the Santa Rosa Mountains were first noted by a non-native person during the 1774 Spanish expedition led by explorer Juan Bautista de Anza into colonial Las Californias through the Coachella Valley from the populated Viceroyalty of New Spain region (present day Mexico). 19th
The Brooks Range (Gwich'in Athabaskan Gwazhał) is a mountain range in far northern North America. It stretches from west to east across northern Alaska and into Canada's Yukon Territory, a total distance of about 1100 km (700 mi). The mountains top out at over 2,700 m (9,000 ft). The range is believed to be approximately 126 million years old. In the USA, these mountains are considered part of (or an extension of) the Rockies, whereas in Canada they are considered separate, the northern border of the Rockies regarded as the Liard River far to the south in the province of British Columbia.
The range is mostly uninhabited, but the Dalton Highway and the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System run through the Atigun Pass (1,415 m, 4,643 ft) on their way to the North Slope and the oil fields at Prudhoe Bay. The Alaska Native villages of Anaktuvuk and Arctic Village, as well as the very small communities of Coldfoot, Wiseman, Bettles, and Chandalar Lake are the only settlements in the 700-mile Brooks Range. In the far west, near the Wulik River in the De Long Mountains is the Red Dog mine, largest zinc mine in the world.
The range was named by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1925
The Cordillera de Talamanca is a mountain range that lies on the border between Costa Rica and Panama. Much of the range and the area around it is included in the La Amistad International Park, which also is shared between the two countries.
This range contains in the south of Costa Rica stretches from southwest of San José to beyond the border with Panama and contains the highest peaks of Costa Rica and Panama, among them the Cerro Chirripó with 3,820 m, and the more accessible high peak of Cerro de la Muerte. Much of the Caribbean areas of the range are still unexplored.
The range is covered by the Talamancan montane forests to elevations of approximately 3000 m. Much of it is covered by rainforests. Above elevations of 1800 m these are dominated by huge oak trees (Quercus costaricensis). Above 3000 m, the forests transition to enclaves of sub-páramo, a sort of shrub and dwarf bamboo Chusquea dominated scrub, above 3,400 m this becomes Costa Rican páramo, a tropical alpine grassland. The sub-páramo and páramo vegetation are subject to regular frosts at night, temperatures at 3200 m reaching –5 Celsius. The region has been extensively studied by paleolimnologists to reconstruct
The Sikhote-Alin (Russian: Сихотэ́-Али́нь) is a mountain range in Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krais, Russia, extending about 900 km to the northeast of the Russian Pacific seaport of Vladivostok. The highest summits are Tordoki Yani (2,077 m), Ko Mountain (2,003 m) in Khabarovsk Krai and Anik Mountain (1,933 m) in Primorsky Krai.
Sikhote-Alin comprises one of the most extraordinary temperate zones in the world. Species typical of northern taiga (such as reindeer and the Ussuri Brown Bear) coexist with tropical species, the Amur leopard, Siberian tiger, and the Asiatic Black Bear. The region holds very few wolves, due to competition with tigers. The oldest tree in the region is a millennium-old Japanese yew.
In the 1910s and 1920s, Sikhote-Alin was extensively explored by Vladimir Arsenyev (1872–1930) who described his adventures in several books, notably Dersu Uzala (1923), which in 1975 was turned into an Oscar-winning film by Akira Kurosawa. The large Sikhote-Alin and Lazo wildlife refuges were set up in 1935 to preserve the region's unusual wildlife.
On February 12, 1947, one of the largest meteor showers in recent history occurred in the Sikhote-Alin mountains. The Sikhote-Alin
The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range in Central Asia formed by the junction or knot of the Himalayas, Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush ranges. They are among the world’s highest mountains and since Victorian times they have been known as the "Roof of the World" a probable translation from the Persian.
In other languages they are called: Kyrgyz Памир тоолору; Persian: رشته کوه های پامیر Reshte Kūh-hāye Pāmīr; Tajik: Кӯҳҳои Помир; Pashto: د پامير غرونه; Uyghur: پامىر ئېگىزلىكى; Urdu: پامیر کوهستان; Hindi: पामीर पर्वतमाला; Chinese: 帕米尔高原; pinyin: Pàmǐ'ěr Gāoyuán. Another Chinese name is Congling (cōnglǐng 葱嶺) (Wade-Giles: Ts'ung-ling) or "Onion Range" (after the wild onions growing in the region).
The precise extent of the Pamir Mountains is debatable. They lie mostly in Gorno-Badakhshan province, Tajikistan and Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. To the north they join the Tian Shan mountains along the Alay Valley of Kyrgyzstan. To the south they join the Hindu Kush mountains along the Wakhan Corridor in Afghanistan and Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan. To the east they may end on the Chinese border or extend to the range that includes Kongur Tagh which is sometimes
The Beskids (Polish: Beskidy, Czech: Beskydy, Slovak: Beskydy, Rusyn: Бескиды (Beskidy), Ukrainian: Бескиди (Beskydy)) is a name for a series of mountain ranges of Europe, stretching from the Czech Republic in the west through Slovakia and Poland to Ukraine in the east.
The highest mountain in the Beskidy is Hoverla, at 2,061 m metres (6,762 ft), in Ukrainian Chornohora region.
The Beskids are approximately 600 km in length and 50–70 km in width. They stand mainly along the southern border of Poland, and in the neighboring eastern Czech Republic, neighboring regions in northern Slovakia, and in western Ukraine.
Multiple traditions, languages and nationalities have developed overlapping variants for the divisions and names of these ranges. Geologically all of the Beskids stand within the Outer Western Carpathians and the Outer Eastern Carpathians.
In the west they begin in Moravia (eastern Czech Republic) at the natural pass of the Moravian Gate, continue east in a band to the north of the Tatra Mountains, and end in Ukraine. The eastern termination of the Beskids is disputed. According to older sources, the Beskids end at the source of the Tisza River, while newer sources state
The Western Ghats or the Sahyādri constitute a mountain range along the western side of India. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight hottest hotspots of biological diversity in the world. This range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea.
The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti river, and runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala ending at Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India.
These hills cover 160,000 km (62,000 sq mi) and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain almost 40% of India. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan Plateau The average elevation is around 1,200 m (3,900 ft).
The area is one of the world’s ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 5000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species and 179 amphibian species; it is likely that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.
The Beartooth Mountains are located in south central Montana and northwest Wyoming, U.S. and are part of the 900,000 acre (3,600 km²) Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness, within Custer, Gallatin and Shoshone National Forests. The Beartooths are the location of Granite Peak, which at 12,807 feet (3,904 m) is the highest point in the state of Montana. The mountains are just northeast of Yellowstone National Park and are part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The mountains are traversed by road via the Beartooth Highway (U.S. 212) with the highest elevation at Beartooth Pass (10,947 ft, 3,345 m). The name of the mountain range is attributed to a rugged peak found in the range, Beartooth Peak, that has the appearance of a bear's tooth.
The Beartooth Mountains sit upon the larger Beartooth Plateau, the largest true high elevation plateau in the United States.
The remoteness of the region contributed to their obscurity until the 1870s. The Crow tribe of Native Americans utilized the valleys of the mountains for hunting game animals and for winter shelter from the harsh winds of the plains. Though trappers entered the region in the 1830s, formal exploration by the U.S. Government did not
The Bismarck Range is a mountain range in the central highlands of Papua New Guinea. The range is named after the German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. From the 1880s to 1914 this part of the island was a German colony.
The highest point is Mount Wilhelm at 4,509 m (14,793 ft). At over 3,400 metres (11,155 ft), the landscape is alpine with tundra, in spite of the tropical climate. The Ramu River has its source in the range.
The Chigmit Mountains are a subrange of the Aleutian Range in the Kenai Peninsula and Lake and Peninsula Boroughs of the U.S. state of Alaska.
They are located at the northeastern end of the Aleutian range, on the west side of Cook Inlet, roughly 120 miles (200 km) southwest of Anchorage. The closest major towns to the range are Kenai and Homer, across Cook Inlet on the west side of the Kenai Peninsula.
To the north, the Chigmits are bordered by the Tordrillo Mountains, and on the northwest, by the Neacola Mountains. Cook Inlet marks the eastern boundary of the range, while on the west, the mountains fade out into the hills and lowlands of Lake Clark National Park and Preserve. On the south and southwest, the Chigmits abut the continuation of the Aleutian Range into the Alaska Peninsula.
The Chigmits, along with most of the Aleutian Range, are volcanic, and include two prominent stratovolcanoes, Redoubt Volcano (10,197 feet/3,108 m), the high point of the Aleutian Range; and Iliamna Volcano (10,016 feet/3,052 m).
Hakarimata Range is a range of hills on the western edge of Ngaruawahia township in the Waikato region of New Zealand, lying along the Waikato River and Waipa River. The Hakarimata Range is separated from the Taupiri Range by the Taupiri Gorge, through which the Waikato River flows.
Parts of the range is protected as a scenic reserve. A community group the Hakarimata Restoration Trust created in 2001 is helping care for the range. There are several walkways through the range, allowing excellent views of the Waikato Plains below.
The Jemez Mountains /ˈheɪmɛz/ are a volcanic group of mountains in New Mexico, United States. The highest point in the range is Chicoma Mountain (also spelled as Tschicoma or Tchicoma) at an elevation of 11,561 feet (3524 meters). The town of Los Alamos and Los Alamos National Laboratory adjoin the eastern side of the range while the town of Jemez Springs is to the west. Pajarito Mountain Ski Area is the only ski area in the Jemez. New Mexico State Highway 4 is the primary road that provides vehicular access to locations in the Jemez Mountains.
The Jemez Mountains lie to the north of the Albuquerque Basin in the Rio Grande rift. They are a classic example of intracontinental volcanism and consist of a broadly circular ridge surrounding the famous Valles Caldera. The most recent known eruption was a basalt flow dated to 50,000 to 60,000 years before the present; however, most of the volume of the range is composed of rhyolite. The two most recent caldera-forming eruptions, dated to about 1.4 million and 1.1 million years ago, produced massive ignimbrite deposits known as the Otowi and Tshirege members, respectively, of the Bandelier Tuff. Much of the material in these deposits now
The Lepontine Alps are a mountain range in the north-western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland (Valais, Ticino, Uri and Graubünden) and Italy (Piedmont and Lombardy).
The Simplon rail tunnel, which leads from Brig to Domodossola, the St Gotthard rail and highway tunnels (from Andermatt to Airolo) and the San Bernardino Tunnel are important transport arteries.
The eastern portion of the Lepontine Alps, from the St Gotthard Pass to the Splügen Pass, is sometimes named the Adula Alps.
The designation Lepontine Alps, derived from the Latin name of the Val Leventina, has long been somewhat vaguely applied to the Alpine ranges that enclose it, before being used for the whole range.
Following the line marking the division of the waters that flow into the Po from those that feed the Rhone or the Rhine, the main ridge of the Lepontine Alps describes a somewhat irregular curve, convex to the north, from the Simplon Pass to the Splugen Pass. With the single exception of the Monte Leone, overlooking the pass of the Simplon, the summits of this portion of the chain are much inferior in height to those of the neighbouring chains; but two peaks of the Adula group, culminating at
The Rainbow Range, formerly known as the Rainbow Mountains, is a mountain range in British Columbia, Canada, located 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Anahim Lake. Named Tsitsutl, which now is the name of its highest peak and meaning "rainbow mountains" in the Ulkatcho dialect of the Carrier language, is on the western edge of the Chilcotin Plateau, adjoining the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the south, and the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the north. In some classification systems it is considered part of the Coast Mountains and has been assigned here in Wikipedia to the Pacific Ranges although it is not formally part of that range-complex.
It lies north of the Bella Coola and Atnarko Rivers and south and west of the Dean River, which curves around its north flank, and is relatively drier in climate and easier of terrain than more mountainous areas immediately west.
The Rainbow Range is an eight-million-year-old (Miocene) massive peralkaline shield volcano in the Anahim Volcanic Belt which includes the lower but similar Itcha and Ilgachuz Ranges. The shield has a diameter of 30 km (19 mi) is now heavily eroded by glaciers carving into the volcanic rock and
The San Emigdio Mountains are a part of the Transverse Ranges in Southern California, extending from Interstate 5 at Lebec and Gorman on the east to Highway 33–166 on the west. They link the Tehachapis and Temblor Range and form the southern wall of the San Joaquin Valley.
The range is within Los Angeles, Ventura, and Kern Counties. The highest point is San Emigdio Mountain at 7,492 feet (2,284 m). The mountains generally lie in an east-west direction.
Towns or settlements near the San Emigdio Mountains include Frazier Park, Lake of the Woods, and Pine Mountain Club.
Adjacent Transverse Ranges, with their wildlife corridors, include:
The San Francisco volcanic field is an area of volcanoes in northern Arizona, north of Flagstaff, USA. The field covers 1,800 square miles (4,700 km²) of the southern boundary of the Colorado Plateau. The field contains 600 volcanoes ranging in age from nearly 6 million years old to less than 1,000 years (Miocene to Holocene), of which Sunset Crater is the youngest. The highest peak in the field is Humphreys Peak, at Flagstaff's northern perimeter: the peak is Arizona's highest at 12,633 feet (3,851 m) and is a part of the San Francisco Peaks, an extinct stratovolcano complex.
The volcanic field seems to have formed from a geological hotspot, a hot area in the mantle. As the North American plate moves over the spot, new volcanoes appear. Thus, the newest volcanoes are at the east side of the field. Most of the volcanoes are basalt cinder cones, but there are also large lava domes consisting of rhyolite and dacite.
Given that Sunset Crater is such a young volcanic feature of this area and that eruptions have occurred every several thousands of years in frequency, it is likely that there will be a future eruption in the San Francisco Volcanic field. However, it is impossible to
The San Juan Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Colorado. The area is highly mineralized (the Colorado Mineral Belt) and figured in the gold and silver mining industry of early Colorado. Major towns, all old mining camps, include Creede, Lake City, Silverton, Ouray, and Telluride. Large scale mining has ended in the region, although independent prospectors still work claims throughout the range. The last large scale mines were the Sunnyside Mine near Silverton, which operated until late in the 20th century and the Idarado Mine on Red Mountain Pass that closed down in the 1970s. Famous old San Juan mines include the Camp Bird and Smuggler Union mines, both located between Telluride and Ouray.
The Summitville mine was the scene of a major environmental disaster in the 1990s when the liner of a cyanide-laced tailing pond began leaking heavily. Summitville is in the Summitville caldera, one of many extinct volcanoes making up the San Juan volcanic field. One, La Garita Caldera, is 35 miles (56 km) in diameter. Large beds of lava, some extending under the floor of the San Luis Valley, are characteristic of the eastern slope of the San
The Tantalus Range is a small but spectacular subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in southern British Columbia, Canada. The range is well-known to travellers to and from the ski resort at Whistler as the stunning vista on the highway to the resort from Squamish.
To Sḵwxwú7mesh, the local indigenous people of the area, the name of the Tantalus Range is tsekílx. In their history, these mountains were once men and their dogs on a mountain goat hunting trip but turned to stone by the "Transformers".
The range's southern end is on the western edge of that town and it runs only about 35 km northwest on the west bank of the Squamish River and is less than 16 km wide at its widest. It is about 460000 ha (4600 km² or 1775 mi²) in area. Mount Tantalus 2603 m (8540 ft) is the highest in the range.
The origin of the name, as well as the names of many of its peaks, are from Greek mythology. Tantalus was doomed in Hades to be half-submerged in cold water with fruit dangling close but not close enough to eat, which is where the word tantalize has its root. Allegedly the name was conferred by a local mountain climber who was "tantalized" by the sight of the range's impressive
The Adamello-Presanella Alps Alpine group is a mountain range in the Southern Limestone Alps mountain group of the Eastern Alps. It is located in northern Italy, in the provinces of Trentino and Brescia. The name stems from its highest peaks: Adamello and Presanella.
The Adamello-Presanella Group is separated from the Ortler Alps in the north by the Tonale Pass; from the Bergamo Alps in the west by the Oglio valley (Val Camonica); from the Brenta Group in the east by the Campo Carlo Magno Pass and the river Sarca; to the south it continues towards Lake Iseo.
The main peaks of the Adamello-Presanella Group are:
The main mountain passes of the Adamello-Presanella Group are:
The Hoggar Mountains (Arabic: جبال هقار, Berber: idurar n Ahaggar), also known as the Ahaggar, are a highland region in central Sahara, or southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer. They are located about 1,500 km (900 mi) south of the capital, Algiers and just west of Tamanghasset. The region is largely rocky desert with an average altitude of more than 900 metres (2,953 feet) above sea level. The highest peak is at 3,003 metres (Mount Tahat). Assekrem is a famous and often visited point where le Père de Foucauld lived in the summer of 1905. The main city nearby the Ahaggar is Tamanghasset, built in a desert valley or wadi.
The Hoggar Mountain range is chiefly volcanic rock and contains a hot summer climate, with a cold winter climate (temperatures fall below 0°C in the winter). The mountains are young—about 2 million years old. Rainfall is rare and sporadic. However, since the climate is less extreme than in most other areas of the Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains are a major location for biodiversity and host relict species. The Hoggar Mountains compose the West Saharan montane xeric woodlands ecoregion. It is also one of the national parks of the country.
Slightly to the west
The Coast Mountains are a major mountain range, in the Pacific Coast Ranges, of western North America, extending from southwestern Yukon through the Alaska Panhandle and virtually all of the Coast of British Columbia. They are so-named because of their proximity to the sea coast, and are often referred to as the Coast Range. It includes volcanic and non-volcanic mountains and the huge icefields of the Pacific and Boundary Ranges, and the northern end of the notable volcanic system known as the Cascade Volcanoes. The Coast Mountains are part of a larger mountain system called the Pacific Coast Ranges or the Pacific Mountain System, which includes the Cascade Range, the Insular Mountains, the Oregon and California Coast Ranges and the Saint Elias and Chugach Mountains.
The Coast Mountains are approximately 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) long and average 300 kilometres (190 mi) in width. Its southern and southeastern boundaries are surrounded by the Fraser River and the Interior Plateau while its far northwestern edge is delimited by the Kelsall and Tatshenshini Rivers at the north end of the Alaska Panhandle, beyond which are the Saint Elias Mountains, and by Champagne Pass in the Yukon
The Cumberland Mountains are a mountain range in the southeastern section of the Appalachian Mountains. They are located in southern West Virginia, western Virginia, eastern edges of Kentucky, and eastern middle Tennessee, including the Crab Orchard Mountains. Their highest peak, with an elevation of 4,223feet (1,287m) above mean sea level, is High Knob, which is located near Norton, Virginia.
According to the USGS, the Cumberland Mountain range is 131 miles (211 km) long and 20 miles (32 km) wide, bounded by the Russell Fork on the northeast, the Pound River and Powell River on the southeast, Cove Creek on the southwest, and Tackett Creek, the Cumberland River, Poor Fork Cumberland River, and Elkhorn Creek on the northwest. The crest of the range forms the Kentucky and Virginia boundary from the Tennessee border to Russell Fork River.
Variant names of the Cumberland Mountains include Cumberland Mountain, Cumberland Range, Ouasioto Mountains, Ouasiota Mountains, Laurel Mountain, and Pine Mountain. They are named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland.
The Cumberland Mountains are a physiographic section of the larger Appalachian Plateau province, which in turn is part of the larger
The Ruby Mountains comprise one of the many mountain ranges of the Great Basin in the western United States. They are the most prominent range in Elko County, in the northeastern section of the state of Nevada. To the north is Secret Pass and the East Humboldt Range, and from there the Rubies run south-southwest for about 80 miles (130 km). To the east lies Ruby Valley, and to the west lie Huntington and Lamoille Valleys. The highest peak is Ruby Dome 11,387 feet (3,471 m), located at 40°37.3'N and 115°28.5'W in the central core of the range, about 21 mi (34 km) southeast of the community of Elko.
The 'Rubies' were named after the garnets found by early explorers. The central core of the range shows extensive evidence of glaciation during recent ice ages, including U-shaped canyons, moraines, hanging valleys, and steeply carved granite mountains, cliffs, and cirques. All of these features can be seen from the 12-mile paved National Forest Scenic Byway up Lamoille Canyon, which enters the range near the town of Lamoille.
Major valleys include Lamoille Canyon (and its branches Thomas and Right Fork Canyons), Seitz Canyon/Echo Lake, Box, and Kleckner Canyons. Canyons to the north
The San Jacinto Mountains ('Avii Hanupach in Mojave) are a mountain range east of Los Angeles in southern California in the United States. The mountains are named for Saint Hyacinth (San Jacinto in Spanish). The Pacific Crest Trail runs along the spine of the range.
The range extends for approximately 30 mi (48 km) from the San Bernardino Mountains southeast to the Santa Rosa Mountains. The San Jacinto Mountains are the northernmost of the Peninsular Ranges, which run 1,500 km (930 mi) from Southern California to the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula. The highest peak in the range is San Jacinto Peak (3,302 m)(10,834 ft), and the range is also a Great Basin Divide landform for the Salton Watershed to the east.
The Coachella Valley stretches along the eastern side of the range, including the cities of Palm Springs and Rancho Mirage. Banning Pass and San Gorgonio Pass separate the range from Mount San Gorgonio to the north. The western slope holds the community of Idyllwild. Above Idyllwild is Tahquitz Peak, a famous rock climbing area. The range is the eastern boundary of the San Jacinto Valley, location of Hemet; it also marks the eastern edge of the fast-growing Inland
The Takshanuk Mountains are a mountain range in Southeast Alaska, United States that separate the Chilkoot and Chilkat watersheds and also form the northern portion of the Chilkat Peninsula.
Notable peaks include Mount Ripinski, Peak 3920, and Tukgahgo Mountain.
Primary access to the mountains is via the community of Haines or the Haines Highway.
The Ball Range is a mountain range on the Continental Divide between Vermilion Pass and Red Earth Pass in Kootenay National Park, Canada. The range is named after John Ball, a politician who helped secure funding for the Palliser Expedition.
It extends over 465 km² (179 mi²), and measures 35 km (22 mi) from North to South and 26 km (16 mi) from East to West
This range includes the following mountains and peaks:
The Bernina Range is a mountain range in the Alps of eastern Switzerland and northern Italy. It is considered to be part of the Central Eastern Alps. It is one of the highest ranges of the Alps, covered with many glaciers. Piz Bernina (4,049 m), its highest peak, is the most easterly four thousand-metre peak in the Alps. The peak in the range which sees the most ascents is Piz Palü.
The Bernina Range is separated from the Albula Range in the north-west by the Maloja Pass and the Upper Engadin valley; from the Livigno Range in the east by the Bernina Pass; from the Bergamo Alps in the south by the Adda valley (Valtellina); and from the Bregaglia Range in the south-west by the Muretto Pass. The Bernina Range is drained by the rivers Adda, Inn and Maira (Mera in Italy).
The term Bernina Alps can also be used in an extended sense to include both the Bernina and Bregaglia ranges; this is the area coloured yellow on the map (right) and labelled ‘Bernina Alpen’.
The main peaks of the Bernina Range are:
Main glaciers :
The main passes of the Bernina Range are:
There are several manned and unmanned mountain huts in the Bernina Range.
The Vercors is a range of plateaux and mountains in the départements of Isère and Drôme in the French Prealps. It lies west of the Dauphiné Alps, from which it is separated by the rivers Drac and Isère. Cliffs at its eastern edge face the city of Grenoble.
The plateau's karstic area includes the famous Vercors Cave System which includes Gouffre Berger.
The Vercors has several resorts for cross-country skiing and for down-hill skiing. Villard-de-Lans is the biggest down-hill ski resort.
The region became noteworthy during World War II when the Maquis du Vercors led the French Resistance against the German occupation and established the Free Republic of Vercors in June and July 1944.
The Massif du Vercors derives its name from the name of a local tribe who lived in the area at the time of the Roman conquest of Gaul, who were known as the Vertacomicorii.
From north to south:
The Vercors have appeared in many films, including;
The Waputik Range lies west of the upper Bow Valley, east of Bath Creek, and south of Balfour Creek in the Canadian Rockies. "Waputik" means "white goat" in Stoney. The range was named by George Mercer Dawson of the Geological Survey of Canada. The President Range lies within the Waputik Range.
The Allardyce Range is a mountain range rising south of Cumberland Bay and dominating the central part of South Georgia, a UK overseas territory. Mount Paget (2,935m) is the highest peak of the range and also the highest point in the UK territory. Other peaks of the range include Mount Roots.
Although not shown on the charts of South Georgia by Cook in 1775 or Bellingshausen in 1819, peaks of this range were doubtless seen by those explorers. Named in about 1915, after Sir William Lamond Allardyce, Governor of the Falkland Islands, 1904-14.
The Arthur Range is a mountain range in the South West Wilderness, Tasmania, Australia. The range is broken into two main section, the Western Arthurs and the Eastern Arthurs. Both sections of the range are popular overnight bushwalking destinations, generally in summer.
The range was named by George Augustus Robinson who climbed Mount Frederick (now Mount Hayes) in March 1830.
It is mainly composed of Quartzite and features evidence of past glaciation such as moraines and hanging valleys.
Much of the Arthur Range and the area surrounding land is covered by button grass wet sedgelands. Most of the remainder of the land is covered by eucalypt.
Birds are the most common animals (e.g. Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoos). In dryer areas, Pademelons may also be seen.
The climate in the Arthur Range is extremely unstable - weather predictions are virtually useless here, as it is very common to have sun, heavy rain, cloud, strong winds, even snow all in the same day. The top of the range is classed as Sub-Alpine or Alpine. During winter these mountains are snowcapped. Snow has been experienced every season with regular freak snowfalls during summer, though many of these snowfalls don't settle.
The Black Forest (German: Schwarzwald, pronounced [ˈʃvaʁt͡svald]) is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. The highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres (4,898 ft). The region is almost rectangular with a length of 160 km (99 mi) and breadth of up to 60 km (37 mi). The name Schwarzwald (German for "Black Forest") derives from the Romans who referred to the thickly forested mountains there as Silva Nigra (Latin for "Black Forest") because the dense growth of conifers in the forest blocked out most of the light inside the forest.
The Black Forest consists of a cover of sandstone on top of a core of gneiss and granites. Formerly it shared tectonic evolution with the nearby Vosges Mountains. Later during the Middle Eocene a rifting period affected the area and caused formation of the Rhine graben. During the last glacial period of the Würm glaciation, the Black Forest was covered by glaciers; several tarns (or lakes) such as the Mummelsee are remains of this period.
Rivers in the Black Forest include the Danube (which originates in the Black Forest as the confluence of the
Hrubý Jeseník (German: Altvatergebirge/Hohes Gesenke, Polish: Jesionik Wysoki, English: High Ash Mountains) is a mountain range of Eastern Sudetes in northern Moravia and Czech Silesia. It is the second highest mountain range in the Czech Republic.
Some of the most interesting sights:
The San Gabriel Mountains Range is located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, United States. The mountain range lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east. This Transverse Range lies in, and is surrounded by, the Angeles National Forest, with the San Andreas Fault as the northern border of the range. The highest peak in the range is Mount San Antonio, commonly referred to as Mt. Baldy. Mount Wilson is another famous peak, famed for the Mount Wilson Observatory and the antenna farm that houses many of the transmitters for local media. The observatory may be visited by the public.
The highest elevation, Mount San Antonio at 10,064 ft., rises towards the eastern extremity of the range which extends from the Cajon Pass (Interstate 15 Freeway) on the east, where the San Gabriel Mountain Range meets the San Bernardino Mountain Range, westward to meet the Santa Monica and Santa Susanna ranges at approximately Tejon Pass (Interstate 5 Freeway).
The Range is bound on the north by the Antelope Valley and the Mojave Desert and to the south by the communities of greater Los
The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes, in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen ("the Fells") or Kölen (Fjällen being by far the most frequent name and virtually the only one in modern colloquial speech), in Finnish Köli and in Norwegian Kjølen, with the three latter meaning The Keel, are a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian Mountains are equivalent to the Scandinavian Caledonides. The western sides of the mountains drop precipitously into the North Sea and Norwegian Sea, forming the famous fjords of Norway, while to the northeast they gradually curve towards Finland. To the north they form the border between Norway and Sweden, still reaching 2,000 m high (6,600 ft) at the Arctic circle. The mountain range just touches northwesternmost Finland, but are scarcely more than hills at their northernmost extension at the North Cape.
The mountains are not very high, but are at places very steep; Galdhøpiggen in southern Norway is the highest peak, at 2,469 metres (8,100 ft), Kebnekaise has the highest peak on the Swedish side, at 2,104 m (6,903 ft), while Halti is the highest peak in Finland, at 1,324 m (4,344 ft). The combination of a northerly
The Sulaiman Mountains (Pashto: د سليمان غر da Sulaimān Ğar; Balochi/Urdu/Persian: کوه سليمان Koh-e Sulaimān), or the Kesai Mountains (Pashto: د كسي غرونه), are a major geological feature of eastern and southeastern Afghanistan (Zabul, most of Loya Paktia and northeastern Kandahar province), South Waziristan, and most of northern Balochistan province and some of the southern Punjab province of Pakistan. The Sulaiman Mountains form the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau where the Indus River separates it from the Indian Subcontinent. Bordering the Sulaiman Range to the north are the arid highlands of the Hindu Kush, where more than 50 percent of the lands lie above 2,000 meters.
In Balochistan, the most famous peaks of the Sulaiman Mountains are Takht-e-Sulaiman (3,487 meters), Taunsa Sharif, the Khilafat Hills (3,475 meters) in Ziarat, Kesai Ghar (3,444 meters) near Zhob and Zarghun Ghar (3,578 meters) near Quetta.
Rivers that flow from the Sulaiman mountain range include the Dori River and the Gomal River. Takht-e-Sulaiman at 3,483 metres (11,427 ft), Koh-i-Takatu at 3,472 metres (11,391 ft), the Kesai Ghar at 3,444 metres (11,299 ft) and Giandari are some of the mountain peaks
The Waddington Range is a subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. It is only about 4000 km² (1545 sq mi) in area, relatively small in area within the expanse of the range, but it is the highest area of the Pacific Ranges and of the Coast Mountains, being crowned by its namesake Mount Waddington 4019 m (13186 ft). The Waddington Range is also extremely rugged and more a complex of peaks than a single icefield, in contrast to the other huge icefield-massifs of the southern Coast Mountains, which are not so peak-studded and tend to have more contiguous icemasses.
The difficulty of access to the core of the massif delayed actual sighting, measurement and climbing of Mount Waddington until 1936; it had only been espied from Vancouver Island by climbers in the 1930s and was at first referred to as Mystery Mountain - because its existence until then had been unknown. Apparently even in First Nations lore its existence was spoken of only vaguely, as a possibility, and it seems unlikely the core of the massif was penetrated by any First Nations adventurer given the tremendous difficulty posed even for mountaineers equipped with modern
Jotunheimen (English: The Home of the Giants) is a mountainous area of roughly 3,500 km² in southern Norway and is part of the long range known as the Scandinavian Mountains. The 29 highest mountains in Norway are all in Jotunheimen, including the very highest - Galdhøpiggen (2469 m). Jotunheimen straddles the border between the counties of Oppland and Sogn og Fjordane.
Jotunheimen contains Jotunheimen National Park, which was established in 1980 and covers an area of 1,151 km². The Hurrungane mountain range is also inside the national park with the sharpest peaks in Jotunheimen. Adjacent to the national park border is Utladalen Nature Reserve which covers the Utladalen valley and the mountain Falketind, amongst others.
Jotunheimen is very popular with hikers and climbers, and the Norwegian Mountain Touring Association maintains a number of mountain lodges in the area, as well as marked trails that run between the lodges and others that run up to some of the peaks.
The image from Gjende shows a cliff trailing down into the lake. At its base there is a popular guest house called Memurubu. The picture is taken from Gjendesheim, a starting point for hiking into the mountain range.
The Ochil Hills (/ˈoʊxəl/; Scottish Gaelic: Monadh Ochail - from a Celtic word root, compare Old Welsh uchel meaning 'high') is a range of hills in Scotland north of the Forth valley bordered by the towns of Stirling, Alloa, Kinross and Perth. The only major roads crossing the hills pass through Glen Devon/Glen Eagles and Glenfarg, the latter now largely replaced except for local traffic by the M90 Edinburgh-Perth motorway cutting through the eastern foothills. The hills are part of a Devonian lava extrusion whose appearance today is largely due to the Ochil Fault which results in the southern face of the hills forming an escarpment. The plateau is undulating with no prominent peak, the highest point being Ben Cleuch at 721m The south-flowing burns have cut deep ravines including Dollar Glen, Silver Glen and Alva Glen, often only passable with the aid of wooden walkways.
Historically, the hills, combined with the town being built at the lowest bridge-point on the River Forth, led to Stirling's importance as a main gateway to the Highlands. They also acted as a boundary to the Kingdom of Fife. Castle Campbell was built at the head of Dollar Glen in the late 15th century (an earlier
The Batura Muztagh mountains are a sub-range of the Karakoram mountain range. They are located west of the Hunza Valley in the Gilgit District of the Gilgit-Baltistan province in northern Pakistan.
They are the westernmost sub-range of the Karakoram, running from Chalt village in Bar Valley in the east to Kampir Dior in the Kurumbar Valley in the west, and they separate the Pamir and Hindu Kush ranges from the Karakoram range.
The Cordillera Huayhuash is a mountain range in the Andes of Peru. It is located in the boundaries of the Ancash Region, Lima Region, y Huanuco Region. There are several Cities there including Soltera Cocha, Jahuacocha, Carhuacocha and Sarapococha.
The range is 30 km long and has Himalayan characteristics and its peaks are, morphologically speaking, much more hilly and have more difficult access than those from the Cordillera Blanca. Aligned north to south, the main range of some twenty peaks stretches for approximately 25 km, with a subsidiary range of smaller peaks stretching out to the west for approximately 15 km. Six of the peaks exceed 6000 m. Included among them are Yerupajá (6617 m), the second highest mountain in Peru (behind Huascarán at 6768 m), and Siula Grande (6344 m), made famous by Joe Simpson in Touching the Void.
There are many lesser peaks surrounding those covered by ice, and several passes exceeding 5000 m. It is necessary to travel a considerable distance from the central range to find ground lower than 3000 m, even on valley floors, and the Cordillera Huayhuash is often taken to include this much larger area. The vegetated areas of the range are part of the
The Crazy Mountains, often called the Crazies, are a mountain range in the northern Rocky Mountains in the U.S. state of Montana.
Spanning a distance of 40 miles (64 km), the Crazy Mountains are located between the Musselshell and Yellowstone rivers. The highest peak is Crazy Peak at 11,214 feet (3,418 m). Rising over 7,000 feet (2,130 m) above the Great plains to the east, the Crazies dominate their surroundings and are plainly visible just north of Interstate 90.
The Crazy Mountains form an isolated island range east of the Continental Divide. Others include the Castle Mountains, Little Belt Mountains, Big Snowy Mountains, Little Snowy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Sweet Grass Hills, Bull Mountains and, in the southeastern corner of the state near Ekalaka, the Long Pines and Short Pines.
Geological features of the Crazy Mountains include:
Due to the eastern location, these mountains are drier and less densely forested than other mountain ranges in Montana. There are at least 40 alpine lakes in the range, 15 of which are named. The Crazy Mountains sit in both Gallatin National Forest and Lewis and Clark National Forest. The Crazies support a healthy herd of mountain goats and the
The Fairholme Range is a mountain range east of the Bow River valley in the Canadian Rockies. The range is bounded by the Trans-Canada Highway on the west side while the northern section of the range extends into Banff National Park to the southern shores of Lake Minnewanka. John Palliser named the range in 1859 after his sister Grace Fairholme, who had married William Fairholme.
Peaks of this range include:
In the spring and summer of 2003, Parks Canada performed a prescribed burn in selected areas of the range in order to reduce fire hazard, manage pine beetle population and increase sheep habitat. In total, 5300 hectares of land were affected.
The Hudson Highlands are mountains on both sides of the Hudson River in the U.S. state of New York, between Newburgh Bay and Haverstraw Bay, which form the northern region of the New York - New Jersey Highlands.
The Hudson River enters this region in the south at Dunderberg Mountain near Stony Point, and from the north in the vicinity of Storm King Mountain and Breakneck Ridge near Cornwall, New York. These highlands played a significant role in America's military, cultural and environmental history.
The bedrock of the Highlands is part of the Reading Prong and more than a billion years old, formed during the Grenville Orogeny. It represents the very core of the Applachian range, which has been formed by successive mountain-building events (orogenies). The present mountains have been exposed by the process of isostasy through the late Cenozoic Era. The hills were given their rounded form when glaciers cut through the Appalachian Mountains here, the Highlands are among the lowest summits in that range (indeed, the Appalachian Trail reaches its lowest elevation in the Trailside Zoo between Bear Mountain State Park and Bear Mountain Bridge). Conversely, the river becomes narrower and
The Mogollon Mountains or Mogollon Range ( /mʌɡɨˈjoʊn/ or /moʊɡəˈjoʊn/) are a mountain range east of the San Francisco River in Grant and Catron counties of southwestern New Mexico, between the communities of Reserve and Silver City. They extend roughly north-south for about 30 miles (48 km), and form part of the divide between the San Francisco and the Gila rivers. The crest of the range lies about 15 miles (24 km) east of U.S. Route 180, which traverses parallel to a section of the San Francisco River; the lower altitude smaller range, the Sierra Aguilada borders to the west of Route 180. Most of the Mogollon Mountains is protected within the Gila Wilderness, part of the Gila National Forest.
The highest point in the range is Whitewater Baldy which, at 10,895 ft (3,321 m), is the highest point in southwestern New Mexico. The range also contains five other 10,000+ foot peaks, most notably Mogollon Baldy (10,778 ft, 3,285 m).
The Mogollon Mountains were formed between forty and twenty-five million years ago as part of the Datil-Mogollon Volcanic Plateau. Hot springs existing in the area are a remnant of that volcanic activity. The Mogollon Mountains are named for Juan Ignacio
Owen Stanley Range is the south-eastern part of the central mountain-chain in Papua New Guinea. It was seen in 1849 by Captain Owen Stanley while surveying the south coast of Papua and named after him. Strictly, the eastern extremity of the range is Mount Victoria 4,038 metres (13,248 ft), which was climbed by Sir William Macgregor in 1888, and it extends as far west as Mount Thynne and Lilley. But the name is generally used to denote the whole of the chain from Mount Chapman 3,376 metres (11,076 ft) to the south-eastern end of the island, and to include Mount Albert Edward 3,990 m (13,091 ft) which is really separated from it by the Wharton Chain.
The range is flanked by broken and difficult country, particularly on the south-western side. There are few practicable passes, the easiest being the famous Kokoda Track which crosses the range between Port Moresby and Buna and was in use for more than 50 years as a regular overland mail-route. Another route used by the 900 men of the 2nd Battalion, 126th Infantry Regiment, 32nd Division, was the Kapa Kapa Trail, parallel to but 30 miles (48 km) to the southeast of the Kokoda Track. They took nearly five weeks to cover the 130 miles
The Panamint Range is a short rugged fault-block mountain range on the northern edge of the Mojave Desert, in Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California, United States.
The range runs north-south for approximately 100 miles (160 km) through Inyo County, forming the western wall of Death Valley and separating it from the Panamint Valley to the west. The range is part of the Basin and Range Province, at the western end of the Great Basin.
The highest peak in the range is Telescope Peak with an elevation of 11,049 feet (3,368 m).
Both Mount Whitney and Badwater Basin in Death Valley are visible from some points on the Panamint Range, making it the only location where one can simultaneously see both the highest and lowest points in the contiguous United States.
The historic mining community of Ballarat, now a ghost town, is on the western side of the Panamint Range. The Wildrose Charcoal Kilns ruins are near Wildrose Canyon in the northern area.
Media related to Panamint Range at Wikimedia Commons
The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, also called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division and are also a belt within the Appalachian Mountains extending from southeastern New York through northwestern New Jersey, westward into Pennsylvania and southward into Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama. They form a broad arc between the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Appalachian Plateau physiographic province (the Allegheny and Cumberland Plateaus).
These mountains are characterized by long, even ridges, with long, continuous valleys in between. From a great enough altitude, they almost look like corduroy, except that the widths of the valleys are somewhat variable and ridges sometimes meet in a vee.
The ridge and valley system presents an important obstacle to east-west land travel even with today's technology and was a nearly insurmountable barrier to railroads crossing the range and especially to underfunded migrants traveling west to settle the Ohio Country, Northwest Territory and Oregon Country, before the days of motorized transportation. In the era when animal power
The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (Eje Volcánico Transversal) also known as the Transvolcanic Belt and locally as the Sierra Nevada (Snowy Mountain Range), is a volcanic belt that extends 900 km from west to east across central-southern Mexico. Several of its highest peaks have snow all year long, and during clear weather, they are visible to a large proportion of those who live on the many high plateaus from which these volcanoes rise.
From the west, it runs from Jalisco east through northern Michoacán, southern Guanajuato, southern Querétaro, México State, southern Hidalgo, the Distrito Federal, northern Morelos, Puebla and Tlaxcala, to central Veracruz. The Mexican Plateau lies to the north, bounded by the Sierra Madre Occidental to the west and Sierra Madre Oriental to the east. The Cofre de Perote and Pico de Orizaba volcanoes, in Puebla and Veracruz, mark the meeting of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt with the Sierra Madre Oriental. To the south, the basin of the Balsas River lies between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Sierra Madre del Sur. This area is also a distinct physiographic province of the larger Sierra Madre System physiographic division.
The highest point,
The Twelve Bens, or Twelve Pins (Irish: Na Beanna Beola), is a mountain range of sharp-peaked quartzite ranges located northeast of Roundstone in Connemara in the west of Ireland. Dedicated fell runners attempt to hike all twelve peaks in a single day. Topographically, this range is partnered with the Maumturks range on the other side of the lonely Glen Inagh (and the route of Western Way long distance path). Frequent rainfall and steep-sided mountains produce an abundance of small trickles and streams which descend into wide-bottomed valleys below the Twelve Pins to join larger streams with riffles and pools. The highest point in the Twelve Bens is Benbaun at 729 metres (2,392 ft). They provide excellent walking and climbing opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts.
The following table lists the 12 highest major mountain peaks of the Twelve Bens Mountains, all with a topographic elevation of at least 516 metres (1,693 ft). There are a number of mountains higher than Benglenisky, but do not have sufficient prominence to be included in this list.
The Allegheny Mountain Range ( /ælɨˈɡeɪni/) — also spelled Alleghany, Allegany and, informally, the Alleghenies — is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States and Canada. It has a northeast-southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles (640 km) from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia.
The Alleghenies comprise the rugged western-central portion of the Appalachians. They rise to approximately 4,862 feet (1,483 m) in northeastern West Virginia. In the east, they are dominated by a high, steep escarpment known as the Allegheny Front. In the west, they grade down into the closely associated Allegheny Plateau which extends into Ohio and Kentucky.
The name derives from the Allegheny River, which drains only a small portion of the Alleghenies in west-central Pennsylvania. The meaning of the word, which comes from the Lenape (Delaware) Indians, is not definitively known but is usually translated as "fine river". A Lenape legend tells of an ancient tribe called the "Allegewi" who lived on the river and were defeated by the Lenape. Allegheny is the early French spelling (as in Allegheny
The Cordillera de Guanacaste, also called Guanacaste Cordillera, are a volcanic mountain range in northern Costa Rica near the border with Nicaragua. The mountain range stretches 110 km from northwest to the southeast and contains mostly complex stratovolcanoes. The range as forms part of the southern region of the Continental Divide, with the highest peak is the stratovolcano Miravalles at 2,028 m.
Rivers flowing from the range drain into the Caribbean Sea (Guacalito, Zapote) and the Pacific Ocean (Blanco, Tenorio, Martirio, Corobiá and San Lorenzo).
Protected areas located in the mountain range include Guanacaste National Park established in July 1991 and Area de Conservación Guanacaste World Heritage Site inscripted by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in December 1999.
The range contains areas of ecological significance, as the Miravalles Forest Reserve, hills and canyons that can be seen from the lowlands of Guanacaste, areas rich with epiphytes, ferns and palms; and areas of geothermal activity, exploited for energy use. Geothermal energy exploited in Guanacaste account to 18% of Costa Rica's electricity and is also exported to Nicaragua and Panama.
Cordillera de Guanacaste is
The Cordillera Oriental are parallel mountain ranges of the Bolivian Andes emplaced on the eastern and north eastern margin of the Andes. Large parts of Cordillera Oriental are forested and humid areas rich in agricultural and livestock products. Geologically Cordillera Oriental is formed by the Central Andean fold and thrust belt. The cordillera can be divided into three sections that are as follows:
The Kamnik–Savinja Alps are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps. They lie in northern Slovenia, except for the northernmost part, which lies in Austria. The western part of the range was named in 1778 by Belsazar Hacquet and Franz Xaver von Wulfen the Kamnik Alps (German: Steiner Alpen) after the town of Kamnik in the valley of the Kamnik Bistrica River. Its eastern part was named the Savinja Alps (Slovene: Savinjske Alpe, German: Sannthaler or Sulzbacher Alpen) by Johannes Frischauf in 1875, because the main river of the chain is the upper Savinja.
The Kamnik–Savinja Alps are located south of the Karavanke range at the border of Austria and Slovenia, stretching from the Sava River in the west to the Savinja in the east, where the adjacent Slovenian Prealps with the Pohorje range, the Celje Hills at the Dravinja River, as well as the Sava Hills are located. In the northwest, the valley of the Vellach creek (at 46°22′21″N 14°33′55″E / 46.3725°N 14.56528°E / 46.3725; 14.56528 (Steiner Alpen (South))) leading to Bad Vellach is the southernmost point of both the Austrian state of Carinthia and Austria as a whole.
The entire main chain is today part of Slovenia.
The Medicine Bow Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains that extend for 100-mile (160 km) from northern Colorado into southern Wyoming. The northern extent of this range is the sub-range the Snowy Range. From the northern end of Colorado's Never Summer Mountains, the Medicine Bow mountains extend north from Cameron Pass along the border between Larimer and Jackson counties in Colorado and northward into south central Wyoming. In Wyoming, the range sits west of Laramie, in Albany and Carbon counties to the route of the Union Pacific Railroad and U.S. Interstate 80. The mountains often serve as a symbol for the city of Laramie. The range is home to Snowy Range Ski Area.
The highest peak in the range is Clark Peak (12,951 feet (3,947 m)), located in Rawah Wilderness and is along the southern end of the range in Northern Colorado. Much of the range is located within the Medicine Bow National Forest in Wyoming. The highest peak on the Wyoming side is Medicine Bow Peak (12,013 feet (3,662 m)). The range is drained along the western flank by the Michigan and Canadian rivers, tributaries of the North Platte in North Park. On its eastern flank it is drained by the Laramie
The Stirling Range or Koikyennuruff is a range of mountains and hills in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 337 km south-east of Perth. It is located at approximately 34°24′S 118°09′E / 34.4°S 118.15°E / -34.4; 118.15 and is over 60 km wide from west to east, stretching from the highway between Mount Barker and Cranbrook eastward past Gnowangerup. The Stirling Range is protected by the Stirling Range National Park, which was gazetted in 1913, and has an area of 1,159 km².
The mountains are formed of metamorphic rocks made from sediments deposited during the Ediacaran Period (as indicated by the presence of characteristic fossils). The sediments were subsequently metamorphosed to quartzites and shales and folded during reactivation of basement structures recording lateral displacements between Antarctica and Australia. Despite the relative youth of the mountains, the soils remain very poor, creating the species-rich heathland flora.
As the only vertical obstacle to weather in any direction, the range also tends to alter weather patterns around itself. Its upper slopes receive significantly more rainfall than surrounding areas. The branch of the Kalgan River, which
The Altai Mountains (Altay Mountains) are a mountain range in East-Central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their sources. The Altai Mountains are known as the original locus of the speakers of Turkic as well as other members of the proposed Altaic language group. The northwest end of the range is at 52° N and between 84° and 90° E (where it merges with the Sayan Mountains to the east), and extends southeast from there to about 45° N and 99° E, where it gradually becomes lower and merges into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert.
In Turkic and Mongolic languages, the name, Altai, means the "Golden Mountain"; al meaning gold and tai, mountain. Altay means "red (=al) horse (=tay)" in Turkish (Chinese: 金山; literally "Gold Mountain" in Chinese texts). The proposed Altaic language family takes its name from this mountain range.
(For the area north of the Altai, see Geography of South-Central Siberia.)
In the north of the region is the Sailughem Mountains, also known as Kolyvan Altai, which stretch northeast from 49° N and 86° E towards the western extremity of the Sayan Mountains in 51° 60' N and 89° E. Their mean
The Bernese Alps are a group of mountain ranges in the western part of the Alps, in Switzerland. Although the name suggests that they are located in the Bernese Oberland region of the canton of Bern, portions of the Bernese Alps are in the adjacent cantons of Valais, Lucerne, Obwalden, Fribourg and Vaud. The latter being informally named Fribourg Alps and Vaud Alps respectively.
The Rhône valley separates them from the Chablais Alps in the west and from the Pennine Alps in the south; the upper Rhône valley separate them from the Lepontine Alps in the south-east; the Grimsel Pass and the Aar valley separates them from the Urner Alps in the east; their northern edge is not so well defined, describing a line roughly from Lake Geneva to Lake Lucerne.
The Bernese Alps are drained by the river Aar and its tributary Saane in the north, the Rhône in the south and the Reuss in the east.
One of the most considerable Alpine ranges, the Bernese Alps extend from the gorge of Saint-Maurice, through which the Rhone finds its way to Lake Geneva, to the Grimsel Pass or, depending on the definition, to the river Reuss (thus including the Urner Alps). The principal ridge, a 100 km long chain running
The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U.S. state of Vermont. The range extends approximately 250 miles (400 km).
The best known mountains – for reasons such as high elevation, ease of public access by road or trail (especially the Long Trail and Appalachian Trail), or with ski resorts or towns nearby – in the range include:
The Green Mountains are part of the Appalachian Mountains, a range that stretches from Quebec in the north to Alabama in the south.
The Green Mountains are part of the New England-Acadian forests ecoregion.
Three peaks, Mount Mansfield, Camel's Hump, and Mount Abraham, support alpine vegetation. For the most part, however, the Green Mountains, especially the northern sections, support a dense boreal forest up to the 3,000–3,500 feet (910–1,100 m) elevation treeline. This forest is well established in the Green Mountains. Throughout the winter months harsh temperatures, snowfall and winds would destroy other species. Much of the "green" in Green Mountains is due to this boreal forest.
Some of the mountains are developed for skiing and other snow-related activities. Others have hiking trails for use in summer. Mansfield, Killington, Pico, and Ellen have
The Neacola Mountains are the northernmost subrange of the Aleutian Range in Alaska. They are bordered on the southeast by the Chigmit Mountains, on the northeast by the Tordrillo Mountains, on the northwest by the southern tip of the Alaska Range, and on the west and southwest by the lakes and lowlands of Lake Clark National Park and Preserve. They are the only wholly non-volcanic part of the Aleutian Range. The highest peak is Mount Neacola (also known as "Neacola Peak"), 9,426 feet (2,873 m).
These mountains have not seen extensive exploration, due to their remoteness, typically poor weather, and lack of truly high peaks. However they are rugged and offer many climbing possibilities of an exploratory nature. Noted climber Fred Beckey visited the range in the early 1970s; in 1991, when he was "spiritual leader" of the expedition which made the first ascent of Mount Neacola; and again in 2004. Other recorded climbing visits occurred in 1979 and 1995.
Fishermen sometimes fly into the mountains on a bush strip on the McArthur River near Blockade Glacier.
The Bitterroot Range is a mountain range and a subrange of the Rocky Mountains that runs along the border of Montana and Idaho in the northwestern United States. The range spans an area of 62,736 square kilometers (24,223 sq mi) and is named after the bitterroot (Lewisia rediviva), a small pink flower that is the state flower of Montana.
In 1805, the Corps of Discovery, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and aided by the Shoshone Native American tribe, crossed the Bitterroot Range several times. Lewis first crossed the mountains at Lemhi Pass on August 12, then returned across the pass to meet Clark. The entire expedition then crossed the pass to the Salmon River valley, and the next month entered the Bitterroot Valley from the south via either Lost Trail Pass or Chief Joseph Pass. It then crossed Lolo Pass to the west.
According to the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, the Bitterroot Range runs from Pend Oreille Lake (near Sandpoint, Idaho) to Monida Pass,. It is sometimes considered to extend east of the Monida Pass to include the Centennial Mountains. The range comprises the following subranges (from north to south):
The Coeur d'Alène Mountains are the northwestern-most
The Front Range is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America located in the central portion of the U.S. State of Colorado and southeastern portion of the U.S. State of Wyoming. It is the first mountain range encountered moving west along the 40th parallel north across the Great Plains of North America. The Front Range runs north-south between Casper, Wyoming and Pueblo, Colorado and rises up to 9,500 feet above the Great Plains. Longs Peak, Mount Evans, and Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor. The area is a popular destination for mountain biking, hiking, climbing, and camping during the warmer months and for skiing and snowboarding during winter. Millions of years ago the present-day Front Range was home to ancient mountain ranges, deserts, beaches, and even oceans.
The name "Front Range" is also applied to the Front Range Urban Corridor, the populated region of Colorado and Wyoming just east of the mountain range and extending from Cheyenne, Wyoming south to Pueblo, Colorado. This urban corridor benefits from the weather-moderating effect of the Front Range mountains, which help block prevailing storms.
The Jebel Akhdar, Jabal Akhdar or Al Jabal Al Akhdar (Arabic: الجبل الأخضر meaning The Green Mountain), is part of the Al Hajar Mountains range in Oman, which extends about 300 km (186 mi) northwest to southeast, between 50–100 km (31-62 mi) inland from the Gulf of Oman coast. It is one of Oman’s most spectacular areas. The highest point, Jabal Shams (the mountain of the sun), is around 3,000 metres (around 9,800 feet) high. It is the highest point in Oman and the whole of eastern Arabia. It comprises the central section of the Al Hajar Mountains range, and is located around 150 km (93 mi) from Muscat.
The range is mostly desert, but at higher altitudes it receives around 300 mm (12 in) of precipitation annually, moist enough to allow the growth of shrubs and trees and support agriculture. It is this that gives the mountains their 'green' name. Cool summers provide the visitor with fresh air surrounded by breathtaking stones. The area is about 2 hours drive from Nizwa and is famous for its traditional rose water extraction and agricultural products including pomegranate, apricot, peach and walnut. The Jebel is mostly inhabited by the ancient Arab tribe Bani Riyam (al Riyamy)
The Titiwangsa Mountains (Malay: Banjaran Titiwangsa; بنجرن تيتيوڠسا), also known as "Banjaran Besar" (Main Range) by locals, are the main mountain range that forms the backbone of the Malay Peninsula. The northern section of the range is in Southern Thailand, where it is known as Sankalakhiri Range (Thai: เทือกเขาสันกาลาคีรี, IPA: [sǎn.kaːlaːkʰiːriː]).
The range acts as a natural divider, dividing Peninsular Malaysia, as well as southernmost Thailand, into East and West Coast regions. The length of mountain range is about 480 km from north to south.
The Titiwangsa Mountains is part of suture zones that runs north-south, starting in Thailand (Nan-Uttaradit/Dien Bien Phu suture zone) and extending south towards peninsular Malaysia (Bentong-Raub suture zone). The western half of Titiwangsa Mountains in peninsular Malaysia is an amalgamation of continental terranes that is known as Cimmeria or Indochina, whereas the eastern half is an amalgamation of continental terranes Sinoburmalaya or Sibumasu. These two halves of terranes were separated by Paleo-Tethys Ocean.
The Cimmeria was separated from Gondwana around 400mya during Devonian and rifted towards Laurasia, the northeastern arm of
The Derryveagh Mountains (Irish: Cnoic Dhoire Bheatha) is the major mountain range in County Donegal, Ireland. It makes up much of the landmass of the county, and is the area of Ireland with the lowest population density. The mountains separate the coastal parts of the county, such as Gweedore and Glenties, from the major inland towns such as Ballybofey and Letterkenny.
The Kaumajet Mountains are a dramatic compact mountain range rising directly out of the sea on the northern Labrador coast. The mountain range boasts one 4,000-foot (1,200 m) peak, the highest island peak on the east coast of North America between the Caribbean and Hudson Strait, and several peaks with very high prominence. The highest mountain in the Kaumajet Mountains is Brave Mountain at 1,300 m (4,265 ft).
The Kunlun Mountains (simplified Chinese: 昆仑山; traditional Chinese: 崑崙山; pinyin: Kūnlúnshān, pronounced [kʰu̯ə́nlu̯ə̌n ʂán]; Mongolian: Хөндлөн Уулс) are one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3,000 km. In the broadest sense, it forms the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau south of the Tarim Basin and the Gansu Corridor and continues east south of the Wei River to end at the North China Plain.
The exact definition of this range seems to vary. An old source uses Kunlun to mean the mountain belt that runs across the center of China, that is, Kunlun in the narrow sense, Altyn Tagh, Qilian Mountains and Qin Mountains. A recent source has the Kunlun forming most of the south side of the Tarim Basin and then continuing east south of the Altyn Tagh. Sima Qian (Shiji, scroll 123) says that Emperor Wu of Han sent men to find the source of the Yellow River and gave the name Kunlun to the mountains at its source. The name seems to have originated as a semi-mythical location in the Shan Hai Jing.
From the Pamirs of Tajikistan, it runs east along the border between Xinjiang and Tibet autonomous regions to the Sino-Tibetan ranges in Qinghai province. It stretches
Sierra Madre (known in Mexico as Sierra Madre de Chiapas) is a mountain range (located at 15°30′N 92°36′W / 15.5°N 92.6°W / 15.5; -92.6) which runs northwest-southeast from the state of Chiapas in Mexico across Guatemala and into El Salvador and Honduras. Most of the volcanoes of Guatemala are a part of this range.
A narrow coastal plain lies south the range, between the Sierra Madre and the Pacific Ocean. To the north lie a series of highlands and depressions, including the Chiapas Depression, which separates the Sierra Madre from the Chiapas Plateau, the Guatemalan Highlands, and Honduras' interior highlands.
It is known near Guatemala city as the Sierra de las Nubes, and enters Mexico as the Sierra de Istatan. Its summit is not a well-defined crest, but is often rounded or flattened into a table-land. The direction of the great volcanic cones, which rise in an irregular line above it, is not identical with the main axis of the Sierra itself, except near the Mexican frontier, but has a more southerly trend, especially towards El Salvador; here the base of many of the igneous peaks rests among the southern foothills of the range. It is, however, impossible to subdivide the
The Tatra Mountains, Tatras or Tatra (Tatry either in Polish and in Slovak - plurale tantum, Tátra in Hungarian), are a mountain range which forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland, and are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. Tatras occupy an area of 750 km² (290 mi²), of which the greater part (600 km²/232 mi²) lies in Slovakia, with the highest peak Gerlach at 2,655 m (8710 ft), located north of Poprad. In turn, summit Rysy (2,499 m/8200 ft), located in the north-western part of Tatras, is the highest mountain in Poland.
The Tatras are a mountain range of a corrugated nature, originating from the Alpine orogeny, and therefore characterized by a relatively young-look lay of the land, quite similar to the landscape of the Alps, although significantly smaller. It is the highest mountain range within Carpathians. It consists of the internal mountain chains of:
The overall nature of the Tatras, together with their easy accessibility, makes them a favorite with tourists and researchers. Therefore, these mountains are a popular winter sports area, with resorts such as Zakopane, called also "winter capital of Poland", Poprad and the town Vysoké Tatry (The
The Ural Mountains (Bashkir: Урал тауҙары; Russian: Ура́льские го́ры, tr. Uralskiye gory; IPA: [ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ]), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan. Their eastern side is usually considered the natural boundary between Europe and Asia. Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic.
The mountains lie within the Ural geographical region and significantly overlap with the Ural Federal District and Ural economic region. They are rich in various deposits, including metal ores, coal, precious and semi-precious stones, and since the 18th century have been the major mineral base of Russia.
As attested by Sigismund von Herberstein, in the 16th century Russians called the range by a variety of names derived from the Russian words for rock (stone) and belt. The modern Russian name for the Urals (Урал, Ural), first appearing in the 16th–17th century when the Russian expansion into Siberia was in its heroic phase, was initially applied to its southern parts and
The Absaroka Range ( /əbˈsɔərkə/ or local /əbˈsɔərki/) is a sub-range of the Rocky Mountains in the United States. The range stretches about 150 mi (240 km) across the Montana-Wyoming border, forming the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National Park and the western side of the Bighorn Basin. The range borders the Beartooth Mountains to the north and the Wind River Range to the south. The highest peak in the range is Francs Peak, located in Wyoming at 13,153 ft (4,009 m). There are 46 other peaks over 12,000 ft (3,700 m).
The range is named after the Absaroka Indians. The name is derived from the Hidatsa name for the Crow people; it means "children of the large-beaked bird." (In contrast, the Crow name, Awaxaawe Báaxxioo, means "Pointed Mountains [Like Sand Castles].")
The range is drained by the Yellowstone River and various tributaries, including the Bighorn River.
Most of the range lies within protected lands including Yellowstone Park, the Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness, North Absaroka Wilderness, Teton Wilderness, and Washakie Wilderness, spanning the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Custer National Forest, Gallatin National Forest, and Shoshone National Forest.
U.S. Highway 212
The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world. It is a continual range of highlands along the western coast of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 km (120 mi) to 700 km (430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.
Along its length, the Andes is split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes is the location of several high plateaux – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, and La Paz. The so-called Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest plateau following the Tibetan plateau.
The Andes range is the world's highest mountain range outside of Asia. The highest peak, Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,962 m (22,841 ft) above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is farther from Earth's centre than any other location on Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from Earth's rotation.
The Black Range (also called the Devil's Mountains or Sierra Diablo) is an igneous mountain range running north-south in Sierra and Grant counties in west-central New Mexico, in the southwestern United States. Its central ridge forms the western and eastern borders, respectively, of the two counties through much of their contact. The range is about 55 miles (88 km) long from north to south and up to 18 miles (29 km) wide. The highest point is McKnight Mountain, at 10,165 feet (3,098 m). The Black Range lies almost entirely within the Gila National Forest. The Mimbres River originates from the mountain snow pack and run-off. The Mimbres Mountains32°47′32″N 107°43′17″W / 32.79218°N 107.72129°W / 32.79218; -107.72129, the southernmost part of the range, are usually included as part of the Black Range.
Access to the range is primarily via NM Highway 152, which crosses the Black Range on its way from the small town of Kingston on the east towards the equally-small San Lorenzo on the west. NM 152 crosses the range at 8228-foot (2508 m) Emory Pass, where there is a hiking trail that covers the entire north-south length of the mountains along the central ridge. There are also a number
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. This province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, starting at its southern-most portion in Georgia, then ending northward in Pennsylvania. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for their bluish color when seen from a distance. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color.
Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks: the Shenandoah National Park in the northern section and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern section. The Blue Ridge also contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile (755 km) long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crestlines with the Appalachian Trail.
The Cascade Range (or Cascades) is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, and the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades. The small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is also sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual US term, as in North Cascades National Park.
The Cascades are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes. The two most recent were Lassen Peak in 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980. Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have also occurred since, most recently in 2006.
The Cascades extend from Lassen Peak (also known as Mount Lassen) in northern California to the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson Rivers in
The Ortler Alps (German: Ortler-Alpen; Italian: Ortles-Cevedale) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps mountain group in the Central Eastern Alps, in Italy and Switzerland.
The Ortler Alps are separated from:
The part west of the Gavia Pass is also called Sobretta-Gavia Group.
The Ortler Alps are drained by the rivers Adda, Oglio, Adige and its tributary Noce.
The main peaks of the Ortler Alps are:
The main mountain passes of the Ortler Alps are:
The Ortler Alps were part of the Italian front during World War I. In this area, the Austro-Hungarians and the Italians dug in in a trench war fought at altitudes above 3,000 m (10,000 ft) for most of the war. Some trenches are still visible today, and war relics continue to be found in the area.
The Pennine Alps (also: Valais Alps) are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland (Valais) and Italy (Piedmont and the Aosta Valley). They are not to be confused with the Pennines.
The Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea, Sesia and Toce, tributaries of the Po. The Swiss side is drained by the Rhône River.
The Great St Bernard Tunnel, under the Great St Bernard Pass, leads from Martigny, Switzerland to Aosta.
According to SOIUSA (International Standardized Mountain Subdivision of the Alps) the mountain range is an Alpine section, classified in the following way:
The Col Ferret and the Dora Baltea valley separate them from the Graian Alps; the Simplon Pass separates them from the Lepontine Alps; the Rhône valley separates them from the Bernese Alps.
The SOIUSA divides the range into five subsections :
The main chain (watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and Adriatic Sea) runs from west to east on the border between Italy (south) and Switzerland (north). From Mont Vélan, the first high summit east of St Bernard Pass, the chain rarely goes below 3000 metres and contains many four-thousanders such as Matterhorn or Monte Rosa. The
The Pilot Range is a mountain range located in Box Elder County, Utah and Elko County, Nevada, in the Great Basin region. The Pilot Range forms part of the northwest border of the Great Salt Lake Desert, with the The Great Salt Lake about 50-mi eastwards.
The Pilot Range begins about 15 miles (24 km) north of the community of West Wendover, and continues north-northeastwards for approximately 30 miles (48 km). The abandoned railroad town of Lucin, Utah was two miles northeast of the Pilot Range.
The Pilot Range runs SSW to NNE, with various canyons running east and west off a prominent ridgeline. It covers an area of about 51,200 acres (20,700 ha). It varies in elevation from a base of 5,000 feet (1,500 m) feet to summits that reach up to 10,000 feet (3,000 m). The highest peak is Pilot Peak, at 10,716 feet (3,266 m). Other significant peaks in the range are Copper Mountain, Bald Eagle Mountain, and Rhyolite Butte. To the east of the Pilot Range is the Pilot Valley Playa and beyond that, the Silver Island Mountains, and to the west is the north section of Pilot Creek Valley.
Several fresh and salty springs flow from the base of the alluvial fans at the base of the range. The
The San Francisco Peaks are a volcanic mountain range located in north central Arizona, just north of Flagstaff. The highest summit in the range, Humphreys Peak, is the highest point in the state of Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m) in elevation. The San Francisco Peaks are the remains of an eroded stratovolcano. An aquifer within the caldera supplies much of Flagstaff's water while the mountain itself is located within the Coconino National Forest and is a popular site for outdoor recreation. The Arizona Snowbowl ski area is located on the western slopes of Humphreys Peak, and has been the subject of major controversy involving several tribes and environmental groups.
The four highest individual peaks in Arizona are contained in the range:
The mountain provides a number of recreational opportunities, including wintertime snow skiing and hiking the rest of the year. Hart Prairie is a popular hiking area and Nature Conservancy preserve located below the mountain's ski resort, Arizona Snowbowl.
Humphreys Peak (latitude 35-20'47 N) and Agassiz Peak (latitude 35-19'33 N) are the two furthest South lying mountain peaks in the contiguous United States which rise to a height of more than
The Santa Lucia Mountains or Santa Lucia Range is a mountain range in coastal California, running from Monterey southeast for 105 miles (170 km) to San Luis Obispo. The highest summit is Junipero Serra Peak, 1,784 metres (5,853 ft) in Monterey County. It is part of the Pacific Coast Ranges.
The first European to document the Santa Lucias was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542 while sailing northward along the coast on a Spanish naval expedition. Cabrillo originally named the southern portion of the range the Sierras de San Martín, as he was passing the area on 11 November, the feast day for Saint Martin. He named the northern part Sierras Nevadas because there was snow on it.
The present name for the range was documented in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, who had been tasked by the Spanish to complete a detailed chart of the coast. Passing by the range on 14 December, he named the range Sierra de Santa Lucia in honor of Saint Lucy of Syracuse.
Like all other Pacific Coast Ranges, these mountains are close enough to the Pacific Ocean and high enough to force incoming moisture upward, making the west side wet and fit for conifers to grow. This creates a rain shadow over Salinas Valley to
The Sierra de Gredos is a mountain range in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, located between Ávila, Cáceres, Madrid and Toledo. It has been declared a regional park. Its highest point is Pico Almanzor, at 2,592 metres.
The La Vera area between Plasencia, Barajas de Gredos and Arenas de San Pedro in the Sierra de Gredos has many "gargantas", beautiful mountain creeks. La Vera has a milder climate than elsewhere in the mountains where the summers are very hot and the high-lying land is usually very cold in winter. Tourists can find lots of accommodation such as camping, hotels, as well as casas rurales (rural guesthouses).
The Simi Hills are a low rocky mountain range of the Transverse Ranges, located in eastern Ventura County and western Los Angeles County, of southern California, United States.
The Simi Hills are aligned east-west and run for 26 miles (42 km), and average around 7 mi (11 km) in north-south width. The Simi Hills are part of the central Transverse Ranges System. They lie almost entirely within southeastern Ventura County, with some southern and eastern foothills within western Los Angeles County.
The Simi Hills are located on the western edge of the San Fernando Valley. The Simi Valley lies to the north, and the Conejo Valley lies to the southwest. The San Fernando Valley communities of Chatsworth, West Hills, and Woodland Hills are in the eastern hills and adjacent valley floor in Los Angeles city and county. The cities of Thousand Oaks (on west), Agoura Hills (on south), and Simi Valley city (on north) are in the hills and adjacent valleys within Ventura County.
The two nearby mountain ranges are: the higher Santa Susana Mountains adjacent on the northeast across Santa Susana Pass; and the Santa Monica Mountains running nearby along the south.
The Simi Hills are the most critical
The Southern Alps is a mountain range extending along much of the length of New Zealand's South Island, reaching its greatest elevations near the island's western side. The term "Southern Alps" generally refers to the entire range, although separate names are given to many of the smaller ranges that form part of it.
The range includes the South Island's Main Divide, which separates the water catchments of the more heavily populated eastern side of the island from those on the west coast. Politically, the Main Divide forms the boundary between the Canterbury and West Coast Regions.
The Southern Alps run 450 km north to south. The tallest peak is Aoraki / Mount Cook, the highest point in New Zealand at 3,754 metres (12,316 ft) and there are sixteen other points in the range that exceed 3,000 metres in height. The mountains are cut through with glacial valleys and lakes. According to an inventory conducted in the late 1970s, the Southern Alps contained over 3000 glaciers larger than a hectare, the longest of which – the Tasman Glacier – is 29 kilometres in length down towards Lake Pukaki. A chain of glacial lakes are found on the eastern side of the ridge from Lake Coleridge in the
The Teton Range is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in North America. A north-south range, it is mostly on the Wyoming side of the state's border with Idaho, just south of Yellowstone National Park. Most of the east slope of the range is in Grand Teton National Park.
Early French Voyageurs used the name "les Trois Tétons" (the three breasts). It is likely that the Shoshone people once called the whole range Teewinot, meaning "many pinnacles".
The principal summits of the central massif, sometimes referred to as the Cathedral Group, are Grand Teton (13,770 feet (4,200 m)), Mount Owen (12,928 feet (3,940 m)), Teewinot (12,325 feet (3,757 m)), Middle Teton (12,804 feet (3,903 m)) and South Teton (12,514 feet (3,814 m)). Other peaks in the range include Mount Moran (12,605 feet (3,842 m)), Mount Wister (11,490 feet (3,500 m)), Buck Mountain (11,938 feet (3,639 m)) and Static Peak (11,303 feet (3,445 m)).
Between six and nine million years ago, stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust caused movement along the Teton fault. The west block along the fault line rose to form the Teton Range, creating the youngest range of the Rocky Mountains. The fault's east block fell to form
The Tibesti Mountains are a range of inactive volcanoes located on the northern edge of the Chad Basin in the Borkou- and Tibesti Region of northern Chad. The massif is one of the most prominent features of the central Sahara desert and covers an area of approximately 100,000 km (39,000 sq mi). The northern slopes extend into southern Libya. It is one of the most isolated areas on Earth and the people called the Tibesti the mountains of hunger, as they can only feed a few people. The biggest city is Bardaï, with only 1,500 residents. The region is a settlement area of the Toubou people and in periods of drought in the lowlands the nomadic Tuareg visit this area.
The mountains are the largest and highest range in the central Sahara, formed by a volcanic group. Most are inactive volcanoes, but the Smithsonian Institution lists four potentially active volcanos. The toponymy of the Tibesti massif is derived from the Arabic and Teda-daza languages of the Toubou people and is used throughout the region. The term ehi refers to peaks, rocky hills, emi to larger mountains or mountainous regions; ehra to calderas. The term Tarso designates a high plateau or gently-sloping mountainsides; for
The Toquima Range is a line of mountains in northwestern Nye County, in central Nevada in the western United States. From Hickson Summit on U.S. Route 50, the range runs for approximately 71 miles (115 km) to the south-southwest. To its west are Big Smoky Valley, scenic State Route 376, and the large Toiyabe Range. To the east are remote Monitor Valley and the Monitor Range. Lying to the south of the range are U.S. Route 6 (Nevada) and the community of Tonopah, while to the north is U.S. Route 50 ("The Loneliest Highway in America"), leading to the small community of Austin.
The high central section of the Toquima Range is a large area of subalpine tundra. Three summits here comprise Mt. Jefferson, the highest points in the range (and in all of central Nevada). The southern summit rises to an elevation of 11,941 feet (3639 m). This section of the range is protected as the Alta Toquima Wilderness Area.
South of this area are the historic mining district of Manhattan, Spanish Peak (10,746 ft, 3275 m), and Shoshone Mountain (10,907 ft, 3324 m). To the north are Wildcat Peak (10,507 ft, 3202 m) and White Rock Mountain (10,156 ft, 3095 m).
The Tordrillo Mountains are a small mountain range in the Matanuska-Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs in the southcentral region of the U.S. state of Alaska. They lie approximately 75 miles (120 km) west-northwest of Anchorage. The range extends approximately 60 miles (97 km) north-south and 35 miles (56 km) east-west. The highest point is Mount Torbert (11,413 feet/3,479 m). On a clear day, they are easily visible from Anchorage.
The Tordrillos are bordered on the south by the Chigmit Mountains, the northernmost extension of the Aleutian Range. (The Tordrillos are sometimes counted as part of the Aleutian Range, but this is not official usage.) On the west and north they meet the southern tip of the Alaska Range, while on the east they fade into the hills and lowlands of southcentral Alaska. The north side of the range feeds the Skwentna River, and the south drains into Chakachamna Lake and the Chakachatna River.
The Tordrillos are primarily a volcanic range, like most of the neighboring Aleutian Range; however some of the peaks (for example, Mount Torbert) are not volcanoes. Mount Spurr, the southernmost peak in the range, had its most recent eruption in June 1992. They are
The Western Tatras (Slovak: Západné Tatry; Polish: Tatry Zachodnie) are mountains in the Tatras, part of the Carpathian Mountains, located on the Polish-Slovak borders. The mountains border the High Tatras in the east, Podtatranská kotlina in the south, Choč Mountains in the west and Rów Podtatrzański (Slovak: Podtatranská brázda) in the north. The main ridge is 37 kilometers long and the mountain range contains 31 two-thousanders.
Western Tatras are the second highest mountain range in Slovakia; its highest peak is Bystrá at 2,248 meters. Other notable mountains include Jakubiná (2,194 m), Baranec (2,184 m), Baníkov (2,178 m), Tri kopy (2,136.3 m), Plačlivé (2,125.1 m), Ostrý Roháč (2,087.5 m), Volovec (Polish: Wołowiec; 2,064 m), Kasprowy Wierch (Slovak: Kasprov vrch; 1,987 m) and Giewont (1,894 m). In Slovakia, they are partially located in the traditional regions of Liptov and Orava. The highest point in Poland is Starorobociański Wierch (2,176 m).
All visitors to the Western Tatras area are obliged since July 1, 2006 to cover all costs of their rescue by the Mountain Rescue Service. Visitors are prohibited from leaving the marked tourist routes, sleeping in the mountains or
The White Mountains of California are a triangular fault block mountain range facing the Sierra Nevada across the upper Owens Valley. They extend for approximately 60 mi (97 km) as a greatly elevated plateau about 20 mi (32 km) wide on the south, narrowing to a point at the north, with elevations generally increasing south to north. The range's broad southern end is near the community of Big Pine, where Westgard Pass and Deep Springs Valley separate it from the Inyo Mountains. The narrow northern end is at Montgomery Pass, where U.S. Route 6 crosses. The Fish Lake Valley lies east of the range; the southeast part of the mountains are separated from the Silver Peak Range by block faulting across the Furnace Creek Fault Zone, forming a feeder valley to Fish Lake Valley. The range lies within the eastern section of the Inyo National Forest.
Ecologically, the White Mountains are like the other ranges in the Basin and Range Province; they are dry, but the upper slopes from 9,200 to 11,500 feet (2,800 to 3,500 meters) hold open subalpine forests of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine on permeable dolomite and certain granite substrates and Limber pine on less permeable rocky substrates. Middle