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Best Monastery of All Time

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    1
    Harichavank Monastery

    Harichavank Monastery

    The Harichavank (Armenian: Հառիճավանք; transliterated as Harijavank or Harichavank) is 7th century Armenian monastery located near the village of Harich (Armenian: Հառիճ) in the Shirak Province of the Republic of Armenia. The village is 3 km southeast of the town of Artik. Harichavank known as one of the most famous monastic centers in Armenia and it was especially renowned for its school and scriptorium. Archaeological excavations of 1966 indicate that Harich was in existence during the 2nd century BC, and was one of the more well known fortress towns in Armenia. The oldest part of this Armenian monastery is the Church of St. Gregory the Enlightener (Սբ. Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչ); it is a domed structure that is usually placed in the category of so-called "Mastara-style" churches (named after the seventh century church of St. Hovhannes in the village of Mastara, in the southern part of Shirak). The founding date of the monastery is unknown, but probably it was built no later than the 7th century, when St. Gregory was erected. The Cathedral of the Holy Mother of God (Սբ. Աստվածածին) that dominates the monastic complex was built by the orders of Zakare Zakarian, Amirspasalar
    7.13
    8 votes
    2
    St German's Priory

    St German's Priory

    St German's Priory is a large Norman church in the village of St Germans in south-east Cornwall, in the United Kingdom. According to a credible tradition the church here was founded by St Germanus himself ca. 430 AD. The first written record however is of Conan being made Bishop in the Church of St German's as a result of King Athelstan's conquest of Cornwall. The fixing of the see here shows that the Celtic monastery was already of great importance. Possession of two holdings of land in the parishes of Landrake ("Landerhtun") and Landulph ("Tinieltun" i.e. Tinnel) was confirmed by King Canute in 1018; they had been granted by King Edmund. Both holdings remained in the monastery's possession until 1538. In 1042 the see was moved to Crediton and the lands of the monastery were divided into two parts, one for the monastery and one (named Cuddenbeak) for the Bishop of Crediton. After the Norman Conquest a college of secular canons was established which is said to have been reconstituted in the time of Bishop Bartholomew (1161–1184) as a college of regular canons. The present church replaces an Anglo-Saxon building which was the cathedral of the Bishops of Cornwall. The church is
    7.71
    7 votes
    3
    Certosa di San Martino

    Certosa di San Martino

    • Religious order: Carthusian
    The Certosa di San Martino (Italian St. Martin's Charterhouse) is a former monastery complex, now a museum, in Naples, southern Italy. Along with Castel Sant'Elmo that stands beside it, this is the most visible landmark of the city, perched atop the Vomero hill that commands the gulf. A Carthusian monastery, it was finished and inaugurated under the rule of Queen Joan I in 1368. It was dedicated to St. Martin of Tours. During the first half of the 16th century it was expanded. Later, in 1623, it was further expanded and became, under the direction of architect Cosimo Fanzago, essentially the structure one sees today. In the early 19th century, under French rule the monastery was closed and was abandoned by the religious order. Today, the buildings house a museum with a display of Spanish and Bourbon era artifacts, as well as displays of the presepe--Nativity scene—considered to be among the finest in the world.
    8.33
    6 votes
    4
    Norton Priory

    Norton Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Norton Priory is a historic site in Norton, Runcorn, Cheshire, England, comprising the remains of an abbey complex dating from the 12th to 16th centuries, and an 18th-century country house; it is now a museum. The remains are a scheduled ancient monument and have been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. They are considered to be the most important monastic remains in Cheshire. The priory was established as an Augustinian foundation in the 12th century, and was raised to the status of an abbey in 1391. The abbey was closed in 1536, as part of the dissolution of the monasteries. Nine years later the surviving structures, together with the manor of Norton, were purchased by Sir Richard Brooke, who built a Tudor house on the site, incorporating part of the abbey. This was replaced in the 18th century by a Georgian house. The Brooke family left the house in 1921, and it was partially demolished in 1928. In 1966 the site was given in trust for the use of the general public. Excavation of the site began in 1971, and became the largest to be carried out by modern methods on any European monastic site. It revealed the foundations and lower parts of the walls of the
    8.17
    6 votes
    5
    Fleury Abbey

    Fleury Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Fleury Abbey (Floriacum) in Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, Loiret, France, founded about 640, is one of the most celebrated Benedictine monasteries of Western Europe, which possesses the relics of St. Benedict of Nursia. Its site on the banks of the Loire has always made it easily accessible from Orléans, a center of culture unbroken since Roman times. Today the abbey has over forty monks and is headed by the abbot Etienne Ricaud. Abbo of Fleury (died 1004) a monk and abbot of Fleury. was a theologian of wide-ranging intellect; his life was written by the chronicler Aimoin, also a monk of Fleury. Andrew of Fleury (writing c 1043) wrote Miracula sancti Benedicti. Hugh of Fleury (died after 1118) was a monk of Fleury known for his chronicles and other writings. The Catholic Encyclopedia avers that "from the very start the abbey boasted of two churches, one in honour of St. Peter and the other in honour of the Blessed Virgin." The church of St Peter was demolished in the eighteenth century; the existing church dedicated to the Virgin pre-existed the founding of the monastery. After the ravages of the Normans, who penetrated via the Loire and burned the monastery buildings, which suffered a
    6.86
    7 votes
    6
    Lyse kloster

    Lyse kloster

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Lyse Abbey or Saint Mary's Abbey, Lyse (Norwegian: Lyse Mariakloster) is a now-ruined Cistercian monastery in Os in the county of Hordaland in south-western Norway. The name "Lyse" is derived from the Lysefjorden, "the fjord of light", on which the building stood. Lyse Abbey was founded in 1146 by Sigurd, Bishop of Bergen, on farmland that he owned, as the Christianisation of Norway was nearing completion. The first monks were brought from Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire, England. This was the first Cistercian monastery in Norway and was modelled on others built in England and France. As with all Cistercians, the monks took a vow of poverty. Renouncing all sources of income except from farming, they developed considerable skill in farming operations and management. Over time, this led to the abbey acquiring many other farms in the area, making it ever more rich and powerful. In all, the monastery had about 50 other farms in Os with at least as many more in other areas. The abbey was dissolved in 1537 when Christian III of Denmark decreed Lutheranism to be the state religion of Norway. The abbey’s possessions were confiscated, becoming the property of the King. Over the next two
    8.40
    5 votes
    7
    Bar Convent

    Bar Convent

    The Convent of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin at Micklegate Bar, York, better known as Bar Convent, is the oldest surviving Roman Catholic convent in England, established in 1686. The laws of England at this time prohibited the foundation of Catholic convents and as a result of this, the convent was both established and operated in secret. Frances Bedingfeld, a member of the Sisters of Loreto (also known as the IBVM), signed the deeds for the land the convent was to be built on on 5 November 1686 under the alias Frances Long. The Convent is now part of the Congregation of Jesus. The creation of the Convent was inspired at least in part by Sir Thomas Gascoigne, a fervent Catholic who declared "we must have a school for our daughters". Gascoigne even went as far as providing a gift of £450, part of which purchased a property on the Convent site and a boarding school, and day school, for Catholic girls was set up at the site by the nuns. The order was a target for frequent discrimination, leading in 1694 to the incarceration of Mother Frances and her great niece in Ousebridge Gaol. They were released shortly after but two years later, in 1696, the house was attacked and severely
    9.50
    4 votes
    8
    Helgeseter Priory

    Helgeseter Priory

    Helgeseter Priory or Elgeseter Priory was a house of Augustinian Canons in what is now Elgeseter in Trondheim, Norway, across the river Nidelven from Nidaros Cathedral. The priory was connected to the cathedral by Elgeseter Bridge, making it possible for the canons to perform their duty in the cathedral choir. The monastery was founded by Archbishop Eystein no later than 1183, and rapidly assumed political importance. In May 1240 Duke Skule was killed outside this monastery. He had been attacked by the Birkebeiners in Nidaros, and after wandering for a couple of days took refuge in Helgeseter. The Birkebeiners set fire to the monastery and forced Skule out again, whereupon they killed him, with his son Peter. The priory was suppressed during the Reformation in 1537. The old prior continued to live at the monastery until 1546, when the Lutheran bishop of Nidaros moved in. In 1564 the buildings were burned down and after 1606 the site was used as a quarry. There are now no visible ruins, but underground remains lie beneath the present Klostergata 47 and 60-62 and the roadway between them, a little south of the Nidelven.
    8.20
    5 votes
    9
    Mount St Bernard Abbey

    Mount St Bernard Abbey

    • Religious order: Trappists
    Mount St Bernard's Abbey is a Cistercian monastery of the Strict Observance (Trappists) near Whitwick in Leicestershire, England, founded in 1835. Its present Superior is Dom Joseph Delargy. The Cistercian order dates back to the 12th century and the Trappists to the mid-17th century. Mount St Bernard's Abbey is the only abbey belonging to this order left in England. Mount St Bernard's Abbey was founded in 1835 on 222 acres (0.90 km) of land given by Ambrose de Lisle, who wanted to re-introduce monastic life to the country. He was helped by a loan from Bishop Thomas Walsh, the Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District. At first, the monks lived in a four-roomed cottage but later domestic buildings and a chapel were built. The first monks were Augustine, Luke, Xavier, Cyprian, Placid, Simeon and Fr. Odilo Woolfrey. The first monastery was opened in 1837, designed by William Railton. The permanent monastery, as it stands today, was completed in 1844 with donations from John Talbot, the 16th earl of Shrewsbury, and other benefactors. It was designed by Augustus Pugin, who offered his services free. In 1848, it was granted the status of an abbey by Pope Pius IX and its first abbot was
    8.00
    5 votes
    10
    Cymer Abbey

    Cymer Abbey

    Cymer Abbey (Welsh: Abaty Cymer) is a ruined Cistercian abbey near the village of Llanelltyd, just north of Dolgellau, Gwynedd, in north-west Wales, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1158-9 and dedicated to the Virgin Mary under the patronage of Maredudd ap Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd (d. 1212), Lord of Merioneth and grandson of Owain Gwyned and his brother, Gruffudd ap Cynan, prince of N. Wales (d. 1200). It was a daughter house of Abbey Cwmhir in Powys. The remains of the church and west tower are very plain, but substantial with walls surviving about nave archway height. It is a simple nave with aisles, lacking northern and southern transepts, and the choir and presbytery are incorporated into the nave. The abbey has buff sandstone dressings and some red sandstone carvings, but is primarily of local rubble construction. The foundations of the cloister and other monastic buildings are visible to the south. The abbot's house remain to the west of the site and have been extensively remodelled as a farmhouse. Like other Cistercian communities in Wales, Cymer Abbey farmed sheep and bred horses, supplying them to Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Llewelyn the Great. Llewelyn gifted the Abbey mining
    6.83
    6 votes
    11
    Reading Abbey

    Reading Abbey

    Reading Abbey is a large, ruined abbey in the centre of the town of Reading, in the English county of Berkshire. It was founded by Henry I in 1121 "for the salvation of my soul, and the souls of King William, my father, and of King William, my brother, and Queen Maud, my wife, and all my ancestors and successors". The abbey was founded by Henry I in 1121. As part of his endowments, he gave the abbey his lands within Reading, along with land at Cholsey. He also arranged for further land in Reading, previously given to Battle Abbey by William the Conqueror, to be transferred to Reading Abbey, in return for some of his land at Appledram in Sussex. Following its royal foundation, the abbey was established by a party of monks from the French abbey of Cluny, together with monks from the Cluniac priory of St Pancras at Lewes in Sussex. The abbey was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St John the Evangelist. The first abbot, in 1123, was Hugh of Amiens who became archbishop of Rouen and was buried in Rouen Cathedral. According to the twelfth century chronicler William of Malmesbury, the abbey was built on a gravel spur "between the rivers Kennet and Thames, on a spot calculated for the
    9.00
    4 votes
    12
    St. Stephen's Abbey, Augsburg

    St. Stephen's Abbey, Augsburg

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    St. Stephen's Abbey, Augsburg (German: Kloster St. Stephan, formerly Stift St. Stephan) is a Benedictine monastery, formerly a house of Augustinian canonesses, in Augsburg in Bavaria, Germany. The monastery, dedicated to Saint Stephen, was founded in 969 by Saint Ulrich, Bishop of Augsburg, and used by Augustinian canonesses. It was dissolved in the secularisation of Bavaria in 1803, and the premises passed into the possession of the town. The army used the site for a few years as a quartermaster's store. In 1828 King Ludwig I of Bavaria founded a grammar school here, as a successor to the former Jesuit college of St. Salvator (1582–1807). In 1835 he established the Benedictine monastery and entrusted it with the running of the school. The buildings were entirely destroyed in 1944 but have been re-built. The monks continue to run the school and boarding house, and are engaged in pastoral and youth work. The abbey belongs to the Bavarian Congregation of the Benedictine Confederation.
    7.60
    5 votes
    13
    Woodspring Priory

    Woodspring Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Woodspring Priory is a former Augustinian priory beside the Severn Estuary about 3 miles (5 km) north-east of Weston-super-Mare, North Somerset. The priory was founded in the early thirteenth century, and dedicated to Thomas Becket (the founder was a grandson of Reginald Fitzurse, one of Becket's murderers). It was home to a small community of Victorine Canons. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the priory was converted into a farmhouse. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. It is now owned by the Landmark Trust and rented out as holiday accommodation. There is also a small museum on the site with photographs and information about the history of the priory and its renovation by the Landmark Trust. The 15th-century barn, east cloister wall, farmhouse range, gatehouse, gates and mounting block, infirmary, and west wall are also listed buildings. Woodspring Priory is near the scenic limestone promontory of Sand Point otherwise known as Middle Hope, owned by the National Trust. The priory gave its name to the Woodspring District of the former county of Avon, and the Woodspring parliamentary constituency of North Somerset.
    7.60
    5 votes
    14
    Conception Abbey

    Conception Abbey

    Conception Abbey is a monastery of the Swiss-American Congregation of the Benedictine Confederation. The monastery, founded by the Swiss Engelberg Abbey in 1873 in northwest Missouri's Nodaway County, was raised to a conventual priory in 1876 and elevated to an abbey in 1881. At present the community numbers sixty-five monks who celebrate the Eucharist and Liturgy of the Hours daily and who staff and administer Conception Seminary College, the Printery House, and the Abbey Guest Center. Monks also serve as parish priests and hospital chaplains in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph and other dioceses. There is also a large postal facility attached to The Printery House, operated by secular employees, which includes package shipping and delivery facilities. Conception Abbey is located in Conception, Missouri just outside Conception Junction, Missouri. Conception Abbey was established 8 December 1873 by Benedictine monks of the Swiss abbey of Engelberg as a place of refuge should their monastery be suppressed by the Swiss government. They also came in response to the appeal of the Rev. James Power to minister to the spiritual needs of a colony of Irish and German
    7.40
    5 votes
    15
    Kirkham Priory

    Kirkham Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    The ruins of Kirkham Priory are situated on the banks of the River Derwent, at Kirkham, North Yorkshire, England. The Augustinian priory was founded in the 1120s by Walter l'Espec, lord of nearby Helmsley, who also built Rievaulx Abbey. Legend has it that Kirkham was founded in remembrance of l'Espec's only son who had died nearby as a consequence of his horse being startled by a boar. The area was later used to test the D-Day landing vehicles, and was visited by Winston Churchill. The ruins are now Grade I listed and in the care of English Heritage. The Gatehouse of Kirkham Priory, built c.1290-5, is a specimen of English Gothic medieval architecture. It is a rare survival of such a gatehouse, comparable to that of Butley Priory in Suffolk. It has a wide arch of continuous mouldings with a crocketed gable running up to the windows, with sculptures of S.George and the Dragon on the left, and David and Goliath to the right. Above the arch is Christ in a pointed oval recess, plus two figures below of St. Bartholomew and St. Philip, in niches. There are also many escutcheons with the armorials of the various benefactors of the Priory, including the arms of de Ros, Scrope, de Forz,
    8.50
    4 votes
    16
    Ardenne Abbey

    Ardenne Abbey

    • Religious order: Premonstratensian
    Ardenne Abbey, "l'Abbaye d'Ardenne," or Abbaye Ardenne is the site of a Premonstratensian monastery in Saint-Germain-la-Blanche-Herbe, near Caen, France, containing a chapel built in 1121 and other medieval buildings. The Abbaye was used as an observation post by the Germans in the Battle of Normandy, and was heavily damaged by Allied forces. As a result, much of the Abbaye visible today has been rebuilt or restored. During the Normandy Campaign, Brigadeführer Kurt Meyer, commander of the 25th Panzer Grenadier Regiment, used the Ardenne Abbey for his regimental headquarters, as the turret allowed for a clear view of the battlefield. The abbey is the location where in June 1944, 20 Canadian soldiers were executed by members of the 12th SS Panzer Division. Both the method by which the killings were carried out and upon whom the blame rests remain points of contention. Some basic facts, however, are certain. In the evening of 7 June, 11 Canadian prisoners of war, soldiers from the North Nova Scotia Highlanders and the 27th Armoured Regiment (The Sherbrooke Fusiliers Regiment), were shot in the back of the head. Of the North Nova Scotia Highlanders were: Of the 27th Armoured Regiment
    6.33
    6 votes
    17
    Woburn Abbey

    Woburn Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Woburn Abbey (pronounced Woe-burn, or until c.1960 "Woob'n"), near Woburn, Bedfordshire, England, is a country house, the seat of the Duke of Bedford and the location of the Woburn Safari Park. Woburn Abbey, comprising Woburn Park and its buildings, was originally founded as a Cistercian abbey in 1145. Taken from its monastic residents by Henry VIII and given to John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford in 1547, it became the seat of the Russell family and the Dukes of Bedford. The Abbey was largely rebuilt starting in 1744 by the architects Henry Flitcroft and Henry Holland for the 4th Duke. Anna Maria, the wife of the 7th Duke, originated the afternoon tea ritual in 19th-century England. In April 1786 John Adams (the future second President of the United States on tour with Thomas Jefferson—who would serve as his vice president before becoming President himself) visited Woburn Abbey and other notable house in the area, after visiting them he wrote in his diary "Stowe, Hagley, and Blenheim, are superb; Woburn, Caversham, and the Leasowes are beautiful. Wotton is both great and elegant, though neglected". However in his diary he was also damming about the means used to finance the large
    7.20
    5 votes
    18
    Buildwas Abbey

    Buildwas Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Buildwas Abbey is located along the banks of the River Severn in Buildwas, Shropshire, England, about two miles west of Ironbridge. The Cistercian Abbey of St Mary and St Chad was founded in 1135 by Roger de Clinton, Bishop of Coventry (1129–1148) as a Savignac monastery and was inhabited by a small community of monks from Furness Abbey. The stone from which it was built was quarried in the nearby settlement of Broseley. The abbey's location near the border of Wales meant it was destined to have a turbulent history. Welsh Princes and their followers regularly raided the Abbey and on one occasion in 1406, during the rebellion of Owain Glyndwr, raiders from Powys even kidnapped the abbot. This however paled in comparison to an earlier event in 1342 where one of the Buildwas monks, Thomas Tong, murdered his abbot, managed to evade arrest, and then petitioned for re-instatement into the Cistercian order. The abbey was closed in 1536 by the order of Henry VIII during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, whereupon the estate was granted to Edward Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Powis. The abbots house and infirmary were later incorporated into the building of a private house in the 17th century
    8.25
    4 votes
    19
    Rila Monastery

    Rila Monastery

    • Religion: Eastern Christianity
    The Monastery of Saint Ivan of Rila, better known as the Rila Monastery (Bulgarian: Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. It is situated in the southwestern Rila Mountains, 117 km (73 mi) south of the capital Sofia in the deep valley of the Rilska River at an elevation of 1,147 m (3,763 ft) above sea level. The monastery is named after its founder, the hermit Ivan of Rila (876 - 946 AD). Founded in the 10th century, the Rila Monastery is regarded as one of Bulgaria's most important cultural, historical and architectural monuments and is a key tourist attraction for both Bulgaria and Southern Europe. In 2008 alone, it attracted 900,000 visitors. The monastery is depicted on the reverse of the 1 lev banknote, issued in 1999. It is traditionally thought that the monastery was founded by the hermit St. Ivan of Rila, whose name it bears, during the rule of Tsar Peter I (927-968). The hermit actually lived in a cave without any material possessions not far from the monastery's location, while the complex was built by his students, who came to the mountains to receive their education. Ever since its creation, the Rila
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    Dunbrody Abbey

    Dunbrody Abbey

    Dunbrody Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in County Wexford, Ireland. The cross-shaped church was built in the 13th century, and the tower was added in the 15th century. With a length of 59m the church is one of the longest in Ireland. The visitor centre is run by the current Marquess of Donegall and has one of only two full sized hedge mazes in Ireland. The abbey was dissolved under Henry VIII. The last Abbot of Dunbrody was Alexander Devereux, who became Bishop of Ferns in 1539. In 1169 a contingent of Norman knights led by Dermot MacMurrough invaded Ireland, first conquering the Irish providence of Leinster then all of Ireland. In 1171 Henry II led a much larger force into Ireland, taking control and making Ireland a territory of England. Richard de Clare, one of the important figures in the Norman Conquest, instructed his uncle Herve de Montmorency to found a Cistercian monastery in the County Wexford. Montmorency donated the allotted land to the English Cistercian Abbey of Buildwas. The Abbey of Buildwas sent a lay brother to survey the land and, after an unfavorable report, Buildwas turned down the gift. The property was then offered to St. Mary’s Cistercian Abbey in
    6.17
    6 votes
    21
    Sinaia Monastery

    Sinaia Monastery

    The Sinaia Monastery, located in Sinaia, in Prahova County, Romania, was founded by Prince Mihail Cantacuzino in 1695 and named after the great Sinai Monastery on Mount Sinai. As of 2005, it is inhabited by 13 Christian Orthodox monks led by hegumen Macarie Bogus. It is part of the Bucharest archdiocese. Situated in the Prahova Valley, the monastery gave its name to the nearby town of Sinaia. The monastery consists of two courtyards surrounded by low buildings. In the centre of each courtyard there is a small church built in the Byzantine style. One of them—"Biserica Veche" (The Old Church)—dates from 1695, while the more recent "Biserica Mare" (The Great Church) was built in 1846. The monks possess a library that is a repository for valuable jewels belonging to the Cantacuzino family, as well as the earliest Romanian translation of the Bible, dated 1668. Take Ionescu, former Prime Minister of Romania, is buried on the grounds. Prince (Spătarul) Mihail Cantacuzino founded the monastery upon his return from a pilgrimage to Mount Sinai. The first buildings were completed between 1690 to 1695. It was designed to serve as a monastery as well as a fortified stronghold on the route from
    7.00
    5 votes
    22
    Abbey of Nonantola

    Abbey of Nonantola

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Nonantola Abbey, dedicated to Saint Sylvester, is a former a Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius in the commune of Nonantola, c. 10 km north-east of Modena, in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. The abbey church remains as a basilica. The abbey was founded in 752 by Saint Anselm, Duke of Friuli and brother-in-law of the Lombard king Aistulf. The latter richly endowed the new abbey, starting its role as one of the main landed proprietors of northern Italy. Pope Stephen II appointed Anselm its first abbot, and presented some relics of Saint Sylvester to the abbey, named in consequence S. Silvestro de Nonantula. After the death of Aistulf in 756, Anselm was banished to Monte Cassino by the new king, Desiderius, but was restored by Charlemagne after seven years. In 813 the abbot Peter of Nonantola was chosen as Imperial ambassador to Constantinople. His successor, Ansfrid, held the same post in 828. In 883 the abbey was chosen as the place of a conference between Charles the Fat and Pope Marinus I. In 889 the monastery and church were completely destroyed by invading Hungarians, and all who had not fled were killed. Reconstruction began almost immediately. Up to the 11th
    8.00
    4 votes
    23
    Alvecote Priory

    Alvecote Priory

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Alvecote Priory is a ruined Benedictine Priory in Alvecote, Warwickshire, England. Now very little remains of the priory, most of the walls have been eroded but a fairly high wall remains on one side. The main entrance arch is the most impressive feature, still standing at around 20 feet (6.1 m) high. It was founded 1159 by William Burdett as a dependency of Great Malvern Priory. After returning from a crusade, Burdett accused his wife of being unfaithful and stabbed her, and as penance founded the monastery. The priory house (ruin in 1965) was built from the stone of the old Benedictine Priory.
    8.00
    4 votes
    24
    Bradwell Abbey

    Bradwell Abbey

    Bradwell Abbey or Bradwell Priory is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, urban studies site, district and civil parish in Milton Keynes, ceremonial Buckinghamshire, England. The site was once the location of a Benedictine priory, founded in 1155. The Priory was established around 1154. It grew during the Middle Ages to became an important local centre, but declined during the Black Death when, amongst others, its prior William of Loughton died. The Priory was closed in 1524 (some 12 years before the general dissolution of the monasteries) and the site of the monastery and its scanty revenues were granted to Cardinal Wolsey for the endowment of his new college. All that remains today is a small chapel and a farmhouse that has become a centre for cultural activities and an Urban Studies centre. The medieval trackways converging on the abbey can still be seen in the rights of way and bridleways that have become "redways" (leisure routes for cycling and walking). The arrival of the West Coast Main Line railway split the Abbey lands, with Bradwell village to the east of the line and the Abbey to the west. Today, the small Bradwell Abbey district includes parkland and industry in its own
    8.00
    4 votes
    25
    Lesnes Abbey

    Lesnes Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Lesnes Abbey /ˈlɛsnɨs/ is a former abbey, now ruined, in Abbey Wood, in the London Borough of Bexley. It is a scheduled ancient monument and the adjacent Lesnes Abbey Woods are a Local Nature Reserve. Part of the wood is the Abbey Wood SSSI, a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest which is an important site for early Tertiary fossils. After the Norman Conquest in 1066 the area of Lesnes, close to the town of Erith passed into the possession of Bishop Odo and is mentioned in the Domesday Survey. The year 1178 saw the foundation of the Abbey of St Mary and St Thomas the Martyr at Lesnes. Lesnes Abbey, as it is known, was founded by Richard de Luci, Chief Justiciar of England, in 1178. It is speculated, this may have been in penance for the murder of Thomas Becket, in which he was involved. In 1179, de Luci resigned his office and retired to the Abbey, where he died three months later. He was buried in the chapter house. The abbey is situated in the suburbs of south east London, in the north of an ancient but long-managed Lesnes Abbey Woods that are named after it, where the land rises above what would originally have been marshland. In 1381 Abel Ker of Erith led a local
    6.80
    5 votes
    26
    Lilienfeld Abbey

    Lilienfeld Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Lilienfeld Abbey (Stift Lilienfeld) is a Cistercian monastery in Lilienfeld to the south of Sankt Pölten in Lower Austria. It was founded in 1202 by Leopold VI, Duke of Austria and Styria, as a daughter house of Heiligenkreuz Abbey. Successive abbots acted as councillors to the rulers of Austria, and the abbey became wealthy as a result of this valuable connection. Abbot Matthew Kollweis (1650–1695) turned the monastery into a fortress during the Turkish advance against Vienna in 1683, installing a garrison and giving shelter to a large number of fugitives. In the 17th century the medieval buildings were extended by Baroque additions. In the first half of the 18th century the tower, library and church interior and furnishings were also refurbished in the Baroque style. The abbey was suppressed by Emperor Joseph II in 1789, but although the library, archives and portable valuables were removed, on the death of Joseph II it was reopened by Emperor Leopold II as early as 1790. In 1810 much of the abbey was destroyed in a fire, but was rebuilt under Abbot Johann Ladislaus Pyrker, who later became the Patriarch of Venice (1820–26) and eventually Archbishop of Eger. In 1976 Pope Paul VI
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    5 votes
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    Sretensky Monastery

    Sretensky Monastery

    Sretensky Monastery (Russian: Сретенский монастырь) is a monastery in Moscow, founded by Grand Prince Vasili I in 1397. It used to be located close to the present-day Red Square, but in the early 16th century it was moved northeast to what is now Bolshaya Lubyanka Street. The Sretensky Monastery gave its name to adjacent streets and byways, namely Sretenka Street, Sretensky Boulevard, Sretensky Lane, Sretensky Deadend, and Sretensky Gates Square. Unlike most other Russian Orthodox churches of the same name the monastery is not, as might be expected, named after one of the twelve Great Feasts of Russian Orthodox Church Sretenie Gospodne (Presentation of Our Lord in the Temple), with Sretenie being a Church Slavonic word for "meeting". The origin of the monastery's name comes from the fact that it was built on the spot where the muscovites and the ruling Prince had met the icon of Our Lady of Vladimir on August 26, 1395, moved from Vladimir to Moscow to protect the capital from the imminent invasion of Tamerlane. Soon thereafter, the armies of Tamerlane retreated and the grateful monarch founded the monastery to commemorate the miracle. In 1552, the Muscovites gathered at the walls
    6.80
    5 votes
    28
    Worksop Priory

    Worksop Priory

    Worksop Priory (formally The Priory Church of Saint Mary and Saint Cuthbert, Worksop) is a Church of England parish church and former priory in the town of Worksop, Nottinghamshire, part of the Diocese of Southwell and Nottingham and under the Episcopal Care of the Bishop Of Beverley. The church is Grade I listed by the Department for Culture, Media & Sport as a building of outstanding architectural or historic interest. Mass times The initial land grant and monies to establish the Augustinian priory were made by William de Lovetot in 1103. In the 14th century the Tickhill Psalter was produced by then prior, John de Tickhill. The priory was dissolved on the orders of Henry VIII on November 15, 1539. The property was granted to Francis Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury on condition that the Earl should provide a glove for the right hand of the Soveriegn at the coronation. This tradition continues to this day. Over time most of the former monastic buildings were plundered for their stone, however the nave of the church was saved for use as a parish church, and the early 14th century gatehouse was later used as a school. Extensive restoration and enlargements of the church began in the
    6.80
    5 votes
    29
    Melrose Abbey

    Melrose Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Melrose Abbey is a Gothic-style abbey in Melrose, Scotland. It was founded in 1136 by Cistercian monks, on the request of King David I of Scotland. It was headed by the Abbot or Commendator of Melrose. Today the abbey is maintained by Historic Scotland (open all year; entrance charge). The east end of the abbey was completed in 1146. Other buildings in the complex were added over the next 50 years. The abbey was built in the form of a St. John's cross. A considerable portion of the abbey is now in ruins, though a structure dating from 1590 is maintained as a museum open to the public. Alexander II and other Scottish kings and nobles are buried at the abbey. The embalmed heart of Robert the Bruce is also said to rest on the abbey's grounds, while the rest of his body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey. In 1812, a stone coffin that some speculated was that of Michael Scot the philosopher and "wizard", was found in an aisle in the abbey's south chancel. It is known for its many carved decorative details, including likenesses of saints, dragons, gargoyles and plants. On one of the abbey's stairways is an inscription by John Morow, a master mason, that says: "Be halde to ye hende" (Keep in
    9.00
    3 votes
    30
    Westminster Abbey

    Westminster Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English, later British and later still (and currently) monarchs of the Commonwealth realms. The abbey is a Royal Peculiar and briefly held the status of a cathedral from 1540 to 1550. Westminster Abbey is a collegiate church governed by the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, as established by Royal charter of Queen Elizabeth I in 1560, which created it as the Collegiate Church of St Peter Westminster and a Royal Peculiar under the personal jurisdiction of the Sovereign. The members of the Chapter are the Dean and four residentiary canons, assisted by the Receiver General and Chapter Clerk. One of the canons is also Rector of St Margaret's Church, Westminster, and often holds also the post of Chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons. In addition to the Dean and canons, there are at present two full-time minor canons, one is precentor, and the other is sacrist. The office of Priest Vicar was
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    3 votes
    31
    Fountains Abbey

    Fountains Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Fountains Abbey is approximately three miles south west of Ripon in North Yorkshire, England near to the village of Aldfield. Founded in 1132, the abbey operated for over 400 years, until 1539, when Henry VIII ordered the Dissolution of the Monasteries. It is one of the largest and best preserved ruined Cistercian monasteries in England. The abbey is a Grade I listed building owned by the National Trust and part of the designated Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey UNESCO World Heritage Site. After a dispute and riot in 1132 at the Benedictine house, St Mary's Abbey, in York, 13 monks were expelled and, after unsuccessfully attempting to return to the early 6th-century Rule of St Benedict, were taken into the protection of Thurstan, Archbishop of York. He provided them with land in the valley of the River Skell, a tributary of the Ure. The enclosed valley had all the natural features needed for the creation of a monastery, providing shelter from the weather, stone and timber for building, and a supply of running water. After enduring a harsh winter in 1133, the monks applied to join the Cistercian order and in 1135 became the second house of that order in
    7.75
    4 votes
    32
    Wilhering Abbey

    Wilhering Abbey

    Wilhering Abbey (Stift Wilhering) is a Cistercian monastery in Wilhering in Upper Austria, about 8 km from Linz. The buildings, re-constructed in the 18th century, are known for their spectacular Rococo decoration. The monastery was founded by Ulrich and Kolo of Wilhering, who gave the family's old castle for the purpose, in accordance with the wish of their deceased father, after the family had moved to their new castle at Waxenberg. It was settled initially by Augustinian Canons, but in the first years the new foundation was beset with problems, and on 30 September 1146 Ulrich replaced the canons with Cistercian monks from Rein Abbey in Styria. However, after less than forty years only two monks remained. At this point, Heinrich, the fourth abbot, transferred the abbey to Burkhard, abbot of Ebrach Abbey, the mother house of Rein, in 1185, and the monastery was re-settled by monks from Ebrach, after which the community was established for the future on a secure footing. Wilhering itself later founded Hohenfurth Abbey, today known as Vyšší Brod Abbey, in the Czech Republic (1258), Engelszell Abbey in Upper Austria (1295) and Säusenstein Abbey in Lower Austria (1334). In 1928 the
    7.75
    4 votes
    33
    Donskoy Monastery

    Donskoy Monastery

    Donskoy Monastery (Russian: Донско́й монасты́рь) is a major monastery in Moscow, founded in 1591 in commemoration of Moscow's deliverance from an imminent threat of Khan Kazy-Girey’s invasion. Commanding a highway to the Crimea, the monastery was intended to defend southern approaches to the Moscow Kremlin. The monastery was built on the spot where Boris Godunov's mobile fortress and Sergii Radonezhsky's field church with Theophan the Greek's icon Our Lady of the Don had been located. Legend has it that Dmitry Donskoy had taken this icon with him to the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. The Tatars left without a fight and were defeated during their retreat. Initially, the cloister was rather poor and numbered only a few monks. As of 1629, the Donskoy Monastery possessed 20 wastelands and 16 peasant households (20 peasants altogether). In 1612, it was taken for one day by the Polish-Lithuanian commander Jan Karol Chodkiewicz. In 1618, Russian Streltsy defeated the Ukrainian Cossacks of Petro Konashevych under the monastery walls. In the mid-17th century the monastery was attached to the Andreyevsky Monastery. In 1678, however, its independence was reinstated and the cloister received rich
    6.60
    5 votes
    34
    Krušedol monastery

    Krušedol monastery

    The Krušedol monastery (pronounced [kruʃɛ̌dɔl]) (Serbian: Манастир Крушедол / Manastir Krušedol) is a Serb Orthodox monastery on the Fruška Gora mountain in the northern Serbia, in the province of Vojvodina. The monastery is the legacy of the last Serbian despot family of Srem - Branković. It was built between 1509 and 1514. The whole family including Đurađ Branković and Stefan Lazarević, as well as two patriarchs of the Serb Orthodox Church, were buried in Krušedol. It is shown on the 5 Dinar coin. Krušedol Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.
    6.60
    5 votes
    35
    Kykkos Monastery

    Kykkos Monastery

    The Holy, Royal and Stavropegic Monastery of Kykkos (Greek:Ιερά Μονή Κύκκου), which lies 20 km west of Pedoulas, is one of the wealthiest and best-known monasteries in Cyprus. The Holy Monastery of the Virgin of Kykkos was founded around the end of the 11th century by the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos (1081 - 1118). The monastery lies at an altitude of 1318 meters on the north west face of Troödos Mountains. There are no remains of the original monastery as it was burned down many times. The first President of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios III started his ecclesiastical career there as a monk in 1926. He remained fond of the place and returned there many times. His request to be buried there materialised after his death in 1977. His tomb lies 3 km west of Kykkos monastery and remains a popular visitor destination. According to tradition, a virtuous hermit called Esaias was living in a cave on the mountain of Kykkos. One day, the Byzantine governor of the island, doux Manuel Boutoumites, who was spending the summer at a village of Marathasa because of the heat of the season, went into the forest to hunt. Having lost his way in the forest he met Monk Esaias and asked him to
    6.60
    5 votes
    36
    Haghpat Monastery

    Haghpat Monastery

    Haghpat Monastery, also known as Haghpatavank ("Հաղպատավանք" in Armenian), is a medieval Armenian monastery complex in Haghpat, Armenia. Described as a "masterpiece of religious architecture and a major center of learning in the Middle Ages", this venerable institution of the Armenian Apostolic Church was placed on UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1996. The monastery was founded by Saint Nishan (Sourb Nshan) in the 10th century during the reign of King Abas I. The nearby monastery at Sanahin was built around the same time. The monasteries at Haghpat and Sanahin were chosen as UNESCO World Heritage Sites because: The two monastic complexes represent the highest flowering of Armenian religious architecture, whose unique style developed from a blending of elements of Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture and the traditional vernacular architecture of the Caucasian region. The location of Haghpat Monastery was chosen so that it overlooks the Debed River in northern Armenia's Lori region. It was built, not on a peak, but halfway up a hillside on a site chosen to afford protection and concealment from prying eyes and also in response to a kind of monastic humility. It is built on a
    7.50
    4 votes
    37
    Abbey of Farfa

    Abbey of Farfa

    Farfa Abbey (It.: Abbazia di Farfa) is a territorial abbey in northern Lazio, central Italy. It is one of the most famous abbeys of Europe. It belongs to the Benedictine Order and is located about 60 km from Rome, in the commune of Fara Sabina, not far from the Fara Sabina railway station. A legend in the 12th-century Chronicon Farfense (Chronicle of Farfa) records a tradition of the foundation of a monastery at Farfa in the time of the Emperors Julian, or Gratian, by Laurence of Syria, who had come to Rome with his sister, Susannah, together with other monks, and had been made Bishop of Spoleto. According to the tradition, he afterwards became enamoured of the monastic life, and chose a wooded hill near the Farfa stream, a tributary of the Tiber, on which he built a church and a monastery. Archaeological discoveries in 1888 seem to prove that the first monastic establishment was built on the ruins of a pagan temple. This first monastery was devastated by the Vandals in the fifth century. Only a handful of sixth-century finds document the early presence of the monastic community. In the seventh century, a wave of Irish monasticism spread over Italy. The foundation in Bobbio of the
    8.67
    3 votes
    38
    Kilmacduagh monastery

    Kilmacduagh monastery

    Kilmacduagh Monastery is found 5 km from the town of Gort in County Galway, Ireland. It was the birthplace of the Diocese of Kilmacduagh, whose name means "church of Duagh's son". The 7th century Saint Colman, son of Duagh, established a monastery on land given him by his cousin King Guaire Aidne mac Colmáin (died 663 in Ireland) of Connacht. The monastery contains a round tower, notable as both fine example of this particularly Irish feature but also because of its noticeable lean, over half a metre from the vertical. The tower is over 30 metres tall, with the only doorway some 7 metres above ground level. This site was of such importance that it became the centre of a new diocese, the Diocese of Kilmacduagh, in the 12th century; it is now incorporated into the Diocese of Galway. The monastery, because of its wealth and importance, was plundered several times in the 13th century. According to legend, Saint Colman MacDuagh was walking through the woods of the Burren when his girdle fell to the ground. Taking this as a sign, he built his monastery on that spot. The girdle was said to be studded with gems and was held by the O'Shaughnessys centuries later, along with St. Colman's
    8.67
    3 votes
    39
    Arbroath Abbey

    Arbroath Abbey

    • Religious order: Tironensian order
    Arbroath Abbey, in the Scottish town of Arbroath, was founded in 1178 by King William the Lion for a group of Tironensian Benedictine monks from Kelso Abbey. It was consecrated in 1197 with a dedication to the deceased Saint Thomas Becket, whom the king had met at the English court. It was William's only personal foundation — he was buried before the high altar of the church in 1214. The last Abbot was Cardinal David Beaton, who in 1522 succeeded his uncle James to become Archbishop of St Andrews. The Abbey is cared for by Historic Scotland and is open to the public throughout the year (entrance charge). The distinctive red sandstone ruins stand at the top of the High Street in Arbroath. King William gave the Abbey independence from its mother church and endowed it generously, including income from 24 parishes, land in every royal burgh and more. The Abbey's monks were allowed to run a market and build a harbour. King John of England gave the Abbey permission to buy and sell goods anywhere in England (except London) toll-free. The Abbey, which was the richest in Scotland, is most famous for its association with the 1320 Declaration of Arbroath, believed to have been drafted by
    7.25
    4 votes
    40
    Deutz Abbey

    Deutz Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Deutz Abbey (German: Kloster or Abtei Deutz) was a Benedictine monastery located at Deutz, now part of Cologne as Köln-Deutz, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was founded in 1003 on the site of a Roman fort by the future Saint Heribert, Archbishop of Cologne, close adviser of Emperor Otto III. Heribert died in 1021 and was buried in the Romanesque church he had had built here. The theologian Rupert of Deutz was abbot during the 1120s. The abbey had extensive properties, but its strategic position by the Rhine exposed it to involvement in fighting, and it was destroyed in the 14th century and again in the 16th. It was dissolved during the secularisation of the Napoleonic era, but the abbey church, now known as Alt St. Heribert, became a parish church in 1804. In World War II it was heavily damaged and only the ground floor and remnants of the Romanesque cellar were preserved. Reconstruction took place in the 1970s. Today the former abbey accommodates an old people's home run by Caritas. Notable are the mural paintings by the artist Werner Weber. The former abbey church of Alt St. Heribert is now used by the Greek Orthodox community of Cologne, and has been superseded as a Roman
    7.25
    4 votes
    41
    Poblet Monastery

    Poblet Monastery

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    The Royal Abbey of Santa Maria de Poblet (Catalan: Reial Monestir de Santa Maria de Poblet) is a Cistercian monastery, founded in 1151, located at the feet of the Prades Mountains, in the comarca of Conca de Barberà, in Catalonia (Spain). It was founded by Cistercian monks from France on lands conquered from the Moors. The main architect was Arnau Bargués. This monastery was the first of three sister monasteries, known as the Cistercian triangle, that helped consolidate power in Catalonia in the 12th century. (The other two are Vallbona de les Monges and Santes Creus) Poblet was the royal pantheon of the kings of the Crown of Aragon since James I of Aragon. Some of the most important royal sepulchres have alabaster statues that lie over the tomb. The kings have lion sculptures at their feet, while the queens have dogs. Peter III of Aragon (1239 – 1285) made it a condition, under solemn oath at the moment of crowning, that all the Aragonese-Catalan kings be buried there. Only Ferdinand II of Aragon broke the oath, after his kingdom had been merged with the Kingdom of Castile, and was buried in Granada. In 1731 Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton was buried there. The monastery,
    7.25
    4 votes
    42
    Wymondham Abbey

    Wymondham Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Wymondham Abbey (pronounced Windham) is situated in the town of Wymondham in Norfolk, England. It is the Anglican parish church of Wymondham, but it started life as a Benedictine priory. The monastery was founded in 1107 by William d'Aubigny, Chief Butler to King Henry I. William was a prominent Norfolk landowner, with estates in Wymondham and nearby New Buckenham whose grandfather had fought for William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings. The d'Albini (or d'Aubigny) family originated from St. Martin d'Aubigny in Normandy. Later, the founder's son, William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, in 1174 founded Becket's Chapel close by in the town, to be served by two monks from the Priory. William d'Albini's monastery was a dependency of the Benedictine monastery at St Albans, where his uncle Richard was Abbot. Wymondham Priory was relatively small, initially for some twelve Benedictine monks, but grew in influence and wealth over the coming centuries. Disputes between the Wymondham and St. Albans monks were quite common, and in 1448, following a successful petition to the king, the Pope granted Wymondham the right to become an Abbey in its own right. A notable abbot was Thomas
    8.33
    3 votes
    43
    Shap Abbey

    Shap Abbey

    • Religious order: Premonstratensian
    Shap Abbey was a monastic religious house of the Premonstratensian order on the western bank of the River Lowther in the civil parish of Shap Rural, around 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from the village of Shap, in the Eden District of Cumbria, England. The site is in the care of English Heritage and managed on its behalf by the Lake District National Park. Although the present Shap Abbey was built in 1199, the monastic community was originally founded on another site 20 miles south near Kendal in 1190, but it moved to the present site, then called 'Hepp', in 1199. The old name meant 'a heap' but it gradually assumed the present day name "Shap" over the next 100 years. Shap Abbey escaped the initial phase of the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536, but it was closed in 1540 and subsequently sold to the Governor of Carlisle. Most of the abbey buildings have been demolished, however the tower remains are still impressive, and the outline of the building plan is clearly visible. Masonry was robbed away at the end of the 17th century to build Shap Market Hall, and much of the ornate carved stonework was also removed and used in the building of Lowther Castle. Many of the monastic buildings
    6.20
    5 votes
    44
    Thornton Abbey

    Thornton Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Thornton Abbey was founded as a priory in 1139 by William le Gros, the Earl of Yorkshire, and raised to the status of Abbey in 1148. It was a house for Augustinian or black canons. These priests lived a communal life under the Rule of St Augustine but also undertook pastoral duties outside of the Abbey. Officers within the Abbey besides the abbot and prior included a cellarer, bursar, chamberlain, sacrist, kitchener and an infirmer. It is located close to the small North Lincolnshire village of Thornton Curtis. The abbey was closed in 1539 by Henry VIII as part of the dissolution. Thornton was a wealthy and prestigious house valued at the dissolution at the considerable sum of £591 0s 2 ¾ d. Thornton Abbey railway station is nearby. The founding abbey building from the 12th century was Romanesque in style, but nothing of it remains above ground. The later abbey from the 13th/14th centuries was built in Early Gothic style. Little remains of the building, except for three walls of the chapter house and part of the cloister, though the groundplan of the abbey is traced out. The main interest lies in the gatehouse which is amongst the earliest largescale uses of brick in England. It
    6.20
    5 votes
    45
    Amaras Monastery

    Amaras Monastery

    Amaras Monastery (Armenian: Ամարաս վանք) is one of the oldest Christian sites in the world and in Nagorno-Karabakh, and is an Armenian Apostolic monastery located near the village of Sos in the Martuni rayon of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (de-jure Khojavend region of the Azerbaijan). According to medieval chroniclers Faustus Byuzand and Movses Kaghankatvatsi, St. Gregory the Illuminator left Armenia for Aghvank to found a church in what was to become the Amaras Monastery at the start of the fourth century. Amaras was the burial place of St. Gregory the Illuminator's grandson, St. Grigoris (died in 338). A tomb built for his remains still survives under the apse of the nineteenth-century church of St. Grigoris. At the beginning of the fifth century Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian Alphabet, established in Amaras the first-ever school that used his script. The monastery was plundered in the thirteenth century by the Mongols, destroyed in 1387 during Tamerlane's invasion, and demolished again in the sixteenth century. It underwent radical restructuring in the second quarter of the seventeenth century when the surviving defensive walls were constructed. Amaras was
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    2 votes
    46
    Corbie Abbey

    Corbie Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Corbie Abbey is a former Benedictine monastery in Corbie, Picardy, France, dedicated to Saint Peter. It was founded in about 659/661 under Merovingian royal patronage by Balthild, widow of Clovis II, and her son Clotaire III. The first monks came from Luxeuil Abbey, which had been founded by Saint Columbanus in 590, and the Irish respect for classical learning fostered there was carried forward at Corbie. The rule of the founders was based on the Benedictine rule, as Columbanus had modified it. Besides gifts of estates to support the abbey, many exemptions were granted to the abbots, to free them from interference from local bishops: the exemptions were confirmed in 855 by Pope Benedict III. The abbots ranked as counts and had the privilege of a mint. Corbie continued its intimate links with the royal house of the Carolingians. In 774 Desiderius, last King of the Lombards, was exiled here after his defeat by Charlemagne. From 850 to 854 Charles, the future Archbishop of Mainz, was confined here. Members of the Carolingian house sometimes served as abbots; a notable abbot was Saint Adalard, one of Charlemagne's cousins. In the ninth century Corbie was larger than St. Martin's Abbey
    9.50
    2 votes
    47
    Meaux Abbey

    Meaux Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Meaux Abbey (archaic, also referred to as Melsa) was a Cistercian Abbey founded in 1151 by William le Gros, 1st Earl of Albemarle (Count of Aumale), Earl of York and 4th lord of Holderness, near Beverley in the East Riding of Yorkshire. A chronicle of its history was written by Thomas Burton, one of the abbots. The abbey owned the land of Wyke, which was purchased from them by King Edward I of England in 1293 and the town Kingston upon Hull was established. The abbey was closed in 1539 by King Henry VIII. The abbey was demolished and the stones were used to build defences for the town of Kingston upon Hull.
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    2 votes
    48
    Namgyal Monastery

    Namgyal Monastery

    Namgyal Monastery (Tibetan: རྣམ་གྱལ་, Wylie: rnam rgyal, ༸སྐུ་བཅར་རྣམ་པར་རྒྱལ་བ་ཕན་བདེ་ལེགས་བཤད་གླིང། named for a long-life deity) is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery associated with the Dalai Lamas. Founded in 1575 by the Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso, Namgyal Monastery was historically housed within the Potala Palace (the red section on top). Namgyal Monastery is personal monastery of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Its primary role was to assist with rituals involving the Dalai Lama of Tibet. After 1959, Namgyal Monastery relocated to Dharamshala, India, where it continues activity today. (Whether the People's Republic of China has maintained an institution with this name is unclear.) According to its website, Namgyal (Dharamshala) has "nearly 200" monks (up from 55 in 1959), representing all four Tibetan monastic lineages. Its main tantric practices are Kalachakra, Yamantaka, Chakrasamvara, Guhyasamaja, and Vajrakilaya. In 1992, on the advice of the present Dalai Lama, Namgyal established an American branch in Ithaca, New York. For information on this see Namgyal Monastery Institute of Buddhist Studies. In 1998, Namgyal incorporated a Tibetan monastery in Bodhgaya, India, called
    9.50
    2 votes
    49
    Beauchief Abbey

    Beauchief Abbey

    Beauchief Abbey is a former abbey in Sheffield, England. Beauchief is prounounced bee-chiff. The abbey was founded by Robert FitzRanulf de Alfreton. Thomas Tanner, writing in 1695, stated that it was founded in 1183. However, Samuel Pegge in his History of Beauchief Abbey noted that Albinas, the abbot of Derby, who was one of the witnesses to the charter of foundation, died in 1176, placing foundation before that date. The abbey was dedicated to Saint Mary and Saint Thomas Becket, who had been canonised in 1172. Tanner stated that Robert FitzRanulf was one of the murderers of Thomas Becket and founded the abbey to expiate his guilt. Pegge also disputed this fact, showing that Robert FitzRanulf had no connection with the murder. The abbey was of the Premonstratensian order founded by Saint Norbert at Prémontré in France. Members of the order are known as White Canons. Beauchief was a small house comprising around 12 to 15 canons plus lay brothers. It had the full range of monastic buildings including the abbey church, cloisters, chapter house, dormitory and refectory. A stream provided water to the Abbey and to fish ponds. As with most monastic sites, Beauchief was an industrial as
    7.00
    4 votes
    50
    Lesmahagow Priory

    Lesmahagow Priory

    • Religious order: Tironensian order
    Lesmahagow Priory was a medieval Tironensian monastic community located in modern South Lanarkshire, Scotland. It was founded after John, Bishop of Glasgow and King David I of Scotland granted lands at Lesmahagow to Kelso Abbey with which to establish a new priory. It remained a dependency of Kelso Abbey. Control of the abbey was gradually secularized in the 16th century. Along with Kelso Abbey, it was turned into a secular lordship in 1607 for Robert Ker of Cesford, later earl of Roxburghe. Lesmahagow however passed into the hand of James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton in 1623. The Abbeygreen Church of the Church of Scotland lies opposite the Glebe Park in Lesmahagow and was opened in 1844. Lesmahagow Old Parish Church lies on the site of the priory church and was built in its present form in 1803.
    7.00
    4 votes
    51
    Brinkburn Priory

    Brinkburn Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Brinkburn Priory was a medieval monastery built on a bend of the River Coquet, some 4 miles (6 km) east of Rothbury, Northumberland, England. Little survives of the structures erected by the monks apart from the priory church, which is a grade I listed building in the care of English Heritage. It was founded by William Bertram, Baron of Mitford, in the reign of Henry I as an Augustinian priory. The exact date is not known but cannot have been later than 1135 as Henry died that year. About 1180 or so, Brinkburn became an independent house, and the building of the monastic church was commenced. The architectural style has been described as "transitional" (ie between Norman and Gothic). Although the Priory acquired lands in Northumberland and Durham over the years it was never particularly wealthy. Little is known of the early history of the priory, although it is known that it survived some difficult times. In fact, as late as 1419 it was raided and robbed. Brinkburn Priory was dissolved in 1536 after Parliament enacted the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries Act. The "lesser monasteries" were those with an income of less than £200 per annum, and Brinkburn fell into this category
    6.00
    5 votes
    52
    Little Malvern Priory

    Little Malvern Priory

    Little Malvern Priory, in the village of Little Malvern near Malvern, Worcestershire, was a Benedictine monastery c.1171-1537. It was founded from Worcester Cathedral. Little remains of the 12th century church, which was rebuilt in 1480-1482. The site is now occupied by house named Little Malvern Court, which has limited public opening. The present building comprises a medieval chancel and crossing tower, and a modern west porch on the site of the east bays of the nave. The transepts and the two chapels flanking the choir are in ruins. The Little Malvern Priory church is adjacent... See Abbeys and priories in England for a complete list of English abbeys and priories. National Grid reference: SO770404.
    6.00
    5 votes
    53
    Grgeteg monastery

    Grgeteg monastery

    The Grgeteg Monastery (Serbian: Манастир Гргетег / Manastir Grgeteg) is a Serb Orthodox monastery on the Fruška Gora mountain in the northern Serbia, in the province of Vojvodina. According to tradition, the monastery was founded by Zmaj Ognjeni Vuk (Despot Vuk Grgurević) in 1471. The earliest historical records about the monastery date back to 1545/1546. Grgeteg Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.
    8.00
    3 votes
    54
    Xiropotamou monastery

    Xiropotamou monastery

    Xeropotamou monastery (Greek: Μονή Ξηροποτάμου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, in the middle side of peninsula. The monastery ranks eighth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. It was founded in the 10th century, and is dedicated to the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste. Xeropotamou houses numerous relics, the most prominent being the largest extant piece of the True Cross. For this reason, the monastery also celebrates a patronal feastday on September 14th, the feast of the Elevation of the Holy Cross. The library contains 409 manuscripts, and about 600 printed books. Today the monastery has about 25 monks.
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    Abbey of Gethsemani

    Abbey of Gethsemani

    The Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani is a Trappist monastery near Bardstown, Kentucky in Nelson County—situated on more than 2,000 acres of farmland, and considered to be the "mother house" of all Trappist and Trappistine monasteries in the United States of America. Founded December 21, 1848 and made an abbey in 1851, Gethsemani was made famous when the monk Thomas Merton—acclaimed author and poet—made the abbey his home. Gethsemani is the oldest monastery in the United States of America that is still in use. The monastery is well known for its store—Gethsemani Farms—which offers handmade Trappist cheese, fruitcake and bourbon fudge on-site and by mail order. The current Abbot of the abbey is Fr. Elias Dietz. In September 1805 a community of French Trappists from the Abbey of La Valsainte in Switzerland arrived in Louisville, Kentucky from Pennsylvania. They traveled south near Bardstown, Kentucky to meet with the first Catholic priest ordained in the United States—Fr. Stephen Badin. The monks were invited by Badin and members of his congregation to make their home in the area—which they did for a short while. The community, though, left in 1809 after a year of bad flooding. Though
    6.75
    4 votes
    56
    Novospassky Monastery

    Novospassky Monastery

    Novospassky Monastery (New monastery of the Saviour, Russian: Новоспасский монастырь) is one of the fortified monasteries surrounding Moscow from south-east. It was the first monastery to be founded in Moscow in the early 14th century. The Saviour Church was its original katholikon. Upon its removal to the left bank of the Moskva River in 1491, the abbey was renamed the New Saviour, to distinguish it from the older one in the Kremlin. The monastery was patronized by Andrei Kobyla's descendants, including the Sheremetyev and Romanov boyars, and served as their burial vault. Among the last Romanovs buried in the monastery were Xenia Shestova (the mother of the first Romanov Tsar), Princess Tarakanoff (a pretender who claimed to have been the only daughter of Empress Elisabeth) and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia. In 1571 and 1591, the wooden citadel withstood repeated attacks of Crimean Tatars. Upon the Romanovs' ascension to the Moscovy throne, Michael of Russia completely rebuilt their family shrine in the 1640s. Apart from the huge 18th-century bell-tower (one of the tallest in Moscow) and the Sheremetev sepulchre in the church of the Sign, all other buildings date from
    6.75
    4 votes
    57
    Abbey of Fontenay

    Abbey of Fontenay

    The Abbey of Fontenay is a former Cistercian abbey located in the commune of Marmagne, near Montbard, in the département of Côte-d'Or in France. It was founded by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux in 1118, and built in the Romanesque style. It is one of the oldest and most complete Cistercian abbeys in Europe, and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981. Of the original complex comprising church, dormitory, cloister, chapter house, caldarium, refectory, dovecote and forge, all remain intact except the refectory. are well maintained. The Abbey of Fontenay, along with other Cistercian abbeys, forms a connecting link between Romanesque and Gothic architectures. In the late 11th century during the heyday of the great church of Cluny III (a magnificent Benedictine monastery in Cluny, France), although Cluny had numerous followers, Saint Robert of Molesme, the subsequent founder of Cîteaux Abbey, led a strong reaction against it. Saint Robert thought that Cluny was against the actual Rule of Saint Benedict: “to work is to pray”. As a result, Saint Robert, along with a group of monks who shared this belief, detached from Cluny. Saint Robert established the Order of Cistercians in Citeaux,
    9.00
    2 votes
    58
    Worth Abbey

    Worth Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    The Abbey of Our Lady, Help of Christians, commonly known as Worth Abbey, is a community of Roman Catholic monks who follow the Rule of St Benedict near Turners Hill village, in West Sussex, England. Like all Benedictine monks, the monks of Worth Abbey place the public prayer of the Church (the opus dei or work of God) at the centre of their lives. In common with other monasteries of the English Benedictine Congregation their tradition also places stress on daily periods of individual prayer and lectio divina (the prayerful reading of scripture). Through writing, preaching and hospitality they make this tradition available to others. Through the Open Cloister, which incorporates a daily and residential retreat programme, Worth Abbey is host to over 2000 visitors a year. There is also an extensive schedule of residential conferences at the Abbey throughout the year. The community administers a charity, Outreach Peru, which supports a range of health and social welfare projects in Lima and other parts of Peru. Several of the monks serve as chaplains in Worth School, in the local parish around Turner's Hill, and in the Tinsley House immigration detention centre. Compass, a project for
    9.00
    2 votes
    59
    Abbey of St. Jean des Vignes

    Abbey of St. Jean des Vignes

    The Abbey of St. Jean des Vignes was a monastery of Augustinian Canons situated in the south western hills of Soissons, Aisne, France. Only ruins remain, of which the west front is still one of the most spectacular pieces of architecture in the town. The abbey was founded on St. John's hill in 1076 by Hughes Le Blanc for a community of Augustinian Canons. Initially built in Romanesque style, the first buildings were replaced at the end of the 12th century by those visible today. The west front was begun in the 12th century, although not finished until the 16th. The refectory and cellar date from the 13th century, parts of the cloisters from the end of the 13th century, while other parts are from the 16th century, as is the abbot's lodging. When the abbey was suppressed during the French Revolution the premises were put to use for military purposes, and an arsenal was added. The site was acquired by the town of Soissons in the 1970s and the remaining buildings are now occupied by educational and heritage-related bodies.
    7.67
    3 votes
    60
    Cozia Monastery

    Cozia Monastery

    Cozia Monastery, erected close to Călimănești by Mircea cel Bătrân in 1388 and housing his tomb, is one of the most valuable monuments of national medieval art and architecture in Romania. The appearance of the compound was modified under Neagoe Basarab (1517), Şerban Cantacuzino and Constantin Brâncoveanu (1707), who added a veranda, a new fountain, a chapel and a watch tower, adding to its architecture the 'brâncovenesc style'. The wall facets' decorations with stone rosettes, horizontal Byzantine-style rows of brick and stone and vertical frames are unprecedented in Wallachian architecture. The resemblance with Lazarica church indicates that Mircea cel Bătrân has employed Serbian craftsmen from the Morava School. Of great value is the hospital church, 'bolnița' (1543), with original well-preserved indoor frescoes like the votive portrait of ruler Mircea cel Bătrân and his sons. Cozia was painted between 1390 and 1391. Some of the original frescoes (1390) are still well preserved. Cozia features a museum of exhibiting old art: old manuscripts and prints, embroideries and objects of worship. The church of the monastery was put on a stamp from the Romanian stamp in 1968.
    7.67
    3 votes
    61
    Ottobeuren Abbey

    Ottobeuren Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Ottobeuren is a Benedictine abbey, located in Ottobeuren, near Memmingen in the Bavarian Allgäu, Germany. It was founded in 764 by Blessed Toto, and dedicated to St. Alexander, the martyr. Of its early history little is known beyond the fact that Toto, its first abbot, died about 815 and that Saint Ulrich was its abbot in 972. In the 11th century its discipline was on the decline, until Abbot Adalhalm (1082–94) introduced the Hirsau Reform. The same abbot began to restore the decaying buildings, which were completed, with the addition of a convent for noble ladies, by his successor, Abbot Rupert I (1102–45). Under the rule of the latter the newly founded Marienberg Abbey was recruited with monks from Ottobeuren. His successor, Abbot Isengrim (1145–80), wrote Annales minores and Annales majores. Blessed Conrad of Ottobeuren was abbot from 1193 until his death in 1227, described by the Benedictines as a "lover of the brethren and of the poor". In 1153, and again in 1217, the abbey was consumed by fire. In the 14th and 15th centuries it declined so completely that at the accession of Abbot Johann Schedler (1416–43) only six or eight monks were left, and its annual revenues did not
    7.67
    3 votes
    62
    Saint Michael's Abbey, Farnborough

    Saint Michael's Abbey, Farnborough

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Saint Michael's Abbey is a Benedictine abbey in Farnborough, Hampshire, England. The small community is known for the quality of its liturgy, which is sung in Latin and Gregorian Chant, its pipe organ, and its liturgical publishing and printing. It is also the national shrine of St Joseph. The Abbey was founded in 1881 by the Empress Eugénie (1826–1920) as a mausoleum for her late husband Napoleon III (1808–1873), and their son the Prince Imperial (1856–1879), both of whom rest in the Imperial Crypt, along with Eugénie herself, all in granite sarcophagi provided by Queen Victoria. After the church and monastery were founded, they were initially administered by Premonstratensian Canons. In 1895, the Empress replaced them with French Benedictine monks from St Peter's Abbey, Solesmes. Fernand Cabrol, monk and scholar, became prior and afterwards abbot (1903); Henri Leclercq and a small group of French monks joined the house at the same time, and Leclercq and Cabrol collaborated for many years in scholarly endeavours. The community, once famed for its scholarly writing and musical tradition of Gregorian chants, became depleted in number by 1947, and was augmented by a small group of
    7.67
    3 votes
    63
    Wigmore Abbey

    Wigmore Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Wigmore Abbey was an Augustinian abbey with a grange, from 1179 to 1530, situated about a mile (2 km) north of the village of Wigmore, Herefordshire, England. Only ruins of the abbey now remain. The abbey was founded by Ranulph de Mortimer and his son, Hugh de Mortimer in 1179 in the parish of Leintwardine. The construction of the abbey was also assisted by other local landowners including Brian de Brampton, who contributed building materials from his woods and quarries. At the time it was the largest monastery in the county, followed by Abbey Dore and Leominster Priory. The abbey church, like the church at Wigmore, was dedicated to St. James. As they were the principal patrons of the abbey, many members of the Mortimer family were buried there, among them five Earls of March. The abbey continued to flourish until the period of the dissolution of the monasteries in 1530, when it was destroyed. The remains of the building were given to Sir T. Palmer. Wigmore Abbey is thought to be the place of origin of a manuscript outlining its own history and founding, as well as the lineage of Roger Mortimer, whose father Edmund petitioned Parliament (successfully) to be named heir to the throne
    7.67
    3 votes
    64
    Abingdon Abbey

    Abingdon Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Abingdon Abbey was a Benedictine monastery also known as St Mary's Abbey located in Abingdon, historically in the county of Berkshire but now in Oxfordshire, England. The abbey was supposedly founded in 675 either by Cissa, viceroy of Centwine, king of the West Saxons, or by his nephew Hean, in honour of the Virgin Mary, for twelve Benedictine monks. Endowed by successive West Saxon kings, it grew in importance and wealth until its destruction by the Danes in the reign of King Alfred, and the sequestration of its estates by Alfred because the monks had not made him a sufficient requital for vanquishing their enemies. There is a collection of 136 charters granted to this abbey by various Saxon kings, and the Chronicle of the Monastery of Abingdon was written at the Abbey in the 12th century. Amongst its abbots were Saint Aethelwold, afterwards Bishop of Winchester (954), and Richard of Hendred, for whose appointment the King's consent was obtained in 1262. He was present at the Council of Lyon in 1272. The last Abbot of Abingdon was Thomas Pentecost alias Rowland, who was among the first to acknowledge the Royal Supremacy. With the rest of his community he signed the surrender of
    10.00
    1 votes
    65
    Agapia Monastery

    Agapia Monastery

    The Agapia Monastery' (Romanian: Mănăstirea Agapia) is a Romanian Orthodox monastery located 9 km west of Târgu Neamţ, in Agapia Commune, Neamţ County. It was built between 1642 and 1647 by Romanian Voivode Vasile Lupu. The church, restored and modified several times during the centuries was painted by Nicolae Grigorescu, between 1858 and 1861.
    10.00
    1 votes
    66
    Cambuskenneth Abbey

    Cambuskenneth Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Cambuskenneth Abbey is a ruined Augustinian monastery located on an area of land enclosed by a meander of the River Forth near Stirling in Scotland. The abbey is largely reduced to its foundations. The neighbouring modern village of Cambuskenneth is named after it. Cambuskenneth Abbey was founded by order of King David I around the year 1140. Dedicated to the Virgin Mary, it was initially known as the Abbey of St Mary of Stirling and sometimes simply as Stirling Abbey. The major street leading down the castle hill from the royal residences in Stirling Castle to the abbey was called St. Mary's Wynd, a name it retains. Cambuskenneth was one of the more important abbeys in Scotland, due in part to its proximity to the Royal Burgh of Stirling, a leading urban centre of the country and sometime capital. Its status as a royal abbey in the neighbourhood of a major national stronghold may be compared to that of Holyrood Abbey vis à vis Edinburgh. Royalty, including English King Edward and later Scottish King Robert the Bruce, prayed regularly at the abbey. Bruce held his parliament there in 1326 to confirm the succession of his son David. In 1486 Margaret of Denmark died at nearby Stirling
    10.00
    1 votes
    67
    Florence Charterhouse

    Florence Charterhouse

    Florence Charterhouse (Certosa di Firenze or Certosa del Galluzzo) is a charterhouse, or Carthusian monastery, located in the Florence suburb of Galluzzo, in central Italy. The building is a walled complex located on Monte Acuto, at the point of confluence of the Ema and Greve rivers. The charterhouse was founded in 1341 by the Florentine noble Niccolò Acciaioli, Grand Seneschal of the Kingdom of Naples, but continued to expand over the centuries as the recipient of numerous donations. In 1958 the monastery was taken over by Cistercian monks. The chapter house now holds lunettes from the cloister, frescoed by Pontormo, damaged by exposure to the elements. The charterhouse inspired Le Corbusier for his urban projects.
    10.00
    1 votes
    68
    Gisborough Priory

    Gisborough Priory

    Gisborough Priory is a ruined Augustinian priory in Guisborough, now in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It was founded in 1119 as the Priory of St Mary by Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale, an ancestor of the Scottish king, Robert the Bruce. It became one of the richest monastic foundations in England with grants from the Crown and bequests from de Brus, other nobles and gentry and local people of more modest means. Much of the Romanesque Norman priory was destroyed in a fire in 1289. It was rebuilt in the Gothic style on a grander scale over the following century. Its remains are regarded as among the finest surviving examples of early Gothic architecture in England. The priory prospered until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, when it was abolished along with England's other monastic communities. The priory buildings were demolished and the stone re-used in other buildings in Guisborough. The east end of the priory church was left standing with its great window forming a distinctive arch shape, a well-known landmark which is used as a symbol for Guisborough. It became part of the estate of the Chaloner
    10.00
    1 votes
    69
    Manasija monastery

    Manasija monastery

    Manasija (Serbian pronunciation: [manǎsija]), also known as Resava ([rɛ̌saʋa]) (Serbian Cyrillic: Манасија, Ресава), is a Serb Orthodox monastery near Despotovac, Serbia, founded by Despot Stefan Lazarević between 1406 and 1418. The church is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. It is one of the most significant monuments of medieval Serbian culture and it belongs to the "Morava school". The monastery is surrounded by massive walls and towers. Immediately following its foundation, the monastery became the cultural centre of the Serbian Despotate. Its Resava school was well known for its manuscripts and translations throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, even after the fall of the Despotate to the Ottoman Turks. Manasija complex was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia, and monastery have entered a UNESCO Tentative List Process in 2010. The founding charter of the monastery has, unfortunately, not been preserved. The Manasija Monastery, also known as Resava, was built two kilometres northwest from the town of Despotovac, in the picturesque ravine. Construction of the monumental mausoleum and the fortified town lasted
    10.00
    1 votes
    70
    Chi Lin Nunnery

    Chi Lin Nunnery

    • Religious order: Buddhism
    Chi Lin Nunnery (Chinese: 志蓮淨苑) is a large Buddhist temple complex located in Diamond Hill, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Covering a space of more than 33,000 square meters, the temple complex includes a nunnery, temple halls, Chinese gardens, visitor's hostels and a vegetarian restaurant. The temple halls have statues of the Sakyamuni Buddha, the goddess of mercy Guanyin and other bodhisattvas. These statues are made from gold, clay, wood and stone. The Chi Lin Nunnery was founded in 1934 but was rebuilt in the 1990s following the style of Tang Dynasty traditional Chinese architecture. The present-day buildings are wood frame buildings built without the use of any iron nails. This construction is based on traditional Chinese architectural techniques dating from the Tang Dynasty that uses special interlocking systems cut into the wood to hold them in place. The Chi Lin Nunnery buildings are the only buildings to be built in this style in modern day Hong Kong. The temple halls and the Chinese garden in front of the nunnery is open to the public daily without charge.
    6.50
    4 votes
    71
    Kirkstall Abbey

    Kirkstall Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Kirkstall Abbey is a ruined Cistercian monastery in Kirkstall north-west of Leeds city centre in West Yorkshire. It is set in a public park on the north bank of the River Aire. It was founded c.1152. It was disestablished during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under the auspices of Henry VIII. The picturesque ruins have been drawn and painted by artists such as J.M.W. Turner, Thomas Girtin and John Sell Cotman. Kirkstall Abbey was acquired by Leeds Corporation as a gift from Colonel North and opened to the public in the late 19th century. The gatehouse became a museum. Henry de Lacy (1070, Halton, – 1123), Lord of the manor of Pontefract, 2nd Lord of Bowland, promised to dedicate an abbey to the Virgin Mary should he survive a serious illness. He recovered and agreed to give the Abbot of Fountains Abbey land at Barnoldswick in the West Riding of Yorkshire (now in Lancashire) on which to found a daughter abbey. Abbot Alexander with twelve Cistercian monks from Fountains went to Barnoldswick and after demolishing the existing church attempted to build the abbey on Henry de Lacy's land. They stayed for six years but found the place inhospitable. Abbot Alexander set about finding a
    6.50
    4 votes
    72
    Buckfast Abbey

    Buckfast Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Buckfast Abbey forms part of an active Benedictine monastery at Buckfast, near Buckfastleigh, Devon, England. Dedicated to Saint Mary, it was founded in 1018 and run by the Cistercian order from 1147 until it was destroyed under the Dissolution of the Monasteries. In 1882 monks began living there again, and today it is a Benedictine foundation. Buckfast Abbey was founded by Earl Aylward in the reign of King Cnut in 1018. In 1147 it became a Cistercian abbey and was rebuilt in stone. In medieval times, the abbey became rich through fishing and trading in sheep wool, although the Black Death killed two abbots and many monks — by 1377 there were only fourteen monks at Buckfast. On 25 February 1539, William Petre arrived at Buckfast and declared the abbey to be dissolved by order of King Henry VIII. The monks were compelled to leave and the buildings were looted and destroyed. The abbey then stood in ruins for over two hundred years. On 28 October 1882, six Benedictine monks arrived at Buckfast having been exiled from France. The land had been leased by monks from the St. Augustine's Priory in Ramsgate and it was later bought for £4,700. The first new abbot was Boniface Natter, who
    8.50
    2 votes
    73
    Kingswood Abbey

    Kingswood Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Kingswood Abbey was a Cistercian abbey, located in the village of Kingswood near Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, England. Through the Abbey Arch are a thew houses and the small village Primary School of Kingswood. Kingswood Abbey was founded in 1139 by William of Berkeley, provost of Berkeley, in accordance with the wishes of his uncle, Roger II of Berkeley, and colonised from the Cistercian house at Tintern, Monmouthshire. The founding family were the feudal barons of Dursley, who intermarried later with the progeny of Robert Fitzharding (d.1170), 1st feudal baron of Berkeley Castle. All that survives today is the 16th century abbey gatehouse, which is under the care of English Heritage. Calcot Manor to the northeast was built by the monks of the abbey. The original charters of the Kingswood Abbey last went on sale at Sothebys in 1945. (Austin, 1944) There is a catholic priest who holds the title Abbot of Kingswood Abbey. He is known as a "Titular Abbot" — one who holds the title of a suppressed or destroyed abbey.
    8.50
    2 votes
    74
    Lérins Abbey

    Lérins Abbey

    Lérins Abbey (pronounced: [leʁɛ̃]) is a Cistercian monastery on the island of Saint-Honorat, one of the Lérins Islands, on the French Riviera, with an active monastic community. There has been a monastic community there since the 5th century. The construction of the current monastery buildings began around 1073. Today the monks cultivate vineyards and produce wine and liqueur. The island, known to the Romans as Lerina, was uninhabited until Saint Honoratus, a disciple of a local hermit named Caprasius of Lérins, founded a monastery on it at some time around the year 410. According to tradition, Honoratus made his home on the island intending to live as a hermit, but found himself joined by disciples who formed a monastic community around him. This had become "an immense monastery" by 427, according to the contemporary writings of John Cassian. There is also a tradition that Saint Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, studied here in the fifth century, and during the sixth century, Saint Quinidius was a monk at Lérins. The abbey provided three bishops for the diocese of Arles: Honoratus himself, followed by Hilarius and Cesarius in the fifth and sixth centuries respectively. One of the
    8.50
    2 votes
    75
    Malmesbury Abbey

    Malmesbury Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Malmesbury Abbey, at Malmesbury in Wiltshire, England, is a religious house dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul. It was one of the few English houses with a continual history from the 7th century through to the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Malmesbury was founded as a Benedictine monastery around 676 by the scholar-poet Aldhelm, a nephew of King Ine of Wessex. In 941 AD, King Athelstan was buried in the Abbey. Æthelstan had died in Gloucester in October 939. The choice of Malmesbury over the New Minster in Winchester indicated that the king remained an outsider to the West Saxon court. By the 11th century it contained the second largest library in Europe and was considered one of the leading European seats of learning. The Abbey was the site of an early attempt at human flight when, in 1010, the monk Eilmer of Malmesbury flew a primitive hang glider from a tower. Eilmer flew over 200 yards (200 m) before landing, breaking both legs. He later remarked that the only reason he did not fly further was the lack of a tail on his glider. The 12th-century historian William of Malmesbury was of the community. The current Abbey was substantially completed by 1180. The 431 feet (131 m)
    8.50
    2 votes
    76
    Sherborne Abbey

    Sherborne Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    The Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin at Sherborne in the English county of Dorset, is usually called Sherborne Abbey. It has been a Saxon cathedral (705–1075), a Benedictine abbey (998–1539), and, now, a parish church. There may have been a Celtic Christian church called 'Lanprobi' at the site, and Kenwalc or Cenwalh, King of the West Saxons is believed to be one of its founders. When the Saxon Diocese of Sherborne was founded in 705 by King Ine of Wessex, he set Aldhelm as first Bishop of the see of Western Wessex, with his seat at Sherborne. Aldhelm was the first of twenty-seven Bishops of Sherborne. The twentieth bishop was Wulfsige III (or St. Wulfsin). In 998 he established a Benedictine abbey at Sherborne and became its first abbot. In 1075 the bishopric of Sherborne was transferred to Old Sarum, so Sherborne remained an abbey church but was no longer a cathedral. The bishop (in Old Sarum) remained the nominal head of the abbey until 1122, when Roger de Caen, Bishop of Salisbury, made the abbey independent. The Benedictine foundation at Sherborne ended in the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, when the abbey was surrendered to King Henry VIII. Various properties at
    8.50
    2 votes
    77
    Abbeydorney Abbey

    Abbeydorney Abbey

    Abbeydorney Abbey, also known as Kyrie Eleison Abbey or Odorney was founded by the O Torna, chieftain of the region, in 1154 for the Cistercians from Monasteranenagh. The abbey was the daughter-house of Nenay Abbey in County Limerick, and was the only medieval Cistercian house in County Kerry. The name given by the Cistercians, Kyrie Eleison (from Greek: Lord Have Mercy) was in accordance with the order's tradition of giving names which reflected the locality - in this instance the word Kyrie (Lord) being similar to Ciarrai (County Kerry). The first abbot was Christian O Conarchy who retired to the abbey where he spent his remaining years, being buried there in 1186. A subsequent abbot was deposed in 1227 after being involved in the Conspiracy of Mellifont. The foundation was dissolved in 1537. The remains visible today include the 15th century abbey church with west tower and some of the claustral buildings. The grounds are largely occupied by gravestones and are currently in use as a cemetery.
    7.33
    3 votes
    78
    Ballybeg Priory

    Ballybeg Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Ballybeg Priory (Prióireacht an Bhaile Bhig in Irish) is a 13th century priory situated near the town of Buttevant, County Cork, Ireland. Philip de Barry founded the priory of St. Thomas à Becket at Ballybeg for the Canons Regular of St. Augustine in 1229. His grandson, David Óg de Barry, enlarged the revenues of the priory in 1251. Ballybeg was an extensive foundation, the priory church measuring some 166 feet (51 m) in length and 26 feet (7.9 m) in width. The cloister, situated on the south side of the church was 90 feet (27 m) square. The priory complex also incorporated a substantial gatehouse as well as columbarium, the inside walls of which are built in square compartments in regular tiers to a height of fifteen feet. There are some three hundred and fifty two niches, divided into eleven tiers each containing thirty-two compartments. The tiers begin above ground level so as to allow for the collection of droppings and end well below the flight hole in the roof since doves will not perch near busily frequented exits. The columbarium at Ballybeg, is typically located away from the main priory buildings, and still conserves a string course around the circumference of the
    7.33
    3 votes
    79
    Carmo Convent

    Carmo Convent

    The Carmo Convent (Portuguese: Convento da Ordem do Carmo) is a historical building in Lisbon, Portugal. The mediaeval convent was ruined in the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, and the ruins of its Gothic church (the Carmo Church or Igreja do Carmo) are the main trace of the great earthquake still visible in the city. The Carmo Convent is located in the Chiado neighbourhood, on a hill overlooking the Rossio square and facing the Lisbon Castle hill. It is located in front of a quiet square (Carmo Square), very close to the Santa Justa Lift. Nowadays the ruined Carmo Church is used as an archaeological museum (the Museu Arqueológico do Carmo or Carmo Archaeological Museum). The Carmo Convent was founded as a convent for the Carmelite Order in 1389 by the Portuguese knight Nuno Álvares Pereira. Álvares Pereira was Constable of Portugal, meaning that he was the supreme military commander after the King. At the service of King John I, Álvares Pereira commanded the Portuguese army in the decisive Battle of Aljubarrota (1385), in which the Portuguese guaranteed their independence by defeating the Castilian army. The Carmo Convent was initially inhabited by Carmelites from Moura (southern
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    Christchurch Priory

    Christchurch Priory

    Christchurch Priory is an ecclesiastical parish and former priory church in Christchurch in the English county of Dorset (formerly in Hampshire). The story of Christchurch Priory goes back to at least the middle of the 11th century, as Domesday says there was a priory of 24 secular canons here in the reign of Edward the Confessor. The Priory is on the site of an earlier church dating from 800AD. In 1094 a chief minister of William II, Ranulf Flambard, then Dean of Twynham, began the building of a church. Local legend has it that Flambard originally intended the church to be built on top of nearby St. Catherines Hill but, during the night, all the building materials were mysteriously transported to the site of the present priory. Although in 1099 Flambard was appointed Bishop of Durham, work continued under his successors, and by about 1150 there was a basic Norman church consisting of a nave, a central tower and a quire extending eastwards from the crossing. It was during this period that another legend originated, that of the miraculous beam, which was to change the name of the town from Twynham to the present day Christchurch. The choir at the priory consists of a boys choir, a
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    Chrysostom Monastery

    Chrysostom Monastery

    The Chrysostom Monastery (Russian: Златоустовский монастырь) was a monastery in Moscow. It was consecrated to Saint John Chrysostom (Russian: Ivan Zlatoust). The cloister to the east from the Kitai-gorod was first mentioned in 1412 when a Novgorod archdeacon was buried there. In 1478, Grand Prince Ivan III, who had a suburban palace nearby, had the wooden cathedral rebuilt in stone. When a Crimean Khan Devlet I Giray attacked Moscow in 1571, the monastery was burnt down. It was later restored, only to be damaged again in 1611 during the Time of Troubles. In 1660, Ivan III's stone cathedral burnt down and was replaced by a new five-domed cathedral, which survived into the 20th century. In 1706, the monastery hegumen was raised to the rank of archmandrite. In 1737, the Chrysostom Monastery was gutted by fire, but it would be restored in 1738-1740. The monastery subsisted owing to the donations from the noblemen who had their estates nearby, notably the Counts Apraksin and Rumyantsev. Some members of these families, particularly those who served in the Navy, were buried there: Matvei Apraksin, Fyodor Apraksin, Alexander Rumyantsev, Ivan Akimovich Senyavin. In 1742, Empress Elizabeth
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    Drepung Monastery

    Drepung Monastery

    • Religion: Tibetan Buddhism
    Drepung Monastery (Wylie: 'bras spungs dgon ),(literally “Rice Heap” monastery), located at the foot of Mount Gephel, is one of the "great three" Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. The other two are Ganden and Sera. Drepung is the largest of all Tibetan monasteries and is located on the Gambo Utse mountain, five kilometers from the western suburb of Lhasa. Freddie Spencer Chapman reported, after his 1936-37 trip to Tibet, that Drepung was at that time the largest monastery in the world, and housed 7,700 monks, "but sometimes as many as 10,000 monks." Since the 1950s, Drepung Monastery, along with its peers Ganden and Sera, have lost much of their independence and spiritual credibility in the eyes of Tibetans since they operate under the close watch of the Chinese security services. All three were reestablished in exile in the 1950s in Karnataka state in south India. Drepung and Ganden are in Mundgod and Sera is in Bylakuppe. It was founded in 1416 by Jamyang Choge Tashi Palden (1397–1449), one of Tsongkhapa's main disciples, and it was named after the sacred abode in South India of Shridhanyakataka. Drepung was the principal seat of the Gelugpa school and it retained the
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    Dundrennan Abbey

    Dundrennan Abbey

    Dundrennan Abbey, in Dundrennan, Scotland, near to Kirkcudbright, was a Cistercian monastery in the Romanesque architectural style, established in 1142 by Fergus of Galloway, King David I of Scotland (1124–53), and monks from Rievaulx Abbey. Though extensively ruined (the transepts are the main surviving parts), Dundrennan is noted for the purity and restraint of its architecture, reflecting the austere Cistercian ideal. It is also built from very hard-weathering grey sandstone, so the original architectural forms and mouldings are well preserved. Mary, Queen of Scots, after the Battle of Langside, spent her final night in Scotland here, in 1568. From neighbouring Port Mary, she crossed the Solway Firth to Workington, and shortly after was imprisoned by the English. In 1587, following the Scottish Reformation, the land passed to the Crown. The site fell into ruin after it was subsequently used to house livestock. Historic Scotland maintain the site today. In the mid 12th century, Fergus of Galloway resurrected the Bishopric of Whithorn, an ancient Galwegian See first established by the expansionary Northumbrians under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York. The last Bishop of
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    Einsiedeln Abbey

    Einsiedeln Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Einsiedeln Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in the town of Einsiedeln in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland. The abbey is dedicated to Our Lady of the Hermits, the title being derived from the circumstances of its foundation, from which the name Einsiedeln is also said to have originated. It is a territorial abbacy and not part of a diocese. Saint Meinrad, of the family of the Counts of Hohenzollern, was educated at the abbey school of Reichenau, an island in Lake Constance, under his kinsmen Abbots Hatto and Erlebald, where he became a monk and was ordained. After some years at Reichenau, and the dependent priory of Bollingen, on Lake Zurich, he embraced an eremitical life and established his hermitage on the slopes of Etzel (mountain), taking with him a wonder-working statue of Our Lady which he had been given by the Abbess Hildegarde of Zurich. He died in 861 at the hands of robbers who coveted the treasures offered at the shrine by devout pilgrims, but during the next eighty years the place was never without one or more hermits emulating Saint Meinrad's example. One of them, named Eberhard, previously Provost of Strassburg, erected a monastery and church there, of which he
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    Kopan Monastery

    Kopan Monastery

    Kopan Monastery is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery near Boudhanath, on the outskirts of Kathmandu, Nepal. It belongs to the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT), an international network of Gelugpa dharma centers, and once served as its headquarters. The monastery was established by the FPMT founders, Lamas Thubten Yeshe and Thubten Zopa Rinpoche, who bought the property from Nepal's royal astrologer in 1969. Its name comes from the name of the hill on which it was built. Kopan has become especially famous for teaching Buddhism to visiting Western foreigners. The first of what would become annual month-long (November–December) meditation courses was held in 1971. These courses generally combine traditional Lam Rim teachings with informal discussion, several periods of guided meditation, and a vegetarian diet. Technically, "Kopan" now encompasses two separate institutions - the Monastery itself, on top of Kopan Hill; and the Khachoe Ghakyi Ling Nunnery, located nearby. In recent days, Kopan Monastery has also established itself as a popular recreational destination for Kathmandu residents and local tourists as well. The weekend holiday of Saturday receives
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    Makaryev Monastery

    Makaryev Monastery

    Zheltovodsky Makaryev Convent (formerly Monastery) of the Holy Trinity (Russian: Желтово́дский Тро́ицкий Мака́рьев монасты́рь or Свя́то-Тро́ице-Мака́рьево-Желтово́дский же́нский монасты́рь) is one of the convents of Russian Orthodox Church. It is located in the vicinity of the urban-type settlement of Makaryevo in Lyskovsky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. The Makaryev (Makaryevsky) Convent was founded originally as a men's monastery. According to the legend, it was founded by the missionary Saint Macarius (Makary) in the early 15th century (1435, or, according to the Nizhny Novgorod Eparchy site, in 1415) by the waters of Zhyoltoye Ozero (Yellow Lake), from where comes the appellation "Zheltovodsky". In 1439, the monastery was burned by Tatar Khan Ulu Mukhammed. Macarius was taken prisoner, but released by the Khan on the condition that he not rebuild the monastery. Macarius then went into the Kostroma forests, where he founded a new monastery on the Unzha River, now known as Unzhensky Makaryev monastery. In 1620, the monk Avramy (Abraham) from Murom came to this place to rebuild the monastery, and soon he was surrounded by other monks. In 1624, the first wooden Cathedral of
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    Mariawald Abbey

    Mariawald Abbey

    Mariawald Abbey (German: Abtei Mariawald) is a monastery of the Trappists (formally known as the Cistercians of the Strict Observance), located above the village of Heimbach, in the district of Düren in the Eifel, in the forests around Mount Kermeter, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Following Heinrich Fluitter's vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a shrine and chapel were built on the site of it, which became a place of pilgrimage, the Marienwallfahrt. For the proper care of the site and the pilgrims land was given in 1480 to the Cistercians of Bottenbroich Abbey, who established a priory here, which they were able to move into on 4 April 1486. The new monastery took its name from the shrine to Mary and from the woods in which it was situated: "Marienwald", or "Mary's wood" In 1795 the monastery was closed as a result of the French Revolution and the monks were expelled. The image of the Virgin was removed to safety in Heimbach. The priory buildings were abandoned and allowed to fall into decay. In 1860 the priory was re-settled by Trappist monks from Oelenberg Abbey in Alsace. From 1875 to 1887 the monks were exiled because of the Kulturkampf ("cultural conflict") policies of the
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    Saint John's Abbey

    Saint John's Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Saint John's Abbey in Collegeville, Minnesota is a Benedictine monastery affiliated with the American Cassinese Congregation. The Abbey was established following the arrival in the area of monks from Saint Vincent Archabbey of Latrobe, Pennsylvania in 1856. Saint John's is the second-largest Benedictine abbey in the Western Hemisphere, with 153 professed monks. John Klassen, OSB, currently serves as abbot. Monks from the Abbey serve parishes in the Diocese of Saint Cloud and in the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis. The Abbey's Hill Museum and Manuscript Library houses the world's largest collection of manuscript images. This library is also the home of The Saint John's Bible, the first completely handwritten and illuminated Bible to have been commissioned by a Benedictine monastery since the invention of the printing press. The expenses associated with the Bible project have been over $6.5 million and were raised through donor gifts. Saint John's University is an apostolate of Saint John's Abbey. The community operates The Liturgical Press, and Saint John's Preparatory School, all located on the grounds of Saint John's in Collegeville. The grounds also house the
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    Abbey St. Bathans

    Abbey St. Bathans

    • Religious order: Cistercian Sisters
    Abbey St Bathans (Scottish Gaelic: Abaid Bhaoithin) is a community in Berwickshire in the eastern part of the Scottish Borders. Unique in its topography, a long winding steep wooded valley, it lies within the Abbey St Bathans, Preston & Bonkyl Community Council area. Although its name suggests a larger foundation, Abbey St Bathans was originally a priory of Cistercian Nuns. It was sanctified and then used as a retreat by the sisters who formed the community at Haddington and at Nunraw, under the patronage of Ada, Countess of Dunbar and her husband Patrick, Earl of Dunbar. Though the original location of the monastic accommodation is unknown today, there is a stone on one side of the glen known as the Abbey Stone. While there are no religious houses in the village today, there is a small church in the square. A Minister is shared with nearby hamlet of Longformacus. The dedication is to Saint Bathan (Scottish Gaelic: Baithéne mac Brénaind) the second abbot of Iona. In the mid-1960s a deposit or "midden" was found by the existing church, on the river bank where such a "tip" would logically be located. This contained many shards of pottery which were identified as mediaeval by the
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    Koutloumousiou monastery

    Koutloumousiou monastery

    Koutloumousiou monastery (Greek: Μονή Κουτλουμουσίου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. The monastery ranks sixth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. The monastery was raised with the help of voivodes Nicolae Alexandru and Vladislav Vlaicu from Wallachia. Among the treasures of the monastery is the purported largest relic of the True Cross. The library of monastery contains 662 manuscripts and approximately 3,500 printed books. It has 20 working monks.
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    Thetford Priory

    Thetford Priory

    • Religious order: Cluniac order
    Thetford Priory is a Cluniac monastic house in Thetford, Norfolk, England. One of the most important East Anglian monasteries, it was founded in 1103 by Roger Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk and dedicated to Our Lady. In the 13th century, the Virgin Mary is said to have appeared in a vision to locals requesting the addition to the site of a Lady Chapel. During its construction, the old statue of her on the site was discovered to have a hollow in its head concealing saints' relics, and became a magnet for pilgrims. It housed the tombs of the Howard dynasty, of Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset and of other early Tudor Dynasty officials. Even this could not save the priory from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and, on its closure in 1536, the Howard tombs were removed to St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham. Its ruins (including the lower walls of the church and cloister, along with the impressive shell of the priors' lodging and, reached by a pathway from the main site, an almost complete 14th-century gatehouse) are open to the public as an English Heritage site. They are reputedly haunted and was the subject of an episode of the television series Ghosthunters. The
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    Biaroza Monastery

    Biaroza Monastery

    • Religious order: Carthusian
    Biaroza monastery refers to the ruins of the former Carthusian baroque Roman Catholic Monastery of the Holy Cross, constructed in the seventeenth century in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the 17th century, the village of Biaroza belonged to the Sapieha, a powerful magnate family in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, who founded a fortified monastery and a palace in the village. In 1648, the monastery was presented to the Carthusian monks who came from the Italian town of Treviso and settled in the monastery. The cornerstone of the monastery was laid in 1648 by the monastery's founder, Kazimierz Leon Sapieha, in the presence of bishop Andrej Hiembinski and the nuncio of Rome, Jan de Torres. Historians state that the monastery's architect was Giovanni Battista Gisleni, who worked for 40 years in the eastern Commonwealth (now Belarus). Kazimierz Leon Sapieha, the son of the Commonwealth magnate Lew Sapieha and member of the powerful Sapieha family, was the main sponsor of the project. The monastery was to be built on the place where a wooden cross was found in the forest. Therefore the monastery was also named after the Holy Cross. The monastery was consecrated in 1666, but
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    Dunfermline Abbey

    Dunfermline Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Dunfermline Abbey is a Church of Scotland Parish Church located in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. In 2002 the congregation had 806 members. The minister (since 1991) is the Reverend Alastair Jessamine. The church occupies the site of the ancient chancel and transepts of a large medieval Benedictine abbey, which was sacked in 1560 during the Scottish Reformation and permitted to fall into disrepair. Part of the old abbey church continued in use at that time and some parts of the abbey infrastructure still remain to this day. Dunfermline Abbey is one of Scotland's most important cultural sites. The Benedictine Abbey of the Holy Trinity and St Margaret, was founded in 1128 by King David I of Scotland, but the monastic establishment was based on an earlier foundation dating back to the reign of King Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (i.e. "Malcolm III" or "Malcolm Canmore", r. 1058-93) and his queen. At its head was an abbot, the first incumbent being Geoffrey of Canterbury, former prior of Christ Church, Canterbury, the Kent monastery that probably supplied Dunfermline's first monks. At the peak of its power it controlled four burghs, three courts of regality and a large portfolio of lands from
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    Gračanica monastery

    Gračanica monastery

    • Religion: Serbian Orthodox Church
    Gračanica (pronounced [ɡratʃǎnitsa]; Serbian: Манастир Грачаница, Manastir Gračanica) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located in Kosovo. It was founded by the Serbian king Stefan Milutin in 1321. Gračanica Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia, and on 13 July 2006 it was placed on UNESCO's World Heritage List under the name of Medieval Monuments in Kosovo as an extension of the Visoki Dečani site which was overall placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger. The Gračanica Monastery is one of King Milutin's last monumental endowments. It is situated in the village of Gračanica, a Serb enclave 5 km (3.1 mi) from Pristina. The monastery is in the close vicinity of Lipljan (ancient Roman town of Ulpiana), the old residence of bishops. Gračanica was constructed on the ruins of an older 13th century church of the Holy Virgin, which was built on the ruins of a 6th century early Christian three-naved basilica. On the southern wall of the chapel is written the king's charter, including the following words: "I have seen the ruins and the decay of the Holy Virgin's temple of Gračanica, the bishopric of
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    Ipatiev Monastery

    Ipatiev Monastery

    The Ipatiev Monastery (Ипатьевский монастырь in Russian)—sometimes translated into English as Hypatian Monastery—is a male monastery, situated on the bank of the Kostroma River just opposite the city of Kostroma. It was founded around 1330 by a Tatar convert, Prince Chet, whose male-line descendants include Solomonia Saburova and Boris Godunov. In 1435, Vasily II concluded a peace with his cousin Vasily Kosoy there. At that time, the cloister was a notable centre of learning. It was here that Nikolay Karamzin discovered a set of three 14th-century chronicles, including the Primary Chronicle, now known as the Hypatian Codex. During the Time of Troubles in Russia, the Ipatiev Monastery was occupied by the supporters of False Dmitriy II in the spring of 1609. In September of that same year, the monastery was captured by the Muscovite army after a long siege. On March 14, 1613, the Zemsky Sobor announced that Mikhail Romanov, who had been in this monastery at that time, would be the Russian tsar. Most of the monastery buildings date from the 16th and 17th centuries. The Trinity Cathedral is famous for its elaborately painted interior. A smaller church was demolished by the Soviet
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    Novodevichy Convent

    Novodevichy Convent

    Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (Russian: Новоде́вичий монасты́рь, Богоро́дице-Смоле́нский монасты́рь), is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow. Its name, sometimes translated as the New Maidens' Monastery, was devised to differ from an ancient maidens' convent within the Moscow Kremlin. Unlike other Moscow cloisters, it has remained virtually intact since the 17th century. In 2004, it was proclaimed a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Novodevichy Convent was founded in 1524 by Grand Prince Vasili III in commemoration of the conquest of Smolensk in 1514. It was built as a fortress at a curve of the Moskva River and became an important part of the southern defensive belt of the capital, which had already included a number of other monasteries. Upon its founding, the Novodevichy Convent was granted 3,000 rubles and the villages of Akhabinevo and Troparevo. Ivan the Terrible would later grant a number of other villages to the convent. The Novodevichy Convent was known to have sheltered many ladies from the Russian royal families and boyar clans, who had been forced to take the veil, such as Feodor I's wife Irina Godunova (she was there with her
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    Tsurphu Monastery

    Tsurphu Monastery

    • Religion: Tibetan Buddhism
    Tsurphu Monastery (also Tolung Tsurpu / sTod lung mTshur phu) is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery which served as the traditional seat of the Karmapa. It is located in Gurum town (rgu rum / Gǔróng Xiàng 古荣乡) of Doilungdêqên County in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, 70 km from Lhasa. The monastery is about 14,000 feet (4,300 m) above sea level. It was built in the middle of the valley facing south with high mountains surrounding the monastery complex. Tsurphu is a 300-square-meter (3,200 sq ft) complex with walls up to 4 meters (13 ft) thick. The monastery or "gompa", the traditional seat of the Karmapa lamas, is about 28 km up the Dowo Lung Valley, on the north side of the river. The original walls of the main building were up to 4 meters thick and 300 meters square (area 90,000 square meters or 970,000 square feet). The monks' residences were on the eastern side. Tsurphu was founded by the first Karmapa, Düsum Khyenpa (1110-1193) in 1159, after he visited the site and laid the foundation for an establishment of a seat there by making offerings to the local protectors, dharmapala and genius loci. In 1189 he revisited the site and founded his main seat there. The monastery grew to
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    Llanthony Priory

    Llanthony Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Llanthony Priory is a partly ruined former Augustinian priory in the secluded Vale of Ewyas, a steep sided once glaciated valley within the Black Mountains area of the Brecon Beacons National Park in Monmouthshire, south east Wales. It lies seven miles north of Abergavenny on an old road to Hay on Wye at Llanthony. The main ruins are under the care of Cadw and entrance is free. The priory is a Grade I listed building as of 1 September 1956. Within the precincts of the Priory are two other buildings with Grade I listed status: the Abbey Hotel, listed on 1 September 1956; and the Church of St David, listed on the same date. The priory dates back to around the year 1100, when Norman nobleman Walter de Lacy reputedly came upon a ruined chapel of St. David in this location, and was inspired to devote himself to solitary prayer and study. He was joined by Ersinius, a former Chaplain to Queen Matilda, the wife of King Henry I, and then a band of followers. A church was built on the site, dedicated to St John the Baptist, and consecrated in 1108. By 1118, a group of around 40 monks from England founded there a priory of Canons Regular, the first in Wales. In 1135, after persistent
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    Beeleigh Abbey

    Beeleigh Abbey

    • Religious order: Premonstratensian
    Beeleigh Abbey near Maldon in Essex, England, was a monastery constructed in 1180 for the White Canons, otherwise known as the Norbertines or Premonstratensians. The order linked the change of the separate life of monks in the 12th century with the retrospective life of the friar, who was considerably more active. Beeleigh Abbey was originally a daughter of Newham Abbey in Lincolnshire, established at the instigation of Robert Mantell, lord of the manor of Little Maldon. The abbey obtained a royal charter from Richard I in 1189. The heart of Saint Roger of Beeleigh (Roger Niger) - a thirteenth century Bishop of London was buried at Beeleigh and the abbey became a pilgrimage site. In 1289, pilgrims included King Edward I and Queen Eleanor. After the dissolution of the monasteries, many of the abbey buildings were pulled down. In 1540, Henry VIII granted the abbey and lands to Sir John Gate, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Thirty years after the land was given away there was an extension added to the abbey of a farmhouse. During the 18th century, the building was used as a public house. By the late 19th century, the buildings were in a ruinous condition, but in 1912,
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    100
    Lanercost Priory

    Lanercost Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Lanercost Priory was founded by Robert de Vaux between 1165 and 1174, the most likely date being 1169, to house Augustinian Canons. It is situated at the village of Lanercost, Cumbria, England, within sight of Naworth Castle, with which it long had close connections. It is now open to the public and in the guardianship of English Heritage. The foundation date was traditionally 1169, but can only be dated definitely between 1165 and 1174 on the evidence of charters. The dedication is to St. Mary Magdalene; unusual in the region. It would seem the arrangements for founding the Priory were well advanced by the time of the foundation charter, as opposed to the more gradual process at Wetheral and St. Bees. Robert de Vaux gave the land of Lanercost "between the ancient wall and the Irthing and between Burth and Poltros, the vill of Walton by stated bounds, the church of that vill with the chapel of 'Treverman,' the churches of Irthington, Brampton, Carlaton and Farlam". The charter of foundation states that the benefaction was made for the sake of Henry II, and for the health of the souls of his father Hubert and his mother Grace. Soon after the foundation of the house, Robert de Vaux
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    101
    Royaumont Abbey

    Royaumont Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Royaumont Abbey was a Cistercian abbey, located near Asnières-sur-Oise in Val-d'Oise, approximately 30 km north of Paris, France. It was built between 1228 and 1235 with the support of Louis IX. Several members of the French Royal family were buried here (and not in Saint Denis Basilica), for example, three children and two grandchildren of Louis IX. The abbey was dissolved in 1791 during the French Revolution and the stones were partly used to build a factory. However, the sacristy, cloister, and refectory remained intact. In 1836 and 1838, respectively, two operas by German composer Friedrich von Flotow opened at Royaumont—Sérafine and Le Comte de Saint-Mégrin. In the early 20th century, the abbey was bought by the Goüin family who in 1964 created the Royaumont Foundation, the first private French cultural foundation. Today, the abbey is a tourist attraction and also serves as a cultural centre. From January 1915 to March 1919 the Abbey was used as a military hospital by the Scottish Women's Hospitals, under the direction of the French Red Cross. After the war the Chief Medical Officer, Miss Frances Ivens CBE MS(Lond) ChM(Liverp) FRGOG (1870–1944), was awarded membership of the
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    102
    Burscough Priory

    Burscough Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Burscough Priory, at Burscough, Lancashire, England, was founded in c. 1190 by Robert Fitz-Henry, Lord of Lathom for Augustinian canons. It was dissolved c.1536 by Henry VIII although some remains still exist. The bells of the Priory were moved to the nearby Ormskirk Parish Church, where a tower had to be built to support them as the existing steeple could not support them. An open market is held twice-weekly, on Thursdays and Saturdays, in the pedestrianised centre of Ormskirk. This is permitted by a Royal Charter that was granted by Edward I of England in 1286 to the monks at Burscough Priory. The Priory also gives its name to the local high school, the Burscough Priory Science College, until recently known as the Burscough Priory High School. The school has an enrolment of around 750 pupils of ages 11–16 years.
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    Dochiariou monastery

    Dochiariou monastery

    Dochiariou monastery (Greek: Μονή Δοχειαρίου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. It was founded in the 10th century, and is dedicated to the memory of the Archangels Michael and Gabriel. It celebrates its patronal feastday on November 8th (21st, Gregorian style). The monastery also houses the icon of the Virgin "Gorgoypikoos" or "She who is Quick to Hear." The monastery ranks tenth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. The library holds 545 manuscripts, 62 of which are on parchment, and more than 5,000 printed books. Today Docheiariou has 30 working monks.
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    104
    Khutyn Monastery

    Khutyn Monastery

    Khutyn Monastery of Saviour's Transfiguration and of St. Varlaam (Russian: Хутынский Спасо-Преображенский Варлаамиев монастырь) used to be the holiest monastery of the medieval Novgorod Republic. The monastery is situated on the right bank of the Volkhov River some 10 km north northeast of Velikiy Novgorod, in the village of Khutyn, whose name is perhaps derived from the Russian "khudoi" (худой) meaning "ill, bad, or poor," possibly suggesting that the village or the region around it was an evil place, or a poor area among the marshes and near the river. The cloister was founded in 1192 by the monastery's first hegumen, the former Novgorodian boyar Oleksa Mikhailovich, whose monastic name was Varlaam. The main church of the monastery was consecrated by Archbishop Gavril of Novgorod the following year, the same year Varlaam died. He is buried in the main church of the monastery, the Church of the Transfiguration, to the right of the altar. He was the patron saint of Novgorod and the patrilineal ancestor of many families of Russian nobility, including Chelyadnins and Pushkins, of which Alexander Pushkin was a member. According to Varlaam's saint's Life, Ivan III visited the cloister
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    105
    Leiston Abbey

    Leiston Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Leiston Abbey, in Suffolk, England, was formerly known as St Mary's Abbey. It was founded in 1182 at Minsmere by Ranulf de Glanville, Lord Chief Justice to Henry II. The only remains of the old site are the ruins of the Abbey chapel. In 1363 the Abbey was transferred to Leiston, and its patron, Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, devoted his last years to the building. The ruins are also the inspiration for the musical composition Ruins of Leiston,written in 2012 by Kurt Rampton. The order of the Abbey was a House of Augustinian Canons Regular who followed the Premonstratensian rule. Unlike monks, their main duties were preaching and pastoral work. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536, Leiston Abbey was granted to Charles Brandon, 3rd Duke of Suffolk and brother-in-law to Henry VIII. The Abbey became a farm, the farmhouse being built into the ruins. Later, a Georgian front was added to the house, which was extended in the 1920s. In 1928 the Abbey ruins and farm was bought by Ellen Wrightson for use as a religious retreat. When she died in 1946, she bequeathed the house, ruins, land and buildings to the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich. It was purchased in
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    106
    Salem Abbey

    Salem Abbey

    Salem Abbey (Kloster or Reichskloster Salem), also known as Salmansweiler and in Latin as Salomonis Villa, was a very prominent Cistercian monastery in Salem in the district of Bodensee about ten miles from Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The abbey was founded in 1136 by Gunthram of Adelsreute (d. 1138) as a daughter house of Lützel Abbey in Alsace, in the foundation of which Gunthram had also been involved. Lützel was a daughter house of Bellevaux Abbey, in its turn the first daughter house of Morimond. Blessed Frowin of Bellevaux, formerly the travelling companion and interpreter of Bernard of Clairvaux, became the first abbot of Salem. He had been professed at Bellevaux, and was of the colony sent to found Lützel, and this has caused some misunderstandings in the past to the effect that Salem was founded from Bellevaux rather than from Lützel. The abbey soon became very prosperous. Extensive and magnificent buildings, erected in three squares, and a splendid church were constructed between 1182 and 1311. Salem was noted as the richest and most beautiful monastery in Germany, being particularly renowned for its hospitality. Amongst its greatest benefactors and patrons were
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    107
    St Mary's Abbey, York

    St Mary's Abbey, York

    The Abbey of St Mary is a ruined Benedictine abbey in York, England. Once the richest abbey in the north of England,, it lies in what are now the Yorkshire Museum Gardens, on a steeply sloping site to the west of York Minster. The original abbey on the site was founded in 1055 and dedicated to Saint Olaf II of Norway. It was refounded in 1088 for Abbot Stephen and a group of monks from Whitby by the Anglo-Breton magnate Alan Rufus, who laid the foundation stone of the Norman church that year. The monks moved to York from a site at Lastingham in Ryedale in the 1080s and are recorded there in Domesday. Following a dispute and riot in 1132, a party of reform-minded monks left to establish the Cistercian monastery of Fountains Abbey. The surviving ruins date from a rebuilding programme begun in 1271 and finished by 1294. The abbey's walled precincts were extended in the 12th century, so that by 1266 it was enclosed within a wall nearly three-quarters of a mile long. In 1318 the abbot received royal permission to raise the height of the wall and crenelate it; a stretch of this wall still runs along Bootham and Marygate to the River Ouse. The abbey church is aligned northeast-southwest,
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    108
    Strata Florida Abbey

    Strata Florida Abbey

    Strata Florida Abbey (Welsh: Abaty Ystrad Fflur) ( pronunciation (help·info) is a former Cistercian abbey situated just outside Pontrhydfendigaid, near Tregaron in the county of Ceredigion, Wales. The abbey was originally founded in 1164. The name Strata Florida is a corruption of the Welsh Ystrad Fflur, and has a double meaning; "Valley of (the river of) Flowers". Ystrad corrupts into "Strata", while Fflur ("Flowers") is also the name of the nearby river. After the region around St. David's was firmly occupied by the Norman Marcher lordship of Pembroke by the early 12th century, with St. David's firmly under Norman influence thereafter, the princely Dinefwr family of Deheubarth transferred their patronage to Strata Florida, interring many of their family members there. Lying mostly in ruins, there is a variety of remains in the area. The Abbey Church monument is in the care of Cadw. Next to the remains of the church is the graveyard, which is still active to this day, with many people choosing to be buried there. It is traditionally the burial place of the Welsh language poet, Dafydd ap Gwilym, and a memorial to him is to be found on the site, under a Yew tree. The yew tree is
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    109
    Vydubychi Monastery

    Vydubychi Monastery

    Vydubychi Monastery (Ukrainian: Видубицький монастир, Vydubyts'kyi monastyr) is an historic monastery in the Ukrainian capital Kiev. The monastery was established between 1070 and 1077 by Vsevolod, son of Yaroslav the Wise. It was a family cloister of Vsevolod's son Vladimir Monomakh and his descendants. The monastery, and the neighbourhood in present-day Kiev where it is located, was named after an old Slavic legend about the pagan god Perun and the Grand Prince Vladimir the Great of Kiev. The word "Vydubychi" comes from the word Vydobychi → Vydobych → Vydobech (Ukrainian: Видобичі → Видобич → Видобеч) which means "to swim up", "emerge from water". The legend has it that Vladimir ordered the wooden figures of Perun (the Thunder God) and other pagan gods dumped into the Dnieper River during the mass Baptism of Kiev. The disheartened Kievans, though accepting the baptism, ran along the Dnieper River calling for the old gods to emerge from water (Перуне выдуби!). Accordingly, the area down the river stream where Perun emerged was named Vydubichu or Vydubychi in modern Ukrainian. The monastery operated the ferry across the Dnieper River and many of the best scholars of that time lived
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    110
    Waverley Abbey

    Waverley Abbey

    Waverley Abbey was the first Cistercian abbey in England, founded in 1128 by William Giffard, Bishop of Winchester. It is situated about one mile south of Farnham, Surrey, in a bend of the River Wey. During the first century of its existence, it founded six monasteries, and despite the members thus sent away, it had 70 monks and 120 lay brothers in 1187. It kept about thirty ploughs. The site was subject to regular flooding, however, and in 1203 the foundations for a new church and monastery were laid on higher ground. The new church was dedicated in 1231. King John visited Waverley in 1209, and Henry III in 1225. The abbey also produced the famous annals of Waverley, an important source for the period. By the end of the thirteenth century the abbey was becoming less important. By the time it was suppressed by Henry VIII in 1536 as part of the dissolution of the monasteries there were only thirteen monks in the community and the abbey had an annual net income of £174. Stones from the abbey when it lay in ruins were taken to build nearby houses, including the house at Loseley Park. The ruins of Waverley Abbey are managed today by English Heritage. The sign at the entrance to the
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    111
    Ballintubber Abbey

    Ballintubber Abbey

    Ballintubber Abbey is a royal abbey two kilometres northeast of the village of Ballintubber, County Mayo in Ireland, founded by King Cathal Crobdearg Ua Conchobair in 1216. It is said to be the only church in Ireland founded by an Irish king that is still in regular use. Despite being suppressed and damaged during the Protestant Reformation, the roofless abbey continued to be used throughout penal times by Catholics. In 1966, the nave was restored and re-roofed in time for the 750th anniversary of the abbey's foundation and, in 1997, the Chapter House and Dorter area were restored and re-roofed. It is planned to restore the entire east wing before the 800th year celebration in 2016. The abbey has several modern outdoor attractions, including a very modern abstract Way of the Cross, an underground permanent Crib, and a Rosary Way. There is a small museum. According to the Ballintubber website, Seán na Sagart, the infamous priest-hunter, is buried in the cemetery. A large tree marks the spot. The Irish film actor Pierce Brosnan was married there, and the abbey marks the beginning of Tochar Phádraig, the ancient pilgrimage route to Croagh Patrick, long defunct but now reopened as a
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    112
    Bistriţa Monastery

    Bistriţa Monastery

    The Bistriţa Monastery (Romanian: Mănăstirea Bistrița, pronounced [ˈbistrit͡sa] ( listen)) is a Romanian Orthodox monastery located 8 km west of Piatra Neamț. It was dedicated in 1402 by Romanian Voivode Alexandru cel Bun whose remains are buried here. The monastery is surrounded by 4 meter high stone walls built during Petru Rareș's reign (1541–1546), the original ones being destroyed in 1538 by Suleiman the Magnificent's army. Also from the same period dates a chapel located north of the monastery. The church is historically and archaeologically valuable. It shows features of Byzantine architecture, has many beautiful ornaments, the 15th century entrance door being a work of fine craftsmanship. The bell tower was erected in 1498 by Stephen the Great. A remarkable item preserved here is the miraculous icon of Saint Anne given as a present to the monastery by Manuel II Palaiologos, emperor of Constantinople. The monastery was an important cultural center for calligraphers, miniaturists and chroniclers. The monastery's museum hosts an important collection of medieval art.
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    113
    Chudov Monastery

    Chudov Monastery

    The Chudov Monastery (Чу́дов монасты́рь) (more formally known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow. The monastery was dedicated to the miracle (chudo in Russian) of the Archangel Michael at Chonae (feast day: September 19 [O.S. September 6]). The Monastery was closed in 1918, and dismantled in 1929. The construction of the monastery together with its katholikon (cathedral) was finished in 1365. The katholikon was replaced with a new one in 1431 and then once again in 1501–1503. It was traditionally used for baptising the royal children, including future Tsars Feodor I, Aleksey I and Peter the Great. The monastery’s hegumen (abbot) was considered the first among the hegumens of all the Russian monasteries until 1561. Alongside Simonov Monastery and Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra, the Chudov Monastery was the biggest center of the Muscovite book culture and learning. Prominent monks of the monastery, who dedicated their lives to translating and correcting ecclesiastic books, include Maximus the Greek, Yepifany Slavinetsky and Karion Istomin. Gennady, who as Archbishop of Novgorod, patronized the first complete
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    114
    Ganden Monastery

    Ganden Monastery

    • Religion: Tibetan Buddhism
    Ganden Monastery (also Gaden or Gandain) or Ganden Namgyeling is one of the 'great three' Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet, located at the top of Wangbur Mountain, Tagtse County, 36 kilometers ENE from the Potala Palace in Lhasa, at an altitude of 4,300m. (The other two 'great monasteries' are Sera Monastery and Drepung Monastery.) Its full name is Ganden Namgyal Ling (dga' ldan rmam rgyal gling). Ganden means "joyful" and is the Tibetan name for Tuṣita, the heaven where the bodhisattva Maitreya is said to reside. Namgyal Ling means "victorious temple". It was the original monastery of the Geluk order, founded by Je Tsongkhapa himself in 1409, and traditionally considered to be the seat of Geluk administrative and political power. The Ganden Tripa or 'throne-holder of Ganden' is the head of the Gelukpa school. Tsongkhapa's preserved body was entombed there in a silver and gold encrusted tomb by his disciples in 1419. Being the farthest from Lhasa of the three university monasteries, Ganden traditionally had a smaller population with some 6,000 monks in the early 20th century (although Waddell reports an estimate of about 3,300 in the 1890s and there were, apparently only
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    115
    Halesowen Abbey

    Halesowen Abbey

    Halesowen Abbey was an abbey in Halesowen, England of which only ruins remain. It was located in an exclave of the historic county of Shropshire until 1844. In that year Halesowen was transferred to Worcestershire and then in 1974 to the new West Midlands county. The abbey was founded in 1215 by Premonstratensian canons under a grant from King John of England and went on to develop close connections with Titchfield Abbey in Hampshire. The Abbey absorbed the Augustine Dodford Priory in 164, by an order of Edward IV. and increased its revenues substantially. The abbey became very wealthy and owned an extensive local estate but it was suppressed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1538 and its estates granted to John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. From that time on, and particularly during the industrial revolution, much of the fabric of the abbey was carried off as building material in the surrounding area. However, some standing structures remain, having been used as the framework of farm buildings. It is now in the guardianship of English Heritage.
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    116
    Lützel Abbey

    Lützel Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Lucelle Abbey or Lützel Abbey (French: Abbaye de Lucelle; German: Kloster Lützel) was a Cistercian monastery in the present village of Lucelle, in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace, France, but located right on the Swiss border. The name of the original foundation was Lucis cella, the "cell of light". Lucelle was founded in 1124 as a daughter house of Bellevaux Abbey, which in its turn was a daughter house of Morimond Abbey. It was dissolved in 1792 during the French Revolution. The following were daughter houses settled from Lucelle: Lützel Abbey seems also to have founded a small Cistercian nunnery, Kleinlützel Priory in Switzerland, in about 1136-1138, although there is no direct evidence that they did so or that the women's community at Kleinlützel was Cistercian. In 1264 the foundation was given to the Augustinian Canons of Basle. Lützel Abbey regained possession of the premises at the beginning of the 16th century.
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    117
    Mileševa monastery

    Mileševa monastery

    Mileševa (Serbian Cyrillic: Милешева, pronounced [mîlɛʃɛʋa] or [milɛ̌ʃɛʋa]) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located near Prijepolje, in southwest Serbia. It was founded by King Vladislav, in the years between 1234 and 1236. The church has frescoes by the most skillful artists of that time, including one of the most famous in Serbian culture, the "White Angel", which depicts an angel on Christ's grave. The Mileševa monastery was founded between 1234 and 1236 by Serbian King Vladislav. The monastery is situated in a valley of the Mileševa river, near Prijepolje. Mileševa is one of the most important Serbian sanctuaries and spiritual centers. In 1236, Vladislav moved the relics of his uncle Saint Sava from Trnovo in Bulgaria, where he died, to Mileševa. Some historians believe that the coronation of King Tvrtko I of Bosnia took place in Mileševa. In the fifteenth century, the monastery was the seat of the Metropolitanate of Dabar-Bosnia. In 1459, the Turks set the monastery on fire, but it was soon restored. In the first half of the sixteenth century, the first service books were illuminated in Mileševa. One of the oldest schools also existed in the monastery. In the middle of the
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    118
    New Melleray Abbey

    New Melleray Abbey

    New Melleray Abbey is located near Dubuque, Iowa. The monks there are members of the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (commonly called the Trappists). The abbey is located about 15 miles southwest of Dubuque and is located in the Archdiocese of Dubuque. The current Abbot is the Right Reverend Brendan Freeman. Currently the Abbey is home to about 37 monks. Many of the monks work in farming, as much of their food comes from the fields surrounding the Abbey. The Abbey is well known for crafting high-quality wooden caskets and urns. They use the caskets for deceased monks, as well as selling them commercially. One of their more famous customers is Cardinal Roger Mahony of Los Angeles, California, who has reserved a casket for his own eventual use. Former Dubuque Archbishop James Byrne has been buried in a casket made by the Abbey. Dubuque native and actress Kate Mulgrew recently made a radio commercial for New Melleray's casket business. The monks have a daily routine that involves spending a large part of their day in prayer, work, and contemplation. In keeping with ancient monastic traditions, they begin their day with Matins at 3:15 AM, and end their days at 8:00 PM
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    119
    Reichenbach Priory

    Reichenbach Priory

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Reichenbach Monastery or Priory (German: Kloster Reichenbach) was a house of the Benedictine Order, located at Klosterreichenbach, now part of Baiersbronn in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The monastery was founded, against the background of the Investiture Controversy and the Hirsau Reforms, as a priory of Hirsau Abbey, from where it was settled, in 1082; in 1085 the church was dedicated to Saint Gregory the Great by Bishop Gebhard of Konstanz. The Vögte (lords protectors) of the monastery were the Counts of Eberstein, but the equivalent rights over Hirsau lay with the Counts of Württemberg, who considered that as Reichenbach was a priory of Hirsau, their rights should extend there also. The conflict between the two factions continued until the Reformation, when the monastery was turned into a Protestant establishment in 1603. It had been re-catholicised during the Thirty Years' War and occupied by monks from Wiblingen Abbey, who however had to leave again after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Since then the village of Klosterreichenbach which had developed around the monastery remained Protestant. The buildings of the former monastery have been partially restored in the 19th and
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    120
    Santa Catalina Monastery

    Santa Catalina Monastery

    The Monastery of Saint Catherine (Spanish: Santa Catalina) is a monastery of nuns of the Domincan Second Order, located in Arequipa, Peru. It was built in 1580 and was enlarged in the 17th century. The over 20,000-square-meter monastery was built predominantly in the Mudéjar style, and is characterized by its vividly painted walls. There are approximately 20 nuns currently living in the northern corner of the complex; the rest of the monastery is open to the public. The foundress of the monastery was a rich widow, Maria de Guzman. The tradition of the time indicated that the second son or daughter of a family would enter a life of service in the Church, and the monastery accepted only women from upper class Spanish families. Each family paid a dowry at their daughter's admission to the monastery. The dowry expected of a woman who wished to enter as a choir nun--indicated by wearing a black veil—and who thereby accepted the duty of the daily recitation of the Divine Office, was 2,400 silver coins, equivalent to about $150,000 (U.S.) today. The nuns were also required to bring 25 listed items, including a statue, a painting, a lamp and clothes. The wealthiest nuns may have brought
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    121
    Trappist Haven Monastery

    Trappist Haven Monastery

    The Trappist Haven Monastery (Traditional Chinese:熙篤會神樂院 or 聖母神樂院) is a monastery at Tai Shui Hang (Chinese: 大水坑), on Lantau Island, Hong Kong. It is home to a number of Roman Catholic monks of the Cistercian Order of the Strict Observance, or Trappists. It adopted its new, official name Our Lady of Joy Abbey on January 15, 2000. The monastery is famous for producing the Trappist milk (known as Cross Milk 十字牌牛奶 or Priest Milk 神父牌牛奶 by Hong Kongers). The factory, however, is now located at Castle Peak, Yuen Long; and the cow farm is said to have been moved to mainland China. Around the monastery some of the last free roaming feral cattle in Hong Kong can be seen, being the descendants of the cattle released after the closure of the dairy farm. The monastery is located on a scenic hiking trail leading from Discovery Bay via Nim Shue Wan to Mui Wo. It provides a resting point halfway through the hike. The monastery can also be accessed by kai-to ferry from Peng Chau.
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    122
    Zirc Abbey

    Zirc Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Zirc Abbey, formerly also Zircz Abbey, also known as Zircensis or Boccon, is a Cistercian abbey, situated in Zirc in the Diocese of Veszprém, Hungary. The early history of the monastery is obscure as regards both names and dates, on account of its being so often referred to under both these titles: whether Zirc and Boccon were separate abbeys cannot now be definitely determined. It seems most probable that the foundation was made by Béla III, King of Hungary (1182), as the monastic domain was formerly a royal farm. Besides this grant, on which now stands the city of Zirc, many other donations were made to the nascent abbey, which soon became one of the most celebrated in the country. It was rich not only in temporal possessions but also in the spirit of fervor and religious regularity. In 1232 the foundation of Kutjevo Abbey in the present Croatia was made from Zirc, which became its mother-house. This happy state continued for three centuries, but decadence set in before the end of the fifteenth century, and by 1526 the ravages of the Ottoman invasion of Hungary had depopulated the monastery, not one religious remaining at the end of the year. The buildings and possessions passed
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    123
    Glenstal Abbey

    Glenstal Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Glenstal Abbey is a Benedictine monastery located in Murroe, County Limerick. It is dedicated to Saint Joseph and Saint Columba. The current abbot of the monastery is Dom Patrick Hederman OSB. The abbey is located in and beside Glenstal Castle, a Normanesque castle built by the Barrington family. The picturesque grounds include lakes, forests and an old walled, terraced garden which features a "bible garden". The monastery runs an all-boys boarding secondary school on its grounds, Glenstal Abbey School, home to approximately two hundred students.
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    124
    Great Malvern Priory

    Great Malvern Priory

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Great Malvern Priory in Malvern, Worcestershire, England, was a Benedictine monastery c.1075-1540 and is now an Anglican parish church. It is designated a Grade I listed building by English Heritage and is a dominant building in the Great Malvern Conservation area. It has the largest display of 15th century stained glass in England, as well as carved miserichords from the 15th and 16th century and the largest collection of Medieval floor and wall tiles. In 1860 major restoration work was carried out by Sir George Gilbert Scott. It also the venue for concerts and civic services. An ancient carved head and shoulders similar to the Lustymore Island figure on Boa Island, County Fermanagh was excavated from the grounds of the Priory. It is now housed in St Ann's Chapel. A Celt (a prehistoric axe-like tool) was also excavated during the 18th Century. Little is known about Malvern over the next thousand years until it is described as "... an hermitage, or some kind of religious house, for seculars, before the conquest, endowed by the gift of Edward the Confessor ...". The additions to William Dugdale's Monasticon include an extract from the Pleas taken before the King at York in 1387,
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    3 votes
    125
    Jazak monastery

    Jazak monastery

    The Jazak Monastery (Serbian: Манастир Јазак / Manastir Jazak) is a Serb Orthodox monastery on the Fruška Gora mountain in the northern Serbia, in the province of Vojvodina. The monastery was founded in 1736. Jazak Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.
    6.67
    3 votes
    126
    Weihenstephan Abbey

    Weihenstephan Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Weihenstephan Abbey (Kloster Weihenstephan) was a Benedictine monastery in Weihenstephan, now part of Freising district, in Bavaria, Germany. This has also been claimed as being the world's oldest brewery. Saint Corbinian, whose arrival in Freising is dated at around 720, founded a church of Saint Stephen here, with a monk's cell attached to it, which seems to have disappeared again before the end of the 8th century. The monastery proper, dedicated at first to Saint Vitus, later to Saints Stephen and Michael, was founded by Bishop Hitto von Freising in approximately 811–835. From then until 1020 or 1021 it was a monastery of Augustinian canons. From 1021 it was a Benedictine abbey. The abbey was dissolved in 1803 during the secularisation of Bavaria and its property sold off. In 1810 the abbey church, which had been made into a parish church, was demolished. In 1803 the Forestry School of Munich was moved into the empty buildings; at the same time a model farm was established. A large part of the previous abbey economy, with buildings and stables as well as forests and fields, was transferred to the forestry school or the model farm. From 1804 agricultural science was taught here
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    3 votes
    127
    Ettal Abbey

    Ettal Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Ettal Abbey (Kloster Ettal) is a Benedictine monastery in the village of Ettal close to Oberammergau and Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. With a community (as of 2005) of more than 50 monks, with another five at Wechselburg, the Abbey is one of the largest Benedictine houses and is a major attraction for visitors. Ettal Abbey was founded on 28 April 1330, Saint Vitalis of Milan's day, by Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in the Graswang valley, in fulfilment of an oath on his return from Italy, on a site of strategic importance on the primary trade route between Italy and Augsburg. The foundation legend is that Ludwig's horse genuflected three times on the site of the original church building, where a statuette of the Virgin Mary ("Frau Stifterin" or the "Ettal Madonna") of the Pisano School now stands, a gift from Ludwig to his new foundation. This statue soon became an object of pilgrimage. The church is dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. The foundation originally consisted of a Benedictine double monastery – a community for men and another for women – and also a house of the Teutonic Knights. The original Gothic abbey church, built between 1330 and 1370, was
    5.75
    4 votes
    128
    Kovilj monastery

    Kovilj monastery

    The Kovilj Monastery (Serbian: Манастир Ковиљ / Manastir Kovilj) is a 13th century Serb Orthodox monastery in the Bačka region, in the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina. It is near the village of Kovilj, in the Novi Sad municipality. The monastery was renovated in 1705-1707. According to the legend, the monastery of Kovilj was founded by the first Serb archbishop, Saint Sava.
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    4 votes
    129
    Luxeuil Abbey

    Luxeuil Abbey

    Luxeuil Abbey was one of the oldest and best-known monasteries in Burgundy, located in the "département" of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, France. It was founded circa 585–590 by the Irish missionary Saint Columbanus. Columbanus and his companions first settled in cells at Annegray, in the commune of Voivre, Haute-Saône. Looking for a more permanent site for his community, Columbanus decided upon the ruins of a well-fortified Gallo-Roman settlement, Luxovium, about eight miles away. The Roman town had been ravaged by Attila in 451, and was now buried in the dense overgrown woodland that had filled the abandoned site over more than a century, but the place still had the advantage of the thermal baths ("constructed with unusual skill", according to Columbanus' early biographer, Jonas of Bobbio) down in the valley, which still give the town its name of Luxeuil-les-Bains. Jonas described it further: "There stone images crowded the nearby woods, which were honoured in the miserable cult and profane former rites in the time of the pagans". With a grant from an officer of the palace at Childebert's court, an abbey church was built with a sense of triumph within the heathen site and its
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    4 votes
    130
    Batalha Monastery

    Batalha Monastery

    • Religious order: Dominican Order
    Mosteiro Santa Maria da Vitória, more commonly known as the Batalha Monastery, is a Dominican convent in Batalha, in the District of Leiria, Portugal. It is one of the best and original examples of Late Gothic architecture in Portugal, intermingled with the Manueline style. The convent was built to thank the Virgin Mary for the Portuguese victory over the Castilians in the battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, fulfilling a promise of King John I of Portugal. The battle put an end to the 1383-1385 crisis. It took over a century to build, starting in 1386 and ending circa 1517, spanning the reign of seven kings. It took the efforts of fifteen architects (Mestre das Obras da Batalha), but for seven of them the title was no more than an honorary title bestowed on them. The construction required an enormous effort, using extraordinary resources of men and material. New techniques and artistic styles, hitherto unknown in Portugal, were deployed. Work began in 1386 by the Portuguese architect Afonso Domingues who continued till 1402. He drew up the plan and many of the structures in the church and the cloister are his doing. His style was essentially Rayonnant Gothic, however there are
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    2 votes
    131
    Bec Abbey

    Bec Abbey

    Bec Abbey (French: Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec) in Le Bec Hellouin, Normandy, France, once the most influential abbeys in the Anglo-Norman kingdom of the twelfth century, is a Benedictine monastic foundation in the Eure département, in the Bec valley midway between the cities of Rouen and Bernay. Like all abbeys, Bec maintained annals of the house, but uniquely its first abbots also received individual biographies, brought together by the monk of Bec, Milo Crispin. Because of the abbey's cross-Channel influence, these vitae sometimes disclose historical information of more than local importance. The abbey was founded in 1034 by Herluin, a Norman knight who in about 1031 left the court of Gilbert, Count of Brionne, to devote himself to a life of religion: the commune of Le Bec Hellouin preserves his name. One hundred thirty-six monks made their profession while Herluin was in charge. With the arrival of Lanfranc of Pavia, Bec became a focus of 11th century intellectual life. Lanfranc, who was already famous for his lectures at Avranches, came to teach as prior and master of the monastic school, but left in 1062, to become abbot of St. Stephen's Abbey, Caen, and later Archbishop of
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    Birkenhead Priory

    Birkenhead Priory

    Birkenhead Priory is in Priory Street, Birkenhead, Merseyside, England. It is the oldest standing building on Merseyside. The remains of the priory are a Grade I listed building and a Scheduled Ancient Monument. It was founded about 1150 by Hamon de Masci, 3rd Baron of Dunham Massey for the Benedictine Order. The Priory was visited twice by Edward I due to its strategic importance being close to the borders of Wales, and also the Irish Sea. In 1318 the monks from Birkenhead Priory were granted ferry rights by Edward II. This allowed them to build a house in what is now Water Street to store their corn. The house was also used by travellers for shelter if the weather was too bad for the ferry to cross the River Mersey. The priory's chapter house is consecrated as an Anglican church, and is still used for services. There is a chapel dedicated to the training ship HMS Conway. There is also a museum detailing the history of the site. The chapter house is a Grade II* listed building and contains items of Norman architecture. In 2005 the chapter house was restored. St Mary's Tower was originally part of Birkenhead's first parish church, opened in 1821 in the grounds of the priory. It is
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    133
    Braunau in Rohr Abbey

    Braunau in Rohr Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Braunau in Rohr Abbey (Kloster Braunau in Rohr) is a Benedictine monastery, formerly Rohr Abbey, a monastery of the Augustinian Canons, in Rohr in Niederbayern in the district of Kelheim in Bavaria, Germany. The monastery, dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was founded in 1133 by Adalbert of Rohr. It was dissolved in the secularization of 1803 when the German princes substituted church lands for property they had lost through Napoleon. In the east wing the parish priest's offices and a school were accommodated, and in a part of the west wing, an inn. The remaining buildings were demolished. The abbey church, dedicated, like the abbey, to the Assumption, contains a high altar, which represents the Assumption of the Virgin in fully three-dimensional sculpture: a "Theatrum sacrum". It was created by Egid Quirin Asam in 1722 and 1723. After World War II the exiled German Benedictine monks from Braunau Abbey (Braunau is now Broumov in the Czech Republic) were lodged here in part of the east wing. They gradually re-established their community, acquiring little by little the remaining parts of the entire monastery complex. The monks have re-established a secondary
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    134
    Optina Monastery

    Optina Monastery

    The Optina Hermitage (Russian: Оптина пустынь, Optina Pustyn) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery for men near Kozelsk in Russia. In the 19th century, the Optina was the most important spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church and served as the model for several other monasteries, including the nearby Shamordino Convent. It was particularly renowned as the centre of Russian staretsdom. It is not clear when the monastery was established. Its name is derived from the Russian word for "living together," possibly because nuns were allowed into the cloister prior to 1504. Most of the monastery buildings were erected at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, when the monastery was being renovated as a centre of Russian staretsdom. In 1821, a hermitage for startsy was established 400 metres (1,300 ft) away from the monastery. The startsy attracted crowds of devout Christians to Kozelsk. Among others, Optina Pustyn was visited by Fyodor Dostoevsky, Vasily Zhukovsky, Nikolai Gogol, Ivan Turgenev, and Vasily Rozanov. Leo Tolstoy also visited the monastery, although he didn't approve of the staretsdom. The cloister boasted a rich library, collected with help from the Slavophile
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    135
    Sawley Abbey

    Sawley Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Sawley Abbey was an abbey of Cistercian monks in the village of Sawley, Lancashire, in England (and historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire). Created as a daughter-house of Newminster Abbey, it existed from 1147 until its dissolution in 1536, during the reign of King Henry VIII of all England, Ireland, and France. Its ruins, which are controlled by English Heritage, are open to the public. Although not an extensive ruin, there are boards on the site that give information regarding the history of the abbey and its former inhabitants. Today, parts of the church and refectory can still be seen. The abbey is a Grade I listed building and Scheduled Ancient Monument. In March 2009, Sawley Abbey was featured in the first episode of series 3 of the TV series The Tudors.
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    136
    Schlehdorf Abbey

    Schlehdorf Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Schlehdorf Abbey (German: Kloster Schlehdorf) was originally a Benedictine monastery, later an Augustinian monastery, and is today a convent of the Missionary Dominican Sisters of King William's Town. It is located at Schlehdorf, on the extreme northern edge of the Bavarian Alps on the Kochelsee south of Munich, Germany. The abbey, dedicated to Saints Dionysius and Tertullinus, was founded around perhaps 740 from the nearby Benediktbeuern Abbey. In 769 it was resettled by monks from the abandoned Scharnitz Abbey. The first abbot, Atto, brought with him the relics of Saint Tertullinus. It was a Benedictine monastery until the 9th century, after which it is heard of no more; presumably it was destroyed during the Hungarian invasions. From 1140 it was revived as a house of the Augustinian Canons. In 1803 it was dissolved during the secularisation of Bavaria, and sold off. Since 1904 Schlehdorf has belonged to the Missionary Dominican Sisters of King William's Town. It has been the seat of the German Province of the Order since 1960, and as of 2010 is a community of about 60 Dominican sisters. In the abbey grounds, besides a guesthouse and the abbey shop, is a girls' secondary school
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    137
    Putna Monastery

    Putna Monastery

    The Putna monastery (Romanian: Mănăstirea Putna) is a Romanian Orthodox monastery, one of the most important cultural, religious and artistic centers established in medieval Moldavia; as with many others, it was built and dedicated by Prince Stephen the Great. Putna was founded on the lands perambulated by the Putna (which has its source in the Obcina Mare mountains, Bukovina). Stephen the Great is famous for building and influencing the building of dozens of churches and monasteries all over Moldavia (allegedly, he founded a religious edifice after each important military victory). The Putna Monastery houses the tombs of Stephen —nowadays, a place of pilgrimage —, and several of his family members. The icon veils and tombstones are held as fine examples of Moldavian art in Stephen the Great’s time. Right after Stephen the Great won the battle in which he conquered the Kilia citadel, he began work on the monastery as a means to give thanks to God, on July 10, 1466 - the church was to be dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Previous eremitic life (on the place the monastery was build) was proven by humans buried deep under the foundation of the oldest buildings from Stephen the Great. A
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    138
    Breadsall Priory

    Breadsall Priory

    • Religious order: Friars Eremites
    Breadsall Priory is a former priory in Derbyshire situated some two kilometres north of Breadsall. It was a house of the Friars Eremites, founded, it is said, by the Dethick family, about the middle of the 13th Century, and subsequently converted into an Augustinian priory. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536 the site was granted by the Crown to the Duke of Suffolk. Since then there have been numerous owners of the estate including Sir John Bentley who built the Elizabethan house in the late 16th century. Subsequent extensions and alterations by architect Robert Scrivener in about 1861, and a new wing in 1906 greatly enlarged the property. The physician and poet Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin, moved there shortly before his death in 1802 and his son Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin (1786–1859) lived there subsequently. Sir Francis' son Edward Levett Darwin, author of under the pseudonym High Elms of the Gameskeeper's Manual, learnt natural history in its grounds. Later, Derby industrialist Sir Alfred Seale Haslam (1844–1927), (Mayor of Derby 1890/91, Member of Parliament for Newcastle under Lyme 1900/6) acquired the house. His son Eric Seale Haslam was
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    139
    Cartmel Priory

    Cartmel Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Cartmel Priory is the parish church of Cartmel, Cumbria (formerly in Lancashire). The priory was founded in 1190 by William Marshal, later 1st Earl of Pembroke for the Augustinian Canons and dedicated to Saint Mary the Virgin and Saint Michael. It was first colonised by a Prior and twelve monks from Bradenstoke Priory in Wiltshire. Of the monastic buildings the priory church and a gatehouse survive. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Windermere, the archdeaconry of Westmorland and Furness, and the diocese of Carlisle. Its benefice is united with those of St Mary, Allithwiate, St Peter, Field Broughton, St John the Baptist, Flookburgh, St Paul, Grange-over-Sands, Grange Fell Church, Grange-over-Sands, and St Paul, Lindale, to form the benefice of Cartmel Peninsula. The church has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. Between 1327 and 1347 a chapel with four traceried windows was provided by Lord Harrington in the south choir aisle, and in fact his tomb is still in the building. The gatehouse, which apart from the church itself is the only surviving structure of the priory, was built between 1330 and 1340. In the 15th century
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    140
    Disentis Abbey

    Disentis Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Disentis Abbey (German: Reichskloster Disentis) is a Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Graubünden in eastern Switzerland, around which the present town of Disentis (Romansh: Mustér) grew up. Formerly the date of the foundation of this abbey, attributed to the local saints Placidus and Sigisbert, was held to be 614. The tradition further states that this monastery was destroyed by the Avars in 670, when the abbot and thirty monks were martyred. The abbey, dedicated to Saint Martin, was then supposedly rebuilt by Charles Martel and Saint Pirmin in about 711. The second and current view, based on more substantial research, is however that the foundation did not take place until the early 8th century. This is corroborated by archaeological investigation showing that the first traceable structure on the site was built in or about 700 and was destroyed in about 940, which is attributed to raiding Saracens. The account of Sigisbert, as dramatised in the 12th century work, the "Passio Placidi", is that he was a wandering Frankish monk, inspired by the ideals of Columbanus and Luxeuil, who set up a cell here, under the protection of Saint Martin. Placidus was a local magnate and
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    141
    Dryburgh Abbey

    Dryburgh Abbey

    Dryburgh Abbey, near Dryburgh on the banks of the River Tweed in the Scottish Borders, was nominally founded on 10 November (Martinmas) 1150 in an agreement between Hugh de Morville, Lord of Lauderdale and Constable of Scotland, and the Premonstratensian canons regular from Alnwick Abbey in Northumberland. The arrival of the canons along with their first abbot, Roger, took place on 13 December 1152. It was burned by English troops in 1322, after which it was restored only to be again burned by Richard II in 1385, but it flourished in the fifteenth century. It was finally destroyed in 1544, briefly to survive until the Scottish Reformation, when it was given to the Earl of Mar by James VI of Scotland. The 12th Earl of Buchan bought the land in 1786. Sir Walter Scott and Douglas Haig are buried in its grounds. The Premonstratensian order was founded by St Norbert of Xanten who was firstly a canon at Xanten Cathedral. Unhappy with the way of life of his fellow canons, he left the Rhine lands for the diocese of Laon, in the north of France where the reforming Bishop Bartholomew was transforming his see into one that was more apostolic. Bartholomew persuaded Norbert to form a canonical
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    142
    Hautecombe Abbey

    Hautecombe Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Hautecombe Abbey (Latin Altacumba, Altæcumbæum) is a former Cistercian monastery, later a Benedictine monastery, in Saint-Pierre-de-Curtille near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, France. For centuries it was the burial place of the members of the House of Savoy. It is visited by 150,000 tourists yearly. The origins of Hautecombe lie in a religious community which was founded about 1101 in a narrow valley (or combe) near Lake Bourget by hermits from Aulps Abbey, near Lake Geneva. In about 1125 it was transferred to a site on the north-western shore of the lake under Mont du Chat, which had been granted to it by Amadeus, Count of Savoy, who is named as the founder; and shortly afterwards it accepted the Cistercian Rule from Clairvaux. The first abbot was Amadeus de Haute-Rive, afterwards Bishop of Lausanne. Two daughter-houses were founded from Hautecombe at an early date: Fossanova Abbey (afterwards called For Appio), in the diocese of Terracina in Italy, in 1135, and San Angelo de Petra, close to Constantinople, in 1214. It has sometimes been claimed, but as often disputed, that Pope Celestine IV and Pope Nicholas III were monks at Hautecombe. Hautecombe was for centuries the burial-place
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    143
    Jerónimos Monastery

    Jerónimos Monastery

    The Hieronymites Monastery (Mosteiro dos Jerónimos, Portuguese pronunciation: [muʃˈtɐjɾu duʃ ʒɨˈɾɔnimuʃ]) is located near the shore of the parish of Belém, in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal. The monastery is one of the most prominent monuments of the Manueline-style architecture (Portuguese late-Gothic) in Lisbon, classified in 1983 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the nearby Tower of Belém. Originally, the home for the Hieronymite religious order, was built by the Infante Henry the Navigator around 1459. The chapel that existed there, to the invocation of Santa Maria de Belém, was serviced by monks of the military-religious Order of Christ who provided assistance to pilgrims who transited the area. The small beach of Praia do Restelo was an advantage spot, with safe anchorage and protection from the winds,sought after by the ships that entered the Tagus. The Hermitage of Restelo (Portuguese: Ermida do Restelo), as it was known, was already a hermitage in disrepair, when Vasco da Gama and his men spent the night in prayer before departing on their expedition to the Orient in 1497. The existing structure was started on the orders of Manuel I (1469–1521) at the
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    144
    Rüeggisberg Priory

    Rüeggisberg Priory

    Rüeggisberg Priory (Kloster Rüeggisberg) was a Cluniac priory in the municipality of Rüeggisberg, Canton of Bern, Switzerland. The original foundation of uncertain date, made by Lütold of Rümligen, was turned into the first Cluniac house in the German-speaking world by Cuno of Siegburg and Ulrich of Zell in about 1072, when the first cells were built. Construction of the Romanesque church lasted from about 1100 to about 1185, of which there still remain the north transept and parts of the crossing tower. The priory was one of the most important monastic houses of Switzerland during the Middle Ages, but in the late medieval period decline set in, and in 1484 it was incorporated into the newly-built college of the Augustinian Canons of Berne Minster. The church was shut down in 1541 during the Reformation. The monastic buildings thereafter served as a source of building stone and partly as a barn. Between 1938 and 1947 on an archaeological dig the old foundations were again laid bare, as may be seen in the little museum next to the rectory.
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    145
    Southwick Priory

    Southwick Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Southwick Priory was a priory of Augustinian canons originally founded in Portchester Castle and later transferred to Southwick, Hampshire, England. In 1133 Henry I founded a priory of Austin canons in the church of St. Mary, Portchester, within the walls of Portchester Castle. The foundation charter gave to the canons the church of Portchester, timber for fencing, building and fuel, common pasture in the wood of Hingsdon; the manor of Candover; and a hide of land in each of Southwick and Applestead. By the early part of the thirteenth century the priory is referred to in charters as Southwick Priory and it is believed to have moved to the site in Southwick c.1145-1153. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the priory became a renowned centre of pilgrimage. In September, 1510 Henry VIII passed through Southwick and made an offering of 6s. 8d. at Our Lady of Southwick. In 1538, shortly before the suppression, John Husee, a solicitor and servant of the Lisles, wrote to Lord Lisle that Pilgrimage saints goeth down apace as Our Lady of Southwick, the Blood of Hales, St. Saviour's and others. And Leland mentions the fame of the pilgrimage to Our Lady of Southwick. By the dissolution, the
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    146
    St. Benet's Abbey

    St. Benet's Abbey

    St Benet's Abbey is a ruined abbey of the Order of Saint Benedict situated on the River Bure within The Broads in Norfolk England. It is also known as St Benet's at Holme or Hulme. St Benet's, according to abbey tradition, was founded on the site of a ninth-century monastery where the hermit Suneman was martyred by the Danes. About the end of the tenth century it was rebuilt by one Wulfric. A generation later, c. 1022, its estates of Horning, Ludham and Neatishead were confirmed by King Canute. Other early benefactors included Edith Swannesha, concubine to Harold II, and Earl Ralf II of East Anglia. In 1065 the abbey established a cell at Rumburgh Priory in Suffolk. At the time of the Norman Conquest Harold Godwinson put the abbot of St Benet's, Aelfwold, in charge of defending the coast against invasion. After the Conquest, Aelfwold fled to Denmark, and the abbey's estates suffered encroachments by neighbouring landowners. The site was enclosed by a wall with battlements in 1327. Sir John Fastolf, the inspiration for Shakespeare's Falstaff, was buried here in December 1459, next to his wife Millicent in a new aisle built by Fastolf on the South side of the abbey church. St Benet's
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    147
    Bachkovo Monastery

    Bachkovo Monastery

    The Bachkovo Monastery (Bulgarian: Бачковски манастир, Bachkovski manastir, Georgian: პეტრიწონის მონასტერი, Petritsonis Monasteri), archaically the Petritsoni Monastery or Monastery of the Mother of God Petritzonitissa in Bulgaria is an important monument of Christian architecture and one of the largest and oldest Eastern Orthodox monasteries in Europe. It is located on the right bank of the Chepelare River, 189 km from Sofia and 10 km south of Asenovgrad, and is directly subordinate to the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. The monastery is known and appreciated for the unique combination of Byzantine, Georgian and Bulgarian culture, united by the common faith. The monastery was founded in 1083 by Prince Gregory Pakourianos, a prominent statesman and military commander in the Byzantine service, as a Byzantine Iberian Orthodox monastery. He set up a seminary for the youth at the monastery. The curriculum in the first place included religion, as well as mathematics, history and music. In the 13th century, Byzantine Iberian Monks of the Petritsioni (Bachkovo) Monastery lost the domination over the monastery, but their traditions were preserved until the beginning of 14th
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    148
    Cluny Abbey

    Cluny Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Cluny Abbey (or Cluni, or Clugny, French pronunciation: [klyˈni]) is a Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France. It was built in the Romanesque style, with three churches built in succession from the 10th to the early 12th centuries. Cluny was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910. He nominated Berno as the first Abbot of Cluny, subject only to Pope Sergius III. The Abbey was notable for its stricter adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict and the place where the Benedictine Order was formed, whereby Cluny became acknowledged as the leader of western monasticism. The establishment of the Benedictine order was a keystone to the stability of European society that was achieved in the 11th century. In 1790 during the French Revolution, the abbey was sacked and mostly destroyed. Only a small part of the original remains. Dating around 1334, the abbots of Cluny had a townhouse in Paris known as the Hôtel de Cluny, which has been a public museum since 1833. Apart from the name, it no longer possesses anything originally connected with Cluny. In 910, William I, Duke of Aquitaine "the Pious", and Count of Auvergne, founded the Benedictine abbey of Cluny on a modest
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    149
    Dionysiou monastery

    Dionysiou monastery

    Dionysiou monastery (Greek: Μονή Διονυσίου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece in southwest part of Athos peninsula. The monastery ranks fifth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. It is one of the twenty self-governing monasteries in Athos, and it was dedicated to John the Baptist. The monastery was founded in the 14th century by saint Denys de Korisos, and it was named after him. The library of the monastery housed 804 manuscripts, and more than 4,000 printed books. The oldest manuscripts came from the 11th century. Today the monastery has a community of around 50 monks.
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    150
    Downside Abbey

    Downside Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    The Basilica of St Gregory the Great at Downside, commonly known as Downside Abbey, is a Catholic Benedictine monastery and the Senior House of the English Benedictine Congregation. One of its main apostolates is a school for children aged nine to eighteen. Its graduates are known as Old Gregorians. Both monastery and school are located at between Westfield and Shepton Mallet in Somerset, south west England. The community was founded at Douai, Flanders, then in the Spanish Netherlands, in 1605, under the patronage of St. Gregory the Great (who had sent St Augustine to England in 597). The founder was Saint John Roberts, who became the first prior and established the new community with other English monks who had entered various monasteries in the Spanish Benedictine Congregation, notably that at Valladolid. In 1611 Dom Philip de Caverel, abbot of St. Vaast's Abbey at Arras, built and endowed a monastery for the community. The Priory of St. Gregory's, Douai, was therefore the first English Benedictine house to renew conventual life after the Reformation. For nearly 200 years the monastery trained monks for the English mission and six of these men were beatified by Pope Pius XI in
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    151
    Edington Priory

    Edington Priory

    Edington Priory in Wiltshire, England, was founded by William Edington, the bishop of Winchester, in 1332 in his home village of Edington. The priory church was built between 1352 and 1361. What was originally a college for priests later became a monastery for Augustinian canons. The Catholic Encyclopedia claims that it was granted by Edward the Black Prince to the Brothers of Penitence. The first rector, brought from Ashridge Priory, was John de Aylesbury, the last John Ryve. Edward VI granted the property to William Paulet, Baron St John; by the 19th century it belonged to the Watson-Taylor family. During Jack Cade's rebellion in 1450, William Ayscough, Bishop of Salisbury and confessor to Henry VI, was forced to flee Salisbury. Seeking refuge in the church at Edington, he was discovered on June 29, dragged from the high altar during mass and murdered in the fields outside the church. The church still stands today, a good example of the transition between the decorated and perpendicular style of church-building. It contains the burial monuments of several local notables, including tombs removed from St Giles at Imber during the early 1950s - following the evacuation of the
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    152
    Esphigmenou Monastery

    Esphigmenou Monastery

    Esphigmenou monastery (Greek: Μονή Εσφιγμένου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery in the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to the Ascension of Christ. It is built next to the sea at the northern part of the Athonite peninsula. Located near the Hilandar monastery, it is the northernmost of all Athonite monasteries. The current monastery dates back to the 10th century, while tradition holds that the site had been used as a monastery since as early as the 5th century. Esphigmenou ranks eighteenth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries and has since the 1970s been a source of controversy due to conflict with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. It currently holds a brotherhood of approximately 115 monks, which makes Esphigmenou the most populous monastery in Athos. The monastery's name translates to Greek literally as tightened. There exist conflicting traditions regarding the naming of the monastery. One attributes the name to the fact that the monastery is built on a stretch of land, tightened by three surrounding hills and the sea. Byzantine emperor John Komnenos in his book Proskynetarion tou Agiou Orous tou Athonos (Greek: Προσκυνητάριον του Αγίου
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    153
    Gröningen Priory

    Gröningen Priory

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Gröningen Priory (Kloster Gröningen) was a house of the Benedictine Order located west of Gröningen in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany. The monastery was founded in 936 from Corvey Abbey, of which it was a priory, on initiative of Saxon Count Siegfried of Merseburg and his second wife Guthia (Jutta) upon the death of King Henry I. It became part of the Bishopric of Halberstadt and was finally dissolved in 1550 in the course of the Protestant Reformation. A building of particular interest is the monastery church of Saint Vitus, set on a slight eminence. It was dedicated in 940 by Abbot Flockmar (Volkmar) of Corvey and about 1200 re-built in the style of Hirsau Abbey as a Romanesque basilica with three aisles and a number of features of architectural interest. Of particular note is the very unusual octagonal crossing tower and the relief of Christ Pantocrator on a balustrade from the 12th century, a copy whose original is kept at the sculpture collection of the Bode Museum in Berlin.
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    154
    Netley Abbey

    Netley Abbey

    Netley Abbey is a ruined late medieval monastery in the village of Netley near Southampton in Hampshire, England. The abbey was founded in 1239 as a house for Roman Catholic monks of the austere Cistercian order. Despite being a royal abbey, Netley was never rich, produced no influential scholars nor churchmen, and its nearly 300-year history was quiet. The monks were best known to their neighbours for the generous hospitality they offered to travellers on land and sea. In 1536, Netley Abbey was closed by Henry VIII of England during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the building was converted into a mansion by William Paulet, a wealthy Tudor politician. The abbey was used as a country house until the beginning of the eighteenth century, after which it was abandoned and partially demolished for building materials. Subsequently the ruins became a tourist attraction, and provided inspiration to poets and artists of the Romantic movement. In the early twentieth century the site was given to the nation, and it is now a Scheduled Ancient Monument, cared for by English Heritage. The extensive remains consist of the church, cloister buildings, abbot's house, and fragments of the
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    155
    St. Vitus' Abbey on the Rott

    St. Vitus' Abbey on the Rott

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    St. Vitus' Abbey on the Rott (Kloster Sankt Veit an der Rott) was a Benedictine monastery in the municipality of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit in the district of Mühldorf in Bavaria, Germany. It was founded in 1121 by the nobleman Dietmar of Lungau, and dissolved during the secularisation of Bavaria in 1802. The premises were given at first to the Damenstift of St. Anna in Munich, but in 1829 came into the possession of the Saxon Baron Maximilian von Speck-Sternburg and then in 1858 were sold to Count Maximilian von Montgelas. Formerly in the diocese of Salzburg, the abbey was a member of the Benedictine Salzburg Congregation from 1641 until its dissolution.
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    156
    Zaikonospassky monastery

    Zaikonospassky monastery

    The Zaikonospassky monastery (Заиконоспасский монастырь in Russian) was a monastery in Kitai-gorod, Moscow, just one block away from the Kremlin. It was founded in 1600 by Boris Godunov. At first called "Saviour the Old", the cloister gradually acquired its present quaint name which alludes to its location and means "the Saviour behind the icon shops". Between the late 17th to the early 19th century, the Zaikonospassky monastery was one of the enlightenment centers of Russia. Between 1687 and 1814, it was home to the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, Russia's first secondary education establishment. Today's architectural ensemble includes the Saviour Cathedral (originally constructed in 1660-1661; rebuilt in 1717–1720 and 1742) and several 17th-century chambers as well former school building which dates to 1822. The Zaikonospassky monastery was closed after the October Revolution and later reopened as an institute of archives. There is a memorial plaque in honor of Mikhail Lomonosov, who was once a student at this cloister.
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    157
    Alexander Nevsky Monastery

    Alexander Nevsky Monastery

    Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in St. Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about 12 miles away from that site. The monastery was founded also to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky, patron of the newly-founded Russian capital; however, the massive silver sarcophagus of St. Alexander Nevsky was relocated during Soviet times to the State Hermitage Museum where it remains (without the relics) today. In 1797, the monastery was raised to the rank of lavra, making it only the third lavra in the Russian Church, in which that designation had previously been bestowed only upon Kiev Monastery of the Caves and the Trinity Monastery of St Sergius. The monastery grounds contain two baroque churches, designed by father and son Trezzini and built in 1717–22 and 1742–50, respectively; a majestic Neoclassical cathedral, built in 1778–90 to a design by Ivan Starov and consecrated to the Holy Trinity; and numerous structures of lesser importance. It also
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    158
    Ascension Convent

    Ascension Convent

    Ascension Convent, known as the Starodevichy Convent or Old Maiden's until 1817 (Russian: Voznesensky monastery, Вознесенский монастырь), was a female cloister in the Moscow Kremlin which contained the burials of grand princesses, tsarinas, and other noble ladies from the Muscovite royal court. It is believed that Ascension Convent was founded in 1389 next to the Saviour Gates of the Kremlin by Dmitry Donskoy's widow, Eudoxia Dmitriyevna, who would take the veil there. The foundation stone for the cathedral was laid in 1407, just before her death. Eight years later, the cathedral was gutted by fire and then rebuilt in 1467 by princess Maria of Borovsk, wife of Vasili II of Russia. Sixteen years later the convent was again damaged by fire and then restored in 1518-1519 to a design by Aloisio the New. This church was completely rebuilt in 1587-1588, when a new five-domed structure, mirroring the nearby Archangel Cathedral, was erected. It was a major monument to embody the conservative architectural approach of Boris Godunov's circle (illustrated, to the right). Among those buried in the cathedral vault were Sophia Vitovtovna (wife of Vasili I), Sophia Paleologue (wife of Ivan III),
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    159
    Basingwerk Abbey

    Basingwerk Abbey

    Basingwerk Abbey (Welsh: Abaty Dinas Basing) is the ruin of an abbey near Holywell, Flintshire, Wales, in the care of Cadw (Welsh Heritage). The abbey was founded in 1132 by Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester, who brought Benedictine monks from Savigny Abbey in southern Normandy. In 1147, the abbey became part of the Cistercian Order and therefore a daughter house of Buildwas Abbey in Shropshire. Earlier on, they had received the manor of West Kirby from the Earls of Chester. In 1157, the abbey was given the manor of Glossop in Derbyshire by King Henry II. The hilltop Monks' Road and the Abbot's Chair in Glossop is a reminder of the monks' efforts to administer their possession. They gained a market charter for Glossop in 1290, and one for Charlesworth in 1328. In the 13th century, the abbey was under the patronage of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd, and his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn gave St Winefride's Well to the abbey. The monks harnessed the power of the Holywell stream to run a corn mill and to treat the wool from their sheep. In 1433, the monks leased all of Glossopdale, Derbyshire, to the Talbot family, later Earls of Shrewsbury. In 1536, abbey life came to an end
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    160
    Battle Abbey

    Battle Abbey

    Battle Abbey is a partially ruined abbey complex in the small town of Battle in East Sussex, England. The abbey was built on the scene of the Battle of Hastings and dedicated to St. Martin. The Grade I listed site is now operated by English Heritage as 1066 Battle of Hastings, Abbey and Battlefield, which includes the abbey buildings and ruins, a visitor centre with a film and exhibition about the battle, audio tours of the battlefield site, and the monks' gatehouse with recovered artefacts. The visitor centre includes a children's discovery room and a café, and there is an outdoor themed playground. In 1070 Pope Alexander II ordered the Normans to do penance for killing so many people during their conquest of England. So William the Conqueror vowed to build an abbey where the Battle of Hastings had taken place, with the high altar of its church on the supposed spot where King Harold fell in that battle on Saturday, 14 October 1066. He did start building it, dedicating it to St. Martin, sometimes known as "the Apostle of the Gauls," though William died before it was completed. Its church was finished in about 1094 and consecrated during the reign of his son William Rufus. William
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    161
    Castle Acre Priory

    Castle Acre Priory

    Castle Acre Priory, in the village of Castle Acre, Norfolk, England, is thought to have been founded in 1089 by William de Warenne the son the 1st Earl of Surrey who had founded England's first Cluniac priory at Lewes in 1077. The order originated from Burgundy. Originally the priory was sited within the walls of Castle Acre Castle, but this proved too small and inconvenient for the monks, hence the priory was relocated to the present site in the castle grounds about one year later. The church itself was consecrated sometime between 1146 and 1148. While the Warenne family may have been the main benefactors of the priory, others also gave generously to it, for example Scolland, steward of Alan Earl of Richmond, who was in fact buried there. Like other Cluniac houses, Castle Acre Priory was directly subject to the authority of the Abbot of Cluny; for practical reasons, however, the Prior of Lewes was usually instructed to act for the abbot when any problems arose at Castle Acre. However, this obedience owed to a foreign abbot caused difficulties when the kings of England were at odds with France and/or Burgundy. In the mid 14th century the English Cluniacs settled this difficulty by
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    162
    Ewenny Priory

    Ewenny Priory

    Ewenny Priory, in Ewenny in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, was a monastery of the Benedictine order, founded in the 12th century. The building was unusual in having military-style defences. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the priory, like many of its kind, was converted into a private house. However, the priory church is still in use, and restoration work has recently been carried out by Cadw.
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    163
    Sopwell Priory

    Sopwell Priory

    Sopwell Priory (also known as Sopwell Nunnery) was built c. 1140 in Hertfordshire, England by the Benedictine abbot of St Albans Abbey, Geoffrey de Gorham. It was founded as the Priory of St Mary of Sopwell and was a cell of St Albans Abbey. Juliana Berners was the prioress during the 15th century, believed to be the author of the Boke of St Albans published in 1486. Following the dissolution of St Albans Abbey in 1539, Sopwell Priory was bought by Sir Richard Lee (a military engineer and commander of King Henry VIII). He tore the priory down and built a house which he named Lee Hall on the site. The house was later renamed Sopwell House, the ruins of which remain today along Cottonmill Lane near the centre of St Albans.
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    164
    Susteren Abbey

    Susteren Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Susteren Abbey (Abdij van Susteren) is a former Benedictine abbey at Susteren near Roermond, Limburg, Netherlands founded in the 8th century. The former abbey church is now St. Amelberga Basilica. Early in 714 Pepin of Herstal and his wife Plectrude sent Saint Willibrord letters of conveyance and protection for the monastery, permitting free election of abbots. The Benedictine foundation served as a refuge for the missionaries working in Friesia and the Netherlands. It was destroyed by the Vikings in 882 and refounded as a house of secular canonesses, whose first abbess was Saint Amelberga of Susteren, who died about 900. The Lotharingian King Zwentibold, a benefactor of the abbey and either the father or the brother of the abbesses Benedicta and Cecilia, was buried (according to a later tradition) in Susteren Abbey in about 900. Also buried there are Saint Wastrada, who died in the mid-8th century, and Saint Gregory of Utrecht (d. about 775/777), a companion of Saint Boniface in his missions to Friesia, and later abbot of the Martinsstift in Utrecht. The abbey was suppressed at the end of the 18th century when the French Revolution spilled over into the Low Countries. The church
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    165
    Tintern Abbey

    Tintern Abbey

    Tintern Abbey was a Cistercian abbey located on the Hook peninsula, County Wexford, Ireland. The Abbey – which is today in ruins, some of which have been restored – was founded in c1200 by William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, as the result of a vow he had made when his boat was caught in a storm nearby. Once established, the abbey was colonised by monks from the Cistercian abbey at Tintern in Monmouthshire, Wales, of which Marshall was also patron. To distinguish the two, the mother house in Wales was sometimes known as 'Tintern Major' and its daughter abbey in Ireland as 'Tintern de Voto' (Tintern of the vow). After the Dissolution of the Monasteries the abbey and its grounds were granted to Anthony Colclough of Staffordshire, a soldier of Henry VIII. The final member of the Colclough family to reside at Tintern was Lucey Marie Biddulph Colclough who donated the abbey to the nation. Considerable research and restoration has since taken place.
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    166
    Valaam Monastery

    Valaam Monastery

    The Valaam Monastery, or Valamo Monastery is a stauropegic Orthodox monastery in Russian Karelia, located on Valaam, the largest island in Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe. It is not clear when the monastery was founded. As the cloister is not mentioned in documents before the 16th century, different dates - from 10th to 15th centuries - have been expounded. According to one tradition, the monastery was founded by a 10th century Greek monk, Sergius, and his Karelian companion, Herman. Heikki Kirkinen inclines to date the foundation of the monastery to the 12th century. Contemporary historians consider even this date too early. According to the scholarly consensus, the monastery was founded at some point towards the end of the 14th century. John H. Lind and Michael C. Paul date the founding to between 1389 and 1393 based on various sources, including the "Tale of the Valaamo Monastery," a sixteenth century manuscript, which has the monstery founded during the archiepiscopate of Ioann II of Novgorod. Whatever the truth may be, the Valaam monastery was a northern outpost of Eastern Orthodoxy against the heathens and, later, a western outpost against Catholic Christianity from
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    167
    Žitomislić Monastery

    Žitomislić Monastery

    Žitomislić (Serbian: Житомислић) is а monastery of the Serb Orthodox Church located near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its church is dedicated to the Annunciation of the Mother of God. In 1566 the Ottoman Empire, as represented by the kadija (qadi) in Nevesinje, granted the Miloradović-Hrabren family a permit to build monastery at Žitomislić over the ruins of an older church. The monastery took more than forty years to complete with the first reference to monks at Žitomislić in 1606. The monastery boasted a highly artistic iconostasis, and housed a scriptorium of considerable activity and renown in its time. At the height of its existence the monastery was supported by large land holdings worked by the monks themselves. Early in the 19th century, the prior Simeon Miljković, took on improvements to the monastery that included guest quarters, local water, and a new vineyard. A seminary was opened in 1858. On June 26, 1941 a detachment of Croat fascists (Ustaše) tortured and killed the monks of Žitomislić and threw their bodies into a pit. The buildings were plundered; the church was razed and the rest of the compound burnt to the ground. The monastery was rebuilt after the war and
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    168
    Anglesey Abbey

    Anglesey Abbey

    Anglesey Abbey is a country house, formerly a priory, in the village of Lode, 5+⁄2 miles (8.9 km) northeast of Cambridge, England. The house and its grounds are owned by the National Trust and are open to the public as part of the Anglesey Abbey, Garden & Lode Mill property, although some parts remain the private home of the Fairhaven family. The 98 acres (400,000 m²) of landscaped grounds are divided into a number of walks and gardens, with classical statuary, topiary and flowerbeds. The grounds were laid out in an 18th-century style by the estate's last private owner, the 1st Baron Fairhaven, in the 1930s. A large pool, the Quarry Pool, is believed to be the site of a 19th-century coprolite mine. Lode Water Mill, dating from the 18th century was restored to working condition in 1982 and now sells flour to visitors. The 1st Lord Fairhaven also improved the house and decorated its interior with a valuable collection of furniture, pictures and objets d'art. A community of Augustinian canons built a priory here, known as Anglesea or Anglesey Priory, some time during the reign of Henry I (i.e., between 1100 and 1135), and acquired extra land from the nearby village of Bottisham in
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    169
    Bath Abbey

    Bath Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    The Abbey Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Bath, commonly known as Bath Abbey, is an Anglican parish church and a former Benedictine monastery in Bath, Somerset, England. Founded in the 7th century, Bath Abbey was reorganised in the 10th century and rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries; major restoration work was carried out by Sir George Gilbert Scott in the 1860s. It is one of the largest examples of Perpendicular Gothic architecture in the West Country. The church is cruciform in plan, and is able to seat 1200. An active place of worship, with hundreds of congregation members and hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, it is used for religious services, secular civic ceremonies, concerts and lectures. The choir performs in the abbey and elsewhere. There is a heritage museum in the vaults. The abbey is a Grade I listed building, particularly noted for its fan vaulting. It contains war memorials for the local population and monuments to several notable people, in the form of wall and floor plaques and commemorative stained glass. The church has two organs and a peal of ten bells. The west front includes sculptures of angels climbing to heaven on two stone ladders. In
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    170
    Much Wenlock Priory

    Much Wenlock Priory

    Wenlock Priory, or St Milburga's Priory, is a ruined 12th century monastery, located in Much Wenlock, Shropshire, at grid reference SJ625001. The foundation was a part of the Cluniac order, which was refounded in 1079 and 1082, on the site of an earlier 7th century monastery, by Roger de Montgomery. It is thought to be the final resting place of Saint Milburga, whose bones were reputedly discovered during restoration work in 1101. Today, Wenlock Priory is in the care of English Heritage and is used mostly for recreational purposes. The grounds have a collection of topiary. Merewalh, King of the Magonsaete founded the original Anglo-Saxon monastery here circa 680 and Merewalh's daughter quickly became its abbess, and was later canonised. After her death circa 727, however, little is historically known of the monastery until the Norman Conquest. It is known that the priory was inhabited by monks until after the Norman conquest. In the 12th century, the abbey was replaced by a Cluniac priory for men. Following the reformation of the monastery, in the early fourteenth century, the priory church was lavishly and completely rebuilt, and as at today, considerable remains are left of the
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    171
    Erdington Abbey

    Erdington Abbey

    Erdington Abbey Church (grid reference SP112922) on Sutton Road, Erdington, Birmingham, England, is the more usual name of the grade II listed church of Saints Thomas and Edmund of Canterbury. It is the church of a Roman Catholic parish in the Archdiocese of Birmingham served by the Redemptorists. The abbey itself was the adjacent building, now Highclare School. In 1847 Father Heneage built a chapel in Erdington High Street, on the croft opposite the end of Station Lane. Before this priests from Oscott College had said mass in a house on the High Street, but Catholics in Erdington are mainly indebted to the Rev. Daniel H. Haigh, founder of the Church of SS Thomas & Edmund of Canterbury. He laid the foundation stone of the new church on 26 May 1848. The church was opened and consecrated by Bishop Ullathorne on 11 June 1850. The church is an example of the Gothic revival. The church was designed by Augustus Pugin well known for designing notable Roman Catholic buildings in Birmingham, such as Saint Chad's Cathedral and Oscott College The church was built by Charles Hansom, who built the steeple of the church 117 ft (36 m) high, which is also the length of the building. In 1876 Father
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    Inchmahome Priory

    Inchmahome Priory

    Inchmahome Priory is situated on Inchmahome ("Inch" meaning an island), the largest of three islands in the centre of Lake of Menteith, close to Aberfoyle, Scotland. The name "Inchmahome" comes from the Gaelic Innis MoCholmaig, meaning Island of St Colmaig. The priory was founded in 1238 by the Earl of Menteith, Walter Comyn, for a small community of the Augustinian order (the Black Canons). The Comyn family were one of the most powerful in Scotland at the time, and had an imposing country house on Inch Talla, one of the other islands on the Lake of Menteith. There is some evidence that there was a church on the island before the priory was established. The priory has a long history of receiving many notable guests. King Robert the Bruce visited three times: in 1306, 1308 and 1310. His visits were likely politically motived, as the first prior had sworn allegiance to Edward I, the English king. In 1358 the future King Robert II also stayed at the priory. In 1547 the priory served as a refuge for Queen Mary, aged four, hidden here for a few weeks following the disastrous defeat of the Scots army at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh during the Rough Wooing. The decline of the monastic
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    173
    Mellifont Abbey

    Mellifont Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Mellifont Abbey (Irish: An Mhainistir Mhór, literally "the big abbey"), located in County Louth, was the first Cistercian abbey to be built in Ireland. Founded in 1142 on the orders of Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, Mellifont Abbey sits on the banks of the River Mattock, some ten km (6 miles) north-west of Drogheda. By 1170, Mellifont had one hundred monks and three hundred lay brothers. The Abbey became the model for other Cistercian abbeys built in Ireland, with its formal style of architecture imported from the abbeys of the same order in France; it was the main abbey in Ireland until it was closed in 1539, when it became a fortified house. An important synod was held in Mellifont in 1152 as recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters, which states that the synod was attended by bishops and kings along with the papal legate John Paparo (Saint Malachy having died some ten years beforehand). The consecration of the church took place in 1157 and asserted Church authority by banishing the King of Meath, Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn. Various kings gave donations to assist this foundation: Muirchertach Ua Lochlainn, provincial king of Ulster, gave cattle, some gold and also a local
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    174
    Šišatovac monastery

    Šišatovac monastery

    The Šišatovac Monastery (Serbian: Манастир Шишатовац / Manastir Šišatovac) is a Serb Orthodox monastery situated on the Fruška Gora mountain in the northern Serbia, in the province of Vojvodina. The foundation of the monastery is ascribed to the refugee monks from the Serbian monastery of Žiča. The first reliable facts illustrating the life of the monastery date back to the mid 16th century. Šišatovac Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.
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    Sokolski Monastery

    Sokolski Monastery

    The Sokolski Monastery is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery founded in 1833 and named after its founder Yosif Sokolski. It is located 15 km southwest of Gabrovo on the northern slopes of the Balkan Mountains in the Bulgarka Nature Park and is close to the Sokolovo cave. Originally, a small wooden church was built in 1833 and the frescoes were finished a year later. Hristo Tsokev, a Gabrovo-born artist, donated the church icon, which represents the Virgin Mary and Christ and is considered to be miraculous. In 1862, Father Paul Zograf and his son Nikola from the village of Shipka decorated the church with frescoes. The monastery has a big yard surrounded by residential and utility buildings. In the centre of the yard, in 1865 the master Kolyu Ficheto constructed a big stone fountain with eight taps. The whole monastery was built during the Bulgarian National Revival with the strong support of the people of Gabrovo and the local villages. The monastery played an important role during the April Uprising. In this monastery, the leader Tsanko Dyustabanov formed a group of volunteers for the resistance. In a short period of time during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 the monastery was a
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    176
    Vysokopetrovsky Monastery

    Vysokopetrovsky Monastery

    Vysokopetrovsky Monastery (Russian: Высокопетровский монастырь, English: High Monastery of St Peter) is a Russian Orthodox monastery in the Bely Gorod of Moscow commanding a hill whence Petrovka Street descends towards the Kremlin. The monastery is believed to have been founded in the 1320s by Saint Peter of Moscow, the first Russian metropolitan to move his see in Moscow. The cloister gave its name to adjacent Petrovka Street, one of the streets radiating from Red Square. In the late 17th century, the Naryshkin boyars, maternal relatives of Peter the Great, turned the monastery into their family burial place. They had it reconstructed in the Naryshkin Baroque style of architecture associated with their name. In the mid-18th century, several subsidiary structures were added, conceivably to designs by Dmitry Ukhtomsky or Ivan Fyodorovich Michurin. The katholikon, dedicated to St Peter of Moscow, was long regarded as a typical monument of the Naryshkin style and dated to 1692. In the 1970s the detailed studies of sources and excavations of the site revealed that the katholikon had been actually built in 1514-1517 by Aloisio the New. In 1926 the monastery was closed. In 1992 several
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    177
    Maredsous Abbey

    Maredsous Abbey

    Maredsous Abbey is a Benedictine monastery at Denée near Namur in Belgium. It is a member of the Annunciation Congregation of the Benedictine Confederation. It was founded on 15 November 1872 by Beuron Abbey in Germany, the founder of many religious houses, at the instigation of Hildebrand de Hemptinne, a Belgian monk at Beuron and later abbot of Maredsous. The foundation was supported financially by the Desclée family, who paid for the design and construction of the spectacular buildings, which are the masterwork of the architect Jean-Baptiste de Béthune (1831–1894), leader of the neo-gothic style in Belgium. The overall plan is based on the 13th century Cistercian abbey of Villers at Villers-la-Ville in Walloon Brabant. The frescos however were undertaken by the art school of the mother-house at Beuron, much against the will of Béthune and Desclée, who dismissed the Beuron style as "Assyrian-Bavarian". Construction was finished in 1892. Maredsous has either founded, or has been instrumental in the foundation of, a number of other Benedictine houses: St Anselm in Rome (1893); abbeys in Brazil (1895); St-Andries in Zevenkerken, Bruges (1899); Keizersberg Abbey in Leuven (1899);
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    178
    Tewkesbury Abbey

    Tewkesbury Abbey

    The Abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Tewkesbury, in the English county of Gloucestershire, is the second largest parish church in the country and a former Benedictine monastery. It is one of the finest examples of Norman architecture in Britain, and has probably the largest Romanesque crossing tower in Europe. The Chronicle of Tewkesbury records that the first Christian worship was brought to the area by Theoc, a missionary from Northumbria, who built his cell in the mid-7th century near a gravel spit where the Severn and Avon rivers join together. The cell was succeeded by a monastery in 715, but nothing remaining of it has been identified. In the 10th century the religious foundation at Tewkesbury became a priory subordinate to the Benedictine Cranbourne Abbey in Dorset. In 1087, William the Conqueror gave the manor of Tewkesbury to his cousin, Robert Fitzhamon, who, with Giraldus, Abbot of Cranbourne, founded the present abbey in 1092. Building of the present Abbey church did not start until 1102, employing Caen stone imported from Normandy and floated up the Severn. Robert Fitzhamon was wounded at Falaise in Normandy in 1105 and died two years later, but his son-in-law,
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    179
    Troyan Monastery

    Troyan Monastery

    The Monastery of the Dormition of the Most Holy Mother of God (Bulgarian: Троянски манастир „Успение Богородично“) or, as it is more commonly called, the Troyan Monastery is the third largest monastery in Bulgaria. It is located in the northern part of the country in the Balkan mountains and was founded no later than the end of the 16th century. The monastery is situated on the banks of the Cherni Osam near Oreshak, a village 10 km from Troyan in Lovech Province, and is a popular tourist destination. The main church of the monastery was reconstructed near the end of Ottoman rule during the Bulgarian National Revival period by a master-builder called Konstantin in 1835. The ornate interior and exterior of the church were painted between 1847 and 1849 by Zahari Zograph, a popular Bulgarian painter of the time, who also painted the central church of the Rila Monastery, the largest monastery in Bulgaria. Many of the "moral and social experiments" of art at the time such as Doomsday and Wheel of Life were reproduced at Troyan. One highly controversial move by Zograph was to paint his image around one of the windows in the back of the church. The iconostasis in the central church is a
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    180
    Abbey of Trois-Fontaines

    Abbey of Trois-Fontaines

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Trois-Fontaines Abbey (French: Abbaye de Sainte-Marie des Trois-Fontaines) was a Cistercian abbey in the present commune of Trois-Fontaines-l'Abbaye in the French department of Marne, in the historic province of Champagne. It was the first daughter-house founded by Clairvaux Abbey, one of the four Cistercian primary abbeys, and was established north of the head of navigation of the Marne at Saint-Dizier by Bernard of Clairvaux in 1118, on isolated woodland given by Hugh de Vitry, which the monks drained. It was a large community, comprising at its height some 130 monks. The abbey was very active in its first century or so in the settlement of daughter houses: The chronicler Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, who covered the years 1227 to 1241, was a monk here. The abbey's isolated site protected it from armed attack. It fell however into the hands of commendatory abbots in 1536. Between 1716 and 1741, the abbot in commendam was Pierre Guérin de Tencin, French ambassador in Rome, who was made a cardinal in 1739. He rebuilt it, making good the damage caused by a fire in 1703. In 1790 it was sold off, and the premises largely demolished for the sake of the building materials. The monumental
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    181
    Holyrood Abbey

    Holyrood Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Holyrood Abbey is a ruined abbey of the Canons Regular in Edinburgh, Scotland. The abbey was founded in 1128 by King David I of Scotland. During the 15th century, the abbey guesthouse was developed into a royal residence, and after the Scottish Reformation the Palace of Holyroodhouse was expanded further. The abbey church was used as a parish church until the 17th century, and has been ruined since the 18th century. The remaining walls of the abbey lie adjacent to the palace, at the eastern end of Edinburgh's Royal Mile. The site of the abbey is protected as a scheduled monument. Rood is an old word for a type of Christian cross, bearing a lower cross-bar as well as the main upper cross-bar. It therefore means the cross which Jesus Christ was crucified upon; thus the name Holyrood is equivalent to "Holy Cross." Legend relates that in 1127, while King David I was hunting in the forests to the east of Edinburgh during the Feast of the Cross, he was thrown from his horse after it had been startled by a hart. According to variations of the story, the king was saved from being gored by the charging animal when it was startled either by the miraculous appearance of a holy cross
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    182
    Paromeos Monastery

    Paromeos Monastery

    The Paromeos Monastery, also known as Baramos Monastery, is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located in Wadi El Natrun (the Nitrian Desert), Beheira Governorate, Egypt. It is the most northern monastery among the four current monasteries of Scetes, about 9 km northeast of the Monastery of Saint Pishoy. The name Paromeos is derived from the Coptic Pa-Romeos, which means that of the Romans. Ecclesiastically, the monastery is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and carries her name. The Paromeos Monastery is probably the oldest among the four existing monasteries of Scetes. It was founded c. 335 A.D. by Saint Macarius the Great. The name Pa-Romeos or that of the Romans may refer to Saints Maximus and Domitius, children of the Roman Emperor Valentinian I, who had their cell at the place of the modern monastery. According to Coptic tradition, the two saints went to Scetes during the time of Saint Macarius the Great, who tried in vain to dissuade them from staying. Nevertheless, they stayed and attained perfection before dying at a young age. A year after their departure, Saint Macarius the Great consecrated their cell by building a chapel, and told the monks "Call this place the Cell of the
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    183
    Sera Monastery

    Sera Monastery

    • Religion: Tibetan Buddhism
    Sera Monastery (Tibetan: སེ་ར་, Wylie: Se-ra; Chinese: 色拉寺; pinyin: Sèlā Sì) is one of the 'great three' Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet, located 1.25 miles (2.01 km) north of Lhasa. The other two are Ganden Monastery and Drepung Monastery. The origin of the name 'Sera' is attributed to a fact that the site where the monastery was built was surrounded by wild roses (se ra in Tibetan language) in bloom. The original Sera monastery is located in Lhasa, Tibet, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north of the Jokang and is responsible for some 19 hermitages, including four nunneries, which are all located in the foot hills north of Lhasa. The Sera Monastery, as a complex of structures with the Great Assembly Hall and three colleges, was founded in 1419 by Jamchen Chojey of Sakya Yeshe of Zel Gungtang (1355–1435), a disciple of Tsongkhapa. During the 1959 revolt in Lhasa, Sera monastery suffered severe damage, with its colleges destroyed and hundreds of monks killed. After the Dalai Lama took asylum in India, many of the monks of the Sera Monastery who survived the attack moved to Bylakuppe in Mysore, India. After initial tribulations, they established a parallel Sera Monastery with
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    184
    Titchfield Abbey

    Titchfield Abbey

    • Religious order: Premonstratensian
    Titchfield Abbey is a medieval abbey and later country house, located in the village of Titchfield near Fareham in Hampshire, England. The abbey was founded in 1222 for Premonstratensian canons, an austere order of priests. The abbey was a minor house of its order, and became neither wealthy nor influential during its three centuries of monastic life; the inhabitants were devoted to scholarship, as shown by their very impressive library. Titchfield was closed in 1537 by Henry VIII of England during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the building was converted into a mansion by Thomas Wriothesley, a powerful courtier. Later in the sixteenth century the abbey was home to Henry Wriothesley, who was a patron of William Shakespeare. In 1781 the abbey was abandoned and partially demolished to create a romantic ruin. The remains were purchased by the government in the early twentieth century and are now a Scheduled Ancient Monument under the care of English Heritage. The builder of the abbey was Bishop Peter des Roches of Winchester, a powerful politician, churchman and government official who founded several religious houses, including Netley Abbey (1236), also in Hampshire,
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    185
    Zograf Monastery

    Zograf Monastery

    • Religion: Bulgarian Orthodox Church
    The Saint George the Zograf Monastery or Zograf Monastery (Bulgarian: Зографски манастир; Greek: Μονή Ζωγράφου, Moní Zográphou) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos (the "Holy Mountain") in Greece. It was founded in the late 9th or early 10th century by three Bulgarians from Ohrid and is regarded as the historical Bulgarian monastery on Mount Athos, and is traditionally inhabited by Bulgarian Orthodox monks. The monastery is named after the 13th or 14th century icon of Saint George, known as Saint George the Zograf (Светѝ Гео̀рги Зогра̀ф). The name of the latter comes from the belief that the icon mysteriously painted itself on the prepared board (zograf(os) in Greek means "painter" (from zoe="life" and grafos="scribe"). The earliest written evidence of the monastery's existence dates from 980.During the Middle Ages, the monastery was generously supported by the Bulgarian rulers, such as Ivan Asen II and Ivan Alexander, since it was a matter of pride for the Bulgarian Orthodox Church to maintain a monastery on Athos. The Zograf Monastery has also received land endowments by Byzantine (the first donor being Leo VI the Wise), Serbian, and Romanian rulers. The Zograf
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    186
    Fontfroide Abbey

    Fontfroide Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Fontfroide Abbey or l'Abbaye Sainte-Marie de Fontfroide is a former Cistercian monastery in France, situated 15 kilometers south-west of Narbonne near to the Spanish border. It was founded in 1093 by the Viscount of Narbonne, but remained poor and obscure until in 1144 it affiliated itself to the Cistercian reform movement. Shortly afterwards the Count of Barcelona gave it the land in Spain that was to form the great Catalan monastery of Poblet, of which Fontfroide counts as the mother house, and in 1157 the Viscountess Ermengard of Narbonne granted it a great quantity of land locally, thus securing its wealth and status. The abbey fought together with Pope Innocent III against the heretical doctrine of the Cathars who lived in the region. It was dissolved in 1791 in the course of the French Revolution. It was re-founded in 1858 by monks from Sénanque Abbey. The community was driven out of France by French legal changes in 1901. The premises, which are of very great architectural interest, passed into private hands in 1908, when the artists Gustave and Madeleine Fayet d'Andoque bought it to protect the fabric of the buildings from an American collector of sculpture. They restored
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    187
    Bavanište monastery

    Bavanište monastery

    The Bavanište Monastery (Serbian: Манастир Баваниште or Manastir Bavanište) is a 15th century Serb Orthodox monastery located in Bavanište, Kovin in northern Serbia (Banat, Vojvodina). It was founded in the 15th century and eventually deserted when the Ottoman Turks advanced, subsequently conquering most Balkan states. It was destroyed in 1716. It was rebuilt in 1856-58. In 1997 the monastery was renovated and reinstituted as a working monastery. A healthy water spring exists in the monastery.
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    188
    Burtscheid Abbey

    Burtscheid Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Burtscheid Abbey (German: Abtei Burtscheid) was a house of the Benedictine Order, after 1220 a Cistercian nunnery, located at Burtscheid, near Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany. It was founded in 997 under Emperor Otto III. The first abbot, Gregory, who came to Burtscheid from Calabria, is sometimes said to have been the brother of Theophanu, Byzantine mother of the Emperor. He was buried beneath the altar after his death in 999, and his date of death, 4 November, was kept as a feast day until the dissolution of the abbey. In 1018 the Emperor Henry II endowed it with the surrounding territory. Also at about this time the monastery was raised to the status of an abbey, and the dedication was changed from Saints Nicholas and Apollinaris to Saints John the Baptist and Nicholas. In 1138, the abbey was made reichsfrei by Conrad III, being granted Imperial immediacy, the privilege of being subject only to the Holy Roman Emperor, rather than to an intermediate lord. The abbey was under the Vogtei (loosely "protectorship") of the Barony of Mérode until the abbey purchased its Vogtei from them, in 1649. In 1220, under Emperor Frederick II and his chancellor, Archbishop Engelbert of
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    189
    Margam Abbey

    Margam Abbey

    Margam Abbey was a Cistercian monastery, located in the village of Margam, a suburb of modern Port Talbot in Wales. The abbey was founded in 1147 as a daughter house of Clairvaux by Robert, Earl of Gloucester and was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The abbey was dissolved by King Henry VIII of England in 1536 and sold to Sir Rice Mansel. At this time, only 12 monks were living in the monastery. From the Mansel family the abbey eventually passed into their descendants in the female line, the Talbot family. In the 19th century, C R M Talbot constructed a mansion at Margam Castle which overlooks the abbey ruins. The nave of the abbey continued in use as the parish church, as it does to this day. Margam Abbey now consists of the intact nave and impressive surrounding ruins. Those ruins not belonging to the church are now owned by the County Council. These remains, including the unusually large twelve-sided chapter house, dating from the 13th century, stand within 840 acre (3.4 km²) Margam Country Park, close to Margam Castle. On a hill overlooking the abbey stand the ruins of an outlying monastery building, Capel Mair ar y Bryn ("the chapel of St Mary on the hill"). The purpose
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    3 votes
    190
    Beauvale Charterhouse

    Beauvale Charterhouse

    • Religious order: Carthusian
    Beauvale Charterhouse (also known as Beauvale Priory) was a Carthusian monastery in Beauvale, Nottinghamshire. It is a scheduled ancient monument. It was founded in 1343 by Nicholas de Cantelupe during the reign of Edward III in honour of the Blessed Trinity, for a prior and twelve monks. It was the third of nine houses of the Carthusian order established in England. The two earlier houses were established in Witham Friary and Hinton in Somerset. The others were London Charterhouse, St. Anne's near Coventry, Kingston on Hull and Mountgrace in Yorkshire, Eppworth and Shene. The annual value of this monastery was just under £200, the limit for the suppression of the lesser monasteries; but by paying the heavy fine of £166 13s. 4d. (£70,000 as of 2012), the monks obtained the doubtful privilege of deferring the day of their dissolution. This bargain was effected on 2 January 1537/38. The surrender of this house and of all its possessions in the counties of Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and Derbyshire, took place on 18 July 1539. It received the signatures of Thomas Woodcock (prior), and of seven other monks, John Langdale, William Welles, Alexander Lowthe, Edmund Garner, Robert
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    2 votes
    191
    Bromholm Priory

    Bromholm Priory

    • Religious order: Cluniac order
    Bromholm Priory was a Cluniac priory, situated in a coastal location near the village of Bacton, Norfolk, England Bromholm Priory, also known as Bacton Abbey, was founded in 1113 by William de Glanville, Lord of Bacton, and was originally subordinate to Castle Acre Priory until 1195 when it was exempted by Pope Celestine III. From this priory we have the Bromholm Psalter dated to the early fourteenth century. The priory was suppressed in 1536. All that now remains are the ruins of the gatehouse, Chapter House, and the northern transept of the Priory Church. It was an important object of pilgrimage as it claimed to possess a piece of the True Cross, mentioned as the 'holy cross of Bromeholme' in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale and William Langland's Vision of Piers Plowman. It was a benefice of the Paston family and is featured in their letters. In 1940 the base of the central tower of the priory church was modified to act as a pillbox in case of German invasion. Cockerell, Sydney Carlyle, Sir. Two East Anglian psalters at the Bodleian library. Oxford: Printed for the Roxburghe Club by J. Johnson, 1926. (Facsimile of Bolmholm Psalter)
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    2 votes
    192
    Grafschaft Abbey

    Grafschaft Abbey

    • Religious order: Sisters of Mercy of Saint Charles Borromeo
    Grafschaft Abbey (German: Kloster Grafschaft) is a community of the Sisters of Mercy of Saint Charles Borromeo, formerly a Benedictine monastery, in Schmallenberg in the Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The Benedictine monastery was founded in 1072 on a site at the foot of the Wilzenberg mountain, by Saint Anno, Archbishop of Cologne, whose statue still stands at the west gate. The monastery was dedicated between 1079 and 1089. The original buildings burned down in 1270. From 1729 the premises were gradually replaced by completely new buildings in the Rococo style; the rebuild was finished in 1742 and the new abbey church dedicated in 1747. The abbey was dissolved in 1804 as a consequence of secularisation. In 1827 the premises were bought by the Princes von Fürstenberg, but by that time the church was in such a bad condition that it had to be demolished, despite its high architectural quality. In 1947 the buildings were given to the Sisters of Mercy of Saint Charles Borromeo, who had been expelled from the order's former mother house Trebnitz Abbey, in Silesia. Grafschaft is now the mother house. This is a nursing order, and a large part of the premises is now used as a
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    2 votes
    193
    Inchcolm Abbey

    Inchcolm Abbey

    Inchcolm Abbey is a medieval abbey located on the island of Inchcolm in the Firth of Forth in Scotland. The Abbey, which is located at the centre of the island, was founded in the 12th century during the episcopate of Gregoir, Bishop of Dunkeld. Later tradition placed it back in the reign of King Alexander I of Scotland (1107–24), who probably had some involvement in the island. He was apparently washed ashore there after a shipwreck in 1123, and took shelter in a hermit's hovel. The Abbey was first used as a priory by Augustinian canons regular, becoming a full abbey in 1235. The island was attacked by the English from 1296 onwards, and the Abbey was abandoned after the Scottish Reformation in 1560. It has since been used for defensive purposes, as it is situated in a strategically important position in the middle of the Firth of Forth. A medieval inscription carved above the Abbey's entrance reads: Stet domus haec donec fluctus formica marinos ebibat, et totum testudo permabulet orbem 'May this house stand until an ant drains the flowing sea, and a tortoise walks around the whole world'. Inchcolm Abbey has the most complete surviving remains of any Scottish monastic house. The
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    2 votes
    194
    Kintsvisi Monastery

    Kintsvisi Monastery

    Kintsvisi Monastery (Georgian: ყინწვისი, Qinc'visi) is a Georgian Orthodox monastery in the Shida Kartli region, eastern Georgia, 10 kilometers from the town Kareli, on a forested slope of a high mountain of the Dzama valley. The Kintsvisi Monastery complex consists of three churches, of uncertain origin. The central (main) central church dedicated to St Nicholas is thought to date to the early 13th century, in what is generally regarded as a "golden age" of the Georgian monarchy. A very small chapel standing next to it is dedicated to St George, and dates from around the same time. The oldest church, dedicated to St Mary dates from the 10-11th centuries, but is mostly in ruins. The site is currently listed by the World Monuments Fund as a field project. The main church is a large inscribed-cross domed brick building which houses unique examples of medieval mural art from the early 13th century. In the central position of the cupola is the Hodegetria flanked by the archangels Michael and Gabriel. At the central part of cupola arch is an expressed cross as a medallion. Medallions with the Four Evangelists adorn the pendentives. Images of archangels are repeated on south and west
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    3 votes
    195
    Ostrog monastery

    Ostrog monastery

    The Monastery of Ostrog (Serbian: Манастир Острог/Manastir Ostrog, pronounced [ǒstroɡ]) is a monastery of the Serbian Orthodox Church placed against an almost vertical background, high up in the large rock of Ostroška Greda, in Montenegro. It is dedicated to Saint Basil of Ostrog (Sveti Vasilije Ostroški). From the monastery, a superb view of the Bjelopavlići plain can be seen. Ostrog, monastery is the most popular pilgrimage place in Montenegro. The Monastery was founded by Vasilije, the Metropolitan Bishop of Herzegovina in the 17th century. He died there in 1671 and some years later he was glorified. His body is enshrined in a reliquary kept in the cave-church dedicated to the Presentation of the Mother of God to the Temple. The present-day look was given to the Monastery in 1923-1926, after a fire which had destroyed the major part of the complex. Fortunately, the two little cave-churches were spared and they are the key areas of the monument. The frescoes in the Church of the Presentation were created towards the end of the 17th century. The other church, dedicated to the Holy Cross, is placed within a cave on the upper level of the monastery and was painted by master Radul,
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    3 votes
    196
    Epiphany Monastery

    Epiphany Monastery

    The Epiphany Monastery (Russian: Богоявленский монастырь, Bogoyavlensky monastyr; better translated as "Theophany Monastery") is the oldest male monastery in Moscow, situated in the Kitai gorod, just one block away from the Moscow Kremlin. According to a legend, it was founded by Daniel, the first prince of Moscow, around 1296. It is also believed that a would-be metropolitan Alexis was one of the monks at this monastery. Stefan, Sergii Radonezhski's older brother, was the first recorded hegumen of this cloister. The first stone church at the Bogoyavlensky monastery was founded in 1342. In 1382, the monastery was sacked by Tokhtamysh's horde. In 1427, it suffered an outbreak of pestilence. The monastery also survived numerous fires, the most important being recorded in 1547, 1551, 1687 and 1737. The Epiphany monastery has always been under the patronage of grand princes and tsars. By the order of Ivan the Terrible, the monastery became a collection facility for metayage, quitrent, and fodder. In 1584, the tsar donated a substantial amount of money for the remembrance of the disgraced. In 1632, the Epiphany monastery was granted an exclusive right for tax free floating of a certain
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    197
    Heiligenkreuz Abbey

    Heiligenkreuz Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Heiligenkreuz Abbey (Stift Heiligenkreuz, Closter Heiligen Creyz or Santa Crux) is a Cistercian monastery in the village of Heiligenkreuz in the southern part of the Vienna woods, c. 13 km north-west of Baden in Lower Austria. It is the oldest continuously occupied Cistercian monastery in the world. The monastery was founded in 1133 by Margrave St. Leopold III of Austria, at the request of his son Otto, soon to be abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Morimond in Burgundy and afterwards Bishop of Freising. Its first twelve monks together with their abbot, Gottschalk, came from Morimond at the request of Leopold III. The date of consecration was 11 September 1133. They called their abbey Heiligenkreuz (Holy Cross) as a sign of their devotion to redemption by the Cross. On 31 May 1188 Leopold V of Austria presented the abbey with a relic of the True Cross, which is still to be seen and since 1983 is exhibited in the chapel of the Holy Cross. This relic was a present from Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, King of Jerusalem to duke Leopold V in 1182. Heiligenkreuz was richly endowed by the founder's family, the Babenberg dynasty, and was active in the foundation of many daughter-houses. The
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    198
    Jedburgh Abbey

    Jedburgh Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Jedburgh Abbey, a ruined Augustinian abbey which was founded in the 12th century is situated in the town of Jedburgh, in the Scottish Borders just 10 miles (16 km) north of the border with England at Carter Bar. Jedburgh is the largest town on the A68 between Newcastle upon Tyne and the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. Towards the middle of the 9th century, before the present border between England and Scotland had been determined, there were two Gedworths (as Jedburgh was then known). One of them became the Jedburgh we know now, the other was four miles to the south. According to Symeon of Durham, Ecgred, bishop of Lindisfarne from 830AD to 845AD, gifted the two villages of the same name to the See of Lindisfarne. The southerly Gedworth was the place of Ecgred's church, the first church in the parish. The present town was distinguished from the long disappeared south village by UBI CASTELLUM EST meaning, 'where the castle is'. The only solid evidence of Ecgred's church came from Symeon of Durham when he described the burial, at the church of Geddewerde, of Eadulf, one of the assassins of William Walcher, Bishop of Durham. In 1118, prior to his ascension to the Scottish throne, Prince
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    199
    London Charterhouse

    London Charterhouse

    • Religious order: Carthusian
    The London Charterhouse is a historic complex of buildings in Smithfield, London dating back to the 14th century. It occupies land to the north of Charterhouse Square. The Charterhouse began as (and takes its name from) a Carthusian priory, founded in 1371 and dissolved in 1537. Substantial fragments remain from this monastic period, but the site was largely rebuilt after 1545 as a large courtyard house. Thus, today it "conveys a vivid impression of the type of large rambling 16th century mansion that once existed all round London" (Pevsner: The Buildings of England). The Charterhouse was further altered and extended after 1611, when it became an almshouse and school, endowed by Thomas Sutton. The almshouse (a home for gentlemen pensioners) still occupies the site today under the name Sutton's Hospital in Charterhouse. In 1348, Walter de Manny rented 13-acre (0.05 km) of land in Spital Croft, north of Long Lane, from the Master and Brethren of St. Bartholomew's Hospital for a graveyard and plague pit for victims of the Black Death. A chapel and hermitage were constructed, renamed New Church Haw; but in 1371, this land was granted for the foundation of the London Charterhouse, a
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    200
    Polesworth Abbey

    Polesworth Abbey

    Polesworth Abbey was a Benedictine nunnery in Polesworth, North Warwickshire, England. It was founded in the 9th century by St. Modwena and King Egbert. The first abbess was Edgytha (daughter of King Egbert, now St. Editha). The site of the Abbey is a Scheduled Ancient Monument although apart from the church and the gatehouse and the restored ruins of the cloister very little remains visible. The 12th century Abbey church, now the parish church of St Editha is a Grade I* listed building. The 14th century gatehouse is both a Grade I* listed building and a Scheduled Ancient Monument. It has recently been restored and renovated to provide apartments available for rent. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536, the Abbey was granted by Henry VIII to Francis Goodere of St Albans, Hertfordshire in 1544. Goodere dismantled many of the Abbey buildings to provide stone for a new manor house ( Polesworth Hall) which he built on the site. Later Sir Henry Goodere, was a patron of the arts and leader of the Polesworth Group of poets which included his protegee Michael Drayton. Polesworth Hall was demolished before 1868 and the Vicarage was built on the site.
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    201
    Rievaulx Abbey

    Rievaulx Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Rievaulx Abbey /riːˈvoʊ/ ree-VOH is a former Cistercian abbey headed by the Abbot of Rievaulx. It is located in Rievaulx, near Helmsley in North Yorkshire, England. It was one of the wealthiest abbeys in England and was dissolved by Henry VIII of England in 1538. Its ruins are a tourist attraction. Rievaulx Abbey was founded in 1132 by twelve monks from Clairvaux Abbey as a mission for the colonisation of the north of England and Scotland. It was the first Cistercian abbey in the north. With time it became one of the great Cistercian abbeys of Yorkshire, second only to Fountains Abbey in fame. The remote location was ideal for the Cistercians, whose desire was to follow a strict life of prayer and self-sufficiency with little contact with the outside world. The patron, Walter Espec, settled another Cistercian community, founding Wardon Abbey in Bedfordshire on unprofitable wasteland on one of his inherited estates. The abbey lies in a wooded dale by the River Rye, sheltered by hills. To have enough flat land to build on, a small part of the river was diverted several metres west of its former channel. The monks altered the course of the river three times during the 12th century.
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    202
    Rumtek Monastery

    Rumtek Monastery

    • Religion: Tibetan Buddhism
    Rumtek (Tibetan: རུམ་ཐེག་དགོན་པ་,, Wylie: Rum-theg Dgon-pa), also called the Dharmachakra Centre, is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery located in the Indian state of Sikkim near the capital Gangtok. It is a focal point for the sectarian tensions that characterize the Karmapa Controversy. Originally built by the 9th Karmapa Wangchuk Dorje in 16th century, at the same time as Phodong Monastery and Ralang Monastery, Rumtek served as the main seat of the Karma Kagyu lineage in Sikkim for some time. But when the 16th Karmapa arrived in Sikkim in 1959, after fleeing Tibet, the monastery was in ruins. Despite being offered other sites, the Karmapa decided to rebuild Rumtek. To him, the site possessed many auspicious qualities and was surrounded by the most favorable attributes. For example, flowing streams, mountains behind, a snow range in front, and a river below. With the generosity and help of the Sikkim royal family and the Indian government, it was built by the 16th Karmapa as his main seat in exile. After four years, construction of the monastery was completed. The sacred items and relics brought out from Tsurphu Monastery, the Karmapa's seat in Tibet, were installed. On Tibetan New
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    1 votes
    203
    Wessobrunn Abbey

    Wessobrunn Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Wessobrunn Abbey (Kloster Wessobrunn) was a Benedictine monastery near Weilheim in Bavaria, Germany. It is celebrated as the home of the famous Wessobrunn Prayer and also of a Baroque school of stucco workers and plasterers in the 18th century. The monastery was founded in about 753, and dedicated to Saint Peter, according to legend after Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria while hunting nearby had a vision of three springs, which his servant Wezzo duly discovered the next day. (The name means Wesso or Wezzo's spring(s)). The three springs are still to be seen, but there is otherwise no evidence of the truth of the story, and it is likely that the founders were a local noble family called Rott. The first monks came from Niederaltaich Abbey under Ilsung, the first abbot. The church was dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul. During the rule of the second abbot, Adelmar (799–831), the monastery was transferred from the Diocese of Brixen to that of Augsburg. In 788 Wessobrunn became a Carolingian Empire Imperial abbey (i.e., independent of other terrorial lordships and answerable only to the monarchy) In about 900 it became a property of the Bishop of Augsburg. In 955 the abbey was destroyed by
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    204
    Killone Abbey

    Killone Abbey

    Killone Abbey, situated on the banks of Killone Lake some 3 miles south of Ennis, County Clare, was an Augustinian nunnery founded in 1190 by Donal Mor O'Brien, King of Thomond and Munster and dedicated to Saint John. The ruins of the abbey, accessible through land used for grazing cattle, are located in the grounds of Newhall House, and include substantial remains of the abbey church together with a crypt. A narrow (and somewhat restrictive) stone stairway leads between the altar and the east window to a ledge atop the remains of the south wall of the church, where an overview of the grounds may be seen with care (there being no safety features incorporated).
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    205
    Loc-Dieu Abbey

    Loc-Dieu Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Loc-Dieu Abbey is a Cistercian abbey located near Martiel, 9 km west from Villefranche-de-Rouergue, in the department of Aveyron in France. Founded in 1123 in a place formerly called Locus Diaboli (Latin for "devil's place") due to the large number of dolmens around it, it was renamed Locus Dei in Latin by the monks, which in French became Loc-Dieu, both meaning the "place of God". Burnt down by the English in 1409, it was rebuilt in 1470, and the abbey was fortified. The abbey was suppressed and its assets sold off as national property by the French government during the French Revolution in 1793. The Cibiel family bought it in 1812, and Cibiel descendants still live in it today. The buildings were restored in 1840 (the east wing) and in 1880 (the south and west wings). In the summer of 1940, paintings from the Louvre, including the Mona Lisa, were hidden in Loc-Dieu to keep them safe from German troops. The abbey and its large park are now open to visitors.
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    3 votes
    206
    Newbattle Abbey

    Newbattle Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Newbattle Abbey was a Cistercian monastery near the village of Newbattle in Midlothian, Scotland, which has subsequently become a stately home and then an educational institution. It was founded in 1140 by monks from Melrose Abbey. The patron was King David I of Scotland (with his son Henry). Its church was dedicated in 1234. The abbey was burned by English royal forces in 1385 and once more in 1544. It became a secular lordship for the last commendator, Mark Kerr (Ker) in 1587. Newbattle Abbey was a filiation of Melrose Abbey (itself a daughter of the Rievaulx Abbey) and was situated, according to Cistercian usages, in a beautiful valley along the River South Esk. Rudolph, its first abbot, a strict and severe observer of the rule, devoted himself energetically to the erection of proper buildings. The church, cruciform in shape, was two hundred and forty feet in length, and the other buildings in proportion; for the community numbered at one period as many as eighty monks and seventy lay-brothers. The abbey soon became prosperous, and famous for the regularity of its members, several of whom became well-known bishops. It was especially dear to the kings of Scotland, scarcely one of
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    2 votes
    207
    Cork Abbey

    Cork Abbey

    The Red Abbey in Cork, Ireland was a 14th century Augustinian abbey which took its name from the reddish sandstone used in construction. Today all that remains of the structure is the central bell tower of the abbey church, which is one of the last remaining visible structures dating to the medieval walled town of Cork. In late 13th or early 14th century, an Augustinian monastery was built in Cork, and was occupied by the friars until at least the rebellion of 1641, and possibly as late as 1700. The abbey tower was used by John Churchill (later the Duke of Marlborough) as a vantage point and battery during the Siege of Cork in 1690. The siege sought to suppress an uprising in the city and its association with the expelled Catholic King of England, James II. In the eighteenth century, the Augustinian friars established a new friary in Fishamble Lane, and the Red Abbey was turned over to use as a sugar refinery. However, a fire in the refinery destroyed much of the abbey's structure in 1799. All that remains today of the structure is the bell tower of the abbey's church. The tower is designated as a national monument and maintained by Cork City Council.
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    2 votes
    208
    Croyland Abbey

    Croyland Abbey

    Crowland Abbey (also spelled Croyland Abbey) is a Church of England parish church, formerly part of a Benedictine abbey church, in Crowland in the English county of Lincolnshire. A monk named Guthlac came to what was then an island in the Fens to live the life of a hermit and he dwelt at Croyland between 699 and 714. Following in Guthlac’s footsteps, a monastic community came into being here in the 8th century. Croyland Abbey was dedicated to Saint Mary the Virgin, Saint Bartholomew and Saint Guthlac. During the third quarter of the 10th century, Crowland came into the possession of the nobleman Turketul, a relative of Osketel, Archbishop of York. Turketul, a cleric, became abbot there and endowed the abbey with many estates. It is thought that, about this time, Crowland adopted the Benedictine rule. In 1537, the abbot of Croyland wrote to Thomas Cromwell, sending him a gift of fish: "ryght mekely besechyng yow lordship favorablye to accepte the same fyshe, and to be gud and favorable lorde unto me and my pore house". Despite these representations, the abbey was dissolved in 1539. The monastic buildings, including the chancel, transepts and crossing of the church appear to have
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    Simonov Monastery

    Simonov Monastery

    Simonov monastery (Russian: Симонов монастырь) in Moscow was established in 1370 by monk Feodor, a nephew and disciple of St Sergius of Radonezh. The monastery land formerly belonged to Simeon Khovrin, a boyar of Greek extraction and progenitor of the great clan of Golovins. He took monastic vows in the cloister under the name Simon (hence the name); many of his descendants are also buried there. In 1379, the monastery was moved half a mile to the east. Its original location, where bodies of the warriors killed in the Battle of Kulikovo had been buried, is still commemorated by the old Simonov church. During the 15th century, the cloister was the richest in Moscow. Among the learned monks who lived and worked there were Vassian Patrikeyev and Maximus the Greek. A white stone cathedral was erected in 1405; it was later enlarged by order of Ivan the Terrible. As the monastery defended southern approaches to Moscow, it was heavily fortified in the 1640s. The last addition to the complex was a huge multi-storied bell-tower, modelled after Ivan the Great Bell Tower of Moscow Kremlin. The monastery was abolished by the Bolsheviks in 1923, and soon thereafter most of its buildings were
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    Alvastra Abbey

    Alvastra Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Alvastra Abbey was a Cistercian monastery located at Alvastra in Östergötland, Sweden. It was founded in the first half of the 12th century by a donation of land from King Sverker I of Sweden to the Cistercian Order. It was dissolved and appropriated by the Crown at the time of the Protestant Reformation.
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    Bury St. Edmunds Abbey

    Bury St. Edmunds Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    The Abbey of Bury St Edmunds was once among the richest Benedictine monasteries in England. Its ruins lie in Bury St Edmunds, a town in the county of Suffolk, England. When, in the early 10th century, the relics of the martyred king, St Edmund, were translated from Hoxne to Beodricsworth, afterwards known as St. Edmundsbury, the site had already been in religious use for nearly three centuries. To the small household of Benedictine monks who guarded the shrine the surrounding lands were granted in 1020, during the reign of Canute. Monks were introduced from St Benet's Abbey under the auspices of the Bishop of Elmham and Dunwich. Two of them became Bury's first two abbots, Ufi, prior of Holme, (d. 1044), who was consecrated abbot by the Bishop of London, and Leofstan (1044–65). After Leofstan's death, the king appointed his physician Baldwin to the abbacy (1065–97). Baldwin rebuilt the church and reinterred St Edmund's body there with great ceremony in 1095. The cult made the richly endowed abbey a popular destination for pilgrimages. The Abbey of St Edmund at Bury St Edmunds was built in the 11th and 12th centuries on a cruciform plan, with its head (or apse) pointed east. The
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    Dorchester Abbey

    Dorchester Abbey

    • Religious order: Arrouaisian order
    Dorchester Abbey is a Church of England parish church in Dorchester on Thames, Oxfordshire, about 8 miles (13 km) southeast of Oxford. It was formerly a Norman abbey church and was built on the site of a Saxon cathedral. Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln founded Dorchester Abbey in 1140 for the Arrouaisian Order of Augustinian canons (who wore white instead of the black of most Augustinians). Dorchester had been a Roman town and was later adopted by the Mercians. It had been the seat of a bishopric from AD 634 when Pope Honorius I had sent Saint Birinus, its first bishop, to that district, until 1085 when the See of Mercia was transferred to Lincoln. The abbey, founded fifty-five years later, was dedicated in honour of Saints Peter and Paul and Birinus. It was richly endowed out of the lands and tithes of the former bishopric, and had twelve parishes subject to it, being included in the Peculiar of Dorchester, until the suppression of peculiars. The first abbot appears to have been Alured, whose name occurs in records from in 1146 and again in 1163. The last was John Mershe, who was elected in 1533, and in the following year subscribed to the king's supremacy, with five of his canons,
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    Finchale Priory

    Finchale Priory

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Finchale Priory (pronounced finkle) was a 13th century Benedictine priory. The remains are sited by the River Wear, four miles from Durham. It is a Grade I listed building. There are some remains of the early 12th century stone chapel of St John the Baptist, the site of Godric of Finchale's burial, built some time around the end of Godric's life. Some of the temporary buildings, erected for the first prior and his monks sent to establish the Priory some twenty years after Godric's death, still exist. The monastic complex was built in the latter half of the 13th century with alterations and additions continuing for the following three hundred years. There are many excellent examples of heavily decorated capitals on the original arcade columns, tracery in the filled-in nave arches of the church, and on the south wall is a double piscina and two carved seats of the sedilia. The buildings and immediate grounds are now managed by English Heritage, with the surrounds converted into Finchale Abbey Caravan Park - an award-winning eco village project set up to sustainably manage development in the area. The site and immediate area is one of significant juxtaposition between traditional and
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    Granada Charterhouse

    Granada Charterhouse

    • Religious order: Carthusian
    Granada Charterhouse (Spanish: Cartuja de Granada) is a Carthusian monastery in Granada, Spain. It is one of the finest examples of Spanish Baroque architecture. The charterhouse was founded in 1506; construction started ten years later, and continued for the following 300 years. While the exterior is a tame ember in comparison, the interior of the monastery's is a flamboyant explosion of ornamentation. Its complex echoing geometric surfaces make of it one of the masterpieces of Churrigueresque style. The most striking features include the tabernacle, constructed to a design by Francisco Hurtado Izquierdo, the church and the famous sacristy, built between 1727 and 1764 by Luis de Arévalo and F. Manuel Vasquez. The charterhouse displays an extensive collection of paintings, prominent among which the works of Fray Juan Sánchez Cotán. ]
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    Iviron monastery

    Iviron monastery

    Holy Monastery of Iviron (Greek: Ιερα Μονή Ιβήρων, Georgian: ივერთა მონასტერი) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. The monastery was built under the supervision of Ioannes the Iberian and Tornikios between 980-983 AD and housed Iberian clergy and priests. The monastery ranks third in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. The library of Iviron monastery contains 2000 manuscripts, 15 liturgical scrolls, and 20,000 books, most of which are in Georgian, Greek, Hebrew and Latin. The name Iviron originated from the ancient Georgian Kingdom of Iberia (Iveria) where the master architect of the monastery Ioannes was from. The monastery has the relics of more canonized saints than any other on Mount Athos. The Panagia Portaitissa, a famous 9th century icon, is also located at Iviron. The monastery has about 30 working monks and novices, none of whom are Georgian. However, there are forty or so Georgian hermits living in hermitages near the monastery.
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    Jervaulx Abbey

    Jervaulx Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Jervaulx Abbey in East Witton near the city of Ripon, was one of the great Cistercian abbeys of Yorkshire, England, founded in 1156. Initially a Savigniac foundation, the abbey was later taken over by the Cistercian order and responsibility for it was taken by Byland Abbey. Originally founded in 1145 at Fors in Wensleydale, it was moved ten years later to a site a few miles away on the banks of the River Ure. It was dissolved in 1537, and its last abbot Adam Sedbar was hanged for his part in the Pilgrimage of Grace. The ruins of the abbey are open to the public and are privately owned. In 1145, in the reign of King Stephen, Akarius Fitz Bardolph who was Lord of Ravensworth, gave Peter de Quinciano, a monk from Savigny, land at Fors and Worton, in Wensleydale to build a monastery of their order. The monastery there was successively called the Abbey of Fors, Wensleydale and Charity. Grange, 5 miles WNW of Aysgarth, a hamlet in the township of Low Abbotside, in the parish of Aysgarth is the original site of Fors Abbey. After it was abandoned it was known by the name of Dale Grange and now by that of the Grange alone. Serlo, then Abbot of Savigny, disapproved of the foundation, as it
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    Konevsky Monastery

    Konevsky Monastery

    Konevsky Monastery (Russian: Коневский Рождество-Богородичный монастырь, Finnish: Konevitsan Jumalansynnyttäjän syntymän luostari) is a Russian Orthodox monastery that occupies Konevets Island in the western part of the Lake Ladoga, Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation. It is often regarded as the twin monastery with the Valaam Monastery, also located on an island in the same lake. Konevets Island (Finnish: Konevitsa or Kononsaari) has the maximum length of 5 km; its average width is 2 km. The island is separated from the mainland by a 5-km-wide strait. In the Middle Ages, the island was considered holy by the Finnish tribes who particularly revered a huge boulder in the shape of a horse's skull, weighing more than 750 tons. This boulder is known as Kon'-Kamen' (literally, "Steed-Stone") and gives its name to the island. The monastery was founded around 1393 by St. Arseny Konevsky, who wished to convert pagan Karelians to Christianity. The location of the monastery was changed several times, in order to avert floods. The cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos was founded by St. Arseny in 1428; it was at this church that the monastery's main shrine was placed. It was a
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    Mount Grace Priory

    Mount Grace Priory

    • Religious order: Carthusian
    Mount Grace Priory, in the parish of East Harlsey, North Yorkshire, England is today the best preserved and most accessible of the ten medieval Carthusian houses (charterhouses) in England. Set in woodlands, it was founded in 1398 by Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, the son of King Richard II's half-brother Thomas, earl of Kent, it was the last monastery established in Yorkshire, and one of the few founded anywhere in Britain in the period between the Black Death (1349–50) and the Reformation. It was a fairly small establishment, with space for a prior and twenty-three monks. Mount Grace Priory consisted of a church and two cloisters. The northern cloister had sixteen cells whilst the southern had five cells, Frater and Prior's house and the Chapter House. To the west stood the lay brothers' quarters and the guest house. Upon the abdication of King Richard, Surrey and others of the king's supporters attempted to assassinate his recently crowned successor, Henry IV, at New Year's, 1400, but were captured and executed. Holland's body was eventually recovered and, in 1412, re-buried in the charterhouse that he had founded. The orphaned priory of Mount Grace, bereft of its founder
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    Newstead Abbey

    Newstead Abbey

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Newstead Abbey, in Nottinghamshire, England, originally an Augustinian priory, is now best known as the ancestral home of Lord Byron. The priory of St. Mary of Newstead, a house of Augustinian Canons, was founded by King Henry II of England about the year 1163, as one of many penances he paid following the murder of Thomas Becket. The Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1534 gave the clear annual value of this priory as £167 16s. 11½d (£70,000 as of 2012),. The considerable deductions included 20s. given to the poor on Maundy Thursday in commemoration of Henry II, the founder, and a portion of food and drink similar to that of a canon given to some poor person every day, valued at 60s. a year. Despite the clear annual value of Newstead being below the £200 assigned as the limit for the suppression of the lesser monasteries, this priory obtained the doubtful privilege of exemption, on payment to the Crown of the heavy fine of £233 6s. 8d in 1537. The surrender of the house was accomplished on 21 July 1539. The signatures attached were those of John Blake, prior, Richard Kychun, sub-prior, John Bredon, cellarer, and nine other canons, Robert Sisson, John Derfelde, William Dotton, William
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    Rongbuk Monastery

    Rongbuk Monastery

    Rongbuk Monastery (Tibetan: རྫ་རོང་ཕུ་དགོན་, Wylie: rdza rong phu dgon; other spellings include Rongpu, Rongphu, Rongphuk and Rong sbug (Chinese: 絨布寺; pinyin: Róngbù Sì)), also known as Dzarongpu or Dzarong, is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery of the Nyingma sect in Basum Township, Dingri County, in the Shigatse Prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. Rongbuk monastery lies near the base of the north side of Mount Everest at 4,980 metres (16,340 ft) above sea level, at the end of the Dzakar Chu valley. Rongbuk is claimed to be the highest monastery in the world. For Sherpas living on the south slopes of Everest in the Khumbu region of Nepal, Rongbuk Monastery was an important pilgrimage site, accessed in a few days travel across the Himalaya through the Nangpa La. The monastery was also regularly visited by the early expeditions to Mount Everest in the 1920s and 1930s after a five weeks journey from Darjeeling in the Indian foothills of the Himalaya. Most past and current expeditions attempting Mount Everest from the north Tibetan side do establish their Base Camp near the tongue of the Rongbuk Glacier about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Monastery. Nowadays, the
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    St. Katherine's Abbey, Monisternagalliaghduff

    St. Katherine's Abbey, Monisternagalliaghduff

    Saint Katherine's Abbey, Monisternagalliaghduff (Manisternagalliaghduff) is a former Augustinian nunnery founded in 1298 and dissolved in 1541. One of the earliest recorded nunneries in Ireland, it is located in a valley about 2 miles east of the village of Shanagolden, County Limerick. Remains include abbey church to the east of the cloister and refectory to the south. Modifications to the church in the 15th Century saw the inclusion of an east window in the church as well as a doorway in the north. Two legends relate to the Abbey:
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    Sumela Monastery

    Sumela Monastery

    The Sümela Monastery (Turkish: Sümela Manastırı), Greek: Μονή Παναγίας Σουμελά, i.e. monastery of the Panaghia ("All Holy", the Greek name for the Virgin Mary) at Melá mountain is a Greek Orthodox monastery, standing at the foot of a steep cliff facing the Altındere valley, in the region of Maçka in the Trabzon Province of modern Turkey. At an altitude of about 1,200 metres (3,900 ft), it is a major tourist attraction of Altındere National Park. The monastery was founded in 386 AD during the reign of the Emperor Theodosius I (375 - 395), Legend has it that two priests undertook its creation after discovering a miraculous icon of the Virgin Mary in a cave on the mountain. During its long history, the monastery fell into ruin several times and was restored by various emperors. During the 6th century, it was restored and enlarged by General Belisarius at the behest of Justinian. It reached its present form in the 13th century after gaining prominence during the reign of Alexios III (1349 - 1390) of the Komnenian Empire of Trebizond, established in 1204. At that time, the monastery was granted an amount annually from imperial funds. During the time of Manuel III, son of Alexius III,
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    Westminster Abbey

    Westminster Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Westminster Abbey is a community of Benedictine monks in Mission, British Columbia, established in 1939 from the Abbey of Mount Angel, Oregon. The Abbey is home to the Seminary of Christ the King. The abbey's official name is the Abbey of Saint Joseph of Westminster; Saint Joseph is the abbey's patron saint. The Seminary was founded in 1931 by Archbishop William Mark Duke of the Archdiocese of Vancouver. Five monks, including Father Eugene Medved, later Prior and Abbot, were sent from Mount Angel Abbey, Oregon, to British Columbia in 1939 to found a priory and to take over the running of the Seminary of Christ the King, which was then located in Ladner, B.C.. The following year, the monks moved their new priory together with the seminary to Burnaby, near Vancouver, B.C.. It became a conventual (independent) priory in 1948. In 1953 the Holy See raised it to the status of an Abbey. Prior Eugene was elected as the first Abbot of the new abbey. The same year, construction began on a new abbey, church, and seminary, designed by the Norwegian architect, Asbjørn Gåthe. The new location was on the outskirts of the town of Mission. The monks began to live on this site beginning in 1954;
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    Zwiefalten Abbey

    Zwiefalten Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Zwiefalten Abbey (German: Kloster Zwiefalten, Abtei Zwiefalten or after 1750, Reichsabtei Zwiefalten) was a Benedictine monastery situated at Zwiefalten near Reutlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The monastery was founded in 1089 at the time of the Investiture Controversy by Counts Gero and Kuno of Achalm, advised by Bishop Adalbero of Würzburg and Abbot William of Hirsau. The first monks were also from Hirsau Abbey, home of the Hirsau Reforms (under the influence of the Cluniac reforms), which strongly influenced the new foundation. Although Pope Urban VI granted special privileges to it, Zwiefalten Abbey was nevertheless the private monastery of the Counts of Achalm, later succeeded by the Counts of Württemberg. The abbey was plundered in 1525 during the German Peasants' War. In 1750 the abbey was granted the status of Reichsabtei, which meant that it had the status of an independent power subject only to the Imperial Crown and was free of the rule of Württemberg. On 25 November 1802, however, it was secularised and dissolved and became a lunatic asylum and later psychiatric hospital, which it is today, as well as the site of the Württemberg Psychiatry Museum. The present
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    Brevnov Monastery

    Brevnov Monastery

    Břevnov Monastery (Czech: Břevnovský klášter) is a Benedictine monastery in Břevnov, Prague. It was founded by Prince Boleslav II and Saint Adalbert, bishop of Prague in 993 AD. The buildings standing today, including St Margaret's church, the conventual buildings and prelate's house, date from the 18th century and have been built in the Baroque style.
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    Affligem Abbey

    Affligem Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Affligem Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in the municipality of Affligem, Flemish Brabant, Belgium, twelve miles to the north-west of Brussels. Dedicated in 1086, it was the most important monastery in the Duchy of Brabant and therefore often called Primaria Brabantiae. The abbey of Affligem was probably founded on the 28th of June, 1062 by six hermits, a group of knights who repented of their violent way of life. Hermann II, Count Palatine of Lotharingia (1061–1085) and his guardian, Anno II, archbishop of Cologne (d. 1075) are considered official founders. The count Palatine donated the land on which to build the abbey church. The first St Peterchurch was erected in 1083. The Rule of St Benedict was adopted in 1085 and the abbey was dedicated in 1086. The counts of Brabant, also counts of Leuven, became their protectors (Vögte) in 1085/1086. A number of their family members are buried in the abbey church, including Queen Adeliza of England (d. 1151), as well as her father Duke Godfrey I of Leuven (d. 1139). During the 12th century, the abbey became known for its strict observance of the discipline of the Cluniac reforms. One notable monk during this period was John (Cotton?),
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    Ani Tsankhung Nunnery

    Ani Tsankhung Nunnery

    • Religious order: Tibetan Buddhism
    Ani Tsankhung Monastery is a Buddhist nunnery in Lhasa, the administrative centre of Tibet. It was built in the 7th century by Songsten Gampo who used its meditation chamber. The monastery is a yellow building which lies on the street parallel and north of Chingdol Dong Lu in Lhasa. Since the 12th century the monastery has been used chiefly by Buddhist nuns. The nunnery's main hall contains a beautiful image of Chenrezi, the multi-armed bodhisattva of Compassion. The sacred meditation chamber lies behind it. An air of quiet serenity pervades the ancient place with its flower bushes and spotless compound and is one of the quieter tourist locations in the Tibetan capital.
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    Bodhivana Monastery

    Bodhivana Monastery

    Bodhivana Monastery is a Theravada Buddhist monastery in the Thai Forest Tradition. It is located in Warburton East, Victoria, Australia. The current abbot of Bodhivana Monastery is Ajahn Kalyano. He was born in London in 1962. Venerable Ajahn Kalyano received his ordination in North East Thailand in 1985 at Venerable Ajahn Chah's monastery. Bodhivana monastery is a branch monastery in the tradition of Venerable Ajahn Chah. It was established to provide a place where candidates can train for ordination as Buddhist monks. Address: 780 Woods Point Road, East Warburton, Victoria Australia
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    Boxgrove Priory

    Boxgrove Priory

    Boxgrove Priory, in the village of Boxgrove in Sussex, was founded in about 1066 by Robert de Haye, who in 1105 bestowed the church of St. Mary of Boxgrove upon the Benedictine Abbey of Lessay. In about 1126 upon the marriage of Robert's daughter Cecily, to Roger St. John the number of monks living at Boxgrove was increased from the original three to six, and by 1187 there were a total of fifteen. The nineteenth monk was added to the priory in about 1230 by William de Kainesham, Canon of Chichester. By 1535 the priory's possessions were worth £185 19s. 8d. gross, and £145 10s. 2½d. clear. The ruins are a Grade I listed building. The Priory was dissolved in 1536. At the time of the dissolution there were eight priests and one novice, as well as twenty-eight servants and eight children living in the priory. The Priory church is still in use as the Church of St Mary and St Blaise. The Battle of Britain Pilot, Billy Fiske is buried in the churchyard.
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    Coldingham Priory

    Coldingham Priory

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Coldingham Priory was a house of Benedictine monks. It lies on the south-east coast of Scotland, in the village of Coldingham, Berwickshire. Coldingham Priory was founded in the reign of David I of Scotland, although his older brother and predecessor King Edgar of Scotland had granted the land of Coldingham to the Church of Durham in 1098, and a church was constructed by him and presented in 1100. The first prior of Coldingham is on record by the year 1147, although it is likely that the foundation was much earlier. The earlier Columban Abbey was founded by St. Æbbe sometime circa 640 AD. Although the monastery was largely destroyed by Oliver Cromwell in 1648, some remains of the priory exist, the choir of which forms the present parish church of Coldingham and is serviced by the Church of Scotland. Æbbe was born c. 615 AD into both royal houses of Northumbria, the daughter of King Æthelfrith of Bernicia, (the first king of Northumbria from c.604) and Acha, a daughter of Ælla of Deira. In 616, she and her family were forced to flee with her family to Dál Riata following the death of her father at the Battle of the River Idle which was fought against Rædwald of East Anglia. The
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    Corvey Abbey

    Corvey Abbey

    The Imperial Abbey of Corvey (German: Fürstabtei Corvey) was a Benedictine monastery on the River Weser, 2 km northeast of Höxter, now in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was first founded in 815 among the recently converted Saxons on a site called Hethis by Charlemagne's cousins Wala and Adelard, with monks from Corbie Abbey in Picardy, under the joint patronage of the Emperor Louis the Pious and the abbot of the older foundation, whence the new one derived its name (Latin: Corbeia nova, the "new Corbie"). In 822, the monastery was reconstructed on the present site near the banks of the river Weser. It became "one of the most privileged Carolingian monastic sanctuaries in the ninth-century Duchy of Saxony". A mint was authorized as early as 833 though surviving coins date from the early eleventh century. The site of the abbey, where the east-west route called the Hellweg crossed the Weser, accounted for some strategic importance and assured its economic and cultural importance. The abbey's historian H. H. Kaminsky estimates that the royal entourage visited Corvey at least 110 times before 1073, occasions for the issuance of charters. A diploma granted by Otto I in 940, the
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    Gelati Monastery

    Gelati Monastery

    Gelati (Georgian: გელათის მონასტერი) is a monastic complex near Kutaisi, Imereti, western Georgia. It contains the Church of the Virgin founded by the King of Georgia David the Builder in 1106, and the 13th-century churches of St George and St Nicholas. The Gelati Monastery for a long time was one of the main cultural and intellectual centers in Georgia. It had an Academy which employed some of the most celebrated Georgian scientists, theologians and philosophers, many of whom had previously been active at various orthodox monasteries abroad or at the Mangan Academy in Constantinople. Among the scientists were such celebrated scholars as Ioane Petritsi and Arsen Ikaltoeli. Due to the extensive work carried out by the Gelati Academy, people of the time called it "a new Hellas" and "a second Athos". The Gelati Monastery has preserved a great number of murals and manuscripts dating back to the 12th-17th centuries. The Khakhuli triptych had also been enshrined at Gelati until being stolen in 1859. In Gelati is buried one of the greatest Georgian kings, David the Builder. Near his grave are the gates of Ganja, which were taken as trophies by king Demetrius I in 1139. In 1994, Gelati
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    Kuveždin monastery

    Kuveždin monastery

    The Kuveždin monastery (Serbian: Манастир Кувеждин / Manastir Kuveždin) is a Serb Orthodox monastery on the Fruška Gora mountain in the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina. Traditionally, its foundation is ascribed to Stefan Štiljanović. The first reliable record of its existence are dated in 1566/1569. In 2009, entire monastery complex has been reconstructed. Kuveždin Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.
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    Lindores Abbey

    Lindores Abbey

    • Religious order: Tironensian order
    Lindores Abbey was a Tironensian abbey on the outskirts of Newburgh in Fife, Scotland. Now a much reduced and overgrown ruin, it lies on the southern banks of the River Tay, about 1-mile (1.6 km) north of the village of Lindores. The abbey was founded as a daughter house of Kelso Abbey about 1191 (some sources say 1178), by David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion. The first abbot was Guido, Prior of Kelso, under whom the buildings were mostly completed. The church, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and St. Andrew, was 195 feet (59 m) long, with transepts 110 feet (34 m) long. Edward I of England, John Balliol, David II, and James III were among the monarchs who visited Lindores at different times. The earliest record of scotch whisky cited by the exchequer roll for 1494 is a commission from King James IV to Friar John Cor of Lindores Abbey to make about ‘eight bols of malt’ or 580 kg of aquavitae. The abbey was sacked by a mob from Dundee in 1543, and again by John Knox and his supporters in 1559. In the following years the Abbey buildings were quarried as a source of building stone for Newburgh, and a number of architectural fragments are visible built into later
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    Nütschau Priory

    Nütschau Priory

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Nütschau Priory (in German Kloster Nütschau or Priorat Sankt Ansgar) is a house of the Benedictine Order located at Travenbrück near Bad Oldesloe, Stormarn, Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. Occupying the former Nütschau manor house (Herrenhaus Nütschau), built in 1577-79 by Heinrich Rantzau, this community originated after World War II as a refuge for displaced persons, particularly Catholics from the former German territories. The church acquired the site in 1951 and at the request of Hermann Wilhelm Berning, the Bishop of Osnabrück, it was developed by and staffed from Gerleve Abbey. St. Ansgar's House (Haus Sankt Ansgar) opened in 1951. In 1955 the community was raised to the status of a priory under Gerleve, and in 1975 Nütschau became an independent monastery, which now includes a training house and a youth house. The priory is part of the Beuronese Congregation. Under direct control of the Abbot of Gerleve: Priory of Gerleve Abbey Independent priory
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    Pluscarden Abbey

    Pluscarden Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Pluscarden Abbey is a Roman Catholic Benedictine monastery located in the glen of the Black Burn about 10 kilometres south-west of Elgin, in Moray, Scotland. It has been for most of its history a priory and was founded in 1230 by Alexander III of Scotland for the Valliscaulian Order. In 1454, following a merger with the priory of Urquhart, a cell of Dunfermline Abbey, Pluscarden Priory became a Benedictine House. The years immediately preceding the Scottish Reformation, and those after, saw the decline of the priory. By 1680 it was in a ruinous condition. Some work to arrest the decay took place in the late 19th century but it wasn't until 1948 when restoration of the priory was begun by monks from the Benedictine Prinknash Abbey in Gloucestershire. In 1966 the priory received its independence from the mother-house and was elevated to abbatial status in 1974. The Valliscaulian priory of Pluscarden was founded by King Alexander II. The now defunct Valliscaulian Order was small compared to the great medieval religious houses and emerged at a time when austere monasticism had spread across Europe c. 1075–1200. The founder of the Order was Viard who trained as a lay cleric at the
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    Sligo Abbey

    Sligo Abbey

    Sligo Abbey (Irish: Mainistir Shligigh), a ruined abbey in Sligo, Ireland, (officially called the Dominican Friary of Sligo) was originally built in 1253 by the order of Maurice Fitzgerald, Baron of Offaly. It was destroyed in 1414 by a fire, ravaged during the Tyrone War in 1595 and once more in 1641 during the Ulster Uprising. The friars moved out in the 18th century, but Lord Palmerston restored the Abbey in the 1850s. Currently, it is open to the public.
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    Beauly Priory

    Beauly Priory

    • Religious order: Valliscaulian Order
    Beauly Priory was a Valliscaulian monastic community located at "Insula de Achenbady", now Beauly, Inverness-shire. It was probably founded in 1230. It is not known for certain who the founder was, different sources giving Alexander II of Scotland, John Byset, and both. The French monks, along with Bisset (a nearby, recently settled landowner), had a strong enough French-speaking presence to give the location and the river the name "beau lieu" ("beautiful place") and have it pass into English. It is not the best documented abbey, and few of the priors of Beauly are known by name until the 14th century. It became Cistercian on April 16, 1510, after the suppression of the Valliscaulian Order by the Pope. The priory was gradually secularized, and ruled by a series of commendators. The priory's lands were given over to the bishop of Ross by royal charter on October 20, 1634. The ruins today are still extensive and are one of the main visitor attractions in Inverness-shire. In August 1818 John Keats and his friend Charles Brown stopped at Beauly on their way to Cromarty. Their visit produced a collaborative poem, On Some Skulls in Beauley Abbey, near Inverness, written early in August
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    Bermondsey Abbey

    Bermondsey Abbey

    Bermondsey Abbey was an English Benedictine monastery. Most widely known as an 11th-century foundation, it had a precursor mentioned in the early 8th century, and was centred on what is now Bermondsey Square, the site of Bermondsey Market, Bermondsey in the London Borough of Southwark, southeast London, England. A monastery is known to have existed at Bermondsey before 715 AD, when it was a Surrey colony of the important Mercian monastery of Medeshamstede, later known as Peterborough. Though surviving only in a copy written at Peterborough in the 12th century, a letter of Pope Constantine (708-715) grants privileges to a monastery at Vermundesei. It is likely that this monastery continued, probably as a secular minster, at least until the 9th-century Viking invasions. Nothing more is heard of any church at Bermondsey until 1082, when, according to the "Annales Monasterii de Bermundeseia", a monastery was founded there by one Alwinus Child, with royal licence. It is highly likely, given the trend to continuity of sacred sites, that this church was founded on the site of the earlier monastery. It is also possible that this foundation was a direct successor to the church last
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    Bridlington Priory

    Bridlington Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Priory Church of St. Mary, Bridlington, grid reference TA177680, commonly known as Bridlington Priory Church is a parish church in Bridlington, East Riding of Yorkshire, England, in the Diocese of York. It is on the site of an Augustinian priory founded in 1113 which was dissolved during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Bridlington Priory was founded around 1113 by Walter de Gant, for Augustinian Canons Regular, one of the earliest Augustinian houses in England, with an adjoining convent. Its foundation was confirmed in charters by King Henry I of England The site had formerly been a Saxon church and nunnery. When complete, the building was over 400 ft long (120 m) and 75 ft wide (23 m), with a transept which was 150 ft long (46 m). The first prior is though to have been called Guicheman or Wickeman. The priory was favoured by kings and their nobles and soon owned land across Yorkshire. The Canons from the priory established Newburgh Priory in 1145. King Stephen granted the priory should have right to have the property of felons and fugitives within the town and proceeds from the harbour and later King John gave the priory the right to hold a yearly fair in the town in 1200.
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    Buckland Abbey

    Buckland Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Buckland Abbey is a 700-year-old house in Buckland Monachorum, near Yelverton, Devon, England, noted for its connection with Sir Francis Drake and presently in the ownership of the National Trust. Buckland was originally a Cistercian abbey founded in 1278 by Amicia, Countess of Devon and was a daughter house of Quarr Abbey, on the Isle of Wight. It remained an abbey until the Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII. In 1541 Henry sold Buckland to Sir Richard Grenville who, working with his son Roger, began to convert the abbey into a residence. Roger died in 1545, leaving a son, also named Richard Grenville, who completed the conversion. He eventually sold Buckland to Drake in 1581. The abbey is unusual in that the church was retained as the principal component of the new house whilst most of the remainder was demolished, which was a reversal of the normal outcome with this type of redevelopment. Drake lived in the house for 15 years, as did many of his collateral descendants until 1946, when it was sold to a local landowner, Arthur Rodd, who presented the property to the National Trust in 1948. The property has been open to the public since 1951. The National Trust
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    Glastonbury Abbey

    Glastonbury Abbey

    Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England. The ruins are now a grade I listed building, and a Scheduled Ancient Monument and are open as a visitor attraction. The abbey was founded in the 7th century and enlarged in the 10th, before a major fire in 1184 destroyed the buildings. It was rebuilt and by the 14th century was one of the richest and most powerful monasteries in England. The abbey also controlled large tracts of surrounding land and was instrumental in major drainage projects on the Somerset Levels. The abbey was suppressed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII of England and the last Abbot Richard Whiting (Whyting) was hung, drawn and quartered as a traitor on Glastonbury Tor in 1539. From at least the 12th century the Glastonbury area was frequently associated with the legend of King Arthur, a connection promoted by medieval monks who asserted that Glastonbury was Avalon. Christian legends have also claimed that the abbey was founded by Joseph of Arimathea in the 1st century. Suggestions that Glastonbury may have been a site of religious importance in Celtic or pre-Celtic times are referred to as dubious by the
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    Morimond Abbey

    Morimond Abbey

    • Religious order: Cistercians
    Morimond Abbey is a religious complex in Parnoy-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne department, in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France. It was the fourth of the four great daughter abbeys of Cîteaux Abbey, of primary importance in the spread of the Cistercian Order, along with La Ferté to the south, Pontigny to the west and Clairvaux to the north. Situated in the diocese of Langres, Morimond was founded in 1115 by Count Odelric of Aigremont and his wife Adeline of Choiseul and settled from Citeaux. The first abbot, known as a "pillar of the Cistercians", was Arnold the German. Thanks to his energy and influence, Morimond grew very rapidly, and established numerous colonies in France, Germany, Poland, Bohemia, Spain, and Cyprus. The only daughter-house in England and Wales was Dore Abbey, founded in 1147. Amongst the best-known were Ebrach Abbey in Germany (1126); Heiligenkreuz Abbey in Austria (1134); and Aiguebelle Abbey in France (1137), which was later restored by the Reformed Cistercians. Over the next two centuries Morimond continued to be active in the foundation of new Cistercian houses, so much so that towards the end of the 18th century, Morimond counted amongst its filiations
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    Oronsay Priory

    Oronsay Priory

    • Religious order: Augustinians
    Oronsay Priory was a monastery of canons regular on the island of Oronsay, Inner Hebrides, off the coast of Scotland. It was in existence by 1353, perhaps founded by John of Islay, Lord of the Isles. It was dedicated to St. Columba, and perhaps was a continuation or a re-activation of an older foundation. Very little is known about it because of the absence of records and its remoteness from the Scottish Lowlands, but on occasions some of the Priors of Oronsay come into the records. The priory continued in operation until at least 1560, the year of the Scottish Reformation, with the last known prior, Robert Lamont, having been elected in 1555. The lands and property of the priory were given in commendam to Maol Choluim MacDubhthaich in 1561. They were later given to the Bishop of the Isles by King James VI of Scotland after his ascendancy to the throne in 1583. The ruins have been restored and are visible today.
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    Shaftesbury Abbey

    Shaftesbury Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    Shaftesbury Abbey was an abbey that housed nuns in Shaftesbury, Dorset. Founded in 888, the abbey was the wealthiest Benedictine nunnery in England, a major pilgrimage site, and the town's central focus. The abbey was destroyed in 1539 during the English Reformation by the order of Thomas Cromwell, minister to King Henry VIII. Alfred the Great and his daughter Æthelgifu founded the Abbey in 888 (8 years after founding the town of Shaftesbury as a burgh), which boosted the town's growth. The relics of St Edward the Martyr were translated from Wareham and received at the abbey with great ceremony. The translation of the relics was overseen by St Dunstan and Earl Ælfhere of Mercia. This occurred in a great procession beginning on February 13, 981; the relics arrived at Shaftesbury seven days later. The relics were received by the nuns of the abbey and were buried with full royal honours on the north side of the altar. On the way from Wareham to Shaftesbury, a miracle had taken place: when two crippled men were brought close to the bier and those carrying it lowered the body to their level, the cripples were immediately restored to full health. This procession and events were
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    Shrewsbury Abbey

    Shrewsbury Abbey

    • Religious order: Order of Saint Benedict
    The Abbey of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, commonly known as Shrewsbury Abbey, was a Benedictine monastery founded in 1083 by the Norman Earl of Shrewsbury, Roger de Montgomery, in Shrewsbury, the county town of Shropshire, England. The Abbey is located to the east of the town centre, near to the English Bridge, surrounded by a triangular area which is today referred to as Abbey Foregate. A large amount of the monastery was destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, but a number of buildings including the church were left intact. Thomas Telford built his A5 road through the remaining part of the Abbey and now only part of the original abbey church is still in existence, which is still used today as a place of worship. The old refectory pulpit is still visible across the road from the church and a single wall of an abbey building, now an integral part of another building, remains. The history of Shrewsbury Abbey played a prominent role in the "Cadfael" mysteries by Ellis Peters. The road that passes the abbey is referred to as "Abbey Foregate", the area around which forms a suburb of the town of the same name. The suburb's development is largely residential, with some
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    Stavronikita monastery

    Stavronikita monastery

    Stavronikita monastery (Greek: Μονή Σταυρονικήτα) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to Saint Nicholas. It is built on top of a rock near the sea near the middle of the eastern shore of the Athonite peninsula, located between the monasteries of Iviron and Pantokratoros. The site where the monastery is built was first used by Athonite monks as early as the 10th century. Stavronikita was the last to be officially consecrated as an Athonite monastery in 1536 and ranks fifteenth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries and currently has 30 to 40 monks. There are various conflicting traditions and stories regarding the monastery's name. According to one Athonite tradition, the name is a combination of the names of two monks, Stavros and Nikitas, that used to live in two cells at the site before the monastery was built. Another tradition recounts of a Byzantine army officer serving under the Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes, named Niceforus Stavronikitas that built the monastery and named it after himself. Yet a third tradition attributes the foundation of the monastery to a patrician by the name Nikitas. The patrician's name
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    Sweetheart Abbey

    Sweetheart Abbey

    Sweetheart Abbey (Gd: An Abaid Ur), 8 miles (13 km) south of Dumfries, near to the Nith in south-west Scotland, was a Cistercian monastery, founded in 1275 by Dervorguilla of Galloway, daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway, in memory of her husband John de Balliol. His embalmed heart, in a casket of ivory and silver, was buried alongside her when she died - The monks at the Abbey then renamed the Abbey in tribute to her. Their son, also John, became king of Scotland but his reign was tragic and short. The depredations suffered by the Abbey in subsequent periods, have caused both the graves to be lost. The abbey, built in deep-red, local sandstone, was founded as a daughter house to Dundrennan Abbey; this Novum Monasterium (New Monastery), became known as the New Abbey. The immediate abbey precincts extended to 30 acres (120,000 m) and sections of the surrounding wall can still be seen today. The Cistercian order, also known as the White Monks because of the white habit, over which they wore a black scapular or apron, built many great abbeys after their establishment around 1100. Like many of their abbeys, the New Abbey's interests lay not only in prayer and contemplation but in the
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    Villers Abbey

    Villers Abbey

    Villers Abbey (abbaye de Villers) is an ancient Cistercian abbey located near the town of Villers-la-Ville in the Brabant province of Wallonia (Belgium), one piece of the Wallonia's Major Heritage. Founded in 1146, the abbey was abandoned in 1796. Most of the site has since fallen into ruins. In 1146, twelve Cistercian monks and three lay brothers from Clairvaux came to Villers in order to establish the abbey on land granted them by Gauthier de Marbais. After establishing several preliminary sites (Villers I and Villers II), work was finally undertaken in the 13th century to build the current site. The choir was constructed by 1217, the crypt by 1240 and the refectory by 1267. The church itself took seventy years to build and was completed by the end of the century. During this period, the abbey reached the height of its fame and importance. Contemporary accounts suggest that roughly 100 monks and 300 lay brothers resided within its walls, although this is possibly an exaggeration. The lands attached to the abbey also expanded considerably, reaching some 100 km² of woods, fields and pasturage. Decline set in during the 16th century, tied to the larger troubles of the Low Countries.
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    Volkenroda Abbey

    Volkenroda Abbey

    Volkenroda Abbey (Kloster Volkenroda) is a former Cistercian monastery in the municipality of Körner in the Unstrut-Hainich district of Thuringia, Germany. The abbey was founded in 1131 and settled by monks from Altenkamp, although not dedicated until 1250. It was an active centre of Cistercian expansion: among its daughter houses were the monasteries of Waldsassen (1133), Reifenstein (1162), Loccum (1163) and Dobrilugk (1165). During the German Peasants' War in 1525 the abbey was virtually destroyed and, although restored within a very short time, was dissolved in 1540. The remains of the buildings were used principally for various agricultural purposes. The abbey church served as the Protestant village church until 1968, when it was shut down because of its derelict condition. The village was designated for "re-settlement" and no further ordinations took place. After the end of the GDR, in 1993 the action group "Wiederaufbau Kloster Volkenroda e. V." ("Reconstruction of Volkenroda Abbey") was established, with the aim of reviving the monastic tradition. From 1994 the "Brotherhood of Jesus" ("Jesus-Bruderschaft") from Hünfelden-Gnadental in the district of Limburg-Weilburg in
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