A military rank is a position in the hierarchy of an armed force.
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A surgeon's mate was a rank in the Royal Navy for a medically trained assistant to the ship's surgeon. The rank was renamed assistant surgeon in 1805, and was considered equivalent to the rank of master's mate/mate. In 1807, first-rate would have three, a third-rate two, and frigates and sloops one.
A surgeon's mate was responsible for visiting patients in the sick bay and attending to their needs. Along with the surgeon, he would examine patients during morning sick call. He would make daily rounds of men already in the sick bay, while the loblolly boy would feed, wash and shave bedridden patients. The mate would prepare and administer medicines in the sick-bay, dress wounds and skin ulcers, and bleeding men who needed it. He was responsible for maintaining the ship's surgical instruments, for keeping accurate records of medicines and expenditures, for inspecting the cook's pots and pans, and for supervising the loblolly boy.
Surgeon mates had a similar shipboard status to midshipmen and master's mates, and were berthed with them in the gunroom. However, they were comparatively very well paid, earning £9 2s per month in 1815, equivalent to a lieutenant on a flagship and three
Marshal of Finland (Finnish: Suomen marsalkka, Swedish: Marskalk av Finland) was the title awarded to the Finnish Commander-in-Chief Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim on his 75th birthday on June 4, 1942. The fully honorary rank was specially created for Mannerheim. Mannerheim continued to wear the same rank insignia as he had as Field Marshal (sotamarsalkka/fältmarskalk) since 1933: three heraldic lions of a full general with crossed marshal's batons.
In the United States uniformed services, captain is a commissioned officer rank. In keeping with the traditions of the militaries of most nations, the rank varies between the services, being a senior rank in the naval services and a junior rank in the ground and air forces.
For the naval rank, a captain is of pay grade O-6 (the sixth officer rank), typically commanding seagoing vessels and shore installations. This rank is used by the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the NOAA Commissioned Corps, and the U.S. Maritime Service.
For the ground and air forces rank, a captain is of pay grade O-3 (the third officer rank), usually serving as the commander of a company-sized unit, or serving as an executive officer or staff officer for a larger unit such as a battalion. This rank is used by the U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Marine Corps.
The rank of captain may also be used in other organizations outside of the military, particularly in fire departments, police, and law enforcement.
In the United States Navy, captain (abbreviated CAPT) is a senior officer rank, with the pay grade of O-6. It ranks above commander and below rear admiral (lower
Petty officer, second class is the fifth enlisted rate in the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps, just above petty officer third class and below petty officer first class, and is a non-commissioned officer. It is equivalent to the rate of sergeant in the Army, Marine Corps and Staff Sergeant in the Air Force.
Similar to petty officer third class, advancement to petty officer second class is dependent on time in service, performance evaluations by superiors, and rate (technical specialty) examinations. The advancement cycle is currently every 6 months. Only a certain number of billets (job openings for this rate) open up biannually and all petty officers third class compete. The top scorers are chosen for advancement, but only in sufficient quantities to fill the billets available.
Petty officers serve a dual role as both technical experts and as leaders. Unlike the sailors below them, there is no such thing as an "undesignated petty officer." Every petty officer has both a rate (rank) and rating (job, similar to an MOS in other branches). A petty officer's full title is a combination of the two. Thus, a petty officer second class, who has the
Oberführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party dating back to 1921. Translated as “senior leader”, an Oberführer was typically a Nazi Party member in charge of a group of paramilitary units in a particular geographical region. From 1921 to 1925, the phrase Oberführer was used as a title in the Sturmabteilung (SA), but became an actual SA rank after 1926.
Oberführer was also a rank of the Schutzstaffel (SS, at that time a branch of the SA), established in 1925 as Gauführer, a rank for SS officers in charge of SS personnel in the several Gaue throughout Germany; in 1928 the rank was remamed Oberführer, and used of the commanders of the three regional SS-Oberführerbereiche. In 1930, the SS was reorganized into SS-Gruppen and Brigaden, at which time Oberführer became subordinate to the higher rank of Brigadeführer. By 1932, Oberführer was an established rank of the SA, SS and NSKK. It was considered at that time to be the first general officer rank, approximately the equivalent to a brigadier.
Oberführer wore two oak leaves on the uniform collar rank patch, along with the shoulder boards and lapels of a general officer. In 1938, the status of SS-Oberführer began to change
Guardsman is a rank used instead of Private in some military units that serve as the official bodyguard of a sovereign or head of state. It is also used as a generic term for any member of a Guards unit of any rank.
The British Army's Foot Guards Regiments have used the rank since 1920, when it was adopted instead of Private.
In the Canadian Forces, the rank is used by Privates in the Governor General's Foot Guards and the Canadian Grenadier Guards. The rank is considered non-gender specific and therefore applies equally to female soldiers. The rank badge is identical to that of Private, a single chevron.
Guards units in Scandinavia all use the rank. This includes the Danish Army's Gardehusarregimentet (Guard Hussar Regiment) and Den Kongelige Livgarde (Royal Life Guards), the Norwegian Army's Hans Majestet Kongens Garde (His Majesty's Royal Guard), and the Swedish Army's Livgardet (Life Guards).
In the Singapore Armed Forces, the rank is used by the elite Singapore Guards.
It is also used to refer to members of the National Guard of the United States, a US military reserve force.
The Secretary of the Air Force (SECAF, or SAF/OS) is the Head of the Department of the Air Force, a component organization within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Secretary reports to the Secretary of Defense and/or the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and is by statute responsible for and has the authority to conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Air Force.
The Secretary works closely with his/her civilian deputy, the Under Secretary of the Air Force; and his/her military deputy, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who is the senior ranked uniformed officer in the United States Air Force.
The first Secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington, was sworn-in on September 18, 1947 upon the re-organization of the Army Air Forces into a military department and a military service of its own, independent of the War Department/Army, with the enactment of the National Security Act. The salary of SECAF IS $179,700, Level II.
The Secretary is the head of the Department of the Air Force, analogous to that of a chief executive
A chief petty officer is a senior non-commissioned officer in many navies and coast guards.
"Chief Petty Officer" refers to two ranks in the Canadian Navy. Chief Petty Officer 2nd Class (CPO2) (Premier maître de deuxième classe or pm2 in French) is equivalent to a Master Warrant Officer in the Army and Air Force, and Chief Petty Officer 1st Class (CPO1) (Premier maître de première classe or pm1) is equivalent to a Chief Warrant Officer in the Army and Air Force. In spoken references, Chief Petty Officers may be addressed as "Chief" but are never addressed as "Sir".
In the Royal Navy, the rank of Chief Petty Officer comes above that of Petty Officer and below that of Warrant Officer Class 2. It is the equivalent of Colour Sergeant in the Royal Marines, Staff Sergeant in the Army, and Flight Sergeant in the Royal Air Force.
Chief Petty Officer is the seventh enlisted rank in the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard, just above Petty Officer First Class and below Senior Chief Petty Officer, and is a senior non-commissioned officer. The grade of Chief Petty Officer was established on April 1, 1893 for the Navy. The United States Congress first authorized the Coast Guard to use the promotion
A platoon leader (NATO) or platoon commander (more common in Commonwealth militaries and the US Marine Corps) is the officer in command of a platoon. This person is usually a junior officer — a second or first lieutenant or an equivalent rank. The officer is usually assisted by a platoon sergeant. Some special units, such as specific aviation platoons and special forces, require a captain as platoon leader, due to the nature and increased responsibility of such assignments. Platoons normally consist of three or four sections (Commonwealth) or squads (US).
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. Where relevant, major general has a NATO code of OF-7, and is considered to be a two-star rank. A major general in most armies commands a division, however in some countries he commands a brigade.
In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term.
In the Canadian Forces, the rank of major-general (MGen) (major-général or Mgén in French) is an Army or Air Force rank equal to a rear-admiral of the Navy. A major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer. A major-general is senior to a brigadier-general or commodore, and junior to a lieutenant-general or vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal instead.
The rank insignia for a major-general is two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. It is worn on the
Major general (Maj Gen) is a senior rank in the British Army. Since 1996 the highest position within the Royal Marines is the Commandant General Royal Marines who holds the rank of major general. The most senior officer of the Royal Army Chaplains Department, the chaplain-general, also holds the rank of major general.
A major general is superior to a brigadier but subordinate to lieutenant general. The rank has a NATO rank code of OF-7, equivalent to a rear admiral in the Royal Navy or an air vice-marshal in the Royal Air Force or the air forces of many Commonwealth countries.
The rank insignia is a pip over a crossed sword and baton.
The Commandant General Royal Marines has held the rank of major general since 1996 when the post was downgraded from lieutenant general. As in the British Army, a Royal Marines major general ranks below lieutenant general and above brigadier and is thus the lowest of the general officer ranks.
From the foundation of the Royal Air Force on 1 April 1918 to 31 July 1919, the RAF maintained a rank of major general. The rank insignia was derived from that of a Royal Navy rear admiral and featured a broad gold stripe on the cuff below one narrow gold
In the various Commonwealth armies, the Colonel-in-Chief of a regiment is its (usually royal) patron. This position is distinct from that of Colonel of the Regiment. They do not have an operational role. They are however kept informed of all important activities of the regiment, and pay occasional visits to its operational units. Their chief purpose is to maintain a direct link between the regiment and the Royal Family.
Currently in the British Army, two foreign monarchs hold the position of Colonel-in-Chief of British regiments:
While it is traditional for a royal personage to hold the position, it is at the discretion of the regiment or corps whom they invite to be their Colonel-in-Chief. This can be seen by the fact that the Duke of Wellington was Colonel-in-Chief of the regiment that bore his name, and through the invitation to Adrienne Clarkson to be Colonel-in-Chief of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, while the Royal Australian Army Medical Corps decided to ask the Governor-General of Australia to serve as its Colonel-in-Chief. These exceptions, however, do not change the raison d'être of the post, which is to serve as a personal link between regiment and Monarch.
Commander United Kingdom Maritime Forces or COMUKMARFOR is a senior post in the Royal Navy. The post is the highest sea-going command in the Royal Navy and is part of the Fleet Battle Staff based in Portsmouth, part of Commander-in-Chief Fleet's staff. The commander has the rank of Rear-Admiral.
The Commander UK Maritime Forces is a renaming of a previous position, Commander United Kingdom Task Group. Despite the name change, he still performs the same function. He is in command (at sea) of naval task forces and task groups formed for specific operations. He directs Commander UK Task Group and Commander UK Amphibious Task Group, both of whom are of one star rank. Previously, there was also Commander United Kingdom Carrier Strike Group (COMUKCSG); however, with the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review, this has been removed. The new Commander UK Task Group (COMUKTG) specialises in Maritime Security. The UK Amphibious Task Group was renamed as Response Force Task Group as a result of the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review.
COMUKMARFOR directs the COMUKTG and the COMATG (who commands the Response Force Task Group). He works closely with his equal in the Fleet Battle
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position. Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in a military environment, able to act as the commanding officer (according to the most technical definition of the word) of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, who is a subordinate officer relative to the superior.
Non-commissioned officers (NCOs) in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se; the use of the word "command" to describe any use of authority is often unofficial.
Having officers is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though these officers need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, and the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as
A Troop Commander is an officer in the British Army, who commands 15 other soldiers (a troop) and their vehicles. A troop usually consists of four or sometimes more armored vehicles such as tanks and APCs.
A Troop Commander (TC) is normally a junior officer (2nd Lieutenant or Lieutenant) in the Royal Canadian Artillery or Royal Canadian Armoured Corps.
A Troop Commander is the senior Officer in command of a Red Army Cavalry Troop. The rank is usually that of a Captain, or senior Lieutenant.
A Cavalry Troop is equivalent in size and general strength to a Rifles (Infantry) Company. A Cavalry Troop normally has five platoons.
The HQ platoon is made up of the HQ section (administrative personnel), and all the support sections, such as Mess, Supply (Trooper equipment), Quartermaster (Mount/horse equipment), medical, and maintenance (both vehicles, and tack).
First platoon: This is the attack platoon, composed of the most experienced Troopers in the unit. This platoon conducts direct action against enemy forces. It may engage in direct attacks, or flanking maneuvers on enemy forces, and positions.
Second platoon: One of the two scouting/reconnaissance platoons that engage in
During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India (often "Commander-in-Chief in or of India") was the supreme commander of the Indian Army. The Commander-in-Chief and most of his staff were based at General Headquarters, India, and liaised with the civilian Governor-General of India. Following the creation of the Republic of India in 1950, the post was merged into the new office of President of the Republic. Today the president is Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces. Prior to independence, the official residence was the Flafstaff House, which later became the residence of the first Prime Minister of India, and is now a museum, Teen Murti House.
This is a list of people who were the military Commander-in-Chief, India. The rank and title are the final ones for the officer's career and not necessarily applicable to his tenure as Commander-in-Chief, India.
Commanders-in-Chief have been:
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, and below that of a vice admiral. The uniformed services of the United States are unique in having two grades of rear admirals.
In the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps, rear admiral (lower half) (RDML) is a one-star flag officer, with the pay grade of O-7. Rear admiral (lower half) ranks above captain and below rear admiral. Rear admiral (lower half) is equivalent to the rank of brigadier general in the other uniformed services, and equivalent to the rank of commodore in most other navies. In the United States uniformed services, rear admiral (lower half) replaced the rank of commodore in 1985.
In the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps and the United States Maritime Service, rear admiral (RADM), also referred to as rear admiral (upper half), is a two-star flag officer, with the pay grade of O-8. Rear
Regimental Sergeant Major (RSM) is an appointment held by warrant officers class 1 (WO1) in the British Army, the British Royal Marines and in the armies of many Commonwealth nations, including Australia and New Zealand; and by chief warrant officers (CWO) in the Canadian Forces. Only one WO1/CWO holds the appointment of RSM in a regiment or battalion, making him the senior warrant officer; in a unit with more than one WO1, the RSM is considered to be "first amongst equals". The RSM is primarily responsible for maintaining standards and discipline and acts as a father figure to his subordinates.
Like most Commonwealth forces, the RSM in the Australian Army is the senior warrant officer of the regiment or battalion, normally a Warrant Officer Class 1 (WO1).
In addition, the senior warrant officer in the Australian Army holds the unique rank of Warrant Officer (introduced in 1991 and senior to WO1) and the appointment of Regimental Sergeant Major of the Army (RSM-A). This appointment, based on the United States Army's practice of appointing a Sergeant Major of the Army, has existed since January 1983, and was originally held by a WO1. It is the equivalent of the Royal Australian
Untersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) first created in July 1934. The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921. The rank of Untersturmführer was senior to Hauptscharführer (or Sturmscharführer in the Waffen-SS) and junior to the rank of Obersturmführer.
Untersturmführer was the first commissioned SS officer rank, equivalent to a second lieutenant in other military organizations. The insignia consisted of a three silver pip collar patch with the shoulder boards of an army lieutenant. Because of the emphasis the SS placed on the leadership of their organization, obtaining the rank of Untersturmführer required a screening and training process different from the standard promotion system in the enlisted ranks.
In the early days of the SS, promotion to Untersturmführer was simply a matter of course as an SS member rose within the enlisted ranks to a position where they were ready to assume the duties of an officer. Untersturmführer was also occasionally an appointed position, given to an SS member so that they would be able to immediately begin as an officer in the
Kingsman is a rank in the British Army equivalent to Private. Historically, it could be applied to any man serving in the British Army from the late 17th century. Today it is only used by the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment, which inherited it from the King's Regiment.
Kingsman is also a family name, believed to have derived from certain farmers in Loddington and Broughton, Northamptonshire, England who in the Middle Ages held their land directly from the king, without any feudal lord in between. Descendant families include Kingman, Kinsman and Kinman.
The word "kingsman" is also a slang term for the large kerchief worn by costermongers.
Sergeant First Class is a military rank in some militaries and other uniformed organizations around the world, typically that of a senior non-commissioned officer.
Sergeant First Class (SFC) is the seventh enlisted rank (E-7) in the U.S. Army, above Staff Sergeant and below Master Sergeant and First Sergeant, and is the first senior non-commissioned officer rank. A Sergeant First Class is typically assigned as a Platoon Sergeant at the company level or Battalion Operations Noncommissioned Officer in Charge at the battalion level, but may also hold other positions depending on the type of unit. In a combat arms role, Sergeant First Class is typically in charge of anywhere from 18 soldiers and 4 tanks in an armor platoon to 40 soldiers in a rifle platoon. A Sergeant First Class' primary responsibility is training and mentoring Lieutenants, tactical logistics, tactical casualty evacuations, and the senior tactical advisor to the platoon leader. With today's operations tempo, a Sergeant First Class may fill the role of platoon leader if no suitable officer is available. Sergeant First Class replaced the now defunct rank of Technical Sergeant in 1948.
A Sergeant First Class is addressed
Corporal of horse (CoH) is a rank in the British Army's Household Cavalry corresponding to sergeant in other regiments. Formerly, no cavalry regiments had sergeants, but the Household Cavalry are the only ones to keep this tradition alive. It is said to stem from the origin of the word sergeant, which comes from the same root as servant. Since even the lowliest trooper in the Household Cavalry was once a gentleman, it was considered that such a rank was inappropriate. The rank of corporal of horse has existed since at least the 1660s. The rank below is Lance-corporal of horse and that above is staff corporal.
A corporal of horse wears three rank chevrons surmounted by a metal crown. He is addressed using his full rank title.
A lance sergeant (LSgt or L/Sgt) in the armies of the Commonwealth was a corporal acting in the rank of sergeant. The appointment is retained now only in the Foot Guards and Honourable Artillery Company. In these regiments, all corporals are automatically appointed lance sergeant on their promotion, so lance sergeants perform the same duties as corporals in other regiments and are not acting sergeants in anything but name.
The appointment originated in the British Army and Royal Marines, in which it could be removed by the soldier's commanding officer, unlike a full sergeant, who could only be demoted by court martial. Lance sergeants first appeared in the 19th century. The appointment was abolished in 1946, except in the guards' regiments mentioned above. Some cadet units also retained the rank in addition to corporal into at least the 1980s. The Household Cavalry equivalent is lance-corporal of horse.
Lance sergeants wear three rank chevrons. In full dress, Foot Guards lance sergeants are distinguished from full sergeants by their white chevrons (full sergeants wearing gold).
Some sources claim that the use of the appointment of lance sergeant was introduced by Queen Victoria,
Cossacks (Ukrainian: козаки́, kozaky, Russian: казаки́, tr. kazaki; IPA: [kəzɐˈkʲi]) are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who originally were members of democratic, semi-military communities in Ukraine and Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper and Don basins, and played an important role in the historical development of both Ukraine and Russia.
The origins of the first Cossacks are disputed. Traditional historiography dates the emergence of Cossacks to the 14th to 15th centuries. Towards the end of the 15th century, the Ukrainian Cossacks formed the Zaporozhian Sich centered on the fortified Dnipro islands. Initially a vassal of Poland-Lithuania, the increasing social and religious pressure from the Commonwealth caused them to proclaim an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky in the mid-17th century. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Ukrainian Cossack state under Russian rule for the next 300 years.
The Don Cossack Host, which had been established by the 16th century, allied itself with the Muscovite Tsardom. Together they began a systematic conquest and
Commander is a naval rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. Commander is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the armed forces, particularly in police and law enforcement.
Commander is a rank used in navies but is very rarely used as a rank in armies (except in special forces where it designates the team leader). The title (originally "master and commander") originated in the 18th century to describe naval officers who commanded ships of war too large to be commanded by a Lieutenant but too small to warrant the assignment of a post-captain, or (before about 1770) a sailing-master; the commanding officer served as his own Master. In practice, these were usually unrated sloops-of-war of no more than 20 guns. The Royal Navy shortened "master and commander" to "commander" in 1794; however, the term "master and commander" remained (unofficially) in common parlance for several years. The equivalent American rank master commandant remained in use until changed to commander in 1838. A corresponding rank in some navies is frigate captain. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the rank has been
Luftwaffenhelfer (commonly: Flakhelfer = anti-aircraft warfare helpers) are terms commonly used for German students deployed as child soldiers during World War II.
The Luftwaffenhelfer ("Luftwaffe assistant") program was the implementation of the "Kriegshilfseinsatz der Jugend bei der Luftwaffe" ("war auxiliary deployment of youth into the Luftwaffe") order issued on January 22, 1943. The order called for drafting whole school classes with male students born in 1926 and 1927 into a military corps, supervised by Hitler Youth and Luftwaffe personnel. The draft was later extended to include the 1928 and 1929 births. Deployment included ideological indoctrination by the Hitler Youth, military duties and limited continuation of the normal school curriculum, often by the original teachers.
While the official term was "Luftwaffenhelfer (HJ)", the term more commonly used is "Flakhelfer" ("Flak-assistant"). The 1926-1929 births are commonly referred to as the "Flakhelfer-Generation". In German ears the phrase associates with the collective and incisive experience of being torn out of conventional adolescent life (though under circumstances of total war) and being thrown into strict military
Petty officer, 2nd class, aka PO2, is a Naval non-commissioned member rank of the Canadian Forces. It is senior to the rank of master seaman and its equivalents, and junior to petty officer 1st-class and its equivalents. Its Army and Air Force equivalent is sergeant (Sgt); together, Sgts and PO2s make up the cadre of senior non-commissioned officers.
The rank insignia of the PO2 is three gold chevrons, point down, surmounted by a gold maple leaf. PO2s are generally initially addressed as "Petty Officer Bloggins", or "PO Bloggins", and thereafter as "PO", although in correspondence the full rank or abbreviation is used before the member's name. The full appellation "Petty Officer 2nd-Class" or "PO2" in speech is generally used only when the "second-class" distinction be made, such as to distinguish between members with similar names but differing ranks, or on promotion parades.
PO2s generally mess and billet with chief petty officers and other petty officers, and their army and air-force equivalents, warrant officers and sergeant. Their mess on naval bases or installations are generally named the "Chiefs and POs Mess".
Petty officer, first class is the sixth enlisted rate in the United States Navy and the United States Coast Guard, just above petty officer, second class and below that of chief petty officer. A non-commissioned officer rate, petty officer, first class is also the sixth enlisted rate in the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps.
In the United States Navy, each rating has an official abbreviation, such as ET for electronics technician, STS for sonar technician submarines, or FT for fire control technician. When combined with the petty-officer level, this gives the short-hand for the petty officer's rank, such as ET1 for electronics technician, first class. It is common practice to refer to the petty officer by this short hand in all but the most formal correspondence (such as printing and inscription on awards). Often, the petty officer is just referred to by the short-hand designation, without using the surname. Thus ET1 Jones would just be called "ET1". A first-class petty officer may be generically referred to as PO1 when the sailor's rating is not known, although some prefer to be called simply "Petty Officer (last name)". To address a petty officer, one would say, "Petty Officer
Technical Sergeant is the name of one current and two former enlisted ranks in the United States military.
Technical Sergeant, or Tech Sergeant, is the sixth enlisted rank (E-6) in the U.S. Air Force, just above Staff Sergeant and below Master Sergeant. A technical sergeant is a non-commissioned officer and abbreviated as TSgt. Official terms of address are "Technical Sergeant" or "Sergeant", although many use "Tech Sergeant".
Within the enlisted Air Force, promotion to TSgt has historically been the second most difficult rank to achieve (only the rank of Senior Master Sergeant, capped by Federal law, has lower promotion rates) and is the most difficult promotion most career Air Force members achieve. A Staff Sergeant must have served at least 23 months in grade to be considered for promotion to Technical Sergeant. It takes 10–12 years to normally reach this grade. Technical Sergeants mentor junior enlisted personnel while preparing themselves for promotion to Master Sergeant, the entrance rank of the senior non-commissioned grades.
Technical Sergeant was a rank in the United States Army until 1948. During World War II it was abbreviated as TSgt. or T/Sgt. The rank was above Staff
Pilot officer (Plt Off officially in the RAF; PLTOFF in the RAAF and RNZAF; formerly P/O in all services, and still often used in the RAF) is the lowest commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. It ranks immediately below flying officer. It normally denotes an officer who has elected to join as a non-graduate direct entrant officer, as those with degrees usually serve only a week at the rank after graduation from the RAF College Cranwell. Some newly commissioned officers hold the lower grade of acting pilot officer.
It has a NATO ranking code of OF-1 and is equivalent to a second lieutenant in the British Army or the Royal Marines. The Royal Navy has no exactly equivalent rank, and a pilot officer is senior to a Royal Navy midshipman and junior to a Royal Navy sub-lieutenant. In the Australian Armed Forces, the rank of pilot officer is equivalent to acting sub lieutenant in the Royal Australian Navy.
The equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) was assistant section officer.
In the Royal Flying Corps, officers were designated pilot officers at the end of pilot training. As they retained their commissions in
Unterscharführer (English: junior squad leader) was a paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party used by the Schutzstaffel (SS) between 1934 and 1945. The SS rank was created after the Night of the Long Knives. That event caused an SS reorganization and the creation of new ranks to separate the SS from the Sturmabteilung (SA).
The insignia was a button pip centered on a collar patch opposite an SS unit insignia collar badge. The field grey SS uniform displayed the rank with silver collar piping and the shoulder boards of an Unteroffizier. Rank comparisons list the rank of Unterscharführer as equivalent to a corporal in other services, but that the rank held responsibilities of a sergeant in some other armies.
The rank of Unterscharführer was created from the SA rank of Scharführer. After 1934, an SS-Unterscharführer and SA-Scharführer were considered equivalent positions; the rank of SS-Unterscharführer was junior to SS-Scharführer and senior to the rank of SS-Rottenführer.
Unterscharführer was the first non-commissioned officer rank of the SS and was the equivalent of an Unteroffizier in the German Wehrmacht. Unterscharführer was the most common non-commissioned officer SS rank. Their
Brigadier ( /brɪɡəˈdɪər/) is a senior military rank, the meaning of which is somewhat different in different military services. The brigadier rank is generally superior to the rank of colonel, and subordinate to major general.
A brigadier typically commands a brigade consisting of three battalions (approximately 3,000 troops). Many countries use the rank brigadier general rather than brigadier, and prior to the 1920s, so did members of the Commonwealth.
In many countries, especially those formerly part of the British Empire, a brigadier is either the highest field rank or most junior general appointment, nominally commanding a brigade. It ranks above colonel and below major general.
The rank is used by the British Army, the Royal Marines, the Australian Army, the Indian Army, the Sri Lankan Army, the New Zealand Army, the Pakistan Army and several others. Although it is not always considered a general officer rank, it is always considered equivalent to the brigadier general and brigade general rank of other countries. In NATO forces, brigadier is OF-6 on the rank scale.
The title is derived from the equivalent British rank of brigadier-general, used until 1922 and still used in
Colonel is a rank of the British forces, ranking below Brigadier, and above Lieutenant Colonel. British Colonels are not usually field commanders; typically they serve as staff officers between field commands at battalion and brigade level. The insignia is two diamond shaped pips (properly called "Bath Stars") below a crown. The crown has varied in the past with different monarchs; the current Queen's reign has used St Edward's Crown.
During World War I, colonels wore the following cuff badges:
From 1 April 1918 to 31 July 1919, the Royal Air Force maintained the rank of colonel. It was superseded by the rank of group captain on the following day.
In the British Army, Colonel may also refer to the ceremonial head of a regiment. This is almost always a general officer, Brigadier or Colonel, often retired, with a close link to the regiment in question. Some non-military personnel may be appointed to the position, thereby holding an Honorary rank of Colonel for the duration of the appointment, though usually with the Territorial Army units.
The position is often described as "Colonel of the Regiment", to distinguish it from the rank of Colonel. When attending functions as "Colonel of
Field marshal is a military rank. Traditionally, it is the highest military rank in an army. As such a senior rank it is rarely held and many countries do not routinely promote any officers to the rank.
The origin of the rank of field marshal dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses (from Old German Marh-scalc = "horse-servant"), from the time of the early Frankish kings.
Some nations use the title of marshal instead, while some have used field marshal general. The Air Force equivalent in the Commonwealth and many Middle Eastern air forces is marshal of the air force (not to be confused with air marshal). The corresponding naval ranks are normally fleet admiral, grand admiral or admiral of the fleet.
Traditionally, upon their promotion, field marshals are awarded a decorative baton as a symbol of their rank. The baton is often studded with jewels and inlaid with precious metals. In many countries like Austria-Hungary, Prussia and Germany, extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory) was required for a promotion to the rank of field marshal.
Historically, however, several armies used field marshal as a divisional
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates.
The title of magister militum was created in the 4th century, when Emperor Constantine the Great deprived the praetorian prefects of their military functions. Initially two posts were created, one as head of the foot troops, as the magister peditum ("Master of the Foot"), and one for the more prestigious horse troops, the magister equitum ("Master of the Horse"). The latter title had existed since Republican times, as the second-in-command to a Roman dictator.
Under Constantine's successors, the title was also established at a territorial level: magistri peditum and magistri equitum were appointed for every praetorian prefecture (per Gallias, per Italiam, per Illyricum, per Orientem), and, in addition, for Thrace and, sometimes, Africa. On occasion, the offices would
Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The NATO rank code is OF-5, equivalent to an army full colonel.
The equivalent rank in some navies translates as "ship captain" (e.g. French capitaine de vaisseau and Italian capitano di vascello), "captain of sea and war" (Portuguese capitão de mar e guerra), "captain at sea" (e.g. German Kapitän zur See, Dutch kapitein-ter-zee) or "captain of the first rank" (Russian - капитан 1-го ранга).
The command of a ship is often given to the naval rank equivalent to a commissioned officer between commander (OF-4) and commodore or rear admiral (OF-6). The naval rank should not be confused with the army, air force or marine rank of captain, which has a NATO code of OF-2.
Any naval officer who commands a ship (titled commanding officer, or CO) is addressed by naval custom as "captain" while aboard in command. Officers with the rank of captain travelling aboard a vessel they do not command should be addressed by their rank and name (e.g., "Captain Smith"), but they should not be referred to as "the captain" to avoid confusion with the vessel's captain. According to US
Sergeant major non-commissioned rank or appointment in many militaries around the world. In Commonwealth countries, sergeants major are ranks and appointments held by senior non-commissioned officers. In the United States, there are various degrees of sergeant major (command sergeant major, sergeant major of the army, sergeant major of Marine Corps), but they are all of the same pay grade.
In the 16th century, the sergeant major or Sargento Mayor was a general officer. He commanded an army's infantry, and ranked about third in the army's command structure; he also acted as a sort of chief of staff to the army's commander.
In the 17th century, sergeants major appeared in individual regiments. These were field officers, third in command of their regiments (after their colonels and lieutenant colonels), with a role similar to the older, army-level sergeants major (although obviously on a smaller scale). The older position became known as sergeant major general to distinguish it. Over time, the sergeant was dropped from both titles, giving rise to the modern ranks of major and major general.
The full title of sergeant major fell out of use until the latter part of the 18th century,
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 5033) held by a four-star admiral in the United States Navy, and is the most senior naval officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Navy. The office is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy. In a separate capacity as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (10 U.S.C. § 151) the CNO is a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President. The Chief of Naval Operations is typically the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U.S. Navy unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are naval officers.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and while the CNO does not have operational command authority over Naval forces as the title implies (that is nowadays within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense), the CNO does exercise supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Navy.
The current Chief of Naval Operations is Admiral Jonathan W. Greenert.
The CNO reports directly
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and LEUT) is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces.
The rank of lieutenant has different meanings in different military formations (see comparative military ranks), but the majority of cases it is common for it to be sub-divided into a senior (first lieutenant) and junior (second lieutenant) rank. In navies it may relate to a particular post rather than a rank. Typically, the post of lieutenant in naval usage is held by a Captain, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army lieutenant rank. It is also used in fire services, emergency medical services, security services and police forces as a rank.
Lieutenant may also appear as part of a title used in various other organizations with a codified command structure. It often designates someone who is "second-in-command," and as such, may precede the name of the rank directly above it. For example, a "lieutenant master" is likely to be second-in-command to the "master" in an organization utilizing both such ranks. Notable uses include lieutenant governor in various governments, and Quebec lieutenant in Canadian politics.
The word lieutenant derives from French;
Obersturmführer was a Nazi party paramilitary rank that was used in several Nazi organizations, such as the SA, SS, NSKK and the NSFK. Translated as “senior assault (or storm) leader”, the rank of Obersturmführer was first created in 1932 as the result of an expansion of the Sturmabteilung (SA) and the need for an additional rank in the officer corps. Obersturmführer also became an SS rank at that same time.
An SA-Obersturmführer was typically a junior company commander in charge of between fifty to 100 soldiers. Within the SS, the rank of Obersturmführer carried a wider range of occupations from staff aide, Gestapo officer, concentration camp supervisor, and Waffen-SS platoon commander to name but a few. Within both the SS and SA, the rank of Obersturmführer was considered the equivalent of an Oberleutnant in the German Wehrmacht.
The insignia for Obersturmführer was three silver pips and a silver stripe centered on a uniform collar patch. The rank was senior to an Untersturmführer (or Sturmführer in the SA), and junior to the rank of Hauptsturmführer.
David Niven's British sapper character wore a captured SS uniform with this insignia in the 1961 movie The Guns of Navarone.
The Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom is a now honorary office generally held by a senior (possibly retired) Royal Navy admiral. Despite the title, the Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom is usually a full admiral. He is the deputy to the Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom, who is in turn deputy to the Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom (an office that was vested from 1964-2011 to the Sovereign and is currently held by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh).
He is appointed by the Sovereign on the nomination of the First Sea Lord, and his name is published in the London Gazette by the Home Office. The Admiral usually retires at 70 years of age, but there have been admirals, such as Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, who have been over 80 before they retired from their office.
Vice admiral is a flag officer rank of the British Royal Navy. It equates to the NATO rank code OF-8 and is immediately superior to rear admiral and is subordinate to the full admiral rank.
The Royal Navy has had vice admirals since at least the 16th century. When the fleet was deployed the vice admiral would be in the leading portion or van acting as the deputy to the admiral.
In the Royal Navy the rank of vice-admiral should be distinguished from the office of Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom, which is an admiralty position usually held by a retired full admiral, and that of Vice-Admiral of the Coast, a now obsolete office dealing with naval administration in each of the maritime counties.
Vice admirals are entitled to fly a personal flag. A vice admiral flies a St George’s cross differenced with a red disc in the hoist.
The rank of vice admiral itself is shown in its sleeve lace by a broad band with two narrower bands. Since 2001 it has been designated a three-star rank when the number of stars on the shoulder board were increased to three.
Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines. It ranks above lieutenant and below major and has a NATO ranking code of OF-2. The rank is equivalent to a lieutenant in the Royal Navy and to a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force. The rank of captain in the Royal Navy is considerably more senior (equivalent to the Army/RM rank of colonel) and the two ranks should not be confused.
In the 21st century British Army, captains are often appointed to be second-in-command of a company or equivalent sized unit of up to 120 soldiers.
A rank of second captain existed in the Ordnance at the time of the Battle of Waterloo.
From 1 April 1918 to 31 July 1919, the Royal Air Force maintained the junior officer rank of captain. RAF captains had a rank insignia based on the two bands of a naval lieutenant with the addition of an eagle and crown above the bands. It was superseded by the rank of flight lieutenant on the following day.
Badges of rank for captains were introduced in 30 January 1855 and were worn on shoulder epaulets. After the Crimean War a new rank system was introduced which contained the first complete rank insignia in British Army history. A
Leading rating (or leading rate) is the most senior of the junior rates in the Royal Navy. It is equal in status to corporal, although for a long time was officially junior to that rank. The rate was introduced under the authority of Admiralty Circular No. 121 of 14 June 1853.
Leading ratings are normally addressed as Leading Hand or using their branch title e.g. Leading Seaman, Leading Regulator etc.
The insignia worn by leading rates is a single fouled anchor, leading to the slang term killick or hooky used in reference to this rate.
A non-commissioned officer (sometimes spelled noncommissioned officer, abbreviated to NCO or non-com (US)), called a sub-officer in some countries, is a military officer who has not been given a commission. Non-commissioned officers, in the English-speaking world, usually obtain their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks.
The NCO corps usually includes all grades of corporal and sergeant; in some countries, warrant officers also carry out the duties of NCOs. The naval equivalent includes some or all grades of petty officer, although not all navies class their petty officers as NCOs. There are different classes of non-commissioned officer, including junior non-commissioned officers (JNCO) and senior (or staff) non-commissioned officers (SNCO).
The non-commissioned officer corps is often referred to as "the backbone" of the armed services, as they are the primary and most visible leaders for most military personnel. Additionally, they are the leaders primarily responsible for executing a military organization's mission and for training military personnel so they are prepared to execute their missions. NCO training and education typically includes leadership
Captain general (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank and a gubernatorial title.
This term "captain general" (actually "general captain") started to appear in the 14th century, with the meaning of commander in chief of an army (or fleet) in the field, probably the first usage of the term general in military settings. A popular term in the 16th and 17th centuries, but with various meanings depending on the country, it became less and less used in the 18th century, usually substituted by full generals or field marshals; and after the end of the Napoleonic Wars it had but disappeared in most European countries, except Spain and former colonies.
There it meant the commander in chief of the fleet in war times. It is at least documented since 1370 and was used up to the end of the republic (late 18th century)
From 30 June 1513 – 22 October 1513, Catherine of Aragon held the titles Governor of the Realm and Captain General of the King's Forces as Queen Regent of England. First attested in the 1520s as the title for the permanent Commander in Chief of the Armies. Though commonly used in the 17th century, in the 18th century, the office was held by Duke
Sergeant (normally abbreviated to Sgt) is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term Sergent.
In most armies the rank of sergeant OR-5 corresponds to command of a squad (or section). In Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank OR-6, corresponding roughly to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a more junior rank, corresponding to a four-man fireteam leader OR-4.
More senior non-commissioned ranks are often variations on sergeant, for instance staff sergeant, sergeant first class, master sergeant, first sergeant and sergeant major. The spelling serjeant is used in a few regiments of the British Army.
In most non-naval military or paramilitary organizations, the various grades of sergeant are non-commissioned officers (NCOs) ranking above privates and corporals, and below warrant officers and commissioned officers. The responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army. There are usually several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the
Petty officer, 1st class, aka PO1, is a Naval non-commissioned member rank of the Canadian Forces. It is senior to the rank of petty officer 2nd-class and its equivalents, and junior to chief petty officer 2nd-class and its equivalents. Its Army and Air Force equivalent is warrant officer (WO).
The French form of the rank is maître de 1re classe.
The rank insignia of the PO1 is a crown worn on both forearms of the Service Dress tunic, and on slip-ons on both shoulders of other uniforms. PO1s are generally initially addressed as "Petty Officer Bloggins" or "PO Bloggins", and thereafter as "PO", although in correspondence the full rank or abbreviation is used before the member's name. The full appellation "Petty Officer 1st-Class" or "PO1" in speech is generally used only when the "first-class" distinction be made, such as to distinguish between members with similar names but differing ranks, or on promotion parades.
PO1s generally mess and billet with chief petty officers and other petty officers, and their army and air-force equivalents, warrant officers and sergeants. Their mess on a naval base or installation is generally named the "Chiefs and POs Mess".
A Général d'Armée (Army General) is the highest active military rank of the French Army.
Officially, Général d'armée is not a rank (grade in French), but a position and style (rang et appellation) bestowed on some Généraux de division (Divisional General, which is the highest substantive rank) in charge of important commands, such as chief of staff of the army (Chef d'état-major de l'armée de terre) or chiefs of general staff (Chef d'état-major des armées).
A Général d'armée displays five stars on a shoulder board. The mention of the current usage of "a sixth star authorized for the Army General in command of the Paris sector" is a legend, this sixth star never existed. The Air Force equivalent is Général d'armée aérienne and the Navy equivalent is Amiral.
Only a Marshal of France (Maréchal de France) is higher; however, Marshal of France is not a rank, but a dignity of the State (dignité dans l'État), today not bestowed. It is considered to be a position of distinction rather than an actual military rank. A seventh star is displayed on the General of the Army insignia by a Marshal of France.
The title of Army General in France and elsewhere should not be confused with the rank of
Brigadier (abbreviated Brig) is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines. Brigadier is the superior rank to Colonel, but subordinate to Major-General. While the corresponding rank of Brigadier General in many other nations is a General Officer rank, the British Army considers it a Field officer rank.
The rank has a NATO rank code of OF-6, placing it equivalent to the Royal Navy Commodore and the Royal Air Force Air Commodore ranks.
The rank insignia for a Brigadier is a crown over three "pips" ("Bath" stars). The rank insignia for a Brigadier-General was crossed sword and baton.
In 1922 the rank of Brigadier-General was replaced by the appointment of Colonel-Commandant. The appointment, although reflecting its modern role in the British Army as a senior colonel rather than a junior general, was not well received and was replaced with brigadier in 1928. Colonel-commandant was only ever used for officers commanding brigades, depots or training establishments. Officers holding equivalent rank in administrative appointments were known as "colonels on the staff", also replaced by brigadier in 1928. Colonel-commandants and colonels on the staff wore the same rank badge
Captain lieutenant or captain-lieutenant is a military rank, used in a number of different navies worldwide. It is generally equivalent to the Commonwealth or US rank of lieutenant, and has the NATO rank code of OF-2, though this can vary.
Kapitan-lejtenant (Russian: капитан-лейтенант) is a rank in the Russian Navy, previously the Red Fleet/Soviet Navy and Imperial Russian Navy. It is the rank below a captain of the 3rd rank and above a senior lieutenant. In Soviet times, it may be achieved as early as an officer's 5th year of service. In Russian and other East-European navies it is the most senior junior officer rank (equivalent to "captain" in the Army/Ground Forces).
The US Navy considers this rank equivalent to lieutenant. On the other hand, the Russians assign this rank the two-and-a-half stripe insignia used in Britain and the US for lieutenant commanders.
In terms of responsibilities, officers of this rank may serve as department heads on larger warships, but may also serve as commanding officers of 3rd and 4th rank warships (Russian ship classifications referring to all from Krivak-class frigates to gunboats and minesweepers).
Unlike the equivalent rank in the German Navy,
The Chief of Naval Personnel (CNP) is responsible for overall manpower readiness for the United States Navy. The CNP also serves as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Manpower, Personnel, Training & Education) and is one of five Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations, with the identification of N1/NT. The CNP oversees the operations of the Bureau of Naval Personnel (BUPERS), Navy Personnel Command (NPC) and the Navy Manpower Analysis Center (NAVMAC). The CNP and the other four DCNOs are nominated by the President of the United States and must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. The CNP and the DCNOs are appointed as a three-star vice admiral while holding office.
The role of Chief of Naval Personnel and Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Manpower, Personnel, Training & Education) go hand in hand. The DCNO performs all strategy and resource policies and serves as a single resource sponsor for all manpower and training program matters. The DCNO also performs all Capitol Hill related duties, including all Congressional testimony for matters pertaining to the Manpower, Personnel, Training, & Education command. The DNCO's office also acts as the lead organization to interface with
Poruchik (Croatian: poručnik, Czech: poručík, Polish: porucznik, Russian: пору́чик, Serbian: поручник, Slovak: poručík) is a military rank in several Slavic countries, such as the Russian Empire and the Republic of Poland, equivalent to Lieutenant. "Poruchik" means "messenger", "officer for orders". This is a Slavic (Czech) copy of the term "Lieutenant" (locum tenens).
In Russia this rank was first introduced in Strelets New Regiments, the rank legalised by the Table of Ranks. A podporuchik is simply a Sub-Poruchik. At various times, there were also Captain-Poruchik ranks in both Army and Navy; naval Poruchik eventually ended as Lieutenant.
The contemporary image of a "poruchik" is of a young, swashbuckling, cavalry lieutenant. This is exemplified by the two most famous fictional poruchiks: Kijé and Rzhevsky.
In the armed forces, a signaller or signaleer is a specialist soldier or seaman or airman responsible for military communications. Signallers, aka Combat Signallers or signalmen or women, are commonly employed as radio or telephone operators, relaying messages for field commanders at the front line (Army units, Ships or Aircraft), through a chain of command which includes Field headquarters and ultimately governments and non government organisations. Messages are transmitted and received via a communications infrastructure comprising fixed and mobile installations.
Modern signallers are responsible for the battlefield voice and data communication and information technology infrastructure, using a variety of media. All types of wire (line), satellite and ionospheric radio communication are employed. These include common radio systems such as HF/VHF radio and UHF/SHF radio (operated in line of sight, for example). Cellular radio and telephone systems such as TETRA are also becoming common.
In the past, signalling skills have included the use of;heliograph, Aldis lamp, semaphore flags, "Don R" (Dispatch Riders) and even carrier pigeons.
In addition to day-to-day soldiering, the
Squadron leader (Sqn Ldr in the RAF and IAF; SQNLDR in the RAAF and RNZAF, formerly sometimes S/L in all services) is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence. It is also sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. In these cases a squadron leader ranks above flight lieutenant and immediately below wing commander.
It has a NATO ranking code of OF-3, equivalent to a lieutenant-commander in the Royal Navy or a major in the British Army or the Royal Marines.
The equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF), Women's Royal Air Force (WRAF) (until 1968) and Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service (PMRAFNS) (until 1980) was squadron officer.
The rank originated in the British Royal Air Force and was adopted by several other air forces which use, or used, the RAF rank system.
On 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service lieutenant commanders and Royal Flying Corps majors becoming majors in the RAF. In response to the
Commodore-in-Chief is an honorary Royal Navy appointment bestowed by the Queen on various members of the Royal Family on 8 August 2006.
Previously there have been honorary Royal Colonels in the British Army and honorary Air Commodores and Air Commodores-in-Chief in the Royal Air Force, but no parallel affiliations with the Royal Navy.
Admiral Sir Jonathon Band, First Sea Lord, said on news of the appointments:
"I am delighted at the news of these appointments. They firmly underline the strength of the bond between the Royal Family and the Armed Forces, not least the Naval Service in which so many members of the Royal family have served with great distinction over the years."
Commodore-in-Chief is an appointment rather than a rank. Holding an appointment of Commodore-in-Chief does not confer upon the holder the rank of Commodore or indeed any other rank. Members of the Royal Family wear the uniform of their rank and are not issued with a different uniform for the appointment.
A United States Naval Aviator is a qualified pilot in the United States Navy, Marine Corps or Coast Guard.
Most Naval Aviators are Unrestricted Line Officers; however, a small number of Limited Duty Officers and Chief Warrant Officers are also trained as Naval Aviators.
Until 1981 the US Navy and Marine Corps also had a small number of senior enlisted personnel trained as pilots. Such individuals were referred to as Naval Aviation Pilots, colloquially "NAPs" or "APs". NAPs have a fraternity known as the Silver Eagles. The Naval Aviation Pilot insignia was identical in design to the Naval Aviator Insignia.
Except for an extremely small number of enlisted personnel selected for flight school, Student Naval Aviators must first obtain an officer commission. To become a Naval Aviator, one must be between the ages of 19 and 27 when entering flight training. Adjustments (waivers) can be made up to 24 months for those with prior service, and up to 48 months for those already in the military at the time of application or for Marine Corps PLC (Platoon Leader's Course) applicants with prior service.
Naval Officers are commissioned through six sources: The United States Naval Academy in
Gunner (Gnr) is a rank equivalent to Private in the British Army Royal Artillery and the artillery corps of other Commonwealth armies. The next highest rank is usually Lance-Bombardier, although in the Royal Canadian Artillery it is Bombardier.
There is a bronze statue of a Gunner called "The Ammunition Carrier" as part of the Royal Artillery Memorial in Hyde Park Corner, commemorating the Royal Artillery Regiment's service and memorializing its losses in World War One. The other bronze figures are "The Captain" (at the front), "The Driver" (at the left side), and "The Fallen Soldier" (at the rear) and it is topped with an elevated stone howitzer. The statues were done by Charles Sargeant Jagger and the stone monument was designed by Lionel Pearson. The Gunner statue, along with the Officer, the Bombardier and the Unknown Soldier, are characters in Charlie Fletcher's Stoneheart.
Generalmajor is an officer's rank in Sweden and Finland, immediately above Brigadgeneral and below Generallöjtnant.
Finnish Defence Forces rank of Kenraalimajuri is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-7
In Sweden, the equivalent Naval rank is Konteramiral
In Finland a kenraalimajuri typically commands a corps or army chief of staff. The commander of Finnish Air Force is a kenraalimajuri. There are also several special tasks for kenraalimajuri or senior.
The rank was originally a pure staff officers' rank used for those who served a general. Those staff servants were named Sergeant Major Generals. The sergeant part was later dropped.
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Маршал Советского Союза [ˈmarʂəɫ sɐˈvʲet͡skəvə sɐˈjʉzə]) was the de facto highest military rank of the Soviet Union. (The highest rank de jure, Generalissimus of the Soviet Union, was created for ethnic Georgian, Joseph Stalin and held by him alone).
The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was created in 1935 and abolished in 1991. Forty-one people held the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. The equivalent naval rank was Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union.
The military rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was established by a decree of the Soviet Cabinet, the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom), on September 22, 1935. On November 20, the rank was conferred on five people: People's Commissar of Defence and veteran Bolshevik Kliment Voroshilov, Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army Alexander Ilyich Yegorov, and three senior commanders, Vasily Blyukher, Semyon Budyonny, and Mikhail Tukhachevsky.
Of these, Blyukher, Tukhachevsky and Yegorov were executed during Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–38. On May 7, 1940, three new Marshals were appointed: the new People's Commissar of Defence, Semyon Timoshenko, Boris Shaposhnikov, and
Sturmbannführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank equivalent to major that was used in several Nazi organizations, such as the SA, SS, and the NSFK. Translated as “assault (or storm) unit leader” (Sturmbann being the SA and early SS equivalent to a battalion), the rank originated from German shock troop units of the First World War where the title of Sturmbannführer would occasionally be held by the battalion commander.
The SA title of Sturmbannführer was first established in 1921. In 1928, the title became an actual rank and was also one of the first established SS ranks. The insignia of a Sturmbannführer was four silver pips centered on a collar patch.
The rank rated below Standartenführer until 1932, when Sturmbannführer became subordinate to the new rank of Obersturmbannführer. In the Waffen-SS, Sturmbannführer was considered equivalent to a major in the German Wehrmacht.
One of the most notable recipients was Wernher von Braun, who developed the V-2 rocket, and later designed the Saturn V rocket for the U.S. space program. Also, Eberhard Heder and Otto Günsche.
The rank of Sturmbannführer appears frequently in fiction, as in the novel Fatherland where the protagonist, Xavier
Aviation Electronics Technician (AT) is a US Navy enlisted rating or job specialty (often called MOS or AFSC by other services). At the paygrade of E-9 (Master Chief Petty Officer) ATs merge with the Aviation Electrician's Mate (AE) rating to become Avionics Technicians (AV). There has been talk of completely merging the two ratings but as of yet no definite plans have been announced. Aviation Electronics Technicians wear the specialty mark of a winged helium atom.
Aviation Electronics Technicians (Intermediate) perform intermediate level maintenance on aviation electronic components supported by conventional and automatic test equipment, including repair of Weapons Replaceable Assemblies (WRA) and Shop Replaceable Assemblies (SRA) and perform test equipment calibration/repair and associated test bench maintenance.
Aviation Electronics Technicians (Organizational) perform organizational level maintenance on aviation electronics systems, to include: communications, radar, navigation, antisubmarine warfare sensors, electronic warfare, data link, fire control and tactical displays with associated equipment.
The rating now known as AT can trace its origin to World War II, when the
A brigadier general in the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, is a one-star general officer, with the pay grade of O-7. Brigadier general ranks above a colonel and below major general. Brigadier general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral (lower half) in the other uniformed services.
U.S. Code of law explicitly limits the total number of general officers who may be on active duty. The total of active duty general officers is capped at 230 for the Army, 208 for the Air Force, and 60 for the Marine Corps. Some of these slots are reserved by statute.
For promotion to the permanent grade of brigadier general, eligible officers are screened by a promotion board consisting of general officers from their branch of service. This promotion board then generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion to general rank. This list is then sent to the service secretary and the joint chiefs for review before it can be sent to the President, through the defense secretary, for consideration. The President nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, the service secretary, and if applicable, the service's chief of staff or
Ensign ( /ˈɛnsən/) is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank itself acquired the name.
"Ensign" is enseigne in French, Fähnrich in German (whereby despite the fact that "Fähnrich" has a parallel etymology, it is not a junior officer but only an officer cadet rank), and chorąży in Polish, each of which derives from a term for a flag. The Spanish alférez and Portuguese alferes is a junior officer rank below lieutenant associated with carrying the flag, and so is often translated as "ensign". Unlike the rank in other languages, its etymology has nothing to do with flags.
The NATO rank code is OF-1 (junior).
In Argentina, the rank of ensign is used by both the air force and the gendarmerie. It is, however, used differently in the two services. The air force uses the rank for newly qualified officers, while the gendarmerie uses "ensign" ranks as an equivalent for the army's "lieutenant" ranks.
The other armed forces of Argentina have ranks equivalent to ensign: subteniente (which can be translated into English
The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service; it was formerly known as First Naval Lord. He also holds the title of Chief of Naval Staff, and is known by the abbreviations 1SL/CNS. The current First Sea Lord is Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope (appointed July 2009).
The Lord High Admiral and the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty date back to the 17th century as the governing body of the British Royal Navy. From 1683 to 1684, there were seven paid Commissioners and one supernumerary Commissioner who served without salary. The number varied between five and seven Commissioners through the 18th century. The standing of all the Commissioners was in theory the same, although the First Commissioner or First Lord exercised an ascendancy over his colleagues from an early date.
In 1805, for the first time, specific functions were assigned to each of the 'Naval' Lords, who were described as 'Professional' Lords, leaving to the 'Civil' Lords the routine business of signing documents. The title of the First Naval Lord was changed to First Sea Lord on the appointment of Sir Jackie Fisher in 1904. From 1923 onward, the First Sea Lord was a member of the
The Grand Master of Artillery or Grand Maître de l'artillerie was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France during the Ancien Régime.
The position of Grand Master of Artillery replaced the earlier position of Grand Maître des arbalétriers ("Grand Master of the Archers"). It was made a Great Office of the Crown in 1601 by King Henry IV for the benefit of Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully.
The Grand Master of Artillery had jurisdiction, at the beginning of the 17th century, over all the officers and the artillery of the French army, as well as oversight over sieges and encampments, the making of gunpowder and cannons and management of the arsenals. At the end of the century, the position became merely honorific, and his duties passed to other more specialized officers, most notably the "surintendant des fortifications".
An intelligence officer is a person employed by an organization to collect, compile and/or analyze information (known as intelligence) which is of use to that organization. Organizations which employ intelligence officers include armed forces, police, civilian intelligence agencies and customs agencies.
Intelligence officers make use of a variety of sources of information, including
The actual role carried out by an intelligence officer varies depending on the remit of his/her parent organization. Officers of foreign intelligence agencies (e.g. the United States' Central Intelligence Agency, the United Kingdom's Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) and Australia's Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) may spend much of their careers abroad. Officers of domestic intelligence agencies (such as the United States' Federal Bureau of Investigation, the UK's Security Service (MI5) and Australia's Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) are responsible for counter-terrorism, counter-espionage, counter-proliferation and the detection and prevention of serious organized crime within their own countries (although, in Britain, the Serious Organised Crime Agency has been set up to take care of
For other uses of the term "Stabschef" please refer to Chief of Staff
Stabschef (Chief of Staff) was an office and paramilitary rank in the Sturmabteilung (SA), the paramilitary stormtroopers associated with the Nazi movement. The rank is equivalent to the rank of Generaloberst in the German Army and to General in the US Army.
The position of SA-Stabschef, not yet a rank, was established in 1929 to assist the Oberste SA-Führer (Supreme SA Leader) with the administration of the fast-growing organization. Otto Wagener held the office under Oberste SA-Führer Franz Pfeffer von Salomon from 1928-1930, and effectively headed the SA from Hitler's assumption of the title Oberste SA-Führer in August until Ernst Röhm replaced him in January 1931.
The actual SA rank of Stabschef was created by Röhm for himself in 1933 after Hitler became Chancellor. Although Hitler was the supreme commander of the stormtroopers, the day to day running of the organization was left to the Chief of Staff, and the men who held the rank of Stabschef are typically connected with being the actual leaders of the SA.
The rank of Stabschef was held by three different people between 1931 and 1945 and was, in each case
A warrant officer (WO) is an officer in a military organization who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, or from non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer by virtue of seniority.
The rank was first used in the (then) English Royal Navy and is today used in many other countries, including the Commonwealth nations, and the United States. Outside the United States they are effectively senior non-commissioned officers with long military experience, although technically in a cadre of their own between non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers. Warrant officer is a rank between flight sergeant and pilot officer in the Royal Air Force. However, warrant officers in the United States are technical leaders and specialists, and chief warrant officers are commissioned by the president of the United States and take the same oath as regular commissioned officers. They may be technical experts with long service or direct entrants, notably for U.S. Army helicopter pilots.
The warrant officer corps began in the 13th century in the nascent English Royal Navy. At that time, noblemen with
Divisional General is a rank used in many armies to denote a rank of general, corresponding to command of a division. For convenience Divisional General is almost always translated into English as Major-General, the equivalent rank used by the UK, USA, etc., although this translation is, strictly speaking, incorrect.
The rank is particularly common in western Europe and Latin America.
The rank is mostly used in countries where it is used as a modern alternative to a previous older rank of Major-General.
The rank is almost always above a rank corresponding to command of a brigade, and normally below a rank corresponding to command of a corps.
In Poland the symbols of this rank are the general's wavy line and two stars, featured both on the rogatywka, sleeves of the uniform and above the breast pocket of a field uniform.
Landman (or, in the United States Navy, Landsman) was a military rank given to naval recruits.
In the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom in the middle of the 18th century (c.1757), the term Landman referred to a seaman with less than a year's experience at sea. After a year, the Landman was usually promoted to the rank of Ordinary Seaman.
Most were acquired by impressment (a common method of recruitment from c.1700-1815). Landmen were usually between the ages of 16 to 35, while seasoned sailors (who started as Ordinary Seamen) could be impressed up to the ages of 50 to 55 depending on need. In 1853, with the abolition of impressment after the passing of the Continuous Service Act, the rank's title was changed to Apprentice Seaman. The term Landman evolved into a more formal rating for a seaman assigned to unskilled manual labor.
Landsman was the lowest rank of the United States Navy in the 19th and early 20th centuries; it was given to new recruits with little or no experience at sea. Landsmen performed menial, unskilled work aboard ship. A Landsman who gained three years of experience or re-enlisted could be promoted to Ordinary Seaman. The rank existed from 1838 to 1921.
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).
In modern military parlance, 'private' is shortened to 'Pte' in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries and to 'Pvt.' in the United States.
The term derives from the medieval term "private soldiers" (a term still used in the United Kingdom), denoting soldiers who were either hired, conscripted, or feudalized into service by a nobleman forming an army. The usage of "private" dates from the 18th century, when the army of Napoleon Bonaparte first established the permanent rank of soldat.
In the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), טוראי Turai (Private) refers to the lowest חוגרים Hogrim (enlisted) rank. After 7–10 months of service (7 for combatants, 8 for combat support and 10 for non-combatants) soldiers are promoted from private to corporal (Rav-turai or Rabat), if they performed their duties appropriately during this time. Soldiers who take a commander's course, are prisoner instructors or practical engineers become corporals earlier. An IDF טוראי Turai (Private) wears no uniform insignia and is sometimes described as having a "slick sleeve" for
A captain's clerk was a rating, now obsolete, in the Royal Navy and the United States Navy for a person employed by the captain to keep his records, correspondence, and accounts. The regulations of the Royal Navy demanded that a purser serve at least one year as a captain's clerk, so the latter was often a young man working his way to a purser's warrant. He had high status, with an office on the quarterdeck or upper deck on most ships. He was paid at the same rate as a midshipman in 1800, but by 1815 he had almost the same monthly pay as a standing warrant officer. On large ships, he had his own cabin in the gunroom, but on smaller vessels he lived with the midshipmen on the orlop deck.
Once commissioned, a ship required a great deal of paperwork to keep her in good order. The recognized office staff consisted of captain's clerk, the purser, and the purser's steward. On most ships the first lieutenant was allowed a "writer" to help him draw up the watch and station bills, chosen from among the most literate landmen, otherwise the paperwork was done by the officers themselves. Occasionally the clerk had clerk's assistants, similar to how most warrant officers had mates.
In order to
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by most militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. It is usually equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-4.
The rank of corporal nominally corresponds to commanding a section or squad of soldiers. However, in the United States Army, a corporal is usually a fire team leader or second-in-command of a squad of soldiers. In the United States Marine Corps, corporal is the Table of Organization rank for a rifle fire team leader, machine gun team leader, light mortar squad leader, and assault weapon team leader, as well as gunner on most larger crew served weapons (i.e., medium mortars, heavy machine guns, anti-tank missiles, and howitzers) and armored vehicles (e.g., tanks, light armored vehicles, and armored assault vehicles).
In most countries which derive their military structure from the British military system, it is a more senior rank than that of private. However, in several other countries, such as Canada, Italy and Norway, corporal is a junior rank, indicating a more experienced soldier than a private, and also on a higher pay scale, but having no particular command appointment corresponding to the rank, similar
Lochagos (Greek: Λοχαγός; abbreviated as Λγος) is used in the Greek language to mean "Captain". More precisely, it means "leader of a lochos".
The term has been used since the times of Ancient Greece, where the place of the rank in the military hierarchy differed from city-state to city-state. For example, Xenophon reported that a lochagos of Sparta served under a polemarch. Aristotle reported that his counterpart in Athens served under a taxiarchos. In military manuals, the file is often called a lochos and as such its leader is also called a lochagos. Thus, the lochagos can also be the promachos protostates.
The rank of lochagos could also represent an officer roughly equivalent to that a Roman army centurion. The term was however also used by later writers to describe the civilian leader of a curia. The rank was still in use in the military of the Byzantine Empire.
In the modern Hellenic Army the rank is superior to an Ypolochagos (First Lieutenant) and inferior to an Tagmatarchis (Major). The insignia consists of three silver stars.
Master chief petty officer is the ninth, and highest, enlisted rate (paygrade E-9) in the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard, just above senior chief petty officer. Master chief petty officers are addressed as "Master Chief (last name)". They constitute the top 1% of the enlisted members of the maritime forces.
In the Navy, advancement to master chief petty officer is similar to that of chief petty officer and senior chief petty officer. It carries requirements of time in service, superior evaluation scores, and selection by a board of master chiefs. Similarly, senior chief petty officers and chief petty officers are chosen by selection boards. In the Coast Guard, advancement to master chief petty officer is similar to other advancements consisting of competition with other advancement-eligible senior chief petty officers. Advancement-eligible senior chief petty officers are prioritized based on written examination scores, evaluations, award points, time in service, and time in grade. Master chief petty officers are then selected monthly from this prioritization list as positions become available.
Petty officers of all grades possess both a rate (the enlisted term for rank) and rating
Port admiral is an honorific rank in the United States Navy, and a former rank in the British Royal Navy.
Port admiral was a positional rank, now apparently defunct, in the British Royal Navy.
A port admiral was not an actual admiral, but typically a veteran captain who served as the shore commander of a British naval port and was in charge of supplying, refitting, and maintaining the ships docked at harbour. As the port admiral technically had control of a fleet of ships, albeit mostly in drydock and layup, the position was granted the status of a navy admiral.
Port admiral is an honorific rank in the United States Navy, for the senior officer of the ships in a naval dockyard. Examples include Samuel Livingston Breese from 1869 to 1870 in Philadelphia. The port admiral usually has a flagship, examples of which include USS Roanoke for the New York port admiral from 1865 to 1874.
The rank of port admiral appears in futuristic military organisations in science fiction.
In the Lensman novels, the rank of port admiral appeared as the most senior naval officer of the Galactic Patrol, with de facto supreme command over its forces. Three specific port admirals were mentioned by name:
Captain is a rank in the Canadian military.
In the Canadian Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force, the rank insignia of an army and air force captain is two wide bars.
The rank insignia of a navy captain is four wide bars.
All officer bars are of gold thread in the dress uniforms, olive drab in combat uniform. The equivalent rank in the Canadian Navy is Lieutenant (RCN).
Cornet was originally the third and lowest grade of commissioned officer in a British cavalry troop, after captain and lieutenant. A cornet is a new and junior officer. In practice, the style "Cornet" is still used for Second Lieutenants in the Blues and Royals and the Queen's Royal Hussars.
The cornet carried the troop standard, also known as a "cornet".
The rank of Cornet was the equivalent of the infantry rank of ensign, and was one of the subaltern ranks (along with lieutenant).
The rank was in use by the time of the English Civil War. A few famous people in that war were Cornets, including George Joyce, Robert Stetson, and Ninian Beall.
It was abolished at the same time that the purchase of commissions in the army was abolished in the Army Reform Act of 1871 and was replaced by Second Lieutenant.
The ranks of Ensign and Cornet were abolished in the US Army in the year 1800.
The rank also existed in other nation's cavalry troops, such as those of Sweden (Kornett) and Imperial Russia (корнет), and by the Continental Army in the American War of Independence. General Alexander Macomb was initially commissioned a Cornet in a career in which he eventually became Commanding General
In the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, colonel is a senior field grade military officer rank just above the rank of lieutenant colonel and just below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services, such as the United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and the commissioned corps of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration]] (NOAA).
The insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officer's left side (a mirror-image version is worn on the right side, such that the eagle always faces forward to the wearer's front; the left-side version is also worn centered on fatigue caps, helmets, ACU & ECWCS breasts, inter alia).
The pay grade for the rank of colonel or naval captain in the United States is O-6.
The insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle which is a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States (which is the coat of arms of the United States). As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U.S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons. However, in simplification of the
In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of Commander (French: Capitaine de frégate or capf) is a Naval rank equal to a Lieutenant-Colonel of the Army or Air Force. A Commander is senior to a Lieutenant-Commander or an Army or Air Force Major, and junior to a Captain(N) or Colonel.
Typical appointments for a Commander include:
The rank insignia for a Commander is three ½" stripes, worn on the cuffs of the Service Dress jacket, and on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap is one row of gold oak leaves along the edge. Commanders in the Naval Operations Branch wear the officers' pattern cap badge for that branch, which is an anchor on a black oval, surrounded by a wreath of maple leaves. Specialist officers in such branches as logistics, medical, etc. wear their respective branch cap badges.
A Commander is addressed initially by rank and surname, thereafter by superiors and peers as "Commander" and by subordinates as "Sir" or "Ma'am".
Master Gunner is an appointment of the Warrant officer rank in several armed forces.
In the British Army's Royal Artillery Master Gunners are experts in the technical aspects of gunnery. They fill advisory rather than command posts. The appointment is split into two classes: Master Gunners 2nd and 1st Class are Warrant Officers Class 1. The appointment of Master Gunner should not be confused with that of Master Gunner, St James's Park, who is the ceremonial head of the Royal Regiment of Artillery.
Master Gunner, commonly referred to as "Mike Golf," is also an Advanced Skill school of the Armor, Infantry and Artillery branches of the U.S. Army, and Armor branch of the U.S. Marine Corps. It requires a high degree of skill and test-taking ability, leading to a low graduation rate.
The primary mission of the Army master gunner is to aid and assist commanders at all echelons in the planning, development, execution, and evaluation of all crew-served weapons related training (individual, crew, and collective).
The master gunner's specific duties are directed by the commander. Examples of his duties are:
The master gunner's main responsibilities are listed above, but may change in scope,
A midshipman is an officer cadet or a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Kenya. The rank was also used, prior to 1968, by the Royal Canadian Navy, but upon the creation of the Canadian Forces the rank of midshipman was replaced with the rank of naval cadet.
In the 17th century, a midshipman was a rating for an experienced seaman, and the word derives from the area aboard a ship, amidships, either where the original rating worked on the ship, or where he was berthed. Beginning in the 18th century, a commissioned officer candidate was rated as a midshipman, and the seaman rating began to slowly die out. By the Napoleonic era (1793–1815), a midshipman was an apprentice officer who had previously served at least three years as a volunteer, officer's servant or able seaman, and was roughly equivalent to a present day petty officer in rank and responsibilities. After serving at least three years as a midshipman or master's mate, he was eligible to take the examination for lieutenant.
Aluf (Hebrew: אלוף, lit. "Champion") is the term used in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) for officers who in other countries would have the rank of General, Air Marshal, or Admiral. In addition to the Aluf rank itself, there are four other ranks which are derivatives of the word. Together, they constitute the five highest ranks in the IDF.
The term Aluf is taken from the Bible, where it was a rank of nobility among the Edomites. It comes from a Semitic root meaning "thousand" making an "Aluf" the one who commands a thousand people.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is an integrated force, ranks are the same in all services. It has a slightly compacted rank structure; for instance, the Chief of Staff (Ramatkal is seemingly only equivalent to a Lieutenant General (NATO OF-8) in other militaries. Rav Aluf means 'Arch-General', which would be equal to a Field Marshal or Five Star General in other armies and equivalent to OF-10.
Rav Aluf is usually translated as "Lieutenant General", but is often considered to equate to a Field Marshal or five-star General, since it is the most senior rank in the IDF. The rank is given only to the Chief of General Staff (Ramatkal), so there can only be
The Chief of Army is the most senior appointment in the Australian Army, responsible to both the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) and the Secretary, Department of Defence (SECDEF). The rank associated with the position is Lieutenant General (3-star).
The first Commander of the Australian Army was titled General Officer Commanding, Australian Military Forces, in line with the usual British practice of the time. Experience soon showed that the position concentrated more power than the Ministers for Defence—of whom there were twelve in as many years in 1901–1913—liked. Moreover, the British Army had encountered administrative problems in the Second Boer War which led to the abolition of the position of Commander-in-Chief of the Forces there in 1904, and its replacement by an Army Board.
In 1904, Minister for Defence Anderson Dawson commissioned a report which recommended a similar system for Australia, with a Military Board consisting of four military members, the minister, and a finance member. This was implemented by his successor, James Whiteside McCay. However instead of creating a Chief of the General Staff as per the report, McCay's Military Board consisted of only three
The Chief of the General Staff, also known as the Commander-in-Chief of the Israel Defense Forces (Hebrew: ראש המטה הכללי, Rosh HaMateh HaKlali, abbr. Ramatkal—רמטכ"ל) is the supreme commander and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
At any given time, the Chief of Staff is the only active officer holding the IDF's highest rank, Rav Aluf (Hebrew: רב-אלוף), which is usually translated into English as Lieutenant General, a three-star rank. (The lone exception to this rule occurred during the Yom Kippur War, when former Chief of Staff Haim Bar-Lev, who was a government member at the moment of war outbreak, was brought out of retirement and installed as chief of Southern Command. For a brief period, he and Chief of Staff David Elazar were both in active service with the rank of Rav Aluf.)
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is an integrated force, ranks are the same in all services. It has a slightly compacted rank structure; for instance, the Chief of Staff (Ramatkal or Rav Aluf (Hebrew: רב-אלוף)) is seemingly only equivalent to a Lieutenant General (NATO OF-8) in other militaries. Rav Aluf means 'Arch-General', which would be equal to a Field Marshal or Five Star General in
Rottenführer (English: Section Leader) was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in the year 1932. The rank of Rottenführer was used by several Nazi paramilitary groups, among them the Sturmabteilung (SA), the Schutzstaffel (SS) and was senior to the paramilitary rank of Sturmmann.
The insignia for Rottenführer consisted of two double silver stripes on a bare collar patch. On field grey SS uniforms, the sleeve chevrons of an Obergefreiter (senior lance-corporal) were also worn.
Rottenführer was first established in 1932 as an SA rank due to an expansion of the organisation requiring a greater number of enlisted positions. Since early SS ranks were identical to the ranks of the SA, Rottenführer became an SS rank at the same time.
Rottenführer was the first SS and SA position to have command over other paramilitary troops. They commanded a rotte (English: team, equal to a squad or section) usually numbering no more than five to seven persons. A Rottenführer, in turn, answered to a Scharführer.
After 1934, a restructure of SS ranks made Rottenführer junior to the new rank of SS-Unterscharführer, although in the SA the rank continued to rate immediately below that of
Yuan Shuai (元帥) was a Chinese military rank that corresponds to a marshal in other nations. It is given to distinguished generals during China's dynastic and republican periods. A higher level rank of Da Yuan Shuai (大元帥), which corresponds to a Generalissimo, also existed.
The rank was awarded to ten veteran generals of the People's Liberation Army in 1955. However, along with all other military ranks of the PLA, it was abolished in 1965 and was never restored. The recipients of the rank are:
An able seaman (AB) is an unlicensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship. An AB may work as a watchstander, a day worker, or a combination of these roles.
At sea an AB watchstander's duties include standing watch as helmsman and lookout. A helmsman is required to maintain a steady course, properly execute all rudder orders and communicate utilizing navigational terms relating to heading and steering. A watchstander may be called upon to stand security-related watches, such as a gangway watch or anchor watch while the ship is not underway.
An AB day worker performs general maintenance, repair, sanitation and upkeep of material, equipment, and areas in the deck department. This can include maintenance of the ship’s metal structures such as chipping, scraping, cleaning, priming, and painting. Areas frequently in need of such maintenance include the hull, decks, superstructure, cargo gear, and smoke stack. Day workers also frequently perform maintenance on lifeboats, rescue boats and liferafts, and emergency and damage control gear.
An AB may be called on to use emergency, lifesaving, damage control, and safety equipment. Able seamen perform all operations connected with
The Academy Sergeant Major is the senior non-commissioned officer instructor at a military academy.
At the British Army's Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, the AcSM holds the rank of warrant officer class 1. He is always a guardsman.
At the Australian Defence Force Academy, the ASM also holds the rank of warrant officer class 1 or equivalent and is drawn on rotation from all three services.
Commandant ( /ˌkɒmənˈdɑːnt/ or /ˌkɒmənˈdænt/) is a senior title often given to the officer in charge of a large training establishment or academy. This usage is common in anglophone nations. In some non-English speaking countries it may be a military or police title or rank.
In the French Army and French Air Force, the term commandant is used as a rank equivalent to major (NATO rank code OF-3). However, in the French Navy commandant is the style, but not the rank, of the senior officers, specifically capitaine de corvette, capitaine de frégate and capitaine de vaisseau.
In South Africa, commandant was the title of the commanding officer of a commando (militia) unit in the 19th and early 20th centuries. During the First World War, Commandant was used as a title by officers commanding Defence Rifle Association units, also known as Burgher Commandoes. The Commandoes were militia units raised in emergencies and constituted the third line of defence after the Permanent Force and the part-time Active Citizen Force regiments. The Commandant rank was equivalent to Major or Lieutenant-Colonel depending on the size of the Commando. From 1950 to 1994 Commandant (rank) was the rank equivalent
Senior airman (SrA) is the fourth enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, just above airman first class and below staff sergeant. It has a pay grade of E-4. Between its approval on 30 December 1975 (with implementation 1 June 1976) and 19 March 1991, senior airmen wore sleeve chevrons with blue center stars instead of silver to distinguish them from the non-commissioned officer rank of "sergeant", also a pay grade of E-4. The latter was abolished in 1991 and the blue center star was changed to white to conform to all enlisted rank chevrons.
The Air Force promotes an airman first class to senior airman after 36 months in service. Outstanding airmen first class, limited to no more than 15 percent of the total, may be promoted to senior airmen six months early, in a competitive process called Below-the-Zone, which normally involves going before a competitive board. Senior airmen are expected to be technically proficient and begin to develop leadership skills, and may be expected to supervise an airman of lesser rank.
Senior airmen must attend the six-week Airman Leadership School, the first course of the Air Force's College of enlisted professional military education, before
Senior chief petty officer is the eighth enlisted rank in the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard, just above chief petty officer and below master chief petty officer, and is a noncommissioned officer. They are addressed as "Senior Chief" in most circumstances, or sometimes, less formally, as "Senior".
Advancement to senior chief petty officer is similar to that of chief petty officer. It carries requirements of time in service, superior evaluation scores, and peer review. In the Navy, it is the first promotion that is based entirely on proven leadership performance; test scores do not play a part. A chief petty officer can only advance if a board of master chiefs approves, convened every year around March. Senior chief petty officers make up just 2.5% of the total enlisted force of the Navy. In the Coast Guard, advancement to senior chief is similar to other advancements, in that candidates compete with other advancement-eligible chief petty officers. Advancement-eligible chief petty officers are prioritized based on written examination scores, evaluations, award points, time in service, and time in grade. Senior chief petty officers are then selected monthly from this prioritization
A Trumpeter (abbreviation: Tptr) is a regiment specific, descriptive name given to Privates in the British Army. It is used for trumpeters in the Household Cavalry and was formerly used in all other cavalry regiments.
In the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps, general is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10. General ranks above lieutenant general and below General of the Army or General of the Air Force; the Marine Corps does not have an established grade above general. General is equivalent to the rank of admiral in the other uniformed services. Since the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force are reserved for war-time use only, and since the Marine Corps has no five-star equivalent, the grade of general is currently considered to be the highest appointment an officer can achieve in these three services.
U.S. Code of law explicitly limits the total number of four-star officers that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 230 for the Army, 208 for the Air Force, 60 for the Marine Corps. For the Army, Navy, and Air Force, no more than about 25% of the service's active duty general or flag officers may have more than two stars, and statute sets the total number of four-star generals allowed in each service. This is set at 7 four-star Army generals, 9
In the United States Army, the United States Air Force and the United States Marine Corps, lieutenant general (abbreviated Lt Gen in the Air Force, LtGen in the Marine Corps and LTG in the Army) is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9. Lieutenant general ranks above major general and below general. Lieutenant general is equivalent to the rank of vice admiral in the other uniformed services.
The United States Code explicitly limits the total number of generals that may be concurrently active to 230 for the Army, 208 for the Air Force, and 60 for the Marine Corps. For the Army and Air Force, no more than about 25% of the service's active duty general officers may have more than two stars. Some of these slots are reserved by statute. For example, in the Army and the Air Force, the Surgeon General and the Judge Advocate General for both branches are lieutenant generals. Officers serving in certain intelligence positions are not counted against either limit, including the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency The President may also add three-star slots to one service if they are offset by removing an equivalent number from other services. Finally,
Petty officer third class is the fourth enlisted rank in the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps, just above seaman and below petty officer second class, and is the lowest rank of non-commissioned officer, equivalent to a corporal in the U.S. Army and Marines. Petty officer third class shares the same pay grade as senior airman in the Air Force, which no longer has an NCO rank corresponding with E-4.
Unlike the seaman and lower ranks, advancement to petty officer third class is not automatic given time in service, but is also contingent on performance evaluations by their superiors and rate examinations (test of specialty knowledge), except for certain technical ratings which carry automatic advancement to PO3, after successful completion of the rating's "A" school and fulfillment of time in rate requirements. The advancement cycle is currently every 6 months. Only a certain number of billets (job openings for this rank) open up biannually and all seamen compete. The top scorers are chosen for advancement, but only in sufficient quantities to fill the billets available.
Petty officers serve a dual role as both technical experts and as leaders.
The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to command of a company of soldiers. The rank is also used by some air forces and marine forces. Today a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery (or United States Army cavalry troop or Commonwealth squadron). In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may also command a platoon, or be the second-in-command of a battalion.
In NATO countries the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1 (lieutenant or first lieutenant) and one below an OF-3 (major or commandant). The rank of captain is generally considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field.
The rank of captain should not be confused with the naval rank of captain or with the Commonwealth Air Force rank of group captain, both of which are equivalent to the army rank of colonel.
Prior to the professionalization of the armed services of European nations subsequent to the French Revolution, a captain was a nobleman who purchased the right to head a company from the previous holder of that
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral (equivalent to full general) and above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet (or fleet admiral). It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". Where relevant, admiral has a NATO code of OF-9, and is a four-star rank.
The word "admiral" in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic "amir", or amir-al- أمير الـ, "commander of the" (as in amir-al-bahr أمير البحر "commander of the sea"). Crusaders learned the term during their encounters with the Arabs, perhaps as early as the 11th century.
The Norman Roger II of Sicily (1095–1154), employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who previously had served as a naval commander for several North African Moslem rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as "Amir of Amirs", i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as "ammiratus ammiratorum".
The Sicilians and later Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, amiral, from their Aragon
Bombardier is a rank used in artillery units in the armies of Commonwealth countries instead of corporal. Lance-bombardier is used instead of lance-corporal.
Bombardier (Bdr) and lance-bombardier (LBdr or L/Bdr) are used by the British Army in the Royal Artillery and Royal Horse Artillery. The same applies to the Royal Australian Artillery, the Royal New Zealand Artillery, the South African Army Artillery and the Armed Forces of Malta (AFM). In the Canadian Forces, the Artillery Branch uses the ranks of master bombardier and bombardier instead of master corporal and corporal. In the Australian Army the insignia is identical to that of a corporal, the only distinguishing featuring being the RAA badge worn on the cap by lance bombardiers and bombardiers.
Originally, the Royal Artillery had corporals (but not lance-corporals) and a bombardier was junior to a corporal and wore a single chevron. Unlike a lance-corporal, a bombardier held full non-commissioned rank and not an acting appointment. The rank was equivalent to second corporal in the Royal Engineers and Army Ordnance Corps.
In 1920, corporals were abolished in the Royal Artillery and bombardiers became the equivalent and
Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops (four battalions). In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general.
In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, which is often considered to not be a general-officer rank, but is usually equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank.
The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or simply a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. An alternative rank of "brigade general" was first used in the French revolutionary armies.
In the first quarter of the 20th century, British and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; in the 1920s this practice changed to the use of brigadier, which is not classed as a general officer.
Brazil and a few countries uses major general as the
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
The rank of lieutenant has different meanings in different military formations (see comparative military ranks), but the majority of cases it is common for it to be sub-divided into a senior (first lieutenant) and junior (second lieutenant) rank. In navies it may relate to a particular post rather than a rank.
In the Israel Defense Forces, the rank above second lieutenant is simply lieutenant. The rank of (קצין מקצועי אקדמאי (קמ"א (katsín miktsoí akademai or "kama"), a professional academic officer (that is, a medical, dental or veterinary officer, a justice officer or a religious officer), is equivalent to a professional officer of the second class in the reserve and equivalent to first lieutenant.
In the British Army and Royal Marines, the rank above second lieutenant is simply lieutenant (pronounced Lef-tenant), with no ordinal attached.
Before 1871, when the whole British Army switched to using the current rank of "lieutenant", the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers and Fusilier regiments used "first lieutenant" and "second lieutenant".
The first lieutenant (often
Fleet Admiral of the United States Navy, or more commonly referred to as Fleet Admiral (FADM), is a five-star flag officer rank, and it is considered to be the highest possible rank attainable in the United States Navy. Fleet Admiral ranks immediately above admiral and is equivalent to General of the Army and General of the Air Force. The Fleet Admiral rank is reserved for wartime use only and the grade is not currently active.
A special grade of Admiral of the Navy, which ranks above Fleet Admiral, was once conferred to Admiral George Dewey following the Spanish–American War (1898) in 1903, but it ceased to exist after his death on 16 January 1917.
The insignia for a Fleet Admiral is composed of five silver stars in a pentagonal design with a two-inch rank stripe, below four half inch stripes, worn on the service dress uniform.
In keeping with a tradition dating back to the 18th-century Royal Navy, a Fleet Admiral is entitled to full Admiral's pay and fringe benefits, including a small staff, for the remainder of his life.
The United States rank of Fleet Admiral was created by an Act of Congress on a temporary basis under Pub.L. 78-482 on December 14, 1944, and made permanent by
A flight surgeon is a military medical officer assigned to duties in the clinical field variously known as aviation medicine, aerospace medicine, or flight medicine (NB: although the term "flight surgery" is considered improper by purists, it may occasionally be encountered).
Flight surgeons are medical doctors, either MDs or DOs, who are primarily responsible for the medical evaluation, certification and treatment of military aviation personnel — e.g., pilots, Naval Flight Officers, navigators/Combat Systems Officers, astronauts, air traffic controllers, UAV operators and other aircrew members, both officer and enlisted. They perform routine, periodic medical examinations ("flight physicals") of these personnel, as well as initially examine/treat these personnel when ill or following an aircraft mishap.
In the U.S military, flight surgeons are trained to fill general public health and occupational and preventive medicine roles, and are only infrequently "surgeons" in an operating theater sense. Flight surgeons are typically on flight status (i.e., they log flight hours), but are not required to be rated or licensed pilots. They may be called upon to provide medical consultation as
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given.
The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer; and as a specific rank. Since the late twentieth century, the rank of general is usually the highest active rank of a military not at war.
The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers are known as field officers or field-grade officers, and below them are company-grade officers. All officers who commanded more than a single regiment came to be known as "general officers". The word "general" is used in its ordinary sense in English (and other languages) as relating to larger, general, military units, rather than smaller units in particular.
There are two common systems of general ranks.
Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe. It is used in the United Kingdom (although it did not originate there), from which it eventually spread to the Commonwealth and
Hauptmann is a German word usually translated as captain when it is used as an officer's rank in the German, Austrian and Swiss armies. While "haupt" in contemporary German means "main", it also has the dated meaning of "head", i.e. Hauptmann literally translates to "head man", which is also the etymological root of "captain" (from Latin caput head). It equates to Captain in the British and US Armies, and is rated OF-2 in NATO.
More generally, it can be used to denote the head of any hierarchically structured group of people, often as a compound word. For example, a Feuerwehrhauptmann is the captain of a fire brigade, while the word Räuberhauptmann refers to the leader of a gang of robbers.
Official Austrian titles incorporating the word include Landeshauptmann, Bezirkshauptmann, Burghauptmann and Berghauptmann.
In Saxony during the Weimar Republic, the titles of Kreishauptmann and Amtshauptmann were held by senior civil servants.
Junior post captain is an obsolete alternative form of the rank of captain in the Royal Navy, but with less than 3 years seniority.
A junior post-captain would usually command a frigate or a comparable ship, while a senior post-captain (i.e. a more senior post captain) would command a ship of the line.
After 1795, when they were first introduced on Royal Navy uniforms, the number and position of epaulettes distinguished between commanders and post-captains of various seniorities. A commander wore a single epaulette on the left shoulder. A post-captain with less than three years seniority wore a single epaulette on the right shoulder, and a post-captain with three or more years seniority was the same as captain and wore one epaulette on each shoulder from then.
Obergruppenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the SA. Until 1942, it was the highest SS rank inferior only to Reichsführer-SS (Heinrich Himmler). Translated as "senior group leader", the rank of SA-Obergruppenführer was held by members of the Oberste SA-Führung (Supreme SA Command) and also by veteran commanders of certain SA-Gruppen (SA groups). The rank of Obergruppenführer was considered senior to Gruppenführer.
As an SS rank, Obergruppenführer was created due to the growth and expansion of the SS under Heinrich Himmler. Himmler was one of the first SS officers appointed to the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer, and held the rank while simultaneously serving as the Reichsführer-SS. At the time Himmler held the rank of Obergruppenführer, Reichsführer was simply a title and not yet an actual rank.
In the early days of the SS, the rank of Obergruppenführer was occasionally used to make two SS leaders equal in seniority, so as to prevent a power struggle within the Nazi Party. Such was the case with Kurt Daluege, who commanded most of the SS in the Berlin region between 1930 and 1934. To avoid having the SS split into two separate
Rear Admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, and below that of a vice admiral. It is generally regarded as the lowest of the "admiral" ranks, which are also sometimes referred to as "flag officers" or "flag ranks". In many navies it is referred to as a two-star rank.
It originated from the days of naval sailing squadrons and can trace its origins to the Royal Navy. Each naval squadron would be assigned an admiral as its head, who would command from the centre vessel and direct the activities of the squadron. The admiral would in turn be assisted by a vice admiral, who commanded the lead ships which would bear the brunt of a naval battle. In the rear of the naval squadron, a third admiral would command the remaining ships and, as this section of the squadron was considered to be in the least danger, the admiral in command of the rear would typically be the most junior of the squadron admirals. This has survived into the modern age, with the rank of rear admiral the most-junior of the admiralty ranks of many navies.
In some European navies (e.g., that of France), and in the Canadian Forces' French rank translations, the rank of rear admiral
Standartenführer was a Nazi party paramilitary rank that was used in several Nazi organizations, such as the SA, SS, NSKK and the NSFK. First founded as a title in 1925, in 1928 the rank became one of the first commissioned Nazi ranks and was bestowed upon those SA and SS officers who commanded units known as Standarten which were regiment-sized formations of between three hundred and five hundred men.
In 1929 the rank of Standartenführer was divided into two separate ranks known as Standartenführer (I) and Standartenführer (II). This concept was abandoned in 1930 when both the SA and SS expanded their rank systems to allow for more officer positions and thus the need for only a single Standartenführer rank.
In 1933, when Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, the rank of Standartenführer had been established as the greatest field-officer rank, lesser than that of Oberführer of the SS and SA. By the start of the World War II, Standartenführer was widely spread as both an SS rank and a rank of the SA. In the Waffen-SS, the rank was considered the equivalent of an Oberst, a full colonel.
The insignia for Standartenführer consisted of a single oak leaf displayed on both collars.
The Adjutant General of Oklahoma is the highest ranking military official in the state of Oklahoma, subordinate only to the Governor of Oklahoma. The highest officer of the Oklahoma National Guard, the Adjutant General is the principal advisor to the Governor on military affairs and the head of the Oklahoma Military Department as the Secretary of the Military.
The current Adjutant General of Oklahoma is Major General Myles Deering. Major General Deering was appointed by Governor Brad Henry on February 3, 2009, following the promotion of Harry M. Wyatt III to director of the Air National Guard at the Pentagon.
The Adjutant General is appointed by the Governor of Oklahoma, and confirmed by the Oklahoma Senate, to serve at the pleasure of the Governor with no set term.
Once appointed, the Adjutant General is elevated to the rank of Major General.
To be eligible for hold the office of Adjutant General, an officer must be federally recognized as being part as of the Oklahoma National Guard and the United States National Guard and must hold at least the rank of Colonel for at least three years prior to appointment. However, should the Oklahoma National Guard be federalized and no person
In the British Army, a Brigade Major was the Chief of Staff of a brigade. He held the rank of Major and was head of the brigade's "G - Operations and Intelligence" section directly and oversaw the two other branches, "A - Administration" and "Q - Quartermaster". Intentionally ranked lower than the Lt-Colonels commanding the brigade's combat battalions his role was to expand on, detail and execute the intentions of the commanding Brigadier.
During the Great War, the Brigade Major was reportedly "a key personality who affected the health and happiness of the battalions." as he would be in most frequent contact with the frontline troops and held responsibility for the planning of brigade operations.
In 1913 Staff Captains of Artillery in the British Army were re-styled as Brigade Majors to bring them into line with Cavalry and Infantry practice. The title is however no longer used except in the Household Division and in divisional level artillery HQs.
The practice of using Brigade Majors has continued in some Commonwealth armies such as those of India. The position was a standard fixture in the Canadian Army until ca 1984 when the Brigade G-3 replaced it, in line with other NATO
Commodore is a military rank used in many navies that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. Non-English-speaking nations often use the rank of flotilla admiral or counter admiral as an equivalent, although the latter may also correspond to rear admiral.
It is often regarded as a one-star rank with a NATO code of OF-6, but is not always regarded as a flag rank.
It is sometimes abbreviated as Cdre, CDRE or COMO.
The rank of commodore derives from the French commandeur, which was one of the highest ranks in orders of knighthood, and in military orders the title of the knight in charge of a commenda (a local part of the order's territorial possessions).
The Royal Netherlands Navy also used the rank of commandeur from the end of the 16th century for a variety of temporary positions, until it became a conventional permanent rank in 1955. The Royal Netherlands Air Force has adopted the English spelling of commodore for an equivalent rank.
The rank of commodore was at first a position created as a temporary title to be bestowed upon captains who commanded squadrons of more than one vessel. In many navies, the rank of commodore was merely viewed as a senior captain
A surgeon's assistant (more commonly referred to as a surgical first assistant or surgical assistant) is a medical or allied health practitioner that provides aide in exposure, hemostasis, and visualization of anatomic structures during the course of a surgical operation. Professionals filling this role come from diverse backgrounds and include medical doctors, surgical residents, surgical physician assistants (PAs), advanced practice registered nurses (such as nurse practitioners), specialized registered nurses (such as registered nurse first assistants or RNFAs), and non-physician surgical first assistant practitioners (SFAs).
According to the American College of Surgeons, "Ideally, the first assistant at the operating table should be a qualified surgeon or a resident in an approved surgical education program. Residents at appropriate levels of training should be provided with opportunities to assist and participate in operations. If such assistants are not available, other physicians who are experienced in assisting may participate. It may be necessary to utilize nonphysicians as first assistants. Surgeon's assistants (SAs) or physician's assistants (PAs) with additional
Flying officer (Fg Off in the RAF and IAF; FLGOFF in the RAAF; FGOFF in the RNZAF; formerly F/O in all services and still frequently in the RAF) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence. It is also sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. In these cases a Flying Officer usually ranks above pilot officer and immediately below flight lieutenant.
It has a NATO ranking code of OF-1 and is equivalent to a lieutenant in the British Army or the Royal Marines. However, it is superior to the nearest equivalent rank of sub-lieutenant in the Royal Navy.
The equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) was section officer.
The term "flying officer" was originally used in the Royal Flying Corps as a flying appointment for junior officers, not a rank.
On 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service sub-lieutenants (entitled flight sub-lieutenants) and Royal Flying Corps lieutenants becoming lieutenants in the RAF. However, with
Marshal of the Royal Air Force (MRAF) is the highest rank in the Royal Air Force. In peacetime it was granted to RAF officers in the appointment of Chief of the Defence Staff, and to retired Chiefs of the Air Staff, who were promoted to it on their last day of service. Promotions for such officers have ceased since the British defence cuts of the 1990s. While surviving Marshals of the RAF retain the rank for life, the highest rank to which officers on active service are promoted is now air chief marshal. Although general promotions have ceased, further promotions to marshal of the Royal Air Force are still possible in wartime and also for members of the Royal Family and possibly other very senior officers in peacetime at the discretion of the Monarch. In 2012, Charles, Prince of Wales was promoted to the rank.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force is a five-star rank and unlike the air marshal ranks, can properly be considered a marshal rank. MRAF has a NATO ranking code of OF-10, equivalent to an admiral of the fleet in the Royal Navy or a field marshal in the British Army.
The rank was instituted in 1919 and the first officer to be promoted to MRAF was Sir Hugh Trenchard in 1927. Since
The rank of airtrooper (abbreviated Atpr) is a private rank, the first rank awarded to a soldier of the British Army Air Corps.
The Army Air Corps (AAC) soldier needs a good standard of education although no formal qualifications are required. Airtroopers are educated and trained to have the ability and motivation to work on their own initiative. AAC soldiers will be trained in a wide range of skills providing a number of military and civilian vocational qualifications.
The Army Air Corps provides battlefield helicopters and some fixed-wing aircraft for the army, the main roles being attack of enemy armour, surveillance and target acquisition. AAC groundcrew need to be able to work as part of a team, and on occasion as an individual, and may be expected to defend forward operating bases and forward arming refuelling points, they also refuel and re-arm the helicopters and provide the essential communications to the aircraft and other army units.
AAC groundcrew work with a number of different types of helicopters including the, Lynx, Bell 212, Gazelle and Apache. They are also required to perform a number of other responsibilities within this employment, from helicopter troop drills,
SS-Brigadeführer was an SS rank that was used in Nazi Germany between the years of 1932 and 1945. Brigadeführer was also an SA rank.
The rank was first created due to an expansion of the SS and assigned to those officers in command of SS-Brigaden. In 1933, the SS-Brigaden were changed in name to SS-Abschnitte; however, the rank of Brigadeführer remained the same.
Originally, Brigadeführer was considered the second general officer rank of the SS and ranked between Oberführer and Gruppenführer. This changed with the rise of the Waffen-SS and the Ordnungspolizei. In both of those organizations, Brigadeführer was the equivalent to a Generalmajor and ranked above an Oberst in the German Wehrmacht or police. Note that the rank of Generalmajor was the equivalent of brigadier general, a one-star general in the US Army.
The insignia for Brigadeführer was at first two oak leaves and a silver pip, however was changed in April 1942 to a three oak leaf design after the creation of the rank SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer.
Brigadeführer in the Waffen-SS or police also wore the shoulder insignia of a Generalmajor and were referred to as such after their SS rank (e.g. SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der
Generalissimo and Generalissimus are military ranks of the highest degree, superior to Field Marshal and other five-star ranks.
The word "generalissimo" is an Italian term, from generale, plus the superlative suffix -issimo, itself from Latin -issimus, meaning "utmost, to the highest grade".
Historically this rank was given to a military officer leading an entire army or the entire armed forces of a nation, usually only subordinate to the sovereign. Other usage of the rank has been for the commander of the united armies of several allied powers.
"Hetman" was the highest military office, and head of state, in Ukraine's Cossack Hetmanate. The title (гетьман) was used by Ukraine's Cossacks from the 16th century, and by the Czechs (hejtman) in Bohemia from the Hussite Wars (15th century) on. Hejtman is today the term for the elected governor of a Czech region (kraj).
Hetman was also the title of the second-highest military commander (after the monarch) in 15th- to 18th-century Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which together, from 1569 to 1795, comprised the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, or Rzeczpospolita.
Hetman is also the Polish name for the chess queen.
One theory derives the word from the Old High German Hauptmann, with Haupt meaning "head" and Mann—"man". Hauptmann was a common military title during medieval times, literally meaning "captain" but functionally corresponding rather to today's "general". Moreover, it has been suggested that the Czech language may have served as an intermediary.
The first Polish title of Grand Crown Hetman dates from 1505. The title of Hetman was given to the leader of the Polish Army and until 1581 the Hetman position existed only during specific campaigns and wars. After that, it
Leading seaman (LS or L/S) is a junior non-commissioned rank or rate in navies, particularly those of the Commonwealth. When it is used by NATO nations, leading seaman has the rank code of OR-4. It is often equivalent to the army and air force rank of corporal and some navies use corporal rather than leading seaman. A leading seaman equivalent in the United States Armed Forces is that of an E6.
The rank is used in the navies of Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, India, Ireland, Namibia, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom.
The badge in the Royal Australian Navy is the fouled anchor over the word "Australia", worn on the shoulders, or the fouled anchor worn on the left sleeve, depending on what uniform is worn at the time. It is senior to able seaman but junior to petty officer. Leading seaman or leading hand, which it is also known as, is the equivalent of corporal in the Royal Australian Air Force and the Australian Army. Leading seamen are addressed as "leader", and informally known as "kellicks" from the killick anchor which is the symbol of their rank.
In the Canadian Navy, leading seaman' (LS) is senior to the rank of able seaman, and junior to master
In the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel. It is equivalent to the naval rank of commander in the other uniformed services.
The pay grade for the rank of lieutenant colonel is O-5. The insignia for the rank consists of a silver oak leaf, with slight stylized differences between the Army/Air Force version and the Navy/Marine Corps version.
The rank of lieutenant colonel was first created during the Revolutionary War, when the position was held by aides to Regiment Colonels, and was sometimes known as "lieutenant to the colonel." The rank of lieutenant colonel had existed in the British Army since at least the 16th century.
During the 19th century, lieutenant colonel was often a terminal rank for many officers, since the rank of "full colonel" was considered extremely prestigious reserved only for the most successful officers. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War, the rank of lieutenant colonel became much more common and was used as a "stepping stone" for officers who commanded small regiments or battalions and were
Niko (Stealth, called Nikodemos) is a military character in the Thieves' World shared fictional universe and the Sacred Band of Stepsons universe. Niko is a Bandaran-trained warrior-monk and an adept of the mystery of Maat, of balance and equilibrium, justice and truth. Niko is a Sacred Band fighter from humble beginnings, a 'son of the armies.' Niko begins his military career as an eromenos, then loses his 'left-side leader' and becomes an erastes, or left-side leader, in his next pairing with the Stepson Janni. After losing Janni to a witch, Niko is stalked by that witch, Roxane, throughout the Wizard Wars. He leaves the Sacred Band during the Wizard Wars but returns to it. After that campaign, the storm god takes Niko to the City at the Edge of Time, where he formally becomes an adherent of Enlil and marries the princess Tabet. Roxane finds the child and kills it. Niko leaves the city to seek revenge on the witch. After he and Tempus vanquish the witch at the Battle of Sandia, Niko becomes Tempus's right-side partner and eventually fights at the Battle of Chaeronea, where Tempus is wounded in the rescue of forty-six paired lovers from the Sacred Band of Thebes. When Tempus decrees that the Thebans will train in Sanctuary, Niko returns to Sanctuary and there comes to the attention of the Theban goddess, Harmony, who immortalizes him when he is killed in battle.
Quartermaster Sergeant Instructor (QMSI) is an appointment held by Warrant Officers Class 2 in the British Army's Small Arms School Corps and Army Physical Training Corps and by some in the Royal Engineers.
It is also the title used within the Territorial Army for the attached regular NCO (usually a Colour Sergeant/Staff Sergeant) responsible for unit administration and stores at sub-unit level (i.e. company/squadron).
Supreme Allied Commander is the title held by the most senior commander within certain multinational military alliances. It originated as a term used by the Western Allies during World War II, and is currently used only within NATO. Dwight Eisenhower served as Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force (SCAEF) for the Battle of Normandy during World War II. The current commander of NATO's Allied Cand South East Asia (SACSEA) and Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force (SCAEF) in northwest Europe. The Allied Mediterranean theatre's Commander-in-Chief, Allied Force, the American Commander-in-Chief South West Pacific and Commander-in-Chief Pacific Ocean Areas also functioned as de facto supreme commanders. These commanders reported to the Combined Chiefs of Staff, although in the case of the American commanders in the Pacific and SACSEA, the relevant national command authorities of the Joint Chiefs of Staff or the Chiefs of Staff Committee had responsibility of the main conduct of the war in the theatre of operations.
General of the Army Dwight Eisenhower had the highest profile of the supreme commanders. He served successively as the Allied Mediterranean theatre's Commander in
Admiral of the Fleet is the highest rank of the British Royal Navy (NATO rank code OF-10) although routine appointments ceased in 1995. It is a five-star rank, equivalent to a Field Marshal in the British Army or a Marshal of the Royal Air Force.
The rank evolved from sailing days and the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions - Red, White, or Blue. Each division was assigned an Admiral, who in turn commanded a Vice-Admiral and a Rear Admiral. In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time. The Admiral of the White was pre-eminent and became known as the Admiral of the Fleet.
The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign. When professional head of the Royal Navy was given the name of First Naval Lord in 1828 (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904), the rank of Admiral of the Fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one Admiral of the Fleet to exist at one time.
Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, and four
Commodore (Cdre) is a rank of the Royal Navy above captain and below rear admiral. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-6. The rank is equivalent to brigadier in the British Army and Royal Marines and to air commodore in the Royal Air Force.
A modern commodore's rank insignia consists of a 45mm wide band of gold lace, with a circle of 13mm wide lace 45mm in diameter above.
Some Commonwealth countries have replaced commodore with an equivalent flag rank. The correct sleeve insignia for such a rank is a single 1.75-inch-wide (44 mm) row of gold lace below a gold lace curl with a diameter of 2 inches. The rest of the uniform is identical to that of a rear admiral.
Historically, commodore was an appointment conferred on senior captains and was split into two grades, commodores first and second class. Typically a commodore would command a number of ships, for example a destroyer squadron. A commodore second class would command their own ship as well as the formation while a commodore first class would have a flag captain to run his ship.
Commodores first class, while wearing the sleeve stripes of a rear admiral, had gold lace-covered epaulettes with a crown, two stars and an anchor (also
General of the Army (GA) is a military rank used (primarily used in the United States of America) to denote a senior military leader, usually a general in command of a nation's army. It may also be the title given to a general who commands an army in the field.
The rank is typically considered the equivalent of marshal, field marshal, fleet admiral and other equivalent five-star ranks. The rank of grand general, which may also be considered a General of the Army equivalent, has appeared most often in fiction, although it is the literal translation of da jiang.
The rank of "General of the Army" should not be confused with the title "army general"; the rank of "General of the Army" is usually the equivalent of a five-star rank, and theoretically corresponds to overall command of an entire national army, whereas the title of "army general" is usually held by the equivalent of a four-star general, and corresponds to the command of an individual army in the field.
Lance corporal is a military rank, used by many armed forces worldwide, and also by some police forces and other uniformed organizations. It is below the rank of corporal, and is typically the lowest non-commissioned officer, usually equivalent to the NATO Rank Grade OR-3.
The presumed origin of the rank of lance corporal derives from an amalgamation of corporal with the now-archaic lancepesade, formerly a non-commissioned officer of the lowest rank. This in turn derives from the Italian lancia spezzata, which literally means "broken lance" or "broken spear", but which was used to denote a seasoned soldier, as the broken spear was a metaphor for combat experience, where such an occurrence was very likely.
Lance corporal is the lowest of the non-commissioned officer ranks in the Australian Army and New Zealand Army, falling between private and corporal. It is the only appointed rank, and thus demotion is easier than with other ranks. A lance corporal is usually the second in command of a section, and is in control of the gun group in an infantry section. The same rank within artillery units is known as lance-bombardier (lance bombardier in New Zealand). There is no equivalent rank
Lieutenant general is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general.
In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal. A lieutenant general heads up an army corps, made up of typically three army divisions, and consisting of around 60,000 soldiers.
The term major general is a shortened version of the previous term sergeant major general, which was also subordinate to lieutenant general. This is why a lieutenant general outranks a major general, whereas a major is senior to a lieutenant.
In many countries, the rank of corps general has replaced the earlier rank of lieutenant general (e.g. France, Italy). (The ranks of corps general and lieutenant colonel general are intended to solve the apparent lieutenant general / major general anomaly). However, for convenience, this is often translated into English as lieutenant
Platoon sergeant major (PSM) was an appointment in the British Army in the short-lived rank of warrant officer class III (WOIII), created in 1938. The platoon sergeant major, and his cavalry counterpart, the troop sergeant major, were part of an experiment in giving experienced NCOs command of units formerly reserved for commissioned officers (platoons and troops). The experiment was not considered a success, and no promotions were made to the rank after 1940: most existing WOIIIs were commissioned as lieutenants.
Post-captain is an obsolete alternative form of the rank of captain in the Royal Navy.
The term served to distinguish those who were captains by rank from:
Once an officer had been promoted to post-captain, his further promotion was strictly by seniority; if he could avoid death or disgrace, he would eventually become an admiral (even if only a yellow admiral).
In the Royal Navy of the time, an officer might have a rank, but not a command. Until the officer had a command, he was "on the beach" and on half-pay. An officer who was promoted from commander was a captain, but until he was given a command, he was on half-pay. Once the captain was given a command, his name was "posted" in the London Gazette.
An officer "took post" or was "made post" when he was first commissioned to command a rated vessel — that is, a ship too important to be commanded by a mere commander. Unrated vessels could also in some cases be commanded by post-captains. Being "made post" is portrayed as the most crucial event in an officer's career in both Forester's Horatio Hornblower series and O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series.
A junior post-captain would usually command a frigate or a comparable ship, while more
Trooper (abbr. Tpr) from the French "troupier" is the equivalent rank to private in a regiment with a cavalry tradition in the British Army and many other Commonwealth armies, including those of Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand. Today, most cavalry units operate in the armoured role, equipped with tanks or other armoured fighting vehicles. Some armoured regiments without a cavalry tradition do not use the rank, although the British Royal Tank Regiment does. Cavalry units are organized into squadrons, further divided into troops, hence a trooper is a member of a troop. "Trooper" can also be used colloquially to mean any cavalry soldier (although not usually an officer).
In the British Army, trooper is also used as a rank in the Special Air Service and Honourable Artillery Company. Airtrooper (Atpr) is used in the Army Air Corps.
In the United States cavalry and airborne, "trooper" is a colloquialism that has traditionally been used not as a rank, but rather as a general term for any enlisted soldier.
Cavalry Troopers are generally considered to be socially a cut above other soldiers. This distinction stems from the days when cavalry needed to supply their own mounts,
In the United States, commander is a military rank that is also sometimes used as a military title, depending on the branch of service. It is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the military, particularly in police and law enforcement.
In the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps, commander (CDR) is a senior officer rank, with the pay grade of O-5. Commander ranks above lieutenant commander and below captain. Commander is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the other uniformed services. Notably, it is the first rank at which the holder wears an embellished cap, whereas officers of the other services are entitled to embellishment at O-4 rank.
A commander in the U.S. Navy may command a frigate, destroyer, submarine, aviation squadron or small shore activity, or may serve on a staff (typically as executive officer) or as executive officer of a larger vessel. An officer in the rank of commander who commands a vessel may also be referred to as "captain" as a courtesy title, or informally referred to as
A company commander is the commanding officer of a company, a military unit which typically consists of 100 to 350 soldiers, often organized into three or four smaller units called platoons. (The exact organization of a company varies by country, service, and unit type; some specialized companies such as maintenance units are considerably larger and may number as many as 500 personnel). In some forces, the second-in-command of a company is called the executive officer (XO).
Historically, companies were often formed and financed by individual owners rather than by the state. Sometimes these men were unable to personally exercise leadership and command over the men in their units, and would designate another individual to serve in that capacity
In the Austrian Army, a company commander is called a Kompaniekommandant (abbreviated "KpKdt").
In the German Army, a company commander is referred to as a Kompaniechef or Einheitsführer and is usually a captain, sometimes a lieutenant or major. In many companies of the medical corps (Sanitätsdienst), the Kompaniechef must be a medical officer (Sanitätsoffizier) and has the rank of major, titled as an Oberstabsarzt (staff doctor) or may
SS-Sturmscharführer was a Nazi rank of the Waffen-SS that existed between 1934 and 1945. The rank was the most senior enlisted rank in the Waffen-SS, the equivalent of a sergeant major in other military organizations. Sturmscharführer was unique to the Waffen-SS and was not used in the regular SS (the Allgemeine-SS), where the highest enlisted rank was Hauptscharführer.
The rank of Sturmscharführer was first created in June 1934, after the Night of the Long Knives. Due to a reorganization of the SS, Sturmscharführer was created as the most senior enlisted rank of the SS-Verfügungstruppe, replacing the older Sturmabteilung (SA) title of Haupttruppführer.
By 1941, the Waffen-SS had become the successor organization to the SS-Verfügungstruppe and Sturmscharführer was established as the most senior enlisted rank. A Sturmscharführer was typically assigned as the head sergeant of an entire regiment or, in some cases, an infantry division.
Sturmscharführer was not the same as Stabsscharführer, which was a positional title given to the head SS non-commissioned officer of a company. The rank of Sturmscharführer was also not a prerequisite for promotion to Untersturmführer and was generally
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, which is equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies, vice admiral is a three-star rank with a NATO Code of OF-8, although in some navies like the French Navy it is an OF-7 rank, the OF-8 code corresponding to the four-star rank of squadron vice-admiral.
The rank insignia for a vice admiral usually involves three stars, but this is not always the case. In the navy of Iraq, vice admiral insignia involves one star. In the navies of Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Cuba, Iran, Mexico, North Korea, and Russia, vice admiral insignia involves two stars, and in the navy of Turkey, vice admiral insignia involves four stars.
In the Royal Australian Navy, the rank of vice admiral is held by the Chief of Navy and, when the positions are held by navy officers, by the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, and/or the Chief of Capability Development Group.
Vice admiral is the equivalent of air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force and lieutenant general in the Australian Army.
In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of
Wing Commander (Wg Cdr in the RAF, the IAF and the PAF, WGCDR in the RNZAF and RAAF, formerly W/C in the RCAF) is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. It ranks above squadron leader and immediately below group captain.
It has a NATO ranking code of OF-4, and is equivalent to a Commander in the Royal Navy or a Lieutenant Colonel in the British Army or the Royal Marines.
The equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF), Women's Royal Air Force (WRAF) (until 1968) and Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service (PMRAFNS) (until 1980) was wing officer. The equivalent rank in the Royal Observer Corps (until 1995) was observer commander which had a similar rank insignia.
On 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service Commanders (titled as Wing Commanders) and Royal Flying Corps Lieutenant Colonels becoming Lieutenant Colonels in the RAF. In response to the proposal that the RAF should use its own rank titles, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navy's officer ranks, with the word "air" inserted before the naval rank
A flight cadet is a military or civilian occupational title that is held by someone who is in training to operate an airplane. The trainee does not need to become a pilot, as flight cadets may also learn to serve as a co-pilot, navigator, or flight engineer.
From 1907 to 1947, the Army ran this program to train pilots for the US Army Air Service (1918-1926), US Army Air Corps (1926–1941), and US Army Air Force (1941–1947). During America's involvement in World War II (1942–1945), the rank of Flight Cadet was changed to that of Aviation Cadet and the program name was changed to the Aviation Cadet Training Program.
From 1947, this program was run by the now separate US Air Force. The pilot cadet program ended in 1961, but the Navigator cadet program ended in 1965.
The Fourth Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Supplies was formerly one of the Naval Lords and members of the Board of Admiralty which controlled the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom.
In 1805, for the first time, specific functions were assigned to each of the 'Naval' Lords, who were described as 'Professional' Lords, leaving to the 'Civil' Lords the routine business of signing documents.
The Fourth Sea Lord as Chief of Naval Supplies was responsible for supplying the navy, and his responsibilities included transport, victualling (supplying food), and medical services.
The post of Fourth Sea Lord was abolished in 1965. The modern equivalent is titled the "Naval Member for Logistics", who is responsible for the logistical support and the supply chain of the navy.
Fourth Naval Lords include:
Junior Naval Lords include:
Fourth Sea Lords include:
Chiefs of Fleet Support include:
Chiefs of Materiel (Fleet) include:
Lieutenant commander (LCDR) is a mid-ranking officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps, with the pay grade of O-4 and NATO rank code OF-3. Lieutenant commanders rank above lieutenants and below commanders. The rank is also used in the United States Maritime Service and the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps, and is equivalent to a major in the other uniformed services.
While Lieutenant Commander is the Navy's first commissioned officer to be selected by board, they are still considered to be Junior Officers (JOs) due to their origin as "Lieutenant, Commanding." This can be seen by the fact that Lieutenant Commanders do not wear the oak-leaf gold embellishment (colloquially known as "scrambled eggs") on their combination covers. This is in contrast to other branches, where Majors wear the appropriate covers of field-grade officers.
There are two insignia used by Lieutenant Commanders. On service khakis and all working uniforms, LCDRs wear a gold oak leaf collar device, similar to the ones worn by a majors in the USAF and
Petty Officer Third Class is the fourth enlisted rank in the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard, just above Seaman and below Petty Officer Second Class, and is the lowest form of non-commissioned officer, equivalent to a Corporal in the U.S. Army and Marines Petty Officer Third Class shares the same pay grade as Senior Airman in the Air Force, which does not have an NCO rank corresponding with E-4.
The Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy was formerly the Naval Lord and member of the Board of Admiralty responsible for procurement and matériel in the British Royal Navy. The title of the office is now simply Controller of the Navy (CofN), and the Controller of the Navy is a member of the Admiralty Board.
In 1805, for the first time, specific functions were assigned to each of the 'Naval' Lords, who were described as 'Professional' Lords, leaving to the 'Civil' Lords the routine business of signing documents.
In the reorganisation of the Admiralty by Order in Council of 14 January 1869, the Comptroller of the Navy was given a seat on the Board of Admiralty as the Third Naval Lord and Comptroller of the Navy. The Comptroller lost the title of Third Naval Lord and the seat on the Board by an Order in Council of 19 March 1872, but regained them by a further Order of 10 March 1882.
In 1869, the post of Storekeeper-General of the Navy was abolished and its duties merged into those of the Comptroller of the Navy. The Third Naval Lord became known as the Third Sea Lord from 1905.
The appointment of Controller of the Navy was abolished in September 1912, although that of Third Sea
In the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, admiral (ADM) is a four-star flag officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10. Admiral ranks above vice admiral and below Fleet Admiral in the Navy; the Coast Guard and the Public Health Service do not have an established grade above admiral. Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps, historically to date, has never had an officer hold the grade of admiral. However, 37 U.S.C. § 201 of the U.S. Code establishes the grade for the NOAA Corps in the case a position is created, temporarily or indefinitely, that merits the four-star grade.
Since the five-star grade of Fleet Admiral is reserved for war-time use only, the grade of admiral is considered to be the highest appointment an officer can achieve in these three services.
The United States Navy did not have any admirals until 1862 because many people felt the title too reminiscent of royalty, such as the British Royal Navy, to be used in the country's navy. Others saw the need for ranks above Captain, among them
Colonel /ˈkɜrnəl/, abbreviated Col, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally captain. In air forces with a separate rank structure, the equivalent rank is generally group captain. It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures. A colonel was typically in charge of a regiment in an army, especially in Great Britain; but typically commander of a brigade in the U.S. Army as of 2012.
'Colonel' is usually the highest or second-highest field rank, and is below the general ranks.
With the shift from primarily mercenary to primarily national armies in the course of the seventeenth century, a colonel (normally a member of the aristocracy) became a holder (German Inhaber) or proprietor of a military contract with a sovereign. The colonel purchased the regimental contract — the right to hold the regiment — from the previous holder of that right or directly from the sovereign when a new regiment was formed or an incumbent was killed.
The rank of colonel was popularized by the Spanish tercios in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gonzalo Fernández
First sergeant is the name of a military rank used in many countries, typically a senior non-commissioned officer.
First Sergeant is a Specialist in the Singapore Armed Forces. First Sergeants are the most senior of the junior Specialists, ranking above Second Sergeants, and below Staff Sergeants. The rank insignia for a First Sergeant features the three chevrons pointing down shared by all Specialists, and two chevrons pointing up.
In combat units, First Sergeants are often given the responsibility for independently-operating detachments of support weapons. They are often given instructional billets as well.
Förste sergeant is a new Swedish squad leader rank above Sergeant and reached after 23 to 29 months of total time in training and service. The rank is the most junior professional NCO rank (OR6) and was established by the Swedish Armed Forces to align Swedish ranks better with NATO.
In the United States, First Sergeant is the title given to holders of certain ranks and positions within the United States armed forces that equate to a Company Sergeant Major, and generally serve as the senior enlisted advisor of a unit. While the specifics of the title may differ between the
Captain (Capt) is a senior officer rank of the Royal Navy. It ranks above commander and below commodore and has a NATO ranking code of OF-5. The rank is equivalent to a colonel in the British Army or Royal Marines and to a group captain in the Royal Air Force. The rank of group captain is based on the Royal Navy rank. It is also equivalent to the rank of ship-of-the-line captain in the navies of many other countries. Sometimes the rank is described as captain RN to distinguish it from the more junior army rank.
In the Royal Navy, the officer in command of any ship is considered the captain even if that officer holds a different rank. Royal Navy officers who rank as captains may serve on ships or on land in naval bases or other service establishments.
The rank insignia features four rings of gold braid with a loop in the upper ring.
Field marshal is the highest military rank of the British Army. It is considered a five-star rank, immediately above the rank of General, and is the army equivalent of an Admiral of the Fleet and a Marshal of the Royal Air Force. On appointment, a Field Marshal is presented with a gold-tipped baton which he carries on ceremonial occasions. Over the history of the British Army, there have been 140 men promoted to the rank.
The rank insignia of a field marshal in the British Army comprises two crossed batons in a wreath of oak leaves, with a crown above. In some other countries, historically under the sphere of British influence, an adapted version of the insignia is used for field marshals, often with the crown being replaced with an alternative cultural or national emblem.
The office of Marshal was known in England from the 12th century, but the introduction of the modern military title in Great Britain was a relative latecomer. It was introduced by King George II, who was also Prince-elector of Hanover, in the style of the continental armies. The 1st Earl of Orkney became the first field marshal in 1736. Around 15 years later, the rank appeared in its shortened form simply as
Field Marshal or Generalfeldmarschall in German, ( listen (help·info)) (usually translated simply as General Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Austrian Empire, the rank Feldmarschall was used. The rank was the equivalent to a Grand Admiral in the German Navy.
In the Prussian Army and later in the German Army, the rank had several privileges, such as elevation to nobility, equal rank with ministers of the royal cabinet, right of direct report to the monarch, and a constant escort/protection. In 1854, the rank of Colonel-General (German: Generaloberst) was created in order to promote William I, German Emperor to senior rank without breaking the rule that only wartime field commanders could receive the rank of field marshal for a victory in a decisive battle or the capture of a fortification or major town. In 1870 Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia and Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm—who had commanded armies during the Franco-Prussian War—became the first Prussian princes appointed field marshals.
In the armies and Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany, the rank of Generalfeldmarschall was
The Papal Zouaves (Zuavi Pontifici) were an infantry force formed in defence of the Papal States.
The Zouaves evolved out of a unit formed by Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière in 1860, the Franco-Belgian Tirailleurs. On January 1, 1861 the unit was renamed the Papal Zouaves. He had been introduced by Frédéric-François-Xavier Ghislain de Mérode.
The Zuavi Pontifici were mainly young men, unmarried and Roman Catholic, who volunteered to assist Pope Pius IX in his struggle against the Italian Risorgimento. They wore a similar style of uniform to that of the French Zouaves but in grey with red trim. A grey and red kepi was substituted for the North African fez.
All orders were given in French and the unit was commanded by a Swiss Colonel, M. Allet.
Nonetheless, the regiment was truly international, and by May 1868 numbered 4,592 men. At that time the unit was composed of 1,910 Dutch, 1,301 French, 686 Belgians, 157 Romans and Pontifical subjects, 135 Canadians, 101 Irish, 87 Prussians, 50 English, 32 Spaniards, 22 Germans from beyond Prussia, 19 Swiss, 14 Americans, 14 Neapolitans, 12 Modenese, 12 Poles, 10 Scots, 7 Austrians, 6 Portuguese, 6 Tuscans, three Maltese, two
Private first class (PFC) is a military rank held by junior enlisted persons.
The rank of private first class in the Singapore Armed Forces lies between the ranks of private (PTE) and lance-corporal (LCP). It is usually held by conscript soldiers midway through their national service term. Privates first class wear a rank insignia consisting of a single chevron pointing down.
In the United States Army, recruits usually enter the army as private in pay grade E-1. Private (E-2), designated by a single chevron, is typically an automatic promotion after six months of service, or for those who have achieved the rank of Eagle Scout in the Boy Scouts or have been awarded the Girl Scout Gold Award in the Girl Scouts of the USA, are entitled to enlist at this rank. Private First Class (E-3), equivalent to NATO grade OR-3, is designated by a single chevron and a rocker stripe and is more common among soldiers who have served in the U.S. Army for one year or more. Soldiers with prior military training such as JROTC, Sea Scouting or similar program, or who have achieved an associate degree or its equivalent, are entitled to enter the army at this pay grade. Advancement from private first class
Ordinary seaman is a military rank used in naval forces.
In the Royal Navy in the middle of the 18th century, the term ordinary seaman was used to refer to a seaman with between one and two years' experience at sea, who showed enough seamanship to be so rated by their captain. A seaman with less than a year's experience was referred to as a landman, and one with more than two years' experience was referred to as an able seaman.
Later, the term was formalized as a rating for the lowest normal grade of seaman. They are not trained in any special task. They are required to work at physically hard tasks of great variety. One needs an Ordinary Seaman Certificate to obtain work. One can become an able seaman as a promotion from this position.
Ordinary seaman was the second-lowest rank of the 19th century United States Navy, ranking above landsman and below seaman. Promotion from landsman to ordinary seaman required three years of experience or re-enlistment. An ordinary seaman who gained six years of experience and "knew the ropes", that is, knew the name and use of every line in the ship's rigging, could be promoted to seaman. An ordinary seaman's duties aboard ship included "handling
The United States Navy's Sea, Air, and Land Teams, commonly known as the US Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's principal special operations force and a part of the Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC) and SOCOM.
"SEAL" is always capitalized in reference to members of the Naval Special Warfare community. The acronym is derived from their capacity to operate at sea, in the air, and on land. In the War on Terror, SEALs have been utilized almost exclusively for land-based operations, including Direct Action, Hostage Rescue, Counter Terrorism, Special Reconnaissance, Unconventional Warfare, manhunts and Foreign internal defense operations. SEALs are male members of the United States Navy. An exchange program with the Coast Guard, which graduated three Coast Guardsmen as SEALs, was suspended in 2011.
The CIA's highly secretive Special Activities Division (SAD) and more specifically its elite Special Operations Group (SOG) recruits operators from the SEAL Teams. Joint Navy SEALs and CIA operations go back to the famed MACV-SOG during the Vietnam War. This cooperation still exists today and is seen in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and in the finding and killing of Osama bin Laden in
Yesaul, or Osaul ( Russian: есау́л [jɪsɐˈul]), Ukrainian: осавул (from Turkic yasaul - chief), a post and a rank in the Ukrainian and Russian Cossack units.
The first records of the rank imply that it was introduced by Stefan Batory, King of Poland in 1576.
There were different yesaul posts and ranks in Cossack Hosts in Imperial Russia:
In Ukraine of 17th and 18th centuries osaul was a military and administrative official performing the duties of aide-de-camp. The head of state, hetman, would appoint up to two osauls known as a General Osaul. There also was a Regimental Osaul as well as Company Osaul, with each regular cossack regiment and company except artillery having two of each. Beside them there were osauls under special assignments one of them serving for General Obozny (quartermaster) who performed duties of a chief executive and was the second in importance after Hetman.
A senior officer of a Hetmanate cossack army who was a member of the general officer staff.
Other duties consisted of being a hetman's envoy, supervised matters of internal security, conducted annual regimental musters and inspections. Among the notorious osauls were Petro Doroshenko, Demian Mnohohrishny,
A commander-in-chief is the person exercising supreme command authority of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military competencies that reside in a nation-state's executive, Head of State and/or Head of Government. Often, a given country's commander-in-chief need not be or have been a commissioned officer or even a veteran, and it is by this legal statute that civilian control of the military is realized in states where it is constitutionally required.
The role of commander-in-chief derives from the Latin, imperator. Imperatores (commanders-in-chief) of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire possessed imperium (command) powers. In its modern usage, the term was first used by King Charles of England in 1639. A nation's head of state usually holds the position of national commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. Colonial governors are also often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces in their colonies.
A flag officer is a commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark where the officer exercises command. The term usually, but not exclusively, refers to the senior officers in an English-speaking nation's navy, specifically those who hold any of the admiral ranks; in some cases it applies also to those holding the rank of commodore. In U.S. usage it is additionally applied to Coast Guard officers and general officers in the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps entitled to fly their own flags.
The generic title of flag officer is used in several modern navies and associated units to denote those who hold the rank of rear admiral (or its equivalent) and above, also called "flag ranks"; in some navies, this also includes the rank of commodore. Flag officer corresponds to the generic terms general officer (used by land and some air forces to describe all grades of generals) and air officer (used by other air forces to describe all grades of air marshals and air commodores).
A flag officer usually has a junior officer, called a flag lieutenant or flag adjutant, attached as a personal adjutant or aide-de-camp.
In the Canadian Forces, a flag
A master sergeant is the military rank for a senior non-commissioned officer in some armed forces.
The רב-סמל ראשון Rav samal rishon (Rasar), Master Sergeant is a non-commissioned officers (נגדים) rank in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Because the IDF is an integrated force, they have a unique rank structure. IDF ranks are the same in all services (army, navy, air force, etc.). The ranks are derived from those of the paramilitary Haganah developed in the British Mandate of Palestine period to protect the Yishuv. This origin is reflected in the slightly-compacted IDF rank structure.
A master sergeant is:
In the U.S. Army, the rank of master sergeant is usually held by staff members serving as NCOICs as well as commonly held by the motor pool NCOIC as the advisor to the motor pool chief, who is usually a warrant officer. When holding the position of first sergeant, while uncommon, the master sergeant is referred to as "first sergeant", however; when not in the position of first sergeant, master sergeants are addressed as, "sergeant." This is the standard address for all grades E-5 through E-8. Use of the term "top" or "master sergeant" is not a requirement, but is considered
The Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army, shortly abbreviated as COAS, is the highest staff post in the Pakistan Army, held by the senior 4-star rank officer. It is the highest and most prestigious 4-star assignment, unless the 4-star officer is appointed as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The current Chief of Army Staff is General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The COAS operates from Army Combatant General Headquarters (GHQ) in Rawalpindi, the twin city of the capital Islamabad. Under the Constitution of 1973 presently in vogue, the Chief of Army Staff is subordinate to the President, Prime Minister and Defence Minister of Pakistan, Secretary General/Secretary Defence and reports directly to the civilian leadership.
The post of Vice Chiefs of Army Staff existed whenever the Chief of Army Staff was also the President of Pakistan.
Colour sergeant or colour serjeant (CSgt/CSjt or formerly C/Sgt) is a non-commissioned title in the Royal Marines and infantry regiments of the British Army, ranking above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2. It has a NATO ranking code of OR-7 and is equivalent to the rank of staff sergeant in other corps of the British Army, flight sergeant or chief technician in the Royal Air Force, and chief petty officer in the Royal Navy. The insignia is the monarch's crown above three downward pointing chevrons.
The rank was introduced into the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars to reward long-serving sergeants. By World War I it had given way to company sergeant major and company quartermaster sergeant, but it was reintroduced later in the war.
Historically, colour sergeants of British line regiments protected ensigns, the most junior officers who were responsible for carrying their battalions' Colours (flag or insignia) to rally troops in battles. For this reason, to reach the rank of colour sergeant was considered a prestigious attainment, granted normally to those sergeants who had displayed courage on the field of battle. This tradition continues today as colour sergeants
Marshal of the air force is the English term for the most senior rank in a number of air forces. The ranks described by this term can properly be considered marshal ranks.
No air force in an English-speaking country formally uses the exact title "marshal of the air force", although it is sometimes used as a shortened form of the full title. In several Commonwealth air forces and many Middle Eastern air forces the most senior rank is named "marshal of the", followed by the name of the air force (e.g. marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force).
Brazil and Italy have used rank titles which literally translate as marshal of the air, whereas Portugal's rank translates as "marshal of the air force". The Soviet Union used "chief marshal of air forces" but the modern Russian Federation has discontinued this usage. Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe used the rank of generalfeldmarschall (also used by the World War II German Army) and the even higher rank of reichsmarschall which was held solely by Hermann Göring.
The first instance of this rank was marshal of the Royal Air Force, which was established on paper in 1919 and was first held by Lord Trenchard (from 1927 onwards). Other Commonwealth
Flight lieutenant (Flt Lt in the RAF and IAF; FLTLT in the RAAF and RNZAF, formerly sometimes F/L in all services) is a junior commissioned rank which originated in the Royal Naval Air Service and continues to be used in the Royal Air Force. The rank is also used by the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence, including many Commonwealth countries, and it is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. It ranks above flying officer and immediately below squadron leader. The name of the rank is the complete phrase; it is never shortened to "lieutenant". In RAF informal usage, a flight lieutenant is sometimes referred to as a "flight lieuy".
It has a NATO ranking code of OF-2, and is equivalent to a lieutenant in the Royal Navy or a captain in the British Army or the Royal Marines.
The equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF), Women's Royal Air Force (WRAF) (until 1968) and Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service (PMRAFNS) (until 1980) was flight officer.
On 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by professional officers the British Army. The rank can also be held by Royal Marines officers in tri-service posts although currently no dedicated RM post is associated with this rank. It ranks above lieutenant-general and, in the Army, is subordinate to the rank of field marshal, which is now only awarded as an honorary rank. The rank of general has a NATO-code of OF-9, and is a four-star rank. It is equivalent to a full admiral in the Royal Navy or an air chief marshal in the Royal Air Force.
Officers holding the ranks of lieutenant-general, major-general and the former rank of brigadier-general (now simply brigadier and no longer a general officer rank) may be generically considered to be generals.
A general's insignia is a crossed sword and baton. This appeared on its own for the now obsolete rank of Brigadier-General. A Major-General has a pip over this emblem; a Lieutenant-General a crown instead of a pip; and a full General both a pip and a crown. The insignia for the highest rank, that of Field Marshal, consists of crossed batons within a wreath and
Lieutenant colonel is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries. The rank is superior to major, and subordinate to colonel. The comparable Royal Navy rank is commander, and the comparable rank in the Royal Air Force and many Commonwealth air forces is wing commander.
The rank insignia in the British Army and Royal Marines, as well as many Commonwealth countries, is a crown above a 4 pointed "Bath" star, also colloquially referred to as a "pip". The crown has varied in the past with different monarchs; the current one being the Crown of St Edward. Most other Commonwealth countries use the same insignia, or with the state emblem replacing the crown.
In modern British forces, a lieutenant colonel usually commands a regiment (in the artillery and armoured regiments) or a battalion in the infantry.
From 1 April 1918 to 31 July 1919, the Royal Air Force maintained the rank of lieutenant colonel. It was superseded by the rank of wing commander on the following day.
Lieutenant general (abbreviated 'LTGEN' and pronounced 'Lef-tenant General') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general. It is also considered a three-star rank.
The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Capability Development.
Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force
The insignia for a lieutenant general is the crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton.
There are currently two lieutenant generals in the Australian Defence Force:
Although not an Australian, Field Marshal William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, was a popular general with the Australians. He commanded the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, and when he was promoted to the rank of field marshal in the British Army in 1925, he was awarded the honorary rank of field marshal in
Lieutenant general (Lt Gen) is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines, although the highest-ranking officer in the Royal Marines at present is major general. It has a NATO code of OF-8, and is the equivalent of a multinational three-star rank; some British lieutenant generals sometimes wear three-star insignia, in addition to their standard insignia, when on multinational operations.
Lieutenant general is a superior rank to major general, but subordinate to a full general. The rank has a NATO rank code of OF-8, equivalent to a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy and an air marshal in the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries.
The rank insignia for both the Army and the Royal Marines is a crown over a crossed sabre and baton. Since the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, the St Edward's Crown, commonly known as the Queen's Crown, has been depicted. Prior to 1953, the Tudor Crown, commonly known as the King's Crown was used.
Ordinarily, lieutenant general is the rank held by the officer in command of an entire battlefield corps. The General Officer Commanding NATO's Allied Rapid Reaction Corps is a British lieutenant general. Historically,
The Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO) is the second highest-ranking officer in the United States Navy. In the event that the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is absent or is unable to perform his duties, the VCNO assumes the duties and responsibilities of the CNO. The VCNO may also perform other duties that the CNO assigns to him. The VCNO is appointed by the President of the United States, and must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. By statute, the VCNO is appointed as a four-star admiral.
This position was called Assistant for Operations in 1915, and Assistant Chief of Naval Operations in 1922. In 1942 the title became Vice Chief of Naval Operations. The current VCNO is Admiral Mark E. Ferguson III. Previous VCNOs include:
Artificer sergeant major (ASM) is a senior non-commissioned officer appointment in the technical branches of the British and Australian Armies.
Artificer sergeant major is an appointment held by a warrant officer class 1 in the Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME), the corps of the British Army whose function is the repair and recovery of all mechanical and electrical equipments. The ASM is normally the senior tradesman in a unit light aid detachment and is the technical advisor to the unit. An ASM must have passed the artificer training course and served as an artificer weapons/vehicles or similar discipline as a staff sergeant and warrant officer class 2 (holding the appointment of artificer quartermaster sergeant) prior to promotion to WO1.
The title "artificer" is also used in the Australian Army in the Royal Corps of the Australian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (RAEME), and applies to the senior soldier (tradesman) in the brigade administration support battalion, or combat service support battalion, or workshop troop, or technical support unit.
Artificer sergeant major is an appointment held by a warrant officer class 1 or 2 in RAEME (depending on
Master's mate is an obsolete rating which was used by the Royal Navy, United States Navy and merchant services in both countries for a senior petty officer who assisted the master. Master's mates evolved into the modern rank of Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, while in the merchant service they evolved into the numbered mates or officers.
Originally, a master's mate was an experienced petty officer, who assisted the master, but was not in line for promotion to lieutenant. By the mid-eighteenth century, he was far more likely to be a superior midshipman, still waiting to pass his examination for lieutenant or to receive his commission, but taking rather more responsibility aboard ship. Six master's mates were allowed on a first rate, three on a third rate, and two on most frigates.
Master's mates was a rating for experienced seamen, and were usually selected from the ranks of the quartermasters, who they supervised, or from the ranks of midshipmen who wanted more responsibility aboard ship; they were less commonly selected from other mates of warrant officers and able seamen. Master's mates were allowed to command vessels, walk the quarterdeck, and mess in the gunroom with the
A petty officer is a non-commissioned officer in many navies and is given the NATO rank denotion OR-5. They are equal in rank to sergeant, British Army and Royal Air Force. A petty officer is superior in rank to leading rate and subordinate to chief petty officer, in the case of the British armed forces.
The modern petty officer dates back to the Age of Sail. Petty officers rank between naval officers (both commissioned and warrant) and most enlisted sailors. These were men with some claim to officer rank, sufficient to distinguish them from ordinary ratings without raising them so high as the sea officers. Several were warrant officers, in the literal sense of being appointed by warrant, and like the warrant sea officers, their superiors, they were usually among the specialists of the ships's company. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests the title derives from the Anglo-Norman and Middle French 'petit' meaning "of small size, small; little".
Two of the petty officer's rates, midshipman and master's mate, were a superior petty officer with a more general authority, but they remained no more than ratings. However, it was quite possible for a warrant officer, such as the armourer,
Reichsführer-SS (help·info) was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. Reichsführer-SS was a title from 1925 to 1933 and, after 1934, the highest rank of the German Schutzstaffel (SS). The SS saw its largest growth during the tenure of Heinrich Himmler who also had this position longer than all others combined.
Reichsführer-SS was both a title and a rank. The title of Reichsführer was first created in 1926 by Joseph Berchtold. Berchtold's predecessor, Julius Schreck, never referred to himself as Reichsführer, but the title was retroactively applied to him in later years. In 1929, Heinrich Himmler became Reichsführer-SS and referred to himself by his title instead of his regular SS rank. This set the precedent for the commander of the SS to be called Reichsführer-SS.
In 1934, Himmler's title became an actual rank after the Night of the Long Knives. From that point on, Reichsführer-SS became the highest rank of the SS and was considered the equivalent of a Generalfeldmarschall in the German army. There was never more than one Reichsführer-SS at any one time, with Himmler holding the position as his personal title from 1929 (becoming his actual rank in
Commodore was an early title and later a rank in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard and a current honorary title in the U.S. Navy with an intricate history. Because the U.S. Congress was originally unwilling to authorize more than four ranks (captain, master commandant, lieutenant, and midshipman) until 1862, considerable importance was attached to the title of commodore. Like its Royal Navy counterpart at the time, the U.S. Navy commodore was not a higher rank, but a temporary assignment for Navy officers, as Herman Melville wrote in his 1850 novel, White-Jacket.
Commodore was established as a temporary rank in the U.S. Navy during World War II and was discontinued in 1947, its previous incumbents having all been advanced to Rear Admiral or retired. Nearly forty years later, it was reinstated as an official rank with a pay grade of O-7, replacing the previously titled Rear Admiral (lower half), which were U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard flag officers paid at the one-star rank of an O-7, but who wore the two-star rank insignia of an O-8. In 1982, following years of objections and complaints by the U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force and U.S. Marine Corps, the rank of
General of the Armies of the United States, or more commonly referred to as General of the Armies, is the highest possible officer rank of the United States Army, serving directly under the president and holding nearly complete control over armed forces and uniformed services branches.
Only two men have held the rank of General of the Armies;
Douglas MacArthur was considered for the rank, both during and after World War II, but a formal promotion order was never issued.
The rank serves directly under the president, and is superior to General of the Army, General of the Air Force and Fleet Admiral.
The rank of General of the Armies of the United States has a history spanning over two centuries and, during the course of the rank's existence, the rank has held different authority, seniority, and perceptions by both the American public and the military establishment. In all, there have been six versions of the rank General of the Armies, of which only three were ever formally bestowed:
The first mention of the rank "General of the Armies" was in an Act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1799. Congress provided:
The rank of General of the Armies was created to be bestowed upon
Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in several countries.
The origin of the name is that they were part of the staff of a British army regiment and paid at that level rather than as a member of a battalion or company.
In the Australian Army, and Cadets the rank of Staff Sergeant is slowly being phased out. It was usually held by the Company Quartermaster Sergeant or the holders of other administrative roles. Staff sergeants are always addressed as "Staff Sergeant" or "Staff", never as "Sergeant" as it degrades their rank. "Chief" is another nickname, usually for those who hold the quartermaster's role. A staff sergeant ranks above Sergeant and below Warrant Officer Class 2.
In the Israel Defense Forces, soldiers are promoted from Sergeant to Staff Sergeant (Samál rishón) after 28 months of service for combat soldiers, and 32 months of service for non-combat soldiers, if they performed their duties appropriately during this time. Soldiers who take a commander's course may become staff sergeants earlier (usually after 24 months of service, or one year from becoming a commander). The rank insignia is composed of three clear-blue stripes (as is the rank of
The title flight officer was a military rank used by the United States Army Air Force during World War II. It was also an air force rank in several Commonwealth nations where it was used for female officers and was equivalent to the rank of flight lieutenant. The term flight officer is sometimes used today to describe job title positions as aircrew members.
A flight officer is a member of the crew of an aircraft who is responsible for specific functions. The flight officer may function as the navigator, responsible for planning the journey, advising the pilot while en route, and ensuring that hazards or obstacles are avoided. The flight officer may also be responsible for operating aircraft mission/weapon systems, including mission planning, mission timing, threat reactions, aircraft communications, and hazard avoidance. In the United States Navy and Marine Corps, aircrew members responsible for operating airborne weapon and sensor systems are called naval flight officers. The title of flight officer is also used for police officers who serve as pilots in law enforcement aviation units.
Flight officer was a United States Army Air Forces rank used by the Army Air Forces during World
General of the Army (GA) is a five-star general officer and is the second highest possible rank in the United States Army. A special rank of General of the Armies, which ranks above General of the Army, does exist but has only been conferred twice in the history of the Army. A General of the Army ranks immediately above a general and is equivalent to a fleet admiral and a General of the Air Force. There is no established equivalent five-star rank in the other Federal uniformed services (Marine Corps, Coast Guard, PHSCC, and NOAA Corps). Often referred to as a "five-star general", the rank of General of the Army has historically been reserved for wartime use and is not currently active in the U.S. military.
On July 25, 1866, the U.S. Congress established the rank of "General of the Army of the United States" for General Ulysses S. Grant. When appointed General of the Army, Grant wore the rank insignia of four stars and coat buttons arranged in three groups of four.
Unlike the World War II rank with a similar title, the 1866 rank of General of the Army was a four-star rank. This rank held all the authority and power of a 1799 proposal for a rank of "General of the Armies" even though
General-in-chief has been a military rank or title in various armed forces around the world.
In France, general-in-chief (général en chef) was first an informal title for the lieutenant-general commanding over others lieutenant-generals, or even for some marshals in charge of an army. During the Revolution, it became a title given to officers of général de division rank commanding an army. The généraux en chef wore four stars on their shoulders boards opposed to the three of a mere général de division. The title of général en chef was abolished in 1812, re-established during the Restoration and ultimately abolished in 1848.
In Russia, general-in-chief (Russian: генера́л-анше́ф, probably originating from the French général en chef), was a full general rank in the Russian Imperial army, the second top in Russian military ranks (the 2nd grade of Table of Ranks). It was created in 1698 by Peter the Great. In 1798, the rank was divided into three equivalent ranks of general of the infantry, general of the cavalry and general of the artillery.
In the United States, the term "general in chief" was used to refer to the Commanding General of the United States Army, who was the ground
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence. A lieutenant colonel is typically in charge of a battalion in the army.
The following articles deal with the rank of lieutenant colonel (or its equivalent)
In the Royal Navy, the rank of Master of the Fleet denoted the sailing master of a fleet flagship, or the senior sailing master in a fleet. Examples include John Bowen (Master of the Fleet during the Glorious First of June 1794), Ian Hogg, and John H. D. Cunningham.
By 1814, the title granted the master extra pay. By 1832, the masters of the fleet were given the equivalent rank and uniform of commanders. By 1843, masters were appointed by commission not warrant. By 1864, the title was changed to "Staff Captain" and ranked after the regular rank of captain, while masters who had served at least 15 years were given the new rank of "Staff Commander" and ranked after commander.
The title has been used outside the Royal Navy, such as in Ultramarines and other science fiction, and for the captain of the Belle of Louisville.
Oberscharführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that existed between the years of 1932 and 1945. Translated as “senior squad leader”, Oberscharführer was first used as a rank of the Sturmabteilung (SA) and was created due to an expansion of the enlisted positions required by growing SA membership in the late 1920s and early 1930s. The SA rank of Oberscharführer was senior to Scharführer and junior to the rank of Truppführer.
Since early ranks of the Schutzstaffel (SS) were identical to the ranks of SA, Oberscharführer was created as an SS rank at the same time the position was created within the SA. Initially, the rank of SS-Oberscharführer was equal to its SA counterpart, however, this changed in 1934 following the Night of the Long Knives.
At that time, the SS rank system was reorganized and several new ranks established with older SA titles discontinued. The rank of SS-Oberscharführer was therefore “bumped up” and became equal to an SA-Truppführer. The insignia for the SS rank was changed, as well, becoming two silver collar pips in contrast to the SA insignia for Oberscharführer which was a single collar pip with silver stripe.
Within the SA, an Oberscharführer was typically
Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps (officially abbreviated to SgtMajMarCor, and unofficially as SMMC) is a unique non-commissioned rank and billet in the United States Marine Corps.
In the Marine Corps, sergeant major is the ninth and highest enlisted rank, just above first sergeant, and equal in grade to master gunnery sergeant, although the two have different responsibilities. Sergeant major is both a rank and a military billet, and serves as the unit commander's senior enlisted advisor and to handle matters of discipline and morale among the enlisted Marines. The Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps is chosen by the Commandant of the Marine Corps to serve as his advisor and as the preeminent and highest ranking enlisted Marine with a protocol equivalency of a lieutenant general.
Although not officially considered a Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, when Archibald Sommers was appointed to the grade of Sergeant Major January 1, 1801, it was a solitary post, similar to the modern billet of Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps. In 1833, an act of legislation made the rank of sergeant major permanent for the Marine Corps and by 1899 five Marines held the rank of sergeant major. This
Ship-of-the-line captain (French: capitaine de vaisseau; German: Linienschiffskapitän; Italian: capitano di vascello; Spanish: Capitán de Navío; Serbo-Croatian: Kapetan bojnog broda) is a rank that appears in several navies. The name of the rank derives from the fact the rank corresponded to command of a warship of the largest class, the Ship-of-the-Line, as opposed to smaller types (corvettes and frigates). It is normally above the rank of frigate captain.
Ship-of-the-line captain is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in most of the Commonwealth navies and captain in the United States Navy, and to the rank of captain at sea used in Germany and the Netherlands. Ship-of-the-line captain is rank OF-5 in the NATO rank codes, and equates to the land-forces rank of full colonel.
Linienschiffskapitän was an officer rank in the Austro-Hungarian Navy, equivalent to oberst in the land forces or Kapitän zur See in the Kaiserliche Marine. It is still partly used by the navies of the Empire's successor states, such as Yugoslavia and Croatia.
In order, the other officer ranks below ship-of-the-line captain were frigate captain, corvette captain (major in the army), ship-of-the-Line
A skipper is a person who has command of a boat or ship, more or less equivalent to "captain." At sea, the skipper has absolute command over the crew. The skipper may or may not be the owner of the boat.
The word is derived from the low German and Dutch word schipper; schip is Dutch for "ship". In Dutch sch- is pronounced [sx] (not [ʃ] as in German), and English-speakers rendered this as [sk].
The word "skipper" is used more than "captain" for some types of craft, for example fishing boats.
It is also more frequently used than captain with privately-owned noncommercial vessels, such as small yachts and other recreational boats, mostly in cases where the person in command of the boat is likely not a licensed or professional captain, suggesting the term is less formal.
In Navy/Marine Corps and merchant naval slang, it is a term used in reference to the commanding officer of any Ship, base or command regardless of rank. It is generally only applied to someone who has earned the speaker's respect.
Skipper RNR was an actual rank used in the British Royal Naval Reserve for skippers of fishing boats who were members of the service. It was equivalent to Warrant Officer. Skippers could also
The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. It is sometimes the case that the chief of staff is more directly influential than the theoretical commander. This may be the case when the commander is a ceremonial head of the armed forces such as a Head of State.
Lieutenant (junior grade) (LTJG) is a junior commissioned officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps, with the pay grade of O-2. The rank is also used in the United States Maritime Service and the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps.
Lieutenant, junior grade ranks above ensign and below lieutenant and is equivalent to a first lieutenant in the other uniformed services (the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force) and sub-lieutenant in the Royal Navy and the navies of many Commonwealth countries.
The time for promotion to LTJG is a minimum of two years after commissioning in the Navy or 18 months in the Coast Guard. Lieutenants, junior grade typically lead petty officers and non-rated personnel, unless assigned to small aircraft or on staff duty. A LTJG's usual shipboard billet is as a Division Officer.
Lieutenant, junior grade is often referred to colloquially as JG ("Jay-Gee"). Prior to March 3, 1883, this rank was known in the Navy as master.
Band Sergeant Major (BSM) is the appointment held by the senior playing musician in a British Army or Royal Marines band, who holds the rank of Warrant Officer Class 2. The BSM also functions as the band's second senior non-commissioned officer (NCO) after the Bandmaster and has various administrative duties. Formerly, in smaller regimental bands commanded by a Bandmaster, the BSM was the senior NCO. Prospective BSMs attend a special three-week course at the Royal Military School of Music, one of which is run every year. The equivalent appointment in the Household Cavalry is Band Corporal Major (BCM). The Band Sergeant in Royal Air Force bands, although holding the lower rank of Flight Sergeant, has similar responsibilities.
Daejang (hangul: 대장, hanja: 大將) is a senior military rank of the Korean Peninsula, used by both North and South Korea. It is considered the combined equivalent of a General and Admiral in other nations. The rank of Daejang is sometimes spelled as Taejang, depending on the transliteration system used (Taejang in McCune-Reischauer, Daejang in official ROK transliteration system).
Daejang is senior to North Korea's three other General/Admiral ranks: Sojang (Major General/Rear Admiral), Jungjang (Lieutenant General/Vice Admiral), Sangjang (Colonel General/Admiral). North Korean generals and admirals wear one to four stars.
There are also three marshal ranks above this: Chasu (vice marshal), Wonsu (marshal) and Dae Wonsu (Grand Marshal).
The insignia for Daejang is based upon the former Soviet Union military rank insignia (before 1974) for Generals of the Army and modern Generals of the Army of Russia, and in the naval versions, the Soviet (before 1974) and Russian (after 1994) rank insignias for Admirals of the Fleet. It is also the highest rank which is effectively held by the professional military, since the higher ranks are normally seen more as combined military-political
Gruppenführer (literally “group leader”) was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party, first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA.
In 1930, Gruppenführer became an SS rank and was originally bestowed upon those officers who commanded SS-Gruppen and also upon senior officers of the SS command staff. In 1932, the SS was reorganized and the SS-Gruppen were reformed into SS-Abschnitte. A Gruppenführer commanded an SS-Abschnitt while a new rank, that of Obergruppenführer, oversaw the SS-Oberabschnitte which were the largest SS units in Germany.
Initially in the SA, NSKK, and SS, the rank of Gruppenführer was considered equivalent to a full general, but became regarded as equivalent to Generalleutnant after 1934. During the Second World War, when the Waffen-SS began using the rank, an SS-Gruppenführer was considered equal to a Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht and was referred to as SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS. Waffen-SS Gruppenführer also displayed the shoulder boards of a Wehrmacht Generalleutnant. Note that the Wehrmacht and SS rank of Generalleutnant was equivalent to the rank of major general in the U.S. and British armies, as well as other western
Hippeis (Ancient Greek: ἱππεῖς) was the Greek term for cavalry. The Hippeus (ἱππεύς) was the second highest of the four Athenian social classes, made of men who could afford to maintain a war horse in the service of the state.(See Solonian Constitution) The rank may be compared to Roman Equestrians and medieval knights.
Among the Spartans, it was the royal guard of honour, consisting of 300 chosen Spartan youth under the age of thirty, who, although originally mounted, afterwards served as heavily-armed foot-soldiers. The cavalry of Athens, which was first formed after the Greco-Persian War, and then consisted of 300 men, from the Periclean period onwards consisted of 1,200 men, including 200 mounted bowmen (hippotoxōtœ), who were slaves belonging to the state and 1,000 citizens of the two highest classes. They were kept together in time of peace, and carefully drilled; at the great public festivals they took part in the processions. They were commanded by two hipparchi, each of whom had five phylai under him and superintended the levy. Subordinate to these were the ten phylarchi in command of ten phylai. Both sets of officers were drawn from the two highest classes. It was the
Rittmeister (German for "Ride master" or "Cavalry master") was a military rank of a commissioned cavalry officer in the armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Scandinavia, and some other states. He would typically be in charge of a squadron (a troop in the United States), the equivalent of O3 or Captain, The exact name of this rank maintains a variety of spellings in different languages (all Germanic):
The Dutch equivalent, Ritmeester, still serves as the official designation for officers in the cavalry branches of the Royal Dutch Army.
The Norwegian equivalent, Rittmester, still serves as the official designation for officers in the armoured and mechanized infantry branches of the Norwegian Army. In Sweden the rank was known as Ryttmästare, and in Denmark (until 1951) as Ritmester.
The armies of Poland, Lithuania and Russia adopted, but localised, the Germanic term for someone of similar rank. These were:
In the Polish army (from the 15th century to the mid-20th century) a Rotmistrz commanded a formation called a rota. The Lithuanian name was rotmistras. In earlier times the rotmistrz served as the commander of an infantry or cavalry company, though sometimes he would temporarily be
SSG is an obsolete hull classification symbol in the United States Navy. It was applied to the Regulus missile-launching submarines from the 1950s. Only four submarines were designated SSG: USS Tunny (SSG-282), USS Barbero (SSG-317), USS Grayback (SSG-574), and USS Growler (SSG-577). Tunny and Barbero were modified World War II Gato-class submarines, while Grayback and Growler were custom made launch platforms. A fifth Regulus boat, USS Halibut, was built with nuclear power. These ships were redesignated with the 1964 removal of the Regulus missile from service.
The Soviet Union built the Juliett-class submarines to carry nuclear cruise missiles to attack the United States, but these were later converted to carry anti-shipping cruise missiles. Three variants of the Whiskey-class submarines, called the "Single Cylinder", "Twin Cylinder", and "Long Bin" were made.
The Collins class submarine of the Royal Australian Navy also use the SSG designation.
Sub-lieutenant is a military rank. It is normally a junior officer rank.
In many navies, a sub-lieutenant is a naval commissioned or subordinate officer, ranking below a lieutenant. In the Royal Navy (RN) the rank of sub-lieutenant is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the British Army and of flying officer in the Royal Air Force (RAF). An RN sub-lieutenant ranks above an Army second lieutenant or an RAF pilot officer.
In some armies, sub-lieutenant is the lowest officer rank. However in Brazil it is the highest non-commissioned rank, and in Spain it is the second highest non-commissioned rank.
The NATO rank code is OF-1 (senior).
In the British Royal Navy, a passed midshipman awaiting promotion often elected to become a master's mate, normally an experienced petty officer who assisted the sailing master. Though formally the rating did not lead to promotion to lieutenant, master's mates were paid more than any other rating and were the only ratings allowed to command any sort of vessel. A midshipman who became a master's mate got an increase in pay from £1 13s 6d to £3 16s per month, but initially reduced his chances at a commission. Over time, however, service as a master's
In the British Army, the troop sergeant major (TSM) is the senior non-commissioned officer in a Royal Artillery troop, usually a warrant officer class 2.
This differs from a cavalry troop or infantry platoon, in which the highest-ranking non-commissioned officer (NCO) is usually a sergeant.
The appointment was formerly current in British cavalry units. It was introduced in 1813 to replace the quartermaster as the senior NCO of a troop, and was roughly equivalent to a colour sergeant in the infantry. As the squadron replaced the troop as the main tactical and administrative division of the regiment, so the squadron sergeant major superseded the troop sergeant major.
It was revived in 1938 as an appointment of the short-lived rank of warrant officer class III (WOIII). The new troop sergeant major, and his infantry counterpart, the platoon sergeant major, were part of an experiment in giving experienced NCOs command of units formerly reserved for commissioned officers (troops and platoons). The experiment was not considered a success, and no promotions were made to the rank after 1940: most existing WOIIIs were commissioned as lieutenants.
The old appointment is presumably why staff
Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank admiral of the fleet. Royal Navy officers holding the ranks of rear admiral, vice admiral and admiral of the fleet are sometimes considered generically to be admirals.
King Edward I of England appointed the first English admiral in 1297 when he named William de Leyburn “Admiral of the sea of the King of England”. The rank of admiral should not be confused with the office of Admiral of England or Lord High Admiral, which was an office held by the person with overall responsibility for the Navy.
The Royal Navy has had vice and rear admirals since at least the 16th century. When in command of the fleet, the admiral would be in either the lead or the middle portion of the fleet. When the admiral commanded from the middle portion of the fleet his deputy, the vice admiral, would be in the leading portion or van. Below him was another admiral at the rear of the fleet, called rear admiral.
In Elizabethan times the fleet grew large enough to be organized into squadrons. The admiral’s squadron wore a red ensign, the vice admiral’s white, and the rear
Air commodore (Air Cdre in the RAF and IAF, AIRCDRE in the RNZAF and RAAF, formerly A/C in the RCAF) is a one-star rank and the most junior of the air-officer ranks which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force. The rank is also used by the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence and it is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure.
In the present-day RAF, air commodores typically hold senior appointments within groups, acting directly in support of the air officer commanding. However, during the inter-war period, and in the case of the contemporary No. 83 Expeditionary Air Group, the air officer commanding held or holds air commodore rank.
Air commodore is a one-star rank and the most junior air officer rank, being immediately senior to group captain and immediately subordinate to air vice-marshal. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-6 and is equivalent to a commodore in the Royal Navy or a brigadier in the British Army or the Royal Marines. Unlike these two ranks, however, it has always been a substantive rank. Additionally, air commodores
A battalion surgeon is the chief medical officer of a military battalion in the Army or Marines. Despite the name, most battalion surgeons are primary care physicians or general medical officers, and not actual surgeons who perform invasive surgical operations. The battalion surgeon is a special staff officer who advises the battalion commander on matters pertaining to the health of the battalion. Chief duties include managing a battalion aid station (BAS), performing sick call for members of the battalion, and medical planning for deployment. The battalion surgeon is usually a junior staff physician, and typically carries the United States Army rank of Captain (O-3), Major (O-4), or Navy rank of Lieutenant (O-3) or Lieutenant Commander (O-4). It is often a salient position, lasting no more than a couple of years. Many battalion surgeons are recruited via the Army Medical Department Professional Filler System (PROFIS).
In the United States Army, the commanding officer of a brigade is a Brigade Commander. The position is usually held by a colonel, although a lieutenant colonel can be selected for brigade command in lieu of an available colonel. A typical tour of duty for this assignment is twenty four to thirty six months.
A brigade commander enjoys an appreciably sized headquarters and staff to assist him or her in commanding the brigade and its subordinate battalion units. The typical staff usually includes:
In addition, the headquarters will include additional junior staff officers, non commissioned officer, and enlisted support personnel in the occupational specialities of the staff sections; these personnel will ordinarily be assigned to the brigade's headquarters and headquarters company.
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland was title of the commander of British forces in Ireland before 1922.
The role nominally is held by the President of Ireland today as the supreme commander of the Defence Forces.
Holders of the post have included:
Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1903, there was generally a single senior-most officer in the army. From 1783, he was known simply as the Senior Officer of the United States Army, but in 1821, the title was changed to Commanding General of the United States Army. The office was often referred to by various other titles, such as "Major General Commanding the Army" or "General-in-Chief." The position was abolished with the creation of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1903.
A drill instructor is a non-commissioned officer or Staff Non-Commissioned Officer in the armed forces or police forces with specific duties that vary by country. In the U.S. armed forces, they are assigned the duty of indoctrinating new recruits entering the military into the customs and practices of military life. In the U.S., a drill instructor refers to a Marine Corps Drill instructor. In the Air Force they are known as Military Training Instructors. The U.S. Army refers to them as Drill sergeants. In the U.S. Navy, they are called "Recruit Division Commanders" (RDCs). In the U.S. Coast Guard, they are referred to as "Company Commanders". Outside of the U.S., they are assigned the duty of instructing recruits in drill commands only.
In the Australian Army, the staff responsible for training recruits are known as Recruit Instructors. They teach recruits discipline, fieldcraft, marksmanship, service knowledge and drill.
Each recruit platoon is commanded by Recruit Instructors usually consisting of a Lieutenant, a Sergeant and up to four instructors of the Corporal or Bombardier rank. A Recruit Instructor can be identified by a 1st Recruit Training Battalion colour patch on his or
An executive officer is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization.
While there is no clear line between executive or principal and inferior officers, principal officers are high-level officials in the executive branch of U.S. government such as department heads of independent agencies. In Humphrey's Executor v. United States, 295 U.S. 602 (1935), the Court distinguished between executive officers and quasi-legislative or quasi-judicial officers by stating that the former serve at the pleasure of the president and may be removed at his discretion. The latter may be removed only with procedures consistent with statutory conditions enacted by Congress. The decision by the Court was that the Federal Trade Commission was a quasi-legislative body because of other powers it had, and therefore the president could not fire an FTC member for political reasons. Congress can’t retain removal power over officials with executive function (Bowsher v. Synar). However, statutes can restrict removal if not purely executive (Humphrey’s executor), but can't restrict removal of purely executive officer (Myers
Hauptsturmführer was a Nazi party paramilitary rank that was used in several Nazi organizations such as the SS, NSKK, and the NSFK. The rank of Hauptsturmführer was a mid-grade company level officer and was the equivalent of a captain (Hauptmann) in the German Army (Heer) and also the equivalent of captain in foreign armies. Hauptsturmführer was the most commonly held SS officer rank during the Second World War.
The rank of Hauptsturmführer evolved from the much older rank of Sturmhauptführer, created in 1928 as a rank of the Sturmabteilung (SA). The SS used the rank of Sturmhauptführer from 1930 to 1934 at which time, following the Night of the Long Knives, the name of the rank was changed to Hauptsturmführer although the insignia remained the same.
Some of the most infamous SS members are known to have held the rank of Hauptsturmführer. Among them are Josef Mengele, the infamous doctor assigned to Auschwitz; Klaus Barbie, Gestapo Chief of Lyon; Alois Brunner, Adolf Eichmann's assistant; and Amon Göth, who was sentenced to death and hanged for committing mass murder during the liquidations of the ghettos at Tarnow and Krakow, the camp at Szebnie and the Plaszow camp, portrayed in
A knight banneret, sometimes known simply as banneret, was a Medieval knight ("a commoner of rank") who led a company of troops during time of war under his own banner (which was square-shaped, in contrast to the tapering standard or the pennon flown by the lower-ranking knights) and were eligible to bear supporters in English heraldry.
The military rank of a knight banneret was higher than a knight bachelor (who fought under another's banner), but lower than an earl or duke; the word derives from the French banneret, from bannire, banner, elliptical for seigneur - or chevalier banneret, Medieval Latin banneretus.
Under English custom the rank of knight banneret could only be conferred by the sovereign on the field of battle. There were some technical exceptions to this; when his standard was on the field of battle he could be regarded as physically present though he was not. His proxy could be regarded as a sufficient substitution for his presence.
As there were no standing armies (except the military orders), military service was rendered ad hoc as an obligation of a vassal, either in person and/or with a contingent raised by one's own means. This social role was crucial: a
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces.
When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. It is considered the most junior of the field ranks. In some militaries, notably France, the rank is referred to as commandant, while in others it is known as captain-major. It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures, such as the New York State Police, New Jersey State Police and several others. As a police rank, Major roughly corresponds to the UK rank of Superintendent.
When used in hyphenated or combined fashion, the term can also imply seniority at other levels of rank, including general-major or major general, denoting a mid-level general officer, and sergeant major, denoting the most senior NCO of a military unit.
It can also be used with a hyphen to denote the leader of a military band such as in pipe-major or drum-major.
Oberleutnant is a junior officer rank in the militaries of Germany, Czechloslovakia, Switzerland and Austria. In the German Army, it dates from the early 19th century. Translated as "Senior Lieutenant", the rank is typically bestowed upon commissioned officers after five to six years of active duty service.
Oberleutnant is used by both the German Heer and Luftwaffe. The German Navy ("Marine") equivalent is Oberleutnant zur See.
To differentiate between the other services, the naval rank is typically listed as Oberleutnant zur See. In the NATO military comparison system, a German Oberleutnant is the equivalent of a First Lieutenant in the Army/Air Forces of Allied nations, a Lieutenant Junior Grade in the United States Navy, and a Sub-Lieutenant in the British Royal Navy. In the Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Navy this rank was called k.u.k. Fregattenleutnant.
During World War II, the Waffen-SS equivalent of Oberleutnant was known as Obersturmführer.
Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary Nazi Party rank used by both the SA and the SS. It was created in May 1933 to fill the need for an additional field grade officer rank above Sturmbannführer as the SA expanded. It became an SS rank at the same time. Translated as “senior assault (or storm) unit leader”, Obersturmbannführer was junior to Standartenführer and was the equivalent to Oberstleutnant (lieutenant colonel) in the German Army. The insignia for Obersturmbannführer was four silver pips and a stripe, centered on the left collar of an SS/SA uniform. The rank also displayed the shoulder boards of a Wehrmacht Oberstleutnant and was the highest SS/SA rank to display unit insignia on the opposite collar.
Amongst the more notorious holders of the rank of Obersturmbannführer were Rudolf Höss, Adolf Eichmann, Herbert Kappler and Joachim Peiper. Höss was commandant of the infamous Auschwitz concentration camp, whilst Eichmann is generally regarded as a key architect of the Nazi's Endlösung (Final Solution) policy in which Auschwitz played so major a role. Herbert Kapplar was the head of German police and security services (Oberbefehlshaber des Sicherheitspolizei und SD) in Rome who
Rear admiral (RAdm) is a flag officer rank of the British Royal Navy. It is immediately superior to commodore and is subordinate to vice admiral. It is a two-star rank and has a NATO ranking code of OF-7.
The rank originated in the days of naval sailing squadrons and each naval squadron would be assigned an admiral as its head. He would command from the centre vessel and direct the activities of the squadron. The admiral would in turn be assisted by a vice admiral, who commanded the lead ships which would bear the brunt of a naval battle. In the rear of the naval squadron, a third admiral would command the remaining ships and, as this section of the squadron was considered to be in the least danger, the admiral in command of the rear would typically be the most junior of the squadron admirals. This has survived into the modern age, with the rank of rear admiral the most-junior of the admiralty ranks of many navies.
The Royal Navy rank of rear admiral should be distinguished from the office of Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom, which is an Admiralty position usually held by a senior (and possibly retired) "full" admiral.
Although ultimately originating with the 16th century handgunners and the 17th century musketeers and streltsy, the term rifleman originated from the 18th century. It would later become the term for the archetypal common soldier.
As the effectiveness of firearms increased, the balance of these pike-and-musket units shifted, until the pikes were supporting the muskets. The last pike regiments were dissolved by the 1720s with the invention of the bayonet. This innovation replaced the pike, and in effect converted the musket into a pike for those situations where it might still be useful, such as following up volleys with a charge, or defending against cavalry.
Smooth-bore weapons such as the musket had always been recognised as inaccurate, requiring massed volleys to be effective. Aimed fire, with targets individually chosen and fired upon on the initiative of the soldier, was not possible until the development of rifling in the barrel. This imparted spin to the bullet, greatly increasing the 'trueness' of the trajectory, rather than the randomness of a musket ball that actually 'bounced' down the barrel. Rifles, although deadly accurate, were disadvantaged by being very slow to
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces.
In the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), since 1951, (סגן-משנה (סג"מ Segen mishne (Sagam) is equivalent to a Second Lieutenant (NATO OF-1). From 1948 - 1951 the corresponding rank was that of a (סגן) Segen, which today (since 1951) is a Lieutenant. Segen mishne means "Junior Lieutenant" and Segen literally translates as "Assistant". Typically it is the rank of a Platoon commander. The rank above Second Lieutenant is simply Lieutenant. Note that the IDF uses this rank across all three of its services.
The rank second lieutenant was introduced throughout the British Army in 1871 to replace the rank of ensign (cornet in the cavalry), although it had long been used in the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, Fusilier and Rifle regiments. At first the rank bore no distinct insignia. In 1902 a single Bath star (now commonly referred to as a pip) was introduced; the ranks of lieutenant and captain had their number of stars increased by one to (respectively) two and three. The rank is also used by the Royal Marines.
In the Royal Air Force the comparable rank is pilot officer. The Royal Navy has no exact
Ship-of-the-line lieutenant is a common naval rank, equivalent to the naval rank of lieutenant in the UK, Commonwealth and US. The name of the rank derives from the name of the largest class of warship, the ship of the line, as opposed to smaller types of warship (corvettes and frigates).
The rank is lieutenant de vaisseau in French, tenente di vascello in Italian, teniente de navío in Spanish, Linienschiffsleutnant in German and sorhajóhadnagy in Hungarian.
The NATO rank code is OF-2.
Specialist (abbreviated "SPC") is one of the four junior enlisted ranks in the U.S. Army, just above Private First Class and equivalent in pay grade to Corporal. Unlike Corporals, Specialists are not considered junior non-commissioned officers (NCOs).
New recruits enlisting into the United States Army who have earned a four-year degree, and as of 2006 those with civilian-acquired job skills, will enter as a Specialist. Typically, newly recruited Officer Candidates hold the rank of Specialist when enlisted and during BCT (Basic Combat Training) prior to their official enrollment into OCS (Officer Candidate School) they will be administratively promoted to the Pay Grade of E-5 but hold a rank of Officer Candidate (OC), not Sergeant (SGT).
In 1920, the Army rank and pay system received a major overhaul. All enlisted and non-commissioned ranks were reduced from 128 different insignias and several pay grades to only 7 rank insignias and 7 pay grades, which were numbered in seniority from 7th Grade (lowest) to 1st Grade (highest). The 2nd grade had two rank titles: first sergeant, which was three stripes, two rockers, and a lozenge (diamond) in the middle; and technical sergeant, which
A tail gunner or rear gunner is a crewman on a military aircraft who functions as a gunner defending against enemy fighter attacks from the rear, or "tail", of the plane. The tail gunner operates a flexible machine gun emplacement on either the top or tail end of the aircraft with a generally unobstructed view toward the rear of the aircraft. While the term tail gunner is usually associated with a crewman inside a gun turret, tail gun armaments may also be operated by remote control from another part of the aircraft.
The tail gun armament and arrangement varied between countries. During World War II, most USAAF heavy bomber designs such as the B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress used a fixed gunner position with the guns themselves in a separate turret covering an approximately 90-degree rear arc. Typical armament was two 0.50 inch M2 Browning machine guns.
In contrast, Royal Air Force heavy bombers such as the Avro Lancaster and Handley Page Halifax used a powered turret capable of 180 degree rotation containing the tail gunner and four 0.303 inch Browning machine guns. A similar arrangement was used in the American B-24 Liberator heavy bomber (but with two 0.50 inch heavy