"Meteorological services" are organizations concerned with the study or prediction of weather, and often have a specific focus such as monitoring hurricanes.
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The Met Office (originally an abbreviation for Meteorological Office, but now the official name in itself), is the United Kingdom's national weather service, and a trading fund of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Part of the Met Office headquarters at Exeter in Devon is the Met Office College, which handles the training for internal personnel and many forecasters from around the world. The current chief executive is John Hirst. The Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research and the National Meteorological Library and Archive are also parts of the Met Office.
The Met Office was established in 1854 as a small department within the Board of Trade under Robert FitzRoy as a service to mariners. The loss of the passenger vessel, the Royal Charter, and 459 lives off the coast of Anglesey in a violent storm in October 1859 led to the first gale warning service. In 1861 FitzRoy had established a network of 15 coastal stations from which visual gale warnings could be provided for ships at sea.
The development of the electric telegraph in the 1870s led to the more rapid dissemination of warnings and also led to the development of an observational network which could
The United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) delivers national and global weather, water, climate and space weather guidance, forecasts, warnings and analyses to its Partners and External User Communities. These products and services are based on a service-science legacy and respond to user needs to protect life and property, enhance that nation's economy and support the nation's growing need for environmental information. The centers form part of the National Weather Service.
There are nine centers:
Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited (MetService) was established as a State-Owned Enterprise in 1992. It employs about 215 staff and its headquarters are in Wellington, New Zealand. Prior to becoming an SOE, New Zealand's national meteorological service has existed in a number of forms since the appointment of the country's first Director of Meteorological Stations in August 1861.
As New Zealand's national meteorological service, MetService produces and issues forecasts and official weather warnings on behalf of New Zealand's Ministry of Transport and is certified by the Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand.
International media, aviation and energy business is conducted under the MetraWeather brand.
MetService has been certified to the ISO 9001 standard since November 1995.
The weather forecasting service began in 1861, when a spate of shipwrecks prompted the Government to start a storm warning service as part of the then Marine Department.
Forecasting remained a marine service until 1926, when it became part of the newly formed Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. At the outbreak of World War Two in 1939, forecasting became part of the Royal New Zealand
The Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) is a U.S. weather forecasting unit staffed by the National Weather Service (NWS) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which provides pertinent information on the current and expected state of the atmosphere during human spaceflight operations. It is located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Meteorological information for the broader space program is provided by the 45th Space Wing's 45th Weather Squadron of the U.S. Air Force.
SMG covered Space Shuttle missions and was planned to cover Orion missions. Following the landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis during STS-135 on July 21, 2011, many of the SMG forecasters were relocated elsewhere in the National Weather Service, leaving a reduced staff at JSC. The Spaceflight Meteorology Group is also tasked with forecasting emergency landings for Soyuz missions when those rendezvous with the International Space Station.
The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) is a Department of the government of Fiji responsible for providing weather forecasts and is based in Nadi. Since 1995, FMS has been responsible for naming and tracking tropical cyclones in the Southwest Pacific region. Current Meteorologists working at FMS have a Graduate Diploma in Meteorology from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
In the 1910s, weather services for Fiji were considered part of the responsibility of the Harbour Board in Suva.
Since June 1995, the central weather office of Fiji, Nadi, has been one of six Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers within the World Weather Watch program of the World Meteorological Organization. Its specialty is forecasting tropical cyclones south of the equator to the 25th parallel south, and between the 160th meridian east and 120th meridian west longitude. FMS issues public and marine weather bulletins for Kiribati, Northern Cooks, Southern Cooks, Tuvalu, Tokelau, Niue, Nauru and Fiji. The Fiji Meteorological Services, as per agreement with the International Civil Aviation Organization, functions as the Meteorological Watch Office for the Nadi Flight Information Region (FIR), which
The Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), formerly the Space Environment Center (SEC), is a laboratory and service center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) located in Boulder, Colorado. SWPC continually monitors and forecasts Earth's space environment, providing solar-terrestrial information. SWPC is the official source of space weather alerts and warnings for the United States.
The Space Weather Prediction Center is one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and provides real-time monitoring and forecasting of solar and geophysical events, conducts research in solar-terrestrial physics, and develops techniques for forecasting solar and geophysical disturbances. The SWPC Forecast Center is jointly operated by NOAA and the U.S. Air Force and is the national and world warning center for disturbances that can affect people and equipment working in the space environment. SWPC works with many national and international partners who contribute data and observations.
A few of the agencies and industry that rely on SWPC services:
The Federal Aviation Administration requires dispatchers to take into consideration HF communication
The Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), established in 1995, is one of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s (NCEP’s) original six service centers. Until January 12, 2003, the name of the organization was the Marine Prediction Center. Its origins are traced back to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912. The OPC issues forecasts up to 5 days in advance for ocean areas north of 31N latitude and west of 35W longitude in the Atlantic, and across the northeast Pacific north of 30N latitude and east of 160E longitude. Until recently, the OPC provided forecast points for tropical cyclones north of 20N latitude and east of 60W longitude to the National Hurricane Center. OPC is composed of two branches: the Ocean Forecast Branch and the Ocean Applications Branch.
The basis for OPC’s mission can be traced back to the sinking of the Titanic in April 1912. In response to that tragedy, an international commission was formed to determine requirements for safer ocean voyages. In 1914, the commission’s work resulted in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, of which the United States is one of the original signatories. The OPC assumed the U.S. obligation to issue
The United States National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), previously known as the National Weather Records Center (NWRC), in Asheville, North Carolina is the world's largest active archive of weather data. Starting as a tabulation unit in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1934, the climate records were transferred to Asheville in 1951, becoming named the National Weather Records Center (NWRC). It was later renamed the National Climatic Data Center, with relocation occurring in 1993.
In 1934, a tabulation unit was established in New Orleans, Louisiana to process past weather records. Climate records and upper air observations were punched onto cards in 1936. This organization was transferred to Asheville, North Carolina in 1951, where the National Weather Records Center (NWRC) was established. It was housed in the Arcade Building in Asheville, North Carolina. Processing of the climate data was accomplished at Weather Records Processing Centers at Chattanooga, Tennessee, Kansas City, Missouri, and San Francisco, California, until January 1, 1963 when it became consolidated with the NWRC. This name was maintained by the agency through 1967.
The Center has more than 150 years of data on hand
A Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (also Regional Specialized Meteorological Center and Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre) is responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch.
There are six such meteorological centres and an additional six regional Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres utilized for naming of tropical cyclones and the distribution of tropical cyclone advisories and warnings:
Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the Pacific Ocean (considered separately because tropical cyclones rarely form in the central Pacific), the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones
The National Severe Storms Laboratory (or NSSL) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather research laboratory located at the National Weather Center in Norman, Oklahoma. NSSL investigates all aspects of severe weather to improve severe weather warnings and forecasts in order to save lives and reduce property damage. Research areas include weather radar, automated algorithm detection tools for use with weather radar, and basic tornado research to understand how tornadoes form.
NSSL scientists developed the first Doppler weather radar, and have since contributed to the development of NEXRAD, as well as research mobile radar systems.
NSSL also works with the Storm Prediction Center to help verify and improve severe weather forecasting.
The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS). NDBC designs, develops, operates, and maintains a network of data collecting buoys and coastal stations.
NDBC employs engineers, meteorologists, oceanographers, computer scientists, and other professionals.
NDBC provides hourly observations from a network of about 90 buoys and 60 Coastal Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations to help meet these needs. All stations measure wind speed, direction, and gust; atmospheric pressure; and air temperature. In addition, all buoy stations, and some C-MAN stations, measure sea surface temperature and wave height and period. Conductivity and water current are measured at selected stations.
A new task is the operation of the DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. DART is a fleet of tsunami detecting buoys.
Another task adopted in 2005 is TAO (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean project) buoys. TAO is a fleet of over 50 buoys moored in the Pacific Ocean. These buoys are designed to help detect and predict El Niño and La Niña.
All buoys and many C-MAN stations located in offshore areas
Certified Consulting Meteorologist is the title of a person designated by the American Meteorological Society and CCM Board to possess the attributes of Knowledge, Experience, and Character as they pertain to the field of meteorology. Announced in 1957, the CCM program is a service for the general public by the AMS to establish high standards for those who provide advice in meteorology to the public.
The AMS maintains a directory of CCMs.
American Meteorological Society homepage
Météo-France is the French national meteorological service.
The organisation was established by decree in June 1993 and is a department of the Ministry of Transportation. It is headquartered in Paris but many domestic operations have been decentralised to Toulouse. Its budget of around €300 million is funded by state grants, aeronautic royalties and sale of commercial services.
Météo-France has a particularly strong international presence, and is the French representative at the World Meteorological Organization. The organisation is a leading member of EUMETSAT, responsible for the procurement of Meteosat weather satellites. It is also member of the Institut au service du spatial, de ses applications et technologies.
In addition to its operations in metropolitan France, the agency provides forecasts and warnings for the French overseas départements and collectivités. It has four sub-divisions based in Martinique (with further divisions serving Guadeloupe and French Guiana), New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Réunion. Some of these sub-divisions have particularly important international responsibilities:
Although the original name of the organization was "Météo-France", with acute
Tropical Cyclone Categories:Very Severe Cyclonic Storm (IMD)
The India Meteorological Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Office, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. IMD is headquartered in New Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across India and Antarctica.
IMD is also one of the six Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers of the World Meteorological Organization. It has the responsibility for forecasting, naming and distribution of warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northern Indian Ocean region, including the Malacca Straits, the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.
In 1686, Edmond Halley published his treatise on the Indian summer monsoon, which he attributed to a seasonal reversal of winds due to the differential heating of the Asian land mass and the Indian Ocean. The first meteorological observatories were established in India by the British East India Company. These included the Calcutta Observatory in 1785, the Madras Observatory in 1796 and the Colaba Observatory in 1826. Several other observatories were established in India during the
The United States Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) is part of the Environmental Modeling Center, which is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems within NCEP/NWS. It provides analysis and real-time forecast guidance (1–16 days) on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US.
The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) is one of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, which are a part of NOAA's National Weather Service. It is located in Camp Springs, Maryland.
The CPC's products are operational predictions of climate variability, real-time monitoring of global climate, and attribution of the origins of major climate anomalies. The products cover time scales from a week to seasons, and cover the land, the ocean, and the atmosphere, extending into the stratosphere.
These climate services are available for users in government, the public and private industry, both in this country and abroad. Applications include the mitigation of weather related natural disasters and uses for social and economic good in agriculture, energy, transportation, water resources, and health. Continual product improvements are supported through diagnostic research, increasing use of models, and interactions with user groups. Some specific products include:
The roots of modern climate prediction can be traced to the late 18th century. One of the nation's first applied climatologists was Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States. A century later, the federal
The Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) is one of nine service centers under the umbrella of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), a part of the National Weather Service, which in turn is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. government. The HPC serves as a center of excellence in quantitative precipitation forecasting, medium range forecasting (three to eight days) and the interpretation of numerical weather prediction models.
The HPC issues storm summaries on storm systems bringing significant rainfall and snowfall to portions of the United States. Advisories are also issued for tropical cyclones which have moved inland, weakened to tropical depression strength, and are no longer the responsibility of the National Hurricane Center. The HPC also acts as the backup office to the National Hurricane Center in the event of a complete communications failure.
From the early days of organized weather collection in the United States, a central facility was used to gather and disseminate data. Originally, this task occupied a single room within the United States Army Signal Service in Washington, D.C. Reports were
Tropical Cyclone Categories:Category 3 Severe Tropical Cyclone (BOM)
The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, and brought together the state meteorological services that existed before then. The states officially transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908.
The Bureau of Meteorology is the main provider of weather forecasts, warnings and observations to the Australian public. The Bureau distributes weather images via radiofax and is responsible for issuing flood alerts in Australia.
The Bureau's head office is in Melbourne Docklands, which includes the Bureau's Research Centre, the National Meteorological and Oceanographic Centre, the National Climate Centre, as well as the Hydrology and Satellite sections.
Regional offices are located in each state and territory capital. Each regional office includes a Regional Forecasting Centre and a Flood Warning Centre, and the Perth, Darwin and Brisbane offices also house Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres. The Adelaide office incorporates the National Tidal Centre, while the Darwin office
The National Hurricane Center (NHC), located at Florida International University in Miami, Florida, is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting weather systems within the tropics between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic ocean. Its Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) routinely issues marine forecasts, in the form of graphics and high seas forecasts, for this area year round, with the Ocean Prediction Center having backup responsibility for this unit. The Technology and Science Branch (TSB) provides technical support for the center, which includes new infusions of technology from abroad. The Chief, Aerial Reconnaissance Coordination, All Hurricanes (CARCAH) unit tasks planes, for research and operational purposes, to tropical cyclones during the Atlantic hurricane season and significant weather events, including snow storms, during winter and spring. Research conducted to improve operational forecasts is done through the Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP) and Joint Hurricane
Tropical Cyclone Categories:Category 5 Super Typhoon
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean for United States Department of Defense interests, as well as U.S. and Micronesian civilian interests within the command's area of responsibility (AOR). The JTWC provides support to all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their products are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.
The beginning of the formation of a typhoon warning center in the Pacific occurred in the wake of Typhoon Cobra on December 18, 1944. A small but significant typhoon east of the Philippines, Typhoon Cobra led to the largest naval disaster in United States history with 790 lives lost, and was the worst United States military loss from a tropical cyclone impact since 1889. Due to this typhoon, weather stations were established in Caroline Islands, and eventually in Manila,
The Central Pacific Hurricane Center of the United States National Weather Service is the official body responsible for tracking and issuing tropical cyclone warnings, watches, advisories, discussions, and statements for the Central North Pacific Basin. The Central North Pacific Basin is the region of the Pacific Ocean that is north of the equator between 140 degrees west longitude and the International Date Line. In this area, the hurricane season lasts from June 1 through November 30.
Based in Honolulu, Hawai‘i, the CPHC is co-located with the National Weather Service's Honolulu forecast office on the campus of the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. The Honolulu forecast office activates the CPHC when tropical cyclones form in, or move into, the Central Pacific region.
The CPHC replaced the previous forecaster, the Joint Hurricane Warning Center, starting in the 1970 season.
The Central Pacific Hurricane Center uses traditional Hawaiian names for hurricanes that form within its regional sphere of jurisdiction. It has formed four lists of names to choose from. As soon as all the names are exhausted from the first list, it moves on to the second, then third, then fourth, then back to
The Storm Prediction Center (SPC), located in Norman, Oklahoma, is tasked with forecasting the risk of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes in the contiguous United States. The agency issues convective outlooks, mesoscale discussions, and watches as a part of this process. Convective outlooks are issued for Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, and Day 4–8, and detail the risk of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes during the given forecast period, although tornado, hail, and wind details are only available for Day 1. Days 2 and 3, as well as 4–8 used a probabilistic scale, determining the probability for a severe weather event in percent. Mesoscale discussions are issued to give information on a region that is becoming a severe weather threat and states whether a watch is likely and details thereof, as well as situations of isolated severe weather when watches are not necessary. Watches are issued when forecasters are confident that severe weather will occur, and usually precede the onset of severe weather by one hour.
The agency is also responsible for forecasting fire weather (conditions favorable for wildfires) in the contiguous US, and issues Day 1, 2, and 3–8 fire weather outlooks. These
A Center Weather Service Unit (CWSU) is a National Weather Service (NWS) unit located inside each of the Federal Aviation Administration's 21 Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC).
CWSU meteorologists provide support for FAA's air traffic management with pertinent meteorological information for airports and airspace in the control center's area of responsibility.
Meteorologists disseminate information to brief air traffic control area managers where, when, and what is expected, when the weather arrives in the ARTCC's various sectors. Dissemination is by computer products, by incoming phone requests, and by stand up briefings. Occasionally CWSUs provide weather information and recommendations directly to air traffic controllers. They sometimes will provide information directly to the pilots of aircraft in distress due to hazardous weather conditions. In addition to SIGMETs (significant meteorological events), Convective SIGMETs (significant meteorological event associated with convection), and AIRMETs (significant meteorological events generally effecting smaller aircraft) issued by the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), CWSUs issue Center Weather Advisories (CWA) and Meteorological
The Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center was formerly the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center responsible for forecasting Pacific hurricanes in the eastern north Pacific east of 140°W. It was part of the Weather Bureau Forecast Office San Francisco and was based in Redwood City.
The EPHC succeeded the previous forecaster, United States Navy Fleet Weather Center in Alameda starting in 1970. It held that role until spring 1988, when it was folded into the National Hurricane Center, which took responsibility for the basin starting in the 1988 season.
The Japan Meteorological Agency (気象庁, Kishō-chō), frequently abbreviated to JMA, is an agency of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology etc. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.
JMA has also designated as one of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers of the World Meteorological Organization. It has the responsibility for forecasting, naming and distribution of warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northwestern Pacific region, including the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea, the South China Sea, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk.
The JMA is responsible not only for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts in Japan, but also for observation and warning of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.
The agency has six regional administrative offices (including five DMOs and Okinawa Meteorological Observatory), four Marine Observatories, five auxiliary facilities,
The National Weather Service (NWS), once known as the Weather Bureau, is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. It is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland.
The NWS is tasked with providing "weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, and 122 local weather forecast offices (WFOs). Since the NWS is a government agency, most of its products are in the public domain and available free of charge.
In 1870 the Weather Bureau was established through a joint resolution of Congress signed by President Ulysses S. Grant with the mission "to provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories...and for giving notice on the northern (Great) Lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms." The agency