A membership organization is any organization that has members. Members can be individual people or can be other organizations, governments, etc.
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The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. It was founded by the Venerable Father Michael J. McGivney in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1882, and named in honor of Christopher Columbus. Originally serving as a mutual benefit society to low-income immigrant Catholics, it developed into a fraternal service organization dedicated to providing charitable services, promoting Catholic education and actively defending Catholicism in various nations.
There are more than 1.8 million members in 15,000 councils, with nearly 200 councils on college campuses. Membership is limited to "practical Catholic" men aged 18 or older. Membership consists of 4 different degrees, each exemplifying a different principle of the Order. The Order is a member of the International Alliance of Catholic Knights. Most meetings follow a strict protocol based on guidelines from the National office.
Councils have been chartered in the United States (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands), Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, Germany, Guatemala, Panama, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines, Guam, Spain, Japan, Cuba, and most recently in Poland. The Knights' official junior
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen West African countries. Founded on 28 May 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos, its mission is to promote economic integration across the region.
Considered one of the pillars of the African Economic Community, the organization was founded in order to achieve "collective self-sufficiency" for its member states by creating a single large trading bloc through an economic and trading union. It also serves as a peacekeeping force in the region. The organization operates officially in three co-equal languages—English, French, and Portuguese.
The ECOWAS consists of two institutions to implement policies -- the ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development, formerly known as the Fund for Cooperation until it was renamed in 2001.
A few members of the organization have come and gone over the years. In 1976 Cape Verde joined ECOWAS, and in December 2000 Mauritania withdrew, having announced its intention to do so in December 1999.
The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) was created to combat the discrimination that Hispanics face in the United States. Established February 17, 1929 in Corpus Christi, Texas, LULAC was a consolidation of smaller, like-minded civil rights groups already in existence. Since its creation, the organization has grown; it has a national headquarters, active councils in many states, and a professional staff. LULAC continues to operate; however, while it is perhaps more nationally visible than ever, in recent decades it has lost considerable strength due to a decreasing and less-active membership base and decreasing funds.
LULAC follows an assimilation ideology which emerged among cholos groups around the time of the Great Depression. During this time, the population of Mexican descendants in the United States experienced a demographic shift. Population increases (which led to a greater number of the population being born with US citizenship) and the deportation of an estimated 500,000 Mexican nationals and Mexican Americans during the Great Depression caused the proportion of Mexican descendants who could claim US citizenship to increase greatly. Benjamin Marquez asserts,
The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a debating society in the city of Oxford, England, whose membership is drawn primarily but not exclusively from the University of Oxford. Founded in 1823, it is Britain's second oldest University Union (only the Cambridge Union Society is older), and has gained a worldwide reputation for the cut and thrust of its debate, proving a valuable training ground for many future politicians from Britain and other countries.
The Oxford Union is an unincorporated association, holding its property in trust in favour of its objectives and members, and governed by its rules (which form a multi-partite contract between the members).
Since its foundation, it has been independent of the University: historically, this was because the Victorian University restricted junior members from discussing certain issues (for example, theology). Despite such restrictions since being lifted, it has remained entirely separate from the University, and is constitutionally bound to remain so.
Only members of Oxford University are eligible to become life members of the Union, but students at certain other educational institutions are
The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other official languages) is a union consisting of 54 African states. The only all-African state not in the AU is Morocco. Established on 9 July 2002, the AU was formed as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Among the objectives of the AU's leading institutions are:
The African Union is made up of both political and administrative bodies. The highest decision-making organ is the Assembly of the African Union, made up of all the heads of state or government of member states of the AU. The Assembly is chaired by Yayi Boni, president of Benin, elected at the 18ordinary meeting of the Assembly in January 2012. The AU also has a representative body, the Pan African Parliament, which consists of 265 members elected by the national parliaments of the AU member states. Its president is Bethel Nnaemeka Amadi.
Other political institutions of the AU include
Linux Australia is the national, Australian Free and Open Source Software Community organisation. It was founded in 1997 and formally incorporated in New South Wales as a non-profit organisation in 1999. Linux Australia aims to represent Australian Free and Open Source Software communities and to support and collaborate with related groups, including Linux User Groups in Australia.
Linux Australia was co-founded by Terry Dawson and Gary Allpike. From humble beginnings the organisation was formally incorporated to provide legal support for the inaugural Conference of Australian Linux Users (now linux.conf.au). Over progressive years the organisation has steadily matured in its operation and today its major activities include the successful annual linux.conf.au open source conference, a grants program that seeds and supports relevant open source projects, and regular participation in public events such as conferences and exhibitions. Public relations activities include lobbying to government and corporate entities on open source issues and comment and opinion to the media.
The executive council is elected democratically by the organisation membership annually, and therefore changes
Alpha Delta Phi (ΑΔΦ, also Alpha Delt, or ADPhi) is a Greek-letter social college fraternity and the fourth-oldest continuous Greek-letter fraternity in the United States and Canada. Alpha Delta Phi was founded on October 29, 1832 by Samuel Eells at Hamilton College and includes former U.S. Presidents, Chief Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. Senators among its 50,000+ alumni. Today, the name refers to both the all-male fraternity and the Alpha Delta Phi Society, which separated from the fraternity in 1992 and permits co-educated chapters. The Fraternity and the Society are both derived from Eells's vision for a "literary society," with each chapter upholding its literary tradition. The Dartmouth College chapter was the inspiration for National Lampoon's Animal House.
Alpha Delta Phi was the first fraternity to establish a chapter west of the Allegheny Mountains when it formed a chapter at Miami University in 1833. This chapter inspired the formation of three national fraternities at Miami in the 19th Century. Alpha Delta Phi was also a charter member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference (formerly known as the National Interfraternity Conference) (NIC), and a
The Peace Corps is an American volunteer program run by the United States government. The stated mission of the Peace Corps includes three goals: providing technical assistance; helping people outside the United States to understand American culture; and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Each program participant, a Peace Corps Volunteer, is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, who works abroad for a period of 24 months after three months of training. Volunteers work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, and entrepreneurs in education, hunger, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service.
The program was established by Executive Order 10924, issued by President John F. Kennedy on March 1, 1961, announced by televised broadcast March 2, 1961, and authorized by Congress on September 22, 1961, with passage of the Peace Corps Act (Public Law 87-293). The act declares the program's purpose as follows:
To promote world peace and
Boodle's is a London gentlemen's club, founded in 1762, at 49-51 Pall Mall, London by Lord Shelburne the future Marquess of Lansdowne and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and the club came to be known after the name of its head waiter Edward Boodle.
In 1782 Boodle's took over the "Savoir Vivre" club house at 28 St. James's Street, London and has been located there ever since.
The club-house was designed by John Crunden in 1775 and the ground floor was refurbished by John Buonarotti Papworth between 1821 and 1834.
It is reputed that Beau Brummell's last bet took place at the Club before he fled the country to France. Four members have been awarded the VC.
Sir Winston Churchill was one of the few people to be elected to honorary membership.
Adam Smith, a member of Boodle's, is the face on the Bank of England's £20 note.
Ian Fleming is said to have based the Blades Club from his James Bond novels on Boodle's. However, Boodle's itself is referenced in the novel Moonraker.
Of J. K. Stanford's George Hysteron-Proteron, said to be a member of Boodle's, a real-life member wrote in 1944: "I see the author mentions Boodle's. I don't know if he is a member here but there are six George
The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is a customs union among five countries of Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.
SACU is the oldest still existing customs union in the world. It was established in 1910 as a Customs Union Agreement between the then Union of South Africa and the High Commission Territories of Bechuanaland, Basutoland and Swaziland. With the advent of independence for these territories, the agreement was updated and on December 11, 1969 it was relaunched as the SACU with the signing of an agreement between the Republic of South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. The updated union officially entered into force on March 1, 1970. After Namibia's independence from South Africa in 1990, it joined SACU as its fifth member.
As of 2007, the Executive Secretary of the SACU is Tswelopele C. Moremi.
The union meets annually to discuss matters related to the Agreement. There are also technical liaison committees, namely the Customs Technical Liaison Committee, the Trade and Industry Liaison committee and the Ad hoc Sub-Committee on Agriculture, which meet three times a year.
Its aim is to maintain the free interchange of goods
The Union League Club of New York is a private social club in New York City. Its fourth and current clubhouse, which opened on February 2, 1931, was designed by Benjamin Wistar Morris, III, and is located at 38 East 37th Street on the corner of Park Avenue in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. The building was designated a New York City landmark on October 25, 2011.
Union League clubs, which are legally separate but share similar histories and maintain reciprocal links with one another, are also located in Chicago and Philadelphia. Defunct Union League Clubs were located in Brooklyn and New Haven.
The club dates its founding from February 6, 1863, during the Civil War. Tensions were running high in New York City at the time, because much of the city's governing class, as well as its large Irish immigrant population, bitterly opposed the war and were eager to reach some kind of accommodation with the Confederate States of America. Thus, pro-Union men chose to form their own club, with the twin goals of cultivating "a profound national devotion" and to "strengthen a love and respect for the Union."
The Union League (also known as Loyal Leagues) was actually a
The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC) is a worldwide one-percenter motorcycle club whose members typically ride Harley-Davidson motorcycles and is considered an organized crime syndicate by the U.S. Department of Justice. In the United States and Canada, the Hells Angels are incorporated as the Hells Angels Motorcycle Corporation. Common nicknames for the club are the "H.A.", "Red & White", and "81" (H and A being the eighth and first letters of the alphabet).
The Hells Angels were originally formed in 1948 in Fontana, California through an amalgamation of former members from different motorcycle clubs, such as The Pissed Off Bastards of Bloomington. The Hells Angels' website denies the suggestion that any misfit or malcontent troops are connected with the motorcycle club. However, the website also notes that the name was suggested by Arvid Olson, an associate of the founders, who had served in the Flying Tigers' "Hells Angels" squadron in China during World War II. The name "Hells Angels" was inspired by the typical naming of squadrons, or other fighting groups, with a fierce, death-defying title in both World War I and World War II, e.g., the Flying Tigers (American Volunteer
The IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of IEEE. Its purpose and scope is “to advance the theory, practice, and application of computer and information processing science and technology” and the “professional standing of its members.” The CS is the largest of 38 technical societies organized under the IEEE Technical Activities Board.
The Computer Society sponsors workshops and conferences, publishes a variety of peer-reviewed literature, operates technical committees, and develops IEEE computing standards. It supports more than 200 chapters worldwide and participates in educational activities at all levels of the profession, including distance learning, accreditation of higher education programs in computer science, and professional certification in software engineering.
The IEEE Computer Society traces its origins to the Subcommittee on Large-Scale Computing, established in 1946 by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), and to the Professional Group on Electronic Computers, established in 1951 by the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE). When the AIEE merged with the IRE in 1963 to form the Institute of
The International Seabed Authority (ISA) (French: Autorité internationale des fonds marins, Spanish: Autoridad Internacional de los Fondos Marinos) is an intergovernmental body based in Kingston, Jamaica, that was established to organize and control all mineral-related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, an area underlying most of the world’s oceans. It is an organization established by the Law of the Sea Convention.
Following at least ten preparatory meetings over the years, the Authority held its first inaugural meeting in its host country, Jamaica, on 16 November 1994, the day the Convention came into force. The articles governing the Authority have been made "noting the political and economic changes, including market-oriented approaches, affecting the implementation" of the Convention. The Authority obtained its observer status to the United Nations in October 1996.
Currently, the Authority has 159 members and the European Community, composed of all parties to the Law of the Sea Convention.
Two principal organs establish the policies and govern the work of the Authority: the Assembly, in which all members are represented, and
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, tr. Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional organization whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union.
The CIS is a loose association of states and in no way comparable to a federation, confederation or supranational union such as the European Union. It is more comparable to the Commonwealth of Nations. Although the CIS has few supranational powers, it is aimed at being more than a purely symbolic organization, nominally possessing coordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security. It has also promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention. Some of the members of the CIS have established the Eurasian Economic Community with the aim of creating a full-fledged common market.
The organization was founded on 8 December 1991 by the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine, when the leaders of the three countries met in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha Natural Reserve, about 50 km (30 miles) north of Brest in Belarus and signed a Creation Agreement (Russian: Соглашение,
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American nonprofit, nonpartisan membership organization, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs. Founded in 1921 and headquartered at 58 East 68th Street in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C., the CFR is considered to be the nation's "most influential foreign-policy think tank". It publishes a bi-monthly journal, Foreign Affairs.
As stated on its website, the CFR's mission is to be "a resource for its members, government officials, business executives, journalists, educators and students, civic and religious leaders, and other interested citizens in order to help them better understand the world and the foreign policy choices facing the United States and other countries."
The CFR aims to maintain a diverse membership, including special programs to promote interest and develop expertise in the next generation of foreign policy leaders. It convenes meetings at which government officials, global leaders and prominent members of the foreign policy community discuss major international issues. Its think tank, the David Rockefeller Studies Program, is composed of about
Bilu (Hebrew: ביל"ו) (also Palestine Pioneers) was a movement whose goal was the agricultural settlement of the Land of Israel. Its members were known as Bilu'im.
"Bilu" is an acronym based on a verse from the Book of Isaiah (2:5) "בית יעקב לכו ונלכה" Beit Ya'akov Lekhu Venelkha ("House of Jacob, let us go [up]").
The wave of pogroms of 1881-1884 and anti-Semitic May Laws of 1882 introduced by Tsar Alexander III of Russia prompted mass emigration of Jews from the Russian Empire. In July 1882, the first group of Bilu pioneers arrived in Ottoman Palestine. The group consisted of fourteen university students from Kharkov led by Israel Belkind, later a prominent writer and historian. After a short stay at the Jewish farming school in Mikveh Israel, they joined Hovevei Zion colonists in establishing Rishon LeZion ("First to Zion"), an agricultural cooperative on land purchased from the Arab village of Ayun Kara. Plagued by water shortages, illness and financial debt, the group abandoned the site within a few months. They then sought help from Baron Edmond James de Rothschild and Maurice de Hirsch, who provided funding that led to the establishment of the local wine industry. In 1886,
Penya Chescandinavia is a pan-nordic supporters' club for the Spanish football team Valencia CF. The member base is from the Scandinavian countries, but the organization is open for any member who feels affiliation, love and respect for "los Che".
The Association for Computing Machinery - University of the Philippines Student Chapter, or UP ACM is the first chapter of the Association for Computing Machinery in the Philippines. Based in the Diliman campus of the University of the Philippines, the student organization is a four-time winner of the international ACM Chapter Excellence Awards.
UP ACM is recognized by both the University and the UP College of Engineering. The organization is specifically based in the Department of Computer Science, though its hundred-strong membership counts students from other departments and colleges, such as the School of Library and Information Studies.
UP ACM is designated as an academic organization, though its activities also include community and government service.
UP ACM was chartered on June 19, 2003, making it the first ACM chapter in the country. The organization initially involved only graduate students, with the interim officers being:
All four became members of the faculty of the Department of Computer Science. Prof. Rommel P. Feria served as the adviser of the organization, a position he holds up to the present.
The organization was revitalized on January 15, 2005, when it opened
The Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It was founded in 1973 by the Finance Ministers at the first Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now called the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation).
The bank officially began its activities on 20 October 1975, inspired by King Faisal. There are 56 shareholding member states. On the basis of paid-up capital, major shareholders include:
The IsDB is an observer at the United Nations General Assembly.
The present membership of the Bank consists of 56 countries. The basic condition for membership is that the prospective member country should be a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), pay its contribution to the capital of the Bank and be willing to accept such terms and conditions as may be decided upon by the IsDB Board of Governors.
IDB has evolved into a group of five Entities, consisting of Islamic Development Bank (IDB), Islamic Research & Training Institute (IRTI), Islamic Corporation for Development of the Private Sector (ICD), Islamic Corporation for Insurance of Investment and Export Credit (ICIEC) and International Islamic Trade
The Nature Conservancy is a US charitable environmental organization that works to preserve the lands and waters on which all life depends.
The Indiana Dunes of Northwest Indiana played a role in the formation of the Nature Conservancy. Volo Bog in northern Illinois was the first purchase of the Illinois Nature Conservancy thanks to the fundraising efforts of Cyrus Mark, the first president of the Illinois Nature Conservancy.
Founded in 1951, The Nature Conservancy works in more than 30 countries, including all 50 states of the United States. The Conservancy has over one million members, and has protected more than 119 million acres of land and 5,000 miles of rivers worldwide. The Nature Conservancy also operates more than 100 marine conservation projects globally. The organization's assets total $5.64 billion as of 2009.
The Nature Conservancy is the Americas' largest environmental nonprofit by assets and by revenue.
The Nature Conservancy rates as one of the most trusted national organizations in Harris Interactive polls every year since 2005. Forbes magazine rated The Nature Conservancy's fundraising efficiency at 88% in its 2005 survey of the largest U.S. charities. The
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a non-profit organization in the United States. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine". As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.
The National Academy of Sciences is part of the National Academies, which also includes:
The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code.
The Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni", an informal network of mostly physical scientists working in the vicinity of Cambridge, Massachusetts (c. 1850).
In 1863, enlisting the support of Alexander Dallas Bache and Charles Henry Davis, a professional astronomer recently recalled from the Navy to Washington to head the Bureau of Navigation, Louis Agassiz and Benjamin Peirce planned the steps whereby the National Academy of Sciences was to be established. Senator Henry Wilson of
Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or "Deke") is one of the oldest and largest fraternities in the world with 51 active chapters in the United States and Canada. Delta Kappa Epsilon was founded at Yale College in 1844 by 15 men of the sophomore class part of whom hadn't been invited to join the two existing societies among others who had been invited to join. They therefore formed their own fraternity to establish a fellowship "where the candidate most favored was he who combined in the most equal proportions the gentleman, the scholar, and the jolly good fellow."
Since then Delta Kappa Epsilon has produced five presidents of the United States (more than any other fraternity), has had its flag flown on the first expedition to the North Pole and again on a manned landing to the moon. The private Gentleman's club the DKE Club of New York was founded in 1885 and is currently in residence at the Yale Club of New York City.
The fraternity was founded June 22, 1844, in room number 12 Old South Hall, Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut. At this meeting, the Fraternity's secret and open Greek mottos were devised, as were the pin and secret handshake. The open motto is
Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 22 states are members. It was first proposed as an American initiative at the meeting of NATO defense ministers in Travemünde, Germany, on 20–21 October 1993, and formally launched on 10–11 January 1994 NATO summit in Brussels, Belgium.
Twelve former member states (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia) have subsequently joined NATO. On April 26, 1995 Malta became a member of PfP; it left on October 27, 1996 in order to keep its security intact. On March 20, 2008 Malta decided to reactivate their PfP membership; this was accepted by NATO at the Summit in Bucharest on April 3, 2008. During the NATO summit in Riga on November 29, 2006, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia were invited to join PfP after which they joined PfP on December 14, 2006.
Cyprus is the only European Union member state that is neither a NATO member state nor a member of the PfP program. The Parliament of Cyprus voted in February 2011 to apply for
The Royal Aeronautical Society, also known as the RAeS, is a multidisciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community.
The objectives of The Royal Aeronautical Society include: to support and maintain high professional standards in aerospace disciplines; to provide a unique source of specialist information and a local forum for the exchange of ideas; and to exert influence in the interests of aerospace in the public and industrial arenas.
Throughout the world's aerospace community the name of The Royal Aeronautical Society is widely known and respected. Many practitioners of aerospace disciplines use the Society's designatory post-nominals such as FRAeS, CRAeS, MRAeS, AMRAeS, and ARAeS (incorporating the former graduate grade, GradRAeS).
The staff of the Royal Aeronautical Society are based at the Society's headquarters at No.4 Hamilton Place, London, W1J 7BQ. Although centred in the United Kingdom, the Royal Aeronautical Society is a worldwide society with an international network of 63 branches. The headquarters is on the north-east edge of Hyde Park Corner, with the nearest access being Hyde Park Corner tube station.
Branches are the regional
The Women's Trade Union League (WTUL) was a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions. The WTUL played an important role in supporting the massive strikes in the first two decades of the twentieth century that established the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and in campaigning for women's suffrage among men and women workers.
The roots of the WTUL come from a British organization of the same name founded thirty years earlier. The British League had originally supported the creation of a separate women’s labor movement but, by the 1890s, merged its own aims with the mainstream British labor movement and functioned as an umbrella organization of women’s trade unions. Its first American supporter was the socialist William English Walling who met with British WTUL leaders in 1902. He returned to the United States and began to generate support for a similar American organization
Organized in 1903 at the American Federation of Labor convention, the WTUL spent much of its early years trying to cultivate
The Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, often referred to simply as the Knight Commission, is a panel of members of the American academic, athletic and journalism communities, with an eye toward reform of college athletics, particularly in regard to emphasizing academic values and policies that ensure athletic programs operate within the educational missions of their universities.
The commission was founded by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, which was itself founded by brothers John S. Knight and James L. Knight, members of the founding family of what became the Knight Ridder newspaper and broadcasting chain. The commission first met in 1989 after a series of scandals in college sports. The founding co-chairmen of the commission were Reverend Theodore M. Hesburgh, president of the University of Notre Dame, and William C. Friday, former president of the University of North Carolina.
Currently, the commission serves as an advocacy group which seeks to reform college sports, primarily by promoting policies that strengthen academic standards for athletes, treat athletes as students first, and ensures financial integrity in college sports. As an independent
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organization, located in The Hague, Netherlands. The organization promotes and verifies the adherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention which prohibits of the use of chemical weapons and requires their destruction. The verification consists both of evaluation of declarations by members states and on-site inspections.
The activities of the OPCW and its core organizational structure are described in the Chemical Weapons Convention (whose members are all in OPCW). The principal body is the conference of states parties, which normally is convened yearly, and in which all countries participate and have equal voting rights. Countries are generally represented in the Conference by a permanent representative to the organization, which in most cases is also the ambassador (to the Netherlands). The conference decides on all main topics regarding the organization (e.g. taking retaliation measures) and the convention (approving guidelines, imposing retaliating measures against members. The Executive Council is the executive organ of the organization and consists of 41 States Parties, which are appointed by
Saint John Outdoor Enthusiasts is year round recreational club based in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Club members and guests enjoy hiking, canoeing, kayaking, cycling, backpacking, skiing, skating, snowshoeing, winter camping and exploring the natural beauty of the Bay of Fundy area in Southern New Brunswick.
al-Qaeda ( /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KY-də; Arabic: القاعدة al-qāʿidah, Arabic: [ælqɑːʕɪdɐ], translation: "The Base" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden at some point between August 1988 and late 1989, with its origins being traceable to the Soviet War in Afghanistan. It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless army and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad and a strict interpretation of sharia law. It has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, and various other countries (see below). Al-Qaeda has carried out several attacks on non-Muslims, and other targets it considers kafir.
Al-Qaeda has attacked civilian and military targets in various countries. For example, it carried out the September 11 attacks, 1998 US embassy bombings and the 2002 Bali bombings. The US government responded to the September 11 attacks by launching the War on Terror. With the loss of key leaders, culminating in the death of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's operations have devolved
The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organisation comprising five countries in East Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Pierre Nkurunziza, the President of the Republic of Burundi, is the EAC's current Chairman. The organisation was originally founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, and was officially revived on July 7, 2000. In 2008, after negotiations with the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the EAC agreed to an expanded free trade area including the member states of all three. The EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community.
The East African Community is a potential precursor to the establishment of the East African Federation, a proposed federation of its five members into a single state. In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods, labour and capital within the region, with the goal of a common currency by 2012 and full political federation in 2015.
The geographical region encompassed by the EAC covers an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, with a combined population of about 132 million (July 2009 est.)
Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, was established in Geneva in 1948, and came into force ten years later, meeting for the first time in 1959.
Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, the IMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations with 170 Member States and three Associate Members. The IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping. IMO is governed by an Assembly of members and is financially administered by a Council of members elected from the Assembly. The work of IMO is conducted through five committees and these are supported by technical subcommittees. Member organizations of the UN organizational family may observe the proceedings of the IMO. Observer status is granted to qualified non-governmental organizations.
The IMO is supported by a permanent secretariat of employees who are representative of its members. The secretariat is composed of a Secretary-General who is
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering, without any discrimination based on nationality, race, sexual orientation, sex, gender identity, religious beliefs, class or political opinions.
The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations. The movement's parts are:
Until the middle of the 19th century, there were no organized and/or well-established army nursing systems for casualties and no safe and protected institutions to accommodate and treat those who were wounded on the battlefield. In June 1859, the Swiss businessman Jean-Henri Dunant traveled to Italy to meet French emperor Napoléon III with the intention of discussing difficulties in conducting business in Algeria, at that time occupied by France. When he arrived in the small town of
The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or MONUSCO (previously known as United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo or MONUC, French: Mission de l'Organisation des Nations Unies en République démocratique du Congo), is a United Nations peacekeeping force in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) which was established by the United Nations Security Council in resolutions 1279 (1999) and 1291 (2000) of the United Nations Security Council to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict.
The initial UN presence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, before the passing of Resolution 1291, was a force of military observers to observe and report on the compliance on factions with the peace accords, a deployment authorised by the earlier Resolution 1258 (1999).
Since 1999, about US$ 8.73 billion have been spent to fund the UN peacekeeping effort in DRC. As of June 2010, the total strength of UN peacekeeping troops in DRC exceed 20,000. More than thirty nations have contributed military and police
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank located at Stanford University in California. It is part of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, a library founded in 1919 by Herbert Hoover, Stanford's first student and first alumnus, before he became President of the United States. The library, known as the Hoover Institution Library and Archives, houses multiple archives related to Hoover, World War I, World War II, and other world history.
The Hoover Institution is a unit of Stanford University but has its own board of overseers. It is located on the campus. Its mission statement outlines its basic tenets: representative government, private enterprise, peace, personal freedom, and the safeguards of the American system.
The Hoover Institution is influential in the American conservative and libertarian movements. The Institution has long been a place of scholarship for high-profile conservatives with government experience. High-profile conservatives Edwin Meese, Condoleezza Rice, George Shultz, Thomas Sowell, Shelby Steele, and Amy Zegart are all Hoover Institution fellows. In 2007 retired U.S. Army General John P. Abizaid, former commander of the
Crockford's was a London gentlemen's club, now dissolved, which was established in 1793 and which closed in 1845. It was one of London's older clubs, was centred around gambling, and maintained a somewhat raffish and raucous reputation. It was founded by William Crockford.
From 1823, the club leased 50 St. James's Street. After the club's closure, this continued to be used as a clubhouse, at first briefly by the short-lived Military, Naval and County Service Club, and then between 1874 and 1976 it was home to the Devonshire Club.
William Crockford was born in 1775, the son of William & Mary Ann Crockford and was baptised at St Clement Dane on 12 February 1776. He began life working in his father's fish shop adjoining Temple Bar (at the original site of that landmark gate - now to be found aside St Paul's Cathedral). His ability at calculation was to stand him in good stead for he quickly took to gambling and after a number of long sessions amassed a tidy sum - enough to launch himself into Regency clubland. He acquired a site in St James's Street and opened a building that was to become the most famous gaming house in Europe - "Crockford's". He fleeced the aristocracy and in the
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) (French: Comité international olympique, CIO) is an international non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president. Today its membership consists of 105 active members and 32 honorary members.
The IOC organizes the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in Summer and Winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics organized by the International Olympic Committee were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896; the first Winter Olympics were in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year. After that year, however, the IOC shifted the Winter Olympics to the even years between Summer Games, to help space the planning of the two events two years apart from one another, and improve the financial balance of the IOC, which receives greater income on Olympic years. The first Summer Youth Olympics were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter Youth Olympics were held in Innsbruck in 2012.
The committee was housed at the Monrepos palace in Ludwigsburg, Germany until the building
The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) is a professional human resources association headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia. The largest such association in its field, SHRM promotes the role of HR as a profession and provides education, certification, and networking to its members while lobbying Congress on issues pertinent to labor management.
Originally founded in 1948 as the American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA), the organization operated on a volunteer basis until 1964, at which time it established an official headquarters in Berea, Ohio, and began hiring staff members. In 1984, the headquarters was moved to Alexandria, Va., and in 1989, the organization officially changed its name to the Society for Human Resource Management. Today, SHRM has over 340 staff members and over 250,000 members in 140 countries.
SHRM is involved in lobbying governmental bodies regarding workplace law and industry practice. For example, in April 2008, SHRM announced in a press release that its representatives had appeared before the US Senate to petition for changes in the administration of the Family and Medical Leave Act.
Additionally, the organization announced in the
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 22 August 1966 to facilitate economic development of countries in Asia. The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly known as the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East) and non-regional developed countries. From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 67 members - of which 48 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside. ADB was modeled closely on the World Bank, and has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with member's capital subscriptions. At present, both the United States and Japan hold 552,210 shares, the largest proportion of shares at 12.756% each. China holds 228,000 shares (6.429%), India holds 224,010 shares (6.317%), the 2nd and 3rd largest proportion of shares respectively.
The highest policy-making body of the bank is the Board of Governors composed of one representative from each member state. The Board of Governors, in turn, elect among themselves the 12 members of the Board of Directors and their deputy. Eight of the 12 members come
The History of Science Society (HSS) is the primary professional society for the academic study of the history of science.It was founded in 1924 by George Sarton and Lawrence Joseph Henderson, primarily to support the publication of Isis, a journal of the history of science Sarton had started in 1912. The society has over 3,000 members worldwide. It continues to publish the quarterly journal Isis as well as the yearly Osiris, and holds an annual conference.
The current president of the HSS is Lynn Nyhart, University of Wisconsin.
HSS sponsors two special lectures annually:
In addition, the HSS awards a number of prizes:
The Ulster Young Militants are considered to be the youth wing of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. Commonly known as the Young Militants or UYM, the group formed in 1974 when the Troubles were at their height. Their motto is "Terrae Filius", Latin for "Son of the Land". Their numbers are unknown, but are mainly concentrated in the Belfast area, particularly east and south Belfast.
The UYM had its origins in the "Tartan Gangs" of the early 1970s, unofficial loyalist street gangs who gained their name from the tartan scarves and flash of tartan they wore on their denim jackets. The tartan was said to be a memorial to three Scottish soldiers killed in 1971 by the Provisional IRA. Ian S. Wood has also suggested that the fashion may have been inspired by the Bay City Rollers although it has been noted elsewhere that the Bay City Rollers did not take off until 1974 (by which time the Tartan Gangs were well established) and the band's following tended more towards the teenage girl market. The main activities of the Tartan Gangs were the intimidation of Roman Catholic families in loyalist areas of Belfast and on weekends attacks on
The Karrakatta Club is a women's club in Perth, Western Australia. Established in 1894, it was the first women's club in Australia.
The Karrakatta Club was founded in 1894 by members of the St George Reading Circle. The St George Reading Circle was formed around 1887 for the purpose of exchanging and discussing reading material, and debating current affairs. Following a visit from an American woman named Dr Emily Ryder, the Circle decided to form a new club modelled on the Education Clubs that were popular in America. The objective of the Club was to bring into one body the women of the community for mutual improvement which included involvement in local issues affecting women at that time, social justice issues, and social engagement. The club’s motto (suggested by Edith Cowan) is Spectemur Agendo, which means "let us be judged by our actions". The Club's first President was Lady Madeleine Onslow.
In 1904, ten years after the founding of the Karrakatta Club, the first Lyceum Club was founded in London by Miss Constance Smedley. The aim of the Lyceum Clubs was similar to those of the Karrakatta Club. In 1923 it was decided by the members of the Karrakatta Club to align the Club
The South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines. The formal institution of SEATO was established on 19 February 1955 at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand. The organization's headquarters were also in Bangkok.
Primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia, SEATO is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military; however, SEATO-funded cultural and educational programs left long-standing effects in Southeast Asia. SEATO was dissolved on 30 June 1977 after many members lost interest and withdrew.
The Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, was signed on 8 September 1954 in Manila, as part of the American Truman Doctrine of creating anti-communist bilateral and collective defense treaties. These treaties and agreements were intended to create alliances that would contain communist powers (Communist China, in SEATO's case). This policy was considered to have been largely
The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol. The RSA holds an annual meeting and, together with the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism, sponsors the publication of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, published by Wiley-Blackwell.
RSA holds yearly elections for Vice President, Secretary and five Board Member positions.
The Royal Hibernian Academy (RHA) is an artist-based and artist-oriented institution in Ireland, founded in Dublin in 1823.
The RHA was founded as the result of 30 Irish artists petitioning the government for a charter of incorporation. According to the letters patent of 5 August 1823, The Royal Hibernian Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture was established, which included a National School of Art. The first elected president was the landscape painter, William Ashford. In 1824 architect Francis Johnston was made president. He had provided headquarters for the RHA at Academy House in Lower Abbey Street at his own expense. The first exhibitions took place in May 1825 and were held annually from then on. To encourage interest in the arts works displayed at the RHA were distributed by lot as prizes among subscribers. Works by Frederick William Burton, Daniel Maclise, J. M. W. Turner and David Wilkie, among others, were presented in this way. The exhibitions and school prospered and by the end of the 19th century the RHA was the leading Irish institution involved in promoting visual arts. Academy House was destroyed by fire in 1916 during the Easter Rising.
In the middle of
The University of Leicester Students' Union is the students' union of the University of Leicester. It is situated in the Percy Gee Building on the university campus. The union offers a wide range of facilities for students.
The Percy Gee Building which houses the union was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1958. It was named after Percy Gee, a director of a local shoe manufacturer and benefactor to the University.
In 1973, the Nightline service was established, a confidential listening service provided by students in a manner similar to the Samaritans. In 1997, LUSH Radio was established. This broadcasts from the Percy Gee Building. In the same year, the Greenhouse 2 gym was opened.
In October 2010, the Percy Gee Building fully reopened having undergone a refurbishment worth £15 million, which greatly expanded the number of facilities which the union can now provide.
The Union has three main methods of policy-making:
These decision-making bodies form a hierarchy, with referendums at the top and Union Parliament at the bottom.
The Annual General Meeting (AGM) is open to all full members of the Union both to speak and vote. It approves the Union's accounts, strategic plan, policy
The British Socialist Party (BSP) was a Marxist political organisation established in Great Britain in 1911. Following a protracted period of factional struggle, in 1916 the party's anti-war forces gained decisive control of the party and saw the defection of its pro-war Right Wing. After the victory of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia at the end of 1917 and the termination of World War I the following year, the BSP emerged as an explicitly revolutionary socialist organisation. It negotiated with other radical groups in an effort to establish a unified communist organisation, an effort which culminated in August 1920 with the establishment of the Communist Party of Great Britain.
The founding conference which established the British Socialist Party was called by the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a group best remembered to history by its pre-1908 moniker, the Social Democratic Federation (SDF). The old SDF had long sought the unity of the British Left, having originally begun negotiations on the topic with the Independent Labour Party (ILP) not long after the formation of the latter in 1893. The ILP had long been unwilling to merge forces with a doctrinaire Marxist organization
The Dilettante Society or Dilettanti is a society of noblemen and scholars which sponsors the study of ancient Greek and Roman art, and the creation of new work in the style.
The society first met in 1732 and was formally established as a London dining club in 1734 by a group of people who had been on the Grand Tour. In 1743 Horace Walpole condemned its affectations and described it as such; "...a club, for which the nominal qualification is having been in Italy, and the real one, being drunk: the two chiefs are Lord Middlesex and Sir Francis Dashwood, who were seldom sober the whole time they were in Italy"
The group, initially led by Francis Dashwood, contained several dukes and was later joined by Joshua Reynolds, David Garrick, Uvedale Price and Richard Payne Knight, among others. It was closely associated with Brooks's, one of London's most exclusive gentlemen's clubs.
The society quickly became wealthy, through a system in which members made contributions to various funds to support building schemes and archaeological expeditions.
The first artist associated with the group was George Knapton.
The Society of Dilettanti aimed to correct and purify the public taste of the
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to:
The BFI runs the BFI Southbank (formerly the National Film Theatre (NFT)) and IMAX theatre, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London. The IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK, and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank (the National Film Theatre screens and the Studio) shows films from all over the world particularly critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing. The BFI also distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues - each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues.
The BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with the London Lesbian and Gay Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival.
The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools.
The BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive, previously
The Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (also known as the G-20, G20, and Group of Twenty) is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 major economies: 19 countries plus the European Union, which is represented by the President of the European Council and by the European Central Bank. The G-20 heads of government or heads of state have also periodically conferred at summits since their initial meeting in 2008. Collectively, the G-20 economies account for more than 80 percent of the gross world product (GWP), 80 percent of world trade (including EU intra-trade), and two-thirds of the world population. They furthermore account for 84.1 percent and 82.2 percent of the world's economic growth by nominal GDP and GDP (PPP) respectively from the years 2010 to 2016, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The G-20 was proposed by former Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin as a forum for cooperation and consultation on matters pertaining to the international financial system. The group was formally inaugurated in September 1999, and held its first meeting in December 1999. It studies, reviews, and promotes high-level discussion of
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), (Italian: Fondo Internazionale per lo Sviluppo Agricolo), a specialized agency of the United Nations, was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. IFAD is dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries. Seventy-five per cent of the world’s poor live in rural areas in developing countries, yet only 4% of official development assistance goes to agriculture.
The strategic policy of IFAD is detailed in Strategic Framework for IFAD 2011-2015: Enabling the Rural Poor to Overcome Poverty. Its headquarters is in Rome, Italy and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
IFAD's goal is to empower poor rural women and men in developing countries to achieve higher incomes and improved food security.
IFAD will ensure that poor rural people have better access to, and the skills and organization they need to take advantage of:
All of IFAD's decisions - on regional, country and thematic strategies, poverty reduction strategies, policy dialogue and development partners - are made with these principles and objectives in mind. As
The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) is a multi-governmental organization headquartered in Kuwait which coordinates energy policies between oil–producing Arab nations, and whose main purpose is developmental.
On 9 January 1968, three of the then–most conservative Arab oil states Kuwait, Libya, and Saudi Arabia agreed at a conference in Beirut, Lebanon to found the Organization of Arab Petroleum Engineering Countries, aiming to separate the production and sale of oil from politics in the wake of the halfhearted 1967 oil embargo in response to the Six Day War. Such use of the economic weapon of oil embargo in the struggle against Israel had been regularly proposed at Arab Petroleum Congresses, but it took the Six Day War for the embargo happen. However Saudi Arabia's oil production was up by 9% that year, and the main embargo lasted only ten days and was completely ended by the Khartoum Conference.
OAPEC was originally intended to be a conservative Arab political organization which, by restricting membership to countries whose main export was oil, would exclude governments seen as radical such as Egypt and Algeria. This organizational exclusivity was
The Bonanno crime family is one of the "Five Families" that dominates organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra).
Founded and named after Joseph Bonanno, the Bonanno family was the first of the New York families to be kicked off the Commission (a council of the bosses that helps to maintain order in the Mafia), due to allegations that the family was actively dealing heroin and the inner family fighting for control of the leadership. Later, the family faced shaky leadership, with acting boss Carmine Galante being murdered in 1979 on the order of imprisoned boss Philip Rastelli, as well as two major setbacks: in 1981, they learned that an FBI agent calling himself Donnie Brasco had infiltrated their ranks; in 2004, boss Joseph Massino, who previously brought the family back to respectable stature among the families and back on the Commission, became a government informant.
The origins of the Bonanno crime family can be traced back to the early 1880s in the town of Castellammare del Golfo located in the Province of Trapani, Sicily. During the 1900s, top members of the Bonanno, Bonventre, and
Delta Sigma Theta (ΔΣΘ) is a not-for profit Greek-lettered sorority of college-educated women who perform public service and place emphasis on the African American community. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority was founded on January 13, 1913, by 22 collegiate women at Howard University. These students wanted to use their collective strength to promote academic excellence and to provide assistance to persons in need. The first public act performed by the Delta founders involved their participation in the Women's Suffrage March in Washington D.C., March 1913. Delta Sigma Theta was incorporated in 1930. Today, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority is the largest African-American Greek-lettered sorority in the world. Membership in Delta Sigma Theta is open to any woman who meets the membership requirements, regardless of religion, race, or nationality. Women may join through undergraduate chapters at a college or university, or after acquiring a college degree through an alumnae chapter.
A sisterhood of more than 300,000 predominantly Black college-educated women, the sorority currently has over 1,000 chapters located in the United States, England, Japan (Tokyo and Okinawa), Germany, the Virgin Islands,
The Group of Ten or G-10 refers to the group of countries that have agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB). The GAB was established in 1962, when the governments of eight International Monetary Fund (IMF) members—Belgium, Canada, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States—and the central banks of two others, Germany and Sweden, agreed to make resources available to the IMF for drawings by participants, and, under certain circumstances, for drawings by nonparticipants. The GAB was strengthened in 1964 by the association of Switzerland, then a nonmember of the Fund, but the name of the G10 remained the same. The following international organizations are official observers of the activities of the G10: the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), European Commission, International Monetary Fund, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
The Group of Ten signed the Smithsonian Agreement in December 1971, replacing the world's fixed exchange rate regime with a floating exchange rate regime.
Luxembourg is an associate member.
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international NGO. Its headquarters are in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, and it has offices in sixteen countries . The main goal of IRRI is to find sustainable ways to improve the well-being of poor rice farmers and consumers, as well as the environment. The institute is one of 15 agricultural research centers around the world that form the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). It is Asia's largest non-profit agricultural research center.
IRRI was established in 1960 with the support of the Ford Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation and the Government of the Philippines.
IRRI is well known for its contribution to the "Green Revolution" movement in Asia during the late 1960s and 1970s, which involved the breeding of "semidwarf" varieties of rice that were less likely to lodge (fall over). The varieties developed at IRRI, known as IR varieties, are well accepted in many Asian countries. In 2005, it was estimated that 60% of the world's rice area was planted to IRRI-bred rice varieties or their progenies.
A report published by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research in 2011
Stanford University Bio-X Initiative is part of Stanford University and is located in the James H. Clark Center in Stanford, California, adjacent to Palo Alto and Menlo Park.
The Bio-X program at Stanford University brings clinicians, biomedical and life science researchers together with engineers, physicists and computational scientists to tackle the complexity of the body in health and disease. The major theme of Bio-X is to unlock the secrets of the human body by treating body and brain as a whole assembly of complex organ systems that interact with each other dynamically. To succeed in this mission, every tool in the scientists’ tool kit is needed, and we need to invent new tools. Faculty representing all areas of science and technology making significant discoveries, inventing and training future generations of scientists.
Rather than simply study genes, molecules, or even organs in isolation, Bio-X investigators attempt to understand entire systems within the body. More than 400 faculty members from more than 60 departments have joined Bio-X teams, and more than 90 students from across the University have received Bio-X graduate fellowships. These students and faculty work on
Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani ; born on 19 April 1957), is a Yemeni-born Indian business magnate who is the chairman and CEO of the Indian conglomerate Reliance Industries Limited (RIL), the foremost company of the Indian energy and materials conglomerate Reliance Group. The company was ranked #99th in Fortune Global 500 and is India's most valuable company by market value and second-largest Indian company by turnover. Ambani remains the largest individual shareholder, with 44.7 percent stake in RIL.
In 2010, he was named among the most powerful people in the world by Forbes in its list of "68 people who matter most" As of 2012, he is the second richest man in Asia and the 19th richest person in the world with a personal wealth of US$22.3 billion. In 2007, a strong rally in the Indian stock market and the appreciation of the Indian rupee boosted the market capitalisation of Reliance group companies, briefly making him the world’s richest man.
He is a member of the board of directors of Bank of America Corporation and a present member of the international advisory board of the Council on Foreign Relations.
In 2012, Forbes named Mukesh Ambani the richest sports owner in the world.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
As the leading international organization in the field of tourism, UNWTO promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability and offers leadership and support to the sector in advancing knowledge and tourism policies worldwide.
UNWTO encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, to maximize tourism’s socio-economic contribution while minimizing its possible negative impacts, and is committed to promoting tourism as an instrument in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), geared towards reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development.
UNWTO generates market knowledge, promotes competitive and sustainable tourism policies and instruments, fosters tourism education and training, and works to make tourism an effective tool for development through technical assistance projects in over 100 countries around the world.
UNWTO’s membership includes 155 countries, 7 territories and over 400 Affiliate Members representing the
The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary, means. It is best known for its initial ground-breaking work beginning late in the 19th century and continuing up to World War I. The society laid many of the foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire, especially India.
Today, the society functions primarily as a think tank and is one of 15 socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party. Similar societies exist in Australia (the Australian Fabian Society), Canada (the Douglas-Coldwell Foundation and the now disbanded League for Social Reconstruction) and in New Zealand.
The Fabian Society was founded on 4 January 1884 in London as an offshoot of a society founded in 1883 called The Fellowship of the New Life. Fellowship members included poets Edward Carpenter and John Davidson, sexologist Havelock Ellis and the future Fabian secretary Edward R. Pease. They wanted to transform society by setting an example of clean simplified living for others to follow, but
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with 126,995 individual and institutional members at the end of 2008, and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science, which has a weekly circulation of 138,549.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science was created on September 20, 1848 in Pennsylvania. It was a reformation of the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists. The society chose William Charles Redfield as their first president because he had proposed the most comprehensive plans for the organization. According to the first constitution which was agreed to at the September 20 meeting, the goal of the society was to promote scientific dialogue in order to allow for greater scientific collaboration. By doing so the association aimed to use resources to conduct science with increased efficiency and
The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is a British learned society founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences. Today, it is a world centre for geography: supporting research, education, expeditions and fieldwork, and promoting public engagement and informed understanding of the world's peoples, places and environments.
The Geographical Society of London was founded in 1830 under the name Geographical Society of London as an institution to promote the 'advancement of geographical science'. It later absorbed the older African Association, which had been founded by Sir Joseph Banks in 1788, as well as the Raleigh Club and the Palestine Association. Like many learned societies, it had started as a dining club in London, where select members held informal dinner debates on current scientific issues and ideas.
Founding members of the Society included Sir John Barrow, Sir John Franklin and Francis Beaufort. Under the patronage of King William IV it later became known as The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) and was granted its Royal Charter under Queen Victoria in 1859.
From 1830 - 1840 the RGS met in the rooms of the Horticultural
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London". The Society today acts as a scientific advisor to the British government, receiving a parliamentary grant-in-aid. The Society acts as the UK's Academy of Sciences, and funds research fellowships and scientific start-up companies.
The Society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of Statutes and Standing Orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the Society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows. There are currently 1,314 Fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS (Fellow of the Royal Society), with 44 new Fellows appointed each year. There are also Royal Fellows, Honorary Fellows and Foreign Fellows, the last of which are allowed to use their postnominal title ForMemRS (Foreign Member of the Royal Society). The current Royal Society President is Sir Paul Nurse, who
The Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, also commonly known as Shriners and abbreviated A.A.O.N.M.S., established in 1870, is an appendant body to Freemasonry, based in the United States. In 2010, the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, as well as Shriners North America, changed its name to Shriners International, now covering nearly 200 temples (chapters) across North America, South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. The organization is best known for the Shriners Hospitals for Children it administers and the red fezzes that members wear. The organization is headquartered in Tampa, Florida. Shriners International describes itself as a fraternity based on fun, fellowship and the Masonic principles of brotherly love, relief and truth. There are approximately 340,000 members from 195 temples (chapters) in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, the Republic of Panama, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Europe and Australia. On July 6, 2011, Shriners International commissioned Emirat Shriners of Heidelberg, Germany, as its 194th temple, and took the first steps toward forming a new temple in Mindanao, Philippines. Eventually on July 3, 2012, Agila Shriners of
The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. Under the terms of Article III.2 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards must be applied to nuclear exports.
Between 1971 and 1974, a group of 15 nuclear supplier states held a series of informal meetings in Vienna chaired by Professor Claude Zangger of Switzerland. The group's objective was to reach a common understanding on: (a) the definition of "equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material;" and (b) the conditions and procedures that would govern exports of such equipment or material in order to meet the obligations of Article III.2 on the basis of fair commercial competition. The group, which became known as the Zangger Committee, decided that it would be informal and that its decisions would not be legally binding upon its members.
The Committee maintains and updates a list of equipment that may only be exported if safeguards are applied to the recipient facility (called the "Trigger
The Boricua Popular/People's Army - or Ejército Popular Boricua in Spanish - is a clandestine organization based on the island of Puerto Rico, with cells in the United States. They campaign for, and support, the independence of Puerto Rico from the United States. In 2001, FBI Director Louis J. Freeh linked Los Macheteros to acts of terrorism.
Also known as Los Macheteros ("the Machete Wielders") and the "Puerto Rican Popular Army," their active membership was calculated in 2006 by Prof. Michael González Cruz, in his book Nacionalismo Revolucionario Puertorriqueño, to be composed of approximately 5,700 members with an additional unknown number of supporters, sympathizers, collaborators and informants throughout the U.S. and other countries. A report by The Economist places the number of active members at 1,100, excluding supporters.
The group has claimed responsibility for numerous bombings, attacks against the United States armed forces, and armed robberies since 1978, and was led primarily by former FBI Most Wanted Fugitive Filiberto Ojeda Ríos until his death in 2005.
The name Machetero evokes images of an impromptu band of Puerto Ricans who assembled to defend the island of
The European Space Agency (ESA) (French: l'Agence spatiale européenne - ASE; German: Europäische Weltraumorganisation), often stylized as esa, established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 19 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000 with an annual budget of about €4.02 billion / US$5.38 billion (2012).
ESA's space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observation, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana, and designing launch vehicles. The main European launch vehicle Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle.
ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) that trains astronauts for future
The International Organization for Standardization (French: Organisation internationale de normalisation, Russian: Международная организация по стандартизации, tr. Myezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya po standartizatsii), widely known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial, and commercial standards. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
The three official languages of the ISO are English, French, and Russian. The organization's logos in two of its official languages, English and French, include the word ISO, and it is usually referred to by this short-form name. The organization says that ISO is not an acronym or initialism for the organization's full name in either official language; rather, recognizing that its initials would be different in different languages, it adopted ISO, based on the Greek word isos (ἴσος, meaning equal), as the universal short form of its name. However, one of the founding delegates, Willy Kuert, recollected the original naming question with the comment: "I recently read that
Francophonie is an international organization of politics and governments with French as the mother or customary language, where a significant proportion of people are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with the French language or culture.
Formally known as the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) or the International Organization of the Francophonie, the organization comprises 56 member states and governments, 3 associate members, and 19 observers. The term francophonie (with a lower case 'f') also refers to the global community of French-speaking peoples, comprising a network of private and public organizations promoting special ties among all Francophones. In a majority of member states, French is not the predominant native language. The prerequisite for admission to the Francophonie is not the degree of French usage in the member countries, but a prevalent presence of French culture and language in the member country's identity, usually stemming from France's colonial ambitions with other nations in its history.
French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Élisée Reclus, coined the word Francophonie in 1880 to refer to the
Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) is a cancer treatment and research institution founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital. The main campus is located at 1275 York Avenue, between 67th and 68th Streets, in New York City. MSKCC has other locations in Manhattan and Brooklyn, and regional care facilities in Basking Ridge, New Jersey; and on Long Island and in Westchester County, New York.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center is composed of two intimately related institutions: Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Diseases provides patient care and Sloan–Kettering Institute is focused on basic-science research.
Memorial Hospital was founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital by a group that included John Jacob Astor and his wife, Charlotte, the hospital was originally located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. The hospital was later renamed General Memorial Hospital for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases. In 1936, the hospital began its move to its present location on York Avenue when John D. Rockefeller, Jr., donated the land upon which, in 1939, Memorial Hospital was constructed. The current Physician-In-Chief is Robert E.
The 82nd Airborne Division is an active duty airborne infantry division of the United States Army specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas. Based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the 82nd Airborne Division is the primary fighting arm of the XVIII Airborne Corps.
The 82nd Division was constituted in the National Army on 5 August 1917, and was organized on 25 August 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. Since its initial members came from all 48 states, the unit acquired the nickname “All-American", which is the basis for its famed “AA” shoulder patch. Famous soldiers of the division include Sergeant Alvin C. York, General James M. Gavin, Dave Bald Eagle (grandson of Chief White Bull), Senator Strom Thurmond (325th GIR in World War II), Senator Jack Reed, and Congressman Patrick Murphy (the first Iraq War veteran elected to Congress).
The 82nd Division was first constituted on 5 August 1917 in the National Army. It was organized and formally activated on 25 August 1917 at Camp Gordon, Georgia. The division consisted entirely of newly conscripted soldiers. When commanders discovered that the division contained draftees from the forty-eight US states that existed at the
Hatzohar (Hebrew: הצה"ר, an acronym for HaTzionim HaRevizionistim (Hebrew: הציונים הרוויזיוניסטים), lit. The Revisionist Zionists), officially Brit HaTzionim HaRevizionistim (Hebrew: ברית הציונים הרוויזיוניסטים, lit. Union of Revisionist Zionists) was a Revisionist Zionist organisation and political party in Mandate Palestine and newly-independent Israel.
Hatzohar was founded by Ze'ev Jabotinsky in 1925, along with its youth wing, Betar. The name of Revisionist Zionism stems from the demand by some Zionists for a revision of Chaim Weizmann's policy of appeasement towards the British Government in Palestine. Organisation members were, among other things, instrumental in creating Żydowski Związek Wojskowy, one of two Jewish organisations that organised the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
The party began publishing Hazit HaAm in 1931, but it was shut down by the British authorities after a few months. They went on to establish HaYarden, and in 1938 the daily HaMashkif. The party had briefly also been associated with Doar HaYom.
At the time of Israel's independence in 1948, Hatzohar was the largest right-wing organization in the country, and had three seats in the Provisional State Council
The Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers (known as VNO-NCW) is the largest employers’ organisation in the Netherlands. VNO-NCW represents the common interests of Dutch business, both at home and abroad and provides a variety of services for its members.
Over 160 (branch) associations are members, representing more than 115,000 enterprises. They cover almost all sectors of the economy, including more than 80% of all medium-sized companies in the Netherlands and nearly all of the larger, corporate institutions.
The World Food Programme (WFP) (Italian: Programma Alimentare Mondiale) is the food assistance branch of the United Nations, and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger worldwide. WFP provides food, on average, to 90 million people per year, 58 million of whom are children. From its headquarters in Rome and more than 80 country offices around the world, WFP works to help people who are unable to produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee.
The WFP was first established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Conference, when George McGovern, director of the US Food for Peace Programmes, proposed establishing a multilateral food aid programme. WFP was formally established in 1963 by the FAO and the United Nations General Assembly on a three-year experimental basis. In 1965, the programme was extended to a continuing basis.
The WFP is governed by an Executive Board which consists of representatives from 36 member states. Ertharin Cousin is the current Executive Director, appointed jointly by the UN Secretary General and the
The American Library Association (ALA) is a non-profit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world, with more than 62,000 members.
Founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey (Melvil Dui), Fred B. Perkins and Thomas W. Bicknell in 1876 in Philadelphia and chartered in 1879 in Massachusetts, its head office is now in Chicago.
During the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, 103 librarians, 90 men and 13 women, responded to a call for a "Convention of Librarians" to be held October 4–6 at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. At the end of the meeting, according to Ed Holley in his essay "ALA at 100," "the register was passed around for all to sign who wished to become charter members," making October 6, 1876 to be ALA's birthday. In attendance were 90 men and 13 women, among them Justin Winsor (Boston Public, Harvard), William Frederick Poole (Chicago Public, Newberry), Charles Ammi Cutter (Boston Athenaeum), Melvil Dewey, and Richard Rogers Bowker. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from
The Central American Common Market (CACM; Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano, MCCA) was an economic trade organisation between five nations of Central America spanning 100 million acres. It was established on December 13, 1960 between the nations of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua in a conference in Managua. These nations ratified the treaties of membership the following year. Costa Rica joined the CACM in 1963. Panama is conspicuous by absence.
The organisation collapsed in 1969 with the Football War between Honduras and El Salvador, but was then reinstated in 1991.
The current Central America trade block is organized by the General Treaty for Economical Integration signed October 29 1993 (Guatemala Protocol) which is part of the Central American Integration System SICA.
The CACM has succeeded in removing duties on most products moving among the member countries, and has largely unified external tariffs and increased trade within the member nations. However, it has not achieved the further goals of greater economic and political unification that were hoped for at the organisation's founding, mainly caused by the CACM's inability and lack of reliable means to
The Pirate Party of Germany (German: Piratenpartei Deutschland), short - Pirates (German: Piraten), is a political party in Germany founded in September 2006. It states general agreement with the Swedish Piratpartiet as a party of the information society, it is part of the international movement of pirate parties and is also a member of the Pirate Parties International. Since 2011 the party has succeeded in attaining a high enough vote share to enter four state parliaments in Germany, (Berlin, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saarland and Schleswig-Holstein).
According to political theorist Oskar Niedermayer, the party sees itself as part of an international movement to shape with their term of "digital revolution" which is a circumscription for the transition into information society. With their focus on freedom in the net and their fight against government regulations of this sphere, they caught the attention especially of the younger generation. Even if the network policy is the core identity of the party, it is now more than just an advocacy party of "digital natives" and characterises itself as a social-liberal-progressive.
Former federal chairman Sebastian Nerz sees the party as
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany. The party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany, along with the conservative CDU/CSU, and is led by Sigmar Gabriel.
The SPD last governed at the federal level in a grand coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Christian Social Union from 2005 until 27 October 2009. The SPD conceded defeat in the federal election of September 2009, with its share of votes having dropped from 34.2% to 23%, compared to 2005, and became the largest opposition party represented in the Bundestag. The party participates in ten state governments, of which seven are governed by SPD Minister-Presidents.
The SPD is a full member party of the Party of European Socialists and the Socialist International. It is Germany's oldest extant political party, established in 1875, in the German Parliament. It was also one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.
The SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. However, the SPD underwent a major shift in policies reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program
MINURSO is the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara. The name is a French acronym for "Mission des Nations Unies pour l'Organisation d'un Référendum au Sahara Occidental" — United Nations Mission for the organization of a Referendum in Western Sahara.
MINURSO was established in 1991 under United Nations Security Council Resolution 690 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front (as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) over the contested territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara).
MINURSO's mission was to monitor the cease-fire and to organize and conduct a referendum in accordance with the Settlement Plan, which would enable the Sahrawi people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence. This was intended to constitute a Sahrawi exercise of self-determination, and thus complete Western Sahara's still-unfinished process of decolonization (Western Sahara is the last major territory remaining on the UN's list of non-decolonized territories.)
To this end, MINURSO has been given the following mandates:
The independence referendum was originally
The Young Men's Christian Association (commonly known as YMCA or simply the Y) is a worldwide organisation with more than 58 million beneficiaries from 125 national associations. It was founded on 6 June 1844 in London and it aims to put Christian principles into practice by developing a healthy "body, mind and spirit". These three angles are reflected by the different sides of the (red) triangle – part of all YMCA logos. The different local YMCAs are voluntarily affiliated through their national organisations. The national organisations in turn are part of both an Area Alliance and the World Alliance of YMCAs. The World Alliance's main motto is: "Empowering young people" and it is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
The oldest organisation that was similar to the YMCA is the Swiss Basel Association, founded in 1787 as the Lediger Verein. In 1834, the Bremen Jünglingsverein was founded in northern Germany. The Nazis would close all German Jünglingsvereine in the 1930s, but they would be re-established after the war as CVJMs. The oldest association in the United Kingdom similar to the YMCA was founded in Scotland in 1824 as Glasgow Young Men's Society for Religious Improvement.
The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental organization involving seven Asian and three Eurasian nations, part of the South-central Asian Union. It provides a platform to discuss ways to improve development and promote trade, and investment opportunities. The ECO is an ad hoc organization under the United Nations Charter (Chap. VIII). The common objective is to establish a single market for goods and services, much like the European Union. ECO's secretariat and cultural department are located in Tehran, its economic bureau is in Turkey and its scientific bureau is situated in Pakistan. The organization's population is 416,046,863 and the area is 8,620,697 km². The organization was founded by Turkey, Iran and Pakistan.
Economic Cooperation Organization is an intergovernmental regional organization established in 1985 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey for the purpose of promoting economic, technical and cultural cooperation among the member states. It was the successor organisation of what was the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD), founded in 1964, which ended activities in 1979. In the fall of 1992, the ECO expanded to include seven new members, namely
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution which offers investment, advisory, and asset management services to encourage private sector development in developing countries. The IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. It was established in 1956 as the private sector arm of the World Bank Group to advance economic development by investing in strictly for-profit and commercial projects which reduce poverty and promote development. The IFC's stated aim is to create opportunities for people to escape poverty and achieve better living standards by mobilizing financial resources for private enterprise, promoting accessible and competitive markets, supporting businesses and other private sector entities, and creating jobs and delivering necessary services to those who are poverty-stricken or otherwise vulnerable. Since 2009, the IFC has focused on a set of development goals which its projects are expected to target. Its goals are to increase sustainable agriculture opportunities, improve health and education, increase access to financing for microfinance and business clients, advance
The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) is a global consortium that drives the development, convergence, and adoption of e-business and web service standards. With its headquarters in the United States, members of the consortium decide how and what work is undertaken through an open, democratic process.
Technical work is carried out under the following categories: Web Services, e-Commerce, Security, Law & Government, Supply Chain, Computing Management, Application Focus, Document-Centric, XML Processing, Conformance/Interop, and Industry Domains.
OASIS was first formed as SGML Open in 1993 as a trade association of SGML tool vendors to cooperatively promote the adoption of SGML through mainly educational activities, though some amount of technical activity was also pursued including an update of the CALS Table Model specification and specifications for fragment interchange and entity management.
In 1998, with the movement of the high tech industry to XML, SGML Open changed its emphasis from SGML to XML, and changed its name to OASIS Open to be inclusive of XML and any future structured information standards. The focus of the consortium's
The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), created in 1981, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration, protection of human and legal rights, and the encouragement of good governance between countries and dependencies in the Eastern Caribbean. It also performs the role of spreading responsibility and liability in the event of natural disaster, such as a hurricane.
The main organ of the OECS, the Secretariat, is based in the capital city of Castries, Saint Lucia.
The OECS was created on 18 June 1981, with the Treaty of Basseterre, which was named after the city of the same name, the capital city of St. Kitts and Nevis. The OECS is the successor of the Leewards Islands' political organisation known as the West Indies Associated States (WISA).
One prominent aspect of the modern day OECS economic bloc has been the accelerated pace of trans-national integration among its member states.
All of the members-states of the OECS are either Full or Associate members of the Caribbean Community and were among the second batch of countries that joined the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME).
The OECS currently has nine members, spread
The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional, PAN), is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. The party's political platform is generally considered Right-wing in the Mexican political spectrum. Since 2000, the President of Mexico has been a member of this party; both houses have PAN pluralities, but the party does not have a majority in either house of the Congress. In the 2006 legislative elections the party won 207 out of 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 52 out of 128 Senators.
Mexican Roman Catholics, together with other conservatives (mainly Manuel Gómez Morín), founded the PAN on September 17, 1939, after the cristero insurgency was forced by the Mexican bishops to abandon the Cristero War. They were looking for a peaceful way to bring about change in the country and to achieve political representation, after the years of chaos and violence that followed the Mexican Revolution. The turning point in the Cristero War was when the Roman Catholic Church reached an agreement with the National Revolutionary Party – the forerunner of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) that dominated the country for most of the 20th century – under which it
Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated "Spear of the Nation," was the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC), co-founded by Nelson Mandela, which fought against the South African government. MK launched its first guerrilla attacks against government installations on 16 December 1961. It was subsequently classified as a terrorist organization by the South African government and the United States, and banned.
For a time it was headquartered in Rivonia, a suburb of Johannesburg. On 11 July 1963, 19 ANC and MK leaders, including Arthur Goldreich and Walter Sisulu, were arrested at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia (26°2′36″S 28°3′15″E / 26.04333°S 28.05417°E / -26.04333; 28.05417 (Liliesleaf Farm)). The farm was privately owned by Arthur Goldreich and bought with South African Communist Party and ANC funds, as individuals who were not deemed "White" were unable to own such a property under the Group Areas Act. This was followed by the Rivonia Trial, in which ten leaders of the ANC were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to "foment violent revolution". Wilton Mkwayi, chief of MK at the time, escaped during trial.
The MK carried out some bombings of civilian, industrial and
The International Development Association (IDA) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world's poorest developing countries. The IDA is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. It was established in 1960 to complement the existing International Bank for Reconstruction and Development by lending to developing countries which suffer from the lowest gross national income, from troubled creditworthiness, or from the lowest per capita income. Together, the International Development Association and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development are collectively known as the World Bank, as they follow the same executive leadership and operate with the same staff.
The association shares the World Bank's mission of reducing poverty and aims to provide affordable development financing to countries whose credit risk is so prohibitive that they cannot afford to borrow commercially or from the Bank's other programs. The IDA's stated aim is to assist the poorest nations in growing more quickly, equitably, and sustainably to reduce poverty. The IDA is the single largest provider of funds
Sąjūdis (initially known as the Reform Movement of Lithuania, Lithuanian: Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdis) is the political organization which led the struggle for Lithuanian independence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It was established on June 3, 1988 and was led by Vytautas Landsbergis. Its goal was to seek the return of independent status for Lithuania.
In the mid 1980s, Lithuania's Communist Party leadership hesitated to embrace Gorbachev's perestroika and glasnost. The death of Petras Griškevičius, first secretary of the Communist Party of Lithuania, in 1987 was merely followed by the appointment of another rigid communist, Ringaudas Songaila. However, encouraged by the rhetoric of Mikhail Gorbachev, noting the strengthening position of Solidarity in Poland and encouraged by the Pope and the U.S. Government, Baltic independence activists began to hold public demonstrations in Riga, Tallinn, and Vilnius.
At a meeting at the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences on June 3, 1988, communist and non-communist intellectuals formed Sąjūdis Initiative Group (Lithuanian: Sąjūdžio iniciatyvinė grupė) to organize a movement to support Gorbachev's program of glasnost, democratization, and
The South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club was a Pennsylvania corporation which operated an exclusive and secretive retreat at a mountain lake near South Fork, Pennsylvania for more than fifty extremely wealthy men and their families. The club was the owner of the South Fork Dam, which failed during an unprecedented period of heavy rains, resulting in the disastrous Johnstown Flood on May 31, 1889.
The failure released an estimated 20 million tons of water from Lake Conemaugh, wreaking devastation along the valley of South Fork Creek and the Little Conemaugh River as it flowed about a dozen miles downstream to Johnstown, Pennsylvania, where the confluence of the Little Conemaugh and Stonycreek River forms the Conemaugh River, a tributary of the Allegheny River.
It was the worst disaster event in U.S. history at the time, and relief efforts were among the first major actions of Clara Barton and the newly-organized American Red Cross which she led. The death toll from the 1889 flood was approximately 2,209, about 1/3 of whom were individuals who were never identified.
Despite some years of claims and litigation, the club and its members were never found to be liable for monetary
The United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) is a peace-keeping force established in September 2003 to monitor a ceasefire agreement in Liberia following the resignation of President Charles Taylor and the conclusion of the Second Liberian Civil War. It consisted of up to 15,000 United Nations military personnel and 1,115 police officers, along with a civilian component. It superseded the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL).
Civil war in Liberia claimed the lives of more than 250,000 people - mostly civilians - and led to a complete breakdown of law and order. It displaced scores of thousands of people, both internally and beyond the borders, resulting in some 850,000 refugees in the neighboring countries. Fighting began in late 1989, and by early 1990, several hundred deaths had already occurred in confrontations between government forces and fighters who claimed membership in an opposition group, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), led by a former government official, Mr. Charles Taylor.
From the outset of the conflict, a sub regional organization, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), undertook various initiatives aimed at a
St. Anthony Hall, also known as Saint Anthony Hall and The Order of St. Anthony, is a national college literary society also known as the Fraternity of Delta Psi (ΔΨ) at elite colleges in the United States of America. St. Anthony Hall's activities foster the social and intellectual development of its undergraduate members by encouraging individual expression, promoting the exchange of ideas by providing a forum for discussion and presentations. At several of its chapters, St. Anthony Hall hosts public lecture series. The first, or 'Alpha' Chapter was founded at Columbia University on January 17, 1847, which is the feast day of St. Anthony.
In 1879, Baird's Manual characterized the organization as having "the reputation of being the most secret of all the college societies." References appear in several F. Scott Fitzgerald short stories, Tom Wolfe's novels, and the Order has a distinguished architectural inheritance. The organization is often referred to as St. A's or the Hall. It has no official religious affiliation.
In 1847, after the organization's 'Alpha' Chapter was founded on January 17 at Columbia University, a 'Beta' Chapter at New York University was also founded, but by
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US based international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947 and is the world's largest and most prestigious scientific and educational computing society. It is non-for-profit professional membership group . Its membership is more than 100,000 as of 2011. Its headquarters are in New York City. ACM and the IEEE Computer Society are the primary US umbrella organizations for academic and scholarly interests in computing.
Unlike the IEEE, however, the ACM is solely dedicated to computing.
ACM is organized into over 170 local chapters and 35 Special Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 college and university chapters. The first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
Many of the SIGs, like SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields. The groups also publish a large number of specialized journals, magazines, and newsletters.
ACM also sponsors other computer science related events such as the
Kappa Alpha Theta (ΚΑΘ), also known as Theta, is an international fraternity for women founded on January 27, 1870 at DePauw University, formerly Indiana Asbury. Theta is the first Greek letter fraternity for women. The organization currently has over 130 chapters at colleges and universities across the United States and Canada with a total initiated membership of over 250,000, and over 195 alumnae chapters and circles worldwide. Kappa Alpha Theta is a member of the National Panhellenic Conference (NPC).
Kappa Alpha Theta was founded in 1870 to give women a support group in the then mostly male college world at Indiana Asbury, now DePauw University. Indiana Asbury, as the university was known then, officially opened its doors to women in 1867, thirty years after the college was first established. Four women, Elizabeth McReynolds Locke Hamilton (Bettie Locke), Alice Olive Allen Brant (Alice Allen), Elizabeth Tipton Lindsey (Bettie Tipton), and Hannah Virginia Fitch Shaw (Hannah Fitch), sought to create an organization for women that would provide the encouragement and support that would draw women to coeducational colleges.
Kappa Alpha Theta's ritual, organizational structure,
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries committed to democracy and the free-market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices, and co-ordinate domestic and international policies of its members.
The OECD originated in 1948 as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), led by Robert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. Later, its membership was extended to non-European states. In 1961, it was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries.
The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in Paris, France.
The Organisation for European
Outright Libertarians is an association in the United States of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and other self-identified "queer" (LGBTQ) people who are active in the Libertarian Party. The group's motto is "From Liberty Springs Equality."
Outright Libertarians was created in 1998 by a group of libertarian gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons that wanted to persuade their fellow LGBTQ persons to support a libertarian perspective on gay rights issues, and to support the United States Libertarian Party.
It is the third LGBT organization of the Libertarian Party, with the defunct "Libertarians for Gay and Lesbians Concerns" being the first, and the "Gays and Lesbians for Individual Liberty" being largely inactive since 2001.
The group supports the Libertarian Party's positions (which have remained the same since the party's first platform in 1972) on including equal marriage and adoption, equal military service, and the end of sodomy laws.
Due to its philosophical basis in libertarianism, the organization is often in the position of having to oppose civil rights legislation for involving what it contends are intrusive and unnecessary government regulations into
The African Union – United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) is a joint African Union and United Nations peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on July 31, 2007, to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue.
Its initial 12-month mandate has been extended to July 31, 2010. Its budget is approximately $106 million per month.
Its force of about 26,000 personnel began to deploy to the region in October 2007. The 9,000-strong African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which was previously responsible for peacekeeping, had completely merged into this new force by December 31, 2007.
The mandate is for a force of up to 19,555 military personnel and 3,772 police, along with a further "19 formed police units comprising up to 140 personnel each." The peacekeepers will be allowed to use force to protect civilians and humanitarian operations. UNAMID will be the first joint UN/AU force and the largest peacekeeping mission. As of December 2008, it has deployed 15,136 total uniformed personnel, including 12,194 troops, 175 military observers, 2,767 police officers, supported by
The United Nations Stabilisation Mission In Haiti (UNSTAMIH) (French: Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti), also known as MINUSTAH, an acronym of the French translation, is a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Haiti that has been in operation since 2004. The mission's military component is led by the Brazilian Army and the force commander is Brazilian. MINUSTAH's mandate was recently extended by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1944 past its October 15, 2010 deadline amid fears of instability. The mission's current mandate runs through October 15, 2012 with the intention of further renewal. The force is composed of 8,940 military personnel and 3,711 police, supported by an international civilian personnel, a local civilian staff and United Nations Volunteers.
Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the United Nations reported that the headquarters of the mission in Port-au-Prince had collapsed and that the mission's chief, Hédi Annabi of Tunisia, his deputy Luiz Carlos da Costa of Brazil, and the acting police commissioner, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's Doug Coates of Canada, were confirmed dead. On 14 January 2010, UN headquarters dispatched
Nepal Parivar Dal ('Nepal Family Party') is a political party in Nepal. In the 2008 Constituent Assembly election, the party won 1 seat through the Proportional Representation vote. The party selected Ek Nath Dhakal as its representative in the assembly.
The International Criminal Court (commonly referred to as the ICC or ICCt) is a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression (although it cannot, until at least 2017, exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression).
It came into being on 1 July 2002—the date its founding treaty, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, came into force—and it can prosecute only crimes committed on or after that date. The Court's official seat is in The Hague, Netherlands, but its proceedings may take place anywhere.
As of July 2012, 121 states are states parties to the Statute of the Court, including all of South America, nearly all of Europe and roughly half the countries in Africa. A further 32 countries, including Russia, have signed but not ratified the Rome Statute; one of them, Côte d'Ivoire, has accepted the Court's jurisdiction. The law of treaties obliges these states to refrain from “acts which would defeat the object and purpose” of the treaty until they declare they do not intend to become a party to the treaty. Three of these states—Israel, Sudan and the United States—have informed the UN
Slow Food is an international movement founded by Carlo Petrini in 1986. Promoted as an alternative to fast food, it strives to preserve traditional and regional cuisine and encourages farming of plants, seeds and livestock characteristic of the local ecosystem. It was the first established part of the broader Slow movement. The movement has since expanded globally to over 100,000 members in 150 countries. Its goals of sustainable foods and promotion of local small businesses are paralleled by a political agenda directed against globalization of agricultural products.
Slow Food began in Italy with the founding of its forerunner organization, Arcigola, in 1986 to resist the opening of a McDonald's near the Spanish Steps in Rome. In 1989, the founding Manifesto of the international Slow Food movement was signed in Paris, France by delegates from 15 countries. This was done not in part to protest against the restaurant chain, and primarily to protest against big international business interests.
The Slow Food organization spawned by the movement has expanded to include over 100,000 members with chapters in over 150 countries. All totaled, 800 local convivia chapters exist. 360
The World Zionist Organization (Hebrew: ההסתדרות הציונית העולמית HaHistadrut HaTsionit HaOlamit), or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization (Hebrew: ההסתדרות הציונית HaHistadrut HaTsionit), or ZO, in 1897 at the First Zionist Congress, held from August 29 to August 31 in Basel, Switzerland. It changed its name to World Zionist Organization in January 1960.
The ZO served as an umbrella organization for the Zionist movement, whose objective was the creation of a Jewish homeland in Eretz Yisrael - at that time under the Ottoman Empire and following the First World War The British Mandate of Palestine. When the State of Israel was declared 51 years later on May 14, 1948, many of its new administrative institutions were already in place, having evolved during the regular Zionist Congresses of the previous decades. Some of these institutions remain to this day. The WZO today consists of the following institutions: The World Zionist Unions, international Zionist Federations; and international organizations that define themselves as Zionist, such as WIZO, Hadassah, Bnai-Brith,Maccabi, the International Sephardic Federation, the three streams of world Judaism (Orthodox,
The Art Institute of Chicago (AIC) is a renowned, encyclopedic art museum located in Chicago's Grant Park. The Art Institute has one of the world's most notable collections of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art in its permanent collection. Its diverse holdings also include significant American art, Old Masters, European and American decorative arts, Asian art and modern and contemporary art. It is located at 111 South Michigan Avenue in the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District. The museum is associated with the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and is overseen by Director and President Douglas Druick. At one million square feet, it is the second largest art museum in the United States behind only the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
In 1866, a group of 35 artists founded the Chicago Academy of Design in a studio on Dearborn Street, with the intent to run a free school with its own art gallery. The organization was modeled after European art academies, such as the Royal Academy, with Academians and Associate Academians. The Academy's charter was granted in March 1867.
Classes started in 1868, meeting every day at a cost of $10 per month. The
The Camorra is a Mafia-type criminal organization, or secret society, originating in the region of Campania and its capital Naples in Italy. It is one of the oldest and largest criminal organizations in Italy, dating back to the 18th century.
The origins of the Camorra are not entirely clear. It may date back to the 16th century as a direct descendant of a Spanish secret society, the Garduña, founded in 1417. Officials of the Spanish Kingdom of Naples may have introduced the organization to the area, or it may have grown gradually out of small criminal gangs operating among the poor in Neapolitan society near the end of the 18th century.
The first official use of the word dates from 1735, when a royal decree authorised the establishment of eight gambling houses in Naples. The word is almost certainly a blend of "capo" (boss) and a Neapolitan street game, the "morra". (In this game, two persons wave their hands simultaneously, while a crowd of surrounding gamblers guess, in chorus, at the total number of fingers exposed by the principal players.) This activity was prohibited by the local government and some people started making the players pay for being “protected” against the
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Moldovan: GUAM; Azerbaijani: GUAM; Ukrainian: ГУАМ; Georgian: სუამი) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova.
GUAM's charter was signed during a summit in Yalta on June 6 to June 7, 2001 by the four current members and Uzbekistan, which later withdrew. According to the former Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko the charter set objectives for cooperation, such as promoting democratic values, ensuring stable development, enhancing international and regional security and stepping up European integration. Moldova's 2000 elections were won by the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova who have realigned their foreign policy towards Europe shortly before the parliamentary election held in March 2005.
Given the existence of the Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), in Russia GUAM is sometimes seen as a way of countering the Russian influence in the area, and as part of a strategy backed by the United States. However, GUAM leaders repeatedly and officially dismiss such claims and declare their strong willingness to develop close friendly relations
The LPGA, in full the Ladies Professional Golf Association, is an American organization for female professional golfers. The organization is headquartered in Daytona Beach, Florida, and is best known for running the LPGA Tour, a series of weekly golf tournaments for elite female golfers from around the world from February to December each year.
Other "LPGA"s exist in other countries, each with a geographical designation in its name, but the U.S. organization is the first, largest, and best known. The LPGA is also an organization for female club and teaching professionals. This is different from the PGA Tour, which runs the main professional tours in the U.S. and, since 1968, has been independent of the club and teaching professionals' organization, the PGA of America.
The LPGA also administers an annual qualifying school similar to that conducted by the PGA Tour. Depending on a golfer's finish in the final qualifying tournament, she may receive full or partial playing privileges on the LPGA Tour. In addition to the main LPGA Tour, the LPGA also owns and operates the Symetra Tour, formerly the Futures Tour, the official developmental tour of the LPGA. Top finishers at the end of
The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London, United Kingdom. It has a unique position in being an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects whose purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate.
The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition. The motive in founding the Academy was twofold: to raise the professional status of the artist by establishing a sound system of training and expert judgment in the arts and to arrange the exhibition of contemporary works of art attaining an appropriate standard of excellence. Behind this concept was the desire to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation and interest in the public based on recognised canons of good taste.
Fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain had centered on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works. From 1746 the
The Union of South American Nations (Dutch: Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties ( pronunciation (help·info)) - UZAN, Portuguese: União de Nações Sul-Americanas - UNASUL, Spanish: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas - UNASUR) is an intergovernmental union integrating two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations (CAN), as part of a continuing process of South American integration. It is modeled on the European Union.
The UNASUR Constitutive Treaty was signed on May 23, 2008, at the Third Summit of Heads of State, held in Brasília, Brazil. According to the Constitutive Treaty, the Union's headquarters will be located in Quito, Ecuador. On 1 December 2010, Uruguay became the ninth state to ratify the UNASUR treaty, thus giving the union full legality. As the Constitutive Treaty entered into force on 11 March 2011, UNASUR became a legal entity during a meeting of Foreign Ministers in Mitad del Mundo, Ecuador, where they had laid the foundation stone for the Secretariat Headquarters. From July 2013 onwards, the Secretariat will be based in Paramaribo, Suriname. The South American Parliament will be located in Cochabamba, Bolivia, while the headquarters of its bank,
The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative, or the SECI, has been an initiative that, under the auspices of men like Erhard Busek and Richard Schifter, has been successful in providing stability in an unstable region and has found support in international organizations and countries. As of 2009, the region has found confidence in its new stability and along with the help of the SECI, has created a Regional Co-operation Council (RCC), owned and run by the countries in Southeast Europe aimed at strengthening peace, democracy and the economy in the hopes that the newfound stability can be supported by those countries who not so long ago were the perpetuators of volatility.
The SECI Regional Center Headquarters is located in Bucharest Romania.
The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative was formed in 1996 under the guidance of then, Senior Director for Eastern Europe in the United States National Security Council, Richard Schifter. His initial idea was modeled after the Marshall Plan of 1947 which was used to help rebuild Europe after World War II, and considering that the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina was coming to a close, he felt stability in the region would be immediately
The American Philosophical Society, founded in 1743, and located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation, that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach. Considered the first learned society in the US, it has played an important role in American cultural and intellectual life for over 270 years.
Through research grants, published journals, the upkeep of the American Philosophical Society Museum, an extensive library, and regular meetings, the society continues to advance a variety of disciplines in the humanities and the sciences. The museum is located immediately east of Independence Hall and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966.; it is part of the Independence National Historical Park.
Originally called the "Philosophical Society", the Society was founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram as an offshoot of an earlier club, the Junto. It was founded two years after the University of Pennsylvania and the institutions remain closely tied.
Since its inception, the
The Andean Community (Spanish: Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The trade bloc was called the Andean Pact until 1996 and came into existence with the signing of the Cartagena Agreement in 1969. Its headquarters are located in Lima, Peru.
The Andean Community has 98 million inhabitants living in an area of 4,700,000 square kilometers, whose Gross Domestic Product amounted to US$745.3 billion in 2005, including Venezuela, (who was a member at that time). Its estimated GDP PPP for 2011 amounts to US$902.86 billion, excluding Venezuela.
The original Andean Pact was founded in 1969 by Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. In 1973, the pact gained its sixth member, Venezuela. In 1976, however, its membership was again reduced to five when Chile withdrew. Venezuela announced its withdrawal in 2006, reducing the Andean Community to four member states.
Recently, with the new cooperation agreement with Mercosur, the Andean Community gained four new associate members: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. These four Mercosur members were granted associate membership by the Andean Council of
The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) (Arabic: اتحاد المغرب العربي, Ittiḥād al-Maghrib al-‘Arabī; French: Union du Maghreb arabe or UMA) is a trade agreement aiming for economic and some sort of future political unity among Arab countries of the Maghreb in North Africa: Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia.
The union is inactive and frozen due to deep political and economical disagreements between Morocco and Algeria regarding, among others, the issue of Western Sahara.
The idea for an economic union of the Maghreb began with the independence of Tunisia and Morocco in 1956. It was not until thirty years later, though, that five Maghreb states - Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia - met for the first Maghreb summit. The following year, in 1989, the agreement was signed by all member nations. According to the Constitutive Act, its aim is to guarantee cooperation “with similar regional institutions... [to] take part in the enrichment of the international dialogue... [to] reinforce the independence of the member states and... [to] safeguard... their assets....” Strategic relevance of the region is based on the fact that, collectively, it boasts large phosphate, oil, and
The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is the largest, most representative business organization in the world. Its hundreds of thousands of member companies in over 130 countries have interests spanning every sector of private enterprise.
A world network of national committees keeps the ICC International Secretariat in Paris informed about national and regional business priorities. More than 2,000 experts drawn from ICC’s member companies feed their knowledge and experience into crafting the ICC stance on specific business issues.
The UN, the World Trade Organization, and many other intergovernmental bodies, both international and regional, are kept in touch with the views of international business through ICC.
The International Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1919 to serve world business by promoting trade and investment, open markets for goods and services, and the free flow of capital. The organization's international secretariat was established in Paris and the ICC's International Court of Arbitration was created in 1923.
The ICC's first Chairman was 20th c. French Minister of Finance Etienne Clémentel. ICC's current Chairman is Gerard Worms. Harold McGraw III is
The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with 2.7 million youth members and over 1 million adult volunteers. Since its founding in 1910 as part of the international Scout Movement, more than 110 million Americans have been members of the BSA.
The BSA goal is to train youth in responsible citizenship, character development, and self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to inculcate typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, and outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping, aquatics, and hiking.
The BSA is a constituent member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for boys ages 7 to 10½ years, Boy Scouting for boys ages 10½ to 18 and Venturing for young men and women ages 14 (or 13 and have completed the 8th grade) through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional subsidiary that provides in-school and career
The Communist Party of Cuba (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Cuba, PCC) is the governing political party in Cuba. It is a communist party of the Marxist-Leninist model. The Cuban constitution ascribes the role of the Party to be the "leading force of society and of the state". As of April 2011, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba is Raúl Castro, the President of Cuba, younger brother of the previous First Secretary and President of Cuba, Fidel Castro, and the Second Secretary is José Ramón Machado Ventura.
The Communist Party of Cuba was formed in the 1920s, which was later renamed the Popular Socialist Party for electoral reasons. In July 1961, two years after the 1959 Revolution, the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations (ORI) was formed by the merger of Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement, the Popular Socialist Party led by Blas Roca and the Revolutionary Directory March 13 led by Faure Chomón. On March 26, 1962 the ORI became the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution (PURSC) which, in turn, became the Communist Party of Cuba on October 3, 1965. The Communist party remains the only recognized political party in Cuba. Other parties, though not illegal, are
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded the Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. and Canada. In terms of combined GDP of its members, as of 2010 the trade bloc is the largest in the world.
NAFTA has two supplements: the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC).
Following diplomatic negotiations dating back to 1986 among the three nations, the leaders met in San Antonio, Texas, on December 17, 1992, to sign NAFTA. U.S. President George H. W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos Salinas, each responsible for spearheading and promoting the agreement, ceremonially signed it. The agreement then needed to be ratified by each nation's legislative or parliamentary branch.
Before the negotiations were finalized, Bill Clinton came into office in the U.S. and Kim Campbell in Canada, and before the agreement became law, Jean Chrétien had taken
The Young Presidents’ Organization (YPO) is a global network of young chief executives. With approximately 18,000 members in more than 100 countries, YPO and its graduate organization, WPO (World Presidents’ Organization) share a founding mission: Better Leaders Through Education and Idea Exchange. Furthermore, the YPO promotes annual high-level meetings such as the WEF and Horasis.
YPO was founded in 1950 in New York City by manufacturer Ray Hickok, who was 27 years old when he became the head of his family’s 300-employee company. Hickok and a small group of young presidents in the area began meeting regularly to share and learn from each other. This founding principle of education and idea exchange among peers still guides the organization today. YPO marked its 60th anniversary in 2010.
1950 - Ray Hickok founds Young Presidents’ Organization in New York City
1956 - First “international” member admitted from outside North America
1956 - First international chapter added - YPO Ontario in Canada
1960 - First YPO University, held in Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.A.
1975 - Forum becomes a YPO institution when the Northern California Chapter (U.S.A.) organizes its 60 members into four
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. Founded in 1919, the American Meteorological Society has a membership of more than 14,000 professionals, professors, students, and weather enthusiasts. Some members have attained the designation "Certified Consulting Meteorologist (CCM)", many of whom have expertise in the applied meteorology discipline of atmospheric dispersion modeling. To the general public, however, the AMS is best known for its "Seal of Approval" to television and radio meteorologists.
The AMS publishes nine atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic journals (in print and online), issues position statements on scientific topics that fall within the scope of their expertise, sponsors more than 12 conferences annually, and offers numerous programs and services. There is also an extensive network of local chapters.
The AMS headquarters are located at Boston, Massachusetts. It was built by the famous Boston architect Charles Bulfinch, as the third Harrison Gray Otis House in 1806
The Bloods are a primarily, though not exclusively, African American street gang founded in Los Angeles, California. The gang is widely known for its rivalry with the Crips. They are identified by the red color worn by their members and by particular gang symbols, including distinctive hand signs.
The Bloods are made up of various sub-groups known as "sets" between which significant differences exist such as colors, clothing, and operations, and political ideas which may be in open conflict with each other. Since their creation, the Blood gangs have branched out throughout the United States.
Bloods have been documented in the U.S. military, found in both U.S. and overseas bases.
The Bloods gang was formed initially to compete against the influence of the Crips in Los Angeles. The origin of the Bloods and their rivalry with the Crips dates to the 1970s, where the Pirus street gang, originally a set, or faction, of the Crips, broke off during an internal gang war, and allied with other smaller gangs to found the gang that would eventually become known as the Bloods. At the time, Crips sets outnumbered Bloods sets by three to one. To assert their power despite this difference in
The Indian Ocean Commission (COI), known as the Commission de l'Océan Indien in French, is an intergovernmental organization that joins Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, France (for Réunion), and the Seychelles together to encourage cooperation. It was started in January 1984 under the General Victoria Agreement. The official language of communication is French.
The Maldives is an observer of the commission.
The original ideas were to encourage trade and tourism. Recently, cooperation has focused on marine conservation and fisheries management. The COI has funded a number of regional and national conservation and alternative livelihoods projects through ReCoMAP, Regional Programme for the Sustainable Management of the Coastal Zones of the Countries of the Indian Ocean (PROGECO in French). An example of these projects is project to catalyze the development of sea cucumber and seaweed aquaculture in South West Madagascar with the NGOs, Transmad, Blue Ventures, and Madagascar Holothuria.
SKYWARN is a program of the United States' National Weather Service (NWS). Its mission is to collect reports of localized severe weather. These reports are used to aid forecasters in issuing and verifying severe weather watches and warnings and to improve the forecasting and warning processes and the tools used to collect meteorological data. It consists of a network of severe storm spotters that observe weather conditions and make reports of severe weather to their local NWS offices. These spotters are regularly trained by personnel from the local NWS offices. In many areas, classes are conducted each spring in advance of the coming severe weather season.
Where severe storms are possible, storm spotting groups such as SKYWARN in the United States coordinate amateur radio operators and localized spotters to keep track of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. Reports from spotters and chasers are given to the National Weather Service so that they have ground truth information to warn the general public. Spotting provides ground information and localized conditions that the National Weather Service might not know the extent or might not otherwise be aware of. They typically report
The United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor (UNMIT) was established on August 25, 2006 by UN Security Council Resolution 1704. Its objectives are "to support the Government in consolidating stability, enhancing a culture of democratic governance, and facilitating political dialogue among Timorese stakeholders, in their efforts to bring about a process of national reconciliation and to foster social cohesion". In its most recent resolution on UNMIT, the Council extended its mandate until February 26, 2012. UNMIT and ISF troops will leave the country at the end of 2012.
The United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) (June—October 1999) was mandated to organize and conduct a popular consultation to ascertain whether the East Timorese people accepted a special autonomy within Indonesia or rejected the proposed special autonomy, leading to East Timor's separation from Indonesia . UNAMET was a political mission.
The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) (October 1999—May 2002) was a peacekeeping operation. The Security Council established UNTAET following rejection by the East Timorese of special autonomy. UNTAET exercised administrative authority
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was created on July 22, 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and came into existence on December 27, 1945 when 29 countries signed the Articles of Agreement. It originally had 45 members. The IMF's stated goal was to stabilize exchange rates and assist the reconstruction of the world’s international payment system post-World War II. Countries contribute money to a pool through a quota system from which countries with payment imbalances can borrow funds temporarily. Through this activity and others such as surveillance of its members' economies and policies, the IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries. The IMF describes itself as “an organization of 188 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.” The organization's stated objectives are to promote international economic cooperation, international trade, employment, and exchange rate stability, including by making financial resources available to member countries to meet
The Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society is an educational, cultural and scientific charity, based in Falmouth, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The Society exists to promote innovation in the arts and sciences. Its trading subsidiary ran "The Poly", a local arts and cinema venue until going into administration in January 2010.
In 1832 the Fox family. a prominent Quaker business family of Falmouth, founded the Cornwall Polytechnic Society, to promote the ideas and inventions of the workers in their Perran Foundry. This was the first use of the word ‘Polytechnic’ (meaning “of many arts and techniques”) in Britain.
In 1835 King William IV bestowed Royal Patronage on the Society, at the request of Davies Gilbert and it changed its name from the Cornwall Polytechnic Society to the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society.
In the same year the Polytechnic Hall was built, at 24 Church Street, Falmouth, being originally used for “objects connected with the sciences, arts and literature”, but not for theatrical purposes. This restriction was removed in 1889 to permit “dramatic plays”. The building was designed by George Wightwick.
By 1837, the Society had local Committees in Falmouth & Penryn,
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland. Established in 1783, it has since then drawn upon the strengths and expertise of its Fellows, of which there are currently more than 1500.
The Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history. Unlike similar organisations in the rest of the UK, the Fellowship includes people from a wide range of disciplines - science & technology, arts, humanities, medicine, social science, business and public service. This breadth of expertise makes the Royal Society of Edinburgh unique in the UK.
At the start of the 18th century, Edinburgh's intellectual climate fostered many clubs and societies (see Scottish Enlightenment). Though there were several that treated the arts, sciences and medicine, the most prestigious was the Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge, commonly referred to as the Medical Society of Edinburgh, co-founded by the mathematician Colin Maclaurin in 1731.
Maclaurin was unhappy with
The Salvation Army is a Christian denomination and international movement known for its charity shops and other charity work that operates in over 120 countries. It was founded in 1865 in the United Kingdom by William Booth and his wife Catherine as the north London Christian Mission and with a quasi-military structure. The theology of the Salvation Army is mainstream Protestant although it is distinctive in government and practice. The Army’s doctrine follows the mainstream of Christian belief and its articles of faith emphasise God’s saving purposes. Its objects are "the advancement of the Christian religion… of education, the relief of poverty, and other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole."
The Salvation Army was founded in London's East End in 1865 by one-time Methodist minister William Booth and his wife Catherine. Originally, Booth named the organization the East London Christian Mission. The name The Salvation Army developed from an incident on 19–20 May. William Booth was dictating a letter to his secretary George Scott Railton and said, "We are a volunteer army." Bramwell Booth heard his father and said, "Volunteer! I'm no
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana. Its goal is to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 southern African states. It complements the role of the African Union.
The origins of SADC lie in the 1960s and 1970s, when the leaders of majority-ruled countries and national liberation movements coordinated their political, diplomatic and military struggles to bring an end to colonial and white-minority rule in southern Africa. The immediate forerunner of the political and security cooperation leg of today's SADC was the informal Frontline States (FLS) grouping. It was formed in 1980.
The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was the forerunner of the socio-economic cooperation leg of today's SADC. The adoption by nine majority-ruled southern African countries of the Lusaka declaration on 1 April 1980 paved the way for the formal establishment of SADCC in April 1980.
Membership of the FLS and SADCC sometimes differed.
SADCC was transformed into SADC on 17 August 1992, with the adoption by the founding members of
Tau Kappa Epsilon(ΤΚΕ or Teke, pronounced T-K-E or /ˈtiːk/) is a college fraternity founded on January 10, 1899, at Illinois Wesleyan University with chapters in the United States, and Canada, and affiliation with a German fraternity system known as the Corps of the Weinheimer Senioren Convent (WSC). There are currently 292 active TKE chapters and colonies throughout the United States and Canada. In terms of active chapters and colonies, TKE is the second largest college social fraternity behind the 305 active chapters and colonies of Kappa Sigma. The colors of the fraternity are the shade of cherry known as crimson lake, and the shade of gray known as pure silver. Of the national fraternities founded prior to 1920, TKE is one of the few fraternities that never had a discrimination clause in its membership requirements to prevent membership of men because of their race, color, or creed. TKE was also one of the first fraternities to abolish "Hell week" when in 1928 it was replaced with an initiation period consisting of lessons portraying the finest attributes of brotherhood. Some notable members of Tau Kappa Epsilon are: founder of Walgreen, Charles Walgreen, 40th President of the
The Travellers Club is a gentlemen's club standing at 106 Pall Mall, London. It is the oldest of the surviving Pall Mall clubs, having been established in 1819, and was recently described by the Los Angeles Times as "the quintessential English gentleman's club." Visits are possible by invitation only.
The original concept of the club, by Lord Castlereagh and others, dates from the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars. They envisaged a club where gentlemen who travelled abroad might meet and offer hospitality to distinguished foreign visitors. The original rules of 1819 excluded from membership anyone “who has not travelled out of the British islands to a distance of at least five hundred miles from London in a direct line”. Candidates for membership are still expected to list four of the foreign countries that they have visited before they are considered for election although under current rules any foreign travel is technically sufficient.
The members of the club's first Committee included the Earl of Aberdeen (later Prime Minister), Lord Auckland (after whom Auckland, New Zealand is named), the Marquess of Lansdowne (who had already served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and later
The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Bahá'í Faith. It is a legislative institution with the authority to supplement and apply the laws of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, and exercises a judicial function as the highest appellate institution in the Bahá'í administration. The institution was defined in the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's successor, and was officially established in 1963 as the culmination of the Ten Year Crusade, an international Bahá'í teaching plan.
Its nine members are elected every five years from the male membership in good standing of the world community by an electoral college consisting of all the members of each Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly throughout the world. The Seat of the Universal House of Justice and its members reside in Haifa, Israel, on the slope of Mount Carmel.
While being empowered to legislate on matters, the Universal House of Justice has, since its inception, limited its exercise of this function. Instead it has generally provided guidance to Bahá'ís around the world through letters and messages. The books and documents published by the Universal House of
The Group of Eight (G8) is a forum for the governments of eight of the world's largest economies. (It excludes, however, two of the actual eight largest economies by nominal GDP: China, 2nd, and Brazil, 6th). The forum originated with a 1975 summit hosted by France that brought together representatives of six governments: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, thus leading to the name Group of Six or G6. The summit became known as the Group of Seven or G7 the following year with the addition of Canada. In 1997, Russia was added to group which then became known as the G8. The European Union is represented within the G8 but cannot host or chair summits.
"G8" can refer to the member states in aggregate or to the annual summit meeting of the G8 heads of government. The former term, G6, is now frequently applied to the six most populous countries within the European Union. G8 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7/8 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G8 foreign ministers, or G8 environment ministers.
Collectively, the G8 nations comprise 51.0% of 2011 global nominal GDP and 42.5% of global GDP (PPP). Each calendar year,
Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity and Foundation (ΑΣΦ, commonly abbreviated to Alpha Sig) is a fraternity with 82 active chapters and 9 colonies. Founded at Yale in 1845, it is the 10th oldest fraternity in the United States.
The fraternity practices many traditions. Their Latin motto is, Causa Latet Vis Est Notissima ("The cause is hidden, the results well-known"). The fraternity's official symbol is the phoenix, as the phoenix rises from the ashes of its old body, signifying the re-founding of the fraternity in the early 1900s. Due to active expansion efforts, Alpha Sigma Phi continues to offer services and opportunities to over 2,500 undergraduate students and 40,000 living alumni.
Alpha Sigma Phi was founded by men at Yale College in 1845 as a secret sophomore society composed of many of the school's authors, poets, athletes, and scholars. Upon rising through the ranks of the school, members shared membership with Alpha Sigma Phi in Skull and Bones, Scroll and Key, and eventually Wolf's Head.
The founders of Alpha Sigma Phi were:
Manigault and Rhea met at St. Paul's Preparatory School near Flushing, New York, where both were members of the same literary society and were preparing
The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) is a Kuwait-based, pan-Arab development finance institution. All member-states of the Arab League are members of the AFESD. As of 2003, it held around USD 7.3 billion in assets.
The AFESD was established by agreement of the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League. Its first meeting was held on 6 February 1972.
The current Chairman is Abdulatif Y Al-Hamad.
Former Chairman is Mohammed Al Emadi.
Founding Chairman is Saeb N. Jaroudi.
The British Humanist Association is an organisation of the United Kingdom which promotes Humanism and represents "people who seek to live good lives without religious or superstitious beliefs." The BHA is committed to secularism, human rights, democracy, egalitarianism and mutual respect. It works for an open and inclusive society with freedom of belief and speech, and for an end to the privileged position of religion in law, education, broadcasting and wherever else it occurs.
There are over 28,000 members and supporters of the BHA in the United Kingdom.
The BHA is the foremost provider of humanist and non-religious ceremonies in England and Wales, maintaining a national network of accredited officiants. This network offers humanist wedding/civil partnership celebration, humanist baby naming and humanist funeral ceremonies.
The BHA is a member organisation of the International Humanist and Ethical Union and of the European Humanist Federation. (Also see other BHA affiliations).
The Association's logo is closely derived from the international Happy Human symbol, which itself is a BHA trademark freely licensed by the BHA for use by other bona fide Humanist organisations.
The Caribbean Development Bank is a financial institution which assists Caribbean nations in financing social and economic programs in its member countries. Created on October 18, 1969, by a conference of eighteen countries and territories in Kingston, Jamaica, it has its headquarters located in Bridgetown, Barbados adjacent to the campus of the Samuel Jackson Prescod Polytechnic (SJPP).
In 2004 and 2010, Standard & Poor's gave the CDB a rating of (AAA) Triple A, the firm's highest rating. According to Standard and Poor if the Caribbean Development bank "continues its prudent financial policies of the past, its rating should remain stable over the medium term." It was downgraded to AA+ in 2011.
At the end of 2000, the bank had shareholders' equity of US$426 million.
The United Nations launched Development Business in 1978 with the support of the Caribbean Development Bank, the World Bank, and many other major development banks from around the world. Today, Development Business is the primary publication for all major multilateral development banks, United Nations agencies, and several national governments, many of whom have made the publication of their tenders and contracts in
The International Telecommunication Union (Union internationale des télécommunications, in French), previously the International Telegraph Union, is the specialized agency of the United Nations which is responsible for information and communication technologies. ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world and establishes worldwide standards.
ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology.
The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.
ITU is based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group and its membership includes 193 Member States and around 700 Sector Members and
The Kit-Cat Club (sometimes Kit-Kat Club) was an early 18th century English club in London with strong political and literary associations, committed to the furtherance of Whig objectives, meeting at the Trumpet tavern in London, and at Water Oakley in the Berkshire countryside.
The first meetings were held at a tavern in Shire Lane (parallel with Bell Yard and now covered by the Royal Courts of Justice) run by an innkeeper called Christopher Catling. He gave his name to the mutton pies known as "Kit Kats" from which the name of the club is derived.
The club later moved to the Fountain Tavern on The Strand (now the site of Simpson's-in-the-Strand), and latterly into a room especially built for the purpose at Barn Elms, the home of the secretary Jacob Tonson. In summer the club met at the Upper Flask, Hampstead Heath.
The origin of the name "Kit-Cat Club" is unclear. In 1705 Thomas Hearne wrote: "The Kit Cat Club got its Name from Christopher Catling. [Note, a Pudding Pye man.]"; i.e., Christopher is abbreviated as "Kit" and Catling as "Cat". Kit Catling was the keeper of a pie-house in Shire Lane, by Temple Bar, where the club originally met.
On the other hand, one of his mutton
The Paris Club (French: Club de Paris) is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of some of the world's biggest economies, which provides financial services such as war funding, debt restructuring, debt relief, and debt cancellation to indebted countries and their creditors. Debtors are often recommended by the International Monetary Fund after alternative solutions have failed.
It meets every six weeks at the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance, and Industry in Paris. It is chaired by a senior official of the French Treasury, currently the Director General of the Treasury [Ramon Fernandez]. The club grew out of crisis talks held in Paris in 1956 between the nation of Argentina and its various creditors. Its principles and procedures were codified at the end of the 1970s in the context of the North-South Dialogue.
In the 1990s, the club began to treat the HIPC (Heavily-Indebted Poor Countries) and non-HIPCs differently. The club began to grant increasingly larger debt reductions for the HIPCs. For the non-HIPCs, the club engaged less in debt reductions and moved towards encouraging the absorption of non-HIPCs' financial losses by bondholders and other private
The Society of Antiquaries of London (SAL) is a learned society "charged by its Royal Charter of 1751 with 'the encouragement, advancement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries'." It is based at Burlington House, Piccadilly, London (a building owned by the UK government), and is a registered charity.
Members of the Society are known as Fellows and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FSA after their names. Fellows are elected by existing members of the Society, and to be elected persons shall be 'excelling in the knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other nations' and be 'desirous to promote the honour, business and emoluments of the Society'.
The Society retains a highly selective election procedure, in comparison with many other learned societies. Nominations for Fellowship can only come from existing Fellows of the Society, and must be signed by at least five and up to twelve existing Fellows, certifying that, from their personal knowledge, the candidate would make a worthy Fellow. Elections then occur by anonymous ballot, and a candidate must achieve a ratio of four ‘yes' votes for every
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 17 specialized agencies of the United Nations. WIPO was created in 1967 "to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world."
WIPO currently has 185 member states, administers 24 international treaties, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The current Director-General of WIPO is Francis Gurry, who took office on October 1, 2008. 184 of the UN Members as well as the Holy See are Members of WIPO. Non-members are the states of Cook Islands, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu, and the states with limited recognition. Palestine has observer status.
The predecessor to WIPO was the BIRPI (Bureaux Internationaux Réunis pour la Protection de la Propriété Intellectuelle, French acronym for United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property), which had been established in 1893 to administer the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
WIPO was formally created by the
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 54 independent member states. All members except Mozambique and Rwanda were part of the British Empire, out of which the Commonwealth developed.
The member states cooperate within a framework of common values and goals, as outlined in the Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism and world peace. The Commonwealth is not a political union, but an intergovernmental organisation in which countries with diverse social, political and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status.
Activities of the Commonwealth are carried out through the permanent Commonwealth Secretariat, headed by the secretary-general, and biennial meetings of Commonwealth Heads of Government. The symbol of their free association is the Head of the Commonwealth, which is a ceremonial position currently held by Queen Elizabeth II. Elizabeth II is also monarch, separately and independently, of 16 Commonwealth members, which
The International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) is an international non-governmental, non-profit organisation that aims to promote the rights of creators worldwide by advocating for strong legal protection of copyright and authors’ rights, and supporting a network of Collective Management Organisations (CMOs), also known as authors’ societies, copyright / royalty collection societies, collecting societies, or Performing Rights Organisations (PROs).
Singer/songwriter Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees was until his death in 2012, CISAC’s President and painter Hervé Di Rosa is CISAC’s Vice President. Currently, 232 authors’ societies from 121 countries are members of CISAC. Together, these societies represent music publishers and approximately 3 million creators working in all artistic genres (music, drama, audiovisual and visual arts, literature…)
In 2010, the royalties collected by CISAC's member societies in their respective national territories were €7.545bn.
CISAC was founded in 1926. Its international headquarters are located in Paris, France, with four regional departments based in Budapest, Hungary (European Affairs), Santiago, Chile (Latin American and
Gallery Gachet is a unique artistic institution founded in Vancouver in 1992. Named after Vincent Van Gogh's homeopathic doctor, Paul Gachet.Gallery Gachet strives to provide a focal point for dialogue amongst outsider/dissident artists.We aim to use the canvas of the outside work to educate and demystify the public on issues related to mental health and to advance the artistic discourse around these issues.We provide the artists informed by mental health issues with opportunities to exhibit, curate, perform, read, teach and to develop their leadership skills.
The Institution of Structural Engineers is a professional body for structural engineering based in the United Kingdom. It has 27,000 members in 105 countries. The Institution provides professional accreditation for structural engineers. The Institution publishes a weekly magazine, The Structural Engineer.
The Institution is an internationally recognised source of expertise and information concerning all issues that involve structural engineering and public safety within the built environment.
The core work of the Institution is supporting and protecting the profession of structural engineering by upholding professional standards and acting as an international voice on behalf of structural engineers.
The Institution gained its Royal Charter in March 1934. It was established at the Ritz Hotel, London on 21 July 1908 as the Concrete Institute, as the result of a need to define standards and rules for the proper use of concrete in construction industry. The first headquarters were established at No. 8, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London; the first President was the Right Honourable Robert Windsor-Clive, 1st Earl of Plymouth, in whose honour the largest meeting room at the current
The Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (Filipino for "New Society Movement"), formerly the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan ng Nagkakaisang Nacionalista, Liberal, at iba pa, (Filipino for "New Society Movement of United Nationalists, Liberals, et coetera"), is a political party in the Philippines. It was formed in 1978, as an "umbrella" coalition of parties supporting then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos for the Interim Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly), and was his political vehicle during his rule. In the post-Marcos era, it was reorganised as a political party in 1986.
There are no results available of the last elections for the House of Representatives, but according to the website of the House, the party holds 1 out of 237 seats (state of the parties, June 2007). The seat, as of 2007, belonged to then-Rep. (now Senator) Ferdinand Marcos, Jr. of Ilocos Norte, who is the son of the former president. The party still enjoys great support in President Marcos' home province of Ilocos Norte, but retains little outside of it.
There has been confusion recently in the 2007 election campaign within the party. This confusion stems from the recent endorsement (allegedly by the KBL) of Marcos loyalist lawyer
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LON in English, and SDN in its other official languages), was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.
The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed. However, the Great Powers were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were
Partners In Health (PIH) is a Boston, Massachusetts-based non-profit health care organization dedicated to providing a "preferential option for the poor". It was founded in 1987 by Dr. Paul Farmer, Ophelia Dahl, Thomas J. White, Todd McCormack, and Dr. Jim Yong Kim.
PIH strives to provide an alternative to the conventional curative method of treatment for the sick and instead tries to prevent diseases before they occur. This model believes that primary health care is essential because health is a right and therefore, it should be available to everyone. PIH strives to bring good medical care to the poor by establishing long-term partnerships with local sister organizations.
The organization's model is described as being one in which: clinical and community barriers to care are removed as diagnosis and treatment are declared a public good and made available free of charge to patients living in poverty. For people living in poverty stricken areas, the treatment of AIDS and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been made possible by this model of care.
The idea for Partners In Health first began when Paul Farmer and Ophelia Dahl helped set up a community-based health project in
The Planetary Society is a publicly supported, non-government and non-profit organization that has many research projects related to astronomy. It was founded in 1980 by Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray, and Louis Friedman, and has members from 125 countries around the world.
The Society is dedicated to the exploration of Mars and the rest of the Solar System, the search for Near Earth Objects, and the search for extraterrestrial life.
In addition to public outreach, the Planetary Society also sponsors novel and innovative projects that will "seed" further exploration. In June 2005, the Society launched the Cosmos 1 craft to test the feasibility of solar sailing, but the launch rocket on which the satellite was piggy-backing failed shortly after liftoff.
The Planetary Society concurrently runs many programs. Two of the highest profile programs are Lightsail and LIFE (Living Interplanetary Life Experiment.) Lightsail is a series of three ultralight spacecraft which will be propelled by sunlight. As of May 2011 Lightsail1 is undergoing deployment tests and is scheduled to piggyback on a future NASA mission. LIFE is a two-part program designed to test the ability of microorganisms to survive
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations.
The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by all 61 countries of the United Nations by 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office International d'Hygiène Publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, WHO has been responsible for playing a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases; sexual and reproductive health, development, and aging; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; substance abuse; and drive the development of reporting, publications, and networking. WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, a leading international
The West African Economic and Monetary Union (or UEMOA from its name in French, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization of eight states of West Africa established to promote economic integration among countries that share a common currency, the CFA franc.
UEMOA was created by a Treaty signed at Dakar, Senegal, on January 10, 1994 by the Heads of State and Government of Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. On May 2, 1997, Guinea-Bissau became its eighth member state.
UEMOA is a customs union and monetary union between some of the members of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Its objectives are
In terms of its achievements, UEMOA members have implemented macroeconomic convergence criteria and an effective surveillance mechanism; have adopted a customs union and common external tariff (early 2000); have harmonized indirect taxation regulations; and have initiated regional structural and sectoral policies. A September 2002 IMF survey cited the UEMOA as "the furthest along the path toward integration" of all the regional groupings in Africa.
ECOWAS and UEMOA have developed a common program of action on trade
Welcoming backyard birdwatchers and researchers in the field alike,
the Ohio Ornithological Society is the only statewide organization
specifically devoted to fostering a deeper appreciation of wild
birds, fellowship and collaboration in advancing our collective
knowledge about them, and our ability to speak with one voice to
preserve Ohio's bird habitats. Source
The Apache Software Foundation /əˈpætʃiː/ (ASF) is a non-profit corporation (classified as 501(c)(3) in the United States) to support Apache software projects, including the Apache HTTP Server. The ASF was formed from the Apache Group and incorporated in Delaware, U.S., in June 1999.
The Apache Software Foundation is a decentralized community of developers. The software they produce is distributed under the terms of the Apache License and is therefore free and open source software (FOSS). The Apache projects are characterized by a collaborative, consensus-based development process and an open and pragmatic software license. Each project is managed by a self-selected team of technical experts who are active contributors to the project. The ASF is a meritocracy, implying that membership to the foundation is granted only to volunteers who have actively contributed to Apache projects. The ASF is considered a second generation open-source organization, in that commercial support is provided without the risk of platform lock-in.
Among the ASF's objectives are to provide legal protection to volunteers working on Apache projects, and to prevent the Apache brand name from being used by
The European Union (EU) (English pronunciation: /ˌjʊərəˈpiːən ˈjuːnjən/) is an economic and political union of 27 member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), formed by six countries in 1951 and 1958 respectively. In the intervening years the EU has grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union under its current name in 1993. The latest amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009.
The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states. Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Central Bank. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens.
The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws which apply in all member states.
The Social Democratic Federation (SDF) was established as Britain's first organised socialist political party by H. M. Hyndman, and had its first meeting on June 7, 1881. Those joining the SDF included William Morris, George Lansbury and Eleanor Marx. However, Friedrich Engels, Karl Marx's long-term collaborator, refused to support Hyndman's venture. Many of its early leading members had previously been active in the Manhood Suffrage League.
The SDF battled through defections of its right and left wings to other organizations during the first decade of the 20th Century before uniting with other radical groups to establish the Marxist British Socialist Party from 1911 until 1920 (not to be confused with the current Socialist Party of Great Britain founded in 1904, and the Socialist Party (England and Wales) founded in 1997).
The British Marxist movement effectively began in 1880 when a businessman named Henry M. Hyndman read Karl Marx's magnum opus Capital in French translation while crossing to America. Upon his return to London, Hyndman sought out Marx, then an exile living not far from his home. Hyndman, who had run for parliament earlier that year, decided to start a new
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (American Academy) is one of the oldest and most prestigious honorary societies and a leading center for independent policy research in the United States. Election to the Academy is considered one of the nation’s highest honors since its founding during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin and other scholar-patriots who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, and its Constitution.
Today the Academy is with a dual function: to elect to membership finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, scholarship, business, public affairs, and the arts, from each generation, and to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research, humanities and cultural studies, scientific and technological advances, politics, population and the environment, and the welfare of children. Dædalus, the Academy’s quarterly journal, is widely regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals.
The Academy is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Academy was established by Massachusetts
The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day-to-day basis. While it is responsible for overseeing the process of writing a platform every four years, the DNC's central focus is on campaign and political activity in support of Democratic Party candidates, and not on public policy. The DNC was established at the 1848 Democratic National Convention.
The Democratic National Committee provides national leadership for the Democratic Party of the United States. It is responsible for promoting the Democratic political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy. Shortly after his inauguration, Barack Obama transferred his Obama For America organization to the DNC, along with its 13 million person email list, as restrictions prevented him from taking it with him to the White House. Renamed Organizing For America, the organization also controls the BarackObama.com domain and website and is expected to work closely with Obama's New Media Director Macon Phillips, who will manage the WhiteHouse.gov – formerly Change.gov – website, though Phillips' duties technically fall under the White House
Lloyd's of London, styled simply as Lloyd's, is a British insurance and reinsurance market. It serves as a partially mutualised marketplace where multiple financial backers, underwriters, or members, whether individuals (traditionally known as Names) or corporations, come together to pool and spread risk. Unlike most of its competitors in the industry, it is not a company but it is a corporate body under the Lloyd's Act 1871 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Uberrimae fides (Latin for "of the utmost good faith") is the motto of Lloyd's.
In 2011, over £23.447 billion of gross premium (£22.592 billion in 2010) was transacted in the Lloyd's Market, but on aggregate the market made a loss (before tax) of £516 million (£2,195 million Profit in 2010) . The Lloyd's building, where the market is based, is located at 1 Lime Street in the City of London.
The market began in Lloyd's Coffee House, opened by Edward Lloyd around 1688 in Tower Street, London. This establishment was a popular place for sailors, merchants, and ship owners, and Lloyd catered to them with reliable shipping news. The shipping industry community frequented the place to discuss deals among themselves, including
Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, Guarani: Ñemby Ñemuha, English: Southern Common Market) is an economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto.
Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency. The official languages are Guaraní, Portuguese and Spanish. It has been updated, amended, and changed many times since. It is now a full customs union. Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations are customs unions that are components of a continuing process of South American integration connected to the Union of South American Nations.
Mercosur originated in 1985, when Presidents Raúl Alfonsín of Argentina and José Sarney of Brazil signed the Argentina-Brazil Integration and Economics Cooperation Program or PICE (Portuguese: Programa de Integração e Cooperação Econômica Argentina-Brasil, Spanish: Programa de Integración y Cooperación Económica Argentina-Brasil). The program also proposed the Gaucho as a currency for regional trade.
The Metropolitan Opera (the "Met") is an opera company based in New York City, resident at the Metropolitan Opera House, located at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. The company is operated by the non-profit Metropolitan Opera Association, with Peter Gelb as general manager. The music director is James Levine. The company's origins were in the late 19th century as an alternative to the previously established Academy of Music opera house.
The Metropolitan Opera is the largest classical music organization in North America. It presents about 27 different operas each year in a season which lasts from late September through May. The operas are presented in a rotating repertory schedule with up to seven performances of four different works staged each week. Performances are given in the evening Monday through Saturday with a matinée on Saturday. Several operas are presented in new productions each season. Sometimes these are borrowed from or shared with other opera houses. The rest of the year's operas are given in revivals of productions from previous seasons. The 2012/13 season comprises 209 performances of 28 operas.
The operas in the Met's repertoire consist of a wide range
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO ( /ˈneɪtoʊ/ NAY-toh; French: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN)), also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the world's defence spending.
For its first few years, NATO was not much more than a political association. However, the Korean War galvanized the member states, and an integrated military structure was built up under the direction of two U.S. supreme commanders. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. The
The Port of London Authority (PLA) is a self-funding public trust established in 1908 by the Port of London Act to govern the Port of London. Its responsibility extends over the Tideway of the River Thames and the authority is responsible for maintaining and supervising navigation and for protecting the river's environment.
The authority originally operated all the enclosed dock systems on the river, but all these have been closed to commercial traffic, with the exception of Port of Tilbury which was privatised in 1992.
The PLA's responsibility is from a point marked by an obelisk just downstream of Teddington Lock (the upstream limit of the tidal river) to where the river joins the North Sea (between Margate to the south and Gunfleet Lighthouse near Frinton-on-Sea to the north), a total of around 95 miles (150 km). The Port Authority does not cover the Medway or the Swale.
From the City of London, via the Thames Conservancy, the PLA has inherited ownership of the bed of the river and foreshore from Teddington to the Yantlet Line (between Southend and Grain). The PLA during much of the 20th Century owned and operated many of the docks and wharfs in the Port, however they have been
The Society for the Prevention of Calling Sleeping Car Porters "George" (SPCSCPG) was begun as a joke by lumber baron George W. Dulany in 1914. Membership was open to all those whose first or last name was George. Its first president was Admiral George Dewey and George Ade was another early leading member. Dulany's secretary filled out and mailed more than 45,000 membership cards to Georges throughout the world, before Dulany retired from public life.
At the time, railway sleeping car porters in the United States were commonly referred to by the name "George" regardless of their actual name. The appellation may have stemmed from the name of George Pullman, of the Pullman Company, which at one time manufactured and operated a large proportion of all the sleeping cars in North America. Porters were overwhelmingly African American, and the practice presumably derived from the old custom of naming slaves after their masters, in this case porters being regarded as servants of George Pullman.
Although the SPCSCPG was more interested in defending the dignity of its white members than in achieving any measure of racial justice, it nevertheless had some effects for all porters. In 1926 the
The Crips are a primarily, but not exclusively, African-American gang. They were founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1969 mainly by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. What was once a single alliance between two autonomous gangs is now a loosely connected network of individual sets, often engaged in open warfare with one another.
The Crips are one of the largest and most violent associations of street gangs in the United States, with an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 members. The gang is known to be involved in murders, robberies, and drug dealing, among many other criminal pursuits. The gang is known for its gang members' use of the color blue in their clothing. However, this practice has waned due to police crackdowns on gang members.
Crips are publicly known to have an intense and bitter rivalry with the Bloods and lesser feuds with some Chicano gangs. Crips have been documented in the U.S. military, found in bases in the United States and abroad.
Stanley Tookie Williams met Raymond Lee Washington in 1969, and the two decided to unite their local gang members from the west and east sides of South Central Los Angeles in order to battle neighboring street gangs. Most of the
Founded in 1887, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) is the national professional organization of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) in the United States, with nearly 386,000 CPA members in 128 countries in business and industry, public practice, government, education, student affiliates and international associates. It sets ethical standards for the profession and U.S. auditing standards for audits of private companies, non-profit organizations, federal, state and local governments. It also develops and grades the Uniform CPA Examination. The AICPA maintains offices in New York City; Washington, DC; Durham, NC; and Ewing, NJ. The AICPA will celebrate the 125th anniversary of its founding in 2012.
The AICPA’s founding established accountancy as a profession distinguished by rigorous educational requirements, high professional standards, a strict code of professional ethics, and a commitment to serving the public interest.
The AICPA and its predecessors have a history dating back to 1887, when the American Association of Public Accountants (AAPA) was formed. In 1916, the American Association was succeeded by the Institute of Public Accountants, at which
Corps Rhenania Heidelberg is a member Corps of the Kösener Senioren-Convents-Verband, the oldest association of student fraternities in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Corps Rhenania is "pflichtschlagend", which refers to the fact that it requires of its members, that they participate in several ritual, organised duels with members of other specific student fraternities. Eligible applicants are those students, both current and former, of the Ruprecht Karl University in Heidelberg, Germany. Members of Corps Rhenania are colloquially referred to as "Rhenane".
Rhenania Heidelberg is one of the oldest fraternities in Heidelberg. In its current form it was founded on January 15, 1849; its roots and predecessor fraternities date back to 1802, if not earlier. Rhenania means “area of the Rhine”, where most of the founding members came from. Consequently, they chose the colors of their home area, which are blue, white and red. Following the open-minded principles of Corps, Rhenania traditionally is counting many foreigners among its members, including members from the U.S., Spain, Japan, Sweden, Greece and Turkey. Vice versa, members of the fraternity may be found in many different
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent, non-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ETSI has been successful in standardizing GSM cell phone system, TETRA professional mobile radio system, and Short Range Device requirements including LPD radio.
Significant ETSI standardisation bodies include TISPAN (for fixed networks and Internet convergence) and M2M (for machine-to-machine communications). ETSI inspired the creation of, and is a partner in, 3GPP.
ETSI was created by CEPT in 1988 and is officially recognized by the European Commission and the EFTA secretariat. Based in Sophia Antipolis (France), ETSI is officially responsible for standardization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe. These technologies include telecommunications, broadcasting and related areas such as intelligent transportation and medical electronics. ETSI has 740 members from 62 countries/provinces inside and outside Europe, including manufacturers, network operators, administrations, service providers, research bodies and users — in
The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but the organization has since expanded to 132 member countries. Practically speaking (as of 2011), the group can be described as comprising all of UN members (along with the Palestinian Authority) excluding the following:
Algeria holds the Chairmanship for 2012.
The group was founded on June 15, 1964 by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun. There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).
On the map, founding and currently participating members (as of 2008) are shown in dark green, while founding members that have since left the organization
The Institut de France (French pronunciation: [ɛ̃stity də fʁɑ̃s], French Institute) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.
The institute, located in Paris, manages approximately 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and chateaux open for visit. It also awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of €5,028,190.55 for 2002. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies.
The Institut de France was created on 25 October 1795.
The Royal Society of Canada, founded in 1882, was modeled after the Institut de France and the Royal Society of London.
Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as the Klan, is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism. Since the mid-20th century, the KKK has also been anti-communist. The current manifestation is splintered into several chapters with no connections between each other; it is classified as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center. It is estimated to have between 3,000 and 5,000 members as of 2012.
The first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s, then died out by the early 1870s. Members adopted white costumes: robes, masks, and conical hats, designed to be outlandish and terrifying, and to hide their identities. The second KKK flourished nationwide in the early and mid 1920s, and adopted the same costumes and code words as the first Klan, while introducing cross burnings. The third KKK emerged after World War II and was associated with opposing the Civil Rights Movement and progress among minorities.
The Lucchese crime family (pronounced Lou-kay-zee) is one of the "Five Families" that dominates organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). The family originated in the early 1920s with Gaetano "Tommy" Reina serving as boss up until his murder in 1930. It was taken over by Tommy Gagliano during the Castellammarese War, and led by him until his death in 1951. The family under Gagliano was peaceful and low key, concentrating their criminal actives in the Bronx, Manhattan and New Jersey. The next boss was Tommy "Three-Finger Brown" Lucchese, who turned the family around to became one of the most powerful families to sit on the Commission. Lucchese teamed up with Gambino family boss Carlo Gambino to control organized crime in New York City. When Lucchese died of natural causes in 1967, Carmine Tramunti controlled the family for a brief time; he was arrested in 1973. Anthony "Tony Ducks" Corallo then gained control of the family. Corallo was very secretive and soon became one of the most powerful members of the Commission. He was arrested and tried in the famous Commission case of 1986.
Hovevei Zion (Hebrew: חובבי ציון), also known as Hibbat Zion (Hebrew: חיבת ציון, lit. [Those who are] Lovers of Zion), refers to organizations that are now considered the forerunners and foundation-builders of modern Zionism.
Many of these first groups were established in Eastern European countries in the early 1880s with the aim to promote Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel, then a part of Ottoman Empire, and advance Jewish settlement there, particularly agricultural. Most of them stayed away from politics.
Since the first centuries AD most Jews have lived outside Land of Israel (Eretz Israel, known also as Palestine by non-Jews), although there has been a constant presence of Jews. According to Judaism, Eretz Israel is a land promised to the Jews by God according to the Bible. The Diaspora began in 586 BC during the Babylonian occupation of Israel.
In 1850, Palestine had about 350,000 inhabitants. Roughly 85% were Muslims, 11% were Christians and 4% Jews.
In 1854, Judah Touro bequeathed money to fund Jewish residential settlement in Palestine. Sir Moses Montefiore was appointed executor of his will, and used the funds for a variety of projects, including building in 1860
Rotary International (also known as the Rotary Club) is an international service club whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian services, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and help build goodwill and peace in the world. It is a secular organization open to all persons regardless of race, colour, creed, religion, gender, or political preference. There are 34,282 clubs and over 1.2 million members worldwide. The members of Rotary Clubs are known as Rotarians. Members usually meet weekly for breakfast, lunch or dinner, which is a social event as well as an opportunity to organize work on their service goals.
Rotary's primary motto is "Service above Self"; an earlier motto, "One profits most who serves best".
The object of Rotary is to encourage and foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster:
This objective is set against the "Rotary 4-way Test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor during the Great Depression as a set of guidelines for
The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, and public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA also works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry.
The American Institute of Architects was founded in New York City in 1857 by a group of 13 architects to "promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members" and "elevate the standing of the profession." This initial group included Charles Babcock, Henry W. Cleaveland, Henry Dudley, Leopold Eidlitz, Edward Gardiner, Richard Morris Hunt, Fred A. Petersen, Jacob Wrey Mould, John Welch, Richard M. Upjohn and Joseph C. Wells, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president. They met on February 23, 1857 and decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Walter, and Calvert Vaux. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect, as there were no schools of architecture
The League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya), commonly called the Arab League (Arabic: الجامعة العربية al-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), is a regional organisation of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia (Middle East). It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members, including Syria, whose participation was suspended in November 2011. The main goal of the league is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries".
Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world. It has served as a forum
The Coalition in Australian politics refers to a group of centre-right parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement (on and off) since 1922. The Coalition partners are the Liberal Party of Australia (or its predecessors before 1945) and the National Party of Australia (known as the Australian Country Party from 1921 to 1975 and the National Country Party of Australia from 1975 to 1982). The Country Liberal Party in the Northern Territory and the Liberal National Party in Queensland are their equivalents in those states, while the National Party of Western Australia and The Nationals South Australia are not in any form of coalition and are separate parties. There is no National Party in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) or Tasmania. The Coalition's main rival for government is the centre-left Australian Labor Party.
The Liberal leader being the larger party usually becomes the Prime Minister or Premier, while the National's leader usually becomes the Deputy Prime Minister or Deputy Premier, if the parties win control of the government. In modern times, Queensland was the only state where this is reversed, since Queensland was the only state where the National
The Copley Society of art is America's oldest non-profit art association. It was founded in 1879 by the first graduating class of the School of the Museum of Fine Arts and continues to play an important role in promoting its member artists and the visual arts in Boston. The Society is named after the renowned John Singleton Copley. The gallery currently represents over 400 living artist members, ranging in experience from students to nationally recognized artists and in style from traditional and academic realists to contemporary and abstract painters, photographers, sculptors, and printmakers. Several of the artists working in the tradition of the Boston School of painters exhibit at the Copley Society of Art, along with Guild Of Boston Artists a few doors down from the Copley Society of Art's Newbury Street location.
The gallery hosts between 15 and 20 exhibitions each year, including solo exhibitions, thematic group shows, juried competitions, and fundraising events.
The most well known of these events is the annual "Fresh Paint" auction. Several artist members are chosen by the gallery to spend one day together painting outside in the city. The paintings are brought back to the
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian region. Membership expanded to 18 countries including the United States and Russia at the Sixth EAS in 2011. EAS meetings are held after annual ASEAN leaders’ meetings. The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur on December 14, 2005.
The concept of an East Asia Grouping has significant history going back to an idea first promoted in 1991 by then Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad for an East Asia Economic Caucus.
The final report in 2002 of the East Asian Study Group, established by the ASEAN Plus Three countries, was based on an EAS involving ASEAN Plus Three, therefore not involving Australia, New Zealand, or India. The EAS as proposed was to be an ASEAN-led development, with the summit to be linked to ASEAN summit meetings. However the issue was to which countries beyond those in ASEAN the EAS was to be extended.
The decision to hold the EAS was reached during the 2004 ASEAN Plus Three summit and the initial 16 members determined at the ASEAN Plus Three Ministerial Meeting held in Laos at the end of July 2005.
Credit for advancing the forum during the 2004 ASEAN
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is a not-for-profit, non-governmental American organization founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The IOM is part of the United States National Academies, which also includes:
Its purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health, and its mission to serve as adviser to the nation to improve health. It works outside the framework of the U.S. federal government to provide independent guidance and analysis and relies on a volunteer workforce of scientists and other experts, operating under a rigorous, formal peer-review system. The Institute provides unbiased, evidence-based, and authoritative information and advice concerning health and science policy to policy-makers, professionals, leaders in every sector of society, and the public at large.
As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in a field relevant to the IOM's mission as well as for their willingness to participate actively in its work. The President of the IOM is Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg,
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society often simply known as the PEF. It was founded in 1865 and is still functioning today. Its initial object was to carry out surveys of the topography and ethnography of Ottoman Palestine with a remit that fell somewhere between an expeditionary survey and military intelligence gathering. Consequently, it had a complex relationship with Corps of Royal Engineers, and its members sent back reports on the need to salvage and modernize the region.
The beginnings of the Palestine Exploration Fund are rooted in a literary society founded by British Consul James Finn and his wife Elizabeth Anne Finn. Reminiscences of Mrs. Finn. London. Marshall, Morgan,& Scott. 1929. p.252. Many photographs of Palestine have survived from this period
On 22 June 1865, a group of Biblical archaeologists and clergymen financed the fund, with an initial fund of only £300. The most notable of the founders were Arthur P. Stanley, the Dean of Westminster, and George Grove, who later founded the Royal College of Music and was responsible for Grove's Dictionary of Music. Its founders established the Fund "for the purpose of investigating the Archaeology, Geography,
The Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) was an American self-styled left-wing revolutionary group active between 1973 and 1975 that considered itself a vanguard army. The group committed bank robberies, two murders, and other acts of violence.
The SLA became internationally notorious for kidnapping media heiress Patty Hearst, abducting the 19-year-old and her 26-year-old boyfriend Steven Weed from their home in Berkeley, California. Interest increased when Hearst, in audiotaped messages delivered to (and broadcast by) regional news media, denounced her parents and announced she had joined the SLA. She was subsequently observed participating in their illegal activities. Hearst later alleged that she had been held in close confinement, sexually assaulted and brainwashed.
In his manifesto "Symbionese Liberation Army Declaration of Revolutionary War & the Symbionese Program", Donald DeFreeze wrote, "The name 'symbionese' is taken from the word 'symbiosis' and we define its meaning as a body of dissimilar bodies and organisms living in deep and loving harmony and partnership in the best interest of all within the body."
Although the SLA considered themselves leaders of the black
The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is the largest loyalist paramilitary and vigilante group in Northern Ireland. It was formed in September 1971 and undertook a campaign of almost twenty-four years during "The Troubles". It used the name Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF) when it wished to claim responsibility for attacks—because the two claimed to be separate organisations, the UDA was able to remain legal for over twenty years. The United Kingdom outlawed the "UFF" in November 1973 and the UDA itself was classified as a terrorist group on 10 August 1992.
The UDA's/UFF's declared goal was to defend loyalist areas from attack and to combat Irish republicanism. However, most of its victims were civilians according to the Sutton Index of Deaths. The majority of them were Irish Catholics, killed in what the group called retaliation for attacks on Protestants. High-profile attacks carried out by the group include the Milltown massacre, the Sean Graham bookmakers' shooting, the Castlerock killings and the Greysteel massacre. The UDA/UFF declared a ceasefire in 1994, although sporadic attacks continued until it officially ended its armed campaign in November 2007.
The UDA were often
The United Nations (abbreviated UN in English, and ONU in French and Spanish), is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.
There are 193 member states, including every internationally recognized sovereign state in the world but Vatican City. From its offices around the world, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the
The United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) was established by the UN Security Council under Resolution 1590 of 24 March 2005, in response to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement on January 9, 2005 in Nairobi, Kenya.
UNMIS tasks are to support the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, to perform certain functions relating to humanitarian assistance, protection, promotion of human rights, and to support African Union Mission in Sudan. The mandate of UNMIS ended on 9 July 2011; the UNSC officially ended the mission on 11 July 2011, with a drawdown by 31 August 2011. Equipment and personnel will be transferred to UNISFA and UNMISS.
Its most well-known employee was journalist Lubna al-Hussein, who resigned in order to waive her immunity.
According to the [http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmis/facts.html UN Facts and Figures s: Khartoum, Sudan
Up to 10,000 military personnel including some 750 military observers; as well as 715 civilian police, 1,018 international civilian staff, 2,623 national staff and 214 UN Volunteers. There is a small African Union force on the ground
The Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) was the leading militant organisation campaigning for Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom. It was the first group whose members were known as "suffragettes".
The WSPU was founded at the Pankhurst family home in Manchester on 10 October 1903 by six women, including Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, who soon emerged as the group's leaders. The WSPU had split from the non-militant National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, disappointed at the lack of success its tactics of persuading politicians through meetings had found.
The founders decided to form a women-only organisation, which would campaign for social reforms, largely in conjunction with the Independent Labour Party. They would also campaign for an extension of women's suffrage, believing that this was central to sexual equality. To illustrate their more militant stance, they adopted the slogan "Deeds, not words". By 1913 the WSPU appointed the fiercely militant feminist Norah Dacre Fox (later known as Norah Elam) as General Secretary. Dacre Fox operated as a highly effective progandist delivering rousing speeches at the WSPU weekly meetings and writing many of Christabel
Alpha Chi Omega (ΑΧΩ, also known as A-Chi-O or Alpha Chi) is a women's fraternity founded on October 15, 1885. Currently, there are 135 chapters of Alpha Chi Omegas represented throughout colleges and universities across the United States, and there are more than 200,000 lifetime members. Diane Wilson Blackwelder is currently the National President of Alpha Chi Omega and oversees all collegiate and alumnae chapters in the nation. Alpha Chi Omega's official symbol is the three-stringed lyre.
Alpha Chi Omega was formed at DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana on October 15, 1885.
In the fall of 1885, Professor James Hamilton Howe, the first Dean of the Music School, invited seven young women from the school to a meeting with the purpose of forming a fraternity. Those young women were Anna Allen, Olive Burnett, Bertha Deniston, Amy DuBois, Nellie Gamble, Bessie Grooms, and Estelle Leonard. Howe himself was not a member of a Greek fraternity, so he consulted with James G. Campbell, a Beta Theta Pi, on the proper procedures for founding a national-based fraternity. Campbell was thus responsible for laying out the first constitution and by-laws. This first constitution read: "The
The American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) is the national trade association of the forest products industry, representing manufacturers of approximately 80 percent of the U.S. pulp and paper industry and 50 percent of the wood building material capacity.
AF&PA was formed on January 1, 1993 by the merger of the National Forest Product Association and the American Paper Institute.
Membership includes scores of companies and industry associations; among them, AbitibiBowater Inc., Boise Cascade LLC, Duro Bag Mfg, Georgia-Pacific LLC, International Paper Company, NewPage Corporation, Norbord Inc., Smurfit-Stone Container Corp., Sonoco Products Company, Verso Paper, and Weyerhaeuser Company.
AF&PA's primary work is public policy advocacy at the international, national, state and local levels and, according to the Center for Public Integrity, it spent about $20 million from 1998-2004 on these efforts. The Association also serves as the forest products industry's primary statistical clearinghouse for manufacturing, production and capacity data. An AF&PA affiliate organization, the American Wood Council, promotes the use of wood building materials in residential and commercial
The International Solidarity Movement (ISM) is an organization focused on assisting the Palestinian cause in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict using nonviolent protests. It was founded in 2001 by Ghassan Andoni, a Palestinian activist; Neta Golan, an Israeli activist; Huwaida Arraf, a Palestinian-American; and George N. Rishmawi, a Palestinian activist. Adam Shapiro, an American, joined the movement shortly after its founding and is also often considered one of the founders.
The organization calls on civilians from around the world to participate in acts of nonviolent protests against the Israeli military in the West Bank and previously the Gaza Strip.
According to the ISM's website, "International volunteers who join the ISM are responsible for paying their own way and covering all their expenses in Palestine. The ISM does not receive any funding from any state, government or association. We rely on donations from average people all over the world that support peace and the Palestinian struggle for freedom." The ISM regularly sends speakers on fund-raising trips and encourages funding drives.
The organization calls on civilians from around the world to participate in acts of
La Liga Filipina (English: The Philippine League) was a progressive organization created by Dr. José Rizal in the Philippines in the house of Doroteo Ongjunco at Ilaya Street, Tondo, Manila in 1892.
The organization derived from La Solidaridad and the Propaganda movement. The purpose of La Liga Filipina is to build a new group sought to involve the people directly in the reform movement.
The league was to be a sort of mutual aid and self-help society dispensing scholarship funds and legal aid, loaning capital and setting up cooperatives, the league became at threat to Spanish authorities that they arrested Rizal on July 6, 1892 on Dapitan.
During the exile of Rizal, The organization became inactive, through the efforts of Domingo Franco and Andres Bonifacio, it was reorganized. The organization decided to declare its support for La Solidaridad and the reforms it advocated, raise funds for the paper, and defray the expenses of deputies advocating reforms for the country before the Spanish Cortes. Eventually after some disarray in the leadership of the group, the Supreme Council of the League dissolved the society.
The Liga membership split into two groups: the conservatives formed
The Guild of Boston Artists (The Guild) was founded in 1914 by a handful of Boston artists working in the academic and realist traditions. Among the founding members were Frank Weston Benson, William McGregor Paxton and Edmund C. Tarbell, who served as its first president through 1924. The organization holds exhibitions of its members' work several times a year as well as numerous one-person shows. Founded with the intention to promote the highest standards of quality, The Guild also hosts programs and competitions.
The Guild of Boston Artists, a non-profit art organization, was founded in 1914 to "promote, nurture and encourage traditional art while adhering to the highest standards of quality and presentation." Founding members included Edmund C. Tarbell, William McGregor Paxton, Frank Weston Benson, Bela Pratt, Charles Herbert Woodbury and Ignaz Gaugengigl.
Boston artists found it difficult to have their work exhibited outside of the local area. In response, seven area artists formed The Guild of Boston Artists. Modeled after the historic guilds of Europe, the organization held high professional standards in a supportive environment. In their Newberry Gallery, annual shows of
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN /ˈɑːsi.ɑːn/ AH-see-ahn, rarely /ˈɑːzi.ɑːn/ AH-zee-ahn) is a geo-political and economic organization of ten countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Since then, membership has expanded to include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Its aims include accelerating economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, protection of regional peace and stability, and opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully.
ASEAN covers a land area of 4.46 million km², which is 3% of the total land area of Earth, and has a population of approximately 600 million people, which is 8.8% of the world's population. The sea area of ASEAN is about three times larger than its land counterpart. In 2010, its combined nominal GDP had grown to US$1.8 trillion. If ASEAN were a single entity, it would rank as the ninth largest economy in the world, behind the United States, China, Japan, Germany, France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Italy.
ASEAN was preceded by an organisation called the Association of
The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) (French: Autorité intergouvernementale pour le développement) is an eight-country regional development organization in East Africa. Its headquarters are located in Djibouti.
Recurring and severe droughts and other natural disasters between 1974 and 1984 caused widespread famine, ecological degradation and economic hardship in the Horn of Africa region. Although individual countries took substantial measures to cope with the problems and received support from the international community, its extent argued strongly for a regional approach to supplement national efforts. The six countries of the region took action through the United Nations to establish an intergovernmental body for development and drought control in their region. At a January 1986 assembly of heads of state and government, an agreement was signed which officially launched the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD). Soon after its formation the mandate of IGADD widened, becoming a vehicle for regional security and political dialogue.
At an Extraordinary Summit of IGADD Heads of State and Government held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 18 April
The Lunar Society of Birmingham was a dinner club and informal learned society of prominent figures in the Midlands Enlightenment, including industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals, who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England. At first called the Lunar Circle, "Lunar Society" became the formal name by 1775. The name arose because the society would meet during the full moon, as the extra light made the journey home easier and safer in the absence of street lighting. The members cheerfully referred to themselves as "lunarticks", a pun on lunatics. Venues included Erasmus Darwin's home in Lichfield, Matthew Boulton's home, Soho House, and Great Barr Hall.
The Lunar Society evolved through various degrees of organisation over a period of up to fifty years, but was only ever an informal group. No constitution, minutes, publications or membership lists survive from any period, and evidence of its existence and activities is found only in the correspondence and notes of those associated with it. Historians therefore disagree on what qualifies as membership of the Lunar Society, who can be considered to have been members, and even when the society can be
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which are not aligned formally with or against any major power bloc. As of 2012, the movement has 120 members and 17 observer countries.
The organization was founded in Belgrade in 1961, and was largely the brainchild of Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito; Indonesia's first president, Sukarno; Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser; Ghana's first president Kwame Nkrumah; and India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. All five leaders were prominent advocates of a middle course for states in the Developing World between the Western and Eastern blocs in the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat and statesman V.K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations.
In a speech given during the Havana Declaration of 1979, Fidel Castro said the purpose of the organization is to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power
The Organization of American States (OAS, or, as it is known in the three other official languages, OEA) is a regional international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. Its members are the 35 independent states of the Americas.
The notion of an international union in the New World was first put forward by Simón Bolívar who, at the 1826 Congress of Panama, proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, and a supranational parliamentary assembly. This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), Peru, the United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico, but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" was ultimately ratified only by Gran Colombia. Bolívar's dream soon floundered with civil war in Gran Colombia, the disintegration of Central America, and the emergence of national rather than continental outlooks in the newly independent American republics. Bolívar's dream of American unity was meant to unify Latin American nations against imperial domination by external power.
The Republican Party (also called the GOP, for "Grand Old Party") is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854, it dominated politics nationally for most of the period 1860-1932. 18 presidents have been Republicans. The most recent Republican president was George W. Bush.
Currently the party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S. political spectrum. American conservatism of the Republican Party is not wholly based upon rejection of the political ideology of liberalism, as many principles of American conservatism are based upon classical liberalism. Rather the Republican Party's conservatism is largely based upon its support of classical principles against the modern liberalism of the Democratic Party that is considered American liberalism in contemporary American political discourse.
In the 112th Congress, elected in 2010, the Republican Party holds a majority of seats in the House of Representatives and a minority of seats in the Senate. The party currently holds the majority of governorships as well as the majority of state legislatures.
The United Malays National Organisation,(abbreviated as UMNO) (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu; Jawi: ڤرتوبوهن كبڠسأن ملايو برساتو )is Malaysia's largest political party; a founding member of the National Front coalition, which has played a dominant role in Malaysian politics since independence.
The UMNO emphasizes as its foundation the struggle to uphold the aspirations of Malay nationalism and the dignity of race, religion and country. The party also aspires to protect the Malay culture as the national culture and to uphold, defend and expand Islam.
After the British returned to Malaya in the aftermath of World War II, the Malayan Union was formed. However, the Union was met with much opposition due to its constitutional framework, which allegedly threatened Malay sovereignty over Malaya. A series of Malay congresses were held, culminating in the formation of the nationalist party, UMNO on May 10, 1946 at the Third Malay Congress in Johor Bahru, with Datuk Onn Jaafar as its leader. UMNO strongly opposed the Malayan Union, but originally did not seek political power. UMNO was comfortable with continuing to play its supporting role to the British rulers. The leaders
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as The UN Refugee Agency is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981.
Following the demise of the League of Nations and the formation of the United Nations, the international community was acutely aware of the refugee crisis following the end of World War II. In 1947, the International Refugee Organization(IRO) was founded by the United Nations. The IRO was the first international agency to deal comprehensively with all aspects pertaining to refugees' lives. Preceding this was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, which was established in 1944 to address the millions of people displaced across Europe as a result of World War II.
In the late 1940s, the IRO fell out of favor, but the United Nations agreed that a body was required to oversee
The Association of Junior Leagues International, Inc. (AJLI) is a non-profit organization of 293 Junior Leagues in Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom and the United States. Junior Leagues are educational and charitable women's organizations aimed at improving their communities through volunteerism and building their members' civic leadership skills through training. According to its mission, "The Association of Junior Leagues International Inc. (AJLI) is an organization of women committed to promoting voluntarism, developing the potential of women and improving communities through the effective action and leadership of trained volunteers. Its purpose is exclusively educational and charitable."
The first Junior League, the Junior League for the Promotion of the Settlement Movement (now the Junior League of the City of New York, Inc. also called the New York Junior League) was founded in 1901 in New York City by Mary Harriman, daughter of railroad executive Edward H. Harriman. Inspired by a lecture on settlement movements that chronicled the works of social reformers such as Lillian Wald and Jane Addams, Mary organized others to become involved in settlement work. The organization's
The Academy of American Poets is a non-profit organization dedicated to the art of poetry. The Academy was incorporated as a "membership corporation" in New York State in 1934. It sponsors a portfolio of poetry awards, of which the first was a fellowship created in 1946 to support a poet and honor "distinguished achievement." In addition, the Academy fosters the readership of poetry through outreach activities such as National Poetry Month.
In 1984 Robert Penn Warren noted that "To have great poets there must be great audiences, Whitman said, to the more or less unheeding ears of American educators. Ambitiously, hopefully, the Academy has undertaken to remedy this plight." In 1998, Dinitia Smith described the Academy of American Poets as "a venerable body at the symbolic center of the American poetry establishment."
The academy was created in 1934 in New York City by Mrs. Marie Bullock with a mission to "support American poets at all stages of their careers and to foster the appreciation of contemporary poetry." In 1936, the Academy was officially incorporated as a non-profit organization. Ms. Bullock was the president of the Academy for the next half a century, running the Academy
The Colombo Plan is a regional organization that embodies the concept of collective inter-governmental effort to strengthen economic and social development of member countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The primary focus of all Colombo Plan activities is on human resources development.
The organization was born out of a Commonwealth Conference of Foreign Ministers, held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, in January 1950. At this meeting, a plan was established to provide a framework within which international cooperation efforts could be promoted to raise the standards of people in the region. Originally conceived as lasting for a period of six years, the Colombo Plan was extended several times until 1980, when it was extended indefinitely. Initially it was called the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia. It has grown from a group of seven Commonwealth nations - Australia, Britain, Canada, Ceylon, India, New Zealand and Pakistan - into an international organization of 26, including non-Commonwealth countries. When it adopted a new constitution in 1977, its name was changed to "The Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic and Social Development in Asia and
The Deep Sea Conservation Coalition (DSCC) is an alliance of over 60 international organizations working to promote the conservation of biodiversity on the high seas. The coalition is calling on the United Nations General Assembly to institute a moratorium on high seas bottom trawling in order to protect seamounts, cold-water corals and vulnerable deep-sea ecosystems.
DSCC members include local, regional, national and international conservation and environmental organizations. Steering Group members include Conservation International, Greenpeace, Marine Conservation Biology Institute, Natural Resources Defense Council, Oceana, Pew Charitable Trusts, and Seas at Risk. Supporters of the coalition include oceanographers, environmental lawyers and conservationists such as Dr. Sylvia Earle, Dr. Callum Roberts, Dr. Elliott Norse, Dr. Alex Rogers, Matthew Gianni, Kelly Rigg (DSCC Coordinator), Karen Sack, Bill Chandler, Arlo Hemphill, Lisa Speer, Charles Fox, Duncan Currie, Dorthea Hangaard, Steven Lutz, Peggy Kalas, Lyn Goldsworthy, and Mirella von Lindenfels. Others who have spoken on behalf of the coalition include Sigourney Weaver, Dr. Jeffrey Sachs, Dr. Ellen Pikitch and Dr. David
Founded on 2 January 1818, the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association, headquartered in central London, representing civil engineering. Like its early membership, the majority of its current members are British engineers, but it also has members in more than 150 countries around the world. In 2008, its total membership stands at more than 80,000. In November 2011, Richard Coackley assumed office as the current President.
As a professional body, it is committed to support and promote professional learning (both to students and existing practitioners), managing professional ethics and safeguarding the status of engineers, and representing the interests of the profession in dealings with government, etc. It sets standards for membership of the body; works with industry and academia to progress engineering standards and advises on education and training curricula.
The Institution of Civil Engineers also publishes technical studies covering research and best practice in civil engineering. Under its commercial arm, Thomas Telford Ltd, it delivers training, recruitment, publishing and contract services, such as the NEC Engineering and Construction
The Long Now Foundation, established in 1996, is a private, non-profit 501(c)(3) organization based in San Francisco that seeks to become the seed of a very long-term cultural institution. It aims to provide a counterpoint to what it views as today's "faster/cheaper" mindset and to promote "slower/better" thinking. The Long Now Foundation hopes to "creatively foster responsibility" in the framework of the next 10,000 years, and so uses 5-digit dates to address the Year 10,000 problem (e.g. by writing 02012 rather than 2012).
The Foundation has several ongoing projects, including a 10,000-year clock known as the Clock of the Long Now, the Rosetta Project, the Long Bet Project, the open source Timeline Tool (also known as Longviewer), the Long Server and a monthly seminar series.
The purpose of the Clock of the Long Now is to construct a timepiece that will operate with minimum human intervention for ten millennia. It is to be constructed of durable materials, to be easy to repair, and to be made of largely valueless materials in case knowledge of the Clock is lost or it is deemed to be of no value to an individual or possible future civilization; in this way it is hoped that the
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) is an international financial institution which offers political risk insurance guarantees to help investors protect foreign direct investments made in developing countries against political risk. MIGA is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. It was established in 1988 to serve as an investment insurance facility of the World Bank to help investors overcome political and other non-commercial risks and invest confidently in developing countries. MIGA's stated mission is "to promote foreign direct investment into developing countries to support economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve people's lives". The agency focuses on member countries of the International Development Association and countries affected by armed conflict. It targets projects that endeavor to create new jobs, develop infrastructure, generate new tax revenues, and take advantage of natural resources through sustainable policies and programs.
MIGA is owned and governed by its member states, but has its own executive leadership and staff which carry out its daily operations. Its shareholders are member
The New Zealand Computer Society Inc (NZCS) is a non-profit incorporated society in New Zealand. As New Zealand's ICT professional body, the NZCS exists to promote education and ensure a high level of professional practice amongst ICT professionals. The NZCS has officially changed its name to Institute of IT Professionals from July 1, 2012.
The Society's mission is NZCS promotes education and sets policies, standards and practices for ICT in New Zealand., with a vision To advance ICT Professionalism and Education for the benefit of New Zealand.
The Objects of the New Zealand Computer Society, as provided in the Society's constitution, are to:
All NZCS members must formally agree to a Code of Ethics.
The NZCS Code of Ethics is mostly concerned with the Community, Qualifications and Competence, Clients and Employers, and Ethical Dilemmas, and contains the following 8 tenets:
The NZCS has an estimated membership of approximately 2,500 individual members, plus around 80 Corporate Partners (businesses who have joined on behalf of their staff) resulting in an estimated representation of over 10,000 ICT professionals.
NZCS provides for multiple membership levels depending on a member's
The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally.
Originally named the Institute of British Architects in London, it was formed in 1834 by several prominent architects, including Philip Hardwick, Thomas Allom, William Donthorne, Thomas Leverton Donaldson, John Buonarotti Papworth, and Thomas de Grey, 2nd Earl de Grey.
After the grant of the royal charter it had become known as the Royal Institute of British Architects in London, eventually dropping the reference to London in 1892. In 1934, it moved to its current headquarters on Portland Place, with the building being opened by King George V and Queen Mary.
It was granted its Royal Charter in 1837 under King William IV. Supplemental Charters of 1887, 1909 and 1925 were replaced by a single Charter in 1971, and there have been minor amendments since then.
The original Charter of 1837 set out the purpose of the Royal Institute to be: '… the general advancement of Civil Architecture, and for promoting and facilitating the acquirement of the knowledge of the various arts and sciences connected therewith…'
The operational framework is
The Club or Literary Club was a London dining club founded in February 1764 by the artist Joshua Reynolds and essayist Samuel Johnson.
Initially, the club would meet one evening per week at seven, at the Turk's Head Inn in Gerrard Street, Soho. Later, meetings were reduced to once per fortnight whilst Parliament was in session, and were held at rooms in St James's Street. Though the initial suggestion was Reynolds', it is Dr Johnson whose name is most closely associated with the Club. John Timbs, in his Club Life in London, gives an account of the Club's centennial dinner in 1864, which was celebrated at the Clarendon hotel. Henry Hart Milman, the English historian, was treasurer. The Club's toast, no doubt employing a bit of wishful thinking, was "Esto perpetua", Latin for "Let it be perpetual".This Latin phrase traces its origin to the last dying declaration of Paolo Sarpi (1552–1623) the Venetian theologian and philosopher and canon law expert who uttered these words towards the Venetian Republic, whose independence he devoutly espoused. The introduction of the phrase to Britain was probably through Sir Joshua Reynolds who went to Italy for his higher training in Renaissance art
Villa Madonna Academy ("VMA") is a private, Roman Catholic high school in Villa Hills, Kentucky. It is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Covington. It is a three-time Blue Ribbon winner. Principal of VMA High School is Pamela McQueen. Principal of VMA Elementary/Junior High is Soshana Bosley.
Villa Madonna Academy, sponsored by the Benedictine sisters of St. Walburg Monastery, is an elementary, junior high and high school situated on over 200 acres in Villa Hills, Kentucky. Villa Madonna Academy High School is the only school in the tri-state area to receive back-to-back Blue Ribbon awards - one in 2001-2002 and another in 2003, each under different criteria. Villa Madonna Academy Elementary/Junior High received the Blue Ribbon award in 2007, thus making this a premiere school in the northern Kentucky/greater Cincinnati area.
Both schools provide tremendous opportunities for students to grow both spiritually and academically. The co-ed environment, complete with great parental support and an extensive curriculum, features some of the most outstanding faculty in the area. Each year, 100% of the graduates are accepted into colleges and universities across the country, and the
The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. The WCO is noted for its work in areas covering the development of international conventions, instruments, and tools on topics such as commodity classification, valuation, rules of origin, collection of customs revenue, supply chain security, international trade facilitation, customs enforcement activities, combating counterfeiting in support of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), integrity promotion, and delivering sustainable capacity building to assist with customs reforms and modernization. The WCO maintains the international Harmonized System (HS) goods nomenclature, and administers the technical aspects of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements on Customs Valuation and Rules of Origin.
In 1947, thirteen European countries established a Study Group to examine customs issues identified by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). This work led to the adoption in 1950 of the Convention Establishing the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC), which was signed in Brussels. On January 26, 1953 the CCC’s inaugural session took place with the participation of 17
Template:Country data Secretariat of the Pacific Community
The Pacific Community, or more commonly the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), is a regional intergovernmental organisation whose membership includes both nations and territories in the Pacific Ocean and their metropolitan powers. It aims to "develop the technical, professional, scientific, research, planning and management capability of Pacific Island people and directly provide information and advice, to enable them to make informed decisions about their future development and well-being." The SPC headquarters is in Nouméa, New Caledonia.
SPC was founded in 1947 as the South Pacific Commission by six developed countries with an interest in the region:
For reasons either of reduced development interest in the Pacific Islands region or a desire to concentrate assistance in other areas of greater poverty, two founding members have since withdrawn from the SPC: the Netherlands in 1962 and the United Kingdom in 1994 and – after rejoing in 1998 – again in 2004.
SPC's founding charter is the Canberra Agreement. In the aftermath of World War II, the six colonial powers which created the SPC, arguably intended it to
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 under the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and Grand Lodge of Ireland, over a quarter of a million under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England, and just under two million in the United States.
The fraternity is administratively organised into independent Grand Lodges or sometimes Orients, each of which governs its own jurisdiction, which consists of subordinate (or constituent) Lodges. The various Grand Lodges recognise each other, or not, based upon adherence to landmarks (a Grand Lodge will usually deem other Grand Lodges who share common landmarks to be regular, and those that do not to be "irregular" or "clandestine").
There are also appendant bodies, which are organisations related to the main branch of Freemasonry, but with their own independent administration.
The origins and early development of Freemasonry are a matter of some debate and conjecture. A poem known as the "Regius Manuscript" has
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), commonly known as the Knights Templar, the Order of the Temple (French: Ordre du Temple or Templiers) or simply as Templars, were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders. The organisation existed for nearly two centuries during the Middle Ages.
Officially endorsed by the Catholic Church around 1129, the Order became a favored charity throughout Christendom, and grew rapidly in membership and power. Templar knights, in their distinctive white mantles with a red cross, were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades. Non-combatant members of the Order managed a large economic infrastructure throughout Christendom, innovating financial techniques that were an early form of banking, and building fortifications across Europe and the Holy Land.
The Templars' existence was tied closely to the Crusades; when the Holy Land was lost, support for the Order faded. Rumors about the Templars' secret initiation ceremony created mistrust, and King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Order, took advantage of the situation. In 1307,
The Stevens & Permanente Creeks Watershed Council was officially formed in August of 2003. Our mission reads:
The SPCWC mission is to engage the community in wise stewardship of our watershed, furthering the protection, restoration, and community appreciation of creeks and associated habitats.
This will be accomplished through collaboration and consensus in a manner that is sensitive to the needs of the entire community.
We are an collection of community residents, city representatives, agency officials, , scientists, environmental advocates, and other interested stakeholders with a common vision for a better watershed. All community members and interested parties are invited and strongly encouraged to attend and participate! For some ideas on how to contribute your time and knowledge, try our section on Getting Involved.
We meet every other month to discuss ongoing projects, future goals, and current issues that face the watershed. Browse the minutes for more information.
The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum that addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and the indigenous people of the Arctic. It has eight member countries: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States.
The first step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when the eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS). The 1996 Ottawa Declaration established the Arctic Council as forum for promoting cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic States, with the involvement of the Arctic Indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on issues such as sustainable development and environmental protection. The Arctic Council has conducted studies on climate change, oil and gas, and Arctic shipping.
In 2011, the Council member states concluded the Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement, the first binding treaty concluded under the Council's auspices.
Only states with territory in the Arctic can be members of the Council. As all eight countries are members, the Arctic Council is a truly circumpolar forum. The Council also has permanent and ad-hoc observer countries
Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is a Congressionally chartered, federally supported, non-profit corporation that serves as the official civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF). CAP is a volunteer organization with an aviation-minded membership that includes people from all backgrounds, lifestyles, and occupations. It performs three congressionally assigned key missions: emergency services, which includes search and rescue (by air and ground) and disaster relief operations; aerospace education for youth and the general public; and cadet programs for teenage youth. In addition, CAP has recently been tasked with homeland security and courier service missions. CAP also performs non-auxiliary missions for various governmental and private agencies, such as local law enforcement and the American Red Cross. The program is established as an organization by Title 10 of the United States Code and its purposes defined by Title 36. While CAP is sponsored by the USAF, it is not an operating reserve component under the United States Air Force or the federal government. Since CAP is not a reserve component of a uniformed service of the military and its membership is made up of volunteer
The Congressional Black Caucus is an organization representing the black members of the United States Congress. Membership is exclusive to African-Americans, and its chair in the 112th Congress is Representative Emanuel Cleaver of Missouri.
The caucus describes its goals as "positively influencing the course of events pertinent to African-Americans and others of similar experience and situation", and "achieving greater equity for persons of African descent in the design and content of domestic and international programs and services."
The CBC encapsulates these goals in the following priorities: Closing the achievement and opportunity gaps in education, assuring quality health care for every American, focusing on employment and economic security, ensuring justice for all, retirement security for all Americans, increasing welfare funds and increasing equity in foreign policy.
Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson, D-Tex., has said:
The Congressional Black Caucus is one of the world's most esteemed bodies, with a history of positive activism unparalleled in our nation's history. Whether the issue is popular or unpopular, simple or complex, the CBC has fought for thirty years to
The Hellfire Club was a name for several exclusive clubs for high society rakes established in Britain and Ireland in the 18th century, and was more formally or cautiously known as the Order of the Friars of St. Francis of Wycombe. These clubs were rumoured to be the meeting places of "persons of quality" who wished to take part in immoral acts, and the members were often very involved in politics. Neither the activities nor membership of the club are easy to ascertain.
The first Hellfire Club was founded in London in 1719, by Philip, Duke of Wharton and a handful of other high society friends. The most infamous club associated with the name was established in England by Sir Francis Dashwood, and met irregularly from around 1749 to around 1760, and possibly up until 1766. In its later years, the Hellfire was closely associated with Brooks's, established in 1764. Other clubs using the name "Hellfire Club" were set up throughout the 18th century. Most of these clubs were set up in Ireland after Wharton's were dispelled.
The club motto was Fais ce que tu voudras (Do what thou wilt), a philosophy of life associated with François Rabelais' fictional abbey at Thélème and later used by
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; Arabic: منظمة التعاون الاسلامي; French: Organisation de la Coopération Islamique (OCI)) is an international organisation consisting of 57 member states. The organisation attempts to be the collective voice of the Muslim world (Ummah) and attempts to safeguard the interests and ensure the progress and well-being of Muslims.
The OIC has a permanent delegation to the United Nations, and is the largest international organisation outside of the United Nations. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French.
Since the 19th century, some Muslims had aspired to ummah to serve their common political, economic, and social interests. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Caliphate after World War I left a vacuum for a pan-Islamic institution. Losing the Six-Day War in 1967 provided the incentive needed. Leaders of Muslim nations met in Rabat to establish the OIC on 25 September 1969.
According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace
The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean. It was founded in 1971 as the South Pacific Forum. In 1999, the name was changed; Pacific Islands Forum is more inclusive of the Forum's Oceania-spanning membership of both north and south Pacific island countries and Australia. It is an official observer at the United Nations.
The mission of Pacific Islands Forum is “to work in support of Forum member governments, to enhance the economic and social well-being of the people of the South Pacific by fostering cooperation between governments and between international agencies, and by representing the interests of Forum members in ways agreed by the Forum”. Its decisions are implemented by the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS), which grew out of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC). As well as its role in harmonising regional positions on various political and policy issues, the Forum Secretariat has technical programmes in economic development, transport and trade. The Pacific Islands Forum Secretary General is the permanent Chairman of the Council of
The Royal Watercolour Society (originally called the Society of Painters in Water Colours, briefly the Society of Painters in Oil and Watercolours, and for much of its existence the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours) is an English institution of painters working in watercolours. It should not be confused with the separate organisation, the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours.
Its members, or associates, use the postnominal initials RWS. Members are elected annually by the membership: there were 6 new members elected in 2009, and 3 in 2010. The current president of the Royal Watercolour Society is David Paskett, who was elected in April 2009.
The society was founded as the Society of Painters in Water Colours (sometimes referred to as the Old Water Colour Society, and just Old Society) in 1804 by William Frederick Wells and its original membership was: William Sawrey Gilpin, Robert Hills, John Claude Nattes, John Varley, Cornelius Varley, Francis Nicholson, Samuel Shelley, William Henry Pyne and Nicholas Pocock. The members seceded from the Royal Academy where they felt that their work commanded insufficient respect and attention.
In 1812, the Society reformed as
The American Musicological Society is a membership-based musicological organization founded in 1934 to advance scholarly research in the various fields of music as a branch of learning and scholarship; it grew out of a small contingent of the Music Teachers National Association and, more directly, the New York Musicological Society (1930-1934). Its founders were George S. Dickinson, Carl Engel, Gustave Reese, Helen Heifron Roberts, Joseph Schillinger, Charles Seeger, Harold Spivacke, Oliver Strunk, and Joseph Yasser; its first president was Otto Kinkeldey, the first American to receive an appointment as professor of musicology (Cornell, 1930).
The society consists of over 3,300 individual members divided among fifteen regional chapters across the United States, Canada, and elsewhere, as well as 1,000 subscribing institutions. It was admitted to the American Council of Learned Societies in 1951, and participates in RISM (Répertoire International des Sources Musicales) and RILM (Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale).
The society’s annual meetings attract numerous scholars from North America and abroad, and consist of presentations, symposia, and concerts, as well as
The Academy of Arcadia or Academy of Arcadians (Italian official name: Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi) was an Italian literary academy founded in Rome in 1690.
The beginnings of the Arcadian Academy date to February, 1656, when a literary circle formed under the patronage of Queen Christina of Sweden, who had abdicated the Swedish crown in 1654, converted to Catholicism, and taken up her residence in Rome, where she spent much of the rest of her life. There she became a significant patron of music and opera, with composers including Alessandro Scarlatti, Alessandro Stradella and Arcangelo Corelli dedicating works to her. After her death in 1689, the Academy of Arcadia was established in her memory, electing the late Queen as its symbolic head (Basilissa, the Greek term for 'Queen'). The Academy would last for the next two hundred years, remaining a leading cultural institution into the 20th century.
The Academy of Arcadia was so called because its principal intention was to reform the diction of Italian poetry, which the founders believed had become corrupt through over-indulgence in the ornamentation of the baroque style, under the inspiration of pastoral literature, the
A chamber of commerce (also referred to in some circles as a board of trade) is a form of business network, e.g., a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community. Local businesses are members, and they elect a board of directors or executive council to set policy for the chamber. The board or council then hires a President, CEO or Executive Director, plus staffing appropriate to size, to run the organization.
The first chamber of commerce was founded in 1599 in Marseille, France. It would be followed 65 years later by another official chamber of commerce, probably in Brugge, then part of the Spanish Netherlands.
The world's oldest English-speaking chamber of commerce is that of New York City, which was established in 1768. The oldest known existing chamber in the English-speaking world with continuous records is the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, which was founded in 1783. However, Leeds Chamber of Commerce is the UK's oldest, followed by Belfast, Northern Ireland.
A chamber of commerce is not a governmental body or institution, and
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC; Listen), also known as the People's PCC or just "The PCC", is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China. The organization consists of delegates from a range of political parties and organizations, as well as independent members, in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. The proportion of representation of the various parties is determined by established convention, negotiated between the parties.
In practice, the largest and dominant party in the Conference is the Communist Party of China. Other members are drawn from the United Front parties allied with the CPC, and from independent members who are not members of any party. The Conference is, to a large degree, controlled by the Communist Party, but it is intended to appear to be more representative and be composed of a broader range of people than is typical of government office in the People's Republic of China.
The National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (Chinese: 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Zhèngzhì Xiéshāng Huìyì Quanguo Weiyuanhui, shortened Chinese: 全国政协; pinyin: Quánguó Zhèngxié;
The Federation Of Damanhur, often called simply Damanhur, is a commune, ecovillage, and spiritual community situated in the Piedmont region of northern Italy about 30 miles (50 km) north of the city of Turin. It is located in the foothills of the Alps in the Valchiusella valley, bordering on the Gran Paradiso National Park. The community has its own constitution and currency, the Credito.
Damanhur is named after the Egyptian city of Damanhur which was the site of a temple dedicated to Horus.
It was founded in 1975 by Oberto Airaudi with around 24 followers, and had grown to 800 by the year 2000. The group holds a mix of New Age and neopagan beliefs. They gained fame in 1992 through the disclosure of their secret excavation of an extensive underground temple, the Temples of Humankind, which was begun in 1978 under complete secrecy. The Italian authorities ordered construction work to stop because it had been constructed without planning approval, although artwork could continue. Retroactive permission was subsequently granted.
Damanhur's supporters claim the growth and activity of the community has revitalized the local area.
The Federation of Damanhur has centers in Europe,
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; French: L'Union Interparlementaire (UIP)) is an international organization established in 1889 by William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom) and Frédéric Passy (France). It was the first permanent forum for political multilateral negotiations. Initially, the organization was for individual parliamentarians, but has since transformed into an international organization of the parliaments of sovereign states. The national parliaments of 162 countries are members of the IPU, and 10 regional parliamentary assemblies are associate members. The IPU has permanent observer status at the United Nations.
Eight leading personalities of the IPU have received Nobel Peace Prizes:
The organisation's initial objective was the arbitration of conflicts. The IPU played an important part in setting up the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. Over time, its mission has evolved towards the promotion of democracy and inter-parliamentary dialogue. The IPU has worked for establishment of institutions at the inter-governmental level, including the United Nations, an organization with which it cooperates and with which it has permanent observer status.
The “Ismar-Elbogen-Network for Jewish Cultural History e.V.” (Ismar Elbogen Netzwerk für Jüdische Kulturgeschichte e.V.) was founded in the city of Brandenburg (Germany) by students, graduates and Ph.D.-students from the fields of humanities, social sciences and cultural sciences. The initiative wants to achieve following two mayor aims: 1) the establishment of a international network of (young) scholars and researchers from the named fields, for support and interconnectional help, 2) the development of understanding for aspects of Jewish history and cultures in different regional communities and national societies.
White's is a London gentlemen's club, established at 4 Chesterfield Street in 1693 by Italian immigrant Francesco Bianco (AKA "Francis White"). Originally it was established to sell hot chocolate, a rare and expensive commodity at the time (and the source of its original title of "Mrs. White's Chocolate House"). These "chocolate houses" were seen as hotbeds of dissent by Charles II, but many converted into fashionable and respectable gentlemen's clubs like White's.
As a side-business, tickets were sold there to the productions at King's Theatre and Royal Drury Lane Theatre.
In the early 18th century, White's was notorious as a gambling house and those who frequented it were known as "the gamesters of White's." Jonathan Swift referred to White's as the "bane of half the English nobility."
In 1778 it moved to numbers 37-38 St James's Street, on the east side of the street. From 1783 it was the unofficial headquarters of the Tory party, while the Whigs' Brooks's club was just down the road. A few apolitical and affable gentlemen managed to belong to both. The new architecture featured a bow window on the ground floor. In the later 18th century, the table directly in front of it became
The African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) is a group of countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that was created by the Georgetown Agreement in 1975. The group's main objectives are sustainable development and poverty reduction within its member states, as well as their greater integration into the world's economy. All of the member states, except Cuba, are signatories to the Cotonou Agreement with the European Union.
The Cotonou Agreement (signed in Cotonou, Benin in June 2000) is the successor to the Lomé Conventions. One of the major differences from the Lomé Convention is that the partnership is extended to new actors such as civil society, private sector, trade unions and local authorities. These will be involved in consultations and planning of national development strategies, provided with access to financial resources and involved in the implementation of programmes.
Many small island developing states are ACP states; the fourth Lomé Convention was revised in 1995 in Mauritius and gives special attention to island countries in this agreement.
The African ACP countries negotiate in five Economic Partnership Agreements groups (West Africa, CEMAC,
Founded in 1958, it groups together ports and harbours and related marine interests into one national association. The goal of the Association is to effectively represent the interests of the Canadian port community in building solid bridges to key government officials — at all three levels — allied associations, and valued business partners. Comprised of a Board of Directors, Board Committees and Technical Committees that resolve key issues on it's strategic agenda including issues related to the overall competitiveness of Canada’s national port system.
The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national body for the humanities and the social sciences. Its purpose is to inspire, recognise and support excellence in the humanities and social sciences, throughout the UK and internationally, and to champion their role and value.
It receives an annual grant from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS). In 2010-11 it had a gross income of £31,050,878, including £26,447,813 from BIS. £25,380,379 was distributed during the year in research grants, awards and charitable activities.
The British Academy was established in 1902 and received its Royal Charter in the same year. It is now a fellowship of more than 900 leading scholars spanning all disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. The Academy is a self-governing and independent registered charity, based at 10-11 Carlton House Terrace in London.
It is not to be confused with the British Academy of Film and Television Arts or the Royal Academy.
The Academy states its fundamental purposes under four headings:
The creation of a “British Academy for the Promotion of Historical, Philosophical and Philological Studies” was first proposed in 1899 in order that
The British Sub-Aqua Club or BSAC has been recognised since 1954 by the Sports Council as the governing body of recreational diving in the United Kingdom.
The club was founded in 1953 and at its peak in the mid 1990s had over 50,000 members declining to over 30,000 in 2009. It is a diver training organization that operates through its associated network of around 1100 local, independent diving clubs and around 400 diving schools worldwide. The logo (pictured right) features the Roman god Neptune (Greek god Poseidon), god of the sea.
BSAC is unusual for a diver training agency in that most BSAC instructors are amateurs operating in diving clubs as opposed to professionals operating in diving schools.
Given that UK waters are relatively cold and have restricted visibility, BSAC training is regarded by its members as more comprehensive than some. Specifically it places emphasis on rescue training very early in the programme. BSAC also maintains links with other organisations, such as NACSAC.
Science writer and science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke was a famous member of BSAC
The current President of BSAC is the Prince of Wales. His sons, William and Harry are also trained divers .
The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, is a free trade area with twenty member states stretching from Libya to Zimbabwe. COMESA formed in December 1994, replacing a Preferential Trade Area which had existed since 1981. Nine of the member states formed a free trade area in 2000 (Djibouti, Egypt, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Sudan, Zambia and Zimbabwe), with Rwanda and Burundi joining the FTA in 2004 and the Comoros and Libya in 2006.
COMESA is one of the pillars of the African Economic Community.
In 2008, COMESA agreed to an expanded free-trade zone including members of two other African trade blocs, the East African Community (EAC) and the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC).
The following organs have decision-making power according to the treaties
The following lower policy organs make recommendations to the above:
Other institutions created to promote development are:
The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organization promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation. It was founded in 1949, has 47 member states with some 800 million citizens, and is an entirely separate body from the European Union (EU), which has only 27 member states. Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe cannot make binding laws. The two do however share certain symbols such as the flag and the anthem.
The best known bodies of the Council of Europe are the European Court of Human Rights, which enforces the European Convention on Human Rights, and the European Pharmacopoeia Commission, which sets the quality standards for pharmaceutical products in Europe. The Council of Europe's work has resulted in standards, charters and conventions to facilitate cooperation between European countries.
Its statutory institutions are the Committee of Ministers comprising the foreign ministers of each member state, the Parliamentary Assembly composed of MPs from the parliament of each member state, and the Secretary General heading the
Delta Upsilon (ΔΥ) is the sixth oldest international, all-male, college Greek-letter organization, is the oldest non-secret fraternity in North America, and is the only international fraternity that is nonsecret. Founded on November 4, 1834, at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, Delta Upsilon has initiated over 125,000 men into its brotherhood since its founding.
Late in the fall of 1834, ten juniors, ten sophomores, and ten freshmen came together in opposition to the activities of the two secret societies on the Williams campus. A meeting was called for the evening of November 4, in the Freshman Recitation Room of Old West College, a Williams College dormitory that still stands today. Within four years, the ideals of an anti-secret brotherhood based on merit spread rapidly, and groups were set up at Union College in 1838, Middlebury College in 1845, and Hamilton College and Amherst College both in 1847. Today, there are 76 DU chapters and colonies across the United States and Canada.
Among its members, Delta Upsilon includes James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States; Joseph P. Kennedy, Ambassador to Great Britain and father of two senators and a
The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) originated from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) customs union between Belarus, Russia and Kazakhstan on 29 March 1996. The Treaty on the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Community was signed on 10 October 2000, in Kazakhstan's capital Astana by Presidents Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus, Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan, Askar Akayev of Kyrgyzstan, Vladimir Putin of Russia, and Emomali Rakhmonov of Tajikistan. On 7 October 2005 it was decided between the member states that Uzbekistan would join. Freedom of movement is implemented among the members (no visa requirements). Common Economic Space was launched on 1 January 2010.
The Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC) (Central Asian Cooperation Organization, CACO, Russian: Центрально-Азиатское сотрудничество, ЦАС) was an international organization, composed of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Russia. Georgia and Ukraine had observer status. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan formed the OCAC in 1991 as Central Asian Commonwealth (CAC). The organization continued in 1994 as Central Asian Economic Union (CAEU),
The Goethe-Institut (GI) (German: [ˈɡøːtə ɪnstiˈtuːt]; English: Goethe Institute) is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide, promoting the study of the German language abroad and encouraging international cultural exchange and relations.
The Goethe-Institut fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on German culture, society and politics. This includes the exchange of films, music, theatre, and literature. Goethe cultural societies, reading rooms, and exam and language centers have played a role in the cultural and educational policies of Germany for close to 60 years.
It is named after German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The Goethe-Institut e.V. is autonomous and politically independent.
Partners of the institute and its centers are public and private cultural institutions, the federal states, local authorities and the world of commerce. Much of the Goethe-Institut's overall budget consists of yearly grants from the German Foreign Office and the German Press Office. The relationship with the Foreign Office is governed by general agreement. Self-generated income and contributions from sponsors and patrons, partners and friends broaden
The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (German: Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren) is the largest scientific organisation in Germany. It is a union of 18 scientific-technical and biological-medical research center. The official mission of the Association is "solving the grand challenges of science, society and industry". Scientists at Helmholtz therefore focus research on complex systems which affect human life and the environment. The namesake of the association is the German physiologist and physicist Hermann von Helmholtz.
The annual budget of the Helmholtz Association amounts to more than 3.4 billion euros, of which about 70% is raised from public funds. The remaining 30% of the budget is acquired by the 18 individual Helmholtz Centres in the form of contract funding. The public funds are provided to by the federal government (90%) and the rest by the States of Germany (10%).
Members of the Helmholtz Association are:
The works of the centres are categorised into programmes, which are divided into six research groups. The Helmholtz centres are grouped according to which research group they belong to:
Eight of the above mentioned Helmholtz centers
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution which offers loans to middle-income developing countries. The IBRD is the first of five member institutions which compose the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. It was established in 1944 with the mission of financing the reconstruction of European nations devastated by World War II. Together, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its concessional lending arm, the International Development Association, are collectively known as the World Bank as they share the same leadership and staff. Following the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank's mandate expanded to advancing worldwide economic development and eradicating poverty. The IBRD provides commercial-grade or concessional financing to sovereign states to fund projects that seek to improve transportation and infrastructure, education, domestic policy, environmental consciousness, energy investments, healthcare, access to food and potable water, and access to improved sanitation.
The IBRD is owned and governed by its member states, but has its own executive leadership
Purpose: The Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) Joint Venture is a self-directed, non-regulatory private, state, federal conservation partnership that exists for the purpose of implementing the goals and objectives of national and international bird conservation plans within the Lower Mississippi Valley region. Mission Statement: The LMV Joint Venture will function as the forum in which the private, state, federal conservation community develops a shared vision of bird conservation for the LMV region; cooperates in its implementation; and collaborates in its refinement.
The National Inventors Hall of Fame (NIHF) is a U.S. not-for-profit organization dedicated to recognizing, honoring and encouraging invention and creativity through the administration of its programs. The Hall of Fame honors Americans responsible for great technological advances that make human, social and economic progress possible. As of 2012 there were 470 inductees. New inductee announcements are made in mid-February.
The National Inventors Hall of Fame was founded in 1973 on the initiative of H. Hume Mathews, then chairman of the National Council of Patent Law Associations (now called the National Council of Intellectual Property Law Associations). The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office became a cosponsor of the NIHF the following year.
Originally housed in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, the Hall outgrew its location and moved to Akron, Ohio. The Hall of Fame building in Akron, which also housed hands-on interactive exhibits, opened to the public in 1995 under the name Inventure Place. In 2002 the name was changed to the National Inventors Hall of Fame Museum. In 2008 the NIHF was closed in Akron and reopened in Alexandria. The building in Akron is currently used by the
The Oakland Raiderettes are the cheerleading squad for the Oakland Raiders professional American football team. They were established in 1961 as the Oakland Raiderettes. When the Raiders moved to Los Angeles in 1982, the cheerleading squad became known as the Los Angeles Raiderettes. However, when the franchise moved back to Oakland in 1995, the Raiderettes changed their name back to the Oakland Raiderettes. In both Los Angeles and Oakland they have been billed as "Football's Fabulous Females."
A number of former cheerleaders have found success outside the organization
The Phi Beta Kappa Society, an academic honor society in the United States, has 280 chapters. It aims to promote and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences, and induct the most outstanding students of arts and sciences at American colleges and universities. Founded at The College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776, as the first collegiate Greek-letter fraternity, it is also the oldest honor society for the liberal arts and sciences and among the oldest undergraduate societies in the United States. Phi Beta Kappa (ΦΒΚ) stands for Φιλοσοφία Βίου Κυβερνήτης or philosophia biou kybernētēs — "Love of learning is the guide of life".
Each individual chapter determines its specific application of the Phi Beta Kappa Council's 1952 Stipulations Concerning Eligibility for Membership and sets its own academic standards.
Since inception, 17 U.S. Presidents, 37 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, and 136 Nobel Laureates have been inducted members.
According to the society, "only about 10 percent of the nation's institutions of higher learning have Phi Beta Kappa chapters," and of the institutions with chapters, only about 10 percent of the arts and sciences graduates are elected to
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, RAE) is the official royal institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in twenty-one other hispanophone (Spanish-speaking) nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies. The RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is "Limpia, fija y da esplendor" ("[It] cleans, sets, and casts splendour").
The RAE dedicates itself to the linguistic planning by enacting legislation aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and between the various territories, to ensure a common standard in accordance with its founding charter: "To ensure the changes that that it undergoes [...] do not break the essential unity that maintains the entire Hispanic sphere."
The proposed language guidelines are shown in a number of various works. The priorities are the dictionary (DRAE), edited periodically twenty-two times since 1780 until today, and grammar, edited in December 2009.
The RAE is a major publisher of dictionaries and grammars, and has a formal procedure for admitting words to its publications. Its website includes an online
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an organisation of South Asian nations, which was established on 8 December 1985 when the government of Bangladesh , Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka formally adopted its charter providing for the promotion of economic and social progress, cultural development within the South Asia region and also for friendship and cooperation with other developing countries. It is dedicated to economic, technological, social, and cultural development emphasising collective self-reliance. Its seven founding members are Sri Lanka, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Afghanistan joined the organization in 2007. Meetings of heads of state are usually scheduled annually; meetings of foreign secretaries, twice annually. It is headquartered in Kathmandu, Nepal.
The first concrete proposal for establishing a framework for regional cooperation in South Asia was made by the late president of Bangladesh, Ziaur Rahman, on May 2, 1980. Prior to this, the idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was discussed in at least three conferences: the Asian Relations Conference in New Delhi in April 1947, the
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA/GA) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions. It has also established a wide number of subsidiary organs.
The General Assembly meets under its president or Secretary-General in regular yearly sessions the main part of which lasts from September to December and resumed part from January until all issues are addressed (which often is just before the next session's start). It can also reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Its composition, functions, powers, voting, and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter.
The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
Voting in the General Assembly on important questions – recommendations on peace and security; election of members to organs; admission,
The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, or UNIFIL, was created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the Government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.
The first UNIFIL troops were deployed in the area on 23 March 1978; these troops were reassigned from other UN peacekeeping operations in the area (namely the United Nations Emergency Force and the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force Zone).
During the occupation, UNIFIL's function was mainly to provide humanitarian aid.
UNIFIL's mandate is renewed by United Nations Security Council annually. Current mandate expires on 31 August 2012.
UNIFIL is tasked with achieving the following objectives:
Mandating resolutions by the United Nations:
Prior to the 1982 Lebanon War, on 2 January 1982 two Ghanaian soldiers guarding a UNIFIL position were attacked by unidentified persons and one of the soldiers was shot and subsequently died. During the 1982 Lebanon War, UN positions were overrun, primarily by the SLA