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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Medical Treatment of All Time

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    1
    Diallyllysergamide

    Diallyllysergamide

    Diallyllysergamide (DAL, as the tartrate salt) is a psychedelic lysergamide. In their book TiHKAL, Alexander and Ann Shulgin describe it as being "an order of magnitude less potent than LSD itself".
    8.33
    6 votes
    2
    Methylphenobarbital

    Methylphenobarbital

    • Used To Treat: Absence seizure
    Methylphenobarbital (INN), also known as mephobarbital (USAN, JAN) and mephobarbitone (BAN), marketed under brand names such as Mebaral, Mephyltaletten, Phemiton, and Prominal, is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative and is used primarily as an anticonvulsant, but also as a sedative and anxiolytic. It is the N-methylated analogue of phenobarbital and has similar indications, therapeutic value, and tolerability. The company further stated in a letter on its website that under the FDA's Unapproved Drugs Initiative, FDA is no longer willing to allow the drug to be grandfathered. A new drug application would have needed to have been submitted to gain marketing approval, which would have taken an estimated five years, during which time patients would be required to change their therapies in any case. The last available tablets bore an expiration date of March 31, 2012, and the drug will no longer be available in the US when supplies are depleted. Symptoms of overdose of mephobarbital include confusion, decrease in or loss of reflexes, somnolence, fever, irritability, hypothermia, poor judgment, shortness of breath or slow/troubled breathing, slow heartbeat, slurred speech,
    8.17
    6 votes
    3
    Phenylbutazone

    Phenylbutazone

    Phenylbutazone, often referred to as bute, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the short-term treatment of pain and fever in animals. In the United States, it is no longer approved for human use. Phenylbutazone was originally made available for use in humans for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and gout in 1949. However, it is no longer approved, and therefore not marketed, for any human use in the United States. Phenylbutazone is commonly used in horses for the following purposes: In the 1968 Kentucky Derby, Dancer's Image, the winner of the race, was disqualified after traces of phenylbutazone were discovered in a postrace urinalysis. Owned by prominent Massachusetts businessman Peter Fuller and ridden by jockey Bobby Ussery, Dancer's Image remains the only horse to win the Kentucky Derby and then be disqualified. Phenylbutazone was legal on most tracks around the United States in 1968, but had not yet been approved by Churchill Downs. Controversy and speculation still surround the incident. In the weeks prior to the race, Peter Fuller had given previous winnings to Coretta Scott King, the widow of slain civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr., which
    7.67
    6 votes
    4
    Ohmefentanyl

    Ohmefentanyl

    Ohmefentanyl (β-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl) was discovered in 1995 and is an extremely potent analgesic drug which selectively binds to the µ-opioid receptor. Ohmefentanyl is one of the most potent μ -receptor agonists known, comparable to super-potent opioids such as carfentanil and etorphine which are used for tranquilizing large animals such as elephants in veterinary medicine. In mouse studies, the most active isomer 3R,4S,βS-ohmefentanyl was 28 times more powerful as a painkiller than fentanyl, the chemical from which it is derived, and 6300 times more effective than morphine. Ohmefentanyl has three stereogenic centers and so has eight stereoisomers, which are named F9201–F9208. Researchers are studying the different pharmaceutical properties of these isomers. The 4"-fluoro analogue (i.e. substituted on the phenethyl ring) of the 3R,4S,βS isomer of ohmefentanyl is one of the most potent opioid agonists yet discovered, possessing an analgesic potency approximately 18,000-fold greater than morphine. Other analogues with potency higher than that of ohmefentanyl itself include the 2'-fluoro derivative (i.e. substituted on the aniline phenyl ring), and derivatives where the
    5.63
    8 votes
    5
    Cryotherapy

    Cryotherapy

    • Used To Treat: Retinoblastoma
    Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy. Cryotherapy is used to treat a variety of benign and malignant lesions. The term "cryotherapy" comes from the Greek cryo (κρυο) meaning cold, and therapy (θεραπεια) meaning cure. Cryotherapy has been used as early as the seventeenth century. Its goal is to decrease cellular metabolism, increase cellular survival, decrease inflammation, decrease pain and spasm, promote vasoconstriction, and when using extreme temperatures, to destroy cells by crystallizing the cytosol. The most prominent use of the term refers to the surgical treatment, specifically known as cryosurgery. Other therapies that use the term are cryogenic chamber therapy and ice pack therapy. Cryosurgery is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. Cryotherapy is used to treat a number of diseases and disorders, most especially skin conditions like warts, moles, skin tags and solar keratoses. Liquid nitrogen is usually used to freeze the tissues at the cellular level. The procedure is used often because of its efficacy and low rates of side effects. Hilotherapy is a treatment, which allows the controlled
    9.50
    4 votes
    6
    Butalbital

    Butalbital

    • Used To Treat: Headache
    Butalbital is a barbiturate with an intermediate duration of action. Butalbital is often combined with other medications, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or aspirin, and is commonly prescribed for the treatment of pain and headache. The various formulations combined with codeine are FDA approved for the treatment of tension headaches. Butalbital has the same chemical formula as talbutal but a different structure--one that presents as 5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid, Combinations include: Side effects for any drug are difficult to predict, but commonly reported side effects for butalbital include: (Rare side-effects include Stevens–Johnson syndrome, an adverse reaction to barbiturates.) There are other potential side effects; this list should not be considered all-inclusive. Butalbital is a physically and psychologically addictive barbiturate. Butalbital should not be mixed with alcohol due to increased risk of intoxication, increased respiratory depression, and increased liver toxicity when it is a butalbital combination including paracetamol. Many opioid-dependent persons frequently use barbiturates as a potentiator to their normal dose of opiates in order to increase the
    8.20
    5 votes
    7
    Carisbamate

    Carisbamate

    Carisbamate (YKP 509, proposed trade name Comfyde) is an experimental anticonvulsant drug under development by Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development. In 1998, the compound was in-licensed from SK Corp. (currently Life Science Business Division of SK Holdings), a South Korean company. A phase II clinical trial in the treatment of partial seizures demonstrated that the compound has efficacy in the treatment of partial seizures and a good safety profile. Since late 2006, the compound has been undergoing a large multicenter phase III clinical trial for the treatment of partial seizures. Its mechanism of action is unknown. On October 24, 2008, Johnson & Johnson announced that it had submitted a New Drug Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for carisbamate. Carisbamate has received provisional approval by the FDA to be marketed under the brand name of Comfyde. However, on August 21, 2009, Johnson & Johnson reported that the FDA had failed to give marketing approval. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial cf carisbamate in 323 patients with migraine failed to demonstrate that the active drug was more effective than placebo. However, carisbamate
    8.00
    5 votes
    8
    Ephedrine

    Ephedrine

    • Used To Treat: Asthma
    Ephedrine ( /ɨˈfɛdrɪn/ or /ˈɛfɨdriːn/; not to be confused with ephedrone) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant, and to treat hypotension associated with anaesthesia. Ephedrine is similar in structure to the (semi-synthetic) derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. Chemically, it is an alkaloid derived from various plants in the genus Ephedra (family Ephedraceae). It works mainly by increasing the activity of noradrenaline on adrenergic receptors. It is most usually marketed in the hydrochloride and sulfate forms. In traditional Chinese medicine, the herb má huáng (麻黄, Ephedra sinica) contains ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as its principal active constituents. The same is true of other herbal products containing extracts from some of the other Ephedra species. Ephedrine exhibits optical isomerism and has two chiral centres, giving rise to four stereoisomers. By convention the pair of enantiomers with the stereochemistry (1R,2S and 1S,2R) is designated ephedrine, while the pair of enantiomers with the stereochemistry (1R,2R and 1S,2S) is called pseudoephedrine. Ephedrine is a substituted amphetamine and a
    6.83
    6 votes
    9
    Afloqualone

    Afloqualone

    Afloqualone (Arofuto) is an analogue of methaqualone developed in the 1970s by a team at Tanabe Seiyaku. It has sedative and muscle relaxant effects, and has had some clinical use, although it causes photosensitization as a side effect which can cause skin problems such as dermatitis.
    9.00
    4 votes
    10
    Esketamine

    Esketamine

    Esketamine or (S)-ketamine (brand: Ketanest S) is a general anaesthetic of the dissociative class by way of the central nervous system and has its mode of action as an NMDA receptor antagonist. It is the (S)-enantiomer of ketamine, which is the more active constituent chirality out of the dual (RS) mixed/racemic chiral variety in which ketamine is most often prepared.
    6.67
    6 votes
    11
    Sotalol

    Sotalol

    • Used To Treat: Atrial fibrillation
    Sotalol is a drug used in individuals with rhythm disturbances (cardiac arrhythmias) of the heart, and to treat hypertension in some individuals. It is a non-selective competitive β-adrenergic receptor blocker that also exhibits Class III antiarrhythmic properties by its inhibition of potassium channels. Because of this dual action, Sotalol prolongs both the PR interval and the QT interval. Originally discovered around 1960, sotalol became widely used first as a β-blocker in the 1980s, and its function as an antiarrhythmic drug was discovered soon after. Due to the dual action of sotalol, it is often used preferentially to other β-blockers as treatment for both ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Trade names for Sotalol include Betapace and Betapace AF (Berlex Laboratories), and Sotalex and Sotacor (Bristol-Myers Squibb). Sotalol is used to treat ventricular tachycardias as well as atrial fibrillation. Betapace AF is specifically labeled for atrial fibrillation. Some evidence suggests that sotalol should be avoided in the setting of decreased ejection fraction due to an increased risk of death. It has also been suggested that it be used in the prevention of atrial
    7.60
    5 votes
    12
    Pentobarbital

    Pentobarbital

    • Used To Treat: Status epilepticus
    Pentobarbital (US English) or pentobarbitone (UK English) is a short-acting barbiturate that was first synthesized in 1928. Pentobarbital is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol. One brand name for this drug is Nembutal, coined by Dr. John S. Lundy, who started using it in 1930, from the structural formula of the sodium salt—Na (sodium) + ethyl + methyl + butyl + al (common suffix for barbiturates). Pentobarbital's FDA-approved human uses include treatment of seizures and preoperative (and other) sedation; it is also approved as a short-term hypnotic. Off-label uses of pentobarbital include reduction of intracranial pressure in Reye's syndrome, traumatic brain injury and induction of coma in cerebral ischemia patients. Pentobarbital-induced coma has been advocated in patients with acute liver failure refractory to mannitol. In veterinary medicine, sodium pentobarbital is used as an anaesthetic. It is also used by itself, or in combination with complementary agents such as phenytoin, in commercial animal euthanasia injectable solutions. In the Netherlands, the standard protocol for physician-assisted
    7.40
    5 votes
    13
    Quetiapine

    Quetiapine

    • Used To Treat: Schizophrenia
    Quetiapine ( /kwɨˈtaɪ.əpiːn/ kwi-TY-ə-peen) (branded as Seroquel, Xeroquel, Ketipinor), is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and at a lower dose an add-on to treat depression. Annual sales are approximately $5.7 billion worldwide, with $2.9 billion in the United States. The U.S. patent, which was set to expire in 2011, received a pediatric exclusivity extension which pushed its expiration to March 26, 2012. The patent has already expired in Canada. There are now several generic versions of quetiapine, such as Quepin, Syquel' and Ketipinor. Quetiapine fumarate is used to treat either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In the United States, the FDA has approved quetiapine for the short term treatment of schizophrenia and of acute manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder (bipolar mania) and for treatment of bipolar depression. Quetiapine is also used off-label for aggression, Alzheimer’s disease, anger management, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar maintenance, dementia, depression, mood disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sleeplessness, though AstraZeneca was penalized for promoting such
    7.40
    5 votes
    14
    Clotiazepam

    Clotiazepam

    Clotiazepam (marketed under brand name Clozan, Distensan, Trecalmo, Rize, Rizen and Veratran) is a thienodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog. The clotiazepam molecule differs from most other benzodiazepines in that the benzene ring has been replaced by a thiophene ring. It possesses anxiolytic, skeletal muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, sedative properties. Stage 2 NREM sleep is significantly increased by clotiazepam. Clotiazepam has been trialed and found to be effective in the short-term management of anxiety. Clotiazepam is also used as a premedicant in minor surgery in France and Japan, where the drug is commercially available under the brand names Veratran and Rize, respectively. Single dose pharmacokinetics of 5 mg clotiazepam drops, oral tablets, and sublingual tablets in a cross-over study in six healthy volunteers (median age 28 years) was conducted. The formulations had similar systemic availability. Compared with oral tablets the sublingual route gave a lower peak concentration and a delayed peak time, while drops gave a greater maximum concentration with a similar peak time. The use of drops is suggested for a more marked initial effect and the sublingual
    8.50
    4 votes
    15
    Antihistamine

    Antihistamine

    • Used To Treat: Atopy
    An H1 antagonist is a histamine antagonist of the H1 receptor that serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions. Agents where the main therapeutic effect is mediated by negative modulation of histamine receptors are termed antihistamines; other agents may have antihistaminergic action but are not true antihistamines. In common use, the term "antihistamine" refers only to H1 antagonists, also known as H1-receptor antagonists and H1-antihistamines. It has been discovered that these H1-antihistamines are actually inverse agonists at the histamine H1-receptor rather than antagonists per se. In type I hypersensitivity allergic reactions, an allergen (a type of antigen) interacts with and cross-links surface IgE antibodies on mast cells and basophils. Once the mast cell-antibody-antigen complex is formed, a complex series of events that eventually leads to cell degranulation and the release of histamine (and other chemical mediators) from the mast cell or basophil occurs. Once released, histamine can react with local or widespread tissues through histamine receptors. Histamine, acting on H1-receptors,
    7.20
    5 votes
    16
    Atorvastatin/Amlodipine

    Atorvastatin/Amlodipine

    The drug combination atorvastatin/amlodipine (trade names Caduet in the US and Australia, and Envacar elsewhere) is a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of high cholesterol and high blood pressure. It is a fixed dose combination drug containing the calcium channel blocker amlodipine and the statin atorvastatin. It is being marketed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.
    7.20
    5 votes
    17
    3-methylthiofentanyl

    3-methylthiofentanyl

    3-Methyl-thiofentanyl is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl. 3-Methyl-thiofentanyl was sold briefly on the black market in the early 1980s, before the introduction of the Federal Analog Act which for the first time attempted to control entire families of drugs based on their structural similarity rather than scheduling each drug individually as they appeared. 3-Methyl-thiofentanyl has similar effects to fentanyl. Side effects of fentanyl analogues are similar to those of fentanyl itself, which include itching, nausea and potentially serious respiratory depression which can be life-threatening.
    8.25
    4 votes
    18
    Acetorphine

    Acetorphine

    Acetorphine is a potent analgesic drug, up to 8700 times stronger than morphine by weight. It is a derivative of the more well-known opioid etorphine, which is used as a very potent veterinary painkiller and anesthetic medication, primarily for the sedation of large animals such as elephants, giraffes and rhinos. Acetorphine was developed in 1966 by the Reckitt research group that developed etorphine. Acetorphine was developed for the same purpose as etorphine itself, namely as a strong tranquilizer for use in immobilizing large animals in veterinary medicine. Despite showing some advantages over etorphine, for instance producing less toxic side effects in giraffes, acetorphine was never widely adopted for veterinary use, and etorphine (along with other tranquilizers such as carfentanil and azaperone) remains the drug of choice in this application. Acetorphine is a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States. Its DEA Administrative Controlled Substances Control Number is 9319 and the one salt in use, acetorphine hydrochloride, has a freebase conversion ratio of 0.93
    8.25
    4 votes
    19
    Amineptine

    Amineptine

    Amineptine was developed by the French Society of Medical research in the 1960s. Under the trade-names (Survector, Maneon, Directim, Neolior, Provector, Viaspera) is used as an atypical tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that selectively inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and to a lesser extent norepinephrine, thus exerting a powerful and fast-acting antidepressant effect. Introduced in France in 1978 by the pharmaceutical company Servier and marketed under the trade name Survector, amineptine soon gained a reputation for abuse due to its short-lived, but pleasant, stimulant effect experienced by some patients. (This is to be distinguished from its antidepressant effect, which appears in approximately 7 days after commencing treatment.) After its release into the European market, cases of hepatotoxicity emerged, some serious. This, along with the potential for abuse, led to the suspension of the French marketing authorization for Survector in 1999. Amineptine was never approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for marketing in the United States, meaning that it is not legal to market or sell amineptine for any medical uses in the US. Amineptine was approved in France for
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    Diproqualone

    Diproqualone

    Diproqualone is an analogue of methaqualone developed in the 1980s and marketed mainly in France and some other European countries. It has sedative, anxiolytic, antihistamine and analgesic properties, and is used primarily for the treatment of inflammatory pain associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and more rarely for treating insomnia, anxiety and neuralgia. Diproqualone is the only analogue of methaqualone that is still in widespread clinical use, due to its useful anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in addition to the sedative and anxiolytic actions common to other drugs of this class. There are still some concerns about the potential of diproqualone for abuse and overdose, and so it is not sold as a pure drug but only as the camphosulfonate salt in combination mixtures with other medicines such as ethenzamide.
    8.25
    4 votes
    21
    Penimepicycline

    Penimepicycline

    Penimepicycline (INN, also known as mepicycline penicillinate) is an antibiotic. It is the phenoxymethylpenicillinate salt of the tetracycline antibiotic pipacycline.
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    Corticosteroid

    Corticosteroid

    • Used To Treat: Systemic lupus erythematosus
    Corticosteroids are a class of chemicals that includes steroid hormones naturally produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates and analogues of these hormones that are synthesized in laboratories. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Some common natural hormones are corticosterone (C21H30O4), cortisone (C21H28O5, 17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone) and aldosterone. The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex. Most steroidogenic reactions are catalysed by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family. They are located within the mitochondria and require adrenodoxin as a cofactor (except 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase). Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. The last part is mediated either by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). These enzymes are nearly identical (they share 11β-hydroxylation and 18-hydroxylation functions), but aldosterone synthase is also able
    7.00
    5 votes
    23
    Metildigoxin

    Metildigoxin

    Metildigoxin (INN, or medigoxin BAN, or methyldigoxin) is a cardiac glycoside, a type of drug that can be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). The substance is closely related to digoxin; it differs from the latter only by an O-methyl group on the terminal monosaccharide.
    9.33
    3 votes
    24
    Mosapride

    Mosapride

    Mosapride is a gastroprokinetic agent that acts as a selective 5HT4 agonist which accelerates gastric emptying and is used for the treatment of acid reflux, irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. Its common side effects include diarrhea, abdominal pain, dizziness, constipation, headache, insomnia, and nausea.
    9.33
    3 votes
    25
    Thialbarbital

    Thialbarbital

    Thialbarbital (Intranarcon) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1960s. It has sedative effects, and was used primarily for induction in surgical anaesthesia. Thialbarbital is short acting and has less of a tendency to induce respiratory depression than other barbiturate derivatives such as pentobarbital.
    9.33
    3 votes
    26
    Clobazam

    Clobazam

    Clobazam (marketed under the brand names Frisium, Urbanol and Onfi), is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It has been marketed as an anxiolytic since 1975 and an anticonvulsant since 1984. As of 2005, clobazam (Frisium) is approved in Canada for adjunctive use in tonic-clonic, complex partial, and myoclonic seizures. Clobazam (Urbanyl) is approved for adjunctive therapy in complex partial seizures certain types of status epilepticus, specifically the myoclonic, myoclonic-absent, simple partial, complex partial, and tonic varieties, and non-status absence seizures. It is also approved for treatment of anxiety. In India, clobazam (Frisium, Aventis Pharma India, Ltd.) is approved for use as an adjunctive therapy in epilepsy and in acute and chronic anxiety. In Japan, clobazam (Mystan) is approved for adjunctive therapy in treatment-resistant epilepsy featuring complex partial seizures. In New Zealand, clobazam is marketed as Frisium In the United Kingdom clobazam (Frisium) is approved for short-term (2–4 weeks) relief of acute anxiety in patients who have not responded to other drugs, with or without insomnia and without uncontrolled clinical depression. It was not approved
    8.00
    4 votes
    27
    Emedastine

    Emedastine

    • Used To Treat: Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
    Emedastine difumarate (Emadine) is a second generation antihistamine used in eye drops to treat allergic conjunctivitis. Its mechanism of action is a H1 receptor antagonist.
    8.00
    4 votes
    28
    Paraldehyde

    Paraldehyde

    • Used To Treat: Seizure
    Paraldehyde is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules. Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in alcohol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It quickly reacts with most plastics and rubber. Paraldehyde was first synthesized in 1829 by Wildenbusch. It has uses in industry and medicine. Theoretically four stereoisomeric structures are possible. The structures (1) and (2) are known as cis- and trans-paraldehyde. The structures (3) (a conformer of (2)) and (4) (a conformer of (1)) don't exist for steric reasons. Heated with catalytic amounts of acid, it depolymerizes back to acetaldehyde: Since paraldehyde has better handling characteristics, it may be used indirectly or directly as a synthetic equivalent of anhydrous acetaldehyde (b.p. 20 °C). For example, it is used as-is in the synthesis of bromal (tribromoacetaldehyde): Paraldehyde was introduced into clinical practice in the UK by the Italian physician Vincenzo Cervello in 1882. It is a CNS depressant and was soon found to be an effective
    8.00
    4 votes
    29
    Radiation therapy

    Radiation therapy

    • Used To Treat: Retinoblastoma
    Radiation therapy (in American English), radiation oncology, or radiotherapy (in the UK, Canada and Australia), sometimes abbreviated to XRT or DXT, is the medical use of ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells. Radiation therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of curative therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer). Radiation therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy, and has been used before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers. Radiation therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control cell growth. Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of exposed tissue leading to cellular death. To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs which radiation must pass through to treat the tumor), shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue. Besides the tumour itself, the
    8.00
    4 votes
    30
    Levorphanol

    Levorphanol

    • Used To Treat: Pain
    Levorphanol (Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. It is the levorotatory stereoisomer of the synthetic morphinan (Dromoran) and a pure opioid agonist, first described in Germany in 1948 as an orally active morphine-like analgesic. Morphinan is the parent drug and prototype of a large series of opioid and/or NMDA antagonists and opioid agonists used in medicine including nalbuphine, butorphanol, dextromethorphan, and others. Levorphanol labeled with tritium was used in the research which led to the discovery of opioid receptors in the human nervous system, including the first study published in 1971. Levorphanol has the same properties as morphine with respect to the potential for habituation, tolerance, physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome. It is 4 to 8 times as potent as morphine and has a longer half-life. Approximately 30 mg of oral morphine is roughly equianalgesic to 4 mg of oral levorphanol. The levo isomer is the source of the narcotic properties of the racemic drug Dromoran, but the dextro isomers are also useful in medicine: in addition to acting on sigma receptors, the O-methyl derivative of its dextrorotary isomer, dextromethorphan, is
    6.80
    5 votes
    31
    Galantamine

    Galantamine

    • Side effects: Dizziness
    • Used To Treat: Alzheimer's disease
    Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and various other memory impairments, in particular those of vascular origin. It is an alkaloid that is obtained synthetically or from the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus Caucasicus (Caucasian snowdrop, Voronov’s snowdrop), Galanthus woronowii (Amaryllidaceae) and related genera like Narcissus (daffodil)), Leucojum (snowflake), and Lycoris including Lycoris radiata (Red Spider Lily). Studies of usage in modern medicine began in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. The active ingredient was extracted, identified, and studied, in particular in relation to its acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting properties. The bulk of the work was carried out by Soviet pharmacologists Mashkovsky and Kruglikova-Lvova, beginning in 1951. The work of Mashkovsky and Kruglikova-Lvova was the first published work that demonstrated the AChE-inhibiting properties of galantamine. The first industrial process was developed in Bulgaria by prof. Paskov in 1959 (Nivalin, Sopharma) from a species traditionally used as a popular medicine in Eastern Europe, and, thus, the idea for
    9.00
    3 votes
    32
    Tramadol

    Tramadol

    • Used To Treat: Pain
    Tramadol hydrochloride (trademarked as Conzip, Ryzolt, Ultracet, Ultram in the USA, Ralivia and Zytram XL in Canada) is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic used to treat moderate to moderately-severe pain. The drug has a wide range of applications, including treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, restless legs syndrome and fibromyalgia. It was launched and marketed as Tramal by the German pharmaceutical company Grünenthal GmbH in 1977. Tramadol is a very weak μ-opioid receptor agonist, induces serotonin release, and inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Tramadol is converted to O-desmethyltramadol, a significantly more potent μ-opioid agonist. The opioid agonistic effect of tramadol and its major metabolite(s) is almost exclusively mediated by such μ-opioid receptors. This further distinguishes tramadol from opioids in general (including morphine), which do not possess tramadol's degree of receptor subtype selectivity and which are much stronger opiate-receptor agonists. Similarly, the habituating properties of tramadol (such as they are) are arguably mainly due to μ-opioid agonism with contributions from serotonergic and noradrenergic effects. Tramadol is used similarly to
    9.00
    3 votes
    33
    Buprenorphine

    Buprenorphine

    • Side effects: Constipation
    • Used To Treat: Opiate dependency
    Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid that is used to treat opioid addiction in higher dosages (>2 mg), to control moderate acute pain in non-opioid-tolerant individuals in lower dosages (~200 µg), and to control moderate chronic pain in dosages ranging from 20–70 µg/hour. It is available in a variety of formulations: Subutex, Suboxone (Buprenorphine HCl and naloxone HCl; typically used for opioid addiction), Temgesic (sublingual tablets for moderate to severe pain), Buprenex (solutions for injection often used for acute pain in primary-care settings), Norspan and Butrans (transdermal preparations used for chronic pain). Buprenorphine hydrochloride was first marketed in the 1980s by Reckitt & Colman (now Reckitt Benckiser) as an analgesic, generally available as Temgesic 0.2 mg sublingual tablets, and as Buprenex in a 0.3 mg/mL injectable formulation. In October 2002, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States also approved Suboxone and Subutex, buprenorphine's high-dose sublingual tablet preparations indicated for detoxification and long-term replacement therapy in opioid dependency, and the drug is now used predominantly for this purpose. In the European
    7.75
    4 votes
    34
    Cathine

    Cathine

    Cathine, also known as d-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant. Along with cathinone, it is found naturally in Catha edulis (khat), and contributes to its overall effects. Like amphetamines, cathinone, and ephedrine, cathine acts as a releasing agent of norepinephrine and epinephrine, or as a norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA). It also acts as a dopamine releasing agent (DRA) to a lesser extent. Cathine is one of the optical isomers of phenylpropanolamine (PPA). The World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances (used for the Olympic Games among other athletic events) bars cathine in concentrations of over 5 micrograms per milliliter in urine. Cathine is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In the United States, it is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance. In Hong Kong, cathine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. Unlawful possession is punishable by severe fines and imprisonment.
    7.75
    4 votes
    35
    Lidocaine

    Lidocaine

    • Used To Treat: Burn
    Lidocaine (INN) ( /ˈlaɪdɵkeɪn/), Xylocaine, or lignocaine (former BAN) ( /ˈlɪɡnɵkeɪn/) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. Lidocaine is used topically to relieve itching, burning and pain from skin inflammations, injected as a dental anesthetic or as a local anesthetic for minor surgery. Lidocaine, the first amino amide–type local anesthetic, was first synthesized under the name Xylocaine by Swedish chemist Nils Löfgren in 1943. His colleague Bengt Lundqvist performed the first injection anesthesia experiments on himself. It was first marketed in 1949. The efficacy profile of lidocaine as a local anesthetic is characterized by a rapid onset of action and intermediate duration of efficacy. Therefore, lidocaine is suitable for infiltration, block and surface anesthesia. Longer-acting substances such as bupivacaine are sometimes given preference for spinal and peridural anesthesias; lidocaine, on the other hand, has the advantage of a rapid onset of action. Epinephrine vasoconstricts arteries reducing bleeding and also delays the resorption of Lidocaine, almost doubling the duration of anaesthesia. For surface anesthesia several formulations are available that can be
    7.75
    4 votes
    36
    Nalbuphine

    Nalbuphine

    • Used To Treat: Post-Operative Pain
    Nalbuphine is a semi-synthetic opioid used commercially as an analgesic under a variety of trade names, including Nubain. It is noteworthy in part for the fact that at low dosages, it is found much more effective by women than by men, and may even increase pain in men, leading to its discontinuation in the UK in 2003. In the search for opioid analgesics with less abuse potential, a number of semi-synthetic opiates were developed. These substances are referred to as mixed agonist-antagonists analgesics. Nalbuphine (Nubain) belongs to this group of substances. It was approved for marketing in the United States in 1979 and remains as the only opioid analgesic of this type (marketed in the U.S.) not controlled under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). When the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted in 1971, nalbuphine was placed in schedule II. Endo Laboratories, Inc. subsequently petitioned the DEA to exclude nalbuphine from all schedules of the CSA in 1973. After receiving a medical and scientific review and a scheduling recommendation from the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, forerunner to the Department of Health and Human Services, nalbuphine was removed from
    7.75
    4 votes
    37
    Vinbarbital

    Vinbarbital

    Vinbarbital is a hypnotic drug which is a barbiturate derivative. It was developed by Sharp and Dohme in 1939.
    7.75
    4 votes
    38
    Fencamfamine

    Fencamfamine

    Fencamfamine (Glucoenergan, Reactivan) is a stimulant which was developed by Merck in the 1960s. Fencamfamine is still used, though rarely, for treating depressive day-time fatigue, lack of concentration and lethargy, particularly in individuals who have chronic medical conditions, as its favourable safety profile makes it the most suitable drug in some cases. Fencamfamine is well tolerated and causes minimal circulatory effects. Extended use may result in a dryness of the mouth. Not to be used with heart diseases, angina pectoris and decompensated cardiac insufficiency, glaucoma, hyper-excitability and thyrotoxicosis or while treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Symptoms of overdose are nausea, agitation and restlessness, dryness of the mouth, dizziness and tremor. In gross overdosage also associated with dyspnoea, tachycardia, disorientation and convulsions. In a study on slices of rat corpus striatum and substantia nigra fencamfamine acted as an indirect dopamine agonist. It released dopamine by a similar mechanism to amphetamines, but was ten times less potent than dexamphetamine at producing this effect. The main mechanism of action was instead inhibition of dopamine
    5.83
    6 votes
    39
    Chlordiazepoxide

    Chlordiazepoxide

    • Used To Treat: Alcoholism
    Chlordiazepoxide ( /ˌklɔərdaɪ.əzɨˈpɒksaɪd/), is a sedative/hypnotic drug and benzodiazepine. It is marketed under the trade names Angirex, Elenium, Klopoxid, Librax (also contains clidinium bromide), Libritabs, Librium, Mesural, Multum, Novapam, Risolid, Silibrin, Sonimen and Tropium. Chlordiazepoxide was the first benzodiazepine to be synthesised and the discovery of chlordiazepoxide was by pure chance. Chlordiazepoxide and other benzodiazepines were initially accepted with widespread public approval but were followed with widespread public disapproval and recommendations for more restrictive medical guidelines for its use. Chlordiazepoxide has a medium to long half-life but its active metabolite has a very long half-life. The drug has amnestic, anxiolytic, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Chlordiazepoxide (initially called methaminodiazepoxide) was the first benzodiazepine to be synthesised in the mid-1950s. Chlordiazepoxide was synthesised from work on a chemical dye, quinazolone-3-oxides. It was discovered by accident when in 1957 tests revealed that the compound had hypnotic, anxiolytic and muscle relaxant effects. Three years later chlordiazepoxide was
    6.60
    5 votes
    40
    Phenacetin

    Phenacetin

    • Used To Treat: Pyrexia
    Phenacetin is an analgesic, once widely used; its use has declined because of its adverse effects. Phenacetin was introduced in 1887, and was used principally as an analgesic; it was one of the first synthetic fever reducers to go on the market. It is also known historically to be one of the first non-opioid analgesics without anti-inflammatory properties. Its analgesic effects are due to its actions on the sensory tracts of the spinal cord. In addition, phenacetin has a depressant action on the heart, where it acts as a negative inotrope. It is an antipyretic, acting on the brain to decrease the temperature set point. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (subacute type) and intercostal neuralgia. It is metabolised in the body to paracetamol. The first synthesis was reported in 1878 by Harmon Northrop Morse. Phenacetin may be synthesized as an example of the Williamson ether synthesis: ethyl iodide, paracetamol, and anhydrous potassium carbonate are refluxed in 2-butanone to give the crude product, which is recrystallized from water. Phenacetin was widely used until the third quarter of the twentieth century, often in the form of an "A.P.C." or aspirin-phenacetin-caffeine
    6.60
    5 votes
    41
    Aspirin

    Aspirin

    • Trials: Physicians' Health Study
    • Used To Treat: Pain
    Aspirin (USAN), also known as acetylsalicylic acid (/əˌsɛtəlˌsælɨˈsɪlɨk/ ə-SET-əl-SAL-i-SIL-ik; abbreviated ASA), is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin was first isolated by Felix Hoffmann, a chemist with the German company Bayer in 1897. Salicylic acid, the main metabolite of aspirin, is an integral part of human and animal metabolism. While in humans much of it is attributable to diet, a substantial part is synthesized endogenously. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, which under normal circumstances binds platelet molecules together to create a patch over damaged walls of blood vessels. Because the platelet patch can become too large and also block blood flow, locally and downstream, aspirin is also used long-term, at low doses, to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation in people at high risk of developing blood clots. It has also been established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of
    7.50
    4 votes
    42
    Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy

    • Used To Treat: Cancer
    Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drug or with a combination of such drugs into a standardized treatment regimen. Certain chemotherapy agents also have a role in the treatment of other conditions, including ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma. The most common chemotherapy agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of most cancer cells. This means that chemotherapy also harms cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract, and hair follicles. This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss). Newer anticancer drugs act directly against abnormal proteins in cancer cells; this is termed targeted therapy and, in the technical sense, is not chemotherapy. The first use of drugs to treat cancer was in the early 20th century, although it was not originally intended for that purpose. Mustard gas was used
    7.50
    4 votes
    43
    Interferon type II

    Interferon type II

    A sole member makes up the type II IFNs that is called IFN-γ (gamma). Mature IFN-γ is an anti-parallel homodimer, which binds to the IFN-γ receptor (IFNGR) complex to elicit a signal within its target cell. IFNGR is made up of two subunits each of molecules designated IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. IFN-γ is involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammatory responses; in humans, there is only one type of interferon-gamma. It is produced in activated T-cells and natural killer cells. IFN-γ has some anti-viral and anti-tumor effects, but these are generally weak. However, this cytokine potentiates the effects of the type I IFNs. IFN-γ released by Th1 cells recruits leukocytes to a site of infection, resulting in increased inflammation. It also stimulates macrophages to kill bacteria that have been engulfed. IFN-γ released by Th1 cells is also important in regulating the Th2 response. As IFN-γ is vitally implicated in the regulation of immune response, its production can lead to autoimmune disorders. Homologs of interferon-gamma are found in birds, frogs, and teleost fish. Thus it is likely that all bony fish/tetrapods encode IFN-γ. The gene structure of IFN-γ is identical to that of its
    7.50
    4 votes
    44
    Prednisone

    Prednisone

    • Side effects: Vertigo
    • Used To Treat: Bell's palsy
    Prednisone is a glucocorticoid prodrug that is converted by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the liver into the active form, prednisolone. It is used to treat certain inflammatory diseases (such as severe allergic reactions) and (at higher doses) some types of cancer, but has many significant adverse effects. It is usually taken orally but can be delivered by intramuscular injection or intravenous injection. Prednisone is used for many different indications including: asthma, COPD, CIDP, rheumatic disorders, allergic disorders, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, adrenocortical insufficiency, hypercalcemia due to cancer, thyroiditis, laryngitis, severe tuberculosis, lipid pneumonitis, multiple sclerosis, nephrotic syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and as part of a drug regimen to prevent rejection post organ transplant. Prednisone has also been used in the treatment of migraine headaches and cluster headaches and for severe aphthous ulcer. Prednisone is used as an antitumor drug. Prednisone is important in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and other hormone-sensitive tumors, in combination with other
    7.50
    4 votes
    45
    MMDA

    MMDA

    MMDA (3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 3-methoxy-MDA) is a psychedelic and entactogen drug of the amphetamine class. It is an analogue of lophophine, MDA, and MDMA, and also bears resemblance to the essential oil myristicin found in nutmeg. MMDA was described by Alexander Shulgin in his book PiHKAL. Shulgin lists the dosage range of MMDA as 100–250 mg. The first symptoms appear within 30–60 minutes following oral administration. MMDA produces euphoria and loving warmth, and attenuates feelings such as anxiety and loneliness. MMDA also produces eyes-closed visuals, a state of drowsiness, muscle relaxation, and time dilation. Side effects include moderate mydriasis, dizziness, sensations of heat or cold, and trembling. The imagery is generally realistic, and often related to everyday perception of people, landscapes, or objects. The effects of MMDA usually reach a peak after the first hour following the initial symptoms, and begin to wane during the second hour, and usually completely disappear by the end of the fifth hour. In his 1973 book, "The Healing Journey", Claudio Naranjo explored the psychotherapeutic potential of MMDA. Like MDA, he found that MMDA facilitates
    10.00
    2 votes
    46
    Tofisopam

    Tofisopam

    Tofisopam (marketed under brand names Emandaxin and Grandaxin) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. Like other benzodiazepines, it possesses anxiolytic properties but unlike other benzodiazepines it does not have anticonvulsant, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, motor skill-impairing or amnestic properties. While it may not be an anticonvulsant in and of itself, it has been shown to enhance the anticonvulsant action of classical 1,4-benzodiazepines such as diazepam (but not sodium valproate, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, or phenytoin). Tofisopam is indicated for the treatment of anxiety and alcohol withdrawal, and is prescribed in a dosage of 50 – 300 mg per day divided into three doses. Peak plasma levels are attained two hours after an oral dose. Tofisopam is not reported as causing dependence to the same extent as other benzodiazepines, but is still recommended to be prescribed for a maximum of 12 weeks. Tofisopam is not approved for sale in the United States or Canada. However, Vela Pharmaceuticals of New Jersey is developing the D- enantiomer (dextofisopam) as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, with moderate efficacy demonstrated in clinical trials so far.
    10.00
    2 votes
    47
    Cloxazolam

    Cloxazolam

    Cloxazolam (marketed under brand name Sepazon, Olcadil (Brazil, Portugal and Spain), Akton (Belgium), Lubalix (Switzerland) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. Cloxazolam is metabolised into the active metabolite chlordesmethyldiazepam (delorazepam). It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Cloxazolam's main use is as an anti-anxiety drug. An increased heart rate may occur as an adverse effect of cloxazolam. The pharmacological effects of cloxazolam are a result of mainly its active metabolites, thus cloxazolam is a prodrug. The main site of action of cloxazolam and its active metabolites are the benzodiazepine receptor. The pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines at the GABAa receptor are similar to those of neurosteroids. Neuroactive steroids are positive allosteric modulators of the GABAa receptor, enhancing GABA function and in turn have effects on mood and other functions. Many benzodiazepines (diazepam, medazepam, estazolam, temazepam, flunitrazepam and nitrazepam) potently inhibit the enzymes involved in the metabolism of neurosteroids. The tetrahydroxazole ring that cloxazolam and oxazolam have
    7.25
    4 votes
    48
    Ibogaine

    Ibogaine

    Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in a plant in a member of the Apocynaceae family known as Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga). A hallucinogen with both psychedelic and dissociative properties, the substance is banned in some countries; in other countries it is being used to treat addiction to methadone, heroin, alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs. Derivatives of ibogaine that lack the substance's hallucinogenic properties are under development. Ibogaine-containing preparations are used in medicinal and ritual purposes within African spiritual traditions of the Bwiti, who claim to have learned it from the Pygmy peoples. Although it was first commonly advertised as having anti-addictive properties in 1962 by Howard Lotsof, its western use predates that by at least a century. In France it was marketed as Lambarene, a medical drug used for dieting. Additionally, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) studied the effects of ibogaine in the 1950s. Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid that is obtained either by extraction from the iboga plant or by semi-synthesis from the precursor compound voacangine, another plant alkaloid. A full organic synthesis of
    7.25
    4 votes
    49
    Interferon-gamma

    Interferon-gamma

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons. The existence of this interferon, which early in its history was known as immune interferon, was recognized in 1970 when tuberculin-sensitized peritoneal cells were challenged with PPD and resulting supernatants were shown to inhibit growth of vesicular stomatitis virus. That report also contained the basic observation underlying the now widely employed interferon gamma release assay used to test for TB. This interferon was later called macrophage-activating factor, a term now used to describe a larger family of proteins to which IFN-γ belongs. In humans, the IFN-γ protein is encoded by the IFNG gene. IFN-γ, or type II interferon, is a cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections and for tumor control. Aberrant IFN-γ expression is associated with a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The importance of IFN-γ in the immune system stems in part from its ability to inhibit viral replication directly, and most importantly from its immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory effects. IFN-γ is
    7.25
    4 votes
    50
    Morphinone

    Morphinone

    Morphinone is itself not a very potent opioid but it is the intermediate when morphine is being converted to hydromorphone (trade name Dilaudid) which is 4-6 times as potent as morphine. Morphinone can be described as the ketone of morphine. Morphinone itself is an active opiate although its potency is closer to codeine than morphine. It is, however, an important precursor and would fall under the purview of the Controlled Substances Act within the United States. Its legal status in other countries varies.
    7.25
    4 votes
    51
    Selegiline

    Selegiline

    • Trials: Pharmacological Modulation of Cocaine Effects – 1
    • Used To Treat: Alzheimer's disease
    Selegiline (Anipryl, L-deprenyl, Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinson's disease, depression and senile dementia. In normal clinical doses it is a selective irreversible MAO-B inhibitor. However, in larger doses it loses its specificity and also inhibits MAO-A. Dietary restrictions are common for MAOI treatments, but special dietary restrictions for lower doses have been found to be unnecessary, and dietary restrictions appear to be unnecessary at standard doses when selegiline is taken as Emsam, the transdermal patch form, as no adverse events due to diet have ever been reported with Emsam. The drug was discovered by Jozsef Knoll et al. in Hungary. Selegiline belongs to a class of drugs called phenethylamines. Selegiline is a methamphetamine derivative with a propargyl group attached to the nitrogen atom. Selegiline was discovered in Hungary in the 1960s. Joseph Knoll, a chair of pharmacology at the Semmelweis University in Budapest, was interested in the physiology of "drive" and the differences between high- and low-performing individuals. For his research, he required a molecule that combined amphetamine-like psychostimulant effect
    7.25
    4 votes
    52
    Dimethocaine

    Dimethocaine

    Dimethocaine (Larocaine is a name of a HCl salt preparation.) is a local anesthetic with stimulant properties that some studies have shown to be half the potency of cocaine. Anecdotal user reports indicate little euphoria and only mild stimulating effects, with many users failing to perceive any recreational effects whatsoever. The drug however still presents strain on the cardiovascular systems, like cocaine, with the potential to induce tachycardia which could be problematic for those who continuously redose. Additional reports of respiratory arrest have been noted. When a product sold online in the UK in June 2010, advertised as dimethocaine was tested, it was found to in fact be a mixture of caffeine and lidocaine, and the lack of any dopaminergic stimulant ingredient in such mixes may explain the limited recreational effects reported by many users. Other samples tested have however been shown to contain genuine dimethocaine. The p-NH2 pharmacophore in dimethocaine is a relatively uncommon structural feature for a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, although it is also present in other compounds such as GYKI-52895 and RTI-29.
    8.33
    3 votes
    53
    PARGY-LAD

    PARGY-LAD

    PARGY-LAD is an analogue of LSD. It is described by Alexander Shulgin in the book TiHKAL. PARGY-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, but is slightly less potent than LSD with a dose of 160 micrograms producing only mild effects, and 500 micrograms required for full activity.
    8.33
    3 votes
    54
    Sodium thiopental

    Sodium thiopental

    • Used To Treat: Intracranial hypertension
    Sodium thiopental, better known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone sodium, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anaesthetic. Thiopental is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic healthcare system. It is also usually the first of three drugs administered during most lethal injections in the United States. Barbiturates are a class of drugs that act on the GABAA receptor in the brain and spinal cord. The GABAA receptor is an inhibitory channel that decreases neuronal activity, and barbiturates enhance the inhibitory action of the GABAA receptor. Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol all bind to the GABAA receptor. Barbiturates that act on the barbiturate binding site of the GABAA receptor directly gate the chloride ion channel of the GABAA receptor, whereas benzodiazepines acting on the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor increase the opening frequency of the chloride ion channel. This explains why overdoses of barbiturates may be lethal whereas overdoses of benzodiazepines alone are typically
    8.33
    3 votes
    55
    Codeine

    Codeine

    • Side effects: Somnolence
    • Used To Treat: Pain
    Codeine or 3-methylmorphine (a natural isomer of methylated morphine, the other being the semi-synthetic 6-methylmorphine) is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, antianxiety, sedative and hypnotic properties, to suppress premature labor contractions, myocardial infarction, relief of skin irritation from itching, as well as many other uses. Codeine is the second-most predominant alkaloid in opium, at up to three percent; it is much more prevalent in the Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum), and codeine is extracted from this species in some places although the below-mentioned morphine methylation process is still much more common. It is considered the prototype of the weak to midrange opioids (tramadol, dextropropoxyphene, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone). Codeine is used to treat mild to moderate pain and to relieve cough. Codeine is also used to treat diarrhea and diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome, although loperamide (which is available OTC for milder diarrhea), diphenoxylate, paregoric or even laudanum (also known as Tincture of Opium) are more frequently used to treat severe diarrhea. Codeine is marketed as both a
    6.20
    5 votes
    56
    Tacrine

    Tacrine

    • Used To Treat: Alzheimer's disease
    Tacrine is a centrally acting anticholinesterase and indirect cholinergic agonist (parasympathomimetic). It was the first centrally-acting cholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and was marketed under the trade name Cognex. Tacrine was first synthesised by Adrien Albert at the University of Sydney. It also acts as a histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor. Tacrine was the prototypical cholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Studies found that it may have a small beneficial effect on cognition and other clinical measures, though study data was limited and the clinical relevance of these findings was unclear. Newer cholinesterase inhibitors, such as donepezil, are now preferred over tacrine. As stated above, overdosage of tacrine may give rise to severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Tertiary anticholinergics, such as atropine, may be antidotes for overdose. Major form of metabolism is in the liver via hydroxylation of benzylic carbon by Cytochrome P450 (CYP450). This forms the major metabolite 1-hydroxy-tacrine (velnacrine) which is still
    6.20
    5 votes
    57
    Erlotinib

    Erlotinib

    • Used To Treat: Cancer
    Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. It is a reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which acts on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is marketed in the United States by Genentech and OSI Pharmaceuticals and elsewhere by Roche. In lung cancer, it extends life by an average of 3.3 months at a cost of $95,000. Erlotinib is an EGFR inhibitor. The drug follows Iressa (gefitinib), which was the first drug of this type. Erlotinib specifically targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, which is highly expressed and occasionally mutated in various forms of cancer. It binds in a reversible fashion to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site of the receptor. For the signal to be transmitted, two EGFR molecules need to come together to form a homodimer. These then use the molecule of ATP to trans-phosphorylate each other on tyrosine residues, which generates phosphotyrosine residues, recruiting the phosphotyrosine-binding proteins to EGFR to assemble protein complexes that transduce signal cascades to the nucleus or activate other cellular
    9.50
    2 votes
    58
    9.50
    2 votes
    59
    Papaverine

    Papaverine

    • Used To Treat: Pulmonary embolism
    Papaverine ( /pəˈpævəriːn/) (lat. papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm, vasospasm (especially those involving the heart and the brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. While it is found in the opium poppy, papaverine differs in both structure and pharmacological action from the analgesic (morphine-related) opium alkaloids (opioids). Papaverine was discovered in 1848 by Georg Merck (1825-1873). Merck was a student of the German chemists Justus von Liebig and August Hofmann, and he was the son of Emanuel Merck (1794-1855), founder of the Merck corporation, a major German chemical and pharmaceutical company. Papaverine is approved to treat spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts and ureter and for use as a cerebral and coronary vasodilator in subarachnoid hemorrhage (combined with balloon angioplasty) and coronary artery bypass surgery. Papaverine may also be used as a smooth muscle relaxant in microsurgery where it is applied directly to blood vessels. Papaverine is used as an erectile dysfunction drug, alone or sometimes in combination. Papaverine, when injected in penile
    9.50
    2 votes
    60
    9.50
    2 votes
    61
    Alprazolam

    Alprazolam

    • Used To Treat: Agoraphobia
    Alprazolam  /ælˈpræzəlæm/ (trade name Xanax, available among other generic names) is a short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs. Alprazolam, like other benzodiazepines, binds to specific sites on the GABAA gamma-amino-butyric acid receptor. Alprazolam is commonly used and FDA approved for the medical treatment of panic disorder, and anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or social anxiety disorder (SAD). Alprazolam is available for oral administration in compressed tablet (CT) and extended-release capsule (XR) formulations. Alprazolam possesses anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, skeletal muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, and amnestic properties. Alprazolam has a fast onset of action and symptomatic relief. Ninety percent of peak benefits are achieved within the first hour (Although onset may begin at 8-25 minutes of ingestion) of using either preparation for panic disorder, and full peak benefits are achieved in 1.5 and 1.6 hours respectively. Peak benefits achieved for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may take up to a week. Tolerance does not appear to develop to the anxiolytic effects but may develop to the sedative effects
    7.00
    4 votes
    62
    Butabarbital

    Butabarbital

    • Used To Treat: Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
    Butabarbital (trade name Butisol) is a prescription barbiturate sleep aid. Butabarbital has a particularly fast onset of effects and short duration of action compared to other barbiturates, which makes it useful for certain applications such as treating severe insomnia and relieving anxiety before surgical procedures; however it is also relatively dangerous particularly when combined with alcohol, and so is now rarely used, although it is still prescribed in some Eastern European and South American countries. Its intermediate duration of action gives butabarbital an abuse potential slightly lower than secobarbital. Butabarbital is also sold in combination with belladonna alkaloids under the brand name Butibel. The belladonna is added for antispasmodic effect. This product contains a low dose of butabarbital combined with a standardised mix of belladonna alkaloids and is used as an antispasmodic taken to relieve cramping and spasms of the stomach and intestines. They are used also to decrease the amount of acid formed in the stomach. Another similar product is Donnatal, which contains belladonna alkaloids combined with phenobarbital.
    7.00
    4 votes
    63
    Indometacin

    Indometacin

    • Used To Treat: Diabetes insipidus
    Indometacin (INN) or indomethacin (USAN and former BAN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, molecules known to cause these symptoms. It is marketed under many trade names, including Indocin, Indocid, Indochron E-R,INDOMET and Indocin-SR. Clinical indications for indometacin include: Indomethacin has also been used clinically to delay premature labor, reduce amniotic fluid in polyhydramnios, and to close patent ductus arteriosus. Indomethacin is a potent drug with many serious side effects and should not be considered an analgesic for minor aches and pains or fever. The medication is better described as an anti-inflammatory, rather than an analgesic. Indomethacin is a nonselective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2, enzymes that participate in prostaglandin synthesis from arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins are hormone-like molecules normally found in the body, where they have a wide variety of effects, some of which lead to pain, fever, and inflammation. Prostaglandins also cause uterine contractions in pregnant women.
    7.00
    4 votes
    64
    Phenazepam

    Phenazepam

    Phenazepam is a benzodiazepine drug, which was developed in the Soviet Union and now produced in Russia and some CIS countries. Phenazepam is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, alcohol withdrawal syndrome and insomnia. It can be used as a premedication before surgery as it augments the effects of anesthetics and reduces anxiety. Recently, phenazepam has gained popularity as a recreational drug; misuse has been reported in the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, and the United States. An average phenazepam dosage is 0.5 mg 2-3 times daily. The maximum daily dosage must not exceed 10 mg. 1 mg of phenazepam is thought to be equivalent to 10 mg of diazepam. Side effects include hiccups, dizziness, loss of coordination and drowsiness, along with anterograde amnesia which can be quite pronounced at high doses. As with other benzodiazepines, in case of abrupt discontinuation following prolonged use, severe withdrawal symptoms may occur including restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, seizures, convulsions and death. Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, alcohol or drug-dependent individuals and individuals
    6.00
    5 votes
    65
    Physical therapy

    Physical therapy

    • Used To Treat: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Physical therapy (or physiotherapy), often abbreviated PT, is a health care profession primarily concerned with the remediation of impairments and disabilities and the promotion of mobility, functional ability, quality of life and movement potential through examination, evaluation, diagnosis and physical intervention carried out by Physical Therapists (known as Physiotherapists in some countries) and Physical Therapist Assistants (known as Physical Rehabilitation Therapists in some countries). In addition to clinical practice, other activities encompassed in the physical therapy profession include research, education, consultation and administration. Definitions and licensing requirements in the United States vary among jurisdictions, as each state has enacted its own physical therapy practice act defining the profession within its jurisdiction, but the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has also drafted a model definition in order to limit this variation, and the APTA is also responsible for accrediting physical therapy education curricula throughout the United States of America. In many settings, physical therapy services may be provided alongside, or in conjunction
    6.00
    5 votes
    66
    Dorzolamide

    Dorzolamide

    • Used To Treat: Glaucoma
    Dorzolamide (trade name Trusopt) is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It is an anti-glaucoma agent by decreasing the production of aqueous humour. It is optically applied in the form of eye drops. This drug, developed by Merck, was the first drug in human therapy (market introduction 1995) which resulted from structure-based drug design. Dorzolamide hydrochloride is used to lower increased intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The combination of dorzolamide with timolol is marketed under the trade name Cosopt.
    8.00
    3 votes
    67
    Ethylmethylthiambutene

    Ethylmethylthiambutene

    Ethylmethylthiambutene (N-ethyl-N-methyl-1-methyl-3,3-di-2-thienylallylamine, Emethibutin) is an opioid analgesic drug from the thiambutene family, around 1.3x the potency of morphine. It is under international control under Schedule I of the UN Single Convention On Narcotic Drugs 1961, presumably due to high abuse potential.
    8.00
    3 votes
    68
    Ipratropium bromide

    Ipratropium bromide

    • Used To Treat: Asthma
    Ipratropium bromide (INN, trade names Atrovent, Apovent, and Aerovent) is an anticholinergic drug used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute asthma. It blocks the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the smooth muscles of the bronchi in the lungs, opening the bronchi. Ipratropium is administered by inhalation for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For that purpose it is supplied in a canister for use in an inhaler or in single dose vials for use in a nebulizer. It is also combined with salbutamol (albuterol, USA) under the trade names Combivent (metered-dose inhaler or MDI) and Duoneb (nebulizer) for the management of COPD and asthma, and with fenoterol (trade names Duovent and Berodual N) for the management of asthma. Ipratropium as a .03% nasal solution sprayed into the nostrils can reduce rhinorrhea but will not help nasal congestion. Ipratropium blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, without specificity for subtypes, and therefore inhibits degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in an intracellular increase of cGMP concentration. Most likely due to actions of cGMP on intracellular calcium,
    8.00
    3 votes
    69
    Pentylenetetrazol

    Pentylenetetrazol

    Pentylenetetrazol (INN), also known as metrazol, pentetrazol, pentamethylenetetrazol, Cardiazol or PTZ, is a drug used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant. High doses cause convulsions, as discovered by the Hungarian-American neurologist and psychiatrist Ladislas J. Meduna in 1934. It has been used in convulsive therapy, but was never considered to be effective, and side-effects such as seizures were difficult to avoid. Its approval by the FDA was revoked in 1982. Pentylenetetrazol is considered a GABA antagonist. The mechanism of the epileptogenic action of pentylenetetrazol at the cellular neuronal level is still unclear. Electrophysiological studies have shown it acts at cell membrane level decreasing the recovery time between action potentials by increasing potassium permeability of the axon. Other studies have implicated an increase in membrane currents of several other ions, such as sodium and calcium, leading to an overall increase in excitability of the neuron membrane. Pentylenetetrazol has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility. Pentylenetetrazol is also a prototypical anxiogenic
    8.00
    3 votes
    70
    Eflornithine

    Eflornithine

    • Used To Treat: Polycystic ovary syndrome
    Eflornithine (α-difluoromethylornithine or DFMO) is a drug found to be effective in the treatment of facial hirsutism (excessive hair growth) as well as in African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Eflornithine hydrochloride cream, which is for topical administration in women suffering from facial hirsutism, is marketed under the brand name Vaniqa by Almirall in Europe, CSL in Australia, Triton in Canada, Medison in Israel and SkinMedica in the USA. Eflornithine for injection against sleeping sickness is manufactured by Sanofi Aventis and sold under the brand name Ornidyl in the USA. Both are prescription drugs. Eflornithine was initially developed for cancer treatment at Merrell Dow Research Institute in the late 1970s, but, while having little use in treating malignancies, it was found to be highly effective in reducing hair growth, as well as in treatment of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), especially the West African form (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense). In the 1980s, Gillette was awarded a patent for the discovery that topical application of eflornithine HCl cream inhibits hair growth. In the 1990s, Gillette conducted dose-ranging studies with eflornithine in
    6.75
    4 votes
    71
    Pivampicillin

    Pivampicillin

    Pivampicillin is a pivaloyloxymethyl ester of ampicillin. It is a prodrug, which is thought to enhance the oral bioavailability of ampicillin because of its greater lipophilicity compared to that of ampicillin. Prodrugs that release pivalic acid when broken down by the body—such as pivampicillin, pivmecillinam and cefditoren pivoxil—have long been known to deplete levels of carnitine. This is not due to the drug itself, but to pivalate, which is mostly removed from the body by forming a conjugate with carnitine. Although short-term use of these drugs can cause a marked decrease in blood levels of carnitine, it is unlikely to be of clinical significance; long-term use, however, appears problematic and is not recommended.
    6.75
    4 votes
    72
    Amfepramone

    Amfepramone

    • Used To Treat: Obesity
    Amfepramone (INN, other names diethylcathinone and diethylpropion, trade names Anorex, Linea, Nobesine, Prefamone, Regenon, Tepanil, Tenuate), is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone chemical classes that is used as an appetite suppressant. Amfepramone itself lacks any affinity for the monoamine transporters and instead functions as a prodrug to ethcathinone. Ethcathinone (and therefore amfepramone as well) is a very weak dopaminergic and serotonergic, and is approximately 10x and 20x stronger on norepinephrine in comparison, respectively. As a result, ethcathinone and amfepramone can essentially be considered selective norepinephrine releasing agents (NRAs). Amfepramone is believed to have relatively low abuse potential. Amfepramone is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States. In the UK Amfepramone is a class C drug.
    9.00
    2 votes
    73
    Benzodiazepine

    Benzodiazepine

    • Used To Treat: Anxiety disorder
    A benzodiazepine /ˌbɛnzɵdaɪˈæzɨpiːn/ (sometimes colloquially "benzo"; often abbreviated "BZD") is a psychoactive drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963. Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A), resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties; also seen in the applied pharmacology of high doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines are amnesic-dissociative actions. These properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures. Benzodiazepines are categorized as either short-, intermediate- or long-acting. Short- and intermediate-acting benzodiazepines are preferred for the treatment of insomnia; longer-acting benzodiazepines are recommended for the treatment of anxiety. In
    9.00
    2 votes
    74
    Benzoyl peroxide

    Benzoyl peroxide

    • Used To Treat: Acne
    Benzoyl peroxide ( /ˈbɛnzɔɪl pəˈrɒksaɪd/) is an organic compound in the peroxide family. It consists of two benzoyl groups bridged by a peroxide link. Its structural formula is [C6H5C(O)]2O2. It is one of the most important organic peroxides in terms of applications and the scale of its production. Benzoyl peroxide is used as an acne treatment, for improving flour, for bleaching hair and teeth, for polymerising polyester and many other uses. Benzoyl peroxide is included in the World Health Organization (WHO) Model Lists of Essential medicines, which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system. Benzoyl peroxide was the first organic peroxide prepared by intentional synthesis. It was prepared by treating benzoyl chloride with barium peroxide, a reaction that probably follows this stoichiometry: Benzoyl peroxide is usually prepared by treating hydrogen peroxide with benzoyl chloride. The oxygen-oxygen bond in peroxides is weak. Thus benzoyl peroxide readily undergoes homolysis (symmetrical fission), forming free radicals: The symbol indicates that the products are radicals; i.e., they contain at least one unpaired electron. Such species are highly reactive. The
    9.00
    2 votes
    75
    Butyl nitrite

    Butyl nitrite

    Butyl nitrite is an alkyl nitrite made from n-butanol. Butyl nitrite is used recreationally as poppers. Synonyms include N-butyl nitrite, 1-butyl nitrite and nitrous acid, butyl ester. It can be prepared by reacting nitrous acid (generated in situ by reacting a metal nitrite with a mineral acid) with n-butanol. Butyl nitrite is highly flammable. Butyl nitrite is one of the compounds used as poppers, an inhalant drug that induces a brief euphoria.
    9.00
    2 votes
    76
    Interferon

    Interferon

    Interferons (IFNs) are proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites or tumor cells. They allow for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors. IFNs belong to the large class of glycoproteins known as cytokines. Interferons are named after their ability to "interfere" with viral replication within host cells. IFNs have other functions: they activate immune cells, such as natural killer cells and macrophages; they increase recognition of infection or tumor cells by up-regulating antigen presentation to T lymphocytes; and they increase the ability of uninfected host cells to resist new infection by virus. Certain host symptoms, such as aching muscles and fever, are related to the production of IFNs during infection. About ten distinct IFNs have been identified in mammals; seven of these have been described for humans. They are typically divided among three IFN classes: Type I IFN, Type II IFN, and Type III IFN. IFNs belonging to all IFN classes are very important for fighting viral infections. Based on the type of receptor through which
    9.00
    2 votes
    77
    Levomethorphan

    Levomethorphan

    Levomethorphan is the l-stereoisomer of methorphan. The effects of the two isomers are quite different. Dextromethorphan is an antitussive at low doses and a dissociative at much higher doses, whereas levomethorphan is an opioid analgesic. Levomethorphan has effects similar to levorphanol but is less potent as it must be demethylated to the active form by liver enzymes before becoming active.
    9.00
    2 votes
    78
    Interferon type I

    Interferon type I

    Human type I interferons comprise a vast and growing group of IFN proteins. All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. Homologous molecules to type I IFNs are found in many species, including all mammals, and some have been identified in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish species. The mammalian types are designated IFN-α (alpha), IFN-β (beta), IFN-κ (kappa), IFN-δ (delta), IFN-ε (epsilon), IFN-τ (tau), IFN-ω (omega), and IFN-ζ (zeta, also known as limitin). The IFN-α proteins are produced by leukocytes. They are mainly involved in innate immune response against viral infection. They come in 13 subtypes that are called IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA4, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA7, IFNA8, IFNA10, IFNA13, IFNA14, IFNA16, IFNA17, IFNA21. These genes for these IFN-α molecules are found together in a cluster on chromosome 9. IFN-α is also made synthetically as medication. Types are: The IFN-β proteins are produced in large quantities by fibroblasts. They have antiviral activity which is mainly involved in innate immune response. Two types of IFN-β have been described, IFN-β1 (IFNB1) and IFN-β3 (IFNB3) (a
    5.80
    5 votes
    79
    7-PET

    7-PET

    7-PET was discovered by K.W. Bentley and is a potent analgesic drug, 300 times the potency of morphine by weight. It is related to the more well-known oripavine derivative opioid etorphine, which is used as a very potent veterinary painkiller and anesthetic medication, used primarily for the sedation of large animals such as elephants, giraffes and rhinos. 7-PET itself has a 3-O-methyl ether which reduces potency, but the 3-OH derivative is around 2200x morphine, almost the same potency as etorphine as a μ agonist, and unexpectedly the 3-desoxy compound is also around the same potency of 2000x morphine. Unlike etorphine however, 7-PET is not an illegal drug, and is not controlled under the UN drug conventions, but it might still be considered to be a controlled substance analogue of etorphine on the grounds of its related chemical structure in some jurisdictions such as the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
    7.67
    3 votes
    80
    Ambien CR

    Ambien CR

    Ambien CR (zolpidem tartrate extended release) is different from Ambien (zolpidem tartrate) in that the medication is formulated in a 2 layer tablet. The first layer of the Ambien CR tablet dissolves quickly to help people fall asleep, while the 2nd layer dissolves slowly over the night to help people stay asleep (something Ambien has not demonstrated in trials). The action of both immediate and continuous release with Ambien CR allows for increased effectiveness over the night (since blood levels are more stable 3 to 6 hours after taking medication) and is proven to be more effective than traditional Ambien in quality of sleep. Ambien CR and Ambien have the same active ingredient so the safety and tolerability profiles are similar. Even though Ambien CR helps maintain sleep throughout the middle of the night it does not increase the risk of "hangover" effects (same as regular Ambien). A recent long term study found effectiveness over 6-months, improved morning concentration and daytime function, and no risk of abuse with Ambien CR (Krystal 2007). Ambien CR is FDA-approved for both short and long-term treatment of insomnia. Subunit modulation of the GABA receptor chloride channel
    7.67
    3 votes
    81
    Interleukin 2

    Interleukin 2

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signalling molecule in the immune system. It is a protein that regulates the activities of white blood cells (leukocytes, often lymphocytes) that are responsible for immunity. IL-2 is part of the body's natural response to microbial infection, and in discriminating between foreign ("non-self") and "self". IL-2 mediates its effects by binding to IL-2 receptors, which are expressed by lymphocytes. IL-2 was the first interleukin molecule, a soluble hormone-like mediator of the immune system, to be identified and characterized. A soluble activity that was found mitogenic for lymphocytes was first described simultaneously by Shinpei Kasakura and Louis Lowenstein, plus Julius Gordon and Lloyd MacLean, at McGill University in 1965 in the culture media of mixed leukocytes and named Blastogenic Factor (BF). The publication of this discovery in Nature was the first indication that the immune system might be regulated by soluble factors, other than immunoglobulins, and galvanized the field into looking for and further characterizing these entities. Between 1965 and the mid 1970s a myriad of soluble "activities", each given a different
    7.67
    3 votes
    82
    Tropisetron

    Tropisetron

    Tropisetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, although it has been used experimentally as an analgesic in cases of fibromyalgia. The drug is available in a 5 mg oral preparation or in 2 mg intravenous form. It is marketed by Novartis in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea and the Philippines as Navoban, but is not available in the U.S. It is also available from Novell Pharmaceutical Laboratories and marketed in several Asian countries as Setrovel Tropisetron acts as both a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and α7-nicotinic receptor agonist. Tropisetron is a well-tolerated drug with few side effects. Headache, constipation, and dizziness are the most commonly reported side effects associated with its use. There have been no significant drug interactions reported with this drug's use. It is broken down by the hepatic cytochrome P450 system and it has little effect on the metabolism of other drugs broken down by this system. As a biological stain and as trypanocide.
    7.67
    3 votes
    83
    Bromazepam

    Bromazepam

    Bromazepam (marketed under several brand names, including Lectopam, Lexotan, Lexilium, Lexaurin, Brazepam,Rekotnil, Bromaze, and Lexotanil) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, patented by Roche in 1963 and developed clinically in the 1970s. It has mainly anxiolytic properties and at higher doses also sedative, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. All common side-effects of benzodiazepines have been noted. Consult the article under diazepam. Bromazepam 3 times 6 mg daily for 2 weeks taken alone impaired learning capacities significantly in humans in an experiment. In combination with alcohol the impairments of learning capacity became even more pronounced. Impairments to memory functions are common with bromazepam and include a reduced working memory and reduced ability to process environmental information. Impaired memory, visual information processing and sensory data and impaired psychomotor performance. Deterioration of cognition including attention capacity and impaired co-ordinative skills. Unsteadiness after taking bromazepam is however less pronounced than other benzodiazepines such as lorazepam. Impaired reactive and attention performance, which can impair
    10.00
    1 votes
    84
    Butallylonal

    Butallylonal

    Butallylonal is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1920s. It has sedative properties, and was used primarily as an anaesthetic in veterinary medicine. Butallylonal is considered similar in effects to pentobarbital but is longer in action, being considered an intermediate-acting barbiturate rather than short-acting.
    10.00
    1 votes
    85
    Clobenzorex

    Clobenzorex

    Clobenzorex (Asenlix, Dinintel, Finedal, Rexigen) is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes used as an appetite suppressant. The drug is legally distributed in Mexico under the trade name Asenlix by Aventis. Chemically, clobenzorex is an N-substituted amphetamine analog that is converted to d-amphetamine soon after ingestion. In commercial production, clobenzorex is supplied in 30 mg doses as the hydrochloride salt in green-tinted capsules. The drug gained use as a prescription anorectic in the 1970s; however, adverse reactions were eventually observed, which led to the prohibition of clobenzorex in the United States and certain other countries. In the United States, clobenzorex tablets (among other varieties of stimulants, such as amphetamine) have been used by athletes who ingest the drug to reduce fatigue, increase attention, and improve reaction times during athletic activities. The green-tinted Asenlix capsules (generic forms can be seen as half light green, half dark green capsules marked "IFA") are known as "greenies" among US baseball players, a slang term that in current use has expanded to generically refer to any amphetamine class
    10.00
    1 votes
    86
    Digoxin

    Digoxin

    • Used To Treat: Heart failure
    Digoxin INN (/dɨˈdʒɒksɨn/) is a purified cardiac glycoside extracted from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata. Its corresponding aglycone is digoxigenin, and its acetyl derivative is acetyldigoxin. Digoxin is widely used in the treatment of various heart conditions, namely atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and sometimes heart failure that cannot be controlled by other medication. Digoxin preparations are commonly marketed under the trade names Lanoxin, Digitek, and Lanoxicaps. It is also available as a 0.05 mg/ml oral solution and 0.25 mg/ml or 0.5 mg/ml injectable solution. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline and many other pharmaceutic manufacturers. Today, the most common indications for digoxin are atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response. Beta blockers and/or calcium channel blockers should be the first choice. High ventricular rate leads to insufficient diastolic filling time. By slowing down the conduction in the AV node and increasing its refractory period, digoxin can reduce the ventricular rate. The arrhythmia itself is not affected, but the pumping function of the heart improves owing to improved filling. The use of digoxin in heart
    10.00
    1 votes
    87
    Doxefazepam

    Doxefazepam

    Doxefazepam (marketed under brand name Doxans) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Schiapparelli in the 1970s. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is used therapeutically as a hypnotic. According to Babbini and colleagues in 1975, this derivative of flurazepam was between 2 and 4 times more potent than the latter while at the same time being half as toxic in laboratory animals.
    10.00
    1 votes
    88
    Famciclovir

    Famciclovir

    • Used To Treat: Herpes simplex
    Famciclovir (INN) ( /fæmˈsaɪklɵvɪər/) is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug used for the treatment of various herpesvirus infections, most commonly for herpes zoster (shingles). It is a prodrug form of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability. Famciclovir is marketed under the trade name Famvir (Novartis). On August 24, 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the first generic version of famciclovir. Generic Famciclovir Tablets (125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg) are manufactured by TEVA Pharmaceuticals and Mylan Pharmaceuticals. Famciclovir is indicated for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles),treatment of herpes simplex virus 2 (genital herpes) ,herpes labialis (cold sores) in immunocompetent patients and for the suppression of recurring episodes of herpes simplex virus 2. It is also indicated for treatment of recurrent episodes of herpes simplex in HIV patients. Famciclovir comes as an oral tablet in 125 mg, 250 mg, and 500 mg dosage forms. To treat herpes zoster, Famciclovir is taken 500 mg every 8 hours (three times a day) for 7 days. To treat genital herpes it is taken twice a day for 1 day. To treat herpes labialis (cold sores), famciclovir is given as
    10.00
    1 votes
    89
    Levomepromazine

    Levomepromazine

    • Used To Treat: Pain
    Levomepromazine in Germany and Methotrimeprazine in America (Sold as Nosinan Nozinan, Levoprome) is an aliphatic phenothiazine neuroleptic drug. It is a low-potency antipsychotic (approximately half as potent as chlorpromazine) with strong analgesic and antiemetic properties. Serious side effects include tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. As is typical of phenothiazine antipsychotics, levomepromazine is a "dirty drug": it exerts its effects by blocking a variety of receptors, including adrenergic receptors, dopamine receptors, histamine receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and serotonin receptors. Currently, levomepromazine is not registered in the USA, although some American physicians are conducting studies regarding the strong analgesic effect of levomepromazine. In Europe it has been marketed for decades as Neurocil and Nozinan (manufactured by Sanofi-Avensis). Nozinan is also available in Canada. Nozinan is available in round tablets of 5, 25 or 100 mg. Levomepromazine is used for the treatment of psychosis, particular those of schizophrenia, and manic phases of bipolar disorder. It should be used only with
    10.00
    1 votes
    90
    Probarbital

    Probarbital

    Probarbital (trade names Ipral, Vasalgin) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1920s. It has sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties.
    10.00
    1 votes
    91
    Riluzole

    Riluzole

    • Used To Treat: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Riluzole is a drug used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It delays the onset of ventilator-dependence or tracheostomy in selected patients and may increase survival by approximately 3–5 months. It is marketed by Sanofi-Aventis with the brand name Rilutek. Riluzole preferentially blocks TTX-sensitive sodium channels, which are associated with damaged neurons. This reduces influx of calcium ions and indirectly prevents stimulation of glutamate receptors. Together with direct glutamate receptor blockade, the effect of the neurotransmitter glutamate on motor neurons is greatly reduced. However, the action of riluzole on glutamate receptors has been controversial, as no binding of the molecule has been shown on any known receptor. In addition, as its antiglutamate action is still detectable in the presence of sodium channel blockers, it is also uncertain whether or not it acts via this way. Rather, its potent glutamate uptake activator activity seems to mediate many of its effects. In vitro, riluzole protects cultured neurons from anoxic damage, from the toxic effects of glutamic-acid-uptake inhibitors, and from the toxic factor in the CSF of patients with amyotrophic lateral
    10.00
    1 votes
    92
    Secobarbital

    Secobarbital

    • Used To Treat: Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
    Secobarbital sodium (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company, and subsequently by other companies as described below, under the brand name Seconal) is a barbiturate derivative drug that was patented in 1934 in the US. It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, sedative and hypnotic properties. In the United Kingdom, it was known as Quinalbarbitone. Secobarbital is indicated for: Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals, an India-based company now predominantly owned by the Japanese company Daiichi Sankyo, obtained the rights to market and to use the trade name "Seconal" from Eli Lilly in 1998, and did so until September 18, 2008. The actual manufacturer of Seconal subsequent to the time Eli Lilly manufactured the drug is Ohm Pharmaceuticals, a wholly owned subsidiary of Ranbaxy. The rights to market Seconal were then sold to Marathon Pharmaceuticals, the current marketer / trade-name holder. However, Seconal is still manufactured by Ohm. Marathon has significantly raised the Average Wholesale Price ("AWP") of Seconal. This is noteworthy because of degree. As of August 2012, the AWP of Seconal is almost fifteen times that of what it was when Ranbaxy held the trade name, and roughly one hundred fifty times
    10.00
    1 votes
    93
    Tissue plasminogen activator

    Tissue plasminogen activator

    • Used To Treat: Stroke
    Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. It is a serine protease (EC 3.4.21.68) found on endothelial cells, the cells that line the blood vessels. As an enzyme, it catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for clot breakdown. Because it works on the clotting system, tPA is used in clinical medicine to treat embolic or thrombotic stroke. Use is contraindicated in hemorrhagic stroke and head trauma. tPA may be manufactured using recombinant biotechnology techniques. tPA created this way may be referred to as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). tPA and plasmin are the key enzymes of the fibrinolytic pathway in which tPA mediated plasmin generation occurs. To be specific, tPA cleaves the zymogen, plasminogen at its Arg560 - Val561 peptide bond, into the serine protease plasmin. Increased enzymatic activity causes hyperfibrinolysis, which manifests as excessive bleeding. Decreased activity leads to hypofibrinolysis which can result in thrombosis or embolism. Tissue plasminogen activator also plays a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling. Tissue plasminogen
    10.00
    1 votes
    94
    Trastuzumab

    Trastuzumab

    • Used To Treat: Breast Neoplasm
    Trastuzumab (INN; trade name Herceptin) is a monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu receptor. Its main use is to treat certain breast cancers. The HER receptors are proteins that are embedded in the cell membrane and communicate molecular signals from outside the cell to inside the cell, and turn genes on and off. The HER proteins regulate cell growth, survival, adhesion, migration, and differentiation—functions that are amplified or weakened in cancer cells. In some cancers, notably some breast cancers, HER2 is over-expressed, and causes breast cells to reproduce uncontrollably. Antibodies are molecules from the immune system that bind selectively to different proteins. Trastuzumab is an antibody that binds selectively to the HER2 protein. When it binds to defective HER2 proteins, the HER2 protein no longer causes cells in the breast to reproduce uncontrollably. This increases the survival of people with cancer. However, cancers usually develop resistance to trastuzumab. The original studies of trastuzumab showed that it improved overall survival in late-stage (metastatic) breast cancer from 20.3 to 25.1 months, but there is controversy over whether trastuzumab is
    10.00
    1 votes
    95
    Triclabendazole

    Triclabendazole

    Triclabendazole (commercial names: veterinary, liquid: Fasinex; human, tablets: Egaten, both manufactured by Novartis) is a member of the benzimidazole family of anthelmintics. The benzimidazole drugs share a common molecular structure, triclabendazole being the exception in having a chlorinated benzene ring but no carbamate group. Triclabendazole was initially only developed as an oral route drug, and displays high efficacy against both immature and adult liver flukes. Benzimidazoles such as triclabendazole are generally accepted to bind to beta-tubulin and prevent the polymerisation of the microtubules of which they are part. Since late 1990s, triclabendazole became available as a generic drug, as patents expired in many countries. Many products were developed then. Among them, Trivantel 15, a 15% triclabendazole suspension, was launched by Agrovet Market Animal Health in the early 2000s. In 2009, the first triclabendazole injectable solution (combined with ivermectin) was developed and launched, also by Agrovet Market Animal Health. The product, Fasiject Plus, a triclabendazole 36% and ivermectin 0.6% solution, is designed to treat Fasciola hepatica (both immature and adult
    10.00
    1 votes
    96
    Surgery

    Surgery

    • Used To Treat: Cancer
    Surgery (from the Greek: χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance. An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply surgery. In this context, the verb operate means to perform surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practises surgery. Persons described as surgeons are commonly physicians, but the term is also applied to podiatrists, dentists (known as oral and maxillofacial surgeons) and veterinarians. A surgery can last from minutes to hours, but is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. The term surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian. Elective surgery generally refers to a surgical procedure that can be scheduled
    5.60
    5 votes
    97
    Bismuth subsalicylate

    Bismuth subsalicylate

    • Used To Treat: Escherichia coli Infections
    Bismuth subsalicylate, with a nominal chemical formula of C7H5BiO4, is a colloidal substance obtained by hydrolysis of bismuth salicylate (Bi{C6H4(OH)CO2}3). The actual structure is unknown and the formulation is only approximate. Recent evidence indicates that it is composed of a bismuth oxide core structure with salicylate ions attached to the surface. A model structure has recently been published having the composition Bi38O44{C6H3(OH)CO2}26. It is a drug used to treat temporary discomforts of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhea, heartburn and nausea. Commonly known as pink bismuth, it is the active ingredient in popular medications such as Pepto-Bismol and, since 2003, in Kaopectate. As a derivative of salicylic acid, bismuth salicylate displays anti-inflammatory and bactericidal action, and also acts as an antacid. The term "sub" refers to the high oxygen content in the molecule and the presence of Bi-O moieties. Characterization of the properties of bismuth subsalicylate has been difficult due to its insolubility and its partial hydrolysis. Two crystal structures are observed, them being: It is believed that the latter cluster gives rise to the former,
    8.50
    2 votes
    98
    Carbamazepine

    Carbamazepine

    • Side effects: Unsteadiness
    • Trials: Efficacy and Safety of SPD417 in Treatment of Manic Symptoms in Adults With Bipolar I Disorder
    • Used To Treat: Bipolar disorder
    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder, as well as trigeminal neuralgia. It is also used off-label for a variety of indications, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, phantom limb syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, neuromyotonia, intermittent explosive disorder, borderline personality disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It has been seen as safe for pregnant women to use carbamazepine as a mood stabilizer, but, like other anticonvulsants, intrauterine exposure is associated with spina bifida and neurodevelopmental problems. Carbamazepine is typically used for the treatment of seizure disorders and neuropathic pain. It may be used as a second line treatment for bipolar disorder and along with antipsychotic agents in schizophrenia. In the United States, the FDA-approved indications are epilepsy (including partial seizures and tonic-clonic seizures), trigeminal neuralgia, and manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder. Although data are still lacking, carbamazepine appears to be as effective and safe as
    8.50
    2 votes
    99
    Dexmethylphenidate

    Dexmethylphenidate

    • Used To Treat: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Dexmethylphenidate, otherwise known as d-threo-methylphenidate (D-TMP), is the dextrorotatory enantiomer of methylphenidate. It is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) and releasing agent and thus a psychostimulant, which affects the CNS. Dexmethylphenidate is sold as Focalin by Novartis, as Attenade by Celgene and as a generic drug by Teva. Height and weight may be reduced by stimulant therapy; for most young people effects on growth is not a major concern; nevertheless regular monitoring of height and weight by healthcare providers has been recommended. On occasion, a treatment emergent psychosis can occur during long-term therapy with dexmethylphenidate; regular psychiatric monitoring of people who are taking dexmethylphenidate for adverse effects such as psychotic symptomatology (with regard to the need for dose adjustment or discontinuation of medication) has been recommended. Methylphenidate is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor that indirectly increases catecholaminergic neurotransmission by inhibiting the dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET), which are responsible for clearing catecholamines from the synapse, particularly in the
    8.50
    2 votes
    100
    Naloxone

    Naloxone

    • Used To Treat: Respiration Disorders
    Naloxone is an opioid inverse agonist drug developed by Sankyo in the 1960s. Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opiate overdose, for example heroin or morphine overdose. Naloxone is specifically used to counteract life-threatening depression of the central nervous system and respiratory system. Naloxone is also experimentally used in the treatment for congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA), an extremely rare disorder (1 in 125 million) that renders one unable to feel pain. It is marketed under various trademarks including Narcan, Nalone, and Narcanti, and has sometimes been mistakenly called "naltrexate." It is not to be confused with naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist with qualitatively different effects, used for dependence treatment rather than emergency overdose treatment. Naloxone has an extremely high affinity for μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Naloxone is a μ-opioid receptor competitive antagonist, and its rapid blockade of those receptors often produces rapid onset of withdrawal symptoms. Naloxone also has an antagonist action, though with a lower affinity, at κ- and δ-opioid receptors. Naloxone is synthesized from
    8.50
    2 votes
    101
    Newborn screening

    Newborn screening

    Newborn screening is a public health program designed to screen infants shortly after birth for a list of conditions that are treatable, but not clinically evident in the newborn period. Some of the conditions included in newborn screening programs are only detectable after irreversible damage has been done, in some cases sudden death is the first manifestation of the disease. Screening programs are often run by state or national governing bodies with the goal of screening all infants born in the jurisdiction. The number of diseases screened for is set by each jurisdiction, and can vary greatly. Most newborn screening tests are done by measuring metabolites and enzyme activity in whole blood samples collected on specialized filter paper, however many areas are starting to screen infants for hearing loss using automated auditory brainstem response and congenital heart defects using pulse oximetry. Infants who screen positive are contacted and undergo further testing to determine if they are truly affected with a disease or if the test result was a false positive. Follow-up testing is typically coordinated between geneticists and the infant's pediatrician or primary care
    8.50
    2 votes
    102
    Rilmazafone

    Rilmazafone

    Rilmazafone (Rhythmy, 450191-S) is a water-soluble benzodiazepine prodrug developed in Japan. It has sedative and hypnotic effects. Rilmazafone induces impairment of motor function and has hypnotic properties. Rilmazafone has no effects on benzodiazepine receptors itself, but once inside the body is metabolised by aminopeptidase enzymes in the small intestine to form the active benzodiazepine 8-chloro-6-(2-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazolo [1,5-a] [1,4]benzodiazepine-2-carboxamide.
    8.50
    2 votes
    103
    Vinpocetine

    Vinpocetine

    Vinpocetine (brand names: Cavinton, Intelectol; chemical name: ethyl apovincaminate) is a semisynthetic derivative alkaloid of vincamine (sometimes described as "a synthetic ethyl ester of apovincamine"), an extract from the periwinkle plant. Vinpocetine is reported to have cerebral blood-flow enhancing and neuroprotective effects, and is used as a drug in Eastern Europe for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders and age-related memory impairment. Vinpocetine is widely marketed as a supplement for vasodilation and as a nootropic for the improvement of memory. In other words, Vinpocetine may help support brain functions such as concentration and memory by activating cerebral metabolism. A small subset of users report uncomfortable, adverse reactions to vinpocetine. A low initial dosage is ordinarily recommended. Vinpocetine has been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory agent that might have a potential role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer’s disease. As of 2003 only three controlled clinical trials had tested "older adults with memory problems." Although these studies had promising results, a 2003 Cochrane review decided that the results were
    8.50
    2 votes
    104
    Alemtuzumab

    Alemtuzumab

    • Used To Treat: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Alemtuzumab (marketed as Campath, MabCampath or Campath-1H and currently under further development as Lemtrada) is a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and T-cell lymphoma. It is also used in some conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation, kidney transplantation and Islet cell transplantation. Alemtuzumab targets CD52, a protein present on the surface of mature lymphocytes, but not on the stem cells from which these lymphocytes are derived. Alemtuzumab is used as second-line therapy for CLL. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for CLL patients who have been treated with alkylating agents and who have failed fludarabine therapy. It has been approved by Health Canada for the same indication, and additionally for CLL patients who have not had any previous therapies. It is also used under clinical trial protocols for treatment of some autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, in which it shows promise. A significant complication of therapy with alemtuzumab is that it significantly increases the risk for opportunistic infections, in particular, reactivation of
    7.33
    3 votes
    105
    Clorazepate

    Clorazepate

    • Used To Treat: Focal epilepsy
    Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene and Novo-Clopate), also known as clorazepate dipotassium, is a drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Clorazepate is a prodrug for desmethyldiazepam, which is rapidly produced as an active metabolite. Desmethyldiazepam is responsible for most of the therapeutic effects of clorazepate. Clorazepate is used in the treatment of anxiety disorders and insomnia. It may also be prescribed as an anticonvulsant or muscle relaxant. It is also used as a premedication. Clorazepate is prescribed principally in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal and epilepsy, although it is also a useful anxiolytic because of its long half-life. The normal starting dosage range of Clorazepate is 15 to 60 mg per day. The drug is to be taken two to four times per day. Dosages as high as 90 to 120 mg per day may be used in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. In the United States and Canada, Clorazepate is available in 3.75, 7.5, and 15 mg capsules or tablets. In Europe, tablet formations are 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg and 50 mg. Clorazepate SD (controlled
    7.33
    3 votes
    106
    Dimemorfan

    Dimemorfan

    Dimemorfan is an antitussive or cough suppressant which acts as a sigma receptor agonist. It is an analogue of dextromethorphan and dextrorphan, but lacks significant NMDA receptor antagonistic action and dissociative effects, thereby having reduced abuse potential and adverse effects in comparison.
    7.33
    3 votes
    107
    Metamizole

    Metamizole

    Metamizole sodium or dipyrone is a powerful analgesic and antipyretic. It is marketed under various trade names, including Algozone, Algocalmin, Analgin, Dipirona, Novalgin, Neo-Melubrina and Optalgin. Metamizole was first synthesized by the German company Hoechst AG (now part of Sanofi) in 1920, and its mass production started in 1922. It remained available worldwide until the 1970s, when it was discovered that the drug carries a small risk of causing agranulocytosis - a potentially fatal condition. Controversy remains regarding the level of risk. Several national medical authorities have banned metamizole either totally or have restricted it to be available only on prescription, while others have maintained its availability over the counter. According to comments by Dr. Anthony Wong of the University of São Paulo in a World Health Organization newsletter, recent studies estimate that the incidence rate of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis is between 0.2 and 2 cases per million person days of use, with approximately 7% of all cases fatal (provided that all patients have access to urgent medical care). In other words, one should expect 60 to 600 deaths annually due to metamizole
    7.33
    3 votes
    108
    Nalmefene

    Nalmefene

    • Used To Treat: Respiration Disorders
    Nalmefene (Revex), originally known as nalmetrene, is an opioid receptor antagonist developed in the early 1970s, and used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence, and also has been investigated for the treatment of other addictions such as pathological gambling and addiction to shopping. Nalmefene is an opiate derivative similar in both structure and activity to the opiate antagonist naltrexone. Advantages of nalmefene relative to naltrexone include longer half-life, greater oral bioavailability and no observed dose-dependent liver toxicity. As with other drugs of this type, nalmefene can precipitate acute withdrawal symptoms in patients who are dependent on opioid drugs, or more rarely when used post-operatively to counteract the effects of strong opioids used in surgery. Nalmefene differs from naltrexone by substitution of the ketone group at the 6-position of naltrexone with a methylene (CH2) group, which considerably increases binding affinity to the μ-opioid receptor. Nalmefene also has high affinity for the other opioid receptors, and is known as a "universal antagonist" for its ability to block all three. In clinical trials using this drug, doses used for treating
    7.33
    3 votes
    109
    Procyclidine

    Procyclidine

    • Used To Treat: Parkinson's disease
    Procyclidine is an anticholinergic drug principally used for the treatment of: It is used in patients with parkinsonism and akathisia and to reduce the side effects of antipsychotic treatment given for schizophrenia. Procyclidine is also a second-line drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It improves tremor but not rigidity or bradykinesia. Procyclidine is also sometimes used for the treatment of dystonia (but not tardive dyskinesia), a rare disorder that causes abnormal muscle contraction, resulting in twisting postures of limbs, trunk, or face. Signs of procyclidine overdose are those of an anticholinergic and include confusion, agitation and sleeplessness that can last up to or more than 24 hours. Pupils become dilated and unreactive to light. Tachycardia (fast heart beat), as well as auditory and visual hallucinations have also been reported. Other known symptoms of overdose are: clumsiness or unsteadiness, being severely drowsy, having a severely dry mouth, nose, or throat, having an altered mood or other mental changes, seizures, being short of breath or having troubled breathing, a dry and warm, flushed skin. A suspected overdose with severe life-threatening
    7.33
    3 votes
    110
    Sulindac

    Sulindac

    • Used To Treat: Osteoarthritis
    Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the arylalkanoic acid class that is marketed in the UK & U.S. by Merck as Clinoril. Like other NSAIDs, it is useful in the treatment of acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. Sulindac is a prodrug, derived from sulfinylindene, that is converted in the body to the active NSAID. More specifically, the agent is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide that is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This is thought to help maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects. Some studies have shown sulindac to be relatively less irritating to the stomach than other NSAIDs except for drugs of the COX-2 inhibitor class. The exact mechanism of its NSAID properties is unknown, but it is thought to act on enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. Its usual dosage is 150-200 milligrams twice per day, with food. It should not be used by persons with a history of major allergic reactions (urticaria or anaphylaxis) to aspirin or other NSAIDs, and should be used with caution by persons having pre-existing peptic ulcer disease. Sulindac is much more likely than other NSAIDs to
    7.33
    3 votes
    111
    Avizafone

    Avizafone

    Avizafone (Pro-Diazepam) is a water-soluble prodrug of diazepam. It can be administered intramuscularly. Avizafone is metabolised by enzymes in the blood to form the active drug diazepam. It is used mainly as an antidote to poisoning with organophosphate nerve agents.
    6.25
    4 votes
    112
    Domperidone

    Domperidone

    Domperidone (trade names Motilium, Motillium, Motinorm Costi and Nomit) is an antidopaminergic drug, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, and used orally, rectally or intravenously, generally to suppress nausea and vomiting, as a prokinetic agent and for promoting lactation. There is some evidence that domperidone has antiemetic activity. Domperidone is used, together with metoclopramide, cyclizine, and 5HT3 receptor antagonists (such as granisetron) in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Domperidone is a first choice antiemetic in some countries. However, it is not approved for prescription in the US. Although it has never been officially approved for use in the United States, domperidone is sometimes purchased from pharmacies in other countries for this purpose. It may be obtained through some compounding pharmacies in the US with a prescription from your doctor. It can be used in patients with Parkinson's disease because, unlike metoclopramide, domperidone does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Domperidone has also been found effective in the treatment of gastroparesis, a stomach motility condition, and for paediatric gastroesophageal reflux (infant vomiting). In Canada, the
    6.25
    4 votes
    113
    Fentanyl

    Fentanyl

    • Used To Treat: Pain
    Fentanyl (also known as fentanil, brand names Sublimaze, Actiq, Durogesic, Duragesic, Fentora, Matrifen, Haldid, Onsolis, Instanyl, Abstral, Lazanda and others) is a potent, synthetic narcotic analgesic with a rapid onset and short duration of action. It is a strong agonist at the μ-opioid receptors. Historically it has been used to treat breakthrough pain and is commonly used in pre-procedures as a pain reliever as well as an anesthetic in combination with a benzodiazepine. Fentanyl is approximately 100 times more potent than morphine, with 100 micrograms of fentanyl approximately equivalent to 10 mg of morphine and 75 mg of pethidine (meperidine) in analgesic activity. It has an LD50 of 3.1 milligrams per kilogram in rats, and an LD50 of 0.03 milligrams per kilogram in monkeys. Fentanyl was first synthesized by Paul Janssen in 1960 following the medical inception of pethidine several years earlier. Janssen developed fentanyl by assaying analogues of the structurally related drug pethidine for opioid activity. The widespread use of fentanyl triggered the production of fentanyl citrate (the salt formed by combining fentanyl and citric acid in a 1:1 stoichiometry), which entered the
    6.25
    4 votes
    114
    Sertindole

    Sertindole

    Sertindole (brand names: Serdolect, and Serlect) is an antipsychotic medication. Sertindole was developed by the Danish pharmaceutical company H. Lundbeck and marketed under license by Abbott Labs. Like other atypical antipsychotics, it has activity at dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain. It is used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is classified chemically as a phenylindole derivative. Sertindole is not approved for use in the United States. Sertindole has restricted receptor and brain site activity. It mainly affects dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT2 and α1-adrenergic receptors. The effect on D2 receptors is more pronounced in the limbic dopamine system compared with the nigrostriatal system. This is supported by findings from clinical trials that provide evidence for significantly fewer extra pyramidal side effects than haloperidol and olanzapine. Weight gain is moderate, there is no diabetogenic effect, or effects on cholesterol and triglycerides, or prolactin blood levels reported. Sertindole has been shown to block hERG in the low nanomolar range. In contrast to other antipsychotics, sertindole is not associated with sedative effects; sedation may add to the
    6.25
    4 votes
    115
    Duloxetine

    Duloxetine

    • Used To Treat: Depression
    Duloxetine (sold under the brand names Cymbalta, Ariclaim, Xeristar, Yentreve, Duzela) is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly. It is effective for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Duloxetine failed the US approval for stress urinary incontinence amidst concerns over liver toxicity and suicidal events; however, it was approved for this indication in Europe, where it is recommended as an add-on medication in stress urinary incontinence instead of surgery. It can also relieve the symptoms of painful peripheral neuropathy, particularly diabetic neuropathy, and it is used to control the symptoms of fibromyalgia. The main uses of duloxetine are in major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, stress urinary incontinence, painful peripheral neuropathy, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with osteoarthritis and chronic lower back pain. It is being studied for various other indications. Duloxetine has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Recently, duloxetine was shown to be effective in elderly with recurrent major depressive disorder where
    5.40
    5 votes
    116
    Thebacon

    Thebacon

    Thebacon (INN), or dihydrocodeinone enol acetate, is a semisynthetic opioid that is similar to hydrocodone and synthesised from thebaine. It is marketed as its hydrochloride salt under the trade name Acedicon and as the bitartrate as Diacodin and possibly other trade names. Other salts used in medicine include the hydroiodide and sulphate. It is a narcotic analgesic of the middle range and an antitussive, primarily in Europe, although it is no longer in common use. It was invented in Germany in 1924. It is the esterification product of the enol tautomer of hydrocodone (dihydrocodeineone) with acetic acid. Dihydrocodeinone enol acetate's analgesic and antitussive potency is slightly higher than that of its parent compound hydrocodone. Like all of its chemical relatives in this therapeutic class (codeine-based narcotic antitussives and midrange analgesics), Dihydrocodeinone enol acetate exerts some of its effect by being a prodrug for a stronger opioid, namely hydromorphone, which is formed in the liver by the Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, meaning that effectiveness of a given dose will vary amongst patients and other drugs taken at the same time can antagonise or
    5.40
    5 votes
    117
    Atropine

    Atropine

    • Used To Treat: Uveitis
    Atropine is a naturally occurring tropane alkaloid extracted from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), mandrake (Mandragora officinarum) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. It is a secondary metabolite of these plants and serves as a drug with a wide variety of effects. It is a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor types M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5. It is classified as an anticholinergic drug (parasympatholytic). The species name "belladonna" ("beautiful woman" in Italian) comes from the original use of deadly nightshade as a way of dilating women's pupils to make them beautiful. Both atropine and the genus name for deadly nightshade derive from Atropos, one of the three Fates who, according to Greek mythology, chose how a person was to die. Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system. Working as a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholinergic antagonist, atropine increases firing of the sinoatrial node (SA) and conduction through the atrioventricular node (AV) of the heart, opposes the actions of the vagus
    7.00
    3 votes
    118
    DAM-57

    DAM-57

    N,N-Dimethyllysergamide (DAM-57) is a derivative of ergine. It may cause LSD-like effects at doses of 1 milligram or more but this is disputed.
    7.00
    3 votes
    119
    Ethyl nitrite

    Ethyl nitrite

    The chemical compound ethyl nitrite is an alkyl nitrite. It may be prepared from ethanol. Ethyl nitrite is the main ingredient in a traditional ethanol-based South African remedy for colds and flu known as Witdulsies and sold in pharmacies. It is known as a traditional Afrikaans remedy and may have Dutch roots, as the same remedy is apparently made by the Germano-Dutch Amish people in the USA. However FDA has blocked over-the-counter sales of this same remedy, known in the USA as sweet nitrite or sweet spirit of nitre since 1980.
    7.00
    3 votes
    120
    Lamotrigine

    Lamotrigine

    • Used To Treat: Epilepsy
    Lamotrigine, marketed in the US and most of Europe as Lamictal ( /ləˈmɪktəl/) by GlaxoSmithKline, is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. It is also used off-label as an adjunct in treating depression. For epilepsy, it is used to treat focal seizures, primary and secondary tonic-clonic seizures, and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Like many other anticonvulsant medications, Lamotrigine also seems to act as an effective mood stabilizer, and has been the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for this purpose since lithium, a drug approved almost 30 years earlier. It is approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar type I. Chemically unrelated to other anticonvulsants (due to lamotrigine's being a phenyltriazine), lamotrigine has many possible side-effects. Lamotrigine is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs, but it could have additional actions inasmuch as it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and carbamazepine and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar
    7.00
    3 votes
    121
    Progesterone

    Progesterone

    • Trials: Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy in Unstable Angina
    • Used To Treat: Adenomyosis
    Progesterone also known as P4 (pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. Progesterone belongs to a class of hormones called progestogens, and is the major naturally occurring human progestogen. Progesterone was independently discovered by four research groups. Willard Myron Allen co-discovered progesterone with his anatomy professor George Washington Corner at the University of Rochester Medical School in 1933. Allen first determined its melting point, molecular weight, and partial molecular structure. He also gave it the name Progesterone derived from Progestational Steroidal ketone. Like other steroids, progesterone consists of four interconnected cyclic hydrocarbons. Progesterone contains ketone and oxygenated functional groups, as well as two methyl branches. Like all steroid hormones, it is hydrophobic. Progesterone is produced in the ovaries (by the corpus luteum), the adrenal glands (near the kidney), and, during pregnancy, in the placenta. Progesterone is also stored in adipose (fat) tissue. In humans, increasing amounts of progesterone are produced
    7.00
    3 votes
    122
    Methylphenidate

    Methylphenidate

    • Used To Treat: Attention deficit disorder (ADD)
    Methylphenidate (MPH; MPD) is a psychostimulant drug approved for treatment of ADHD or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. It is better known by its 1948 trademarked name of Ritalin (original owner CIBA, now Novartis Corporation), was first licensed by the FDA in 1955 for treating ADHD, prescribed from 1960, and became heavily prescribed in the 1990s, when ADHD itself became more widely accepted. ADHD and some other conditions are believed to be linked to sub-performance of the dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and glutamate processes in the brain responsible for self-regulation functions, leading to self-regulation disorders compromising the sufferer's attention, self-control, behaviour, motivation, and executive function; methylphenidate primarily works by reducing the reuptake (removal) of dopamine and norepinephrine (and to a lesser extent serotonin) which improves the levels and utility of these neurotransmitters in the brain. Methylphenidate may also be prescribed for off-label use in treatment-resistant cases of lethargy, depression, and obesity. Methylphenidate incorporates a phenethylamine skeleton within
    6.00
    4 votes
    123
    Nimesulide

    Nimesulide

    Nimesulide is a relatively COX-2 selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Its approved indications are the treatment of acute pain, the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis and primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescents and adults above 12 years old. It has a multifactorial mode of action and is characterized by a fast onset of action. It was launched in Italy for the first time as Aulin and Mesulid in 1985 and is presently available in more than 50 countries worldwide, among others France, Portugal, Greece, Switzerland, Belgium, Mexico and Brazil. Nimesulide has never been filed for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluation in the United States, where it is not marketed. It is available in a variety of forms: tablets, powder for dissolution in water, suppositories, mouth dissolving tablets and topical gel (Sulidin Gel). A recent evaluation from EMEA (the European Medicines Agency) concluded that the overall benefit/risk profile of nimesulide is favourable and in line with that of the other NSAIDs (such as for example, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen). Nimesulide is available through the world as original product with the
    6.00
    4 votes
    124
    Tamoxifen

    Tamoxifen

    • Used To Treat: Gynecomastia
    Tamoxifen is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue via its active metabolite, hydroxytamoxifen. In other tissues such as the endometrium, it behaves as an agonist, and thus may be characterized as a mixed agonist/antagonist. Tamoxifen is the usual endocrine (anti-estrogen) therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in pre-menopausal women, and is also a standard in post-menopausal women although aromatase inhibitors are also frequently used in that setting. Some breast cancer cells require estrogen to grow. Estrogen binds to and activates the estrogen receptor in these cells. Tamoxifen is metabolized into compounds that also bind to the estrogen receptor but do not activate it. Because of this competitive antagonism, tamoxifen acts like a key broken off in the lock that prevents any other key from being inserted, preventing estrogen from binding to its receptor. Hence breast cancer cell growth is blocked. Tamoxifen was discovered by pharmaceutical company Imperial Chemical Industries (now AstraZeneca) and is sold under the trade names Nolvadex, Istubal, and Valodex. However, the drug, even before its patent expiration, was and still is widely referred to
    6.00
    4 votes
    125
    Amobarbital

    Amobarbital

    • Used To Treat: Seizure
    Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. It has sedative-hypnotic properties. It is a white crystalline powder with no odor and a slightly bitter taste. It was first synthesized in Germany in 1923. If amobarbital is taken for extended periods of time, physical and psychological dependence can develop. In an in vitro study in rat thalamic slices amobarbital worked by activating GABAA receptors, which decreased input resistance, depressed burst and tonic firing, especially in ventrobasal and intralaminar neurons, while at the same time increasing burst duration and mean conductance at individual chloride channels; this increased both the amplitude and decay time of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Amobarbital has been used in a study to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in the rat heart. A 1988 study found that amobarbital increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with less potency than secobarbital and pentobarbital (in descending order), but greater than phenobarbital and barbital (in descending order). It has an LD50 in mice of 212 mg/kg s.c. Amobarbital undergoes both hydroxylation to form 3'-hydroxyamobarbital,
    8.00
    2 votes
    126
    Barbexaclone

    Barbexaclone

    Barbexaclone (Maliasin) is a salt compound of phenobarbital and levopropylhexedrine. It was introduced in 1983. It has been reported to be as effective as phenobarbital but better tolerated; however, as of 2004, these "promising results" had not yet been confirmed nor denied in controlled trials. 100 mg of barbexaclone is equivalent to 60 mg of phenobarbital. Recreational use recreational users of this drug report a feeling of emphatogenity, reductıon of social inhibition and a relaxation. This might be due to the combination of an upper and a downer such as Methamphetamine and GHB while the latter is much more powerful
    8.00
    2 votes
    127
    Diazepam

    Diazepam

    • Used To Treat: Tetanus
    Diazepam ( /daɪˈæzɨpæm/), first marketed as Valium ( /ˈvæliəm/) by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a benzodiazepine drug. Diazepam is also marketed in Australia as Antenex. It is commonly used for treating anxiety, insomnia, seizures including status epilepticus, muscle spasms (such as in cases of tetanus), restless legs syndrome, alcohol withdrawal, benzodiazepine withdrawal and Ménière's disease. It may also be used before certain medical procedures (such as endoscopies) to reduce tension and anxiety, and in some surgical procedures to induce amnesia. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, and amnestic properties. The pharmacological action of diazepam enhances the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA by binding to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor (via the constituent chlorine atom) leading to central nervous system depression. Adverse effects of diazepam include anterograde amnesia (especially at higher doses) and sedation, as well as paradoxical effects such as excitement, rage or worsening of seizures in epileptics. Benzodiazepines also can cause or worsen depression. Long-term effects of benzodiazepines such as diazepam
    8.00
    2 votes
    128
    Etorphine

    Etorphine

    Etorphine (Immobilon or M99) is a semi-synthetic opioid possessing an analgesic potency approximately 1,000-3,000 times that of morphine. It was first prepared in 1960 from oripavine, which does not generally occur in opium poppy extract but rather in "poppy straw" and in the related plants Papaver orientale and Papaver bracteatum. It was later reproduced in 1963 by a research group at MacFarlan Smith in Gorgie, Edinburgh, led by Professor Kenneth Bentley. It can also be produced from thebaine. Etorphine is often used to immobilize elephants and other large mammals. Etorphine is available legally only for veterinary use and is strictly governed by law. Diprenorphine (M5050), also known as Revivon, is an opioid receptor antagonist that can be administered in proportion to the amount of etorphine used (1.3 times) to reverse its effects. Veterinary-strength etorphine is fatal to humans. For this reason the package as supplied to vets always includes the human antidote as well as Etorphine. One of its main advantages in general veterinary work is its speed of operation and, even more important, the speed with which Revivon reverses the effects. For example, operations on valuable
    8.00
    2 votes
    129
    Fenfluramine

    Fenfluramine

    • Used To Treat: Bulimia
    Fenfluramine (3-trifluoromethyl-N-ethylamphetamine, trade names Pondimin, Ponderax and Adifax) is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity medication (the other drug being phentermine). Fenfluramine was introduced on the U.S. market in 1973. It is the racemic mixture of two enantiomers, dextrofenfluramine and levofenfluramine. It increases the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, appetite and other functions. Fenfluramine causes the release of serotonin by disrupting vesicular storage of the neurotransmitter, and reversing serotonin transporter function. The result is a feeling of fullness and loss of appetite. The drug was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1997 after reports of heart valve disease, and pulmonary hypertension, including a condition known as cardiac fibrosis. After the US withdrawal of fenfluramine, it was also withdrawn from other markets around the world. The distinctive valvular abnormality seen with fenfluramine is a thickening of the leaflet and chordae tendineae. One mechanism used to explain this phenomenon involves heart valve serotonin receptors, which are thought to help regulate growth. Since fenfluramine and
    8.00
    2 votes
    130
    Huperzine A

    Huperzine A

    Huperzine A is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata. and in varying quantities in other Huperzia species, including H. elmeri, H. carinat, and H. aqualupian. Huperzine A is also an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, which has a mechanism of action similar to donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. A pro-drug form of huperzine A (ZT-1) is under development as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. In the US, huperzine A is sold as a dietary supplement for memory support. The botanical has been used in China for centuries for the treatment of swelling, fever and blood disorders. Clinical trials in China have shown it to be effective in improving cognitive performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease and enhancing memory in students. Huperzine A is an acetylcholinesterase inhibititor and NMDA receptor antagonist. Huperzine A has also attracted the attention of US medical science. It is currently being investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration – particularly Alzheimer's disease. It has been found to be an inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The structure of the complex of
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    2 votes
    131
    Mastectomy

    Mastectomy

    • Used To Treat: Breast cancer
    Mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. Mastectomy is usually done to treat breast cancer; in some cases, women and some men believed to be at high risk of breast cancer have the operation prophylactically, that is, to prevent cancer rather than treat it. It is also the medical procedure carried out to remove breast cancer tissue in males. Alternatively, certain patients can choose to have a wide local excision, also known as a lumpectomy, an operation in which a small volume of breast tissue containing the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue is removed to conserve the breast. Both mastectomy and lumpectomy are what are referred to as "local therapies" for breast cancer, targeting the area of the tumor, as opposed to systemic therapies such as chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or immunotherapy. Traditionally, in the case of breast cancer, the whole breast was removed. Currently the decision to do the mastectomy is based on various factors including breast size, number of lesions, biologic aggressiveness of a breast cancer, the availability of adjuvant radiation, and the willingness of the patient to accept higher
    8.00
    2 votes
    132
    Miotine

    Miotine

    Miotine is an anticholinesterase drug. Miotine was the first synthetic carbamate that was used clinically. Unlike the miotine analog neostigmine, it doesn't have a quaternary ammonium group to give it a permanent positive charge. It can exist as an uncharged free base which could allow it to cross the blood–brain barrier and cause unwanted central nervous system (CNS) side effects.
    8.00
    2 votes
    133
    Rivastigmine

    Rivastigmine

    • Used To Treat: Alzheimer's disease
    Rivastigmine (sold under the trade name Exelon) is a parasympathomimetic or cholinergic agent for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type and dementia due to Parkinson's disease. The drug can be administered orally or via a transdermal patch; the latter form reduces the prevalence of side effects, which typically include nausea and vomiting. The drug is eliminated through the urine, and appears to have relatively few drug-drug interactions. Rivastigmine was developed by Marta Weinstock-Rosin of the Department of Pharmacology, at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and sold to Novartis for commercial development.(It is a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) It has been available in capsule and liquid formulations since 1997. In 2006, it became the first product approved globally for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; and in 2007 the rivastigmine transdermal patch became the first patch treatment for dementia. Rivastigmine tartrate is a white to off-white, fine crystalline powder that is both lipophilic (soluble in fats) and hydrophilic (soluble in water). Like other cholinesterase inhibitors, it requires
    8.00
    2 votes
    134
    Triazolam

    Triazolam

    • Used To Treat: Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
    Triazolam (marketed in English-speaking countries under the brand names Apo-Triazo, Halcion, Hypam, and Trilam) is a benzodiazepine drug. It possesses pharmacological properties similar to that of other benzodiazepines, but it is generally only used as a sedative to treat severe insomnia. In addition to the hypnotic properties triazolam possesses, amnesic, anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties are also present. Due to its short half-life, triazolam is not effective for patients that suffer from frequent awakenings or early wakening. Its use at low doses has been deemed acceptable by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and several other countries. Studies have found a much higher incidence of psychiatric disturbances (sometimes severe) with triazolam, even when using the lower doses of 0.125 mg. Clinical trials which Upjohn had withheld from publishing showed a very unfavourable risk benefit ratio with 9.9% of patients dropping out of one triazolam study versus 1.9% of trial subjects taking a comparison benzodiazepine, flurazepam. Another study not published by Upjohn found 12.2% of triazolam patients dropped out, again due to psychiatric
    8.00
    2 votes
    135
    Hydrocodone compound

    Hydrocodone compound

    A hydrocodone compound is a pharmaceutical compound which combines hydrocodone with a secondary medication. To qualify for treatment as a Schedule III medication in the United States, hydrocodone must be combined with a non-narcotic ingredient in a recognized therapeutic amount. There are four dosage forms recognized by the U.S. authorities: Compounded dosages seen on the market include: Vicodin is a trademarked brand narcotic analgesic product containing hydrocodone and paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen). Vicodin is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It is usually found in tablet form with either the names Vicodin, Vicodin ES, or Vicodin HP imprinted on one side. Analgesics with the same chemical composition and a similar physical appearance are found under many other trade names, including Anexsia, Anolor DH5, Bancap HC, Zydone, Dolacet, Lorcet, Lortab, and Norco. The hydrocodone/paracetamol drug formula is also available under generic brands. Hydrocodone also comes in a combination with ibuprofen, available under the trade name Vicoprofen. Vicodin is made as a mixture of hydrocodone and paracetamol. Paracetamol, which is also called acetaminophen, acts as an
    9.00
    1 votes
    136
    Metoclopramide

    Metoclopramide

    • Side effects: Tardive dyskinesia
    • Used To Treat: Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    Metoclopramide (INN) ( /ˌmɛtəˈklɒprəmaɪd/) is an antiemetic and gastroprokinetic agent. It is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting, to facilitate gastric emptying in people with gastroparesis, and as a treatment for the gastric stasis often associated with migraine headaches. Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat nausea including that which is due to chemotherapy and that occurring post operatively. Evidence also supports its use for gastroparesis (poor stomach emptying) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Metoclopramide is used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with conditions such as uremia, radiation sickness, malignancy, labor, infection, migraine headaches, and emetogenic drugs. In the setting of painful conditions such as migraine headaches, metoclopramide may be used in combination with paracetamol (acetaminophen) (available in the UK as Paramax, and in Australia as Metomax), or in combination with aspirin (MigraMax). Metoclopramide increases peristalsis of the jejunum and duodenum, increases tone and amplitude of gastric contractions, and relaxes the pyloric sphincter and duodenal bulb. These gastroprokinetic effects make metoclopramide useful in the
    9.00
    1 votes
    137
    Para-Methoxyamphetamine

    Para-Methoxyamphetamine

    para-Methoxyamphetamine (PMA; "Death", "Dr. Death", "Chicken Powder", "Chicken Yellow"), also known as 4-methoxyamphetamine (4-MA), is a serotonergic drug of the amphetamine class. Unlike other similar drugs of this family, PMA does not produce stimulant, euphoriant, or entactogen effects, and behaves more like an antidepressant in comparison, though it does have some psychedelic properties. PMA has been occasionally found in tablets labeled as MDMA (colloquially known as "ecstasy"), although its effects are markedly different compared to those of MDMA. PMA is commonly synthesized from anethole, the flavor compound of anise and fennel, mainly because the starting material for MDMA, safrole, has become less available due to law enforcement action, causing illicit drug manufacturers to use anethole as an alternative. Once thought to be a human invention, recent research suggests PMA occurs as a trace alkaloid in plants including certain Acacia species. PMA first came into circulation in the early 1970s, where it was used intentionally as a substitute for the hallucinogenic properties of LSD. It went by the street names of "Chicken Powder" and "Chicken Yellow" and was found to be the
    6.67
    3 votes
    138
    Retinol

    Retinol

    Retinol is one of the animal forms of vitamin A. It is a diterpenoid and an alcohol. It is convertible to other forms of vitamin A, and the retinyl ester derivative of the alcohol serves as the storage form of the vitamin in animals. When converted to the retinal (retinaldehyde) form, vitamin A is essential for vision, and when converted to retinoic acid, is essential for skin health, teeth remineralization and bone growth. These chemical compounds are collectively known as retinoids, and possess the structural motif of all-trans retinol as a common feature in their structure. Structurally, all retinoids also possess a β-ionone ring and a polyunsaturated side chain, with either an alcohol, aldehyde, a carboxylic acid group or an ester group. The side chain is composed of four isoprenoid units, with a series of conjugated double bonds which may exist in trans- or cis-configuration. Retinol is produced in the body from the hydrolysis of retinyl esters, and from the reduction of retinal. Retinol in turn is ingested in a precursor form; animal sources (liver and eggs) contain retinyl esters, whereas plants (carrots, spinach) contain pro-vitamin A carotenoids (these may also be
    6.67
    3 votes
    139
    Diethylstilbestrol

    Diethylstilbestrol

    • Used To Treat: Carcinoma
    Diethylstilbestrol (DES, former BAN stilboestrol) is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen that was first synthesized in 1938. It is also classified as an endocrine disruptor. Human exposure to DES occurred through diverse sources, such as dietary ingestion from supplemented cattle feed and medical treatment for certain conditions, including breast and prostate cancers. From about 1940 to 1970, DES was given to pregnant women in the mistaken belief it would reduce the risk of pregnancy complications and losses. In 1971, DES was shown to cause a rare vaginal tumor in girls and women who had been exposed to this drug in utero. The United States Food and Drug Administration subsequently withdrew DES from use in pregnant women. Follow-up studies have indicated DES also has the potential to cause a variety of significant adverse medical complications during the lifetimes of those exposed. The United States National Cancer Institute recommends women born to mothers who took DES undergo special medical exams on a regular basis to screen for complications as a result of the drug. Individuals who were exposed to DES during their mothers' pregnancies are commonly referred to as "DES daughters"
    5.75
    4 votes
    140
    Diprenorphine

    Diprenorphine

    Diprenorphine (diprenorfin, Revivon, M5050) is an opioid antagonist used to reverse the effects of the super-potent opioid analgesics such as etorphine and carfentanil that are used for tranquilizing large animals in veterinary medicine. Diprenorphine is the strongest opiate antagonist that is commercially available (some 100 times more potent as an antagonist than nalorphine), and is used for reversing the effects of very strong opioids for which the binding affinity is so high that naloxone does not effectively or reliably reverse the narcotic effects. These super-potent opioids are not used in humans because the dose for a human is so small that it would be difficult to measure properly, so there is an excessive risk of overdose leading to fatal respiratory depression. However conventional opioid derivatives are not strong enough to rapidly tranquilize large animals such as elephants and rhinos, so drugs such as etorphine or carfentanil are available for this purpose. Diprenorphine is considered the specific antagonist for etorphine and carfentanil, and is normally used to remobilise animals once veterinary procedures have been completed,. Because diprenorphine also has some
    5.75
    4 votes
    141
    Antimalarial drug

    Antimalarial drug

    • Used To Treat: Malaria
    Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria. Such drugs may be used for some or all of the following: Some antimalarial agents, particularly chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, are also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus-associated arthritis. Current practice in treating cases of malaria is based on the concept of combination therapy, since this offers several advantages, including reduced risk of treatment failure, reduced risk of developing resistance, enhanced convenience, and reduced side-effects. Prompt parasitological confirmation by microscopy, or alternatively by rapid diagnostic tests, is recommended in all patients suspected of malaria before treatment is started. Treatment solely on the basis of clinical suspicion should only be considered when a parasitological diagnosis is not accessible. It is practical to consider antimalarials by chemical structure since this is associated with important properties of each drug, such as mechanism of action. Quinine has a long history stretching from Peru, and the discovery of the cinchona tree, and the potential uses of its bark, to the current day and a
    7.50
    2 votes
    142
    Loprazolam

    Loprazolam

    Loprazolam (Triazulenone) marketed under the brand names Dormonoct, Havlane, Sonin, Somnovit, is a drug which is an imidazole benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is available in 1 mg and 2 mg tablets. It is licensed and marketed for the short term treatment of moderately severe insomnia. Insomnia. Insomnia can be described as a difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakening, early awakenings or a combination of each. Loprazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine and is sometimes used in patients who have difficulty in maintaining sleep or have difficulty falling asleep. Hypnotics should only be used on a short term basis or in those with chronic insomnia on an occasional basis. The dose of Loprazolam for insomnia is usually 1 mg but can be increased to 2 mg if necessary. In the elderly a lower dose is recommended due to more pronounced effects and a significant impairment of standing up to 11 hours after dosing of 1 mg of loprazolam. The half-life is much more prolonged in the elderly than in younger patients. A half-life of 19.8 hours has been reported in elderly patients. Patients and prescribing
    7.50
    2 votes
    143
    Phenytoin

    Phenytoin

    • Used To Treat: Tonic–clonic seizure
    Phenytoin sodium (/fəˈnɪtoʊɨn/) is a commonly used antiepileptic. Phenytoin acts to suppress the abnormal brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain cells by stabilizing the inactive state of voltage-gated sodium channels. Aside from seizures, it is an option in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in the event that carbamazepine or other first-line treatment seems inappropriate. It is sometimes considered a class 1b antiarrhythmic. Phenytoin sodium has been marketed as Phenytek by Mylan Laboratories, previously Bertek Pharmaceuticals, and Dilantin; Australia also Dilantin Kapseals and Dilantin Infatabs in the USA, Eptoin by Abbott Group in India and as Epanutin in the UK and Israel, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer. In the USSR and post-USSR countries, it was/is marketed as Дифенин (Diphenin, Dipheninum). Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) was first synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Biltz in 1908. Biltz sold his discovery to Parke-Davis, which did not find an immediate use for it. In 1938, outside scientists including H. Houston Merritt and Tracy Putnam discovered phenytoin's usefulness for controlling seizures, without the sedative effects
    7.50
    2 votes
    144
    Tandospirone

    Tandospirone

    Tandospirone (Sediel), also known as metanopirone, is an anxiolytic and antidepressant used in China and Japan, where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. It is a member of the azapirone and piperazine chemical classes and is closely related to other agents like buspirone and gepirone. Tandospirone acts as a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, with a Ki affinity value of 27 ± 5 nM and approximately 55-85% intrinsic activity. It has weak and clinically negligible affinity for the 5-HT2A (1,300 ± 200), 5-HT2C (2,600 ± 60), α1-adrenergic (1,600 ± 80), α2-adrenergic (1,900 ± 400), D1 (41,000 ± 10,000), and D2 (1,700 ± 300) receptors, and is essentially inactive at the 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, β-adrenergic, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, serotonin transporter (SERT), and benzodiazepine (BDZ) allosteric site of the GABAA receptor (all of which are > 100,000). There is evidence of tandospirone having low but significant antagonistic activity at the α2-adrenergic receptor through its active metabolite 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP), however. Tandospirone is typically used at a dose of 30 mg/daily taken in divided doses of 10 mg three times per day due to its
    7.50
    2 votes
    145
    Light therapy

    Light therapy

    • Used To Treat: Delayed sleep phase syndrome
    Light therapy or phototherapy (classically referred to as heliotherapy) consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light, usually controlled with various devices. The light is administered for a prescribed amount of time and, in some cases, at a specific time of day. Common use of the term is associated with the treatment of skin disorders (chiefly psoriasis), sleep disorder and some psychiatric disorders. Light therapy directed at the skin is also used to treat acne vulgaris, eczema and neonatal jaundice. Light therapy which strikes the retina of the eyes is used to treat circadian rhythm disorders such as delayed sleep phase syndrome and can also be used to treat seasonal affective disorder, with some support for its use also with non-seasonal psychiatric disorders. Other medical applications of light therapy also include accelerated wound healing, hair growth, improvement in blood properties and blood circulation, and sinus-related diseases and disorders. Many of these use low level laser therapy and red light therapy in the 620–660 nm range. Two forms
    5.50
    4 votes
    146
    Thebaine

    Thebaine

    Thebaine (paramorphine), its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai, an ancient city in Upper Egypt, is an opiate alkaloid. A minor constituent of opium, thebaine is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but has stimulatory rather than depressant effects, causing convulsions similar to strychnine poisoning at higher doses. However the "unnatural" enantiomer (+)-thebaine does show analgesic effects apparently mediated through opioid receptors, unlike the inactive natural enantiomer (-)-thebaine. Thebaine is not used therapeutically but, as the main alkaloid extracted from Papaver bracteatum, it can be converted industrially into a variety of compounds including oxycodone, oxymorphone, nalbuphine, naloxone, naltrexone, buprenorphine and etorphine. It is controlled under international law, is listed as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 in the United Kingdom and is controlled as a Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act in the United States of America. This alkaloid is biosynthetically related to salutaridine, oripavine, morphine and reticuline.
    5.50
    4 votes
    147
    Topiramate

    Topiramate

    • Side effects: Anorexia
    • Used To Treat: Infantile Spasms
    Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug. It was originally produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics and Noramco, Inc., both divisions of the Johnson & Johnson Corporation. This medication was discovered in 1979 by Bruce E. Maryanoff and Joseph F. Gardocki during their research work at McNeil Pharmaceutical. Topiramate was first approved by the US FDA in 1996. Generic versions are available in Canada and these were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 2006. Mylan Pharmaceuticals was recently granted final approval for generic topiramate 25, 100, and 200 mg tablets and sprinkle capsules by the FDA for sale in the United States. 50 mg tablets were granted tentative approval. The last patent for topiramate in the U.S. was for pediatric use; this patent expired on February 28, 2009. Topiramate is used to treat epilepsy in children and adults, and it was originally used as an anticonvulsant. In children, it is indicated for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delay. It is also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for, and most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of
    5.50
    4 votes
    148
    Carisoprodol

    Carisoprodol

    • Used To Treat: Myositis
    Carisoprodol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. It is slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform and acetone. The drug's solubility is practically independent of pH. Carisoprodol is manufactured and marketed in the United States by Meda Pharmaceuticals. under the brand name Soma, and in the United Kingdom and other countries under the brand names Sanoma and Carisoma. The drug is available by itself or mixed with aspirin, and in one preparation with codeine and caffeine, as well. On June 1, 1959 several American pharmacologists convened at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan to discuss a new drug. The drug, originally thought to have antiseptic properties, was found to have central muscle-relaxing properties. It had been developed by Frank M. Berger at Wallace Laboratories and was named carisoprodol. Carisoprodol was a modification of meprobamate, intended to have better muscle relaxing properties, less potential for abuse, and less risk of overdose. The substitution of one hydrogen atom with an isopropyl group on one of the carbamyl nitrogens was intended to yield a molecule with new pharmacological properties. Reports from Norway have
    6.33
    3 votes
    149
    Methcathinone

    Methcathinone

    Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) is a psychoactive stimulant, sometimes used as a recreational drug and considered addictive. It is usually snorted, but can be smoked, injected, or taken orally. Methcathinone is currently a DEA Schedule I controlled substance in the United States. The C=O bond at the Rβ-position (directly right of the benzene ring) is slightly polar, and as a result the drug does not cross the lipid blood–brain barrier quite as well as amphetamine. Nevertheless, it is a potent CNS stimulant and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Chronic high dosage use may result in acute mental confusion ranging from mild paranoia to psychosis. These symptoms typically disappear quickly if use is stopped. Unlike methamphetamine, methcathinone is not legal under any circumstances in the US due to its classification as a Schedule I substance. Conversely, methamphetamine has certain approved medical uses such as treatment of morbid obesity, narcolepsy and ADHD. Methcathinone was first synthesized in 1928 in the United States and finally patented by Parke Davis in 1957. It was used in the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s as an anti-depressant (under the name
    6.33
    3 votes
    150
    PRO-LAD

    PRO-LAD

    PRO-LAD is an analogue of LSD. It is described by Alexander Shulgin in the book TiHKAL. PRO-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, and is around as potent as LSD itself with an active dose reported at between 100 and 200 micrograms. PRO-LAD has been sold by some research chemical suppliers but might be considered illegal in some countries due to its structural similarity to LSD.
    6.33
    3 votes
    151
    Troparil

    Troparil

    Troparil (also known as (–)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-phenyltropane, WIN 35,065-2, or β-CPT) is a stimulant drug used in scientific research. Troparil is a phenyltropane based dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) and is derived from methylecgonidine. Troparil is documented to be a few times more potent than cocaine as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, but is less potent as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and has a duration spanning a few times longer, since the phenyl ring is directly connected to tropane through a non-hydrolyzable carbon-carbon bond. The lack of an ester linkage removes the local anesthetic action from the drug, so troparil is a pure stimulant. This change in activity also makes troparil slightly less cardiotoxic than cocaine. The most commonly used form of troparil is the tartrate salt, but the hydrochloride and naphthalenedisulfonate salts are also available, as well as the free base. The first known published synthesis of troparil and WIN 35,428 is by Clarke and co-workers during the 1970s. Apparently it was their intention to separate the stimulant actions of cocaine from its toxicity and dependence liability. Troparil is the only regular phenyltropane having a NET
    6.33
    3 votes
    152
    Adrafinil

    Adrafinil

    Adrafinil (CRL-40028, Olmifon) is a mild central nervous system stimulant drug used to relieve excessive sleepiness and inattention in elderly patients. It is also used off-label by individuals wishing to avoid fatigue, such as night workers or others who need to stay awake and alert for long periods of time. Adrafinil is a prodrug; it is primarily metabolized in vivo to modafinil, resulting in nearly identical pharmacological effects. Unlike modafinil, however, it takes time for the metabolite to accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream. Effects usually are apparent within 45–60 minutes when taken orally on an empty stomach. Adrafinil does not currently have FDA approval and is thus unregulated in the United States. It was marketed in France and elsewhere in Europe under the trade name Olmifon until September 2011 when France's FDA equivalent reassessed the drug and withdrew marketing permission. Adrafinil was discovered in the late 1970s by scientists working with the French pharmaceutical company Group Lafon. First offered in France in 1986 as an experimental treatment for narcolepsy, Lafon later developed modafinil, the primary metabolite of adrafinil. Modafinil possesses
    8.00
    1 votes
    153
    Bemegride

    Bemegride

    Bemegride (also known as Megimide) is a central Nervous System stimulant and antidote for barbiturate poisoning. Bemegride is notable in legal history as the drug suspected serial killer Dr John Bodkin Adams failed to prescribe correctly to his patient Gertrude Hullett. Hullett took an overdose of barbiturates on 19 July 1956 but Adams only gave her a single 10cc dose of bemegride three days later on the 22nd, despite having acquired 100cc for her treatment. Hullett died the next day on 23 July 1956. Adams was charged but never tried for her murder. Bemegride is also used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.
    8.00
    1 votes
    154
    Clonazepam

    Clonazepam

    • Used To Treat: Epilepsy
    Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug having anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and hypnotic properties. It is marketed by Roche under the trade name Klonopin (or Klonapin) in the United States and Rivotril in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico and Europe. Other names such as Ravotril, Rivatril, Rivotril, Clonex, Paxam, Petril or Kriadex are known throughout the rest of the world. Clonazepam has an unusually long elimination half-life of 18–50 hours, making it generally considered to be among the long-acting benzodiazepines. Clonazepam is a chlorinated derivative of nitrazepam and therefore a chloro-nitrobenzodiazepine. Clonazepam has a slow onset with a peak four hours after ingestion. It has high effectiveness rate and low toxicity in overdose but, as most medications, it may have drawbacks due to adverse reactions including paradoxical effects and drowsiness. Other long-term effects of benzodiazepines include tolerance, benzodiazepine dependence, and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, which occurs in a third of people treated with clonazepam for longer than four weeks. Clonazepam is classified as a high potency benzodiazepine. The use of clonazepam
    8.00
    1 votes
    155
    Crotylbarbital

    Crotylbarbital

    Crotylbarbital (Mepertan, Kalipnon, Barotal), also known as crotarbital, is a barbiturate derivative developed by Eli Lilly in the 1930sm It has sedative and hypnotic effects, and was used for the treatment of insomnia until it was replaced by newer alternative drugs with less side effects and lower risk of overdose.
    8.00
    1 votes
    156
    Droperidol

    Droperidol

    • Used To Treat: Psychosis
    Droperidol /droʊˈpɛrIdɔːl/ (Inapsine, Droleptan, Dridol, Xomolix, Innovar [combination with fentanyl]) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic and antipsychotic. Droperidol is also often used for neuroleptanalgesic anesthesia and sedation in intensive-care treatment. Discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1961, droperidol is a butyrophenone, and is a potent D2 (dopamine receptor) antagonist with some histamine and serotonin antagonist activity. It has a central antiemetic action and effectively prevents postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults using doses as low as 0.625 mg. It has also been used as an antipsychotic in doses ranging from 5 to 10 mg given as an intramuscular injection, generally in cases of severe agitation in a psychotic patient who is refusing oral medication. Its use in intramuscular sedation has been replaced by intramuscular preparations of haloperidol, midazolam, clonazepam and olanzapine. Some practitioners recommend the use of 0.5 mg to 1 mg intravenously for the treatment of vertigo in an otherwise healthy elderly patients who have not responded to Epley maneuvers. In 2001, the FDA changed the labeling requirements for droperidol injection, to
    8.00
    1 votes
    157
    Hexobarbital

    Hexobarbital

    Hexobarbital (as known in the U.S.A.), or hexobarbitone (as known elsewhere), sold both in acid and sodium salt forms as Citopan, Evipan, and Tobinal (usually in 250-mgm. strength tablets), is a barbiturate derivative having hypnotic and sedative effects. It was used in the 1940s-1950s as an agent for inducing anesthesia for surgery, as well as a rapid-acting, short-lasting hypnotic for general use, and has a relatively fast onset of effects and short duration of action. However it can be difficult to control the depth of anesthesia with hexobarbital which makes it quite dangerous, and it has now been replaced by safer drugs in human medicine, usually thiopental would be the barbiturate of choice for this application these days. Hexobarbital is still used in some scientific research.
    8.00
    1 votes
    158
    Imatinib

    Imatinib

    • Side effects: Edema
    • Used To Treat: Leukemia
    Imatinib (originally STI571) is a drug used to treat certain cancers. It is marketed by Novartis as Gleevec (USA) or Glivec (Europe/Australia/Latin America) as its mesylate salt, imatinib mesilate (INN). Imatinib is the first of a new class of drugs that act by specifically inhibiting a certain enzyme – a receptor tyrosine kinase – that is characteristic of a particular cancer cell, rather than non-specifically inhibiting and killing all rapidly dividing cells. Imatinib was a model for other targeted therapies that inhibited this class of enzymes. It is used in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and some other diseases. By 2011, Gleevec has been FDA approved to treat ten different cancers. In CML, the tyrosine kinase enzyme ABL in white blood cells is locked in its activated form. This causes the excessive proliferation and high white blood cell count which is characteristic of CML. Imatinib binds to the site of tyrosine kinase activity, and prevents its activity, causing tumor cell death (apoptosis). In January 2012, three of the developers of imatinib were awarded the Japan Prize for their work. Imatinib was developed in the late
    8.00
    1 votes
    159
    Medazepam

    Medazepam

    Medazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is known by the following brand names: Nobrium, Rudotel, Raporan, Ansilan. Medazepam is a long acting benzodiazepine drug. The half-life of medazepam is 36 – 200 hours. Benzodiazepine drugs including medazepam increase the inhibitory processes in the cerebral cortex by allosteric modulation of the GABA receptor. Benzodiazepines may also act via micromolar benzodiazepine binding sites as Ca channel blockers and significantly inhibited depolarization-sensitive calcium uptake in experiments with cell components from rat brains. This has been conjectured as a mechanism for high dose effects against seizures in a study. It has major active benzodiazepine metabolites which gives it a more prolonged therapeutic effects after administration. The Committee on the Review of Medicines (UK) carried out a review into benzodiazepines due to significant concerns of tolerance, drug dependence and benzodiazepine withdrawal problems and other adverse effects. The committee found that benzodiazepines do not have any antidepressant or analgesic
    8.00
    1 votes
    160
    RTI-121

    RTI-121

    (–)-2β-Carboisopropoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (RTI-121, IPCIT) is a stimulant drug used in scientific research, which was developed in the early 1990s. RTI-121 is a phenyltropane based, highly selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor and is derived from methylecgonidine. RTI-121 is a potent and long-lasting stimulant, producing stimulant effects for more than 10 hours after a single dose in mice which would limit its potential uses in humans, as it might have significant abuse potential if used outside of a medical setting. However RTI-121 occupies the dopamine transporter more slowly than cocaine, and so might have lower abuse potential than cocaine itself. RTI-121 is mainly used in scientific research into the dopamine reuptake transporter. It is more selective for the dopamine transporter than other DAT radioligands such as β-CIT, and so has less nonspecific binding and produces "cleaner" images. Various radiolabelled forms of RTI-121 (with different radioactive isotopes of iodine used depending on the application) are used in both humans and animals to map the distribution of dopamine transporters in the brain. RTI-121 is legal in all countries throughout the world as of 2007.
    8.00
    1 votes
    161
    AL-LAD

    AL-LAD

    AL-LAD, also known as 6-allyl-6-nor-lysergic acid diethylamide, is a hallucinogenic drug and an analogue of LSD. It is described by Alexander Shulgin in the book TiHKAL (Tryptamines i Have Known And Loved). While AL-LAD has subtly different effects than LSD, and appears to be slightly shorter lasting, their potencies are similar; an active dose of AL-LAD is reported to be between 80 and 160 micrograms. AL-LAD has been sold by some research chemical suppliers but might be considered illegal in some countries due to its structural similarity to LSD.
    7.00
    2 votes
    162
    Alfentanil

    Alfentanil

    Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery. It is an analogue of fentanyl with around 1/4 the potency of fentanyl and around 1/3 of the duration of action, but with an onset of effects 4x faster than fentanyl. It is an agonist at mu opioid receptors. While alfentanil tends to cause fewer cardiovascular complications than other similar drugs such as fentanyl and remifentanil, it tends to give stronger respiratory depression and so requires careful monitoring of breathing and vital signs. Alfentanil is administered by the parenteral (injected) route for fast onset of effects and precise control of dosage. Alfentanil is a restricted drug which is classified as Schedule II in the USA, according to the U.S. DEA website. Alfentanil was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1976.
    7.00
    2 votes
    163
    Brasofensine

    Brasofensine

    Brasofensine (NS-2214, BMS-204756) is a phenyltropane that had been under development for the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Phase II trials were conducted in 1996 and brasofensine was shown to be both effective and well tolerated at a dose of 4 mg, however development was stopped after in vivo cis-anti isomerization of the 2α-methyloxime group was reported. In animal models of Parkinson's disease, brasofensine was effective in stimulating LMA and reversing akinesia. The isomerization of brasofensine is not between the alpha and beta positions on the 2 position of the tropane ring but rather the E/Z isomerization of the imine (i.e. "methyl-aldoxime"). It was believed that this process occurs in vivo although it cannot be ruled out as a possibility that some isomerization also occurs prior to ingestion. The (Z)-isomer has been consigned the name BMS-205912 In PD, symptoms do not begin to manifest until there has been an 80% reduction in dopaminergic neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra brain region. NS-2214 is not particularly stable and is readily metabolized. 50 mg was the dosage that was tried on humans, although the starting dose was 2 mg.
    7.00
    2 votes
    164
    Estazolam

    Estazolam

    • Used To Treat: Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
    Estazolam (marketed under the brand names ProSom, Eurodin) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Upjohn in the 1970s. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Estazolam is an intermediate-acting oral benzodiazepine. It is commonly prescribed for short-term treatment of insomnia. Estazolam is prescribed for the short term treatment of certain sleep disorders. It is an effective hypnotic drug showing efficacy in increasing the time spent asleep as well as reducing awakenings during the night. Combination with non-pharmacological options for sleep management results in long term improvements in sleep quality after discontinuation of short term estazolam therapy. Estazolam is also sometimes used as a preoperative sleep aid. It was found to be superior to triazolam in side effect profile in preoperative patients in a trial. Estazolam also has anxiolytic properties and due to its long half life can be an effective short term treatment for insomnia associated with anxiety. A hang-over effect commonly occurs with next day impairments of mental and physical performance impairments. Other side effects of estazolam include
    7.00
    2 votes
    165
    Fludiazepam

    Fludiazepam

    Fludiazepam was developed by Hoffman-LaRoche in the 1960s and is marketed in Japan and Taiwan in 0.25mg tablets under the brand name Erispan is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative and is closely related to diazepam. It exerts its pharmacological properties via enhancement of GABAergic inhibition. Fludiazepam has 4 times more binding affinity for benzodiazepine receptors than diazepam. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Fludiazepam has drug abuse potential.
    7.00
    2 votes
    166
    Indometacin farnesil

    Indometacin farnesil

    Indometacin farnesil (INN) is a prodrug of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indometacin, designed to reduce the occurrence of side-effects by esterification of the carboxyl group on indometacin with farnesol. Indometacin farnesil was first approved in Japan in 1991, and is available in Japan and Indonesia, under the trade names Infree and Dialon respectively.
    7.00
    2 votes
    167
    LSM-775

    LSM-775

    N-Morpholinyllysergamide (LSM-775) is a derivative of ergine. It is reported to have some LSD-like effects at doses ranging from 75 to 700 micrograms. LSM-775 is said to produce dream like states similar to DXM. Its visual component is like that of LSD, but it is said to be less intense and not as pronounced as LSD.
    7.00
    2 votes
    168
    Paregoric

    Paregoric

    Paregoric, or camphorated tincture of opium, also known as tinctura opii camphorata, is a medication known for its antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic properties. In the early 18th century Jakob Le Mort (1650–1718), a professor of chemistry at Leiden University, prepared an elixir for asthma and called it "paregoric". The word "paregoric" comes from the Greek word "paregoricon" which was originally applied to oratory and to a particular form of oratory in which distraction of attention was the predominant feature. It then passed through various shades of meaning from "consoling" to "soothing" and finally came to have the same significance as "anodyne". Le Mort's elixir, consisting of "honey, licorice, flowers of Benjamin, and opium, camphor, oil of aniseed, salt of tartar and spirit of wine," became official as "Elixir Asthmaticum" in the London Pharmacopoeia of 1721. Paregoric was used in various formulations for hundreds of years, and its ingredients "were assembled out of the obsolete humoral philosophy and quasiscientific reasoning of the Renaissance." In 1944, two clinicians who evaluated the expectorant action of Paregoric concluded: "The survival of paregoric through
    7.00
    2 votes
    169
    Phentermine

    Phentermine

    • Used To Treat: Obesity
    Phentermine, a contraction of "phenyl-tertiary-butylamine", is a psychostimulant drug of the phenethylamine class, with pharmacology similar to amphetamine. It is used medically as an appetite suppressant. It is approved as an appetite suppressant to help reduce weight in obese patients when used short-term and combined with exercise, diet, and behavioral modification. It is typically prescribed for individuals who are at increased medical risk because of their weight and works by helping to release certain chemicals in the brain that control appetite. Phentermine is used for the short-term treatment of obesity. Generally, phentermine appears to be relatively well tolerated. It can produce side effects consistent with its catecholamine-releasing properties, e.g., tachycardia (increased heart rate) and elevated blood pressure, but the incidence and magnitude of these appear to be less than with the amphetamines. Because phentermine acts through sympathomimetic pathways, the drug may increase blood pressure and heart rate. It may also cause palpitations, restlessness, and insomnia. Additionally, phentermine has the potential to cause psychological dependence. After short-term use,
    7.00
    2 votes
    170
    Enucleation

    Enucleation

    • Used To Treat: Retinoblastoma
    Enucleation is removal of the eye, leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact. This type of ocular surgery is indicated for a number of different ocular tumors, in eyes that have suffered severe trauma, and in eyes that are blind and painful owing to other disease. Auto-enucleation (oedipism) and other forms of serious self-inflicted eye injury are an extremely rare form of severe self-harm which usually results from serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. The name comes from Oedipus, who gouged out his eyes in penance after having sex with his mother and killing his father. Some patients have been inspired by the Gospel of Matthew, which states: "...if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it away." (5:29). There are three types of eye removal Removal of the eye by enucleation or evisceration can relieve pain and minimize further risk to life and well-being of an individual with the above noted conditions. In addition, procedures to remove the eye should address the resultant appearance of the orbit. Orbital implants and ocular prostheses are used by the surgeon to restore a more natural appearance. An orbital implant is placed after removal
    6.00
    3 votes
    171
    Hydromorphone

    Hydromorphone

    • Used To Treat: Post-Operative Pain
    Hydromorphone, a more common synonym for dihydromorphinone, commonly a hydrochloride (brand names Palladone, Dilaudid, and numerous others) is a very potent centrally acting analgesic drug of the opioid class. It is a derivative of morphine, to be specific, a hydrogenated ketone thereof, and it can be said that hydromorphone is to morphine as hydrocodone is to codeine and, therefore, a semi-synthetic drug. It is, in medical terms, an opioid analgesic and, in legal terms, a narcotic. Hydromorphone is commonly used in the hospital setting, mostly intravenously (IV) because its bioavailability orally, rectally, and intranasally is very low. Hydromorphone is used in medicine as an alternative to morphine for analgesia and as a second- or third-line narcotic antitussive (cough suppressant) for cases of dry, painful, paroxysmal coughing resulting from continuing bronchial irritation after influenza and other ailments, inhalation of fungus, and other causes. In general, it is considered the strongest of the antitussive drugs and was developed shortly after diacetylmorphine (heroin) was removed from clinical use for this purpose in most of the world and banned outright in many countries.
    5.00
    4 votes
    172
    Benzimidazole

    Benzimidazole

    Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. This bicyclic compound consists of the fusion of benzene and imidazole. The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-ribosyl-dimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as an axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. Benzimidazole, in an extension of the well-elaborated imidazole system, has been used as carbon skeletons for N-heterocyclic carbenes. The NHCs are usually used as ligands for transition metal complexes. They are often prepared by deprotonating an N,N'-disubstituted benzimidazolium salt at the 2-position with a base. Benzimidazole is commercially available. The usual synthesis involves condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid, or the equivalent trimethyl orthoformate: By altering the carboxylic acid used, this method is generally able to afford 2-substituted benzimidazoles. Benzimidazole also has fungicidal properties. It acts by binding to the fungal microtubules and stopping hyphal growth. It also binds to the spindle microtubules and blocks nuclear division.
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Beta blocker

    Beta blocker

    • Used To Treat: Myocarditis
    "Beta-Adrenergic antagonist" redirects here Beta blockers (sometimes written as β-blockers) or beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists or beta antagonists, are a class of drugs used for various indications. They are particularly used for the management of cardiac arrhythmias, cardioprotection after myocardial infarction (heart attack), and hypertension. As beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, they diminish the effects of epinephrine (adrenaline) and other stress hormones. In 1958, the first beta blocker, dichloroisoproterenol, was synthesised by Eli Lilly Laboratories, but Sir James W. Black in 1962, found the first clinically significant beta blockers - propranolol and pronethalol; it revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris and is considered by many to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century. Beta blockers block the action of endogenous catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in particular, on β-adrenergic receptors, part of the sympathetic nervous system which mediates the fight-or-flight response. Three types of
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    Butorphanol

    Butorphanol

    • Used To Treat: Pain
    Butorphanol (Stadol) (INN) is a morphinan-type synthetic opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers. Brand name Stadol was recently discontinued by the manufacturer. It is now only available in its generic formulations, manufactured by Novex, Mylan, Apotex and Ben Venue Laboratories. Butorphanol is most closely structurally related to levorphanol. Butorphanol is available only as butorphanol tartrate in injectable, tablet, and intranasal spray formulations. Butorphanol exhibits partial agonist and antagonist activity at the μ opioid receptor and agonist activity at the κ opioid receptor. Stimulation of these receptors on central nervous system neurons causes an intracellular inhibition of adenylate cyclase, closing of influx membrane calcium channels, and opening of membrane potassium channels. This leads to hyperpolarization of the cell membrane potential and suppression of action potential transmission of ascending pain pathways. Because of its κ-agonist activity, at analgesic doses butorphanol increases pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac work. Additionally, κ-agonism can cause dysphoria at therapeutic or supertherapeutic doses; this gives butorphanol a lower potential for
    6.50
    2 votes
    175
    Levomethamphetamine

    Levomethamphetamine

    Levomethamphetamine (other names include l-methamphetamine, levodesoxyephedrine, l-desoxyephedrine, levmetamfetamine), is the levorotary (R-enantiomer) of methamphetamine. Levomethamphetamine is a sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor which is the active ingredient used in some over-the-counter nasal decongestants including the US formulation of Vicks Vapor Inhaler, but not the Canadian or Indian formulations, which contain just menthol and camphor. Levomethamphetamine affects the sympathetic nervous system but has little activity in the central nervous system, so it is not thought to possess an addiction potential anywhere near that of racemic methamphetamine or dextromethamphetamine. Among its few physiological effects are the vasoconstriction that makes it useful for nasal decongestion. The elimination half life of levomethamphetamine is between 13.3 and 15 hours. When used as a nasal decongestant, levomethamphetamine has potential side effects resembling those of other sympathomimetic drugs used for the same purpose; these effects include hypertension (elevated blood pressure), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), nausea, stomach cramps, dizziness, headache, and tremors.
    6.50
    2 votes
    176
    Rabeprazole

    Rabeprazole

    • Used To Treat: Duodenal ulcer
    Rabeprazole /ˌræ.ˈbɛp.ræ.zɔːl/ is an antiulcer drug in the class of proton pump inhibitors. It was developed by Eisai Co. and is marketed by Janssen-Cilag as rabeprazole sodium under the brand names AcipHex (/ˈæsɨfɛks/, referring to pH) in the US, Pariet in Europe, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Russia and Australia, and Razo in India. Short-term treatment in healing and symptomatic relief of duodenal ulcers and erosive or ulcerative gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); maintaining healing and reducing relapse rates of heartburn symptoms in patients with GERD; treatment of daytime and nighttime heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD; long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and in combination with amoxicillin and clarithromycin to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Rabeprazole adverse reactions/side effects include: Rabeprazole decreases the concentration of ketoconazole in the plasma (in 33%), increases the concentration of digoxin (in 22%), and does not interact with liquid antacids. Rabeprazole is compatible with any medicine metabolized by the CYP450 (theophylline, warfarin, diazepam, phenytoin). Studies in mice and
    6.50
    2 votes
    177
    Valofane

    Valofane

    Valofane is a sedative drug structurally related to the barbiturates and similar drugs such as primidone. It is metabolised once inside the body to form the barbiturate proxibarbal and is thus a prodrug.
    6.50
    2 votes
    178
    Aminorex

    Aminorex

    Aminorex (Menocil, Apiquel, aminoxaphen, aminoxafen, McN-742) is an anorectic stimulant drug of the 2-amino-5-aryl oxazoline class developed by a team at McNeil in 1962. It is closely related to 4-methylaminorex. Aminorex has been shown to have locomotor stimulant effects, lying midway between dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine. Aminorex effects have been attributed to the release of catecholamines. The drug has been retired from the market after it was found to result in pulmonary hypertension. It was discovered in 1962 by Edward John Hurlburt (U.S. Patent 3,115,494), and was quickly found in 1963 to have an anorectic effect in rats. It was introduced as a prescription appetite suppressant in Germany, Switzerland and Austria in 1965, but was withdrawn in 1972 after it was found to cause pulmonary hypertension in approximately 0.2% of patients, and was linked to a number of deaths. The synthesis was first reported in a structure-activity relationship study of 2-amino-5-aryl-2-oxazolines, where aminorex was found to be approximately 2.5 times more potent than D-amphetamine sulfate in inducing anorexia in rats, and was also reported to have CNS stimulant effects. This racemic
    7.00
    1 votes
    179
    Bupropion

    Bupropion

    • Used To Treat: Depression
    Bupropion (/bjuːˈproʊpi.ɒn/ bew-PROH-pee-on; marketed as Wellbutrin, Zyban, Voxra, Budeprion, Prexaton, Elontril or Aplenzin; and formerly known as amfebutamone) is an atypical antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. Its chemical name is β-keto-3-chloro-N-tert-butylamphetamine, a substituted cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine), as well as substituted amphetamine. The drug therefore is a mild psychostimulant. Its primary pharmacological action is thought to be norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibition. It binds selectively to the dopamine transporter, but its behavioural effects have often been attributed to its inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake. It also acts as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Bupropion belongs to the chemical class of aminoketones and is similar in structure to stimulants cathinone and diethylpropion, and to phenethylamines in general. Medically, bupropion serves as a non-tricyclic antidepressant fundamentally different to most commonly prescribed antidepressants such as SSRIs. Initially researched and marketed as an antidepressant, bupropion was subsequently found to be effective as a smoking cessation aid. With over 20 million retail
    7.00
    1 votes
    180
    Cathinone

    Cathinone

    Cathinone, or benzoylethanamine (marketed as hagigat in Israel), is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine and other amphetamines. Cathinone induces the release of dopamine from striatal preparations that are prelabelled either with dopamine or its precursors. It is probably the main contributor to the stimulant effect of Catha edulis. Cathinone differs from many other amphetamines in that it has a ketone functional group. Other amphetamines that share this structure include the antidepressant bupropion and the stimulant methcathinone, among others. Internationally, cathinone is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Circa 1993, the DEA added cathinone to the Controlled Substances Act's Schedule I. The sale of khat is legal in some jurisdictions, but illegal in others — see Khat (Regulation). Cathinone is also often used as the key ingredient of recreational drug mixes commonly known as 'bath salts' in the United States. Cathinone is structurally related to methcathinone, in much the same way as amphetamine is related to methamphetamine. Cathinone differs from amphetamine by possessing
    7.00
    1 votes
    181
    Granisetron

    Granisetron

    • Used To Treat: Nausea
    Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. Its main effect is to reduce the activity of the vagus nerve, which is a nerve that activates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata. It does not have much effect on vomiting due to motion sickness. This drug does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors. Granisetron was developed by chemists working at the British drug company Beecham around 1988 and is available as a generic. It is produced by Roche Laboratories under the trade name Kytril. The drug was approved in the United Kingdom in 1991 and in United States in 1994 by the FDA. A granisetron transdermal patch with the trade name Sancuso was approved by the US FDA on September 12, 2008. Sancuso is manufactured by ProStrakan, Inc., a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bedminster, NJ, with global headquarters in Scotland. Granisetron breaks down slowly, staying in the body for a long time. One dose usually lasts 4 to 9 hours and is usually administered once or twice daily. This drug is removed from the body by the liver and kidneys. Granisetron is a well-tolerated
    7.00
    1 votes
    182
    Haloperidol

    Haloperidol

    • Used To Treat: Alzheimer's disease
    Haloperidol is a dopamine antagonist of the typical antipsychotic class of medications. It is a butyrophenone derivative and has pharmacological effects similar to the phenothiazines. Haloperidol is an older antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia and acute psychotic states and delirium. A long-acting decanoate ester is used as an injection given every four weeks to people with schizophrenia or related illnesses who have poor adherence to medication regimens and suffer frequent relapses of illness, or to overcome the drawbacks inherent to its orally administered counterpart that burst dosage increases risk or intensity of side effects. In some countries, such as the United States of America, injections of antipsychotics such as haloperidol can be ordered by a court at the request of a psychiatrist. Haloperidol is sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol (common tradename in the US and UK), Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, and Sigaperidol. Haloperidol was discovered by Paul Janssen. It was developed in 1958 at the Belgian company Janssen Pharmaceutica and submitted to
    7.00
    1 votes
    183
    Hydrocodone

    Hydrocodone

    • Used To Treat: Obstructive lung disease
    Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from either of two naturally occurring opiates: codeine and thebaine. It is an orally active narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is available in tablet, capsule, and syrup form. Hydrocodone is often compounded with other generally less effective non-opioid compounds such as paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) or ibuprofen, both often added to discourage recreational use (as paracetamol can cause potentially fatal liver toxicity at high doses), and to provide a possible synergy of analgesic effects between hydrocodone and the non-opioid compounds present. The particular niche in which hydrocodone is most commonly used is as an intermediate centrally acting analgesic. Abrupt discontinuation of hydrocodone may result in withdrawal symptoms. Because of concerns about liver damage from protracted use of paracetamol at high doses, four pharmaceutical companies (Purdue Pharma, Cephalon, Zogenix, and Egalet) are developing extended-release capsules and other forms of hydrocodone by itself. Hydrocodone was first synthesized in Germany in 1920 by Carl Mannich and Helene Löwenheim. It was approved by the Food and Drug
    7.00
    1 votes
    184
    Methorphan

    Methorphan

    Methorphan comes in two isomeric forms, each with differing pharmacology and effects: Racemethorphan refers to the racemic mixture of both of these stereoisomers.
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    Naltrindole

    Naltrindole

    Naltrindole is a highly potent, highly selective delta opioid receptor antagonist used in biomedical research. In May 2012 a paper was published in Nature with the structure of naltrindole in complex with the mouse δ-opioid G-protein coupled receptor, solved by X-ray crystallography. Since peptide compounds are unable to cross the blood–brain barrier, researchers developed naltrindole to be a non-peptide antagonist analog of the delta-preferring endogenous opiate enkephalin. Enkephalin contains an aromatic phenyl group on its Phe residue, which was hypothesized to be the "address" sequence responsible for the opiate's delta opioid receptor affinity. Thus, attachment of a phenyl-containing indole molecule to the C-ring of naltrexone's morphinan base successfully produced a drug with the high receptor affinity of naltrexone, but which binds almost exclusively to the delta opioid receptor.
    7.00
    1 votes
    186
    Oxcarbazepine

    Oxcarbazepine

    • Used To Treat: Epilepsy
    Oxcarbazepine (ox-kar-BAY-zih-peen) is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also used to treat anxiety and mood disorders, and benign motor tics. Oxcarbazepine is marketed as Trileptal by Novartis and available in some countries as a generic drug. In treatment of epilepsy, oxcarbazepine has recently been found to be associated with a greater enhancement in mood and reduction in anxiety symptoms than other drugs employed to treat epilepsy. It also appears to be effective in approximately half of patients with bipolar disorder and is well tolerated. Oxcarbazepine is a structural derivative of carbamazepine, with a ketone in place of the carbon-carbon double bond on the dibenzazepine ring. This difference helps reduce the impact on the liver of metabolizing the drug, and also prevents the serious forms of anemia or agranulocytosis occasionally associated with carbamazepine. Aside from this reduction in side effects, it is thought to have the same mechanism as carbamazepine - sodium channel inhibition (presumed to be the main mechanism of action) - and is generally used to treat the same conditions. Oxcarbazepine is a prodrug
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Tiotropium bromide

    Tiotropium bromide

    • Used To Treat: Asthma
    Tiotropium bromide (INN) is a long-acting, 24 hour, anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tiotropium bromide capsules for inhalation are co-promoted by Boehringer-Ingelheim and Pfizer under the trade name Spiriva. It is also manufactured and marketed by Cipla under trade name Tiova. Tiotropium is used for maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It is not however used for acute exacerbations. Adverse effects are mainly related to its antimuscarinic effects. Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) associated with tiotropium therapy include: dry mouth and/or throat irritation. Rarely (
    7.00
    1 votes
    188
    Valganciclovir

    Valganciclovir

    • Trials: Valganciclovir (Valcyte) for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients Who Have Elevated Antibody Titers Against Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6)and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
    • Used To Treat: Cytomegalovirus retinitis
    Valganciclovir hydrochloride (Valcyte, manufactured by Hoffmann–La Roche (Roche), and also known as Cymeval, Valcyt, Valixa, Darilin, Rovalcyte, Patheon, and Syntex) is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus infections. As the L-valyl ester of ganciclovir, it is actually a prodrug for ganciclovir. After oral administration, it is rapidly converted to ganciclovir by intestinal and hepatic esterases. Orally, available in 450 mg pink tablets. For patients who have received a transplant, the recommended dose is 900 mg once daily, starting within 10 days of transplantation and continuing for 6 months post transplantation. HIV patients might initially need to take the dose 900 mg twice daily for the first 3 weeks. It has been proposed that valganciclovir could be used in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. Following some reported success in 9 out of 12 patients at Stanford University in California, a follow-up double-blind, controlled study of 30 patients was completed, and although data has not yet been released, according to the Virus Induced CNS Dysfunction Association, "the data Dr. Montoya presented at the 2008 International Conference on HHV-6&7 indicated that
    7.00
    1 votes
    189
    BU-LAD

    BU-LAD

    BU-LAD, also known as 6-butyl-6-nor-lysergic acid diethylamide, is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TiHKAL. BU-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, but is significantly less potent than LSD, with a dose of 500 micrograms producing only mild effects.
    5.33
    3 votes
    190
    Midazolam

    Midazolam

    • Used To Treat: Agitation
    Midazolam ( /mɪˈdæzəlæm/, marketed in English-speaking countries under the trade names Dormicum, Hypnovel, and Versed, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1970s. The drug is used for treatment of acute seizures, moderate to severe insomnia, and for inducing sedation and amnesia before medical procedures. It possesses profoundly potent anxiolytic, amnestic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, skeletal muscle relaxant, and sedative properties. Midazolam has a fast recovery time and is the most commonly used benzodiazepine as a premedication for sedation; less commonly it is used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist drug, can be used to treat an overdose of midazolam, as well as to reverse sedation. However, flumazenil can trigger seizures in mixed overdoses and in benzodiazepine-dependent individuals, so is not used in most cases. Administration of midazolam by the intranasal or the buccal route (absorption via the gums and cheek) as an alternative to rectally administered diazepam is becoming increasingly popular for the emergency treatment of seizures in children. Midazolam is also used for
    4.50
    4 votes
    191
    Nicotine

    Nicotine

    • Used To Treat: Tobacco use disorder
    Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) that acts as a nicotinic acetylcholine agonist and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. The biosynthesis takes place in the roots and accumulation occurs in the leaves of the Solanaceae. It constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco and is present in the range of 2–7 µg/kg of various edible plants. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical; therefore, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past and nicotine analogs such as imidacloprid are currently widely used. In low doses (an average cigarette yields about 1 mg of absorbed nicotine), the substance acts as a stimulant in mammals, while high amounts (30–60 mg) can be fatal. This stimulant effect is the main factor responsible for the dependence-forming properties of tobacco smoking. According to the American Heart Association, nicotine addiction has historically been one of the hardest addictions to break, while the pharmacological and behavioral characteristics that determine tobacco addiction are similar to those determining addiction to heroin and cocaine. The nicotine content of popular American-brand cigarettes has slowly
    4.50
    4 votes
    192
    Buspirone

    Buspirone

    • Side effects: Headache
    • Used To Treat: Depressive Disorder
    Buspirone (pronounced /ˈbjuːspɨroʊn/ BEW-spi-rohn), trade name Buspar (pronounced BYOO-spar), is an anxiolytic psychoactive drug of the azapirone chemical class and is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). In 1986, Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for buspirone in the treatment of GAD. The BMS patent placed on buspirone expired in 2001 and buspirone is now available as a generic drug. Although not approved for this indication, studies have shown buspirone to be an effective augmentation agent alongside treatment with SSRIs for clinical depression. Most common adverse effects: Buspirone has the following contraindications: Buspirone has been shown in vitro to be metabolized by CYP3A4. This finding is consistent with the in vivo interactions observed between buspirone and the following inhibitors / inducers of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), among others: The likely mechanism of the interaction caused by grapefruit juice is delayed gastric emptying / inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism of buspirone. There have been reports of the occurrence of elevated blood pressure when Buspirone
    6.00
    2 votes
    193
    Cisapride

    Cisapride

    • Used To Treat: Dyspepsia
    Cisapride is a gastroprokinetic agent, a drug which increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It acts directly as a serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist and indirectly as a parasympathomimetic. Stimulation of the serotonin receptors increases acetylcholine release in the enteric nervous system. It has been sold under the trade names Prepulsid (Janssen-Ortho) and Propulsid (in the U.S.). It was discovered by Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1980. In many countries, it has been either withdrawn from the market or had its indications limited because of side effects. The commercial preparations of this drug are the racemic mixture of both enantiomers of the compound. The (+) enantiomer itself has the major pharmacologic effects and does not induce many of the detrimental side effects of the mixture. Cisapride increases muscle tone in the esophageal sphincter in people with gastroesophageal reflux disease. It also increases gastric emptying in people with diabetic gastroparesis. It has been used to treat bowel constipation. In many countries, it has been either withdrawn or had its indications limited because of reports of the side effect long QT syndrome, which predisposes to
    6.00
    2 votes
    194
    Ethcathinone

    Ethcathinone

    Ethcathinone, also known as ethylpropion or ETH-CAT, is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone chemical classes. It is an active metabolite of the prodrug diethylcathinone and is fully responsible for its effects. Ethcathinone has been identified as an ingredient in both quasi-legal "party pills", and, along with mephedrone, has also been reported as having been sold as "ecstasy" in the Australian city of Cairns. The pharmacology for ethcathinone appeared alongside other psychostimulants in a paper by Rothman and Baumann in 2006. The predominant two modes of action for ethcathinone is as a moderately active releaser of noradrenaline (EC50 = 99.3nM); however it is only a relatively weak inhibitor of dopamine reuptake (Ki = 1,014nM). Since diethylcathinone appears to be an inactive prodrug and only becomes active after it has been further metabolized to ethcathinone, it thereby would appear rational to consider that ethcathinone would also be expected to be N-dealkylated upon its consumption to the more active drug cathinone that is more able to reliably stimulate the release of dopamine. However, in contrast to diethylcathinone, ethcathinone is not
    6.00
    2 votes
    195
    H2 antagonist

    H2 antagonist

    The H2 receptor antagonists are a class of drugs used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing the production of acid by these cells. H2 antagonists are used in the treatment of dyspepsia, although they have been surpassed in popularity by the more effective proton pump inhibitors. In the United States, all four FDA-approved members of the group—cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, and nizatidine—are available over the counter in relatively low doses. The prototypical H2 antagonist was cimetidine, developed by Smith, Kline & French (now GlaxoSmithKline) in the mid-to-late 1960s and first marketed in 1976; sold under the trade name Tagamet, cimetidine would later become the first ever blockbuster drug. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) led to the development of other agents—starting with ranitidine, first sold as Zantac—which has fewer adverse effects and drug interactions and is more potent. Cimetidine was the prototypical histamine H2-receptor antagonist from which the later members of the class were developed. Cimetidine was the culmination of a project at Smith, Kline & French (SK&F; now GlaxoSmithKline) by James
    6.00
    2 votes
    196
    Nimetazepam

    Nimetazepam

    Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin) is an intermediate-acting hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It was first synthesized by a team at Hoffmann-La Roche in 1962. It possesses hypnotic, anxiolytic, sedative, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Nimetazepam is also an anticonvulsant. It is sold in 5 mg tablets known as Erimin. It is generally prescribed for the treatment of short-term severe insomnia in patients who have difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep. Taken orally, nimetazepam has very good bioavailability with nearly 100% being absorbed from the gut. It is among the most rapidly absorbed and quickest acting oral benzodiazepines, and hypnotic effects are typically felt within 15–30 minutes after oral ingestion. The blood level decline of the parent drug was biphasic with the short half-life ranging from 0.5-0.7 hours and the terminal half-life from 8–26.5 hours (mean 17.25 hours). It is the N-methylated analogue of nitrazepam (Mogadon, Alodorm), to which it is partially metabolised. Nitrazepam has a long elimination half-life, so effects of repeated dosage tend to be cumulative. Nimetazepam has a reputation in Malaysia for being
    6.00
    2 votes
    197
    Adenosine

    Adenosine

    • Used To Treat: Paroxysmal tachycardia
    Adenosine (ADO) is a purine nucleoside comprising a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. In the USA, it is marketed as Adenocard. Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer—as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)—as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP. It is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal, with levels increasing with each hour an organism is awake. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that modulates many physiological processes. Cellular signaling by adenosine occurs through four known adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3). Extracellular adenosine concentrations from normal cells are approximately 300 nM; however, in response to cellular damage (e.g. in inflammatory or ischemic tissue), these concentrations are quickly elevated (600–1,200 nM). Thus, in regard to stress or injury, the function of adenosine is primarily that of cytoprotection preventing tissue damage during instances of hypoxia, ischemia, and seizure
    5.50
    2 votes
    198
    Chlorpromazine

    Chlorpromazine

    • Used To Treat: Schizophrenia
    Chlorpromazine (as chlorpromazine hydrochloride, abbreviated CPZ; marketed in the United States as Thorazine and elsewhere as Largactil) is a dopamine antagonist of the typical antipsychotic class of medications possessing additional antiadrenergic, antiserotonergic, anticholinergic and antihistaminergic properties used to treat schizophrenia. First synthesized on December 11, 1950, chlorpromazine was the first drug developed with specific antipsychotic action, and would serve as the prototype for the phenothiazine class of drugs, which later grew to comprise several other agents. The introduction of chlorpromazine into clinical use has been described as the single greatest advance in psychiatric care, dramatically improving the prognosis of patients in psychiatric hospitals worldwide; the availability of antipsychotic drugs curtailed indiscriminate use of electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery, and was one of the driving forces behind the deinstitutionalization movement. Chlorpromazine works on a variety of receptors in the central nervous system, producing anticholinergic, antidopaminergic, antihistaminic, and weak antiadrenergic effects. Both the clinical indications and
    5.50
    2 votes
    199
    Halazepam

    Halazepam

    • Used To Treat: Anxiety disorder
    Halazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative and is marketed under the brand names Alapryl and Pacinone It is no longer marketed in the United States. It had been marketed under the name Paxipam, but was withdrawn by its manufacturer, Schering Plough, for poor sales. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is a trifluoroethyl derivative of nordazepam. While its structure may be similar to chlordiazepoxide and diazepam, it has both less toxicity and less tendency to cause paradoxical hostility and aggression than either of them. Halazepam has active benzodiazepine metabolites. Halazepam is indicated for the treatment of anxiety.
    5.50
    2 votes
    200
    Indatraline

    Indatraline

    Indatraline (Lu 19-005) is a non-selective monoamine transporter inhibitor that has been shown to block the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin with effects similar to those of cocaine. However, the effects have been shown to have slower onset and longer duration than cocaine, suggesting that the compound may, along with similar compounds, be used for treatment of cocaine addiction. Apparently, Lu 19-005 can be used to block the action of methamphetamine and MDMA. Compare Indatraline with tametraline since they are directly homologous. There are some differences though. Superposition should make it possible to see that there is at least a relationship between the pharmacophore of indatraline and various phenyltropanes. More recently, additional work has been done also: If indatraline is N-alkylated it is possible to slow the onset of action, if the choice of alkyl group is sufficiently bulky, so that it is not until N-demethylation occurs that the molecules become really active. N-methyl indatraline has a much longer duration than indatraline, because norindatraline is inactive whereas demethylating N-methyl-indatraline does not terminate the actions of the parent
    5.50
    2 votes
    201
    Lormetazepam

    Lormetazepam

    Lormetazepam (INN, or methyl-lorazepam, is a drug which is a short to intermediate acting 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Lormetazepam is not approved for sale in the United States or Canada, though it is licensed in the Netherlands as 1 and 2 mg tablets, under the brand names Loramet and Noctamid and as generic, available from several different manufacturers. It is licensed in the UK as 0.5 and 1 mg tablets for short term treatment (2–4 weeks) of moderately severe insomnia. The Dutch, British and French system called the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis for assessing whether drugs should be included in drug formularies based on clinical efficacy, adverse effects, pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity and drug interactions was used to assess lormetazepam. A Dutch analysis using the system found that lormetazepam could be suitable to be included in drug prescribing formularies, although zolpidem, zopiclone and temazepam had higher scores and thus can be seen as relatively favorable. Lormetazepam is considered a hypnotic benzodiazepine and is officially indicated for
    5.50
    2 votes
    202
    Pemoline

    Pemoline

    • Used To Treat: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Pemoline (pemolina) was first synthesized in 1913 but its activity was not discovered until the 1930s. Under the names Betanamin, Cylert, Tradon, and Ceractiv it was used as a medication to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, it is a Schedule IV drug. It is no longer generally available in the United States. Pemoline Magnesium, a chelate between pemoline and magnesium, displays certain pharmacological advantages over pemoline. The compound is the monohydrate of an equimolar mixture between pemoline and magnesium hydroxide. The absorption of pemoline magnesium is more rapid and the duration of action is extended, and the effect is more reliable. Unlike other psychostimulants which are dopaminergic, pemoline is thought to be dopamimetic in nature. Pemoline passes the blood brain barrier and acts as a surrogate for dopamine, not affecting endogenous intracellular dopamine. For this reason, and the fact that it has little or no affinity for adrenaline receptors, pemoline has minimal sympathomimetic side effects such as: dry mouth, reduction in appetite, high blood pressure, increased heart rate,
    5.50
    2 votes
    203
    Pizotifen

    Pizotifen

    Pizotifen (INN) or pizotyline (USAN), trade name Sandomigran, is a benzocycloheptene based drug used as a medicine, primarily as a preventative to reduce the frequency of recurrent migraine headaches. The main medical use for pizotifen is for the prevention of vascular headache including migraine and cluster headache. Pizotifen is one of a range of medications used for this purpose, other options include propranolol, topiramate, valproic acid and amitriptyline. While pizotifen is reasonably effective, its use is limited by side effects, principally drowsiness and weight gain, and it is usually not the first choice medicine for preventing migraines, instead being used as an alternative when other drugs have failed to be effective. Other applications for which pizotifen may be used include as an antidepressant, or for the treatment of anxiety or social phobia. Animal studies also suggest that pizotyline could be used in the treatment of serotonin syndrome or MDMA overdose in a similar manner to the closely related antihistamine/antiserotonin drug cyproheptadine. Side effects include sedation, dry mouth, drowsiness, increased appetite and weight gain. Occasionally it may cause nausea,
    5.50
    2 votes
    204
    Propranolol

    Propranolol

    • Used To Treat: Ventricular fibrillation
    Propranolol (INN) is a sympatholytic non-selective beta blocker. Sympatholytics are used to treat hypertension, anxiety and panic. It was the first successful beta blocker developed. Propranolol is available in generic form as propranolol hydrochloride, as well as an AstraZeneca and Wyeth product under the brand names Inderal, Inderal LA, Avlocardyl, Deralin, Dociton, Inderalici, InnoPran XL, Sumial, Anaprilinum, Bedranol SR (Sandoz). Propranolol is indicated for the management of various conditions including: While once first-line treatment for hypertension, the role for beta-blockers was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line as they perform less well than other drugs, particularly in the elderly, and evidence is increasing that the most frequently used beta-blockers at usual doses carry an unacceptable risk of provoking type 2 diabetes. Propranolol is also used to lower portal vein pressure in portal hypertension and prevent esophageal variceal bleeding. Propranolol is often used by musicians and other performers to prevent stage fright. It has been taken by surgeons to reduce their own innate hand tremors during surgery. Propranolol 80 mg daily can be used
    5.50
    2 votes
    205
    Tiagabine

    Tiagabine

    • Used To Treat: Epilepsy
    Tiagabine ( /taɪˈæɡəbiːn/ is an anti-convulsive medication produced by Cephalon and marketed under the brand name Gabitril. The drug was discovered at Novo Nordisk in Denmark in 1988 and was co-developed with Abbott. After a period of co-promotion, Cephalon licensed Tiagabine from Abbott/Novo and now is the exclusive producer. The medication is also used in the treatment of panic disorder, as are a few other anticonvulsants. Tiagabine is approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an adjunctive treatment for partial seizures in ages 12 and up. It may also be prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and neuropathic pain (including fibromyalgia). For anxiety and neuropathic pain, tiagabine is used primarily to augment other treatments. Tiagabine may be used alongside SSRIs, SNRIs or benzodiazepines for anxiety, or antidepressants, gabapentin, anticonvulsants or opiates for neuropathic pain. It is believed that the pharmacology is related to its ability, documented in in vitro experiments, to enhance the activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. These experiments have shown that tiagabine binds to
    5.50
    2 votes
    206
    Chloral hydrate

    Chloral hydrate

    • Side effects: Diarrhea
    Chloral hydrate is an unapproved, Schedule IV sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. The name chloral hydrate indicates that it is formed from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one molecule of water. Its chemical formula is C2H3Cl3O2. It was discovered through the chlorination of ethanol in 1832 by Justus von Liebig in Gießen. Its sedative properties were first published in 1869 and subsequently, because of its easy synthesis, its use was widespread. It was widely used recreationally and misprescribed in the late 19th century. Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and alcohol, readily forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in alcohol called "knockout drops" was used to prepare a Mickey Finn. More reputable uses of chloral hydrate include its use as a clearing agent for chitin and fibers and as a key ingredient in Hoyer's mounting medium, which is used to prepare permanent or semipermanent microscope slides of small organisms, histological sections, and chromosome squashes. It is, together with chloroform, a minor side-product of the chlorination of water when organic residues are present in the water,
    6.00
    1 votes
    207
    Clopidogrel

    Clopidogrel

    • Used To Treat: Stroke
    Clopidogrel (INN) is an oral, thienopyridine class antiplatelet agent used to inhibit blood clots in coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. It is marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Sanofi under the trade name Plavix. The drug works by irreversibly inhibiting a receptor called P2Y12, an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) chemoreceptor on platelet cell membranes. Adverse effects include hemorrhage, severe neutropenia, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Clopidogrel is a prodrug, the action of which may be related to an ADP receptor on platelet cell membranes. The drug specifically and irreversibly inhibits the P2Y12 subtype of ADP receptor, which is important in activation of platelets and eventual cross-linking by the protein fibrin. The blockade of this receptor inhibits platelet aggregation by blocking activation of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa pathway. The IIb/IIIa complex functions as a receptor mainly for fibrinogen and vitronectin but also for fibronectin and von Willebrand factor. Activation of this receptor complex is the "final common pathway" for platelet aggregation and is important in the cross-linking of platelets by
    6.00
    1 votes
    208
    Sultiame

    Sultiame

    Sultiame (rINN, also known as sulthiame) is a sulfonamide and inhibitor of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. It is used as an anticonvulsant. Sultiame was first synthesised in the laboratories of Bayer AG in the mid 1950s and eventually launched as Ospolot in Europe and other markets the early 1960s. It never became a registered drug in the USA. The brand was transferred to Desitin GmbH in 1993 and is sold in several European countries, in Israel, Japan, and Australia. Sultiame became established as a second-line drug for treatment of partial epilepsy in the 1960s and 1970s and was often used in combination with the established anticonvulsant phenytoin. Temporal lobe seizures appeared particularly responsive to sultiame. Doubts subsequently arose as to whether sultiame has intrinsic anticonvulsant properties. After discovering sultiame's ability to raise the blood levels of phenytoin, it was assumed that sultiame would only act in combination with phenytoin. This finding, together with the equivocal results of a study in the US, resulted in a quick decline of sultiame's use. It was only in 1988, that the German child neurologist Hermann Doose discovered its specific effects in benign
    6.00
    1 votes
    209
    ACE inhibitor

    ACE inhibitor

    • Used To Treat: Inflammatory heart disease
    An ACE inhibitor (or angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) and congestive heart failure. Originally synthesized from compounds found in pit viper venom, ACE inhibitors inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (a component of the blood pressure-regulating renin-angiotensin system), thereby decreasing the tension of blood vessels and blood volume, thus lowering blood pressure. Frequently prescribed ACE inhibitors include perindopril, captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, and ramipril. ACE inhibitors are used primarily to treat hypertension, although they may also be prescribed for cardiac failure, diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, renal involvement in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma renal crisis ), left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and acute myocardial infarction. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. One mechanism for maintaining the blood pressure is the release of a protein called renin from cells in the kidney (to be specific, the juxtaglomerular apparatus). This produces another protein, angiotensin, which
    5.00
    2 votes
    210
    Paracetamol

    Paracetamol

    • Used To Treat: Pain
    Paracetamol INN ( /ˌpærəˈsiːtəmɒl/ or /ˌpærəˈsɛtəmɒl/), or acetaminophen USAN /əˌsiːtəˈmɪnəfɨn/, is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reducer). It is commonly used for the relief of headaches and other minor aches and pains and is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu remedies. In combination with opioid analgesics, paracetamol can also be used in the management of more severe pain such as post-surgical pain and providing palliative care in advanced cancer patients. The onset of analgesia is approximately 11 minutes after oral administration of paracetamol, and its half-life is 1–4 hours. Though acetaminophen is used to treat inflammatory pain, it is not generally classified as an NSAID because it exhibits only weak anti-inflammatory activity. While generally safe for use at recommended doses (1,000 mg per single dose and up to 4,000 mg per day for adults), acute overdoses of paracetamol can cause potentially fatal liver damage and, in rare individuals, a normal dose can do the same; the risk is heightened by alcohol consumption. Paracetamol toxicity is the foremost cause of acute liver failure in the Western world, and accounts
    5.00
    2 votes
    211
    Sodium valproate

    Sodium valproate

    • Used To Treat: Alzheimer's disease
    Sodium valproate (INN) or valproate sodium (USAN) is the sodium salt of valproic acid and is an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy, anorexia nervosa, panic attack, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, migraine and bipolar disorder, as well as other psychiatric conditions requiring the administration of a mood stabilizer. Sodium valproate can be used to control acute episodes of mania and acute stress reaction. Side effects can include tiredness, tremors, nausea, vomiting and sedation. The intravenous formulations are used when oral administration is not possible. In pregnancy, valproate has the highest risk of birth defects of any of the commonly used antiepilepsy drugs. However, some epilepsy can only be controlled by valproate, and seizures also pose grave risk to mother and child. Some of the common adverse effects include tiredness, tremor, sedation and gastrointestinal disturbances. In addition, about 10% of the users experience reversible hair loss. Trade names are in bold, followed by the manufacturer. In much of Europe, Depakine and Depakine Chrono (tablets) are equivalent to Epilim and Epilim Chrono above. Sodium valproate is a weak blocker of
    5.00
    2 votes
    212
    Vinylbital

    Vinylbital

    Vinylbital, also known as butylvinyl, is a sedative hypnotic drug which is a barbiturate derivative. It was developed by Aktieboleget Pharmacia in the 1950s.
    5.00
    2 votes
    213
    Methapyrilene

    Methapyrilene

    • Used To Treat: Perennial Allergic Rhinitis
    Methapyrilene is a antihistamine and anticholinergic of the pyridine chemical class which was developed in the early 1950s. It was sold under the trade names Co-Pyronil and Histadyl EC. It has relatively strong sedative effects, to the extent that its primary use was as a medication for insomnia rather than for its antihistamine action. Together with scopolamine, it was the main ingredient in Sominex, Nytol, and Sleep-Eze. It also provided the sedative component of Excedrin PM. All of these products were reformulated in the late 1970s because methapyrilene was demonstrated to cause liver cancer in rats when given chronically.
    4.00
    3 votes
    214
    Bezitramide

    Bezitramide

    Bezitramide is a narcotic analgesic. Bezitramide itself is a prodrug which is readily hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to its main metabolite, despropionyl-bezitramide. Bezitramide was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1961. It is most commonly marketed under the trade name Burgodin. The drug was pulled from the shelves in the Netherlands in 2004 after fatal overdose cases, including one where a five year old child took one tablet from his mother's purse, ate it, and promptly died. Bezitramide is regulated much the same as morphine in all known jurisdictions and is a Schedule II substance under the United States' Controlled Substances Act of 1970. However, it has to this point never been marketed in the United States.
    4.50
    2 votes
    215
    Codeinone

    Codeinone

    Codeinone is 1/3 as active as codeine as an analgesic but it is an important intermediate in the production of hydrocodone, a painkiller about 3/4 the potency of morphine. Codeinone can be described as the methylether of morphinone: 3-methyl-morphinone. Codeinone can be also described as the ketone of codeine: codeine-6-one.
    5.00
    1 votes
    216
    LAE-32

    LAE-32

    D-Lysergic Acid Ethylamide, (LAE-32) is a derivative of ergine. It is reported to have some LSD-like effects but is weaker and shorter lasting, with an active dose reported to be between 0.5 and 1.5 milligrams.
    5.00
    1 votes
    217
    Reposal

    Reposal

    Reposal is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1960s in Denmark. It has sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties, and was used primarily for the treatment of insomnia.
    5.00
    1 votes
    218
    Tenatoprazole

    Tenatoprazole

    Tenatoprazole (rINN, also benatoprazole), discovered in Japan, is a proton pump inhibitor indicated for the treatment of reflux oesophagitis and peptic ulcer. Discovered by Mitsubishi Pharma, it is an imidazopyridine derivative and has an imidazopyridine ring in place of the benzimidazole moiety found in other proton pump inhibitors. It is activated slowly and its inhibition is said to be resistant to reversal. Tenatoprazole has an extended plasma half-life which makes it more effective in the treatment of nocturnal acid breakthrough than esomeprazole. Tenatoprazole is a prodrug of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) class, which is converted to the active sulfenamide or sulfenic acid by acid in the secretory canaliculus of the stimulated parietal cell of the stomach. This active species binds to luminally accessible cysteines of the gastric H+,K+ -ATPase resulting in disulfide formation and acid secretion inhibition. Tenatoprazole binds at the catalytic subunit of the gastric acid pump with a stoichiometry of 2.6 nmol mg(-1) of the enzyme in vitro. In vivo, maximum binding of tenatoprazole was 2.9 nmol mg(-1) of the enzyme at 2 h after IV administration. The binding sites of
    5.00
    1 votes
    219
    Cyprenorphine

    Cyprenorphine

    Cyprenorphine (M-285) is a drug which is an opioid derivative. It is related to more well-known opioids such as buprenorphine, which is used as an analgesic and for the treatment of opioid addiction, and diprenorphine, which is used as an antidote to reverse the effects of other opioids. Cyprenorphine has mixed agonist-antagonist effects at opioid receptors, like those of buprenorphine. However the effects of cyprenorphine are somewhat different, as it produces pronounced dysphoric and hallucinogenic effects which limit its potential use as an analgesic.
    4.00
    2 votes
    220
    N,O-Dimethyl-4-(2-naphthyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

    N,O-Dimethyl-4-(2-naphthyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

    N,O-Dimethyl-4β-(2-naphthyl)piperidine-3β-carboxylate (DMNPC) is a piperidine based stimulant drug which is synthesised from arecoline. It is similar to nocaine in chemical structure, and has two and a half times more activity than cocaine as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. However it is also a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, with similar affinity to fluoxetine. It is a structural isomer of another potent dopamine reuptake inhibitor, HDMP-28. Clearly it is not just the SS enantiomer of the title compound that is an active MAT inhibitor. Interestingly, for the SR enantiomer, increased DAT affinity is seen upon demethylation. This is the same choice of isomer used in the production of Paxil.
    4.00
    2 votes
    221
    Cyclobarbital

    Cyclobarbital

    Cyclobarbital, also known as cyclobarbitol or cyclobarbitone, is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative.
    4.00
    1 votes
    222
    Delorazepam

    Delorazepam

    Delorazepam also known as chlordesmethyldiazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine and a derivative of desmethyldiazepam. It is marketed in Italy, where it is available under the trade name EN and Dadumir. Delorazepam (chlordesmethyldiazepam) is also an active metabolite of the benzodiazepine drug cloxazolam. Adverse effects may include hangover type effects, drowsiness, behavioural impairments and short-term memory impairments. Similar to other benzodiazepines delorazepam has anxiolytic, skeletal muscle relaxant, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties. Delorazepam is mainly used as an anxiolytic because of its long elimination half-life; showing superiority over the short-acting drug lorazepam. In comparison with the antidepressant drugs, paroxetine and imipramine, delorazepam was found to be more effective in the short-term but after 4 weeks the antidepressants showed superior anti-anxiety effects. Delorazepam is also used as a premedication for dental phobia for its anxiolytic properties. Delorazepam has also demonstrated effectiveness in treating alcohol withdrawal. Delorazepam is available in tablet and liquid drop formulations. The liquid drop formulation is absorbed more
    4.00
    1 votes
    223
    Emylcamate

    Emylcamate

    Emylcamate (marketed as Striatran by Merck) is an anxiolytic and muscle relaxant. It was patented in the US in 1961 (US Patent 2,972,564) and advertised for the treatment of anxiety and tension. It was claimed to be superior to meprobamate, which was the market leader at the time. It is no longer prescribed. A study of the drug's effects in mice was done in 1959. It concluded that at 50 mg/kg emylcamate gave a 63% decrease in motor activity compared to meprobamate's 32% decrease, a doubling in effective potency. If also established the therapeutic index in mice: Emylcamate also has a faster intra-parenteral onset then meprobabamate, 3 minutes compared to 35.
    4.00
    1 votes
    224
    Lorazepam

    Lorazepam

    • Used To Treat: Catatonia
    Lorazepam (initially marketed under the brand names Ativan and Temesta) is a high-potency, short- to intermediate-acting, 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine drug that has all six intrinsic benzodiazepine effects: anxiolytic, amnesic, sedative/hypnotic, anticonvulsant, antiemetic and muscle relaxant. Lorazepam is used for the short-term treatment of anxiety, insomnia, acute seizures including status epilepticus and sedation of hospitalized patients, as well as sedation of aggressive patients. Lorazepam is considered to be a short-acting drug which, similar to other benzodiazepines, exerts its therapeutic, as well as adverse, effects via its interaction at benzodiazepine binding sites, which are located on GABAA receptors in the central nervous system. After its introduction in 1977, lorazepam's principal use was in treating anxiety. Among benzodiazepines, lorazepam has a relatively high addictive potential. Lorazepam also has abuse potential; the main types of misuse are for recreational purposes or continued use against medical advice. Its sedative-hypnotic and anterograde amnesia properties are sometimes used for criminal purposes. Long-term effects of benzodiazepines include tolerance,
    4.00
    1 votes
    225
    Quazepam

    Quazepam

    • Used To Treat: Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
    Quazepam (marketed under brand names Doral, Dormalin) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by the Schering Corporation in the 1970s. Quazepam is indicated for the treatment of insomnia including sleep induction and sleep maintenance. Quazepam induces impairment of motor function and has hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties with less overdose potential than other benzodiazepines. Quazepam is an effective hypnotic which induces and maintains sleep without disruption of the sleep architecture. Quazepam is a trifluoroethyl type of benzodiazepine. Quazepam is unique amongst benzodiazepines in that it selectively targets the GABAA type1 receptors which are responsible for inducing sleep. Its mechanism of action is very similar to zolpidem and zaleplon in its pharmacology and can successfully substitute for zolpidem and zaleplon in animal studies. Quazepam is manufactured by the pharmaceutical corporation Schering-Plough. Quazepam is used for short term treatment of insomnia related to sleep induction or sleep maintenance problems and has demonstrated superiority over other benzodiazepines such as temazepam. It had a fewer incidence of side effects than temazepam, including
    4.00
    1 votes
    226
    Zolpidem

    Zolpidem

    • Used To Treat: Insomnia
    Zolpidem (sold under the brand names Ambien, Ambien CR, Stilnox, and Sublinox) is a prescription medication used for the treatment of insomnia, as well as some brain disorders. It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to GABAA receptors at the same location as benzodiazepines. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (two to three hours). Zolpidem has not adequately demonstrated effectiveness in maintaining sleep (unless delivered in a controlled-release form); however, it is effective in initiating sleep. Its hypnotic effects are similar to those of the benzodiazepine class of drugs, but it is molecularly distinct from the classical benzodiazepine molecule and is classified as an imidazopyridine. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, which is used for benzodiazepine overdose, can also reverse zolpidem's sedative/hypnotic and memory-impairing effects. As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the drug's effects are not evident until dosages 10 and 20 times those required for sedation, respectively, are reached.
    4.00
    1 votes
    227
    Benzylpiperazine

    Benzylpiperazine

    Benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a recreational drug with euphoric, stimulant properties. The effects produced by BZP are comparable to those produced by amphetamine. Adverse effects have been reported following its use including acute psychosis, renal toxicity, and seizures. No deaths have been reported following a sole ingestion of BZP, although there have been at least two deaths from the combination of BZP and MDMA. Its sale is banned in a few countries, including Australia, New Zealand, the United States, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, Romania and other parts of Europe. However, its legal status is currently less restrictive in some other countries such as Canada, with investigations and regulations pending under European Union laws. It is often claimed that BZP was originally synthesized as a potential antihelminthic (anti-parasitic) agent for use in farm animals. However, there are some references to BZP in medical literature that predate interest in piperazines as antihelminthics. Even so, the majority of the early work with the piperazines were investigations into their potential use as antihelminthics with the earliest clinical trials in the literature relating to
    0.00
    0 votes
    228
    Cinolazepam

    Cinolazepam

    Cinolazepam (marketed under the brand name Gerodorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Due to its strong sedative properties, it is primarily used as an hypnotic. Cinolazepam is not approved for sale in the United States or Canada.
    0.00
    0 votes
    229
    Contraceptive patch

    Contraceptive patch

    A contraceptive patch is a transdermal patch applied to the skin that releases synthetic estrogen and progestin hormones to prevent pregnancy. They have been shown to be as effective as the combined oral contraceptive pill with perfect use, and the patch may be more effective in typical use. The only currently available contraceptive patches are Ortho Evra, marketed in the United States by Ortho-McNeil, and Evra, marketed in Canada by Janssen-Ortho and in the United Kingdom and other countries by Janssen-Cilag. The patches are packaged in boxes of three and are only available by prescription. The contraceptive patch is often informally referred to as "the Patch." A woman applies her first patch onto her upper outer arm, buttocks, abdomen or thigh on either the first day of her menstrual cycle (day 1) or on the first Sunday following that day, whichever she prefers. The day of application is known from that point as patch change day. Seven days later, when patch change day comes again, the woman removes the patch and applies another to one of the approved locations on the body. This process is repeated again on the next patch change day. On the following patch change day, the patch
    0.00
    0 votes
    230
    Dexfenfluramine

    Dexfenfluramine

    • Used To Treat: Obesity
    Dexfenfluramine, marketed as dexfenfluramine hydrochloride under the name Redux, is a serotoninergic anorectic drug: it reduces appetite by increasing the amount of extracellular serotonin in the brain. It is the d-enantiomer of fenfluramine and is structurally similar to amphetamine, but lacks any psychologically stimulating effects. Dexfenfluramine was for some years in the mid-1990s approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the purposes of weight loss. However, following multiple concerns about the cardiovascular side-effects of the drug, such approval was withdrawn and it was retired from the market in 1997. After it was removed in the US, dexfenfluramine was also pulled out in other global markets. It was later superseded by sibutramine, which although initially considered a safer alternative to both dexfenfluramine and fenfluramine, was also removed from the US market in 2010. The drug was manufactured by Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, a company co-founded by Richard Wurtman, aimed at marketing discoveries by Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientists. In the case of Redux, Interneuron's manufacture was under licence to Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories.
    0.00
    0 votes
    231
    Dihydrocodeine

    Dihydrocodeine

    • Used To Treat: Post-Operative Pain
    Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC, Drocode, Paracodeine and Parzone and known by the brand names of Synalgos DC, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, Contugesic, New Bron Solution-ACE, Huscode, Drocode, Paracodin, Codidol, Didor Continus, Dicogesic, Codhydrine, Dekacodin, DH-Codeine, Didrate, Dihydrin, Hydrocodin, Nadeine, Novicodin, Rapacodin, Fortuss, Remedeine, Dico and DF-118 amongst others (e.g. Paramol), is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic developed in Germany in 1908 and put on the market in 1911. It is prescribed for pain, severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with aspirin or paracetamol, as in co-dydramol. In some countries, controlled-release dihydrocodeine and/or the immediate release forumulations are used as an alternative to methadone in treatment of opioid dependency and addiction. Commonly available as tablets, solutions, elixirs, and other oral forms, dihydrocodeine is also available in some countries as an injectable solution for deep subcutaneous and intra-muscular administration. As with codeine, intravenous administration should be avoided, as it could result in anaphylaxis and dangerous pulmonary edema. In past times, dihydrocodeine suppositories
    0.00
    0 votes
    232
    Dimenhydrinate

    Dimenhydrinate

    • Used To Treat: Vomiting
    Dimenhydrinate (in US marketed under brand names Dramamine, Driminate, Gravol, Gravamin, Vomex, and Vertirosan) is an over-the-counter drug used to prevent nausea and motion sickness. It is marketed in Brazil as Dramin, in Canada as Gravol, in Ecuador as Anautin, in Hungary as Daedalon, in Italy as Xamamina, in Indonesia as Antimo, in Portugal as Viabom, and in Thailand as ไดเมนนีน (Dị men nīn). It is most commonly used as pills, although it is also available in liquid form and in suppositories. Chemically, dimenhydrinate is a salt of two drugs: diphenhydramine, and 8-chlorotheophylline, a chlorinated derivative of theophylline. The effects of dimenhydrinate are very similar to those of diphenhydramine. The main differences are a lower potency, and a longer latency. 50 mg dimenhydrinate contains 27.2 mg of diphenhydramine, so it is less potent at equal doses. Also, dimenhydrinate must dissociate into diphenhydramine and its counterion in the body before it is active, so it produces effects more slowly than diphenhydramine. The drug typically takes a minimum of 4 hours to fully take effect. Theophylline was added in order to counteract drowsiness. Theophylline is very closely
    0.00
    0 votes
    233
    Diphenhydramine

    Diphenhydramine

    • Used To Treat: Common cold
    Diphenhydramine ( /ˌdaɪfɛnˈhaɪdrəmiːn/; abbreviated DPH, sometimes DHM) is a first-generation antihistamine possessing anticholinergic, antitussive, antiemetic, and sedative properties which is mainly used to treat allergies. Like most other first-generation antihistamines, the drug also has a powerful hypnotic effect, and for this reason is often used as a non-prescription sleep aid; especially in the form of diphenhydramine citrate. It is produced and marketed under the trade name Benadryl by McNeil-PPC (a division of Johnson & Johnson) in the U.S., Canada and South Africa (other trade names in other countries: Dimedrol, Daedalon). It is also available as a generic or store brand medication. It is also found in the name-brand products Nytol, Unisom, Tylenol PM, Excedrin PM, Midol PM, Zzzquil and Advil PM, though some Unisom products contain doxylamine instead. It is available as an over-the-counter (OTC) or prescribed HCl injectable. It may also be used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side-effects of many antipsychotics, such as the tremors that haloperidol can cause. In addition, injectable diphenhydramine can be used for life-threatening reactions (anaphylaxis) to allergens
    0.00
    0 votes
    234
    Epinephrine

    Epinephrine

    • Used To Treat: Allergy
    Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline or adrenalin) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Epinephrine has many functions in the body, regulating heart rate, blood vessel and air passage diameters, and metabolic shifts; epinephrine release is a crucial component of the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. In chemical terms, epinephrine is one of a group of monoamines called the catecholamines. It is produced in some neurons of the central nervous system, and in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. This chemical is widely referred to as "adrenaline" outside the United States; however, its United States Adopted Name and International Nonproprietary Name is epinephrine. Epinephrine was chosen as the generic name in the United States because John Abel, who prepared extracts from the adrenal glands in 1897, used that name for his extracts. In 1901, Jokichi Takamine patented a purified adrenal extract, and called it "adrenalin", which was trademarked by Parke, Davis & Co in the U.S. In the belief that Abel's extract was the same as Takamine's, a belief since disputed, epinepherine became the generic name in the
    0.00
    0 votes
    235
    Ethinamate

    Ethinamate

    • Used To Treat: Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
    Ethinamate (Valamin, Valmid) is a short-acting carbamate-derivative sedative-hypnotic medication used to treat insomnia. Regular use leads to drug tolerance, and it is usually not effective for more than 7 days. Prolonged use can lead to dependency. Ethinamate has been replaced by other medicines (particularly benzodiazepines), and it is not available in the Netherlands, the United States or Canada. Ethinamate (1-ethynylcyclohexanone carbamate) is synthesized by combining acetylene with cyclohexanone and then transforming the resulting carbinol into a carbamate by the subsequent reaction with phosgene, and later with ammonia. Some lithium metal or similar is used to make the acetylene react with the cyclohexanone in the first step. There is some reason to believe that the intermediate used in the synthesis of ethinamate is in itself a depressant and is actually the active metabolite of ethinamate.
    0.00
    0 votes
    236
    Ethinylestradiol

    Ethinylestradiol

    Ethinyl estradiol (EE) ( /ˌɛθɨnɨlˌiːstrəˈdaɪ.əl/), also sometimes written as ethinylestradiol, ethynyl estradiol, or ethinyl oestradiol, is a derivative of 17β-estradiol (E2), the major endogenous estrogen in humans. EE is an orally bioactive estrogen used in many formulations of combined oral contraceptive pills. It is one of the most commonly used medications for this purpose. The same contraindications and precautions apply for EE as with other estrogen medications. Estinyl was a preparation of EE alone that was used for the management of menopausal symptoms and female hypogonadism. EE is released into the environment as a xenoestrogen from the urine and feces of people who take it as a medication. The first orally active semisynthetic steroidal estrogen, EE (17α-ethynylestradiol), the 17α-ethynyl analog of E2, was synthesized in 1938 by Hans Herloff Inhoffen and Walter Hohlweg at Schering AG in Berlin. EE was approved by the FDA in the U.S. on June 25, 1943 and marketed by Schering as Estinyl. The FDA withdrew approval of Estinyl effective June 4, 2004 at the request of Schering, who had discontinued marketing Estinyl. While E2 is readily absorbed when taken orally, it is also
    0.00
    0 votes
    237
    Etizolam

    Etizolam

    Etizolam (marketed under the brand name Etilaam, Etizola, Sedekopan, Pasaden or Depas) is a thienodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog. The etizolam molecule differs from a benzodiazepine in that the benzene ring has been replaced by a thiophene ring. It possesses amnesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. A 1mg dose of etizolam is approximately equivalent to that of 10mg of diazepam, see List of benzodiazepines. Very Rare Abrupt or over rapid withdrawal from etizolam as with benzodiazepines may result in the appearance of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, including rebound insomnia. A neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a rare event in benzodiazepine withdrawal has been documented in a case of abrupt withdrawal from etizolam. Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, alcohol or drug-dependent individuals and individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Etizolam a thienodiazepine derivative, is absorbed fairly rapidly with peak plasma levels achieved between 30 minutes and 2 hours and has a mean elimination half life of about 3 and a half hours. However,
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    0 votes
    238
    Hetacillin

    Hetacillin

    Hetacillin is a beta-lactam. Hetacillin is a prodrug and it has no intrinsic antibacterial activity, but is converted by the body to ampicillin, which is active against a variety of organisms. Hetacillin is administered orally. The potassium salt, hetacillin potassium, is administered by injection, either intravenously or intramuscularly. Hetacillin was removed from the market for human use when the discovery was made that it is actually cleaved in the GI tract to formaldehyde and had no benefit to non-ester derivatives (i.e. Ampicillin).
    0.00
    0 votes
    239
    Ketotifen

    Ketotifen

    Ketotifen is a second-generation noncompetitive H1-antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer. It is most commonly sold as a salt of fumaric acid, ketotifen fumarate, and is available in two forms. In its ophthalmic form, it is used to treat allergic conjunctivitis, or the itchy red eyes caused by allergies. In its oral form, it is used to prevent asthma attacks. Side effects include drowsiness, weight gain, dry mouth, irritability, and increased nosebleeds. The drug is marketed as ophthalmic solutions under the brand names Zaditor/Zaditen (Novartis), Alaway (Bausch and Lomb), Zyrtec Itchy-Eye Drops, and Claritin Eye. A generic version of Novartis' Zaditor, ketotifen fumarate ophthalmic solution, 0.025%, is available from Perrigo and distributed as store brands. Ketotifen relieves and prevents eye itchiness and/or irritation associated with most seasonal allergies. It starts working within minutes after administering the drops. The drug has not been studied in children under three. The mean elimination half life is 12 hours. Besides its anti-histaminic activity, it is also a functional leukotriene antagonist and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The drug may also help relieve the symptoms
    0.00
    0 votes
    240
    Mafenide

    Mafenide

    • Used To Treat: Bacterial disease
    Mafenide (INN; usually as mafenide acetate, trade name Sulfamylon) is a sulfonamide. It is used to treat severe burns. Mafenide (Sulfamylon) can interfere with the kidney's role in hydrogen ion excretion, resulting in metabolic acidosis. Mafenide is a topical sulfonamide used as adjunctive therapy of second- and third-degree burns. It is bacteriostatic against many gram-positive and gram-negative organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mafenide is metabolized to a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, which could result in metabolic acidosis. This drug was approved by the FDA in 1948. Some sources state that mafenide is more appropriate for non-facial burns, while chloramphenicol/prednisolone or bacitracin are more appropriate for facial burns. Mechanism of Action: Mafenide works by reducing the bacterial population present in the avascular tissues of burns and permits spontaneous healing of deep partial-thickness burns. Contraindications/Precautions:Sulfonamide hypersensitivity; renal impairment. Superinfection, pain or burning upon application, rash, pruritus, tachypnea, hyperventilation, metabolic acidosis. Drug Interactions: No significant interactions For use adjunctive therapy of
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    0 votes
    241
    MDMA

    MDMA

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an entactogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street pill form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The term "molly" colloquially refers to MDMA in powder or crystalline form, usually implying a higher level of purity. MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, and diminished anxiety. Many studies, particularly in the fields of psychology and cognitive therapy, have suggested that MDMA has therapeutic benefits and facilitates therapy sessions in certain individuals, a practice for which it had formally been used in the past. Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety associated with terminal cancer. MDMA is criminalized in most countries (though some civil society initiatives—such as the Global Commission on Drug Policy—consider educating the public about the drug more important than curtailing supply) and its possession, manufacture, or sale may result in criminal
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    242
    Metharbital

    Metharbital

    Metharbital was patented in 1905 by Emil Fischer working for Merck. It was marketed as Gemonil by Abbott Laboratories. It is a barbiturate anticonvulsant, used in the treatment of epilepsy. It has similar properties to phenobarbital. Metharbital (5,5-diethyl-1-methylbarbituric acid) is synthesized by condensation of diethylmalonic ester with methylurea.
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    0 votes
    243
    Morphine

    Morphine

    • Side effects: Headache
    • Used To Treat: Intractable Pain
    Morphine (INN) ( /ˈmɔrfiːn/; MS Contin, MSIR, Avinza, Kadian, Oramorph, Roxanol, Kapanol) is a potent opiate analgesic drug that is used to relieve severe pain. It was first isolated in 1804 by Friedrich Sertürner, first distributed by him in 1817, and first commercially sold by Merck in 1827, which at the time was a single small chemists' shop. It was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic needle in 1857. It took its name from the Greek god of dreams Morpheus (Greek: Μορφέας). Morphine is the most abundant alkaloid found in opium, the dried sap (latex) derived from shallowly slicing the unripe seedpods of the opium, or common and/or edible, poppy, Papaver somniferum. Morphine was the first active principle purified from a plant source and is one of at least 50 alkaloids of several different types present in opium, poppy straw concentrate, and other poppy derivatives. Morphine is generally 8 to 14 percent of the dry weight of opium, although specially bred cultivars reach 26 percent or produce little morphine at all, under 1 percent, perhaps down to 0.04 percent. The latter varieties, including the 'Przemko' and 'Norman' cultivars of the opium poppy, are used to
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    Olanzapine

    Olanzapine

    • Used To Treat: Schizophrenia
    Olanzapine (trade name Zyprexa or in combination with fluoxetine Symbyax) is an atypical antipsychotic, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Olanzapine is structurally similar to clozapine, but is classified as a thienobenzodiazepine. The olanzapine formulations are manufactured and marketed by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company; the drug went generic in 2011. Sales of Zyprexa in 2008 were $2.2B in the US alone, and $4.7B in total. In 2002, British and Japanese regulatory agencies warned that Zyprexa may be linked to diabetes, but even after the FDA issued a similar warning in 2003, Lilly did not publicly disclose their own findings. Eli Lilly agreed on January 4, 2007 to pay up to $500 million to settle 18,000 lawsuits from people who claimed they developed diabetes or other diseases after taking Zyprexa. On January 15, 2009 Eli Lilly pled guilty to a criminal misdemeanor charge of illegally marketing Zyprexa for off-label use, and agreed to pay $1.4 billion. Although Lilly had evidence that it is not effective for dementia, Zyprexa was marketed for elderly Alzheimer's patients. The drug
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    Omeprazole

    Omeprazole

    • Used To Treat: Duodenal ulcer
    Omeprazole (INN) ( /oʊˈmɛprəzoʊl/) (Prilosec and generics) is a proton pump inhibitor used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD), laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Omeprazole is one of the most widely prescribed drugs internationally and is available over the counter in some countries. Used to treat GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), gastric and duodenum ulceration and gastritis. Omeprazole is combined with the antibiotics clarithromycin and amoxicillin (or metronidazole in penicillin-hypersensitive patients) in the 7–14 day eradication triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Infection by H. pylori is the causative factor in the majority of peptic ulcers. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cell. By acting specifically on the proton pump, omeprazole blocks the final step in acid production, thus reducing gastric acidity. Some of the most frequent side effects of omeprazole (experienced by over 1% of those taking the drug) are headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea,
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    Rasagiline

    Rasagiline

    • Used To Treat: Parkinson's disease
    Rasagiline (Azilect, AGN 1135) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase used as a monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease or as an adjunct therapy in more advanced cases. It is selective for MAO type B over type A by a factor of fourteen. It was developed by Teva Neuroscience, initially investigated by Prof. Moussa Youdim and Prof. John Finberg of the Faculty of Medicine, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. A study called TVP-1012 (an early name for rasagiline) in Early Monotherapy for Parkinson's Disease Outpatients (TEMPO) enrolled 404 patients. A double-blind, randomized, delayed start study, it evaluated patients for a year using a placebo and doses of 1 mg and 2 mg per day. The initial six-month placebo controlled part of the study yielded data that led organizers to conclude both rasagiline doses were superior to placebo. The evaluation compared patients' Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores. The UPDRS is a standard method of measuring PD severity. Starting at six months the placebo treated group received the higher dosage of rasagiline (2 mg) until the conclusion of the study at twelve months and patients' UPDRS scores were compared again.
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    Tetrahydrozoline

    Tetrahydrozoline

    • Side effects: Headache
    • Used To Treat: Hyperaemia
    Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is found in over-the-counter eye drops and nasal sprays. Other derivatives include naphazoline, oxymetazoline, and xylometazoline. Poisoning can result from an overdose. Tetrahydrozoline is an alpha agonist and its main mechanism of action is the constriction of conjunctival blood vessels. This serves to relieve the redness of the eye caused by minor ocular irritants. When used, “only as directed,” tetrahydrozoline is an effective medication which shrinks blood vessels thus alleviating reddened “bloodshot” eyes. If taken internally, however, this drug acts like a potent high blood pressure medicine. Symptoms reported in both children and adults who have swallowed some of these eye care products either by accident or via malicious activity include marked drowsiness, low blood pressure, slowed heart rate, and possibly even coma and impaired breathing. Quantities as low as ½ to 1½ teaspoonfuls (approximately 1/6 to ½ of a half ounce bottle) have caused pronounced reactions in small children. Toxic effects following tetrahydrozoline ingestion can be serious and at times require close observation and treatment in an intensive care setting.
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    Thiamylal

    Thiamylal

    Thiamylal (Surital) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1950s. It has sedative, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects, and is used as a strong but short acting sedative. Thamylal is still in current use, primarily for induction in surgical anaesthesia or as an anticonvulsant to counteract side effects from other anaesthetics. It is the Thiobarbiturate anologue of secobarbital.
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    249
    Thiobarbital

    Thiobarbital

    Thiobarbital is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. It is the thiobarbiturate analogue of barbital.
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    250
    WIN 35428

    WIN 35428

    (–)-2-β-Carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (β-CFT, WIN 35,428) is a stimulant drug used in scientific research. CFT is a phenyltropane based dopamine reuptake inhibitor and is structurally derived from cocaine. It is around 3-10x more potent than cocaine and lasts around 7 times longer based on animal studies. While the naphthalenedisulfonate salt is the most commonly used form in scientific research due to its high solubility in water, the free base and hydrochloride salts are known compounds and can also be produced. The tartrate is another salt form that is reported. CFT was first reported by Clarke and co-workers in 1973. This drug is known to function as a "positive reinforcer" (although it is less likely to be self-administered by rhesus monkeys than cocaine). Tritiated CFT is frequently used to map binding of novel ligands to the DAT, although the drug also has some SERT affinity. Radiolabelled forms of CFT have been used in humans and animals to map the distribution of dopamine transporters in the brain. CFT was found to be particularly useful for this application as a normal fluorine atom can be substituted with the radioactive isotope F which is widely used in
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